Sample records for activation analysis estudo

  1. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Frazao, Selma Violato


    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis potentialities in archaeological ceramics studies; Potencialidades da analise por ativacao com neutrons instrumental em estudos de ceramicas arqueologicas

    Paiva, Rosemeire P.; Munita, Casimirio S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Alves, Marcia A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia


    In this work, precision and sensitivity of the determination of As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn in ceramic samples by INAA were evaluated. Two clay samples Brick Clay (NIST-SRM-697 reference material)and Ohio Red Clay (a well known clay sample) were analyzed for this purpose. Archaeological ceramic fragments from Agua Limpa Site, in Monte Alto city, SP were also analyzed. The archaeological ceramics were produced in the quotidian activities of non writing preterite societies, in sedentarization process. The ceramic chemical information are used to identify raw material sources and to study production and distribution models, which allow the reconstruction of the socio-cultural development and integration of extinguished societies. (author) 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Activation analysis

    The neutron activation analysis, which appears to be in limits for further advance, is the most suitable for providing information on the principal as well as the microcomponents in any sample of solid form. Then, instrumental activation analysis is capable of determination of far many elements in various samples. Principally on the neutron activation analysis, the following are described in literature survey from 1982 to middle 1984: bibliography, review, data collection, etc.; problems in spectral analysis and measurement; activation analysis with neutrons; charged particle and photo-nucleus reactions; chemical separation, isotopic dilution activation analysis; molecular activation analysis; standard materials; life and its relation samples; environmental, food, court trial and archaeological samples; space and earth sciences. (Mori, K.)

  4. Gênero e feminismo no Brasil: uma análise da Revista Estudos Feministas Gender and feminist studies in Brazil: an analysis of Revista Estudos Feministas

    Debora Diniz


    was analysed the title, abstracts and keywords of the articles and the topics of the dossier, totalising 20 editorials, 105 articles and 20 dossiers. The classification and indexation of the material was guided by the controlled vocabulary of the "Tesauro para Estudos de Gênero e sobre Mulheres", from Fundação Carlos Chagas. The results show that 95% of the authors are women, and that 54% are from Socials Sciences. There are articles in all thematic areas suggested by the Tesauro except on "Science and Technology" and "Education", with a concentration on the following thematic areas: "Socials Sciences and Culture" (26%, "Language, Literature, Religion and Philosophy" (17% and "History and Social Transformation" (17%. The most discussed topics were in this order: sexual division of work, literary analysis, reproduction, and feminist theory. The analysis of REF suggests that gender and feminist research is a solitary activity, with a few number of articles published in partnership. There is a strong preference for qualitative methodologies (92%. This article aims to facilitate the process of identification some marginal areas in the gender and feminist studies in Brazil, empowering the educational and political work of the journal.

  5. Neutron activation analysis: study of primary interference on determination of aluminium, magnesium, manganese and sodium; Analise por ativacao neutronica: estudo de interferencias primarias nas determinacoes de aluminio, magnesio e sodio

    Costa, Leonardo Alves da


    The neutron activation (NAA) is an analytical technique for the determination of the elementary chemical composition. It is based on the induction of artificial radioactivity in a sample by neutrons and the resulting activity is usually measured, by gamma spectrometry. Its more relevant characteristics are the high sensibility ({mu}g.g{sup -1} - ng.g{sup -1}), accuracy and precision, capability of multi elementary analysis, low detection limits and its non destructive nature. These properties classify NAA as a very powerful analytical technique. In spite of being a versatile technique, the NAA presents limitations, one of them is related to the primary interference reactions that occur during the irradiation. The calculation of the concentration is usually based on the main reaction under thermal neutrons {sup n}X(n{sub th}, y){sup n+1}X but under fast flux, the reactions {sup n+1} Y(n{sub r}, p) {sup n+1}X e {sup n+4}Y(n{sub r}, {alpha}){sup n+1}X can take place. The consequence of this interference is that the final elemental concentration will be the sum of results of the reactions and it is not possible to distinguish the real concentration. Therefore, the impact of this interference depends on the contribution of the fast neutron flux on the total neutron flux in the local irradiation channel. It means that the interference depends on how much the irradiation channel is thermalized and it is a characteristic of the reactor. In this research, several interference reactions were studied: {sup 28}Si(n{sub f},p) Al on the aluminium determination; {sup 27}Al(n{sub f},p){sup 27}Mg, on the determination of magnesium; {sup 27}Al(n{sub f}, {alpha}) Na, on the determination of sodium and {sup 56}Fe(n{sub f},p){sup 56}Mn on the determination of manganese. Two procedures were adopted: Method I, in which using pure standards of the elements, the 'apparent' masses of Al, Mg, Mn and Na from interfering reactions were evaluated and a ratio between the interference

  6. Forensic activation analysis

    Basic principles of neutron activation analysis are outlined. Examples of its use in police science include analysis for gunshot residues, toxic element determinations and multielement comparisons. Advantages of neutron activation analysis over other techniques are described. (R.L.)

  7. Neutron Activation Analysis

    Corliss, William R.


    In activation analysis, a sample of an unknown material is first irradiated (activated) with nuclear particles. In practice these nuclear particles are almost always neutrons. The success of activation analysis depends upon nuclear reactions which are completely independent of an atom's chemical associations. The value of activation analysis as a research tool was recognized almost immediately upon the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This book discusses activation analysis experiments, applications and technical considerations.

  8. Desafios no estudo de famílias nucleares: etapas iniciais de análise Challengers in nuclear family studies: first steps in data analysis

    Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes Forjaz


    possible existence of familiar aggregation and genetic influence on phenotypes marking physical activity, fitness, and health status. However, few studies were conducted with Portuguese speaking populations, and even fewer with Brazilian populations. Therefore, the present paper aims to discuss, at an introductory level, important aspects about nuclear family studies. The first two phases of Genetic Epidemiology research outline - familiar aggregation and heritability - were approached. The different steps of analysis were exemplified with real data collected in nuclear families from a study conducted in Muzambinho-MG. We hope this paper provides enough background and stimuli for the newcomers in this area of study.

  9. 13. seminar 'Activation analysis'

    Collection of the abstracts of contributions to the seminar covering broad ranges of application of activation analysis and improvements of systems and process steps. Most of them have been prepared separately for the energy data bases. (RB)

  10. Activation analysis in Greece

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  11. SLOWPOKE: neutron activation analysis

    Neutron activation analysis permits the non-destructive determination of trace elements in crude oil and its derivatives at high sensitivity (up to 10-9 g/g) and good precision. This article consists of a quick survey of the method followed by an illustration based on the results of recent work at the SLOWPOKE reactor laboratory at the Ecole Polytechnique

  12. Forensic Activation Analysis

    The high sensitivity of high-flux (reactor) thermal-neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the detection and quantitative measurement of a large number of elements has led, in recent years, to a considerable degree of application of the method in the area of scientific crime investigation (criminalistics). Thus, in a Forensic Activation Analysis Bibliography recently compiled by the author, some 135 publications in this field are listed - and more are appearing quite rapidly. The nondestructive character of the purely-instrumental form of the method is an added advantage in forensic work, since evidence samples involved in actual criminal cases are not destroyed during analysis, but are preserved intact for possible presentation in court. Quite aside from, or in addition to, use in court, NAA results can be very helpful in the investigative stage of particular criminal cases. The ultra sensitivity of the method often enables one to analyze evidence specimens that are too tiny for meaningful analysis by more conventional elemental analysis methods. Also, this high sensitivity often enables one to characterize, or individualize, evidence specimens as to the possibility of common origin - via the principle of multi-element trace-constituent characterization

  13. Study on activation analysis

    High purity aluminum has been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The determination of copper contents is aluminum has been used to evaluate its purity level. A new sensitive method has been developed by using graphite thermal column to reduce or eliminate the interference of 24Na which is generated from 27Al (n,α) 24Na reaction by fast neutron. Influence for activity of 24Na due to above reaction is found to be between 2.3 - 2.8 %. Copper contents in the high purity aluminum come out 0.542±0.084 ppm. In addition, contents of 23 other impurity elements (<0.1 - 0.01 ppm) are measured using general method after detection limit and optimum conditions are established. (author)

  14. Activation analysis in forensic studies

    Application of neutron activation analysis in forensics are grouped into 3 categories: firearms-discharge applications, elemental analysis of other nonbiological evidence materials (paint, other), and elemental analysis of biological evidence materials (multielemental analysis of hair, analysis of hair for As and Hg). 18 refs

  15. Estudo da relação estrutura-atividade de saponinas hemolíticas e/ou imunoadjuvantes mediante uso de análise multivariada Study of the structure-activity relationship of adjuvant and/or hemolytic saponins by use of multivariate analysis

    Samuel Kaiser


    saponins by the analysis of the different groups linked to aglycone, with the use of multivariate statistical techniques. For this, we had twenty triterpenic saponins previously isolated from Aesculus hippocastanum, Dolichos lablab. and Glycine max species. Their adjuvant and hemolytic activities are available in the literature. These saponins were analyzed as groups linked to the triterpenic ring and biological activities resulting in an array of date that was submitted to cluster analysis and principal components analysis. The results confirm the importance of sugars in C-3 for hemolytic activity. However, the effect caused by the presence of a hydroxyl in C-16, CH2OH in C-17, acetyl in C-22 and acyl in C-21 on the hemolytic activity seems to be more important. On the other way, the presence of a hydroxyl in C-21, a methyl in C-17 and two sugars linked to aglycone seem determinant for adjuvant activity. Moreover, there is an inverse relationship between adjuvant and hemolytic activities in the set of saponins analyzed.

  16. A study on copper and zinc effects in the growth of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Smith seedlings cultivated in vitro. Application of neutron activation analysis; Estudo sobre os efeitos do cobre e zinco no crescimento da plantula de Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Smith cultivada in vitro. Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Zampieri, Maria Cristina Tessari


    Metals are components of the biosphere, occurring naturally in soil and plants, but as a result of human actions, their levels have been greatly increased, depending on the region. Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are essential for the growth and development of plants, however if in excess become toxic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of plants to absorb Cu and Zn and what effects they cause in seedlings cultivated in vitro. The results of this study may contribute primarily in agricultural and environmental research. The plant investigated was the Aechmea blanchetiana species of the Bromeliaceae family. It is a terrestrial or epiphytic species used as an ornamental plant. The cultivation of seedlings for this study and their exposure to different concentrations of Cu and Zn were performed at the Institute of Botany (IBt) of Sao Paulo. After seed germination, the seedlings were transferred for growth in a culture media containing different concentrations of Cu or Zn. After this period of in vitro cultivation, the seedlings were analyzed for morphometry, anatomy and by neutron activation analysis. Quality control of the results from neutron activation analysis was carried out by the analysis of certified reference materials. The data obtained showed good precision and accuracy for several elements determined. The highest concentrations of Cu used in the exposure were those that caused major structural changes in morphometric and anatomical parameters, however for the Zn no significant differences were verified for most parameters. The A. blanchetiana proved to be a bioaccumulator species of Zn, absorbing high levels of this element in the aerial parts and roots. (author)

  17. Study of the distribution characteristics of rare earth elements in Solanum lycocarpum from different tropical environments in Brazil by neutron activation analysis; Estudo das caracteristicas de distribuicao de elementos terras raras em Solanum lycocarpum em diferentes ambientes tropicais do Brasil por ativacao neutronica

    Maria, Sheila Piorino


    In this work, the concentration of eight rare earth elements (REE), La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu, was determined by neutron activation analysis (INAA), in plant leaves of Solanum lycocarpum. This species is a typical Brazilian 'cerrado' plant, widely distributed in Brazil. The analysis of the plant reference materials CRM Pine Needles (NIST 1575) and Spruce Needles (BCR 101) proved that the methodology applied was sufficiently accurate and precise for the determination of REE in plants. In order to better evaluate the uptake of the REE from the soil to the plant, the host soil was also analyzed by ESiAA. The studied areas were Salitre, MG, Serra do Cipo, MG, Lagoa da Pampulha and Mangabeiras, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and Cerrado de Emas, in Pirassununga, SP. The results were analyzed through the calculation of transfer factors soil-plant and by using diagrams normalized to chondrites. The data obtained showed different transfer factors from soil to plant as the subtract changes. Similar distribution patterns for the soil and the plant were obtained in all the studied sites, presenting an enrichment of the light REE (La to Sm), in contrast to the heavy REE (Eu to Lu), less absorbed. These results indicate that the light REE remain available to the plant in the more superficial soil layers. The similarity between the distribution patterns indicates a typical REE absorption by this species, in spite of the significant differences in the substratum . (author)

  18. Estudo experimental da influência da atividade muscular da face sobre o esqueleto da mesoestrutura facial em coelhos Experimental study on the influence of facial muscle activity on the facial mesostructure bones in rabbits

    Andre Ricardo Mateus


    Full Text Available A partir do conceito da matriz funcional, surgiu a hipótese de que são os tecidos moles atuando sobre determinada peça óssea que determinam o processo de crescimento facial. A possibilidade de modificar a influência muscular, seja na fase de desenvolvimento facial, seja em pós-operatórios de cirurgia corretiva é de grande importância preventiva e deveria ser mais bem investigada, uma vez que poderia subtrair o número e magnitude destes procedimentos. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Experimental em coelhos. OBJETIVO: Estimar a relevância da atividade muscular sobre o esqueleto facial, em coelhos de experimentação, durante sua fase de desenvolvimento facial. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 37 coelhos de 2 meses de idade, divididos em grupo de estudo e grupo controle e seguidos por um período de 4 meses. Os animais do grupo de estudo tiveram seus nervos faciais seccionados no seu ramo cervical unilateralmente. O esqueleto da mesoestrutura facial era retirado para estudo morfométrico por programa de computação gráfica em fotografias digitalizadas realizadas nas peças. Os resultados obtidos sofreram análise estatística comparativa. CONCLUSÃO: Ausência de atividade muscular em uma metade da face produz desvio lateral da mesoestrutura facial para o mesmo lado em coelhos em desenvolvimento.Based on the functional matrix concept, scientists developed the hypothesis that soft tissue acting on certain bone pieces determines the process of facial growth. The possibility to modify muscle influence in the phase of facial development, or in postoperative of corrective surgery is of great preventive importance and it should be better investigated, since it could reduce the number and impact of these procedures. STUDY DESIGN: experimental in rabbits. AIM: to estimate the relevance of facial muscle activity on facial bones in lab rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 37 rabbits of two months of age were studied, divided in a study group and a control

  19. Estudo in vitro da ação antimicrobiana de extratos de plantas contra Enterococcus faecalis In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis

    Edja Maria Melo de Brito Costa


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Muitos estudos têm sido realizados para avaliar o potencial terapêutico das plantas. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antimicrobiana dos extratos etanólicos da aroeira-da-praia (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, da aroeira-do-sertão (Astronium urundeuva [Fr. All.] Engl., da ameixa-do-mato (Ximenia americana L., da quixabeira (Syderoxylum obtusifolium [Roem et Schult.] e do hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl a 2,5%, contra o Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212. METODOLOGIA: Foi realizado teste de difusão em ágar, pelo método do poço, utilizando-se como controle positivo a clorexidina a 0,12%. Os microrganismos foram semeados em caldo BHI e incubados a 37ºC por 24 horas. Posteriormente, as suspensões microbianas foram semeadas em placas Petri, com ágar Mueller Hinton, sendo confeccionados seis poços equidistantes. As placas foram mantidas à temperatura ambiente por 2 horas, para ocorrer a pré-difusão das substâncias, e incubadas a 37ºC por 48 horas. Foram feitas as análises e medições dos halos de inibição em triplicata e os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente (teste de análise de variância [ANOVA]. RESULTADOS: A quixabeira apresentou os menores halos de inibição (teste t, p INTRODUCTION: Several studies have evaluated the therapeutic benefits of plants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, aroeira (Astronium urundeuva [Fr. All.] Engl., Olacaceae (Ximenia americana L., quixaba (Syderoxylum obtusifolium [Roem et Schult.], and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl 2.5% against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212. METHODS: The agar diffusion test was performed and 0.12% chlorhexidine was applied as positive control. The microorganisms were allowed to grow in a brain-heart infusion broth (BHI and incubated at 37ºC for 24 hours. Subsequently, the microbial suspensions were seeded on Petri dishes

  20. Application of neutron activation analysis

    The physical basis and analytical possibilities of neutron activation analysis have been performed. The number of applications in material engineering, geology, cosmology, oncology, criminology, biology, agriculture, environment protection, archaeology, history of art and especially in chemical analysis have been presented. The place of the method among other methods of inorganic quantitative chemical analysis for trace elements determination has been discussed

  1. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.


    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  2. Study on water-sediment interaction in samples from Rio das Velhas - Minas Gerais State - Brazil using instrumental neutron activation analysis, and argon plasma coupled mass spectroscopy; Estudo da interacao agua-sedimento em amostras do Rio das Velhas - MG utilizando os metodos: analise por ativacao neutronica instrumental (INAA) e espectrometria de massa acoplada a um plasma de argonio (ICP-MS)

    Veado, Maria Adelaide R.V.; Oliveira, Arno H. de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Revel, G.; Pinte, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Lab. d`Analyse par Activation Pierre Sue; Toulhoat, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Unite Mixte de Recherche Analyse et Environnement


    Sorption of the metallic elements in aqueous solutions in surface of the hydroxides affects the transport of heavy elements in the freshwaters. Sorption and the chemistry of the hydroxides are important studies for knowledge in geology, waters and waste treatment, and environment studies. In the industrial mining region areas, the river surface waters are subject to modifications in its physical and chemistries properties: pH, DBO, conductivity and alkalinity. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), have ben used for the determination of toxic heavy metals and others pollutants in the Das Velhas river in State of Minas Gerais, in south-east Brazil. Water samples were collected with acidification on site, which provoked a change of its natural pH. Consequently, metallic elements associated to hydroxides and to particles in suspension were liberated. The objective of this paper is to show the different behavior of any elements, in water of Das Velhas river, with relation of its chemical forms (cations or anions), the solubility degree, the pH and the presence of rare earth elements. (author) 11 refs., 10 figs.; e-mail: adelaide at; heeren at; grevel at; pierre.toulhoat at

  3. TIBER activation analysis

    TIBER-II is an engineering test reactor designed to establish the technical feasibility for fusion, and is a U.S. option for the prospective International Thermonuclear Test Reactor (ITER). The TIBER-II baseline design has a 3 m major radius, 3.6 aspect ratio, and 1.1 MW/m2 average neutron wall loading. The inboard shield is about .5 m thick and structurally consists of tungsten alloy and PCA alloy. The outboard is 1.52 m thick and utilizes PCA as structure and beryllium as a neutron multiplier. An aqueous solution of 160 g LiNO3/liter is used throughout as a coolant and breeder. A one-dimensional cylindrical model for TIBER is used to calculate the neutron flux and the radioactivities. Activities are calculated during and after 2.5 full power years (FPY) of operation

  4. Activation analysis using Cornell TRIGA

    A major use of the Cornell TRIGA is for activation analysis. Over the years many varieties of samples have been analyzed from a number of fields of interest ranging from geology, archaeology and textiles. More recently the analysis has been extended to high technology materials for applications in optical and semiconductor devices. Trace analysis in high purity materials like Si wafers has been the focus in many instances, while in others analysis of major/minor components were the goals. These analysis has been done using the delayed mode. Results from recent measurements in semiconductors and other materials will be presented. In addition the near future capability of using prompt gamma activation analysis using the Cornell cold neutron beam will be discussed. (author)

  5. Homens e violência conjugal: uma análise de estudos brasileiros Men and conjugal violence: an analysis of Brazilian studies

    Kátia Lenz Cesar de Oliveira


    Full Text Available O estudo analisou qualitativamente 54 textos brasileiros sobre homens e violência conjugal, relacionados a atividades de pesquisa ou de intervenção. Primeiramente caracterizou-se o material quanto aos temas abordados, ao foco principal e ao tipo de texto. A seguir fizeram-se sínteses e análises das principais considerações dos textos a partir dos eixos temáticos encontrados: diferentes inteligibilidades da problemática, magnitude da violência conjugal, sentidos de homens relacionados à violência e intervenções e/ou políticas junto a homens agressores. A análise teve como parâmetro o ramo de discussões nacionais e internacionais que se esforça por ultrapassar a polêmica em torno da definição do problema como "violência de gênero" ou "violência conjugal", cunhando sobretudo o pressuposto de que existem diversos estilos de conjugalidade violenta. Concluiu-se que a maior unanimidade dos estudos é pensar a problemática como questão relacional de gênero. Defendeu-se, por fim, a ideia de que a escolha da melhor abordagem articuladora entre os polos da polêmica ainda demanda mais investigações, com metodologias qualitativas junto a atores de diferentes camadas e grupos sociais. Quanto às intervenções, propõem-se investimentos no maior número possível de alternativas, valorizando a singularidade dos casos.This study consisted of a qualitative analysis of 54 Brazilian texts about men and conjugal violence related to research or intervention activities. Initially, the material was divided up according to the topics under scrutiny, the main focus and the type of text. Analysis and synthesis of the main considerations of the texts, based on the thematic points revealed, was then carried out. This included the different approaches to the problem, the magnitude of conjugal violence, the attitudes of men vis-à-vis violence and interventions and/or policies towards male aggressors. The parameter for the analysis was the

  6. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  7. Demography and Religion in the Last Thirty Years: a Content Analysis of Revista Brasileira de Estudos de População

    Paula Miranda-Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to do a content analysis of the scientific production regarding demography and religion, published by Revista Brasileira de Estudos de População - Rebep (Brazilian Journal of Population Studies, a periodical that belongs to Associação Brasileira de Estudos Populacionais (Brazilian Population Studies Association. The period under study goes from January 1984 to July 2014. Out of 567 texts (articles, research notes, points of view, and book reviews published in the last 30 years, 47 were more closely related to religion/religiosity, either as the main topic, variable of interest, control variable, or relevant for the analysis. Written by 70 authors who belong to 42 different institutions, the 47 selected texts were grouped into nine themes (families, adolescents/youth, migration, indigenous people, sexual and reproductive health, mortality and health, politics, vital registration, and religion.  The first two were the most frequent.  In eleven of the texts, religion/religiosity was in the title.  Twenty two of them used only quantitative data, eight used qualitative data, and only four combined both.  Despite the fact that Brazilian censuses offer information about religious affiliation since 1940, it would be crucial to collect data on frequency of attendance to religious service as well.

  8. Charged-particle activation analysis

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (19 via 16O(3He,p)18F, 12C(3He,α)11C and 14N(p,α)11C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3He activation for the determination of oxygen [16O(3H,n)18F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms1H(7Li,n)7Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (269) and accuracy using proton activation. 204Pb/206Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  9. Neutron activation analysis of coins

    Activation analysis was applied to the study of coins using 14MeV neutrons produced by an accelerator for the determination of oxygen and neutrons emitted from a 252Cf source for the determination of the other elements (Au, Ag, Cu, As etc...). The advantages of this technique are presented

  10. Automated activation-analysis system

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  11. Sensitivity analysis for activation problems

    A study has been made about how to develop further the techniques for sensitivity analysis used by FISPACT-II. FISPACT-II is a software suite for the analysis of nuclear activation and transmutation problems, developed for all nuclear applications. The software already permits sensitivity analysis to be performed by Monte Carlo sampling, and a faster uncertainty analysis is made possible by a powerful graph-based approach which generates a reduced set of nuclides on pathways leading to significant contributions to radiological quantities. The peculiar aspects of the sensitivity analysis problem for activation are the large number, typically thousands, of rate equation parameters (decay rates and reaction cross-sections) which all have some degree of associated error, and the fact that activity as a function of time varies as a sum of exponentials, so appears discontinuous as rate parameters are varied unless the sampling frequency is impracticably fast. Nevertheless, Monte Carlo sampling is a generic approach and it is therefore conceivable that techniques more targeted to the activation problem might be beneficial. Moreover, recent theoretical developments have highlighted the importance of a two-stage approach to mathematically similar problems, where in the first stage, information is collected about the global behaviour of the problem, such as the identification of the rate parameters which cause the greatest variation in dose or nuclear activity, before a second stage examines a problem with its scope restricted by the information from the first. In the second stage, for example, Quasi-Monte Carlo sampling may be used in a restricted parameter space. The current work concentrates on the first stage and consists of a review of possible techniques with a detailed examination of the most promising pathways reduction approach, examined directly using FISPACT-II. All the evidence obtained demonstrates the strong potential of this approach. (authors)

  12. Study of mineral and essential trace elements in milk and dairy products by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and neutron activation analysis; Estudo da composicao mineral e dos elementos-traco essenciais em amostras de leite e produtos lacteos por espectrometria de emissao atomica com plasma induzido e analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Kira, Carmen Silvia


    The importance of food composition related to nutritional and toxicological contents has been emphasized in recent years. Some chemical elements are needed for cell metabolism, while excess or deficiency may be responsible for disorders. Milk is considered the most important food during the first months of life, nutritional needs of children being satisfied by milk and dairy products. These foods provide the main trace elements for the good growth of different tissues as well as the functioning of several enzymatic systems. Important deficiencies in mineral during this period can interfere with children's development. Determination of mineral and trace elements by using spectroscopic techniques generally involves a pretreatment of sample. Sample preparation is the most critical part of the analysis because of the long preparation time and the possibilities for contamination and losses of the analyte associated with this step. Different procedures of sample preparation (dry ashing digestion, wet digestion using an open focused microwave and a hot plate) were evaluated for determining Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in milk and dairy products by the ICP OES technique. In this work the concentrations obtained for the elements determined by the ICP OES technique after using the different treatments of sample were compared to the results obtained by the INAA technique, that does not require dissolution of sample. The partial digestion with diluted hydrochloric acid was found to be suitable for determining Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in milk samples and dairy products. (author)

  13. A narrativa oral, a análise de discurso e os estudos de gênero Oral narrative, discourse analysis and gender studies

    Maria Lúcia Rocha-Coutinho


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho desenvolvemos a idéia de que os Estudos de Gênero inserem-se na nova tradição em ciência, que alguns autores denominam pós-empírica, que questiona a objetividade do conhecimento e a impessoalidade do pesquisador e que toma como importante a dimensão interpretativa da realidade social. Dentro dessa tradição, acreditamos que o uso da narrativa oral e da análise de discurso pode ser um rico e poderoso instrumento para uma melhor compreensão de mulheres e homens e, assim, em muito pode contribuir para os Estudos de Gênero nas Ciências Humanas e Sociais, em geral, e na Psicologia, em particular.In this work we argue that Gender Studies can be seen as part of the new tradition in science, that some authors call post-empirical, which questions the objectivity of knowledge and the impersonality of researchers and which takes the interpretative dimension of social reality as important. In accordance with this tradition, we believe that the use of oral narrative and of discourse analysis can be a rich and powerful instrument to a better understanding of women and men and, thus, can greatly contribute to Gender Studies in Social Sciences, in general, and in Psychology, in particular.

  14. Activation analysis using γ photons

    This report summarizes all the data required for using photonuclear reactions in the field of analysis. After a brief review of the elementary properties of nuclear reactions induced by photon irradiation, the main characteristics are given of high energy (E > 20 MeV) Bremsstrahlung sources. The principle of activation analysis based on the use of photons is given. Actual examples of the analytic possibilities are described in detail, in particular in the case of the determination of very small quantities (-6) of C, N, O and F. The influence of interfering nuclear reactions is discussed. (author)

  15. Síndrome de Down e Moyamoya: estudo através de metanálise Moyamoya and Down syndrome: study conducted by meta-analysis

    Paulo Alves Junqueira


    Full Text Available Apresentamos o estudo clínico-epidemiológico de dois pacientes e metanálise (período 1977-2000 sobre a comorbidade entre síndrome de Down (SD e síndrome de "moyamoya" (SMM. Entre os 42 pacientes catalogados no presente estudo, a metanálise permitiu verificar: maior número de publicações de pesquisadores do Japão e Estados Unidos, seguidos pelo Brasil e Itália; predomínio do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC em lactentes e pré-escolares; sintomatologia inaugural, hemiparesia (78,6%, distúrbio da fala (26,2%; predomínio de infarto isquêmico (76,2%; episódios isquêmicos recorrentes (62%; comprometimento bilateral (83,3%. Esta análise permitiu concluir que, na investigação clínico-neurológica de pacientes com SD e episódios de hemiparesia aguda, a SMM deve ser incluída como diagnóstico mais provável .We present a clinic-epidemiological study of two patients and meta-analysis (period 1977-2000 of the co-morbidity of the Down syndrome (DS and moyamoya syndrome (MMS. Among the 42 patients listed in this survey, meta-analysis permitted to find the highest number of publications by researchers from Japan and United States, followed by Brazil and Italy; prevalence of cerebrovascular disease in suckling and pre school children; first symptomatology was hemiparesis (78.6%, speech disorders (26.2%; ischemic infarction (76.2%; recurring ischemic episodes (62%; bilateral impairment (83.3%. This analysis led to the conclusion that in the clinic-neurological investigation of DS patients with acute hemiparesis episodes, MMS should be included as the most probable diagnosis.

  16. Optimization of instrumental activation analysis

    Activation analysis is one of the most well-understood methods available to the analyst. It should, therefore, be possible to infer, from prior information about the sample, what procedure should be followed in its analysis. The accuracy of this process is naturally limited by the extent and accuracy of the prior information available. Better results should be obtained in this way, however, than by ignoring prior information. It is the task of optimization to discover the analytical procedure that best suits the sample being analyzed. Optimization can be conveniently conceptualized if each experimental parameter is considered as a dimension of a geometric space. In activation analysis, if only irradiation and decay times are to be adjusted, the parameter space will be two dimensional. Each point in the parameter space corresponds to a possible procedure for carrying out a determination and each such procedure will perform more or less satisfactorily than others. Optimization, then, consists of a search for a point or a region in parameter space where performance meets the analyst's requirements. Practicality is an important consideration in designing a procedure for activation analysis. There are limits to the amount of radioactive material that can be handled safely and to the count rate that be accurately measured. Circumstances often impose further limits. It is, therefore, necessary to constrain the search of parameter space to those regions that correspond to practical procedures. In attempting an optimization, one must consider a number of aspects. A set of experimental parameters must be chosen for adjustment and others set at fixed values, often due to practical constraints. The way in which quality of analytical performance (the response function) is to be evaluated must be decided. A means of locating the optimum must be chosen and, finally, this optimization scheme must be implemented in a practical, convenient manner. These aspects are discussed

  17. Instrumentation in neutron activation analysis

    The rise of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a tool in geochemical research has parallelled advances in detector, multi-channel analyzer, and computer technology. Micro-computers are now being integrated into NAA systems, and gamma-ray spectrometer instrumentation is evolving towards direct-reading systems. The investigator is faced with a wide range of possibilities and choices when equipping or re-equipping a laboratory. The geoscientist is provided with an overview of the available instrumentation and what soon may be feasible. (L.L.)

  18. Estudo caso-controle com resposta multinomial: uma proposta de análise Case-control studies with multinomial responses: a proposal for analysis

    Ana Carolina Cintra Nunes Mafra


    Full Text Available Este estudo revisa alguns artigos com delineamento do tipo caso-controle em que se tem os casos classificados em dois ou mais tipos. A aplicação de modelos para respostas multinomiais e a adequabilidade destes aos estudos caso-controle é discutida. Dentre os ajustes possíveis, argumenta-se que o modelo logístico Politômico é o mais indicado para a obtenção de medidas epidemiológicas de risco e associação neste tipo de delineamento. Como ilustração, apresenta-se uma aplicação desse modelo em um estudo caso-controle de base populacional, comparando os resultados com aqueles obtidos em um ajuste logístico binomial. A abordagem multinomial possibilita investigar, em uma única análise, a ocorrência de associações entre co-variáveis e uma ou algumas das classes de casos estudados, abrindo a possibilidade, de grande interesse epidemiológico, de identificação de fatores de risco e de proteção individualizados para cada subgrupo de interesse.This study reviews articles on case-control studies in which the cases were classified in two or more types. Application of multinomial models and their adequacy for case-control studies are discussed. Among the available multinomial adjustments, we argue that the polytomous logistic model is the most suitable for obtaining epidemiological measures of risk and association in case-control studies. By way of illustration, we present an application of this model in a population-based case-control study, comparing the results with those obtained in a binomial logistic model. The multinomial approach allows investigating, in a single analysis, the occurrence of associations between covariates and more or more subclasses of cases, thus providing the epidemiologically relevant possibility of identifying individualized risk and protective factors for each subclass.

  19. Analysis of Sunspot Activity Cycles

    Greenkorn, Robert A.


    A nonlinear analysis of the daily sunspot number for each of cycles 10 to 23 is used to indicate whether the convective turbulence is stochastic or chaotic. There is a short review of recent papers considering sunspot statistics and solar activity cycles. The differences in the three possible regimes - deterministic laminar flow, chaotic flow, and stochastic flow - are discussed. The length of data sets necessary to analyze the regimes is investigated. Chaos is described and a chronology of recent results that utilize chaos and fractals to analyze sunspot numbers follows. The parameters necessary to describe chaos - time lag, phase space, embedding dimension, local dimension, correlation dimension, and the Lyapunov exponents - are determined for the attractor for each cycle. Assuming the laminar regime is unlikely if chaos is not indicated in a cycle by the calculations, the regime must be stochastic. The sunspot numbers in each of cycles 10 to 19 indicate stochastic behavior. There is a transition from stochastic to chaotic behavior of the sunspot numbers in cycles 20, 21, 22, and 23. These changes in cycles 20 - 23 may indicate a change in the scale of turbulence in the convection zone that could result in a change in the convective heat transfer and a change in the size of the convection region for these four cycles.

  20. Neutron activation analysis in Bulgaria

    The development of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as a routine method started in 1960 with bringing into use of the experimental nuclear reactor 2 MW -IRT-2000. For the purposes of INAA the vertical channels were used. The neutron flux vary from 1 to 6x1012n/cm2s, with Cd ratio for gold of about 4,4. In one of the channels the neutron flux is additionally thermalised with grafite, in others - a pneumatic double-tube rabbit system is installed. One of the irradiation positions is equiped with 1 mm Cd shield constantly. With the pressure of the working gas (air) of 2 bar the transport time in one direction is 2,5 sec. Because of lack of special system for uniform irradiation an accuracy of 3% can be reached by use of iron monitors for long irradiations and copper monitors for use in the rabbit system. Two neutron generators are also working but the application of 14 MeV neutrons for INAA is still quite limited. The most developed are the applications of INAA in the fields of geology and paedology, medicine and biology, environment and pollution, archaeology, metallurgy, metrology and hydrology, criminology

  1. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 92

    The publication contains 26 abstracts primarily concerned with neutron activation analysis, although other analytical techniques based on X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE, PIGE, RBS are also included. Some contributions deal with aspects of quality practice and assurance in radioanalytical laboratories, with marketing of instrumental neutron activation analysis services, with hard- and software aspects of radiation detection, etc. (Z.S.)

  2. Estudo preliminar da atividade antibacteriana das cascas de Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae (Leguminosae Preliminary study of the antibacterial activity of Erythrina velutina Willd. Fabaceae (Leguminosae bark

    S. Virtuoso


    Full Text Available A Erythrina velutina é popularmente conhecida como suinã, mulungu, corticeira, mulungu-da-catinga dentre outros. Das várias espécies distribuídas pelo mundo cerca de doze estão no Brasil. A casca é utilizada, principalmente no nordeste brasileiro, pelas propriedades sudorífica, calmante, emoliente, peitoral, anestésica local e outras. Considerando-se que não existem estudos sobre o potencial microbiológico das cascas de Erythrina velutina este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliá-lo preliminarmente contra oito bactérias patogênicas. Foram utilizados os métodos de difusão em disco e concentração inibitória mínima para o extrato etanólico bruto e difusão em disco para a fração hexano. A atividade contra o Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus pyogenes foi evidenciada para ambas as amostras. A viabilidade de futuras pesquisas com outras frações e substâncias isoladas na busca de novas alternativas, visando uma terapêutica racional a partir de fontes naturais foi apontada pelos resultados.Erythrina velutina is popularly known as suinã, mulungu, corticeira, mulungu-da-catinga among others. Of the several species spread around the world about twelve are found in Brazil. Mainly in the Brazilian northeast the bark is used due to its sudorific, sedative, emollient, pectoral and topical anesthetic properties. Considering that there are no studies about the antibacterial potential of Erythrina velutina, this research aimed at evaluating, at least preliminarily, bark activity against eight pathogenic bacteria. The crude ethanol extract was tested by the disk diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the hexane fraction by the disk diffusion method. Both samples demonstrated activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The results pointed to the viability of future research on other fractions and substances isolated from Erythrina velutina in search for new rational therapeutic alternatives

  3. Eletromiografia laríngea e análise vocal em pacientes com Mal de Parkinson: estudo comparativo Laryngeal electromyography and acoustic voice analysis in Parkinson's disease: a comparative study

    Ana Paula Zarzur


    Full Text Available A doença ou Mal de Parkinson se deve à deficiência dopaminérgica nos núcleos da base que geram alterações motoras. Comprometimento da comunicação verbal ocorre em 70 a 90% dos doentes. Existem poucas referências da aplicação da eletromiografia no estudo dos músculos laríngeos em pacientes com a doença de Parkinson. OBJETIVOS: Definir o padrão contrátil da musculatura intrínseca da laringe e sua correlação com a análise acústica vocal nos parkinsonianos. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo onde 26 adultos com o diagnóstico de Mal de Parkinson foram submetidos à eletromiografia laríngea e análise acústica vocal. Foram coletados potenciais de ação, tanto em repouso vocal quanto em fonação. Para a análise acústica da voz foram utilizados os programas VOXMETRIA® e GRAM 5.1.6®. RESULTADOS: O padrão eletromiográfico predominante no grupo estudo foi o de hipercontratibilidade (ou recrutamento aumentado durante repouso vocal que ocorreu em 73% dos indivíduos, sem que houvesse registro eletromiográfico de tremor. Quanto às características vocais, detectou-se a presença de tremor vocal no traçado do espectrograma (VOXMETRIA E GRAM e na avaliação perceptivo-auditiva em 69,5 % e 61 % dos sujeitos, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: O tremor vocal foi a característica acústica predominante no grupo estudado, sem que houvesse correlação eletromiográfica.Parkinson's disease (PD involves a progressive depletion of dopamine in the basal ganglia leading to motor alterations. Oral communication impairment occurs in 75% to 90% of patients and has been poorly studied. AIM: to asses laryngeal electromyography (LEMG patterns and correlate them to vocal analysis in patients with Parkinson's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study. Twenty six adults with PD underwent laryngeal electromyography. Rest and phonation potentials were analyzed. VOXMETRIA® and GRAM 5.1.6. ® were used in acoustic analysis

  4. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  5. Products modeling for application in risk analysis, reducing uncertainties; Modelagem de produtos em estudos de risco, reduzindo incertezas

    Sodre, Carlos F.; Mendes, Renato F.; Saker, Leonardo F. [PETROBRAS Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail:;; Oliveira, Edimilson J.; Aguiar, Paulo Cesar; Pinto, Ulysses Brandao; Badaro, Sonia M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    Accidental repercussions due to hydrocarbon releases are required on risk analysis studies and contingency plans. The physical effects estimation from releases on vessels or pipelines through out orifices and the estimation of limits for vapor cloud require several modeling, such us: pseudo-mixture estimation, source calculation and dispersion models. These models require physical and chemical properties of the real products in study, so a deep analysis of the original product and the recommended mixtures is demanded. This paper assesses some PETROBRAS refined products and defines pseudo-mixture in order to emulate the physical and chemical properties, for these original products. Finally, it was suggested mixture profiles for some products such as, gasoline, diesel and crude (light), to be applied in next risk studies. (author)

  6. Activation analysis with reactor neutrons

    The potentialities of neutron as an analytical probe are indicated, pointing out the need for development of other approaches, besides the conventional activation method. Development of instrumental approach to activation and applications, carried out at Analytical Chemistry Division are outlined. The role of, and the need for, the development and application of mathematical methods in enhancing the information content, and in turn the interpretation of the analytical results, is demonstrated. (author)

  7. Transportation activity analysis using smartphones

    Xiao, Yu; Low, David; Bandara, Thusitha; Pathak, Parth; Lim, Hock Beng; Goyal, Devendra; Santos, Jorge Oliveira; Cottrill, Caitlin; Pereira, Francisco C.; Zegras, P. Christopher; Ben-Akiva, Moshe E.


    Transportation activity surveys investigate when, where and how people travel in urban areas to provide information necessary for urban transportation planning. In Singapore, the Land Transport Authority (LTA) carries out such a survey amongst households every four years. The survey is conducted through conventional questionnaires and travel diaries. However, the conventional surveys are problematic and error-prone. We are developing a smartphone-based transportation activity survey system to...

  8. Neutron activation analysis of biological substances

    A Bowen cabbage sample was used as a reference material for the neutron activation studies, and the method was checked by the analysis of other biological substances (blood or serum etc.). For nondestructive measurements also some non-trace elements were determined in order to decide whether the activation analysis is a useful means for such measurements. The new activation analysis procedure was used for biomedical studies as, e.g., for trace element determination in body fluids, and for the analysis of inorganic components in air samples. (R.P.)

  9. Analysis of HR activities in selected company

    Jandová, Šárka


    The aim of this thesis is based on theoretical knowledge and analysis of the basic HR activities in the selected company to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the policies implemented personnel work. Then propose an effective ways of improving HR activities and employee satisfaction. Basic personal activities analyzed in this thesis are the adaptation, acquisition and selection of employees, performance management and staff appraisal, remuneration and training of staff. Analysis of pers...

  10. Conference on instrumental activation analysis - IAA 89

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especialy on neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods. (J.P.)

  11. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.


    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  12. Neutron activation analysis of reference materials

    The importance is pointed out of neutron activation analysis in the preparation of reference materials, and studies are reported conducted recently by UJV. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used in testing homogeneity and in determining 28 elements in newly prepared reference standards of coal fly ash designated ENO, EOP and ECH. For accuracy testing, the same method was used in the analysis of NBS SRM-1633a Trace Elements in Coal Fly Ash and IAEA CRM Soil-5 and RM Soil-7. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis was used in determining Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo, and Zn in biological materials NBS SRM-1577 Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale and in IAEA RM Milk Powder A-11 and Animal Muscle H-4. In all instances very good precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis results were shown. (author)

  13. Activation analysis in virus research

    Nucleic acids contain various amounts of trace elements. With divalent cations tobacco mosaic virus ribonucleic acid (TMV-RNA) undergoes changes in optical density at 258 mμ in both optical rotation and in sedimentation behaviour. These changes suggested the transformation from a random coil to a more orderly configuration. The connection between trace elements and the biological activity of TMV-RNA has been investigated. However, the relationship between metal ions and the virus infection process has not received much attention. This subject is discussed briefly in this paper. 8 refs

  14. Neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples

    The present paper will describe the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in developing methods for the large-scale activation analysis of samples for the geochemical prospecting of metals. The geochemical prospecting for uranium started in Finland in 1974 and consequently a manually operated device for the delayed neutron activation analysis of uranium was taken into use. During 1974 9000 samples were analyzed. The small capacity of the analyzer made it necessary to develop a completely automated analyzer which was taken into use in August 1975. Since then 20000-30000 samples have been analyzed annually the annual capacity being about 60000 samples when running seven hours per day. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis is used for the analysis of more than 40 elements. Using instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis 25-27 elements can be analyzed using one irradiation and 20 min measurement. During 1982 12000 samples were analyzed for mining companies and Geological Survey of Finland. The capacity is 600 samples per week. Besides these two analytical methods the analysis of lanthanoids is an important part of the work. 11 lanthanoids have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separation methods have been developed for several elements to improve the sensitivity of the analysis

  15. um estudo de caso

    Costa, Cátia Filipa Pereira da


    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Psicologia Jurídica As situações de abuso sexual de crianças nas quais o perpetrador pertence ao sexo feminino obtiveram ao longo dos últimos anos um acrescido reconhecimento por parte da comunidade científica, evidenciado pelo significativo incremento das investigações no âmbito desta temática consistindo na sua maioria estudos de caso. Um conjunto de particularidades encont...

  16. Applications of neutron activation analysis in industry

    Neutron activation analysis technique is discussed in brief. This technique is used for quality control of raw materials, process materials and finished products, as well as activities in research and development for the improvement of the products and new products. The uses of this technique in several experienced industries are mentioned (author)

  17. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    Three recently completed studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are reported: a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author) 12 refs

  18. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    Earlier studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are being extended in This Laboratory. Three of these new studies are reported here: 1) a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, 2) a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and 3) a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author)

  19. A program for activation analysis data processing

    An ALGOL program for activation analysis data handling is presented. The program may be used either for single channel spectrometry data or for multichannel spectrometry. The calculation of instrumental error and of analysis standard deviation is carried out. The outliers are tested, and the regression line diagram with the related observations are plotted by the program. (author)

  20. Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis

    Kučerová, Martina


    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague Faculty of Economics and Management Department of Trade and Accounting Abstract of Diploma Thesis Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis Martina Kučerová © 2012 CULS in Prague Summary: The aim of this thesis is to apply methods of financial analysis on chosen business for its first three accounting periods 2009, 2010 and 2011. The thesis is further analysis of my bachelor thesis on to...

  1. Phytochemical study and evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade moluscicida do Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae)

    Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Piloto, Izabel Cristina; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail:; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    The bioassay-guided fractionation against Biomphalaria glabrata of hydroalcoholic extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense aerial parts led to the isolation of the coumarin, named (-) mammea A/BB. The compound had its structure determined by both spectroscopic techniques (NMR {sup 1}H, NMR {sup 13}C, gHSQC, gHMBC and MS) and some literature comparison data. The probit analysis of (-) mammea A/BB showed LD{sub 50} = 0.67 ppm and LD{sub 90} = 1.47 ppm. In addition, the dichloromethane extract obtained from C. brasiliense leaves with significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata was analyzed by HPLC-UV. (author)

  2. Activation analysis in science and technics

    Physical bases of the method of neutron activation analysis are described. Reactions of element nuclei with neutrons, gamma quanta and charged particles, ways of radioactivity measurement, gamma spectrometry in particular, have been described. The method errors, as well as element determination sensitivity in samples of different composition are considered, perspectives of activation analysis development being reflected. The practical use of the method in the studies on solid-state physics, during the analysis of semiconductors and pure materials, in criminalistics, agriculture, the environmnental control in geology and biology, is shown

  3. Human hair neutron activation analysis: analysis on population level, mapping

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia. (author)

  4. Activation analysis as applied to environmental substances

    The historical background of activation analysis as applied to environmental problems is first briefly described. Then, the present state of its utilization for environmental samples, mainly atmospheric floating particles and human hairs, is reviewed. The problem with irradiation reactors is also mentioned. In the activation analysis of environmental substances, the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with the thermal neutrons in reactors is the main; besides, there are the methods with bremsstrahlung, etc. The INAA is most effectively used for atmospheric airborne particles and the micro-elements in human hairs. In Japan, the INAA is currently employed by the Environmental Agency in its national air pollution surveillance network for metallic pollutants. The problem with reactors is the limited capacity for thermal neutron irradiation. (Mori, K.)

  5. Neutron activation spectrometry and neutron activation analysis in analytical geochemistry

    The present report is to show the geochemists who are interested in neutron activation spectrometry (NAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) which analytical possibilities these methods offer him. As a review of these analytical possibilities, a lieterature compolation is given which is subdivided into two groups: 1) rock (basic, intermediary, acid, sediments, soils and nuds, diverse minerals, tectites, meteorites and lunar material). 2) ore (Al, Au, Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Fe, Pb, Pt, Sn, Ti, W, Zn, Zr, U and phosphate ore, polymetallic ores, fluorite, monazite and diverse ores). The applied methods as well as the determinable elements in the given materials can be got from the tables. On the whole, the literature evaluation carried out makes it clear that neutron activation spectrometry is a very useful multi-element method for the analysis of rocks. The analysis of ores, however, is subjected to great limitations. As rock analysis is very frequently of importance in prospecting for ore deposits, the NAS proves to be extremely useful for this very field of application. (orig./LH)

  6. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, which is sponsored and funded by the United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  7. Design of Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratorium Room

    Base on the planning to increase of the research and service quality in the ''Neutron activation analysis'' (APN),the design of mentioned ''Neutron activation analysis laboratories room'' has been done in the multi purpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy. By the using the designed installation, the irradiation preparation and counting sample can be done. The design doing by determination of installation lay out and maximum particle contain in the air. The design installation required a unit of 1 HP blower, a unit of 1 HP split air condition and 2 units 1200 x 800 mm HEPA filter. This paper concluded that this design is feasible to fabricated

  8. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  9. Prospects for absolute neutron activation analysis

    The desirability for absolute neutron activation analysis(ANAA) is two-fold. Results by the comparitor method are only as good as the standards used, and also the method offers a chance of having the final results available within minutes of completing the analysis. In the past ANAA was not seriously considered because of the scarcity and poor qaulity of the nuclear data that were available. This situation is however steadily improving and the possible applications are being investigated. This report reviews the present status by considering the basic activation equation, calculation of parameters, the factors of importance and the size error one might expect

  10. Sensitivity enhancement of short time activation analysis by pulse activation

    TRIGA-reactors have the unique possibility of increasing the power by a factor of up to 1200, to produce a corresponding up to 1200 fold increase in flux by pulsing the reactor. This feature is, however, seldom applied for activation analysis owing to the fact that the sensitivity enhancement is optimal only for short lived nuclides or isometric states in the sub-second range of half lives. As the maximal information density is confined to a short time interval, a fast transfer system and a measuring system allowing to handle the extremely high countrates are imperative. Both systems now being commercially available, it is possible to overcome the major draw back of conventional activation analysis, namely the long time delay between arrival of the sample and obtaining the results, for those elements having short lived nuclides or isomeric states

  11. Quality assurance in biomedical neutron activation analysis

    The summary report represents an attempt to identify some of the possible sources of error in in vitro neutron activation analysis of trace elements applied to specimens of biomedical origin and to advise on practical means to avoid them. The report is intended as guidance for all involved in analysis, including sample collection and preparation for analysis. All these recommendations constitute part of quality assurance which is here taken to encompass the two concepts - quality control and quality assessment. Quality control is the mechanism established to control errors, while quality assessment is the mechanism used to verify that the analytical procedure is operating within acceptable limits

  12. ANATI QUANTI: software de análises quantitativas para estudos em anatomia vegetal ANATI QUANTI: quantitative analysis software for plant anatomy studies

    T.V. Aguiar


    Full Text Available Em diversos estudos interdisciplinares em que a Anatomia Vegetal é utilizada, análises quantitativas complementares são necessárias. Geralmente, a avaliação micromorfométrica é feita manualmente e/ou utilizando programas computacionais de análise de imagens não específicos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um programa específico para Anatomia Vegetal quantitativa e testar sua eficiência e aceitação por usuários. A solução foi elaborada na linguagem Java, visando maior mobilidade em relação ao sistema operacional a ser usado. O software desenvolvido foi denominado ANATI QUANTI e testado pelos alunos, pesquisadores e professores do Laboratório de Anatomia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV. Todos os entrevistados receberam fotos para efetuarem medições no ANATI QUANTI e comparar com os resultados obtidos utilizando o software disponível. Os voluntários, através de questionários previamente formulados, destacaram as principais vantagens e desvantagens do programa desenvolvido em relação ao software disponível. Além de ser mais específico, simples e ágil do que o software disponível, o ANATI QUANTI é confiável, atendendo à expectativa dos entrevistados. Entretanto, há necessidade de acrescentar recursos adicionais, como a inserção de novas escalas, o que aumentaria a gama de usuários. O ANATI QUANTI já está em uso nas pesquisas desenvolvidas por usuários na UFV. Por ser um software livre e de código aberto, será disponibilizado na internet gratuitamente.Complementary quantitative analyses are necessary for several interdisciplinary studies using Plant Anatomy. Generally, micromorphometric evaluation is performed manually and/or using non-specific software for image analyses. This work aimed to develop specific quantitative analysis software for Plant Anatomy and test its efficiency and acceptance by users. The solution was elaborated in the JAVA language, which has a greater

  13. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Kern, J. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique


    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  14. Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis

    McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan


    This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…

  15. The Atomic Fingerprint: Neutron Activation Analysis

    Keisch, Bernard [Carnegie-Mellon University


    The nuclei of atoms are stable only when they contain certain numbers of neutrons and protons. Since nuclei can absorb additional neutrons, which in many cases results in the conversion of a stable nucleus to a radioactive one, neutron activation analysis is possible.

  16. Isotopic neutron sources for neutron activation analysis

    This User's Manual is an attempt to provide for teaching and training purposes, a series of well thought out demonstrative experiments in neutron activation analysis based on the utilization of an isotopic neutron source. In some cases, these ideas can be applied to solve practical analytical problems. 19 refs, figs and tabs

  17. Neutron activation analysis helps in picture attribution

    The neutron activation analysis application for obtaining the data useful for proper attribution of paintings has been presented on the base of several examples. The identification on this way of dye elements, pigments and other painting materials is an important element among the physico-chemical methods helping the attribution procedure of old painting objects

  18. Neutron Activation Analysis with k0 Standardization

    SCK-CEN's programme on Neutron Activation Analysis with k0-standardisation aims to: (1) develop and implement k0-standardisation method for NAA; (2) to exploit the inherent qualities of NAA such as accuracy, traceability, and multi-element capability; (3) to acquire technical spin-off for nuclear measurements services. Main achievements in 1997 are reported

  19. ANATI QUANTI: software de análises quantitativas para estudos em anatomia vegetal ANATI QUANTI: quantitative analysis software for plant anatomy studies

    T.V. Aguiar; B.F Sant'anna-Santos; A.A. Azevedo; R.S. Ferreira


    Em diversos estudos interdisciplinares em que a Anatomia Vegetal é utilizada, análises quantitativas complementares são necessárias. Geralmente, a avaliação micromorfométrica é feita manualmente e/ou utilizando programas computacionais de análise de imagens não específicos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um programa específico para Anatomia Vegetal quantitativa e testar sua eficiência e aceitação por usuários. A solução foi elaborada na linguagem Java, visando maior mobilidade e...

  20. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    devise policies to minimize them. These activities include cybercrimes, terrorist attacks or violent actions in response to certain world issues. Beside such activities, there are several other related activities worth analyzing, for which computational models have been presented in this thesis....... These models include a model for analyzing evolution of terrorist networks; a text classification model for detecting suspicious text and identification of suspected authors of anonymous emails; and a semantic analysis model for news reports, which may help analyze the illicit activities in certain area...... with location and temporal information. For the network evolution, the hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach has been applied to terrorist networks as case studies. The networks' evolutions show that how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small groups, which...

  1. Analysis by neutron activation analysis a some ancient Dacian ceramics

    Olariu, A


    Ancient Dacian ceramics, from three different establishments from Romanian territory have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. A series of elements has been determined: Ba, Eu, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm. Ba is the element that could be considered to differentiate relatively the three groups of ceramics.

  2. Neutron activation analysis of Etruscan pottery

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been widely used in archaeology for compositional analysis of pottery samples taken from sites of archaeological importance. Elemental profiles can determine the place of manufacture. At Cornell, samples from an Etruscan site near Siena, Italy, are being studied. The goal of this study is to compile a trace element concentration profile for a large number of samples. These profiles will be matched with an existing data bank in an attempt to understand the place of origin for these samples. The 500 kW TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory is used to collect NAA data for these samples. Experiments were done to set a procedure for the neutron activation analysis with respect to sample preparation, selection of irradiation container, definition of activation and counting parameters and data reduction. Currently, we are able to analyze some 27 elements in samples of mass 500 mg with a single irradiation of 4 hours and two sequences of counting. Our sensitivity for many of the trace elements is better than 1 ppm by weight under the conditions chosen. In this talk, details of our procedure, including quality assurance as measured by NIST standard reference materials, will be discussed. In addition, preliminary results from data treatment using cluster analysis will be presented. (author)

  3. Computer modeling for neutron activation analysis methods

    Full text: The INP AS RU develops databases for the neutron-activation analysis - ND INAA [1] and ELEMENT [2]. Based on these databases, the automated complex is under construction aimed at modeling of methods for natural and technogenic materials analysis. It is well known, that there is a variety of analysis objects with wide spectra, different composition and concentration of elements, which makes it impossible to develop universal methods applicable for every analytical research. The modelling is based on algorithm, that counts the period of time in which the sample was irradiated in nuclear reactor, providing the sample's total absorption and activity analytical peaks areas with given errors. The analytical complex was tested for low-elemental analysis (determination of Fe and Zn in vegetation samples, and Cu, Ag and Au - in technological objects). At present, the complex is applied for multielemental analysis of sediment samples. In this work, modern achievements in the analytical chemistry (measurement facilities, high-resolution detectors, IAEA and IUPAC databases) and information technology applications (Java software, database management systems (DBMS), internet technologies) are applied. Reference: 1. Tillaev T., Umaraliev A., Gurvich L.G., Yuldasheva K., Kadirova J. Specialized database for instrumental neutron activation analysis - ND INAA 1.0, The 3-rd Eurasian Conference Nuclear Science and its applications, 2004, pp.270-271.; 2. Gurvich L.G., Tillaev T., Umaraliev A. The Information-analytical database on the element contents of natural objects. The 4-th International Conference Modern problems of Nuclear Physics, Samarkand, 2003, p.337. (authors)

  4. Multiscale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    Gamborino, Diana; Martinell, Julio J


    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps which are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions we show that the multiscale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also be extracted from the analysis.

  5. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

  6. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 86

    Thirty five papers were presented at the conference held in Klucenice, Czechoslovakia from May 4 to 8, 1986. The abstracts of all papers are printed in the proceedings. The conference discussed the following problem areas: the application of activation analysis in determining elements in ores, tectites, fungi, the thyroid, the primary circuit coolant, semiconductor materials; the application of nuclear reaction analysis in determining elements in rubber and coal; the application of tracer techniques in metallurgy; the description of alpha and gamma spectrometric systems and their testing; the use of microcomputers for data processing, and the description of programs. (J.P.)

  7. Nondestructive gamma activation analysis of mineral materials

    The basic problems are described related to the use of gamma activation analysis. The applicability was studied of instrumental gamma activation analysis (IGAA) in geology. A number of minerals, rocks, marine sediments and reference materials were studied. For irradiation a betatron and a microtron were used. The results show that IGAA allows the simultaneous determination of a number of trace elements at concentrations of tenths of ppm. The results are given of comparisons made of the analytical possibilities of microtron IGAA and reactor INAA in geology. Tables show the results of the application of IGAA, the main products and parameters of photoexcitation reactions and graphically represented are the gamma spectra of measured materials. (J.B.)

  8. KFUPM fast neutron activation analysis facility

    A newly established Fast Neutron Activation Analysis facility at the Energy Research Laboratory is described. The facility mainly consists of a fast neutron irradiation station and a gamma ray counting station. Both stations are connected by a fast pneumatic sample transfer system which transports the sample from the irradiation station to the counting station in a short time of 3 s. The fast neutron activation analysis facility has been tested by measuring the 27A(n, α)24Na and 115In(n, n')115mIn cross sections at 14.8 and 2.5 MeV neutron energies, respectively. Within the experimental uncertainties, the measured cross sections for these elements agree with the published values. (orig.)

  9. Reactor neutron activation analysis of industrial materials

    The specific application of neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) for industrial materials is demonstrated by the determination of impurities in BeO, Al, Si, Cu, Ge, GaP, GaAs, steel, and irradiated uranium. A group scheme gives an orientation about the possibilities of n.a.a. The use of different standards, methods for the measurement of low radioactivities and errors caused by recoil reaction and radiation stimulated diffusion are discussed. (author)

  10. Development of prompt gamma activation analysis

    Application of prompt gamma-activation analysis to some environmental samples and NBS's standard reference materials were examined, using NBS reactor and the technique developed by the nuclear chemistry group of the University of Maryland. Concentration of several elements, Cd, B, S, Se, Sb, Zn, Ba, Cr, Cs, Co, Si, Hf, Ce, Yb, Lu, Th, Sc, Eu, Fe, Ta and Rb, were determined by both PGAA and INAA. (author)

  11. Impacto da atividade física na qualidade de vida de mulheres de meia idade: estudo de base populacional Impact of physical activity on quality of life in middle-aged women: a population based study

    Ana Katherine da Silveira Gonçalves


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da prática de atividade física na qualidade de vida de mulheres de meia idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo de base populacional e corte transversal, que incluiu uma amostra estratificada de 370 mulheres de meia idade entre 40 a 65 anos, recrutadas a partir de uma população de 20.801 mulheres atendidas no período de um ano nas redes básicas de saúde, inseridas nos quatro distritos (Norte, Sul, Leste e Oeste que compõem o sistema de saúde da cidade de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, de junho a setembro de 2011. O cálculo da amostra teve por base um nível de confiança de 95%, com poder do teste de 80%, erro de estimativa de 5% e considerou-se a proporção de pacientes classificadas com qualidade de vida adequada (indicador >26 da amostra piloto. Os dados foram coletados enquanto as mulheres aguardavam na sala de espera para a consulta de rotina. Para avaliar a qualidade de vida geral, utilizou-se a versão abreviada do WHOQOL (WHOQOL-Bref-WHO Quality of Life - BREF, e sua relação com os sintomas do climatério foi avaliada por meio do Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. O nível de atividade física foi avaliado pelo questionário International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, versão curta, semana usual. Para obter-se a classificação dos níveis de atividade física, utilizaram-se três categorias: sedentária, moderadamente ativa e muito ativa. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando o programa estatístico Minitab, versão 16. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das mulheres foi de 49,8 anos (±8.1, foram predominantemente caucasianas (72,7%, casadas (61,6%, não fumantes (93,5% e com o Ensino Médio completo (47,8%. Considerando os domínios presentes no WHOQOL-Bref para avaliar qualidade de vida, os escores foram significativamente diferentes entre os grupos de mulheres sedentárias, moderadamente ativas e muito ativas (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of physical activity on the quality of life of middle

  12. Activation Analysis and Public Health. Survey Paper

    The technique of activation analysis has useful and distinctive applications, not yet fully recognized or exploited, in public health. Three areas of usefulness may be recognized. 1. Industrial hygiene. Activation analysis offers a simple and efficient method for assessing and controlling occupational hazards associated with the handling of toxic materials, such as compounds of arsenic and of mercury. Examination of hair and nail samples, taken at six-monthly intervals, will yield a surprising amount of information regarding the influence on occupational exposure of individual variation in working habits, and inadequacy or non-observance of hygienic rules and other prescribed safety measures. 2. Epidemiology. The advantage conferred by activation analysis lies in the possibility of rapid and accurate estimation of trace element concentrations in small samples of tissue or other materials, such as can readily be obtained from population groups large enough to be statistically significant. Surveys of this kind have interesting potentialities in relation to dental caries, cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and heart disease. 3. Recognition of essential trace elements. Surveys of trace element concentrations suggest that the variability of tissue levels among members of a population is smaller for essential trace elements than for non-essential elements. It is possible also that tissue levels show a normal distribution for essential elements and a log-normal distribution for non-essential elements. (author)

  13. Neutron Activation analysis of waste water

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of chlorine, bromine, sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, antimony and iron in waste water is described. They were determined in waste water samples under normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized water samples were used and irradiated in polyethylene ampoules at a neutron flux of 1013 cm-2 s-1 for periods of 1 minute, 1 and 10 hours. A Ge hyperpure detector was used for your activity determination, with count times of 60, 180, 300 and 600 seconds. The obtained results show than the method can be utilized for the determination of this elements without realize anything previous treatment of the samples. (Author)

  14. Nuclear data for proton activation analysis

    The activation analysis with charged particles (ChPAA), as well as proton activation analysis (PAA), mainly requires separately irradiation of thick (thicker than the range of particles) samples and standard. Therefore for simplicity of determination of traces of chemical elements by instrumental PAA the absolute activity of the radionuclides must be known. Consequently we compilated data for nuclear decays (half life, radiation energy and intensity, type of decay, saturation factor), for nuclear reactions (excitation function, threshold energy, Q-value, yields of radionuclides), for the element under study (natural isotopic abundance of the nuclide, which yields the nuclear reaction considered, molar mass), stopping power of the irradiated material and the range of the particle that are used in the calculation of the absolute activity of the radionuclides and for the resolution of a nuclear interference problems of PAA. These data are tabulated. The tables of the radionuclides are presented in dependence on increasing atomic number and radiation energy as well as on methods of the radionuclide formation. The thick target yields of analytical radionuclides are presented versus particle energy

  15. Neutron activation analysis of geological materials

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an extremely sensitive, selective and precise method, which yields a wealth of elemental information from even a small-sized sample. With the recent advances in nuclear reactors and high-efficiency and high-resolution semiconductor detectors, NAA has become a powerful method for multielemental analysis. The concentration of major, minor, and trace elements vary from 1 to 4 orders of magnitude in geological materials. By varying neutron fluxes, irradiation times, decay and counting intervals and using both instrumental and radiochemical techniques in NAA, it is possible to accurately determine about 50 elements in a sample aliquant. The practical aspects of the NAA method as applied to geological materials are discussed in detail, and are demonstrated by the analysis of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard reference geological materials. General aspects of the elemental interpretations in terrestrial samples are also discussed. (author)

  16. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil sample

    This paper describes the analysis of soil samples collected from 5 different location around Sungai Lui, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. These sample were taken at 22-24 cm from the top of the ground and were analysed using the techniques of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analysis on soil sample taken above 22-24 cm level were done in order to determine if there is any variation in elemental contents at different sampling levels. The results indicate a wide variation in the contents of the samples. About 30 elements have been analysed. The major ones are Na, I, Cl, Mg, Al, K, Ti, Ca and Fe. Trace elements analysed were Ba, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Ga, As, Zn, Br, Rb, Co, Hf, Zr, Th, U, Sb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu and La. (author)

  17. Analysis of ayurvedic medicinal leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Concentrations of 15 elements were determined in medicinally important ayurvedic medicinal leaves. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed for the determination of the elements viz. Na, K, Br, Sm, Cr, Zn, Th, Rb, Sr, Fe, La, Co, Ce, Cs and Eu. The samples were neutron irradiated at 100 kW TRIGA -Mainz nuclear reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentrations of these elements in the medicinal leaves and their medicinal importance are discussed. (author)

  18. Multielemental analysis of soils by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    The results of an instrumental neutron activation analysis of some elemental concentrations in different soil samples near the industrial areas at Tirupati, India, are reported. Altogether 14 elements, Sm, La, Cr, Co, Zn, Cs, Ce, Th, Rb, Na, K, Sr, Fe and Eu were determined. The samples were irradiated with neutrons at the 100 kW Triga - Mainz research reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector in connection with a multichannel analyzer. The results are discussed. (author)

  19. Neutron activation analysis of zirconium niobium alloys

    Full text: One of the important problems in nuclear reactor projecting is the choice of constructional materials, which meet to the requirements concerned with function, technical characteristics and expected performance of the reactor construction. Also it is necessary to take into account change of their properties under the influence of intensive neutron radiation. Zirconium and zirconium-niobium alloys are used in nuclear engineering as a fuel cladding and both matrix and impurity composition have an influence on their performance capabilities.Under intensive neutron radiation high content of undesirable trace elements in constructional materials can cause forming long-lived radionuclides with high induced activity and hence severe problems may occur at service, control of the equipment and carrying out experiments. Therefore analytical control of component and impurity composition of these materials is an important problem.Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is one of multielemental and high sensitivity methods, which widely applied for the analysis of high purity materials. Prior experiments have shown that instrumental NAA is not suitable for analysis of Zr-Nb alloys due to strong induced matrix activity. Therefore we have developed radiochemical procedure for separation of impurities from matrix elements. Study of the literature data has shown that zirconium and niobium are good extracted from hydrochloric medium by 0 75 M solution of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (DEHPA) in ortho-xylene. Also this system good extracts hafnium which being accompanying element has high content and interferes with determining impurity elements. To improve separation efficiency we have used 'DEHPA - ZM HCl' chromatography system. On the basis of the carried out researches the radiochemical NAA technique for analysis of high purity zirconium and zirconium-niobium alloys has been developed. The technique is based on extraction-chromatographic separation of matrix radionuclides

  20. Industrial applications of neutron activation analysis

    Neutron activation analysis has been widely used in the industry and over the years played a key role in the development of manufacturing process as well as monitoring of the process flow. In this context NAA has been utilized both in R and D, and in the factory as a flexible analytical tool. It has been used successfully in numerous industries including broad categories such as Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Mining, Photographic, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Defense, Semiconductor and Electronic industries. Dow Chemical owns and operates a research reactor for analytical measurements of samples generated in both R and D, and manufacturing area in its plant in Midland, Michigan. Although most industries do not have reactors on their campus but use an off site reactor regularly, and often have in-house neutron sources such as a 252Cf used primarily for NAA. In most industrial materials analysis laboratory NAA is part of a number of analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, AA, SIMS, FTIR, XRF, TXRF etc. Analysis of complex industrial samples may require data from each of these methods to provide a clear picture of the materials issues involved. With the improvement of classical analytical techniques, and the introduction of new techniques, e.g. TXRF, the role of NAA continues to be a key bench mark technique that provides accurate and reliable data. The strength of the NAA in bulk analysis is balanced by its weakness in providing surface sensitive or spatially resolved analysis as is required by many applications. (author)

  1. Optimization of time characteristics in activation analysis

    Full text: The activation analysis temporal characteristics optimization methods developed at present are aimed at determination of optimal values of the three important parameters - irradiation time, cooling time and measurement time. In the performed works, especially in [1-5] the activation analysis processes are described, the optimal values of optimization parameters are obtained from equations solved, and the computational results are given for these parameters for a number of elements. However, the equations presented in [2] were inaccurate, did not allow one to have optimization parameters results for one element content calculations, and it did not take into account background dependence of time. Therefore, we proposed modified equations to determine the optimal temporal parameters and iteration processes for the solution of these equations. It is well-known that the activity of studied sample during measurements does not change significantly, i.e. measurement time is much shorter than the half-life, thus the processes taking place can be described by the Poisson probability distribution, and in general case one can apply binomial distribution. The equation and iteration processes use in this research describe both probability distributions. Expectedly, the cooling time iteration expressions obtained for one element analysis case are similar for the both distribution types, as the optimised time values occurred to be of the same order as half-life values, whereas the cooling time, as we observed, depends on the ratio of the studied sample's peak value to the background peak, and can be significantly larger than the half-life value. This pattern is general, and can be derived from the optimized time expressions, which is supported by the experimental data on short-living isotopes [3,4]. For the isotopes with large half-lives, up to years, like cobalt-60, the cooling time values given in the above mentioned works are equal to months which, apparently

  2. Relações familiares e cotidiano: a análise de quatro estudos à luz de Michel Maffesoli Family relationships and daily living process: analysis of four studies based on Michel Maffesoli

    Edilza Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar o processo de viver no cotidiano, evidenciando as relações familiares. Para o alcance do mesmo, optamos por fazer uma análise de documentos, ou seja, de três dissertações de mestrado e uma tese de doutorado, sendo que os dados foram coletados a partir de quatro questões norteadoras vinculadas ao objetivo geral do estudo: quais os componentes do processo de viver as relações familiares no cotidiano? Quais as dificuldades que as famílias encontram na convivência cotidiana com o doente mental? Quais as formas de manejos apresentadas pelas famílias em diferentes situações no convívio cotidiano com o alcoolista? Qual a percepção do ser e viver saudável da mulher no seu cotidiano? Na análise dos dados, buscamos convergências e divergências que nos permitissem uma melhor compreensão dos aspectos em estudo. Para alcançar esta compreensão, utilizamos as categorias de análise do cotidiano - propostas por Maffesoli (1984 - jogo duplo, astúcia, silêncio, aceitação da vida e solidariedade orgânicaThis study aims at analyzing the daily living process emphasizing family relationships. In order to do so, we opted for doing an analysis of documents, i.e., three Master course dissertations and a doctorate thesis. We collected the data having in mind four guiding questions linked to the general objective of the study: what were the components of the process of living the family relationships in the daily routine? What difficulties do families have to cope with mentally handicapped individuals? How do families handle different situations in daily living with alcohol addicted individuals? What was the women’s perception regarding being and living healthy in their daily routine? When analyzing the data, we looked for convergences and divergences which provided better understanding of the aspects under study. To reach this understanding, we used the categories of daily routine analysis - proposed by

  3. Aplicação de estudos de QSAR-2D em derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos com atividade antimicrobiana frente a Staphylococcus aureus multi-resistente (MRSA 2D QSAR studies of 5-nitro-2-thiophylidene derivatives with antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Andrea Masunari


    Full Text Available O avanço de estudos de QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships como método de modificação molecular racionalmente planejada vem se constituindo, nos últimos anos, em alternativa bastante viável para o desenvolvimento de ligantes candidatos potenciais a fármacos. Sendo assim, aliando a excelente aplicabilidade deste método com o fenômeno de multi-resistência bacteriana, realizou-se, neste trabalho, o estudo, em duas dimensões, das relações quantitativas entre a estrutura química e a potência antimicrobiana de 5-nitro-2-tiofilideno benzidrazidas substituídas, considerando faixa de hidrofobicidade ótima pré-determinada experimentalmente. A aplicação da Análise de Hansch/Fujita possibilitou a determinação da influência de descritores estruturais de caráter físico-químico sobre a referida atividade, indicando ser a hidrofobicidade a propriedade de maior impacto no desempenho da atividade biológica analisada. Evidenciou-se, a partir das correlações obtidas, o forte potencial de derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos como possível alternativa para o desenvolvimento racional, em nível molecular, de novos fármacos com atividade antimicrobiana.With the constant advance of QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships studies as molecular modification methodology, a frequent application of this procedure in many science areas was observed. Besides, the rational ligand development for many diseases has been growing in recent years. Thus, in order to ally these medicinal chemistry advances with the necessity to combat the high incidence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, the purpose of this study was the 2D-QSAR study of p-substituted 5-nitro-2-thiophylidene derivatives with antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, considering hydrophobicity range experimentally determined. The statistical significant correlations obtained by Hansch/Fujita Analysis showed significant influence of

  4. Scalable histopathological image analysis via active learning.

    Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Shaoting; Liu, Wei; Metaxas, Dimitris N


    Training an effective and scalable system for medical image analysis usually requires a large amount of labeled data, which incurs a tremendous annotation burden for pathologists. Recent progress in active learning can alleviate this issue, leading to a great reduction on the labeling cost without sacrificing the predicting accuracy too much. However, most existing active learning methods disregard the "structured information" that may exist in medical images (e.g., data from individual patients), and make a simplifying assumption that unlabeled data is independently and identically distributed. Both may not be suitable for real-world medical images. In this paper, we propose a novel batch-mode active learning method which explores and leverages such structured information in annotations of medical images to enforce diversity among the selected data, therefore maximizing the information gain. We formulate the active learning problem as an adaptive submodular function maximization problem subject to a partition matroid constraint, and further present an efficient greedy algorithm to achieve a good solution with a theoretically proven bound. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm on thousands of histopathological images of breast microscopic tissues. PMID:25320821

  5. Support system for Neutron Activation Analysis

    In the research reactor of JAERI, the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been utilized as a major part of an irradiation usage. To utilize NAA, research participants are always required to learn necessary technique. Therefore, we started to examine a support system that will enable to carry out INAA easily even by beginners. The system is composed of irradiation device, gamma-ray spectrometer and data analyzing instruments. The element concentration is calculated by using KAYZERO/SOLCOI software with the K0 standardization method. In this paper, we review on a construction of this INAA support system in JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  6. Toxicological applications of neutron-activation analysis

    Thermal neutron-activation analysis is recognised as a useful tool for trace element studies in toxicology. This paper describes some recent applications of the technique to three elements when ingested by people in excess of normal intake Two of the elements (copper and chromium) are essential to life and one (bromine) is as yet unclassified. Three deaths were investiagted and trace element levels compared with normal levels from healthy subjects in the same geographical area who had died as a result of violence. (author)

  7. Neutron activation analysis of medicinal plant extracts

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Solano lycocarpum, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnondedron barbatiman plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing biological reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed is briefly discussed. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  8. Active Shape Analysis of Mandibular Growth

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Larsen, Rasmus; Kreiborg, Sven;


    This work contains a clinical validation using biological landmarks of a Geometry Constrained Diffusion registration of mandibular surfaces. Canonical Correlations Analysis is extended to analyse 3D landmarks and the correlations are used as similarity measures for landmark clustering. A novel...... Active Shape Model is proposed targeting growth modelling by applying Partial Least Squares regression in decomposing the Procrustes tangent space. Shape centroid size is applied as dependent variable but the method generalizes to handle other, both uni- and multivariate, effects probing for high...

  9. Activation Analysis and Nuclear Research in Burma

    Research endeavours in the field of Nuclear Sciences in Burma appear to be concentrated in three main Institutions. These are the Chemistry and Physics Departments of the Rangoon Arts & Science University and the Union of Burma Applied Research Institute (UBARI). In view of possible forthcoming developments an expanded research programme, which is to be implemented on the basis of a five year plan, has been drawn up. Research topics included in this programme are predominantly of practical interest and aimed at a contribution by nuclear methods, in particular activation analysis, to the technological and industrial needs of the country

  10. Activation analysis for food chemistry Pt. 3

    The nondestructive determination of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and P content of animal tissues was reported. The IBR-30 (Dubna) reactor was used as the thermal neutron source for all the (n,ν) reactions needed for the analyses (tabulated), and as the source of fast neutrons for the (n,α) reaction of the P determination, too. Results and errors of the analyses (5-15%) were discussed comparing the reproducibility of the methods in case of different animal tissues, liver, bones, blood, etc. The nondestructive neutron activation multielemental analysis for food chemistry can be recommended in the case of a large scale monitoring program of food samples. (Sz.J.)

  11. Monostandard activation analysis of prehistoric copper objects

    In order to compare the detection limits of neutron activation analysis and spectral analisys, a number of eneolitic and other copper cultural objects have been investigated. A number of 12 elements could be determined by NAA in a long irradiation run, the same number as in spectral analysis. Six elements have a detection limit an order of magnitude higher than that in spectral analysis and only three have a lower detection limit (Fe, Ni, Sn). If the irradiation time is increased 4 times, only tin remains with a lower detection limit. Other three elements (Hg, Cs, Se), which were not reported in spectral analysis, can be seen with high sensitivity. An average counting time of 1 hour seems to be enough for a satisfactory statistics. No chemical processing of the sample is needed, except a slight etching and washing before or after irradiation. It is concluded that monostandard NAA is a rather simple and reliable method with a higher sensitivity compared to the spectral method

  12. Estudo do dengue em área urbana favelizada do Rio de Janeiro: considerações iniciais Dengue in a Rio de Janeiro slum: a preliminary analysis

    Márcia de Freitas Lenzi


    Full Text Available Este estudo é parte de um programa que visa ao controle e prevenção do dengue em área urbana favelizada vizinha à Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Como resultado da aplicação de um questionário acompanhado de levantamento entomológico, pôde-se observar problemas ligados a informações veiculadas pelas campanhas de saúde pública para o controle do dengue, e suas interpretações por parte da população local, ao se verificar práticas que favorecem a procriação do mosquito, resultantes do esquecimento dessas mensagens ou de interpretação parcial das mesmas. Os dados provenientes do questionário são relativos ao nível de informação sobre dengue, criadouros mais freqüentes; conhecimento e hábitos da população local no tocante à endemia. As conclusões deste estudo apontam para a necessidade de: elaboração de mensagens que informem não só práticas preventivas ideais, mas também ofereçam soluções possíveis; divulgação permanente de mensagens através da mídia; planejamento de atividades de educação em saúde para o estreitamento da relação entre profissionais de saúde e população, com o objetivo da construção de alternativas sustentáveis para o controle do dengue.This study is part of a program to control and prevent dengue in a slum bordering on the grounds of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results obtained from a questionnaire and entomological survey called attention to problems pertaining to the information transmitted by public health campaigns and its interpretation, since many practices result from misunderstanding or forgetting preventive messages. Dengue-related data include most frequent vector breeding sites, people's knowledge, and dengue-related habits. The study's conclusions in terms of dengue prevention point to the need for drafting messages not only about ideal preventive practices but also teaching possible solutions: disseminating

  13. Estudos de QSAR-3D em derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos com atividade frente a Staphylococcus aureus multi-resistente 3D QSAR studies of 5-nitrothiophene derivatives with antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Andrea Masunari


    Full Text Available Campos moleculares extraídos de aplicativos utilizados em estudos de QSAR-3D apresentam, em geral, grande número de informações, muitas vezes irrelevantes na expressão da atividade biológica. O programa Volsurf converte as informações presentes em mapas de energia de interação tridimensionais em número reduzido de descritores bidimensionais que se caracterizam como de fácil entendimento e interpretação. Assim, foram avaliados, neste estudo, dezoito derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos com atividade antimicrobiana frente a Staphylococcus aureus multi-resistente, correlacionando as características tridimensionais destes ligantes com a referida atividade. Para o desenho e conversão tridimensional dos ligantes foram utilizados os aplicativos Sybyl (Tripos Inc e CORINA (Molecular Networks GmbH Computerchemie, respectivamente. Os campos de interação molecular foram calculados no programa GRID (Molecular Discovery Ltd. A aplicação do programa Volsurf (Molecular Discovery Ltd resultou em modelo estatisticamente robusto (r² = 0,93, q² = 0,87 com 48 descritores estruturais, mostrando ser a hidrofobicidade propriedade fundamental no condicionamento da atividade antimicrobiana.Studies in three-dimensional molecular fields generally contain a large amount of data, some of which are redundant or not relevant. The program Volsurf, a quite fast method, is able to compress the relevant information present in 3D molecular structures into a few easy bidimensional descriptors. This study correlates the antimicrobial activity of eighteen 5-nitro-2-thiophylidene derivatives against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with three-dimensional molecular fields of these ligands. For molecular structures sketching and 3D conversion, Sybyl and CORINA programs were used, respectively. The GRID force field was applied to generate the 3D interaction energies. The Volsurf characterization results on significant statistic model with 48 descriptors (r

  14. Teologia e estudo das escrituras

    Rabuske, Irineu J.


    Full Text Available A revalorização da sagrada escritura, no âmbito da Igreja Católica, enseja uma reflexão sobre a relação entre a teologia e o estudo das sagradas escrituras. Ponto de partida para esta reflexão é o nº 24 do documento Dei Verbum, no Concílio Ecumênico Vaticano II: ". . . o estudo das Sagradas Escrituras seja como que a alma da Sagrada Teologia".

  15. Neutron activation analysis of human hair

    As a part of IAEA research project, ''Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants'', a survey was carried out to elucidate the levels of various trace element concentration in hair of local population in the Tokyo Metropolitan areas, by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 202 scalp hair samples were collected from the inhabitants classified by sex and five age classes. Irradiation was made in the Rikkyo University 100 kW TRIGA MARK-II reactor. Using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and counting time, forty elements were determined. The relationship between several trace element contents in hair and such factors as sex, age class, hair treatment, smoking habit and dental treatment, was analyzed by using the method of multiple regression. It was shown that (1) Hair treatment had a predominant effect on the contents of bromine, magnesium and calcium in hair, (2) Aging and amoking contributed increasing mercury content in hair, and hair treatment acted reversely. (author)

  16. 14 MeV proton activation analysis

    A fast nuclear nondestructive method for protein analysis using the 14 MeV proton activation has been developed. The total nitrogen content was measured through the reaction: 14N (p,n) 14O, (Tsub(1/2)=71 s). The 14O activity was detected by means of its characteristic 2.312 MeV gamma-ray line with a NaI(Tl) detector. For a fast determination of a large number of samples a mechanized sistem reacting a rate of one sample per minute has been developed. The laboratory electronics comprises a multichannel analyser, a PDP computer and an electronic module comtroller. Comparison of the results obtained by the method described and the classical Kjeldal technique for samples of various cereal grains (soya bean seads, wheat, barley and corn) showed good correlation. A problem of the analysis of the whole protein region on corn and soya-bean seads, where this region is thicker (0,2 - 2 mm), is mentioned. In this case flour was proposed to be used to obtain a protein homogeneous sample and the irradiaton dose for a sample was about 33,000 Gy, mainly (99%) from protons (27 s x 100 nA x 14 MeV)

  17. Activation Analysis in Forensic Science. Survey Paper

    Recently the unique features of the activation analysis method have been utilized to advantage to meet some specialized needs in the scientific investigation of crime. A review of the principal forensic activation analysis applications to biological materials to date indicates that they may be roughly classified as: (i) the detection and determination of residues of toxic materials in foodstuffs, human tissues, sera and excreta; (ii) the 'individualization' of hair, fibres, narcotics and drugs; and (iii) investigation of the transference of ballistic material to bone, cloth or paper. Analyses of these materials in some actual forensic investigations have been perfected to the point of acceptance in the law courts of several countries. Additional and broader areas of application are under development in a number of nuclear and forensic laboratories. (i) The determination of sub microgram quantities of phosphorus compounds, arsenic, mercury, selenium and thallium in specimens from post-mortem examinations and from living persons showing symptoms of toxicity has revealed certain ingestion of abnormal amount of toxic substances by comparison with similar specimens from healthy persons. In some cases, with tissues such as hair and nails, the time scale of the ingestion of arsenic or mercury has been revealed through the distribution of the deposited element with distance from the growing end or edge. (ii) A series of feasibility studies on the possibility of distinguishing similar materials through their characteristic trace-element patterns have resulted from observations of the wide range or variation in trace impurity content in specimens which come from different individuals or different natural sources. For example, extensive activation analyses for more than twenty elements in human head hair from many people have been carried out and a statistical analysis of the results indicate that activation hair comparisons in forensic investigations may be quite definitive

  18. Elemental analysis of ancient potteries using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    The provenance studies of archaeological artifacts like potteries, bricks, and coins demands elemental analysis. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) with high resolution gamma ray spectrometry was used due to its high sensitivity and simultaneous multielement capability. The ancient pottery samples belong to Melchittamur, collected from Department of Ancient History, Tamilnadu, were irradiated in KAMINI reactor, IGCAR, Kalpakkam and counted using PC based Aptec MCA card. The peak areas were obtained using peak-fit PHAST software. The elemental concentrations were calculated using relative method with IAEA RM SL-1 as comparator. The concentrations of elements K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, In, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Hf and Th were determined. The % uncertainties are within 1-12% except for Cr, In, Cs and Th

  19. Research Activities involving Radioactivation Analysis in Korea

    When the Triga Mark-II Research Reactor was installed at this institute in 1960, it was furnished with a pneumatic tube, a fume hood, and a laboratory bench for the purpose of developing the utilization of the research reactor in this country. This marked the commencement of research activity in radioactivation analysis in Korea. Since the output of the reactor was not sufficient enough to perform any sophisticated fundamental research work in nuclear science, radioactivation analysis was considered as one of the most promising means of utilising the reactor. Various requests for routine analysis of the trace elements contained in Korean mineral ores, archaeological materials, domestic industrial samples, native medicinal plants, and criminological samples had been filed at this institute. Fortunately, a well trained scientist and technician for the radioactivation work had been working at this division and hence these requests from the public had been well worked out to receive much recognition of scientists and engineers both in this country and overseas. A brief summary of the research work accomplished is presented in this paper and a brief outline of the routine analytical work is also described on the basis of local situations

  20. Chemical study and antibacterial activity of stem of Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae); Estudo quimico e atividade antibacteriana do caule de Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae)

    Pacheco, Alison G.; Silva, Thiago M.; Manfrini, Rozangela M.; Sallum, William S.T.; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Pilo-Veloso, Dorila; Alcantara, Antonio F. de C., E-mail: aalcantara@zeus.qui.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Knupp, Vagner F. [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    From the ethanolic extract of the stem of A. esperanzae ethyl and methyl fatty acid esters, fatty acids, aristolochic I and II acids, and {beta}-cubebin were isolated. In addiction asarinin, populifolic and 2-oxo-populifolic acids, aristolactams AIa and AII, and sitosterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated and firstly described in the species. Asarinin and {beta}-cubebin showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and aristolochic acid I against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocitogenes. (author)

  1. Análise exploratória aplicada no estudo de medicamentos contendo piroxicam Exploratory analysis applied in study of pharmaceutical formulations with piroxicam

    Graciele Parisotto


    correction (MSC, using three types of linkage methods: single, flexible and incremental. By applying the hierarchical cluster analysis the formation of two distinct groups: one with the active principles and another group with the inactive ingredients was proved. These results demonstrate that the DRIFTS associated with chemometrics tools, constitute a quality control alternative of drugs production processes.

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of kidney stones

    Kidney stone samples of the types calcium oxalate, uric acid, and xanthine were analyzed for their elemental contents by neutron activation analysis to study both the elemental correlation and influence of element on stone precipitation processes. Elements, such as Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe,H, I, K, Mg, Na, Sb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were determined quantitatively. Calcium oxalate stones contained higher concentration of all the elements analyzed compared to uric acid or xanthine stones. The concentrations of Cl, Fe, K, Na, Sr, and Zn were relatively higher than Au, Co, Cr, and Sb. A positive correlation exists between Ca and Zn, whereas a negative correlation exists between Sr and Ca. Zinc may play an important role in the formation of calcium oxalate stone

  3. Neutron activation analysis of human hair

    In an attempt to study the availability and limitation of analytical data of human hair as an indicator of environmental pollution and/or of human health effect, concentrations of elements in 202 scalp hair samples collected from local population in the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The correlation coefficients between concentrations of 13 elements in each sex and in each age group were calculated and discussed. There were significant correlations between some pairs of elements, i.e. Na-K, Br-Cl, Ca-Zn and Ca-Mg, in all five age classes in both of male and female, indicating that the correlations were consistent. Ca was observed to be reversely correlated with Cl. No significant correlation was apparent between Hg and Se, when the correlation coefficient was calculated using logarithmic converted concentration data. (author)

  4. Neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi

    Urinary calculi resulting from disorders in the urinary system are mostly composed of uric acid, urates, calcium oxalate, alkaline earth phosphates (Ca and Mg), triple phosphate (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium carbonate, cystine, xanthine, and traces of proteins. The determination of these macro-constituents has been carried out by different analytical procedures. No attempts however, have been reported regarding the determination of trace elements in urinary stones, apart from that of Herring et al., who investigated the consumption of strontium by urolithiasis patients. The present work is a non-destructive neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi, to search the variation in concentration of certain trace elements with the chemical composition of the calculus

  5. Reactor neutron activation for multielemental analysis

    Neutron Activation Analysis using single comparator (K0 NAA method) has been used for obtaining multielemental profiles in a variety of matrices related to environment. Gold was used as the comparator. Neutron flux was characterised by determining f, the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio and cc, the deviation from ideal shape of the neutron spectrum. The f and a were determined in different irradiation positions in APSARA reactor, PCF position in CIRUS reactor and tray rod position in Dhruva reactor using both cadmium cut off and multi isotope detector methods. High resolution gamma ray spectrometry was used for radioactive assay of the activation products. This technique is being used for multielement analysis in a variety of matrices like lake sediments, sea nodules and crusts, minerals, leaves, cereals, pulses, leaves, water and soil. Elemental profiles of the sediments corresponding to different depths from Nainital lake were determined and used to understand the history of natural absorption/desorption pattern of the previous 160 years. Ferromanganese crusts from different locations of Indian Ocean were analysed with a view to studying the distribution of some trace elements along with Fe and Mn. Variation of Mn/Fe ratio was used to identify the nature of the crusts as hydrogenous or hydrothermal. Fe-rich and Fe-depleted nodules from Indian Ocean were analysed to understand the REE patterns and it is proposed that REE-Th associated minerals could be the potential Th contributors to the sea water and thus reached ferromanganese nodules. Dolomites (unaltered and altered), two types of serpentines and intrusive rock dolerite from the asbestos mines of Cuddapah basin were analysed for major, minor and trace elements. The elemental concentrations are used for distinguishing and characterising these minerals. From our investigations, it was concluded that both dolomite and dolerite contribute elements in the serpentinisation process. Chemical neutron

  6. Neutron activation analysis of arsenic in Greece

    Arsenic is considered a toxic trace element for plant, animal, and human organisms. Arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as carcinogens by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic is emitted in appreciable quantities into the atmosphere by coal combustion and the production of cement. Arsenic enters the aquatic environment through industrial activities such as smelting of metallic ores, metallurgical glassware, and ceramics as well as insecticide production and use. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a very sensitive, precise, and accurate method for determining arsenic. This paper is a review of research studies of arsenic in the Greek environment by NAA performed at our radioanalytical laboratory. The objectives of these studies were (a) to determine levels of arsenic concentrations in environmental materials, (b) to pinpoint arsenic pollution sources and estimate the extent of arsenic pollution, and (c) to find out whether edible marine organisms from the gulfs of Greece receiving domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastes have elevated concentrations of arsenic in their tissues that could render them dangerous for human consumption

  7. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of food

    Food samples were irradiated with thermal and epithermal neutrons. The average ratios of thermal to epithermal activity were determined for 80Br, 49Ca, 38Cl, 60mCo, 42K, 27Mg, 56Mn, 24Na, and 86mRb. They were equal to 2.1, 26, 24, 6.6, 19, 16, 11, 23 and 1.9, respectively. Then, 57 food samples were analyzed by epithermal neutron activation analysis for Br and Rb. The concentrations (in ppm) of Br and Rb were in asparagus (2) 2.3, 11.5; beets (3) 0.5, 0.8; beef (3) 1.7, 3.6; cabbage (5) 0.5, 10.8; carrot (3) 0.2, 3.7; chicken (3) 0.6, 4.4; chocolate (7) 11.1, 18.7; egg (3) 0.9, 1.9; french bean (3) 0.3, 1.0; goose (2) 1.3, 9.3; lettuce (2) 0.9, 1.7; pork (1) 1.5, 4.4; potato (7) 1.0, 1.2; sausage (3) 4.8, 3.5; spinach (3) 3.6, 4.0; strawberry jam (3) 0.4, 1.4; tomato (1) 13.5, 14.6; turkey (3) 1.2, 4.9. respectively. The number of samples and analyzed is indicated in parentheses. (author)

  8. Applications of neutron activation analysis in chemistry and pollution fields

    Some examples of applications of activation analysis are given such as: chemical analysis of precious metals, nuclear graphite and hydrocarbons; control of pollution of water and seawater, analysis of food and seafood, atmospheric, dust and hair for determination of impurities

  9. Quality assurance in neutron activation analysis

    As a potential reference method, neutron activation analysis does not have to rely on other reference materials to ascertain the quality of analytical results. The fundamental characteristics of the method with the clear separation between irradiation, processing, and counting makes possible the estimation of uncertainties of individual results from a priori assumptions. Such estimates of the standard deviation from a series of independent sources of variation are compared with the a posteriori variability of replicate determinations in order to ascertain that the analytical method is in a state of statistical control. This Analysis of Precision tests the absence of unknown errors by means of a statistic T, which is closely approximated by a chi-square distribution. In this manner an evaluation is made of a commercially available computer program for peak evaluation in γ-spectrometry, as well as of other factors affecting the precision and accuracy of the counting process. An attempt is also made to determine sampling constants of one gram or less in a candidate biological reference material

  10. Epithermal neutron activation analysis in applied microbiology

    Some results from applying epithermal neutron activation analysis at FLNP JINR, Dubna, Russia, in medical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology and industrial biotechnology are reviewed. In the biomedical experiments biomass from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) has been used as a matrix for the development of pharmaceutical substances containing such essential trace elements as selenium, chromium and iodine. The feasibility of target-oriented introduction of these elements into S. platensis biocomplexes retaining its protein composition and natural beneficial properties was shown. The absorption of mercury on growth dynamics of S. platensis and other bacterial strains was observed. Detoxification of Cr and Hg by Arthrobacter globiformis 151B was demonstrated. Microbial synthesis of technologically important silver nanoparticles by the novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD and blue-green alga S. platensis were characterized by a combined use of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays. It was established that the tested actinomycete S. glaucus 71 MD produces silver nanoparticles extracellularly when acted upon by the silver nitrate solution, which offers a great advantage over an intracellular process of synthesis from the point of view of applications. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles by S. platensis proceeded differently under the short-term and long-term silver action. (author)

  11. Solar active regions: a nonparametric statistical analysis

    Pelt, J; Tuominen, I


    The sunspots and other solar activity indicators tend to cluster on the surface of the Sun.These clusters very often occur at certain longitudes that persist in time.It is of general interest to find new and simple ways to characterize the observed distributions of different indicators and their behaviour in time. In the present work we use Greenwich sunspot data to evaluate statistical but not totally coherent stability of sunspot distribution along latitudes as well as longitudes. The aim was to obtain information on the longitudinal distribution of the underlying spot-generating mechanism rather than on the distribution and migration of sunspots or sunspot groups on the solar surface. Therefore only sunspot groups were included in the analysis, and only the time of their first appearance was used. We use simple nonparametric approach to reveal sunspot migration patterns and their persistency. Our analysis shows that regions where spots are generated tend to rotate differentially as the spots and spot group...

  12. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique

    The technique was developed as far back as 1936 by G. Hevesy and H. Levy for the analysis of Dy using an isotopic source. Approximately 40 elements can be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) technique with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed may be increased to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in environmental and industrial research, NAA has some unique features. These are multi-element capability, rapidity, reproducibility of results, complementarity to other methods, freedom from analytical blank and independency of chemical state of elements. There are several types of neutron sources namely: nuclear reactors, accelerator-based and radioisotope-based sources, but nuclear reactors with high fluxes of neutrons from the fission of 235U give the most intense irradiation, and hence the highest available sensitivities for NAA. In this paper, the applications of NAA of socio-economic importance are discussed. The benefits of using NAA and related nuclear techniques for on-line applications in industrial process control are highlighted. A brief description of the NAA set-ups at CERT is enumerated. Finally, NAA is compared with other leading analytical techniques

  13. Phytochemical study and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade anti-inflamatoria de Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae)

    Ignoato, Marlene Capelin; Fabrao, Rodrigo Monteiro; Schuquel, Ivania Teresinha Albrecht; Botelho, Marcos Felipe Pinatto; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia e Terapeutica; Souza, Maria Conceicao de, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia


    Phytochemical investigation of Aeschynomene fluminensis leaves and branches led to isolation of the flavonoid glycosides kaempferol 3,7-di-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-apiofuranosil-7-O- rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, 8-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone, the isoflavonoid 4',7-di-hydroxy-isoflavone, the dimer epicatechin-(2{beta} ->7, 4{beta} ->8)- epicatechin, the polyol 3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol and two steroids in sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture. These compounds were identified by NMR {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C and compared with literature data. Anti-inflammatory activity of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions was evaluated (author)

  14. 7th international conference ''Modern trends in activation analysis''

    The conference was held on 23-27 June, 1986 in Copenhagen (DK) with the participation of specialists from 42 countries. 175 papers were submitted covering the wide field of applications of neutron activation analysis, from novel techniques to sample preparation, information processes and control, activation techniques, light element and rare earth element determination, ultratracer analysis, quality assurance, comparator methods, and reference materials. The poster session was mainly oriented to industrial applications of activation analysis, biological applications, in vivo use of neutron activation analysis, the applications of neutron activation analysis in environmental control, criminology, etc. (E.S.)

  15. Activation analysis in Europe: present and future perspectives

    A survey is given of the present-day European contribution to activation analysis, covering neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) and photon activation analysis (PAA). Attention is paid to the available irradiation facilities, in particular nuclear reactors, cyclotrons and Van de Graaff accelerators, and linear electron accelerators. Mention is made of progress in fundamental fields, but the attention is especially focussed on practical applications: environmental, geochemical/cosmochemical, biological/medical, and high-purity materials. Eventually, the role of activation analysis in research projects of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and in the Reference Materials program of the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) is emphasized

  16. Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: Activity based costing (ABC analysis

    Majstorović Branislava M.


    Full Text Available Introduction. Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. Objective. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC analysis. Methods. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment. of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, “each cost object (service or unit” of the Republican Health-care Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Health-care Insurance. Results. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Conclusion. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  17. Analysis of human enamel and dentine by neutron activation analysis

    Determination of trace elements in dental tissues has been of great interest to study the correlation between element composition and caries as well as food habits of individuals. In the present study dentine and enamel samples from healthy individuals were analysed by neutron activation analysis. The teeth were provided form dental clinics, and they were previously washed using purified water and acetone. Then they were dried at 40 deg C and ground in a agate mortar. The samples and element standards were irradiated with thermal neutrons at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Long irradiations of 8 h under thermal neutron flux of 5x1012 n cm-2 s-1 were used for Ca, Na, Sr and Zn determinations. In short irradiations of 15 s and under neutron flux of 1012 n cm-2 s-1 the elements Mg, Mn, Na e Sr were determined. The induced gamma activities of the samples and standards were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. Elemental concentrations were calculated by comparative method. Results obtained showed that Ca, Mg and Na are present in both tissues at the level of percentages and the elements Mn, Sr and Zn at the μg g-1 levels. For quality control of the results the certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1486 Bone Meal were analysed. (author)

  18. Simultaneous speciation analysis using neutron activation

    Full text: Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a well-established analytical technique for the simultaneous determination of multielement concentrations. Although various forms of NAA have been traditionally applied to measuring the total concentrations of elements, the scope of NAA can be further extended in conjunction with pre-irradiation chemical separations to determine the species of an element. The technique can then be called speciation NAA (SNAA). Since much of the toxicity of an element depends on its physico-chemical forms, there is an increasing interest in studying its speciation. A number of characteristic features of NAA, which other techniques normally do not possess, can be advantageously exploited in SNAA. For example, SNAA has simultaneous multielement specificity unlike AAS and AFS. The SNAA technique can be applied to the simultaneous speciation of elements which are not chemically similar such as Cd, Se and I, as well as to the elements such as Cl, Br and I which are rather difficult to determine by most other techniques. Qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of small samples can be done by SNAA with excellent precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and rapidity. Unlike many other techniques, SNAA has some enhanced quality assurance capabilities. We have developed SNAA methods for separating various inorganic and organic arsenic species in water and in sea foods. We are presently extending these methods to include simultaneous speciation of As, Sb and Se. We have also developed SNAA methods employing biochemical techniques for the characterization of metalloproteins and protein-bound trace element species of Se along with Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo and Zn in bovine kidneys. Lately, we have concentrated our efforts to develop SNAA methods in conjunction with HPLC, RPC, SEC, NMR and MS for the simultaneous separation and characterization of extractable organo chlorine, organo bromine and organo iodine species in fisheries samples. An overview of the

  19. Activation analysis for the Ignitor tokamak

    The purpose of the Ignitor experiment is to produce DT plasma regimes where ignition can take place. From the neutronics point of view, after a first period of machine set up and tuning in aneutronic operation, a second phase of 2.5 MeV neutron production with pure deuterium plasmas at increasing density is anticipated. After that, a transition phase to increasing percentage of tritium will be followed by several years of operations with 50% of tritium leading to short but intense 14-MeV neutron emission. To deal with the concerns due to the strong neutron emission, a detailed description of the actual Ignitor machine is implemented in the MCNP-4B Monte Carlo code to calculate the neutron fluxes in all machine components, taking in account the streaming through the ports. These fluxes are then used as input for the FISPACT-97 code for the analysis of the activation at the end of life and at intermediate times for safety assessment purposes. The resulting dose rate outside the device is also studied. The results point out that remote handling is needed for repair/maintenance of inner components following the DD operations, and that the access in the hall near the device could be restricted from the beginning of DT operations. The requirements on additional shield are discussed

  20. Neutron activation analysis applied to archaeological problems

    Among the various techniques, the main analytical methods used to characterize ceramics are undoubtedly XRF and INAA. The principles of NAA differ from those of XRF in that samples are irradiated by thermal neutrons from a nuclear reactor. During irradiation, a few neutrons are captured by the nuclei of atoms in the specimen. This process, called activation, causes some of the nuclei to become unstable. During and after neutron irradiation, these unstable nuclei emit γ rays with unique energies at rates defined by the characteristic half-lives of the radioactive nuclei. Identification of the radioactive nucleus is possible by measuring the γ ray energies. Determination of their intensities permits quantitative analysis of the elements in the sample. The use of NAA in ceramics by a combination of two or three irradiation, decay and measurement strategies allows the determination of the elements Ba, Ce, Cl, Co, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn and Zr, if necessary by changing the irradiation, decay and measurement schemes. In general, XRF is more available, more rapid and less expensive than NAA. However, NAA offers a far greater number of elements, more sensitivity, superior precision and greater accuracy than XRF. On the other hand, NAA can be performed on extremely small samples (5-10 mg), meaning that only minor damage to valuable artefacts may be required

  1. Neutron-activation analysis of plant materials

    The possibilities offered by non-destructive neutron activation analysis (NAA) for simultaneously determining a large number of micro- and macro-components in plant samples of Bulgarian origin have been studied. Three groups of elements are determined: short half-life isotopes: Al, Mg, Ca, Na, Mn, Cl, Cu; medium half-life isotopes: Br, Na, K; and long half-life isotopes: Fe, Cr, Co, Sc, Pb, Zn. The samples are kept for 1 minute in a fluxes of 6x1012 n.cm2.sec-1 (first group), and of 3x1011 n.cm2.sec-1 for 18 hours (second and third groups). Use is made of a Ge/Li detector and 4000-channel analyser. To test the accuracy of the method, the results of NAA for some standard specimens have been compared with the indicators of other conventional methods tested in 18 laboratories in various countries. The data from NAA for the content of K, Mo, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu demonstrate a high degree of coincidence with those from the other methods. Chemical composition of 23 samples of experimental and field crops is determined

  2. Probabilistic Models of Analysis of Loan Activity of Internet Banking

    Kondrateva Irina G.; Ostapenko Irina N.


    In article the main advantages of electronic banking in comparison with traditional, methods of the analysis of credit activity are considered. The special role is taken to the probabilistic method of analysis of credit activity in the Internet-bank. Modeling of activity of bank on the basis of probabilistic models of credit operations.

  3. Fatores associados à rosácea em amostras populacionais do Sul do Brasil: análise de estudos casos-controles Factors associated with rosacea in population samples of Southern Brazil: analysis of case-control studies

    Renan Rangel Bonamigo


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A rosácea é dermatose que apresenta uma série de variáveis associadas a seu surgimento. A maioria dos estudos é proveniente dos Estados Unidos da América e de países europeus, sendo escasso o conhecimento produzido e publicado acerca da doença no Hemisfério Sul, particularmente no Brasil. OBJETIVOS: Descrever os principais fatores clínicos e histopatológicos associados à rosácea em amostras populacionais do sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Dois estudos casos-controles realizados em seqüência, com análise univariada e bivariada, utilizando-se p BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a dermatosis that has many factors associated with its onset. Most studies on this condition come from the United States and European countries, with little information produced and published about the disease in the Southern hemisphere, particularly in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To describe the main clinical and histopathological factors associated with rosacea in population samples from southern Brazil. METHODS: Two case-control studies performed sequentially, with univariate and bivariate analysis, using p<0.05 for statistical significance (Chi-square test and Mantel-Haenzel, for stratifications RESULTS: Rosacea is most frequent among women and in the age range of 40-50 years. Almost all cases have phototypes II and III. The inflammatory forms of rosacea are more often diagnosed than the vascular form and there is an association with serological positivity to Helicobacter pylori and with histopathological presence of Demodex folliculorum (p<0.05. Emotional and climatic changes, exposure to the sun and intake of alcoholic beverages were the main factors described as provoking or worsening the disease. CONCLUSIONS: We have obtained an overview of rosacea in a sample of the southern population of Brazil. While some data are similar to those already described internationally, other aspects, such as economic issues and the factors described as provoking or worsening the

  4. Selected industrial and environmental applications of neutron activation analysis

    A review of the applications of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in the industrial and environmental fields is given. Detection limits for different applications are also given. (author)

  5. The status of activation analysis in archaeology and geochemistry

    Many of the initial applications for activation analysis occurred in the fields of archaeology, geochemistry and cosmochemistry. In addition to the desire to investigate noteworthy problems of interest to these disciplines, the reasons for employing activation analysis were based on the advantages of sample preparation, sensitivity, multi-element capability, and non-destructiveness. Nearly fifty years later and despite the development of several new analytical methods, many of these same advantages continue to attract interest in activation analysis from these same disciplines. Past, present and future role of activation analysis with regard to research questions in archaeology, geochemistry, and cosmochemistry are overviewed. (author)

  6. The RAM +L analysis methodology: the refinery plants case study; Analise RAM +L: um estudo integrado de varias unidades de producao de uma refinaria

    Calixto, Eduardo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Bretas, Rogerio [PETROBRAS S.A., Betim, MG (Brazil). Refinaria Gabriel Passos (REGAP)


    The RAM (Reliability, Availability and Maintainability) main objective is assess the system and equipment performance in order to identify the critical issues to implement system's improvements. The first step is define equipment failure modes and it's PDF as well as repair time for each failure mode. The second step is modeling system regarding diagram block logic dependency among equipment and its failures which cause system production losses. The third step is simulating model in defined period of time in order to identify critical equipment to propose system improvement. Despite being having been used constantly to assess system performances, those methodology do not consider the logistic complex assumptions in so many cases to huge systems and it RDB logic do not represent the real effect in production losses. Even if that good enough to perform system analysis it's not quite enough to complex system with logistic resources regarding system's products efficiency. By the other way round, in logistic complex system analysis methodologies, equipment failures details are not regarded in so many times, showing that there's a necessary improvement in those analysis. Therefore, the RAM + L analysis is a methodology which regards all equipment failures issues as well as logistic assumptions being a more realistic analysis. The refinery case study Will be propose to demonstrate a new vision of two recognized methodologies regarding a complex system with over than 200 equipment comprising two tanks, two pumps and five Unit Plants as Vacuum Distillation, Atmospheric Distillation, Hydrogen Generation, Diesel Hydrotreating Unit and DEA. (author)

  7. Contribuições da Análise Conversacional ao estudo do traumatismo craneo-encefálico: relato de um caso Contributions of Conversation Analysis to the study of traumatic brain injury: a single case report

    Véronique Agnes Guernet Steiner


    Full Text Available A persistência de dificuldades no processo de comunicação em sujeitos acometidos por um traumatismo craneo-encefálico requer a utilização de instrumentos de avaliação, sensíveis às alterações lingüístico-cognitivas apresentadas, que possam facilitar a reintegração desses indivíduos na sociedade. O presente estudo de caso investiga as contribuições da Análise Conversacional, na avaliação das habilidades funcionais de um jovem de 27 anos, acometido por um traumatismo craneo-encefálico grave. Analisa uma interação conversacional espontânea por meio do estudo do mecanismo colaborativo da tomada de turno, do gerenciamento do tópico e das reformulações, comparando os resultados com testes formais de linguagem. Discute as contribuições dessa abordagem ao processo de reabilitação fonoaudiológica. Enquanto os testes formais não indicaram alterações de linguagem, a Análise Conversacional permitiu, ao analisar a seqüência de turnos e as reações mútuas dos interlocutores, identificar problemas comunicativos e verificar como os interlocutores lidavam com os mesmos. A Análise Conversacional mostrou-se sensível às alterações lingüístico-cognitivas apresentadas pelo traumatismo craneo-encefálico, fornecendo elementos concretos para, no processo de reabilitação, abordar, de forma organizada, o discurso mais utilizado no cotidiano.The persistence of communication impairments in individuals who sustained a traumatic brain injury requires the use of sensitive tools to evaluate the linguistic-cognitive problems they present, aiming at their reintegration in society. This single case study investigates the contributions of Conversation Analysis to the evaluation of the pragmatic abilities of a 27 year-old man who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury. It analyses a spontaneous conversational interaction through the study of the collaborative mechanism of turn-taking, topic management and repairs, comparing the

  8. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    Guoxin Lu


    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  9. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    Galinha, C. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Anawar, H.M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida-Silva, M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S. [INRB/INIA-Elvas, National Institute of Biological Resources, Est. Gil Vaz, 7350-228 Elvas (Portugal)


    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22 mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation

  10. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordao presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordao and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different

  11. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    Ahmed, Noveera T.


    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  12. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian; Krarup, Christian

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  13. Estudo da dinâmica espaço-temporal do bioma Pantanal por meio de imagens MODIS Spatial-temporal analysis of MODIS image applied to dynamic of Pantanal biome

    Marcos Adami


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar dados multitemporais, obtidos pelo sensor "moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer" (MODIS, para o estudo da dinâmica espaço-temporal de duas sub-regiões do bioma Pantanal. Foram utilizadas 139 imagens "enhanced vegetation index" (EVI, do produto MOD13 "vegetation index", dados de altimetria oriundos do "shuttle radar topography mission" (SRTM e dados de precipitação do "tropical rainfall measuring mission" (TRMM. Para a redução da dimensionalidade dos dados, as imagens MODIS-EVI foram amostradas com base nas curvas de nível espaçadas em 10 m. Foram aplicadas as técnicas de análise de autocorrelação e análise de agrupamentos aos dados das amostras, e a análise de componentes principais na área total da imagem. Houve dependência tanto temporal quanto espacial da resposta espectral com a precipitação. A análise de agrupamentos apontou a presença de dois grupos, o que indicou a necessidade da análise completa da área. A análise de componentes principais permitiu diferenciar quatro comportamentos distintos: as áreas permanentemente alagadas; as áreas não inundáveis, compostas por vegetação; as áreas inundáveis com maior resposta de vegetação; e áreas com vegetação ripária.The objective of this work was to evaluate multitemporal data, obtained by moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor, for the study of spatial-temporal dynamics in two subregions of the Pantanal biome. One hundred and thirty nine enhanced vegetation index (EVI images, from MOD13 vegetation index product, altimetry data from shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM and tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM precipitation data were used. In order to reduce data dimensionality, MODIS EVI images were sampled based on contour lines spacing of 10 m. The autocorrelation and cluster analysis were used for spatial and temporal evaluation of the samples; and the principal components analysis

  14. Phytochemical analysis of cultivated specimens of cumaru (Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith.);Estudo fitoquimico de especimes cultivados de cumaru (Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith.)

    Canuto, Kirley Marques; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha, E-mail: kirley@cnpat.embrapa.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Bezerra, Antonio Marcos Esmeraldo [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia


    Due to the threat of extinction of Amburana cearensis, a tree of medicinal importance for the Northeastern Brazil, a phytochemical analysis was performed with specimens obtained by seed germination. Ten compounds were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, ayapin, (E/Z)-melilotosides are being reported for the first time for the genus, besides coumarin, isokaempferide, vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid, amburosides A and B which have already been found in the trunk bark. Based on physical and NMR spectroscopy evidences the structures of several melilotosides already described in the literature have been suggested to be revised. (author)

  15. Estudo multicasos sobre atividades inovativas

    Sonia Regina Hierro Parolin


    Full Text Available Em estudos sobre competitividade argumenta-se que as empresas necessitam de estratégias baseadas em inovações e de capacidades internas em constantes e intensas transformações, não somente nos padrões tecnológicos, mas também no encadeamento do processo de gestão das atividades inovativas, como processos dinâmicos, não lineares e diversificados, em função de múltiplos fatores dos ambientes interno e externo. Para contribuir com essas discussões, neste artigo apresenta-se um estudo multicasos em quatro indústrias de médio e grande portes, de segmentos, densidades tecnológicas e históricos com inovações diferentes entre si. Como principais resultados, salientam-se o encadeamento das atividades inovativas como parte de uma estratégia organizacional para obter resultados com inovação e a afluência de todas as pessoas, e não somente as alocadas em pesquisa e desenvolvimento, para o cumprimento dessa estratégia.

  16. Development of educational program for neutron activation analysis

    This technical report is developed to apply an educational and training program for graduate student and analyst utilizing neutron activation analysis. The contents of guide book consists of five parts as follows; introduction, gamma-ray spectrometry and measurement statistics, its applications, to understand of comprehensive methodology and to utilize a relevant knowledge and information on neutron activation analysis

  17. International conference activation analysis and its applications (ICAAA): abstracts

    International conference on the Activation Analysis and its Applications was hold in Beijing of China on October 15-19, 1990. It was organized and co-sponsored by Division of Activation Analysis and Radioanalysis, National Natural Science Foundation of China and China Nuclear Society, etc.. 159 pieces of Articles in the field were received in the conference, from many countries

  18. Trace Analysis of Ancient Gold Objects Using Radiochemical Neutron Activation

    Olariu, A; Constantinescu, O; Badica, T; Popescu, I V; Besliu, C; Leahu, D; Olariu, Agata; Constantinescu, Mioara; Leahu, Doina


    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis has been applied to investigate the microelements in gold samples with archaeological importance. Chemical separation has allowed the determination of traces of Ir, Os, Sb, Zn, Co, Fe, Ni. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used for the determination of Cu.

  19. Development of educational program for neutron activation analysis

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Ryel, Sung; Kang, Young Hwan; Lee, Kil Yong; Yeon, Yeon Yel; Cho, Seung Yeon


    This technical report is developed to apply an educational and training program for graduate student and analyst utilizing neutron activation analysis. The contents of guide book consists of five parts as follows; introduction, gamma-ray spectrometry and measurement statistics, its applications, to understand of comprehensive methodology and to utilize a relevant knowledge and information on neutron activation analysis.

  20. Silicon high vacuum brazing study and microstructural analysis of the joint formation; Estudo da brasagem de silicio em alto vacuo e analise microestructural da juncao

    Santana, E.C.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Campus de Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Francisco, F.R.; Bagnato, O.R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:


    On the project of Synchrotron Light Source, silicon-crystal are often used as monochromator and mirrors, to reflect the electrons beam. Silicon is known as a very fragile material, and its optical elements must be designed carefully. Usually, it is bonded in a cooling support made by copper. Thermal contact between the crystal plate and cooling support is made of In-Ga liquid alloy. Due to the difficult of this bonding, brazing tests are being taken with Fe-Ni alloy, in order to improve the silicon mirrors application and performance. Wet ability tests were performed between the silicon plate and commercial fillers. A brazing test was made of silicon and Al12Si, as filler, with Fe-Ni, as base material. Results of microstructure analysis indicated that the braze of a silicon plate is quite promissory. (author)

  1. Analysis of cogeneration system using fuel cell: cases study; Analise de sistema de cogeracao utilizando celula de combustivel: estudo de casos

    Silveira, Jose Luz; Leal, Elisangela Martins [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails:;


    In this paper, a methodology for the study of a molten carbonate fuel cell cogeneration system associated to an absorption refrigeration system, for the electricity and cold water production, and applied to two establishments, is presented. This system permits the recovery of waste heat, available between 600 deg C e 700 deg C. Initially, some technical information about the most diffusing types of the fuel cell demonstration in the world are presented. In the next step, an energetic, exergetic and economic analysis are carry out, seeking the use of fuel cells, in conditions of prices and interest of Brazil. In conclusion, the fuel cell cogeneration system may have an excellent opportunity to strengthen the decentralized energy production in the Brazilian energy scene. (author)

  2. Study of preparations of bee pollen extracts, antioxidant and antibacterial activity Estudo das preparações de extratos de pólen apícola, atividade antioxidante e antibacteriana

    Solange Teresinha Carpes


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity, phenolic content and antibacterial activity of pollen extracts obtained with different concentrations of ethanol. Each extraction condition (ethanol solutions from 40 to 90% had a different effect in the phenolic compounds content. Although, the pollen extract obtained at 60, 70 and 80% of ethanol showed relatively higher levels of phenolic compounds (>10 mg/g and did not present statistical significant difference between the extraction conditions. The amount of total phenolics ranged from 3.6 to 8.1 and 6.6 to 10.9 mg GAE/g for Alagoas state and Parana state pollen, respectively. The higher value for antioxidant activity index was 83.30% for the pollen from Alagoas state and 81.15 % for Parana state pollen. The highest degree of antioxidant activity was found in the extraction at 60% of ethanol solution for Parana state pollen, which also showed the highest concentration of polyphenol compounds. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by the ethanolic extract of Alagoas state pollen in all the concentrations of solvent, except the ethanolic extract of pollen at 90%. The extract at 60% of ethanol solution (Parana sample inhibited Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella sp.Objetivou-se, neste estudo determinar compostos fenólicos, a atividade antioxidante a antibacteriana dos extratos etanólicos de pólen, obtidos com diferentes concentrações de etanol. As diferentes condições de extração (etanol de 40 a 90% apresentaram diferentes efeitos no conteúdo dos compostos fenólicos extraídos. Os extratos de pólen obtidos com etanol a 60, 70 e 80% apresentaram maiores níveis de compostos fenólicos (>10 mg/g e não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre essas condições de extração. A quantidade de compostos fenólicos nos extratos de pólen variou de 3.6 a 8.1 e 6.6 a 11 mg de equivalente em ácido gálico por g de pólen (GAE, para os estados de Alagoas

  3. Transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid: a prospective pilot study of eight consecutive cases Retinopexia transconjuntival com drenagem externa do fluido sub-retiniano: um estudo piloto prospectivo de oito casos consecutivos

    Rubens Camargo Siqueira


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe an alternative surgical technique for the management of retinal detachment with no or minimal proliferative vitreoretinopathy (grade B using transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid. METHODS: In a prospective, interventional study, eight consecutive patients with retinal detachment with no or minimal proliferative vitreoretinopathy (grade B underwent transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid. Transconjunctival external drainage of subretinal fluid was achieved by using a 29 gauge needle placed in the subretinal space under indirect ophthalmoscopic monitoring. Active suction was performed (500 mmHg vacuum using a vitrectomy line coupled to the needle. After retinal reattachment, cryotherapy was applied to the scleral region corresponding to the area of the retinal break(s. RESULTS: In all cases there was retinal attachment at the end of surgery. Retinal redetachment occurred in four pseudophakic patients who then underwent pars plana vitrectomy. The four phakic patients maintained retinal attachment during follow-up (13-20 months. CONCLUSION: Transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid represents a useful, faster, and cheaper alternative to scleral buckling for retinal detachments with no or minimal proliferative retinopathy in phakic patients and, unlike scleral buckling, is not associated with induced myopia.OBJETIVO: Descrever uma técnica cirúrgica alternativa para o tratamento de descolamento da retina sem ou com mínima vitreorretinopatia proliferativa (grau B usando uma retinopexia transconjuntival com drenagem externa do fluido sub-retiniano. MÉTODOS: Prospectivo estudo intervencional, com oito pacientes consecutivos com descolamento da retina com nenhum ou mínima vitreorretinopatia proliferativa (grau B que foram submetidos a retinopexia transconjuntival com drenagem externa ativa do fluido sub

  4. Large sample neutron activation analysis of a ceramic vase

    Stamatelatos, I.E.; Tzika, F.; Vasilopoulou, T.; Koster-Ammerlaan, M.J.J.


    Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis (LSNAA) was applied to perform non-destructive elemental analysis of a ceramic vase. Appropriate neutron self-shielding and gamma ray detection efficiency calibration factors were derived using Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The results of LSNAA were compared against Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) results and a satisfactory agreement between the two methods was observed. The ratio of derived concentrations between the two methods was within 0...

  5. Teaching-Learning Activity Modeling Based on Data Analysis

    Kyungrog Kim


    Full Text Available Numerous studies are currently being carried out on personalized services based on data analysis to find and provide valuable information about information overload. Furthermore, the number of studies on data analysis of teaching-learning activities for personalized services in the field of teaching-learning is increasing, too. This paper proposes a learning style recency-frequency-durability (LS-RFD model for quantified analysis on the level of activities of learners, to provide the elements of teaching-learning activities according to the learning style of the learner among various parameters for personalized service. This is to measure preferences as to teaching-learning activity according to recency, frequency and durability of such activities. Based on the results, user characteristics can be classified into groups for teaching-learning activity by categorizing the level of preference and activity of the learner.

  6. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won


    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavono...

  7. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  8. Insurer’s activity as object of economic analysis

    O.O. Poplavskiy


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the substantiation of theoretical fundamentals of insurer’s analysis and peculiarities of its implementation. The attention has been focused on the important role of economic analysis in economic science which is confirmed by its active use in research and practical orientation. The author summarizes the classification and principles of insurer’s activity analysis, supplements it with specific principles for insurer’s environment, publicity and risk-orientation which enable increasingly to take into account the peculiarities of insurance relations. The paper pays attention to the specification of elements of analysis and its key directions including the analysis of insurer’s financing, the analysis of insurance operations and the analysis of investment activity which will allow the effective functioning of risk management system.

  9. Analysis of economic feasibility of sale of surplus electricity in cogeneration: case study; Analise de viabilidade economica de venda de energia eletrica excedente em cogeracao: estudo de caso

    Fodra, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Universidade Sagrado Coracao (USC), Bauru, SP (Brazil)], email:; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial], email:


    The production of energy in large quantity and at competitive prices is crucial for economic development, which allied to the environmental question, has incentivated the use of renewable sources of energy. One of the most promising sources of renewable energy is the cogeneration from the residues of cane. Currently, the scenario for this kind of energy production is not consolidated, as production prices are not stable, inducing a risky situation for the environment. This work was aimed to study the economic viability of installing a main site for cogeneration of electricity, in a regional sugarcane factory located in the central region of Sao Paulo state that currently uses residues of sugar cane as fuel. The risk factor that was taken into consideration was the price paid for the MWh sold to the Chamber of Commerce of Electricity. The Monte Carlo Method was used to assess the risk factors for the analysis, by using of New Present Value (NPV), in a scenario that uses 20% of the initial investment made by the energy dealer. After the simulations were finished, considering the conditions used in this work, the project tends to be not feasible, as the behavior of the prices of cogenerated MWh are not sufficient for paying the initial investment and the operational costs. (author)

  10. Design professional activity analysis in design management

    Claudia de Souza Libanio


    Full Text Available Design use perception, as an essential element for achieving competitive advantage, also suggests the need to manage the design activities in companies. However, a few is discussed about the activity of these design professionals who participate in this process, their roles, functions and competencies, including  their connections to a company and other involved sectors. This article aims to analyze, during the design management processes, the work relations of design professionals connected to organizations both internal and externally, in order to comprehend the structure and intervenient factors on the activity of these professionals, as well as the interactions with their main coworkers. The methodology was exploratory and qualitative, using in-depth interviews with three design professionals. Subsequently, the responses were analyzed allowing the comparison of these obtained data to the theoretical bases researched. Through this case study, it was possible to realize the aspects and the structure of the design professional activity, connected intern and externally to organizations, as well as its relations with the main coworkers.

  11. ESAA environment for seismic activity analysis

    ESAA is an X-window based, graphical and interactive, software system for analyzing seismic activity, using the earthquake catalogues of a given region as input. Basic design idea and structure of this system, as well as the progress in its implementation are reported. (author). 12 refs

  12. Reprodutibilidade do questionário de avaliação de atividade física para crianças aplicado no Estudo Saúdes: Vitória The reproducibility of the Saúdes: Vitória Study's physical activity assessment questionnaire for children

    Karina Checon


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a reprodutibilidade de um questionário de atividade física (AF para crianças de 7 a 10 anos em participantes do estudo Saúdes Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal realizado em uma amostra aleatória de 91 crianças matriculadas em escolas da rede pública e privada do município. Um questionário estruturado com 13 perguntas foi enviado ao domicílio do escolar para preenchimento em duas ocasiões, com intervalo de 15 dias entre elas. O teste de concordância de Kappa foi utilizado na avaliação da reprodutibilidade das variáveis qualitativas, e o teste de correlação de Pearson ou de Spearman na avaliação das variáveis quantitativas, seguido da análise de dispersão. RESULTADOS: os índices de concordância Kappa variaram de moderados a altos e foram estatisticamente significantes para todas as variáveis qualitativas, e (k= 0,72 a 0,98. Da mesma forma, os valores dos coeficientes de correlação para as respostas numéricas variaram de moderado a alto (r= 0,51 a 1,00, exceto para o tempo de uso de vídeo game e duração da prática de segunda modalidade esportiva. CONCLUSÕES: o questionário Saúdes permitiu coletar dados sobre AF com boa reprodutibilidade, porém apresentou limitações na quantificação do tempo de atividades de menor frequência diária, como o tempo de uso do vídeo game e tempo de uma segunda prática esportiva.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the reproducibility of a physical activity assessment questionnaire for children aged between 7 and 10 years among participants of the Saúdes Vitória Study in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out in a random sample of 91 children enrolled in public and private sector schools in the municipality. A structured questionnaire with 13 questions was sent to the home of selected children, to be filled out twice, with an interval of 15 days. To evaluate the reproducibility the Kappa

  13. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  14. Desafios dos Estudos Gays, Lésbicos e Transgêneros

    Denilson Lopes


    Full Text Available Resumo: Este ensaio introduz algumas questões relativas aos estudos feministas, gays, lésbicos, transgênecos e teoria queer na busca de contribuições teórico-metodológicas na análise da cultura contemporânea. Palavras-chave: Estudos gays e lésbicos, estudos transgêneros, teoria queer, cultura. Abstrat: This essay introduces some issues related tofeminist studies, gay and lesbian studies, transgender studies and queer theory in the search of theoretical and methodological contributions in the analysis of contemporary culture. Key-words: Gay and Lesbian Studies, transgender studies, queer theory, culture

  15. Análise da madeira de Pinus oocarpa parte I: estudo dos constituintes macromoleculares e extrativos voláteis Chemical analysis of Pinus oocarpa wood part I: quantification of macromolecular components and volatile extractives

    Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais


    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram analisados os principais componentes químicos da madeira de Pinus oocarpa, cultivado na região do cerrado. A composição química dessa madeira foi: 59,05% de a-celulose, 21,22% de hemiceluloses A e B, 25,18% de lignina, 2,78% de extrativos em diclorometano, 4,38% de extrativos em etanol:tolueno, 4,31% de extrativos em água quente e 1,26% de cinzas. O conteúdo de celulose foi relativamente elevado, indicando que essa madeira possui grande potencial para produção de pasta de celulose. Investigou-se, também, a composição dos extrativos. Os principais constituintes do extrato diclorometano dessa madeira foram os ácidos diterpênicos, além dos ácidos palmítico e oléico. No óleo essencial, extraído por aparelho de Clevenger, os principais componentes identificados foram aromadendreno, ledano, hexadecanal e ácido oléico.The chemical composition of Pinus oocarpa wood cultivated in the Brazilian cerrado was established. The obtained results were: a-cellulose (59.05%, hemicelluloses A and B (21.22%, lignin (25.18%, dichloromethane extractives (2.78%, ethanol:toluene extractives (4.38%, hot water extractives (4.31% and ash (1.26%. The cellulose content was high. This result opens perspectives for using Pinus oocarpa wood in pulp and paper industries. Most of the dichloromethane extractives were diterpenic, palmitic and oleic acids. The volatile composition, obtained by means of the Clevenger method followed by GC-MS analysis was constituted mainly by aromadendrene, ledane, hexadecanal and oleic acid.

  16. Neutron activation analysis of geothermal water

    Instrumental technique of determination of 16 microimpurities in geothermal water samples is worked out. Probes and standard samples with cadmium filter have been irradiated by the thermal neutron flux of 5x1013 neutr.xcm-2xc-1. Cadmium filter permitted to considerably decrease 24Na radio activity caused by its high content in geothermal water, and to measure radioactivity in several hours after irradiation. Radioactivity measurement has been carried out without probe unpacking


    Agnieszka Kisło; Iwona Skoczko


    The beginning of the period where the impact of human activity took dangerous size is considered to be 40 years of the nineteenth century. Then the large-scale production of electricity increased production of metallurgical industry and transport development. Significant changes contributed to rapid population growth and urbanization and industrialization processes. Man by intensive exploitation reduces or completely exhausted most natural resources. This has resulted in the availability crit...

  18. TIBER activation analysis: Appendix A-3

    TIBER-II is an engineering test reactor designed to establish the technical feasibility for fusion, and is a US option for the prospective International Thermonuclear Test Reactor (ITER). The TIBER-II baseline design has 3 m major radius, 3.6 aspect ratio, and 1.1 MW/m2 average neutron wall loading. The inboard shield is about .5 m thick and structurally consists of tungsten alloy and PCA alloy. The outboard is 1.52 m thick and utilizes PCA as structure and beryllium as a neutron multiplier. An aqueous solution of 160 g LiNO3/liter is used throughout as a coolant and breeder. A one-dimensional cylindrical model for TIBER is used to calculate the neutron flux and the radioactivities. Activities are calculated during and after 2.5 full power years (FPY) of operation. TIBER total activity is ∼2 MCi/cm at the end of operation and is dominated by the inboard activity. The high volumetric fraction of the PCA/W alloys in the inboard shield, used to provide magnet protection at the limited inboard space, makes the inboard specific activity two orders of magnitude higher than that of the outboard and dominant all the time. The decay heat due to β and γ decay produces about .05 W/cc in the inboard at shutdown and for a few weeks. Under adiabatic conditions, this heat would raise the inboard shield temperature up to 11500C. A considerable part of this heat is generated by the γ decay which might help, through the γ transport, to smooth the heat concentration. Waste disposal ratings of the TIBER structures have been calculated, and it is found that both the inboard and the outboard shield are classified as Class C radwaste. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Regulatory activities of government: analysis of determinants

    Primož Pevcin


    Full Text Available International comparisons show that large cross-country differences exist in the overall macro extent of regulation of the economy. In this context, the main purpose of the article is to investigate, why such differences exist by identifying and empirically verifying the effect of various factors that could potentially shape those differences. Empirical analysis based on the sample of 32 developed and democratic countries revealed that almost 70 % of variation in the macro extent of regulation could be explained with 7 statistically significant explanatory variables. The econometric analysis revealed that the macro extent of regulation decreases with income inequality in society, with the level of economic development, with the sizeof economy, with the share of transfer spending in GDP and with the share of government employment in labour force. On the other hand, the extent of regulation is positively related to government ownership of enterprises and to presidential political regime

  20. Acquisition Path Analysis as a Collaborative Activity

    In the International Atomic Energy Agency, acquisition path analysis (APA) is indispensable to safeguards implementation. It is an integral part of both State evaluation process and the development of State level safeguards approaches, all performed through ongoing collaborative analysis of all available safeguards relevant information by State evaluation groups (SEG) with participation of other contributors, as required. To perform comprehensive State evaluation, to develop and revise State-level safeguards approaches, and to prepare annual implementation plans, the SEG in its collaborative analysis follows accepted safeguards methodology and guidance. In particular, the guide ''Performing Acquisition Path Analysis for the Development of a State-level Safeguards Approach for a State with a CSA'' is used. This guide identifies four major steps of the APA process: 1. Consolidating information about the State's past, present and planned nuclear fuel cycle-related capabilities and infrastructure; 2. Identifying and visually presenting technically plausible acquisition paths for the State; 3. Assessing acquisition path steps (State's technical capabilities and possible actions) along the identified acquisition paths; and 4. Assessing the time needed to accomplish each identified technically plausible acquisition path for the State. The paper reports on SEG members' and other contributors' experience with APA when following the above steps, including the identification of plausible acquisition pathways, estimation of time frames for all identified steps and determination of the time needed to accomplish each acquisition path. The difficulties that the SEG encountered during the process of performing the APA are also addressed. Feedback in the form of practical suggestions for improving the clarity of the acquisition path step assessment forms and a proposal for software support are also included. (author)

  1. Rapid radiochemical separations in neutron activation analysis

    Rapid radiochemical separation procedures based on the removal of metal ions by columns of C18-bonded silica gel after selective complexation are examined and the simplicity of the method demonstrated by its application to the determination of Mn, Cu and Zn in neutron-activated biological material. The method is rapid and reliable and readily adaptable in all radiochemical laboratories. An alternative separation procedure for selenium in blood plasma involving desalination and concentration of the selenium protein complex by gel filtration or ultrafiltration is briefly discussed. (author)

  2. Active vision in satellite scene analysis

    Naillon, Martine


    In earth observation or planetary exploration it is necessary to have more and, more autonomous systems, able to adapt to unpredictable situations. This imposes the use, in artificial systems, of new concepts in cognition, based on the fact that perception should not be separated from recognition and decision making levels. This means that low level signal processing (perception level) should interact with symbolic and high level processing (decision level). This paper is going to describe the new concept of active vision, implemented in Distributed Artificial Intelligence by Dassault Aviation following a 'structuralist' principle. An application to spatial image interpretation is given, oriented toward flexible robotics.

  3. Nondestructive neutron activation analysis of mineral materials. III

    A description is presented of sampling, calibration standards, the method of activation and measurement, activation product identification, the respective nuclear reactions, interfering admixtures, and pre-activation operations. The analysis is described of sulphides, halogenides, oxides, sulphates, carbonates, phosphates, silicates, aluminosilicates, composite minerals containing lanthanides, rocks, tektites, meteors, and plant materials. The method allows determining mainly F, Mg, Al, Ti, V, Nb, Rh, and I which cannot be determined by long-term activation (LTA). It is more sensitive than LTA in determining Ca, Cu, In, and Dy. The analysis takes less time, irradiation and measurement are less costly. The main mineral components are quickly found. (M.K.)

  4. Neutron activation analysis of ancient silver coins

    The amounts of gold and copper present as impurities in 500 Creek silver coins of the fifth century B.C. have been determined with a gamma-ray spectrometer, following neutron activation. The coinage from eight cities and kingdoms was studied; the average gold-content for different groups of coins varies between 0.02% and 0.3%, and the copper content between 0.1% and 10%. Evidence about trading connexions and of deliberate debasements of the coinage has been obtained, and several unsuspected plated coins were detected. The gold content was determined by measuring the intensity of the 0.411 MeV gamma-ray from Au198 (2.69 d); for the copper content the 0.511 MeV positron annihilation radiation from Cu64 (12.8 h) was used, and for silver the 0.884 MeV gamma-ray from Ag110m (253 d). Decay measurements were used as a check of identity. The technique of using total gamma-activity decay curves by themselves is insufficiently sensitive. For accurate work, the importance of approximate facsimile standards is stressed. (author)

  5. Nuclear power company activity based costing management analysis

    With Nuclear Energy Industry development, Nuclear Power Company has the continual promoting stress of inner management to the sustainable marketing operation development. In view of this, it is very imminence that Nuclear Power Company should promote the cost management levels and built the nuclear safety based lower cost competitive advantage. Activity based costing management (ABCM) transfer the cost management emphases from the 'product' to the 'activity' using the value chain analysis methods, cost driver analysis methods and so on. According to the analysis of the detail activities and the value chains, cancel the unnecessary activity, low down the resource consuming of the necessary activity, and manage the cost from the source, achieve the purpose of reducing cost, boosting efficiency and realizing the management value. It gets the conclusion from the detail analysis with the nuclear power company procedure and activity, and also with the selection to 'pieces analysis' of the important cost related project in the nuclear power company. The conclusion is that the activities of the nuclear power company has the obviously performance. It can use the management of ABC method. And with the management of the procedure and activity, it is helpful to realize the nuclear safety based low cost competitive advantage in the nuclear power company. (author)

  6. Activation analysis of the compact ignition tokamak

    Selcow, E.C.


    The US fusion program has completed the conceptual design of a compact tokamak device that achieves ignition. The high neutron wall loadings associated with this compact deuterium-tritium-burning device indicate that radiation-related issues may be significant considerations in the overall system design. Sufficient shielding will be requied for the radiation protection of both reactor components and occupational personnel. A close-in igloo shield has been designed around the periphery of the tokamak structure to permit personnel access into the test cell after shutdown and limit the total activation of the test cell components. This paper describes the conceptual design of the igloo shield system and discusses the major neutronic concerns related to the design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak.

  7. Activation analysis of the compact ignition tokamak

    The US fusion program has completed the conceptual design of a compact tokamak device that achieves ignition. The high neutron wall loadings associated with this compact deuterium-tritium-burning device indicate that radiation-related issues may be significant considerations in the overall system design. Sufficient shielding will be requied for the radiation protection of both reactor components and occupational personnel. A close-in igloo shield has been designed around the periphery of the tokamak structure to permit personnel access into the test cell after shutdown and limit the total activation of the test cell components. This paper describes the conceptual design of the igloo shield system and discusses the major neutronic concerns related to the design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

  8. A statistical analysis of electrical cerebral activity

    The aim of this work was to study the statistical properties of the amplitude of the electroencephalographic signal. The experimental method is described (implantation of electrodes, acquisition and treatment of data). The program of the mathematical analysis is given (calculation of probability density functions, study of stationarity) and the validity of the tests discussed. The results concerned ten rabbits. Trips of EEG were sampled during 40 s. with very short intervals (500 μs). The probability density functions established for different brain structures (especially the dorsal hippocampus) and areas, were compared during sleep, arousal and visual stimulus. Using a Χ2 test, it was found that the Gaussian distribution assumption was rejected in 96.7 per cent of the cases. For a given physiological state, there was no mathematical reason to reject the assumption of stationarity (in 96 per cent of the cases). (author)

  9. Mathematical analysis of complex cellular activity

    Bertram, Richard; Teka, Wondimu; Vo, Theodore; Wechselberger, Martin; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James


    This book contains two review articles on mathematical physiology that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. The first article reviews the basic theory of calcium oscillations (common to almost all cell types), including spatio-temporal behaviors such as waves. The second article uses, and expands on, much of this basic theory to show how the interaction of cytosolic calcium oscillators with membrane ion channels can result in highly complex patterns of electrical spiking. Through these examples one can see clearly how multiple oscillatory processes interact within a cell, and how mathematical methods can be used to understand such interactions better. The two reviews provide excellent examples of how mathematics and physiology can learn from each other, and work jointly towards a better understanding of complex cellular processes. Review 1: Richard Bertram, Joel Tabak, Wondimu Teka, Theodore Vo, Martin Wechselberger: Geometric Singular Perturbation Analysis of Burst...




    In this paper the authors describe how the analysis of operational and investment activities in conjunction with the financial policies of firms subordinated to county councils in the North-West of Romania.

  11. Application of reactor activation analysis to hydrogeology and geology

    Instrumental reactor activation analysis applied to hydrogeological and geological investigations conducted at the Department of Radiometry of the Geological Techniques Research and Development Centre is discussed. Used instrumentation and analytical techniques are described. (author)

  12. The verification of neutron activation analysis support system (cooperative research)

    Neutron activation analysis support system is the system in which even the user who has not much experience in the neutron activation analysis can conveniently and accurately carry out the multi-element analysis of the sample. In this verification test, subjects such functions, usability, precision and accuracy of the analysis and etc. of the neutron activation analysis support system were confirmed. As a method of the verification test, it was carried out using irradiation device, measuring device, automatic sample changer and analyzer equipped in the JRR-3M PN-3 facility, and analysis software KAYZERO/SOLCOI based on the k0 method. With these equipments, calibration of the germanium detector, measurement of the parameter of the irradiation field and analysis of three kinds of environmental standard sample were carried out. The k0 method adopted in this system is primarily utilized in Europe recently, and it is the analysis method, which can conveniently and accurately carried out the multi-element analysis of the sample without requiring individual comparison standard sample. By this system, total 28 elements were determined quantitatively, and 16 elements with the value guaranteed as analytical data of the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) environment standard sample were analyzed in the accuracy within 15%. This report describes content and verification result of neutron activation support system. (author)

  13. Planejamento tributário e simulação: estudo e análise dos casos Rexnord e Josapar Tax planning and sham: study and analysis of Rexnord and Josapar cases

    Marciano Seabra de Godoi


    Full Text Available O artigo tem por campo de estudo o problema dos limites do planejamento tributário e sua relação com a simulação. Objetiva-se, após apresentar as polêmicas doutrinárias acerca do conceito de simulação, verificar se a jurisprudência adota o tradicional e restritivo conceito de simulação (fundado na análise isolada de cada operação e na identificação da vontade real das partes ou um conceito mais amplo, informado por aspectos econômicos, operacionais e societários que transcendem a análise isolada e formal de cada uma das operações que compõem os planejamentos tributários. Examinam-se decisões do Conselho de Contribuintes do Ministério da Fazenda, do Tribunal Regional Federal da 4ª Região e do Superior Tribunal de Justiça sobre os casos Rexnord e Josapar, que podem ser considerados paradigmáticos da atual orientação jurisprudencial, e a conclusão é que os tribunais vêm se mostrando adeptos do conceito amplo de simulação, considerando ineficazes planejamentos baseados em negócios artificiosos e desprovidos de qualquer racionalidade econômica ou negocial.The paper examines the question of the limits of tax planning and its relation with the legal concept of sham. The objective is to present the doctrinal controversies about the concept of sham, and to verify if brazilian courts adopt the restrictive conception of sham (which lies upon an isolated analysis of each transaction and tries to identify the real will of the parties or the broader conception of sham, informed by economic, operational and corporation aspects which go beyond the formal and isolated analysis of each one of the transactions embedded in complex tax planning. We have examined decisions from Tax Administrative Federal Court, Judicial Federal court of 4th Region and Supreme Judicial Court concerning Rexnord and Josapar cases, which can be seen as paradigmatic ones. The conclusion is that courts have been showing a tendency to apply a broader

  14. Diagnosis of mucoviscidosis by neutron activation analysis. Part 1

    Symptoms pathology, incidence, and gravity of the inherent syndrome called mucoviscidosis, or cystic fibrosis are described in this Part I. The analytical methods used for its diagnosis, both the conventional chemical ones and by neutron activation analysis are also summarised. Finally, an analytical method to study the incidence of mucoviscidosis in Brazil is presented. This , essentially, consists in bromine determination, in fingernails, by resonance neutron activation analysis. (author)

  15. Neutron activation analysis of cadmium in Jamaican soils

    A procedure for the instrumental neutron activation analysis of Cd in soils with relatively high Cd content and possible interferences is reported. Cadmium concentrations in Jamaican soils above 4 mg x kg-1 can now be reliably determined by multielemental instrumental activation analysis with an accuracy ±10% and the reasonably high throughput of 30 samples per day. Over 600 geochemical survey samples were analysed for Cd along with some 20 other long-lived elements. (author)

  16. Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for Elemental Analysis

    Robin P. Gardner


    This research project was to improve the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) measurement approach for bulk analysis, oil well logging, and small sample thermal enutron bean applications.

  17. Abdominal muscle electrical activity during labor expulsive stage: a cross-sectional study Atividade elétrica muscular abdominal durante os esforços expulsivos do parto: um estudo transversal

    Belisa D. R. Oliveira


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the second stage of labor, the progression of the fetal expulsion depends on many factors related to maternal and fetal parameters, including the voluntary abdominal pushing. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to correlate the maternal and fetal parameters that may influence the voluntary maternal pushes during the second stage of labor by using surface electromyography. METHODS: The electromyographic activity of the rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles were measured during the second stage of labor in 24 Brazilian pregnant women. The diastasis of the rectus abdominis, the body mass index and the uterine fundal height were analyzed as maternal parameters and the fetal weight, cephalic circumference, APGAR scores and arterial pH and CO2 were analyzed as fetal parameters. The oxytocin usage and the expulsive phase duration were considered. RESULTS: A negative correlation between the rectus abdominis diastasis and the rectus abdomini muscle electromyographic parameters was found (r=-0.407 p=0.04. No statistically significant correlations were found among the rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles electromyography and the other maternal or fetal parameters, as well as among expulsive phase duration and the oxytocin usage. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the rectus abdominis diastasis may be an influential parameter in generating voluntary pushes during the second stage of labor, however it cannot be considered the only necessary parameter for a successful labor.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Durante o segundo estágio do parto, a progressão da expulsão fetal depende de vários fatores ligados a parâmetros maternos e fetais, dentre eles, o esforço abdominal voluntário. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar os parâmetros maternos e fetais que podem influenciar os esforços voluntários durante a fase do segundo estágio do parto por meio da eletromiografia de superfície. MÉTODOS: As atividades eletromiográficas dos m

  18. Estudo da interferência de óleos essenciais sobre a atividade de alguns antibióticos usados na clínica Study of the interference of essential oils on the activity of some antibiotic used clinically

    Rinalda A. Guerra de Oliveira


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a interferência dos óleos essenciais de Lippia sidoides Cham, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spr., Conyza bonariensis L. e Eucalyptus citriodora Hook sobre o efeito de antibióticos utilizados na clínica. Os ensaios foram realizados com ampicilina (10 µg/mL, cefalotina (30 µg/mL, cloranfenicol (30 µg/mL, gentamicina (10 µg/mL e tetraciclina (30 µg/mL isolados e em associação com os óleos essenciais (4% v/v através do método de difusão em meio sólido utilizando discos de papel de filtro. Os resultados mostraram interferência de alguns óleos essenciais sobre a atividade dos antibióticos ensaiados. Observou-se o desenvolvimento de halos de inibição do crescimento bacteriano com diferentes diâmetros quando da aplicação de antibióticos isolados e em combinação com os óleos essenciais. A ocorrência de comportamento sinérgico ou antagônico foi observada mais proeminentemente nas interações com cepas de S. aureus e S. epidermidis. De outra forma, observou-se uma menor interferência dos óleos essenciais no efeito dos antibióticos sobre as cepas Gram negativas, principalmente P. aeruginosa. Estes resultados mostram que o uso de produtos derivados de plantas pode em algumas situações interferir sobre a efetividade de antibióticos de uso no tratamento clínico.The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference of essential oils from Lippia sidoides Cham, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spr., Conyza bonariensis L. and Eucalyptus citriodora Hook on the antibacterial effect of clinically used antibiotics. The assays were carried out with ampicillin (10 µg/mL, cephalotin (30 µg/mL, chloraphenicol (30 µg/mL, gentamicin (10 µg/mL and tetracyclin (30 µg/mL isolated and associated with essential oils (4% v/v by the solid medium diffusion procedure using filter paper discs. The results showed interference of some essential oils on the antibacterial activity of the assayed antibiotics

  19. Gaia Payload Module Testing and Analysis Activities

    Soula, Laurent


    The Gaia objective is to produce a very accurate catalogue of 1 billion of sky objects in our galaxy and beyond. ASTRIUM’s extensive experience on silicon carbide (SiC) instruments has helped developing the latest-generation payload module. It integrates the most sensitive and stable telescopes ever made, mounted on a SiC torus structure supported by three bipods. This payload module has been tested in June 2011 by ASTRIUM at INTESPACE facilities in Toulouse. To conduct the sine qualification tests and support the data analyses in real-time, advanced tools have been used. Most of them have been developed in a previous ESA R&D project [1] “DYNamics: AssessMent and Improvement of TEst Data (DYNAMITED)” and implemented in a DynaWorks® environment. Mass Operator calculation, to evaluate the payload module interface loads from measured accelerations, or automatic correlation through a criterion based on FRF from tests or predictions, are part of these tools. Testing such a structure also revealed some piloting difficulties due to a quite low and varying damping of the structure and a strong coupling with the shaker. To take into account such phenomena in the correlation work, enhanced simulations have also been performed considering multi-points phased excitations. These analyses demonstrate the payload module qualification status and allow derivate a more representative model to be used in further coupled system activities.


    Agnieszka Kisło


    Full Text Available The beginning of the period where the impact of human activity took dangerous size is considered to be 40 years of the nineteenth century. Then the large-scale production of electricity increased production of metallurgical industry and transport development. Significant changes contributed to rapid population growth and urbanization and industrialization processes. Man by intensive exploitation reduces or completely exhausted most natural resources. This has resulted in the availability criterion, which is distinguished by inexhaustible and exhaustible resources. Exhaustible resources may include solar, wind, energy, ocean currents and the energy of the Earth. Exhaustible resources, however, are the elements of nature that as a result of the operation can be completely depleted or destroyed. These resources include: water, soil, plant world, animal world natural resources. The greater the intensity of acquiring human resources, the faster will be the depleted. There is also a very important division of exhaustible resources: non-renewable resources, renewable and very difficult reproducible (living areas. Non-renewable resources are mainly minerals, such as iron ore, crude oil, coal, sulfur, natural gas, useful stones, limestone, salt, and many other minerals. After extraction resources are processed, and the bed from which they were extracted can no longer be used. It is different from renewable resources; they are characterized by the fact that over time they are reconstituted, although, for this to happen balance of the environment through the rational use must be maintained. These resources include, among others, soil, water, flora and fauna, as well as atmospheric air.

  1. Dois estudos sobre o trabalho dos petroleiros

    Leda Leal Ferreira


    Full Text Available O presente artigo traz um resumo de dois estudos realizados na área do petróleo, o primeiro feito em uma unidade de refino e o segundo abarcando o trabalho de operadores exercendo várias funções dentro de uma refinaria e de terminais marítimos de petróleo. Nos dois casos, o ponto central foi a análise da atividade dos trabalhadores, isto é, o que eles faziam e como o faziam para dai conta das exigências de produção que lhes eram atribuídas. No entanto, os métodos utilizados foram diferentes: no primeiro caso utilizou-se a Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho (AET e no segundo, a Análise Coletiva do Trabalho (ACT. Além de apresentar os principais resultados destes estudos, a autora faz considerações sobre as diferenças entre os dois métodos e um apelo à comunidade científica para que se preocupe mais em estudar a atividade real dos trabalhadores e assim contribuir para um melhor conhecimento do que se passa no interior das unidades produtivas, evitando que sofrimentos humanos inúteis e até catástrofes industriais continuem a ocorrer.This paper describes two studies about petroleum industry. The first was developed in a refinery and the second focuses on the work of operators in various jobs within a refinery and maritime petroleum units. In both cases, the focal point was the analyses of activities, that is, what the workers do and how they do it in order to meet production demandai put on them. However, two different methods were applied in the studies. Ergonomics Work Analyses (EWA was used on the first case and Collective Work Analyses (CWA, on the second. Besides showing the main results, the author compares the two methods. She also draws the scientific community attention to the importance of studding the workers actual activity in order to contribute to a better understanding of what is going on inside production units, avoiding useless human suffering, and the still ocurring undustrial disasters.

  2. Spatiotemporal Data Mining, Analysis, and Visualization of Human Activity Data

    Li, Xun


    This dissertation addresses the research challenge of developing efficient new methods for discovering useful patterns and knowledge in large volumes of electronically collected spatiotemporal activity data. I propose to analyze three types of such spatiotemporal activity data in a methodological framework that integrates spatial analysis, data…

  3. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee


    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  4. Performance analysis of active schedules in identical parallel machine

    Changjun WANG; Yugeng XI


    Active schedule is one of the most basic and popular concepts in production scheduling research. For identical parallel machine scheduling with jobs' dynamic arrivals, the tight performance bounds of active schedules under the measurement of four popular objectives are respectively given in this paper. Similar analysis method and conclusions can be generalized to static identical parallel machine and single machine scheduling problem.

  5. Project-Based Language Learning: An Activity Theory Analysis

    Gibbes, Marina; Carson, Lorna


    This paper reports on an investigation of project-based language learning (PBLL) in a university language programme. Learner reflections of project work were analysed through Activity Theory, where tool-mediated activity is understood as the central unit of analysis for human interaction. Data were categorised according to the components of human…

  6. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju


    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  7. Significance of neutron activation analysis in landscape geochemistry problem solution

    Employment of neutron activation analysis is of interest for solution of many theoretical and applied problems of landscape geochemistry. The role of the analysis in the study of rare and scattered element migration is quite significant. It is shown using gold, bromine, yttrium and rare earths as examples. 1 tab

  8. Neutron activation analysis of chert artifacts from a Hopewell mound

    Six artifacts from a Hopewell mound located near Mt. Vernon, Indiana, and 21 geologic specimens from three different chert sources in the Ohio River Valley were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Principal components analysis and posterior classification of the artifacts on the basis of Mahalanobis distance calculated probabilities were used to determine the most probable source for each of the artifacts. (author)

  9. Supply and demand analysis of leisure activities in selected region

    Helcl, Petr


    The Thesis on the topic "Supply and demand analysis of leisure activities in the region," focuses on the forms of spending free time in the selected region. The theoretical part deals with the study of scientific publications focusing on leisure and leisure education. The economic concepts are examined to define the work, factors affecting leisure adults and content of leisure activities and leisure educational activities. The legal system of the Czech Republic defining the possibilities of a...

  10. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI

    Lalit Gupta


    Full Text Available In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation maps appear more (diffusively distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness, complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix, and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity. To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70% and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients.

  11. Neutron activation analysis for environmental sample in Thailand

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Nouchpramool, Sunun; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Sumitra, Tatchai [Chulalongkorn Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)


    Neutron Activation Analysis has been applied for the trace elements analysis in environmental samples. Thirty three samples of airborne particulate were collected every week at Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center (ONRC) during the period of June 1998 to March 1999. The Ti, I, Mg, Na, V, K, Cl, Al, Mn, Ca, As, Sm, Sb, Br, La, Ce, Th, Cr, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn and Co were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis utilizing 2 MW TRIGA MARK III research reactor. The certified reference materials 1632a and 1633a from National Bureau of Standard were select as standard. (author)

  12. Silicate rock and rock forming mineral neutron activation analysis

    A neutron-activation scheme for the determination of nine rare earths and other trace elements in various rock forming minerals (feldspars, ilmenite, magnetite, pyroxenes) and silicate rocks is presented. The procedure is based on three different irradiations involving three separate samples: - epithermal neutron irradiation (2 days) followed by nondestructive analysis; - thermal neutron irradiation (1 day) followed by instrumental analysis; - thermal neutron irradiation (1 week) followed by radiochemical analysis (precipitation, anion exchange separation, liquid-liquid extraction). Two USGS reference samples - granite G-2 and andesite AGV-1 - have been analysed in order to assess the accuracy of the proposed procedure. Our results agree with previous neutron-activation data. (orig.)

  13. Neutron activation analysis for environmental sample in Thailand

    Neutron Activation Analysis has been applied for the trace elements analysis in environmental samples. Thirty three samples of airborne particulate were collected every week at Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center (ONRC) during the period of June 1998 to March 1999. The Ti, I, Mg, Na, V, K, Cl, Al, Mn, Ca, As, Sm, Sb, Br, La, Ce, Th, Cr, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn and Co were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis utilizing 2 MW TRIGA MARK III research reactor. The certified reference materials 1632a and 1633a from National Bureau of Standard were select as standard. (author)

  14. Neutron activation analysis of multielement in human organs

    To obtain the reference values or ranges of the elemental abundances in organs of Japanese male, neutron activation analysis was applied to nine kinds of autopsied organs, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, spleen and thyroid. An applicability of multielement analysis of organs was studied prior to ordinary work. Accuracy and precision were investigated by analyzing the IAEA Certified Reference Materials, Horse Kidney, Whey Powder and Marine Sediment. The changes of count rate on various weights and the variations of the elemental abundances of five portions in organ were examined. It was found that organs were homogeneous for neutron activation analysis, except for kidney and lung. (author)

  15. Activation analysis in the environment: Science and technology

    Science is disciplined curiosity. Activation analysis was created more than 50 yr ago by Hevesy's curiosity and Levi's experimental skill. Technology is the exploitation of machines and materials for the fulfillment of human needs or wants. The early history of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was greatly influenced by military requirements. Since then the technique has found applications in many disciplines, including materials science, medicine, archaeology, geochemistry, agriculture, and forensic science. More recently, neutron activation analysts, responding to increasing public interest and concern, have made distinctive contributions to the study of environmental problems. Activation analysis, though it uses some procedures derived from physics, is essentially a chemical technique. The chemical study of the environment may be reviewed under many headings; three are discussed here: 1. occupational medicine 2. health of the general public 3. environmental pollution

  16. A construção de uma metodologia observacional para o estudo de crianças em situação de rua: criando um manual de codificação de atividades cotidianas The construction of an observational method of studying children in the context of the street: creating a manual to codify daily activities

    Paola Biasoli Alves


    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo descrever uma metodologia criada para a observação de crianças em situação de rua em seu ambiente natural. Questões sobre o desenvolvimento dessas crianças, sobre a utilização e significado do espaço da rua e sobre os aspectos metodológicos foram relevantes para a realização deste tipo de estudo. Os resultados encontram-se condensados em um manual criado especialmente para a codificação das atividades cotidianas apresentadas pelas crianças em situação de rua. A discussão enfatiza a importância da realização de estudos observacionais exploratórios e descritivos para avaliar o processo de criação de metodologias específicas para entender e analisar o desenvolvimento humano em situações de risco. A aplicabilidade deste método é discutida como conhecimento produzido pela Psicologia do Desenvolvimento.This study aims to describe a method created to observe children of the street in their natural environment. The development of these children, the meaning and the utilization of street space, and methodological aspects were considered. The results are presented in a manual elaborated to codify the daily activities of the observed children. The discussion emphasizes that observational, exploratory and descriptive studies are essential to validate the process of creative specific methodologies to understand and analyze human development at risk situations. In addition, the study shows the applicability of the method for a resulting knowledge to the field of developmental psychology.

  17. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Mai; Mohammed; Farid; Sameh; Reda; Hussein; Lamiaa; Fawzy; Ibrahim; Mohammed; Ali; El; Desouky; Amr; Mohammed; Elsayed; Ahmad; Ali; El; Oqlah; Mahmoud; Mohammed; Saker


    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss.(A. palaestinum)(black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity.Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, He La, Hep G2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities.Results: Four flavonoid compounds were isolated(luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin,isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01% of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds.Conclusions: The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition,chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  18. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss

    Mai Mohammed Farid; Sameh Reda Hussein; Lamiaa Fawzy Ibrahim; Mohammed Ali El Desouky; Amr Mohammed Elsayed; Ahmad Ali El Oqlah; Mahmoud Mohammed Saker


    Objective:To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss. (A. palaestinum) (black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity. Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities. Results:Four flavonoid compounds were isolated (luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin, isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01%of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds. Conclusions:The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition, chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  19. A new microcomputer-controlled neutron activation and analysis system

    A microcomputer-controlled irradiation and measurement system and a microprocessor-controlled sample changer have been installed at the SLOWPOKE-2 Facility at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC). These systems can provide the gamut of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) techniques for the analyst. Custom software has been created for system control, data acquisition, and off-line spectral analysis using programs that incorporate Gaussian peak-fitting methods of analysis. The design and use of the equipment is discussed, and the performance is illustrated with results obtained from the analysis of marine sediment and biological reference materials

  20. Simulation for sodium-24 production using cyclic neutron activation analysis

    The cyclic neutron activation analysis is a method for elemental analysis which is preferred to use short-lived radio-nuclides. In recent years this method became a new application for radioisotope production especially in low power research reactors. In this study instrumental cyclic neutron activation analysis was used for 24Na production using 23Na (n, γ) 24Na reaction. The simplified westcott convention method is used neutron activation analysis in a research reactor. The method takes into account all corrections that can affect that yield created. In this work a model was devolving for calculations through this simplified Westcott convention method by using C++ program and selecting good parameters that can produce the expected activity. The simulation is used for the theoretical yield calculated has been validated by data from the 177Lu production used for theoretical yield which it gives the approached result had been obtained by FORTRAN 90 from literature (8). The results were achieved for expected activity at full power (1 x 10 12n cm-2 s-1) and half power (5 x 1011 cm-2 s-1) for research reactor MNSR. The activity at full power was equal to about twice the activity at half power ( 49±7, 24.9 ± MBq/g), respectively. The irradiation parameters selected were irradiation time 4 min and decay time 12 min. Sample weight was 50 mg at 12 numbers of cycles, when the K-factor was equal to 1.74. This work is considered as first step for production of 24Na which can use such parameters experimentally. It is then possible to compare the expected activity with measured activity. (Author)

  1. A package for gamma-ray spectrum analysis and routine neutron activation analysis

    M E Medhat; A Abdel-Hafiez; Z Awaad; M A Ali


    A package for gamma spectrum analysis (PGSA) was developed using object oriented Borland C++ design for MS-windows. This package consists of five programs which can be used for gamma-ray spectrum analysis and routine neutron activation analysis. The advantages of PGSA are its simple algorithms and its need for only minimum amount of input information.


    Ruslan Flerovich Vildanov; Aidar Sultangalievich Puryaev


    Actualized demand of manufactury company's efficiency from the point of quality charachteristics. Reveal unbreakable connection of man and organisation, on example of the comparative analysis of man's and manufacture company's activities. Studing models of company's and men's activities in order to reveal similarity. In order of their implementation to the economics assumes opportunity of using scientific methods, which use for studying functions, vital activities and behavior of the men.

  3. Analysis of nuclear activity of ten polar ring galaxies

    Freitas-Lemes, P; Dors, O L; Faúndez-Abans, M


    The accumulation of mass from the interaction process that forms the polar ring galaxies is a factor that favors the conditions necessary to trigger nonthermal nuclear activities.. This fact encouraged the chemical analysis of ten polar ring galaxies. In order to verify the presence of an active nucleus in these galaxias, we built diagnostic diagrams using lines H{\\beta}, [OIII], [HI], H{\\alpha}, [NII], and [SII] and classified the type of nuclear activity. For galaxies that do not show shock, the parameters N2 and O3N2 were also determined. From this sample, we identified seven galaxies with an active nucleus and three that behave as HII regions. One galaxy with an active nucleus was classified as Seyfert. Although our data do not provide a statistically significant sample, we can speculate that polar ring galaxies are a setting conducive to trigger non-thermal nuclear activities.

  4. Activation analysis in the Americas: recent and future perspectives

    A total of 243 publications in the field of nuclear activation analysis and its applications during the period of 1977 through mid-1983, from laboratories in North, Central, and South America were reviewed. Various aspects of these populations are treated statistically, for indication of trends, and 146 of these are cited as publications that illustrate the extent of usage of various special forms of the nuclear activation analysis method (e.g., cyclic INAA, prompt-gamma INAA, epithermal NAA, the delayed-neutron method, the use of pre-irradiation chemical separations, etc.) - or that illustrate applications in such fields as archaeology, geochemistry, environmental chemistry, medicine, industry, and forensic chemistry. The overall conclusion is that the method of nuclear activation analysis continues to flourish in this region

  5. Análise crítica de estudos brasileiros sobre deficiência de vitamina A no grupo materno-infantil Critical analysis of Brazilian studies about vitamin A deficiency in maternal-child group

    Andréa Ramalho


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma análise crítica de estudos da literatura sobre a deficiência de vitamina A (DVA no Brasil, segundo o indicador bioquímico retinol sérico, considerando-se o impacto negativo da DVA na saúde reprodutiva e no desenvolvimento infantil. FONTES DE DADOS: os bancos de dados Medline e BVS, no período de 1994 a 2007, foram rastreados com a combinação de descritores: "vitamin A deficiency", "Brazil", "pregnant", "children" e "retinol serum level". A inclusão dos artigos foi realizada com base em critérios de elegibilidade referentes à população, desenho do estudo e idioma, enfatizando-se estudos com gestantes, puérperas, nutrizes, lactentes e pré-escolares que não apresentassem doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis ou infecciosas. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: dos 27 artigos selecionados, 25 eram estudos transversais, um era caso-controle e um estudo longitudinal. Identificou-se que 71% e 25% dos trabalhos com gestantes e crianças, respectivamente, adotaram valores de retinol sérico OBJECTIVE: To critically review the literature regarding vitamin A deficiency (VAD in Brazil, according to biochemical indicators, considering that VAD has a negative impact upon reproductive health and child development. DATA SOURCE: Medline and BVS databases were searched from 1994 to 2007, using the combination of the following terms: "vitamin A deficiency", "Brazil", "pregnant", "children" and "retinol serum level". Inclusion criteria were based on characteristics of the studied population, study design and language, with emphasis on studies with the following subjects: pregnant, postpartum and nursing women, infants and preschool children without chronic or infectious diseases. DATA SYNTHESIS: Among the 27 selected studies, 25 were cross-sectional, one was a case-control, and one was a cohort study. 71% and 25% of the studies with pregnant women and with children, respectively, adopted retinol serum level <1.05µmol/L as the cut

  6. Estudo da interferência de óleos essenciais sobre a atividade de alguns antibióticos usados na clínica Study of the interference of essential oils on the activity of some antibiotic used clinically

    Rinalda A. Guerra de Oliveira; Edeltrudes de O. Lima; Wellington L. Vieira; Kristerson R. Luna Freire; Vinicius N. Trajano; Igara O. Lima; Souza, Evandro L.; Manuella S. Toledo; Raimundo N. Silva-Filho


    O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a interferência dos óleos essenciais de Lippia sidoides Cham, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spr., Conyza bonariensis L. e Eucalyptus citriodora Hook sobre o efeito de antibióticos utilizados na clínica. Os ensaios foram realizados com ampicilina (10 µg/mL), cefalotina (30 µg/mL), cloranfenicol (30 µg/mL), gentamicina (10 µg/mL) e tetraciclina (30 µg/mL) isolados e em associação com os óleos essenciais (4% v/v) através do método de difusão em meio sólido u...


    D.A. Kalinich


    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  8. Development of activation analysis on the IBR-2 reactor

    Different examples of activation analysis (AA) application and probabilities of its further development using IBR-2 reactor (Dubna) with two facilities: REGATA pneumotransport facility desigued for instrumental AA and biophysical channel designed for element analysis using capture prompt quanta and radiography-are considered. Characteristics of irradiation channels, values of flux densities for thermal, resonance and fast neutrons are given. Application advantages concerning instrumental AA of resonance neutrons are considered. New application trend of AA for composition optimization of concretes used in shielding structures of nuclear reactors, for reduction of long-lived directed activity is pointed out. 20 refs.; 6 figs.; 7 tabs

  9. Neutron Activation Analysis for investigation of elemental composition of Amarantus

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied for the characterization of the elemental composition of Amaranthus seeds, known in the prehistorical period, a tropical plant with promising nutritional and economic value. The characterization is enriched by the results of radiochemical neutron activation analysis for cobalt, molybdenum and uranium content. The comparison of the results, for three sorts of edible flour, commercially available: Soya Flour, Corn Bean Flour and Amaranthus Flour, is presented. The validation of the analytical methods used was carried out on the basis of participation in the interlaboratory comparison organized by the INCT (INCT-TL-1, INCT-MPH-2) and by NIST (SRM 1575a). (author)

  10. Establishment of rabbit radiation facility for neutron activation analysis

    The transfer principle and the composition of a rabbit radiation facility for neutron activation analysis in a reactor were introduced. The functions and security designs of the pneumatic transfer system and automatic control system in the irradiation device were studied. By the testing,the transfer speed of the facility is 7.0 m/s. The facility has advantages of steady transmission, simple operation, easy maintenance, etc. The facility satisfies the demand of the neutron activation analysis for short half-life nuclides. (authors)

  11. Status Report on the Neutron Activation Analysis Activities in the Philippines

    The Philippines has a one megawatt open-pool type nuclear research reactor which is presently utilized in the conduct of nuclear research and development activities. The reactor is operated by the Philippine Atomic Research Center, the research arm of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. The reactor is presently utilized in the production of some radioisotopes, nuclear physics experiments and neutron activation analysis. For activation analysis the facilities available include the two 2 inch pneumatic tubes and a 2-inch central core dry-pipe. Although the reactor has been operative since 1963 it was only in the latter part of 1966 that a neutron activation analysis group was organized and almost immediately the training of personnel and setting up of a radiochemical laboratory and nucleonic counting assembly were initiated. Today, the counting system include a 100 channel analyzer with a 3 x 3 inch Nal(Tl) crystal

  12. Survey on Neutron Activation Analysis Activities at the Dalat Nuclear Research Centre

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Centre (D.N.R.C.) during the past few years has been involved in conducting an activation analysis service. Work has been carried out in collaboration with other organizations. However, no rigid research programme of our own has been established and thus the Radiochemistry Division of the D.N.R.C. has no personnel and special facilities permanently engaged in this field. The equipment and facilities used are shared with other activities within the Division and the whole Centre. The activities in neutron activation analysis at the D.N.R.C. are sporadically revived by requests for analysis. Up to now, such analyses have been performed free of charge. Most of the work was carried out on biological materials such as vegetables, raw natural rubber (RES smoked sheets of different qualities, crepes and dried rubber films obtained from concentrated natural latex) from hevea tree leaves from various clones

  13. Xenon diffusion studies with prompt gamma activation analysis

    Developing a better understanding of xenon transport through porous systems is critical to predicting how this gas will enter the atmosphere after a below ground nuclear weapons test. Radioxenon monitoring is a vital part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System. This work details the development of prompt gamma activation analysis for measuring the diffusion rates of xenon and argon gases through a porous medium. The University of Texas at Austin maintains a prompt gamma activation analysis facility with a peak neutron flux of ∼ 1.5 x 107 cm-2 s-1 and a beam diameter of 1 cm. Due to the relatively large prompt gamma cross sections of many stable xenon isotopes at thermal and sub-thermal neutron energies, prompt gamma activation analysis is a suitable technique for in situ non-destructive analysis of natural xenon. A test chamber has been designed and constructed to utilize prompt gamma activation analysis to measure xenon and argon diffusion through geological materials (e.g., sand, soil, etc.). Initial experiments have been conducted to determine the detection limits for stable gas measurements. The results from these experiments will be utilized to benchmark parts of a xenon transport model that is being used to determine diffusion coefficients for xenon and argon. (author)

  14. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis as an active interrogation technique for nuclear materials

    Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGAA) is proposed as an instant, non-destructive method for the analysis of fissile materials and fission products. Measurements by PGAA were made on technetium and uranium compounds, the latter with various enrichments. Measurements were carried out in thermal and cold neutron beams at the Budapest Research Reactor. A beam chopper was used to collect the delayed decay gamma radiation from short lived nuclides separately. Accurate partial gamma ray production cross-sections were determined with internal standardization for a set of prompt and decay gamma rays following neutron capture in 235U, 238U and 99Tc and compared to those from the literature. In the case of 235U fission, prompt gamma lines were also applied.These cross-sections can be used for non-destructive analyses of uranium and technetium and also for the determination of the enrichment of uranium by prompt gamma activation analysis and neutron activation analysis. (author)

  15. DNQAA program to be used in activation analysis

    The concentrations of the analysed elements were calculated by the program, based on the instrumental technique of analysis by activation. The DNQAA corrects due to the radioactive decay and to the neutron flow variation or carried particles and too the error propagation involved in the analysis. It is written in ORACL to be used in the ORTEC 6240-42 system. (L.M.J.)

  16. Protein determination in soya bean by fast neutron activation analysis

    For a non-destructive determination of the protein content in soya bean samples, 14-MeV neutron activation analysis was applied. To check the method, the results obtained by X-ray fluorescence analysis and the Kjeldahl procedure were compared. For pressed pellet samples of about 1 g with 15 min irradiation and 10 min measuring times the accuracy of the protein determination was found to be 15%. (author) 7 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. Behaviour analysis for web-mediated active learning

    Pahl, Claus


    Software-mediated learning requires adjustments in the teaching and learning process. In particular active learning facilitated through interactive learning software differs from traditional instructor-oriented, classroom-based teaching. We present behaviour analysis techniques for Web-mediated learning. Motivation, acceptance of the learning approach and technology, learning organisation and actual tool usage are aspects of behaviour that require different analysis techniques to be used. ...

  18. Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis for certification of stainless steel materials

    The use of Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis (INAA) may contribute to improve the certification of the materials, especially in the case of minor and trace elements. In presented paper the INAA method of analysis of stainless steel materials has been elaborated. The obtained results were compared with those of common analytical techniques. The presented results show the usefulness of the INAA method for the certification of CRMs for the iron and steel industry

  19. Análise de repertórios discursivos sobre profissões e o sexo: um estudo empírico na cidade de João Pessoa Analysis of discursives repertories about professions and gender: an empirical study in João Pessoa

    Raquel Pereira Belo


    Full Text Available O presente estudo buscou observar as representações elaboradas socialmente sobre o sexo como determinante do exercício das atividades profissionais. Foram entrevistadas 221 pessoas da cidade de João Pessoa (sendo 133 mulheres - 60,2%, entre 17 e 79 anos (M=2,3; DP=1,25, com escolaridade de nível superior. Por meio de uma entrevista semi-estruturada, os participantes citaram profissões/atividades consideradas adequadas a cada sexo, e se posicionaram diante de questões como características das profissões apropriadas para os homens e para as mulheres e o sexo como determinante para as escolhas profissionais. Observou-se que foram citadas aproximadamente 80 profissões caracterizadas como femininas e 130 como masculinas. A análise dos repertórios discursivos, realizada por meio do ALCESTE, apresentou em sua maioria uma caracterização diferenciada das atividades vistas como masculinas e femininas. Os resultados demonstraram a existência de uma segmentação entre os perfis profissionais de homens e mulheres para o campo de trabalho.The present study aimed to observe the representations socially elaborated on gender as a determinant in professional activities. Two hundred and twenty-one (221 undergraduate and graduated people from the city of João Pessoa , with ages ranging from 17 to 79 years old (M=2.3; SD=1.25, were interviewed. Among them, one hundred and thirty-three (133 or 60.2% were women. Through a semi-structured interview, the participants mentioned professions or activities, which are considered adequate to each sex. They had the possibility to opine on aspects like the characteristics of professions appropriated for men and women distinctively, and how the sex played an important role to determine the professional choices. It was observed that the participants mentioned approximately 80 professions characterized as being feminine, and 130 characterized as being masculine. The analysis of the discursive repertoires, made

  20. Nondestructive multielemental analysis of ancient roman pottery using photon activation analysis techniques

    Several analytical methods were tested for the multiparameter-analysis of ancient roman pottery in order to elaborate a procedure for their identification. Main constituents, minor and trace-elements have been analyzed by high-energy photon activation analysis, followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy. The environmental influence on the concentrations of the minor constituents and trace elements during deposition of the sherds in the soil has been examined. A comparison has been made between analysis data of ancient pottery obtained by photon activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis and 14 MeV neutron activation analysis. Tables are given on the time dependence of the trace elements. The numerical data are summarized in several diagrams. (T.G.)

  1. History of activation analysis technique with charged particles in Uzbekistan

    Full text: The researches on activation analysis with charged particles (CPAA) were started immediately after beginning of constructing of 150-cm cyclotron U-150 in 60-th years of last century. CPAA laboratory organized on bases of the cyclotron and neutron generator NG-200 (in following I-150) in 1971 existed up to the end of 1985. We have used Ion beams of these devices to elaborate two types of nuclear analysis techniques: 1. Delayed Nuclear Analysis (DNA) involving Charged Particle Activation Analysis (CPAA) and Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA); 2. Prompt Nuclear Analysis (PNA) involving the spectrometry of particles induced X-Ray emission (PIXE). DNA with using accelerators has the following subdivisions: 1. Proton Activation Analysis (PAA); 2. Deuteron Activation Analysis (DAA); 3. 3He Activation Analysis (3HeAA); 4. 4He Activation Analysis (4HeAA or α-AA); 5. Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA). PAA and DAA found wide application were used to derive a good sensitivity in determination of contents of more than 20 chemical elements in some materials of high purity. For example, we have applied these techniques for the determination of Li, B, C, N, O, F at level of 10-8 - 10-10 g/g in different high purity semiconductors (Si, SiC, Ge, AsGa, InP et al.), nonferrous metals (Li, Be, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, Re, Al, Ti etc.), nonconductive materials (different glasses, optical materials, diamonds et al.) and environmental objects (soil, plants, water). The techniques provided good results on the determination of B, C and N contents and others. 3HeAA and 4HeAA were generally used to determine of O and C contents in semiconductors ands metals of high purity. We have elaborated rapid radiochemical techniques for separation of short-lived positron emitters. For example, the separation of 15O, formatting by nuclear reaction 16O(3He,α)15O, the reducing fusion technique was used. Radionuclide 11C was separated chemically by the oxidisation of samples in the

  2. Structural Analysis Extended with Active Fault Isolation - Methods and Algorithms

    Gelso, Esteban R.; Blanke, Mogens


    Isolability of faults is a key issue in fault diagnosis whether the aim is maintenance or active fault-tolerant control. It is often encountered that while faults are detectable, they are only group-wise isolable from a usual diagnostic point of view. However, active injection of test signals on...... system inputs can considerably enhance fault isolability. This paper investigates this possibility of active fault isolation from a structural point of view. While such extension of the structural analysis approach was suggested earlier, algorithms and case studies were needed to explore this theory. The...

  3. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Å; Futiger, Sally A; Sidtis, John J; Christiansen, Torben B; Svarer, Claus; Strother, Stephen C.; Rottenberg, David A; Hansen, Lars K; Paulson, Olaf B.; Law, I


    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing...

  4. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Frutiger, Sally A.; Sidtis, John J.; Christiansen, Torben; Svarer, Claus; Strother, Stephen C.; Rottenberg, David A.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Paulson, Olaf B.; Law, Ian


    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing. Hum. Brain Mapping 15...


    M. A. Nosov


    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in an adoptive transfer model is caused by injecting animal with activated T cells specific for a CNS antigen, e.g., basic myelin protein. Development of autimmune inflammation in such a model is connected with changed functional stateof encephalytogenic (EG T cells in the coure of disease progression, as reflected by changes in their activation, proliferation and motility levels. Present work describes an original technique allowing for in vitro analysis of encephalytogenic T cell motility, and studying effects of certain compomemts of extracellular matrix upon migration and functional activities of EG T cells.

  6. Aerosol and air pollution study by neutron activation analysis

    Thermal neutron activation analysis technique was used in air pollution and aerosol elemental content and size distribution investigations. Air pollution samples were collected on Whatman 41 paper filters which were activated along with known quantities of standards in a flux of approximately 1013 nxcm-2xs-1. The activity of the samples was measured with a 40 cm3 Ge(Li) detector and analyzed with the computer program JANE, which identified the isotopes and found their quantities by normalization with the standard measurement results. Correlation between the various elements, in particular those belonging to dust from the desert and those considered typical urban air pollution, is investigated. (author)

  7. Neutron activation analysis of ivory of African elephants

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to 61 ivory samples of which origin countries are known. 12 elements such as Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Sc, Sr and Zn, were determined in all samples. The factor score of each sample was calculated for each factor by making use of principal component analysis in order to determine their origins. The results were compared with those by stable isotope analysis (13C and 15N). (author). 4 refs., 5 figs. 4 tabs

  8. Analysis by Neutron activation of the Calakmul jadeite mask

    It is very important to know the elemental composition of archaeological materials with the purpose to find relations that allow to establish their origin standards. the origin and present localization of pre hispanic archaeological pieces can lead to the determination of commercial routes and of technology transfer among different ancient cultures. In the present work it has been realized a systematic analysis using the Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique of three samples obtained from Calakmul jadeite mask, tomb I, that in addition to give a composition of constituent and trace elements detected by this technique it has leaded to establish an applicable methodology to the routine analysis of ceramics of historical interest. (Author)

  9. Statistical analysis of acoustic wave parameters near active regions

    Soares, M Cristina Rabello; Scherrer, Philip H


    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyse the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call `nearby regions'), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disc locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring diagram analysis of all active regions observed by HMI during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhancement (the `acoustic halo effect') is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes...

  10. Inorganic composition determination and evaluation of the biological activity of Peperomia pellucida in the Aspergillus flavus growth; Estudo da composicao inorganica e avaliacao da atividade biologica de Peperomia pellucida no crescimento de Aspergillus flavus

    Sussa, Fabio Vitorio


    In recent decades, there has been a great advancement in research in developing drugs from plants. Nevertheless, little significant care exists in the literature about the stable concentration of elements, as well as the activity concentration of '2{sup 38}U and {sup 232}Th decay products in plants used for this purpose in Brazil. The presence of stable elements and radionuclides in plants constitutes the pathway for their migration to humans, via uptake of tea or remedies made with medicinal herbs. Peperomia pellucida, whose popular name is 'erva de jabuti', is a plant known by its medicinal usages, such as healing and analgesic properties plus antibacterial and antifungal activities against food fungi. In this study, the elemental composition of Peperomia pellucida and surrounding soil samples collected in the Botanical Garden in Rio de Janeiro was determined; the elemental concentration in the alcoholic extract and infusion processes of dry plants was also determined. The elemental concentration of As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn was determined in the leaves, aerial parts, including leaves, stems and roots of Peperomia pellucida, in their extracts obtained by maceration and infusions and in the surrounding soil by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analytical methodology used to determine the elements Cd, Hg and Pb was the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS); the activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were carried out by gross alpha and beta counting, after radiochemical separation. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen, IAEA-Soil-7, IAEA-326 Radionuclides in soil, NIST 1515 Apple Leaves and NIST 1542 Peach Leaves. The relative standard deviations and the relative errors obtained in these analyses indicated good precision and accuracy of the results. The essential