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Sample records for activates human myometrium

  1. Immunolocalization and expression of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in human myometrium

    Rosenbaum, Sofia T; Svalø, Julie; Nielsen, Karsten;

    2012-01-01

    Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK3) channels have been detected in human myometrium and we have previously shown a functional role of SK channels in human myometrium in vitro. The aims of this study were to identify the precise localization of SK3 channels and to quantify SK3 m...... muscle cells, and that the molecular expression of SK3 channels is higher in non-pregnant compared to pregnant myometrium. On the basis of our previous study and the present findings, we propose that SK3 activators reduce contractility in human myometrium by modulating telocyte function. This is the...

  2. Ghrelin in the human myometrium

    O'Brien, Margaret

    2010-05-28

    Abstract Background Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid octanolyated peptide, synthesised primarily in the stomach. It stimulates growth hormone release, food intake and exhibits many other diverse effects. Our group have previously determined that ghrelin inhibited human contractility in vitro. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the expression of ghrelin, its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHS-R1), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) which catalyses ghrelin octanoylation, prohormone convertase 1\\/3 (PC1\\/3) responsible for pro-ghrelin processing, in human myometrium, during pregnancy prior to labour, during labour and in the non-pregnant state. Modulation of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor expression in cultured myometrial cells was also investigated. Methods mRNA and protein were isolated from human myometrium and the myometrial smooth muscle cell line hTERT-HM; and real-time fluorescence RT-PCR, western blotting and fluorescence microscopy performed. The effects of β-Estradiol and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on hTERT-HM gene expression were evaluated by western blotting. Results We have reported for the first time the expression and processing of ghrelin, GHS-R1, GOAT and PC1\\/3 expression in human myometrium, and also the down-regulation of ghrelin mRNA and protein expression during labour. Furthermore, GHS-R1 protein expression significantly decreased at labour. Myometrial GOAT expression significantly increased during term non-labouring pregnancy in comparison to both non-pregnant and labouring myometrium. Mature PC1\\/3 protein expression was significantly decreased at term pregnancy and labour in comparison to non-pregnant myometrium. Ghrelin, GHS-R1, GOAT and PC1\\/3 mRNA and protein expression was also detected in the hTERT-HM cells. Ghrelin protein expression decreased upon LPS treatment in these cells while β-Estradiol treatment increased GHS-R1 expression. Conclusions Ghrelin processing occurred in the human

  3. Ghrelin in the human myometrium.

    O'Brien, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid octanolyated peptide, synthesised primarily in the stomach. It stimulates growth hormone release, food intake and exhibits many other diverse effects. Our group have previously determined that ghrelin inhibited human contractility in vitro. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the expression of ghrelin, its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHS-R1), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) which catalyses ghrelin octanoylation, prohormone convertase 1\\/3 (PC1\\/3) responsible for pro-ghrelin processing, in human myometrium, during pregnancy prior to labour, during labour and in the non-pregnant state. Modulation of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor expression in cultured myometrial cells was also investigated. METHODS: mRNA and protein were isolated from human myometrium and the myometrial smooth muscle cell line hTERT-HM; and real-time fluorescence RT-PCR, western blotting and fluorescence microscopy performed. The effects of beta-Estradiol and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on hTERT-HM gene expression were evaluated by western blotting. RESULTS: We have reported for the first time the expression and processing of ghrelin, GHS-R1, GOAT and PC1\\/3 expression in human myometrium, and also the down-regulation of ghrelin mRNA and protein expression during labour. Furthermore, GHS-R1 protein expression significantly decreased at labour. Myometrial GOAT expression significantly increased during term non-labouring pregnancy in comparison to both non-pregnant and labouring myometrium. Mature PC1\\/3 protein expression was significantly decreased at term pregnancy and labour in comparison to non-pregnant myometrium. Ghrelin, GHS-R1, GOAT and PC1\\/3 mRNA and protein expression was also detected in the hTERT-HM cells. Ghrelin protein expression decreased upon LPS treatment in these cells while beta-Estradiol treatment increased GHS-R1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Ghrelin processing occurred in the human

  4. Expression of stretch-activated two-pore potassium channels in human myometrium in pregnancy and labor.

    Iain L O Buxton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that the stretch-activated, four-transmembrane domain, two pore potassium channels (K2P, TREK-1 and TRAAK are gestationally-regulated in human myometrium and contribute to uterine relaxation during pregnancy until labor. METHODOLOGY: We determined the gene and protein expression of K2P channels in non-pregnant, pregnant term and preterm laboring myometrium. We employed both molecular biological and functional studies of K2P channels in myometrial samples taken from women undergoing cesarean delivery of a fetus. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TREK-1, but not TREK-2, channels are expressed in human myometrium and significantly up-regulated during pregnancy. Down-regulation of TREK-1 message was seen by Q-PCR in laboring tissues consistent with a role for TREK-1 in maintaining uterine quiescence prior to labor. The TRAAK channel was unregulated in the same women. Blockade of stretch-activated channels with a channel non-specific tarantula toxin (GsMTx-4 or the more specific TREK-1 antagonist L-methionine ethyl ester altered contractile frequency in a dose-dependent manner in pregnant myometrium. Arachidonic acid treatment lowered contractile tension an effect blocked by fluphenazine. Functional studies are consistent with a role for TREK-1 in uterine quiescence. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence supporting a role for TREK-1 in contributing to uterine quiescence during gestation and hypothesize that dysregulation of this mechanism may underlie certain cases of spontaneous pre-term birth.

  5. Opioid mediated activity and expression of mu and delta opioid receptors in isolated human term non-labouring myometrium.

    Fanning, Rebecca A

    2013-01-05

    The existence of opioid receptors in mammalian myometrial tissue is now widely accepted. Previously enkephalin degrading enzymes have been shown to be elevated in pregnant rat uterus and a met-enkephalin analogue has been shown to alter spontaneous contractility of rat myometrium. Here we have undertaken studies to determine the effects of met-enkephalin on in vitro human myometrial contractility and investigate the expression of opioid receptors in pregnant myometrium. Myometrial biopsies were taken from women undergoing elective caesarean delivery at term. Organ bath experiments were used to investigate the effect of the met-enkephalin analogue [d-Ala 2, d-met 5] enkephalin (DAMEA) on spontaneous contractility. A confocal immunofluorescent technique and real time PCR were used to determine the expression of protein and mRNA, respectively for two opioid receptor subtypes, mu and delta. DAMEA had a concentration dependent inhibitory effect on contractile activity (1 × 10(-7)M-1 × 10(-4)M; 54% reduction in contractile activity, P<0.001 at 1 × 10(-4)M concentration). Mu and delta opioid receptor protein sub-types and their respective mRNA were identified in all tissues sampled. This is the first report of opioid receptor expression and of an opioid mediated uterorelaxant action in term human non-labouring myometrium in vitro.

  6. Stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy: influence of maternal body mass index and age.

    Sweeney, Eva M

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy is limited. Uterine contractile performance may be altered in association with maternal obesity and advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to investigate the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy, and to evaluate a potential influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) and age.

  7. NF - KB function in the human myometrium during pregnancy and parturition

    Cookson, Victoria J.; Chapman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) family of proteins (RelA, RelB, c-Rel, p50 and p52) and DNA are vital for cells to function normally; for example, in the human myometrium, NF- κB-regulated pro-inflammatory mediators, including TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-8 and COX-2 are associated with the onset of labour. NF-κB, however, regulates the expression of over 400 genes, although it is unlikely these would all be activated in concert by a single inducer. At pre...

  8. Poor spontaneous and oxytocin-stimulated contractility in human myometrium from postdates pregnancies.

    Sarah Arrowsmith

    Full Text Available Prolongation of pregnancy i.e. going more than 10 days over the estimated due date, complicates up to 10% of all pregnancies and is associated with increased risk to both mother and fetus. Despite the obvious need for contractions of the uterus to end pregnancy, there have been no studies directly examining the role of uterine smooth muscle, myometrium, in the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. This study tested the hypothesis that the intrinsic contractile characteristics of myometrium taken from women with prolonged pregnancy (>41 weeks and 3 days was reduced compared to those delivering at term (39-41 weeks. We recruited women undergoing Caesarean Section (CS delivery either pre-labour (n = 27 or in labour (n = 66 at term or postdates. The contractile ability of the postdates myometrium, whether spontaneous or elicited by oxytocin or high-K solution, was significantly reduced compared to term myometrium. These differences remained when adjusted for parity and other maternal characteristics. The findings remained significant when expressed per cross sectional area. Histological examination revealed no differences between the two groups. The contractile differences were however related to intracellular Ca transients suggesting an effect of [Ca] on reduced force production in the postdates group. In summary, myometrium from prolonged pregnancies contracts poorly in vitro even when stimulated with oxytocin and in active labour. Responses to high K(+ and measurements of Ca suggest that alterations in excitation contraction coupling, rather than any histological changes of the myometrium, may underlie the differences between term and postdates myometrium. We show that postdates pregnancy is associated with poor myometrial activity and suggest that this may contribute to increased myometrial quiescence and hence, prolonged gestation.

  9. Inhibition by sildenafil of contractility of isolated non-pregnant human myometrium

    Aruldhas Blessed Winston; Kaysina Vazhudhi; Sumalya Sen; Elsy Thomas; Santhosh Benjamin; Jacob Peedicayil

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ability of sildenafil to inhibit the contractility of isolated non pregnant human myometrium. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effect of three concentrations (3, 10, and 30 µM) of sildenafil on 55 mM KCl-induced contractility of isolated non-pregnant human myometrium was studied. The ability of the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (10 µM), the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor MDL-12,330A (10 µM), the non-specific potassium channel blocker TEA (2 mM), and the calcium...

  10. Observations of motor reactions to ions, hormones, pharmaceuticals, electrical stimulation and X irradiation in intraoperatively removed human genital preparations (myometrium, tuba uterina and genital vessels)

    Elementary physiological, pharmacological and radiological characteristics of isolated genital preparations - myometrium, tuba uterina and genital vessels - from human op material were compared and analysed. The basal tone and the spontaneous contractile activity were dependent on the sodium, potassium and calcium chloride concentration in the nutritive solution. Observations of the motor reactions of the preparations of myometrium and tuba uterina to hormones and their antagonists confirm or indicate the presence of specific hormone receptors. X-radiation caused a tonic contraction and changes in the spontaneous contractile activity in myometrium preparations. Uterine and ovarian vessels reacted to irradiated with definite and often enduring tonic contractions. Theophyllin, a substance with an inhibiting affect on phosphodiesterase, which leads to an increase in intracellular cAMP concentration, works against the X-radiation influence. (MBC)

  11. Analysis of Maxi-K alpha subunit splice variants in human myometrium

    Morrison John J

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (Maxi-K channels are implicated in the modulation of human uterine contractions and myometrial Ca2+ homeostasis. However, the regulatory mechanism(s governing the expression of Maxi-K channels with decreased calcium sensitivity at parturition are unclear. The objectives of this study were to investigate mRNA expression of the Maxi-K alpha subunit, and that of its splice variants, in human non-pregnant and pregnant myometrium, prior to and after labour onset, to determine whether altered expression of these splice variants is associated with decreased calcium sensitivity observed at labour onset. Methods Myometrial biopsies were obtained at hysterectomy (non-pregnant, NP, and at Caesarean section, at elective (pregnant not-in-labour, PNL and intrapartum (pregnant in-labour, PL procedures. RNA was extracted from all biopsies and quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to investigate for possible differential expression of the Maxi-K alpha subunit, and that of its splice variants, between these functionally-distinct myometrial tissue sets. Results RT-PCR analysis identified the presence of a 132 bp and an 87 bp spliced exon of the Maxi-K alpha subunit in all three myometrial tissue sets. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated a decrease in the expression of the Maxi-K alpha subunit with labour onset. While there was no change in the proportion of Maxi-K alpha subunits expressing the 87 bp spliced exon, the proportion of alpha subunits expressing the 132 bp spliced exon was significantly increased with labour onset, compared to both non-pregnant and pregnant not-in-labour tissues. An increased proportion of 132 bp exon-containing alpha subunit variants with labour onset is of interest, as channels expressing this spliced exon have decreased calcium and voltage sensitivities. Conclusions Our findings suggest that decreased Maxi-K alpha subunit mRNA expression in human myometrium at

  12. Differential Expression of MicroRNA Species in Human Uterine Leiomyoma versus Normal Myometrium

    Marsh, Erica E.; Lin, Zhihong; Yin, Ping; Milad, Magdy; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether microRNAs are differentially expressed in human leiomyoma versus matched myometrial tissue. Design Microarray with real-time PCR validation. Setting Academic medical center Patients Premenopausal subjects (n=13), who were undergoing hysterectomies for leiomyoma-related symptoms. Interventions none Main Outcome Measure Statistically differential expression of microRNAs in leiomyoma versus myometrium. Results Forty-six miRNA species were differentially expressed in leiomyoma versus normal myometrium with p-values <0.01. Of these, 19 were overexpressed whereas 27 were downregulated in leiomyomas. The fold changes ranged from 1.2 to 11.8. These findings were confirmed using real time RT-PCR for selected miRNAs (miRNAs 21, 34a, 125b, 139 and 323). Conclusions Our findings indicate that miRNAs are differentially expressed between human leiomyoma and matched myometrium. Given this differential expression, miRNAs may play a role in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma and may serve as future therapeutic targets for the treatment of these tumors. PMID:17765232

  13. STIM and Orai isoform expression in pregnant human myometrium: a potential role in calcium signaling during pregnancy.

    Evonne eChin-Smith

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Store-operated calcium (Ca2+ entry (SOCE can be mediated by two novel proteins, STIM/Orai. We have previously demonstrated that members of the TRPC family, putative basal and store operated calcium entry channels, are present in human myometrium and regulated by labor associated stimuli IL-1β and mechanical stretch. Although STIM and Orai isoforms (1-3 have been reported in other smooth muscle cell types, there is little known about the expression or gestational regulation of STIM and Orai expression in human myometrium. Total RNA was isolated from lower segment human myometrial biopsies obtained at caesarean section from women at the time of preterm no labor (PTNL, preterm labor (PTL, term non-labor (TNL and term with labor (TL; primary cultured human uterine smooth muscle cells, and a human myometrial cell line (hTERT-HM. STIM1-2, and Orai1-3 mRNA expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. All five genes were expressed in myometrial tissue and cultured cells. Orai2 was the most abundant Orai isoform in human myometrium. Expression of STIM1-2/Orai1-3 did not alter with the onset of labor. Orai1 mRNA expression in cultured cells was enhanced by IL-1β treatment. This novel report of STIM1-2 and Orai1-3 mRNA expression in pregnant human myometrium and Orai1 regulation by IL-1β indicates a potential role for these proteins in calcium signaling in human myometrium during pregnancy.

  14. Single-cell mechanics and calcium signalling in organotypic slices of human myometrium

    Loftus, Fiona C.; Richardson, Magnus J. E.; Shmygol, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of cellular mechanisms regulating myometrial contractility is crucial for improvement in management of many obstetric abnormalities, such as premature delivery, uterine dystocia and post-partum haemorrhage. Myometrial contractions are triggered by periodic synchronous rises in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) elicited by spontaneously generated action potentials propagating throughout the entire myometrium. During labour, hormones like oxytocin and prostaglandins pote...

  15. α-Galactosylceramide-activated murine NK1.1(+) invariant-NKT cells in the myometrium induce miscarriages in mice.

    Ichikawa, Tomoko; Negishi, Yasuyuki; Shimizu, Masumi; Takeshita, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Hidemi

    2016-08-01

    Innate immunity, which is unable to discriminate self from allo-antigens, is thought to be important players in the induction of miscarriages. Here, we show that the administration of IL-12 to syngeneic-mated C57BL/6 mice on gestation day 7.5 (Gd 7.5), drives significant miscarriages in pregnant females. Furthermore, the administration on Gd 7.5 of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which is known to activate invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, induced miscarriages in both syngeneic-mated C57BL/6 mice and allogeneic-mated mice (C57BL/6 (♀) × BALB/c (♂)). Surprisingly, the percentages of both DEC-205(+) DCs and CD1d-restricted NK1.1(+) iNKT cells were higher in the myometrium of pregnant mice treated i.p. with α-GalCer than in the decidua. IL-12 secreted from α-GalCer-activated DEC-205(+) DCs stimulated the secretion of cytokines, including IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, TNF-α, perforin, and granzyme B, from the NK1.1(+) iNKT cells in the myometrium, leading to fetal loss in pregnant mice. Finally, the i.p. administration of IL-12 and/or α-GalCer in iNKT-deficient Jα18(-/-) (Jα18 KO) mice did not induce miscarriages. This study provides a new perspective on the importance of the myometrium, rather than the decidua, in regulating pregnancy and a mechanism of miscarriage mediated by activated DEC-205(+) DCs and NK1.1(+) iNKT cells in the myometrium of pregnant mice. PMID:27198610

  16. Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and Identification of Its Splice Variant in Human Myometrium Obtained from Women in Labor

    HUANG Yinping; WAN Jingyuan; YE Duyun; WU Ping; HUANG Yanjun; ZHANG Li; ZHOU Xiaoyan; HUANG Yunfeng; YUAN Ping; ZHANG Daijuan

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in human lower segments of myometrium obtained from women in labor and those not in labor and identify the splicing variant of COX-2, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of COX-2. The primers were designed and synthesized according to the sequence of rat COX-2 splice variant which was discovered firstly by us. Then the splicing variant of COX-2 in human myometrium from woman in labor was identified, cloned into vector and sequenced. The results showed that the expression of COX-2 mRNA was lower in human myometrium obtained from women who were not in labor than that in labor women and a new band of COX-2 was obtained in myometrium from labor woman. The fragment included an unspliced intron, which pitched between exons 7 and 8. It was suggested that COX-2 gene was not only expressed highly in human myometrium from woman in labor, but also produced splicing variant by alternative splicing.

  17. NO-induced relaxation of labouring and non-labouring human myometrium is not mediated by cyclic GMP

    Buxton, Iain L O; Kaiser, Robert A; Malmquist, Nicholas A; Tichenor, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    In myometrial strips from near-term non-labouring human uterus, addition of oxytocin (OT) evoked dose-dependent (10 – 3000 nM) phasic contractions that were antagonized by atosiban (1 μM) and relaxed by addition of the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso L-cysteine (Cys-NO). In near-term labouring myometrium, however, addition of OT was ineffective at raising additional tone.In both labouring and non-labouring tissue, Cys-NO mediated relaxation of spontaneous or OT-induced contractions (IC50=1 μM) w...

  18. Mechanism of trypsin-induced contraction in the rat myometrium: the possible involvement of a novel member of protease-activated receptor

    Shintani, Yoshinobu; Hirano, Katsuya; Nakayama, Tetsuzo; Nishimura, Junji; Nakano, Hitoo; Kanaide, Hideo

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of trypsin-induced contraction in the rat myometrium was investigated using front-surface fluorimetry on fura-PE3-loaded strips. The expression of protease-activated receptors (PARs) in the rat myometrium was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR).In non-pregnant rats, 10 μM trypsin developed a force of up to 30.5±5.1% of that obtained during the 40 mM K+-depolarization-induced contraction. In pregnant rats, the maximal level of the cytosolic Ca2+...

  19. Pregnancy induces a modulation of the cAMP phosphodiesterase 4-conformers ratio in human myometrium: consequences for the utero-relaxant effect of PDE4-selective inhibitors.

    Méhats, C; Tanguy, G; Paris, B; Robert, B; Pernin, N; Ferré, F; Leroy, M J

    2000-02-01

    The inhibitory impacts of RP 73401, a phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) selective inhibitor of the second generation, versus rolipram, the prototypal PDE4 inhibitor, were evaluated and compared on cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity and contractility of the myometrium in nonpregnant and pregnant women. In enzymatic studies, RP 73401 and rolipram inhibited the cAMP PDE activity with significantly greater maximal efficiency in the myometrium of pregnant compared with nonpregnant women (75 versus 55%; P 0.01 to 100 microM (P <.01), whereas no difference was observed for the concentration range <0.01 microM. In contractility studies, RP 73401 was equally effective in relaxing myometrial strips from both nonpregnant and pregnant women (pD(2) = -8.8). Conversely, the ability of rolipram to inhibit contractions of the myometrium in pregnant women was significantly lower (pD(2) = -7.2) compared with that in nonpregnant women (pD(2) = -8.2; P <.01). Concomitantly, in the myometrium of pregnant women, a rise in immunoreactive PDE4B2 signal was detected, whereas the PDE4D3 signal was less intense. These results demonstrate that parallel to an accumulation of PDE4B2 isoform, a modification in the ratio of PDE4 conformers HPDE4 and LPDE4 (conformer that binds rolipram with high and low affinity, respectively) occurs in the myometrium of near-term pregnant women with an increase of LPDE4 functionally implicated in the contractile process. Such modifications provide a strong rationale to propose LPDE4 as potential pharmacologic targets for the design of new tocolytic treatments. PMID:10640323

  20. Expression of Cystathionine β-synthase and Cystathionine γ-lyase in Human Pregnant Myometrium and Their Roles in the Control of Uterine Contractility

    You, Xing-Ji; Xu, Chen; Lu, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Lu; Cui, Xiao-Rui; Li, Yuan; Gu, Hang; Ni, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Background Human uterus undergoes distinct molecular and functional changes during pregnancy and parturition. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has recently been shown to play a key role in the control of smooth muscle tension. The role of endogenous H2S produced locally in the control of uterine contractility during labour is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Human myometrium biopsies were obtained from pregnant women undergoing cesarean section at term. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that ...

  1. Binding of epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I in human myometrium and leiomyomata

    Samples of uterine myometrium and leiomyoma from 11 women were analyzed for the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors. In addition, the content of soluble insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGF-BP/PP12) was measured in the tissue cytosols. Cell membrane preparations of myoma tissue bound significantly more insulin-like growth factor I than did those of adjacent normal myometrium, whereas myoma tissue bound less epidermal growth factor than did the normal myometrium. The differences in both insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor binding were due to changes in receptor concentration rather than to alterations in receptor affinity. Neither myoma nor myometrial tissue contained detectable levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein. The changes in epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I binding to the myometrium may play a role in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomata

  2. Oxytocin and vasopressin: distinct receptors in myometrium

    The binding characteristics of [3H]oxytocin [( 3H]OT) and [3H]lysine vasopressin [( 3H]LVP) to nonpregnant human myometrium were investigated. Binding of both radioligands was saturable, time dependent, and reversible. Whereas [3H]OT was found to bind to a single class of sites with high affinity [Kd, 1.5 +/- 0.4 (+/- SEM) nM] and low capacity [maximum binding (Bmax), 34 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein], [3H]LVP bound to two classes of sites, one with high affinity (Kd, 2.2 +/- 0.1 nM) and low capacity (Bmax, 198 +/- 7 fmol/mg protein) and another with low affinity (Kd, 655 +/- 209 nM) and high capacity (Bmax, 5794 +/- 1616 fmol/mg protein). The binding of the labeled peptides also displayed a marked difference in sensitivity to Mg2+ and guanine nucleotides. These differences in binding characteristics as well as the differences in potency of analogs in competing for [3H]OT and [3H]LVP binding indicate the presence of distinct receptors for OT and vasopressin in human myometrium. Pharmacological characterization of the high affinity binding sites for [3H]LVP indicated that these are of the V1 subtype. Although, as suggested by others, vasopressin and OT can bind to the same sites, the presence of distinct receptors for both peptides provides an explanation for the previously reported difference in myometrial responsiveness to OT and vasopressin

  3. Galactosaminoglycans from normal myometrium and leiomyoma

    A.G.A. Berto

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In many tumors, the amount of chondroitin sulfate in the extracellular matrix has been shown to be elevated when compared to the corresponding normal tissue. Nevertheless, the degree of chondroitin sulfate increase varies widely. In order to investigate a possible correlation between the amount of chondroitin sulfate and tumor size, several individual specimens of human leiomyoma, a benign uterine tumor, were analyzed. The glycosaminoglycans from eight tumors were extracted and compared with those from the respective adjacent normal myometrium. The main glycosaminoglycan found in normal myometrium was dermatan sulfate, with small amounts of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate. In leiomyoma, both dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were detected and the total amounts of the two galactosaminoglycans was increased in all tumors when compared to normal tissue. In contrast, the heparan sulfate concentration decreased in the tumor. To assess the disaccharide composition of galactosaminoglycans, these compounds were incubated with bacterial chondroitinases AC and ABC. The amounts of L-iduronic acid-containing disaccharides remained constant, whereas the concentration of D-glucuronic acid-containing disaccharides increased from 2 to 10 times in the tumor, indicating that D-glucuronic acid-containing disaccharides are responsible for the elevation in galactosaminoglycan concentration. This increase is positively correlated with tumor size.

  4. Oxytocin and vasopressin: distinct receptors in myometrium

    Guillon, G.; Balestre, M.N.; Roberts, J.M.; Bottari, S.P.

    1987-06-01

    The binding characteristics of (/sup 3/H)oxytocin (( /sup 3/H)OT) and (/sup 3/H)lysine vasopressin (( /sup 3/H)LVP) to nonpregnant human myometrium were investigated. Binding of both radioligands was saturable, time dependent, and reversible. Whereas (/sup 3/H)OT was found to bind to a single class of sites with high affinity (Kd, 1.5 +/- 0.4 (+/- SEM) nM) and low capacity (maximum binding (Bmax), 34 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein), (/sup 3/H)LVP bound to two classes of sites, one with high affinity (Kd, 2.2 +/- 0.1 nM) and low capacity (Bmax, 198 +/- 7 fmol/mg protein) and another with low affinity (Kd, 655 +/- 209 nM) and high capacity (Bmax, 5794 +/- 1616 fmol/mg protein). The binding of the labeled peptides also displayed a marked difference in sensitivity to Mg2+ and guanine nucleotides. These differences in binding characteristics as well as the differences in potency of analogs in competing for (/sup 3/H)OT and (/sup 3/H)LVP binding indicate the presence of distinct receptors for OT and vasopressin in human myometrium. Pharmacological characterization of the high affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/H)LVP indicated that these are of the V1 subtype. Although, as suggested by others, vasopressin and OT can bind to the same sites, the presence of distinct receptors for both peptides provides an explanation for the previously reported difference in myometrial responsiveness to OT and vasopressin.

  5. Induction of expression and phosphorylation of heat shock protein B5 (CRYAB) in rat myometrium during pregnancy and labour.

    Nicoletti, J G; White, B G; Miskiewicz, E I; MacPhee, D J

    2016-07-01

    During pregnancy the myometrium undergoes a programme of differentiation induced by endocrine, cellular, and biophysical inputs. Small heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a family of ten (B1-B10) small-molecular-weight proteins that not only act as chaperones, but also assist in processes such as cytoskeleton rearrangements and immune system activation. Thus, it was hypothesized that HSPB5 (CRYAB) would be highly expressed in the rat myometrium during the contractile and labour phases of myometrial differentiation when such processes are prominent. Immunoblot analysis revealed that myometrial CRYAB protein expression significantly increased from day (D) 15 to D23 (labour; P<0.05). In correlation with these findings, serine 59-phosphorylated (pSer59) CRYAB protein expression significantly increased from D15 to D23, and was also elevated 1-day post-partum (P<0.05). pSer59-CRYAB was detected in the cytoplasm of myocytes within both uterine muscle layers mid- to late-pregnancy. In unilaterally pregnant rats, pSer59-CRYAB protein expression was significantly elevated in the gravid uterine horns at both D19 and D23 of gestation compared with non-gravid horns. Co-immunolocalization experiments using the hTERT-human myometrial cell line and confocal microscopy demonstrated that pSer59-CRYAB co-localized with the focal adhesion protein FERMT2 at the ends of actin filaments as well as with the exosomal marker CD63. Overall, pSer59-CRYAB is highly expressed in myometrium during late pregnancy and labour and its expression appears to be regulated by uterine distension. CRYAB may be involved in the regulation of actin filament dynamics at focal adhesions and could be secreted by exosomes as a prelude to involvement in immune activation in the myometrium. PMID:27107034

  6. Expression of the Small Conductance Ca(2+)-Activated Potassium Channel Subtype 3 (SK3) in Rat Uterus after Stimulation with 17β-Estradiol

    Rahbek, Mette; Nazemi, Sasan; Odum, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    of the myometrium. The small conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel subtype 3 (SK3) has been identified in the myometrium of several species including humans, mice and rats, but with great inter species variation of the expression pattern and regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate...

  7. Differing In Vitro Potencies of Tocolytics and Progesterone in Myometrium From Singleton and Twin Pregnancies.

    Arrowsmith, Sarah; Neilson, James; Bricker, Leanne; Wray, Susan

    2016-01-01

    We compared the relaxant effect of 2 known tocolytics; indomethacin and atosiban and progesterone, on pregnant human myometrial spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractions from singleton and twin pregnancies. All agents exerted a concentration-dependent relaxant effect on myometrial contractions. There was no significant difference in the concentration-response curves between singletons and twins for progesterone or indomethacin on spontaneous contractions or atosiban on oxytocin-induced contraction. Under oxytocin however, the concentration-response curves for indomethacin and progesterone were significantly shifted to the right for both amplitude of contraction (P < .01) and activity integral (P < .01). When compared to singleton myometrium however, the concentration-response curves were significantly shifted to the right in the twin myometrium group (P < .05 progesterone and P < .001 indomethacin). We conclude that a greater concentration of progesterone and indomethacin is required to inhibit oxytocin-induced myometrial contractions in twins compared to singletons in vitro. The differences noted in the tissue pharmacologies may have implications for the successful prevention or inhibition of preterm labor in twin pregnancy. PMID:26239389

  8. Effects of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine on rat myometrium

    LI Zi-gang; ZHOU Liang; TANG Hui-fang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine on the contractility of isolated uterine muscle strips from pregnant and non-pregnant female rats. Methods: Full-thick myometrial strips were prepared from 18- to 21-day pregnant (n=g) and non-pregnant rats (n=7). After contractions became regular, strips were exposed to cumulative concentrations of the two drugs from 10-8 to 10-4 mol/L, amplitude and frequency of the uterine contraction was recorded. Results: Two local anesthetics caused a concentration dependent inhibition on contractility of myometrial strips from pregnant and non-pregnant rats. In the myometrium from non-pregnant rats, -logIC50 of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine were 4.85 and 4.25 respectively. In the myometrium from pregnant rats, similar concentrations of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine were observed, -logIC50 were 2.7 and 2.9respectively. Levobupivacaine produced an increase in amplitude of contractions, while bupivacaine showed an increased trend in frequency. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that levobupivacaine and bupivacaine may inhibit myometrium contractility.The inhibitory effect of levobupivacaine or bupivacaine is not enhanced by gestation in rat. Levobupivacaine may have more positive influence than bupivacaine in pregnant myometrium.

  9. Application of electron spin resonance for evaluation of the level of free radicals in the myometrium in full-term pregnancy with normal labour and uterine inertia

    V V Zyrianov; A Ye Sumovskaya; A A Shostak

    2003-02-01

    In order to identify and quantify free radicals in the tissues of patients with normal physiological and pathological states of births, we developed a method to evaluate the amount of free radicals in myometrium of subplacental area and from body of uterus, using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of the concentration of free radicals in the myometrium in full-term pregnancy with normal labour and during uterine inertia was studied. The activities of Ca2+-ATPase, cytochrome oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase in samples of these tissues were tested too. Low free radical concentrations in these tissues were associated with disturbances in contractile activity of myometrium along with reduction of Ca2+-ATPase, cytochrome oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase activity. There proved to be an association between the level of free radicals in the tissues and alteration in the physiological processes.

  10. Inflammatory aetiology of human myometrial activation tested using directed graphs.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available THERE ARE THREE MAIN HYPOTHESES FOR THE ACTIVATION OF THE HUMAN UTERUS AT LABOUR: functional progesterone withdrawal, inflammatory stimulation, and oxytocin receptor activation. To test these alternatives we have taken information and data from the literature to develop causal pathway models for the activation of human myometrium. The data provided quantitative RT-PCR results on key genes from samples taken before and during labour. Principal component analysis showed that pre-labour samples form a homogenous group compared to those during labour. We therefore modelled the alternative causal pathways in non-labouring samples using directed graphs and statistically compared the likelihood of the different models using structural equations and D-separation approaches. Using the computer program LISREL, inflammatory activation as a primary event was highly consistent with the data (p = 0.925, progesterone withdrawal, as a primary event, is plausible (p = 0.499, yet comparatively unlikely, oxytocin receptor mediated initiation is less compatible with the data (p = 0.091. DGraph, a software program that creates directed graphs, produced similar results (p= 0.684, p= 0.280, and p = 0.04, respectively. This outcome supports an inflammatory aetiology for human labour. Our results demonstrate the value of directed graphs in determining the likelihood of causal relationships in biology in situations where experiments are not possible.

  11. Galactosaminoglycans from normal myometrium and leiomyoma

    A.G.A. Berto; S.M. Oba; Y.M. Michelacci; L.O. Sampaio

    2001-01-01

    In many tumors, the amount of chondroitin sulfate in the extracellular matrix has been shown to be elevated when compared to the corresponding normal tissue. Nevertheless, the degree of chondroitin sulfate increase varies widely. In order to investigate a possible correlation between the amount of chondroitin sulfate and tumor size, several individual specimens of human leiomyoma, a benign uterine tumor, were analyzed. The glycosaminoglycans from eight tumors were extracted and compared with ...

  12. The contribution of Kv7 channels to pregnant mouse and human myometrial contractility.

    McCallum, Laura A; Pierce, Stephanie L; England, Sarah K; Greenwood, Iain A; Tribe, Rachel M

    2011-03-01

    Premature birth accounts for approximately 75% of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the developed world. Despite this, methods for identifying and treating women at risk of preterm labour are limited and many women still present in preterm labour requiring tocolytic therapy to suppress uterine contractility. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of Kv7 channel activators as potential uterine smooth muscle (myometrium) relaxants in tissues from pregnant mice and women. Myometrium was obtained from early and late pregnant mice and from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected mice (day 15 of gestation; model of infection in pregnancy). Human myometrium was obtained at the time of Caesarean section from women at term (38-41 weeks). RT-PCR/qRT-PCR detected KCNQ and KCNE expression in mouse and human myometrium. In mice, there was a global suppression of all KCNQ isoforms, except KCNQ3, in early pregnancy (n= 6, P flupirtine (20 μM, Kv7 channel activators) caused profound myometrial relaxation (P < 0.05). In summary, Kv7 activators suppressed myometrial contraction and KCNQ gene expression was sustained throughout gestation, particularly at term. Consequently, activation of the encoded channels represents a novel mechanism for treatment of preterm labour. PMID:20132415

  13. Consolidated Human Activities Database (CHAD)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) contains data obtained from human activity studies that were collected at city, state, and national levels. CHAD is...

  14. Human activity recognition and prediction

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  15. Caffeine acting on pregnant rat myometrium: analysis of its relaxant action and its failure to release Ca2+ from intracellular stores.

    Savineau, J. P.; Mironneau, J.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effect of caffeine on mechanical activity was studied in pregnant rat myometrium. 2. In muscle cells with intact plasmalemmae, caffeine (0.1-50 mM) produced no contraction whatever the experimental conditions. 3. Caffeine (0.1-10 mM) inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, contractions induced by electrical stimulation, potassium-rich (60 mM K+) solution, sodium-free solution or oxytocin (22.5 nM). 4. In Ca2(+)-free solution, various substances (oxytocin, sodium orthovanadate a...

  16. Human telomerase activity regulation

    Wojtyla, Aneta; Gladych, Marta; Rubis, Blazej

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase has been recognized as a relevant factor distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells. Thus, it has become a very promising target for anticancer therapy. The cell proliferative potential can be limited by replication end problem, due to telomeres shortening, which is overcome in cancer cells by telomerase activity or by alternative telomeres lengthening (ALT) mechanism. However, this multisubunit enzymatic complex can be regulated at various levels, including expression control b...

  17. A Giant Gartner Duct Cyst Originating from the Uterine Cervix and Adjacent Myometrium: A Case Report

    Kim, Eun Hui; Hwang, Seong Su; Park, Soo Youn [Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    Gartner duct cysts are relatively common congenital cysts in the anterolateral wall of the vagina. Most are small (less than 2 cm) and asymptomatic, but larger cysts may cause problems. We report a rare case of a giant Gartner duct cyst (7 cm) originating from the right lateral portion of the uterine cervix and adjacent myometrium. It appeared as an exophytic multiseptated cystic mass containing different density fluids on CT

  18. Methanol extracts of Hamelia patens containing oxindole alkaloids relax KCl-induced contraction in rat myometrium.

    Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo; Rivera, Jesús; Oropeza, Martha; Mendoza, Pilar; Amekraz, Badia; Jankowski, Christopher; Campos, Maria

    2004-10-01

    Hamelia patens JAQC. (Rubiaceae) is a medicinal bush widely distributed in tropical areas of the American continent. It is used in Mexican Traditional Medicine for the treatment of menstrual disorders, therefore suggesting that its chemical constituents may have some effect on myometrium contractility. Physiological effects might differ due to quantitative variations in the content of alkaloids arising from its wide geographical distribution. To test this hypothesis, the content of oxindole alkaloids in methanol extracts of five different samples collected in Mexico was quantified by GC-MS. Each extract was assayed on contractility of estrogen-primed rat myometrium. Variations in the content of alkaloids were observed among the different samples. All samples relaxed in a concentration-dependent manner the high KCl-induced contraction in rat myometrium. Those which lack rumberine and/or maruquine displayed a higher relaxant effect than samples containing them, suggesting that these alkaloids might counteract the effects of isopteropodine. However, in contrast with verapamil, Hamelia patens metanol extracts are poor relaxants. PMID:15467206

  19. Transcription Analysis of the Myometrium of Labouring and Non-Labouring Women

    Hutchinson, James L.; Hibbert, Nanette; Freeman, Tom C.; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Norman, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    An incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate normal human labour at term seriously hampers the development of effective ways to predict, prevent and treat disorders such as preterm labour. Appropriate analysis of large microarray experiments that compare gene expression in non-labouring and labouring gestational tissues is necessary to help bridge these gaps in our knowledge. In this work, gene expression in 48 (22 labouring, 26 non-labouring) lower-segment myometrial samples collected at Caesarean section were analysed using Illumina HT-12 v4.0 BeadChips. Normalised data were compared between labouring and non-labouring groups using traditional statistical methods and a novel network graph approach. We sought technical validation with quantitative real-time PCR, and biological replication through inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis with published microarray data. We have extended the list of genes suggested to be associated with labour: Compared to non-labouring samples, labouring samples showed apparent higher expression at 960 probes (949 genes) and apparent lower expression at 801 probes (789 genes) (absolute fold change ≥1.2, rank product percentage of false positive value (RP-PFP) <0.05). Although half of the women in the labouring group had received pharmaceutical treatment to induce or augment labour, sensitivity analysis suggested that this did not confound our results. In agreement with previous studies, functional analysis suggested that labour was characterised by an increase in the expression of inflammatory genes and network analysis suggested a strong neutrophil signature. Our analysis also suggested that labour is characterised by a decrease in the expression of muscle-specific processes, which has not been explicitly discussed previously. We validated these findings through the first formal meta-analysis of raw data from previous experiments and we hypothesise that this represents a change in the composition of

  20. Transcription Analysis of the Myometrium of Labouring and Non-Labouring Women.

    Gemma C Sharp

    Full Text Available An incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate normal human labour at term seriously hampers the development of effective ways to predict, prevent and treat disorders such as preterm labour. Appropriate analysis of large microarray experiments that compare gene expression in non-labouring and labouring gestational tissues is necessary to help bridge these gaps in our knowledge. In this work, gene expression in 48 (22 labouring, 26 non-labouring lower-segment myometrial samples collected at Caesarean section were analysed using Illumina HT-12 v4.0 BeadChips. Normalised data were compared between labouring and non-labouring groups using traditional statistical methods and a novel network graph approach. We sought technical validation with quantitative real-time PCR, and biological replication through inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis with published microarray data. We have extended the list of genes suggested to be associated with labour: Compared to non-labouring samples, labouring samples showed apparent higher expression at 960 probes (949 genes and apparent lower expression at 801 probes (789 genes (absolute fold change ≥1.2, rank product percentage of false positive value (RP-PFP <0.05. Although half of the women in the labouring group had received pharmaceutical treatment to induce or augment labour, sensitivity analysis suggested that this did not confound our results. In agreement with previous studies, functional analysis suggested that labour was characterised by an increase in the expression of inflammatory genes and network analysis suggested a strong neutrophil signature. Our analysis also suggested that labour is characterised by a decrease in the expression of muscle-specific processes, which has not been explicitly discussed previously. We validated these findings through the first formal meta-analysis of raw data from previous experiments and we hypothesise that this represents a change in the

  1. INPO Assistance Activities: Human Resources

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) has a number of ongoing activities designed to provide assistance to our members in the human resources area. These include the Educational Assistance Program and the ongoing facilitation of information exchange through Nuclear Network and INPO publications. INPO will continue to seek ways to assist its member utilities

  2. Physical activity and human health

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  3. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of endometrial cancer. Optimizing the imaging delay for tumour-myometrium contrast

    To investigate the optimal imaging delay time of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in women with endometrial cancer. This prospective single-institution study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from the participants. Thirty-five women (mean age, 54 years; age range, 29-66 years) underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging with a temporal resolution of 25-40 seconds. The signal intensity difference ratios between the myometrium and endometrial cancer were analyzed to investigate the optimal imaging delay time using single change-point analysis. The optimal imaging delay time for appropriate tumour-myometrium contrast ranged from 31.7 to 268.1 seconds. The median optimal imaging delay time was 91.3 seconds, with an interquartile range of 46.2 to 119.5 seconds. The median signal intensity difference ratios between the myometrium and endometrial cancer were 0.03, with an interquartile range of -0.01 to 0.06, on the pre-contrast MR imaging and 0.20, with an interquartile range of 0.15 to 0.25, on the post-contrast MR imaging. An imaging delay of approximately 90 seconds after initiating contrast material injection may be optimal for obtaining appropriate tumour-myometrium contrast in women with endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  4. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of endometrial cancer. Optimizing the imaging delay for tumour-myometrium contrast

    Park, Sung Bin [Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, 41, Department of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sohee [Seoul National University College of Medicine, 41, Department of Biostatistics, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Kwandong University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the optimal imaging delay time of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in women with endometrial cancer. This prospective single-institution study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from the participants. Thirty-five women (mean age, 54 years; age range, 29-66 years) underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging with a temporal resolution of 25-40 seconds. The signal intensity difference ratios between the myometrium and endometrial cancer were analyzed to investigate the optimal imaging delay time using single change-point analysis. The optimal imaging delay time for appropriate tumour-myometrium contrast ranged from 31.7 to 268.1 seconds. The median optimal imaging delay time was 91.3 seconds, with an interquartile range of 46.2 to 119.5 seconds. The median signal intensity difference ratios between the myometrium and endometrial cancer were 0.03, with an interquartile range of -0.01 to 0.06, on the pre-contrast MR imaging and 0.20, with an interquartile range of 0.15 to 0.25, on the post-contrast MR imaging. An imaging delay of approximately 90 seconds after initiating contrast material injection may be optimal for obtaining appropriate tumour-myometrium contrast in women with endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  5. Telomerase activity in human cancer

    Griffith, J.

    2000-10-01

    The overall goal of this collaborative project was to investigate the role in malignant cells of both chromosome telomeres, and telomerase, the enzyme that replicates telomeres. Telomeres are highly conserved nucleoprotein complexes located at the ends of eucaryotic chromosomes. Telomere length in somatic cells is reduced by 40--50 nucleotide pairs with every cell division due to incomplete replication of terminal DNA sequences and the absence of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein that adds telomere DNA to chromosome ends. Although telomerase is active in cells with extended proliferative capacities, including more than 85% of tumors, work performed under this contract demonstrated that the telomeres of human cancer cells are shorter than those of paired normal cells, and that the length of the telomeres is characteristic of particular types of cancers. The extent of telomere shortening ostensibly is related to the number of cell divisions the tumor has undergone. It is believed that ongoing cell proliferation leads to the accumulation and fixation of new mutations in tumor cell lineages.Therefore, it is not unreasonable to assume that the degree of phenotypic variability is related to the proliferative history of the tumor, and therefore to telomere length, implying a correlation with prognosis. In some human tumors, short telomeres are also correlated with genomic instabilities, including interstitial chromosome translocation, loss of heterozygosity, and aneuoploidy. Moreover, unprotected chromosome ends are highly recombinogenic and telomere shortening in cultured human cells correlates with the formation of dicentric chromosomes, suggesting that critically short telomeres not only identify, but also predispose, cells to genomic instability, again implying a correlation with prognosis. Therefore, telomere length or content could be an important predictor of metastatic potential or responsiveness to various therapeutic modalities.

  6. Physiological Uptake of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in Uterine Endometrium and Myometrium: Correlation with Uterine Motility Evaluated by Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Background: Accumulation of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in the uterine endometrium and uterine motility are dependent on menstrual cycle. However, the relationship between them remains unknown. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between radiometabolic activity of 18F-FDG in the uterus and uterine motility observed by cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 65 healthy, fertile women, selected from 229 women who underwent positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), and MRI for cancer screening at our facility. They were divided into three groups according to their menstrual cycle phases: menstrual, follicular-periovulatory, and luteal. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed over the endometrium and myometrium to calculate the standardized uptake value (SUV). Uterine peristalsis and contraction shown by cine MR imaging were evaluated visually, and the correlation between FDG uptake and uterine movements was assessed. Results: After excluding nine patients due to inadequate images, 56 patients (19 follicular-periovulatory, 27 luteal, and 10 menstrual) were analyzed. FDG uptake of the endometrium, frequency of peristalsis, and the presence of sustained contraction varied according to the menstruation cycle, with a tendency toward greater uptake in the menstrual phase, but there was little relationship between the frequency of uterine peristalsis and FDG accumulation in the uterus. Significantly higher FDG accumulation in the endometrium was observed in patients with sustained contractions (3.32±1.47) than in those without contractions (2.45±0.66). Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that FDG accumulation in the endometrium tends to be higher in patients with uterine contraction, although there was no significant correlation between uterine peristalsis and FDG uptake in the uterine myometrium or endometrium

  7. Surfactant Protein-A as an Anti-Inflammatory Component in the Amnion: Implications for Human Pregnancy1

    Lee, Deug-Chan; Romero, Roberto; Kim, Chong Jai; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Tarca, Adi L.; Lee, JoonHo; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Vaisbuch, Edi; Mittal, Pooja; Draghici, Sorin; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Hassan, Sonia S; Kim, Jung-Sun

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of mouse parturition is thought to involve myometrial infiltration by amniotic fluid (AF) macrophages, activated by surfactant protein-A (SP-A). In humans, the concentration of AF SP-A decreases during labor, and no fetal macrophages are found in the myometrium after labor. Therefore, it appears that the mechanisms of labor in mice and humans are different. We investigated a potential role for SP-A in human pregnancy and parturition by examining SP-A expression patterns in AF an...

  8. Human activities threaten coral reefs

    Research indicates that 58 per cent of the coral reefs of the world are threatened by human activities. Pollution and global heating represent some of the threats. Coral reefs just beneath the surface of the sea are very sensitive to temperature changes. Since 1979, mass death of coral reefs has been reported increasingly often. More than 1000 marine species live in the coral reefs, among these are one fourth of all marine species of fish. It is imperative that the coral reefs be preserved, as coastal communities all over the world depend on them as sources of food and as they are the raw materials for important medicines. The article discusses the threats to the coral reefs in general and does not single out any particular energy-related activity as the principal threat. For instance, the El-Nino phenomenon of the Pacific Ocean is probably involved in mass death of coral reefs and in the North Sea large parts of deep-water reefs have been crushed by heavy beam trawlers fishing for bottom fish

  9. Complement activation in experimental human malaria infection.

    Roestenberg, M.; McCall, M.B.B.; Mollnes, T.E.; Deuren, M. van; Sprong, T.; Klasen, I.S.; Hermsen, C.C.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate complement activation in uncomplicated, early phases of human malaria. Fifteen healthy volunteers were experimentally infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Parasitemia and complement activation products were assessed. During blood stage parasitem

  10. Sensing Human Activity: GPS Tracking

    Remco de Haan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The enhancement of GPS technology enables the use of GPS devices not only as navigation and orientation tools, but also as instruments used to capture travelled routes: as sensors that measure activity on a city scale or the regional scale. TU Delft developed a process and database architecture for collecting data on pedestrian movement in three European city centres, Norwich, Rouen and Koblenz, and in another experiment for collecting activity data of 13 families in Almere (The Netherlands for one week. The question posed in this paper is: what is the value of GPS as ‘sensor technology’ measuring activities of people? The conclusion is that GPS offers a widely useable instrument to collect invaluable spatial-temporal data on different scales and in different settings adding new layers of knowledge to urban studies, but the use of GPS-technology and deployment of GPS-devices still offers significant challenges for future research.

  11. Activation of human B lymphocytes

    The differential effect of various doses of irradiation on subpopulations of human peripheral blood lymphoid cells involved in the pokeweed mitogen induced PFC response against sheep red blood cells was studied. The plaque forming B cells were quite sensitive to low doses of irradiation with complete suppression of responses at 300 to 500 rad. On the contrary, helper T-cell function was resistant to 2000 rad. Co-culture of irradiated T cells with autologous or allogeneic B cells resulted in marked enhancement of PFC responses consistent with the suppression of naturally occurring suppressor cells with a resulting pure helper effect. Irradiated T-cell-depleted suspensions failed to produce this effect as did heat killed T cells, whereas mitomycin C treated T cells gave effects similar to irradiated T cells. These findings are consistent with a lack of requirement of cell division for a T-cell helper effect and a requirement of mitosis or another irradiation sensitive, mitomycin C sensitive process for a T-suppressor cell effect. These studies have potential relevance in the evaluation of subpopulations of human lymphoid cells involved in antibody production in normal individuals and in disease states. (author)

  12. Human filarial Wolbachia lipopeptide directly activates human neutrophils in vitro.

    Tamarozzi, F; Wright, H L; Johnston, K L; Edwards, S W; Turner, J D; Taylor, M J

    2014-10-01

    The host inflammatory response to the Onchocerca volvulus endosymbiont, Wolbachia, is a major contributing factor in the development of chronic pathology in humans (onchocerciasis/river blindness). Recently, the toll-like pattern recognition receptor motif of the major inflammatory ligands of filarial Wolbachia, membrane-associated diacylated lipoproteins, was functionally defined in murine models of pathology, including mediation of neutrophil recruitment to the cornea. However, the extent to which human neutrophils can be activated in response to this Wolbachia pattern recognition motif is not known. Therefore, the responses of purified peripheral blood human neutrophils to a synthetic N-terminal diacylated lipopeptide (WoLP) of filarial Wolbachia peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) were characterized. WoLP exposure led to a dose-dependent activation of healthy, human neutrophils that included gross morphological alterations and modulation of surface expressed integrins involved in tethering, rolling and extravasation. WoLP exposure induced chemotaxis but not chemokinesis of neutrophils, and secretion of the major neutrophil chemokine, interleukin 8. WoLP also induced and primed the respiratory burst, and enhanced neutrophil survival by delay of apoptosis. These results indicate that the major inflammatory motif of filarial Wolbachia lipoproteins directly activates human neutrophils in vitro and promotes a molecular pathway by which human neutrophils are recruited to sites of Onchocerca parasitism. PMID:24909063

  13. Functional effects of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P on human myometrial contractility in vitro

    Morrison John J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P administration reportedly improves outcome for women with a previous spontaneous preterm delivery. This study, using in vitro strips of human uterine smooth muscle, aimed to investigate the direct non-genomic effects of 17P on spontaneous and induced contractions in tissues obtained during pregnancy, and in the non-pregnant state. Methods Biopsies of human myometrium were obtained at elective cesarean section, and from hysterectomy specimens, and dissected strips suspended for isometric recordings. The effects of 17P (1 nmol/L -10 micro mol/L on spontaneous and agonist-induced (oxytocin 0.5 nmol/L for pregnant, phenylephrine 10 μmol/L for non-pregnant contractions were measured. Integrals of contractile activity, including the mean maximal inhibition values (MMI observed at the maximal concentration, were compared with those from simultaneously run control strips. Results There was no significant direct effect exerted by 17P on pregnant or non-pregnant human myometrial contractility. The MMI ± SEM for spontaneous contractions in pregnant myometrium was 4.9% ± 7.2 (n = 6; P = 0.309 and for oxytocin-induced contractions was 2.2% ± 1.3 (n = 6; P = 0.128. For non-pregnant myometrium, the MMI ± SEM for spontaneous contractions was 8.8% ± 11.0 (n = 6; P = 0.121 and for phenylephrine induced contractions was -7.9% ± 6.5 (n = 6; P = 0.966. Conclusions The putative benefits of 17P for preterm labor prevention are not achieved, even partially, by a direct utero-relaxant effect. These findings outline the possibility that genomic effects of 17P, achieved over long periods of administration, are required for its reported therapeutic benefits.

  14. Human activities affecting trace gases and climate

    The Earth's climate has been in a constant state of change throughout geologic time due to natural perturbations in the global geobiosphere. However, various human activities have the potential to cause future global warming over a relatively short amount of time. These activities, which affect the Earth's climate by altering the concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere, include energy consumption, particularly fossil-fuel consumption; industrial processes (production and use of chlorofluorocarbons, halons, and chlorocarbons, landfilling of wastes, and cement manufacture); changes in land use patterns, particularly deforestation and biomass burning; and agricultural practices (waste burning, fertilizer usage, rice production, and animal husbandry). Population growth is an important underlying factor affecting the level of growth in each activity. This paper describes how the human activities listed above contribute to atmospheric change, the current pattern of each activity, and how levels of each activity have changed since the early part of this century

  15. Cholesterol esterase activity of human intestinal mucosa

    It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and 14C-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids

  16. Deep Human Parsing with Active Template Regression.

    Liang, Xiaodan; Liu, Si; Shen, Xiaohui; Yang, Jianchao; Liu, Luoqi; Dong, Jian; Lin, Liang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the human parsing task, namely decomposing a human image into semantic fashion/body regions, is formulated as an active template regression (ATR) problem, where the normalized mask of each fashion/body item is expressed as the linear combination of the learned mask templates, and then morphed to a more precise mask with the active shape parameters, including position, scale and visibility of each semantic region. The mask template coefficients and the active shape parameters together can generate the human parsing results, and are thus called the structure outputs for human parsing. The deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is utilized to build the end-to-end relation between the input human image and the structure outputs for human parsing. More specifically, the structure outputs are predicted by two separate networks. The first CNN network is with max-pooling, and designed to predict the template coefficients for each label mask, while the second CNN network is without max-pooling to preserve sensitivity to label mask position and accurately predict the active shape parameters. For a new image, the structure outputs of the two networks are fused to generate the probability of each label for each pixel, and super-pixel smoothing is finally used to refine the human parsing result. Comprehensive evaluations on a large dataset well demonstrate the significant superiority of the ATR framework over other state-of-the-arts for human parsing. In particular, the F1-score reaches 64.38 percent by our ATR framework, significantly higher than 44.76 percent based on the state-of-the-art algorithm [28]. PMID:26539846

  17. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2016

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Report is will also continue at a frequency determined by HRP management. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of

  18. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  19. Food & Fitness. Directory. Human Nutrition Activities.

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Activities of the following regulatory and food service agencies of the Department of Agriculture are described: (1) Agricultural Research Service; (2) Cooperative State Research Service; (3) Economic Research Service; (4) Human Nutrition Information Service; (5) Office of Grants and Program Systems; (6) Office of International Cooperation and…

  20. CTSS activation coexists with CD40 activation in human atheroma

    Černe, Andreja; Kržišnik-Zorman, Simona; ZORMAN, Darko; Kranjec, Igor; Černe, Darko; Marc, Janja; Štern, Irma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: By the analysis of plasma mRNA levels, we tested the hypothesis that, in human atheroma, CTSS activation coexists with activation of CD40. Design and methods: mRNAs were isolated from plasma of patients with coronary atherosclerosis and quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Results: CTSS mRNA levels correlated with CD40 mRNA levels, independently of observed traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis and pharmacological treatment. Conclusions: Our results suggest that CTSS mediated at...

  1. Aldehyde oxidase activity in fresh human skin.

    Manevski, Nenad; Balavenkatraman, Kamal Kumar; Bertschi, Barbara; Swart, Piet; Walles, Markus; Camenisch, Gian; Schiller, Hilmar; Kretz, Olivier; Ling, Barbara; Wettstein, Reto; Schaefer, Dirk J; Pognan, Francois; Wolf, Armin; Litherland, Karine

    2014-12-01

    Human aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a molybdoflavoenzyme that commonly oxidizes azaheterocycles in therapeutic drugs. Although high metabolic clearance by AO resulted in several drug failures, existing in vitro-in vivo correlations are often poor and the extrahepatic role of AO practically unknown. This study investigated enzymatic activity of AO in fresh human skin, the largest organ of the body, frequently exposed to therapeutic drugs and xenobiotics. Fresh, full-thickness human skin was obtained from 13 individual donors and assayed with two specific AO substrates: carbazeran and zoniporide. Human skin explants from all donors metabolized carbazeran to 4-hydroxycarbazeran and zoniporide to 2-oxo-zoniporide. Average rates of carbazeran and zoniporide hydroxylations were 1.301 and 0.164 pmol⋅mg skin(-1)⋅h(-1), resulting in 13 and 2% substrate turnover, respectively, after 24 hours of incubation with 10 μM substrate. Hydroxylation activities for the two substrates were significantly correlated (r(2) = 0.769), with interindividual variability ranging from 3-fold (zoniporide) to 6-fold (carbazeran). Inclusion of hydralazine, an irreversible inhibitor of AO, resulted in concentration-dependent decrease of hydroxylation activities, exceeding 90% inhibition of carbazeran 4-hydroxylation at 100 μM inhibitor. Reaction rates were linear up to 4 hours and well described by Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. Comparison of carbazeran and zoniporide hydroxylation with rates of triclosan glucuronidation and sulfation and p-toluidine N-acetylation showed that cutaneous AO activity is comparable to tested phase II metabolic reactions, indicating a significant role of AO in cutaneous drug metabolism. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of AO enzymatic activity in human skin. PMID:25249692

  2. Regulation of IGF-I production and proliferation of human leiomyomal smooth muscle cells by Scutellaria barbata D. Don in vitro: isolation of flavonoids of apigenin and luteolin as acting compounds

    Scutellaria barbata D. Don (Lamiaceae) (SB) is a perennial herb, which is natively distributed throughout Korea and southern China. This herb is known in traditional Chinese Medicine as Ban-Zhi-Lian and traditional Korean medicine as Banjiryun, respectively. SB has been used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor agent. We aimed to determine the expression of growth factor molecules for growth inhibition after treatment of SB in two different human myometrial smooth muscle cell (SMC)s and leiomyomal SMCs. Water-soluble ingredients of SB, myometrial SMCs, and the leiomyomal cell lines were used in vitro. SB significantly reduced cell numbers in culture and arrested cell proliferation, and also induced apoptosis, indicating that the presence of an intact apoptotic pathway was demonstrated in these cells by SB. Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign smooth muscle cell tumor of the myometrium. The expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was measured at the mRNA and protein level in myometrium and leiomyomal cells with and without treatment with a water extract of SB for 3 days. IGF-I mRNA expression was significantly higher in leiomyomal cells than in myometrium cells. The IGF-I protein was more abundant in leiomyomal cells than in myometrium. When SB was treated to the cells, the IGF-I protein concentrations in myometrial and leiomyomal cells from the SB-treated cells were similar. The results indicated that IGF-I expression is probably associated with a proliferation of leiomyomal cells than myometrium. However, SB down-regulated the IGF-I expression where IGF-I contributes to the selective growth of the leiomyoma. Therefore, growth modulation of LMs by SB occurs via mechanisms dependent of apoptosis. The raw materials were extracted and subjected to functional isolation for the active molecules in the present assay systems. The five flavonoids were isolated and the chemical structures of resveratrol, baicalin, berberine, apigenin, and luteolin were

  3. THE SUBJECTIVE HUMAN PRODUCTIVITY IN LEARNING ACTIVITIES

    Olga Yurievna Galiullina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relationship of divergent thinking and achievement in learning activities. J. Guilford and some Russian scientists, divergent thinking is understood as a common creative ability. To be creators, to initiate and carry out initial practice and other forms of specifically human activity is to be subject. This ability – the main characteristic of subjectivity. Proved the importance of the relationship of divergent thinking and achievement in learning activities, for disclosure of subject student productivity. The study found «positive» relationship between divergent thinking and academic performance of students of the middle classes and the «negative» relationship among elementary school students. As we know from the writings of SL Rubinstein and N. Bernstein, training activities associated with the mastery of relevant skills. Formation of skills takes time. Therefore subjective productivity in educational activity is observed in the textbooks of the middle classes and does not manifest itself in elementary school students.

  4. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/48004

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of Internet technology enables human explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e. traces), we can get insights about dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, book, and movie rating, are comprehensively investigated by using detrended fluctuation analysis technique and multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three type medias show the similar scaling property with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of interevent time series in three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest the stronger long-rang...

  5. A human activity approach to User Interfaces

    Bødker, Susanne

    1989-01-01

    How can we understand why a bank teller has different needs for a user interface than those of casual users of a machine teller, or why a graphic designer needs a different user interface than a secretary? This article presents a framework for the design of user interfaces that originates from the...... work situations in which computer-based artifacts are used: The framework deals with the role of the user interface in purposeful human work. Human activity theory is used in this analysis. The purpose of this article is to make the reader curious and hopefully open his or her eyes to a somewhat...... different way of thinking about the user interface. The article applies examples of real-life interfaces to support this process, but it does not include a systematic presentation of empirical results. I focus on the role of the computer application in use. Thus, it is necessary to consider human...

  6. Effect of high-fat diet on rat myometrium during pregnancy-isolated myometrial mitochondria are not affected

    Gam, Christiane Marie Bourgin Folke; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2014-01-01

    regular chow diet, (2) a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet, or (3) a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet (n = 10 in each group). On day 20 of gestation, corresponding to term pregnancy, total hysterectomy was performed with subsequent examination of the function and morphology of myometrial mitochondria. Body...... composition was regularly assessed by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging, and blood sampling was done prior to diet assignment, impregnation, and hysterectomy. Dams on the high-fat low-carbohydrate diet achieved higher fat percentage compared to rats on the regular chow diet (p < 0.05). Maximal oxygen......Laboring women with elevated body mass index (BMI) have an increased risk of inefficient uterine labor contractions, and despite the significance of mitochondria in the production of energy to drive uterine contractions, mitochondrial function in the myometrium with reference to the BMI has not...

  7. Understanding Usability Work as a Human Activity

    Nørgaard, Mie

    Three core themes are explored in eight papers: Usability work as a human activity, usability practice and methods, and persuasiveness of evaluation results and feedback. We explore how usability work is much more than methods and work procedures, and argue that maturing our understanding...... systems struggle with making methods meet practical realities and demands, and that the concept of usability in games is not satisfactorily covered by for example the ISO 9241-11. With this in mind we call for future work that broadens the concept of usability to include concepts more relevant to games...... of usability work to include a human perspective, is crucial to downstream utility—how usability work impacts the on-going development process. Our work shows that cross-professional collaboration is subject to challenges that arise from stakeholders having conflicting priorities, procedures and personalities...

  8. Neutron activation analysis of human hair

    In an attempt to study the availability and limitation of analytical data of human hair as an indicator of environmental pollution and/or of human health effect, concentrations of elements in 202 scalp hair samples collected from local population in the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The correlation coefficients between concentrations of 13 elements in each sex and in each age group were calculated and discussed. There were significant correlations between some pairs of elements, i.e. Na-K, Br-Cl, Ca-Zn and Ca-Mg, in all five age classes in both of male and female, indicating that the correlations were consistent. Ca was observed to be reversely correlated with Cl. No significant correlation was apparent between Hg and Se, when the correlation coefficient was calculated using logarithmic converted concentration data. (author)

  9. Physical Human Activity Recognition Using Wearable Sensors

    Ferhat Attal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of different classification techniques used to recognize human activities from wearable inertial sensor data. Three inertial sensor units were used in this study and were worn by healthy subjects at key points of upper/lower body limbs (chest, right thigh and left ankle. Three main steps describe the activity recognition process: sensors’ placement, data pre-processing and data classification. Four supervised classification techniques namely, k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN, Support Vector Machines (SVM, Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM, and Random Forest (RF as well as three unsupervised classification techniques namely, k-Means, Gaussian mixture models (GMM and Hidden Markov Model (HMM, are compared in terms of correct classification rate, F-measure, recall, precision, and specificity. Raw data and extracted features are used separately as inputs of each classifier. The feature selection is performed using a wrapper approach based on the RF algorithm. Based on our experiments, the results obtained show that the k-NN classifier provides the best performance compared to other supervised classification algorithms, whereas the HMM classifier is the one that gives the best results among unsupervised classification algorithms. This comparison highlights which approach gives better performance in both supervised and unsupervised contexts. It should be noted that the obtained results are limited to the context of this study, which concerns the classification of the main daily living human activities using three wearable accelerometers placed at the chest, right shank and left ankle of the subject.

  10. Novel innate cancer killing activity in humans

    Lovato James

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we pilot tested an in vitro assay of cancer killing activity (CKA in circulating leukocytes of 22 cancer cases and 25 healthy controls. Methods Using a human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa, as target cells, we compared the CKA in circulating leukocytes, as effector cells, of cancer cases and controls. The CKA was normalized as percentages of total target cells during selected periods of incubation time and at selected effector/target cell ratios in comparison to no-effector-cell controls. Results Our results showed that CKA similar to that of our previous study of SR/CR mice was present in human circulating leukocytes but at profoundly different levels in individuals. Overall, males have a significantly higher CKA than females. The CKA levels in cancer cases were lower than that in healthy controls (mean ± SD: 36.97 ± 21.39 vs. 46.28 ± 27.22. Below-median CKA was significantly associated with case status (odds ratio = 4.36; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.06, 17.88 after adjustment of gender and race. Conclusions In freshly isolated human leukocytes, we were able to detect an apparent CKA in a similar manner to that of cancer-resistant SR/CR mice. The finding of CKA at lower levels in cancer patients suggests the possibility that it may be of a consequence of genetic, physiological, or pathological conditions, pending future studies with larger sample size.

  11. The spatial structure of transnational human activity.

    Deutschmann, Emanuel

    2016-09-01

    Starting from conflictive predictions of hitherto disconnected debates in the natural and social sciences, this article examines the spatial structure of transnational human activity (THA) worldwide (a) across eight types of mobility and communication and (b) in its development over time. It is shown that the spatial structure of THA is similar to that of animal displacements and local-scale human motion in that it can be approximated by Lévy flights with heavy tails that obey power laws. Scaling exponent and power-law fit differ by type of THA, being highest in refuge-seeking and tourism and lowest in student exchange. Variance in the availability of resources and opportunities for satisfying associated needs appears to explain these differences. Over time (1960-2010), the Lévy-flight pattern remains intact and remarkably stable, contradicting the popular notion that socio-technological trends lead to a "death of distance." Humans have not become more "global" over time, they rather became more mobile in general, i.e. they move and communicate more at all distances. Hence, it would be more adequate to speak of "mobilization" than of "globalization." Longitudinal change occurs only in some types of THA and predominantly at short distances, indicating regional rather than global shifts. PMID:27480376

  12. Activities induced in the human body by thermal neutrons

    Activities of 17 radionuclides induced in the human body by the activation of 14 elements with thermal neutrons were calculated. Resulting dependences of these activities on the activation time are shown in graphs. (author)

  13. Cholinesterase activity in some human lymphatic organs.

    Rakhawy, M T; Tarkhan, A A; Zakaria, A M

    1976-01-01

    (1) Cholinesterase activity was investigated in some human lymphatic organs (palatine tonsil, 'normal' spleen, 'bilharzial' spleen, thymus, lymph node and appendix) using GOMORI'S modification of KOELLE and FRIEDENWALD'S thiocholine iodide method, hydrolyzing acetylthiocholine iodide and butyrylthiocholine iodide. (a) Acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterases seemed to be different enzymes; but when they have the same pattern of activity, the latter generally offers a weaker reaction. (b) All the lymphatic follicles of the tonsil, those found in the cortex of the cervical lymph nodes as well as those present in the appendix, were stainable with both acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase. (c) Acetylcholinesterase activity was not demonstrated in the Malpighian bodies of the 'normal' spleen, but the reaction was strongly present in the blood vessels (including the central arterioles) as well as in the capsule and the different components of the trabecular system. (d) In 'bilharzial' splenomegaly a relatively strong activity started to appear in the Malpighian corpuscles, manifested as a brownish precipitate in their centres. Also some patchy positive areas began to make their appearance in the tissue of the red pulp and had a particular arrangement around the Malpighian corpuscules, in such a way as to 'wall them off' from the tissue of the red pulp. (e) In the thymus no acetylcholinesterase activity was encountered, except in Hassal's corpuscles and in the trabeculae between the thymic lobules. (2) The data obtained in this work were discussed in relation to previous works in other laboratories and it seems that a species difference exists. (3) Cholinesterases may be present in the lymphatic tissue in order to get rid of some potentially toxic esters resulting from the necrobiotic phenomena accompanying the high mitotic activity found especially in the germinal centres of the lymphoid follicles. (4) There are many unanswered questions about the coexistence of the phosphatases

  14. Activation of Human T Cells in Hypertension: Studies of Humanized Mice and Hypertensive Humans.

    Itani, Hana A; McMaster, William G; Saleh, Mohamed A; Nazarewicz, Rafal R; Mikolajczyk, Tomasz P; Kaszuba, Anna M; Konior, Anna; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Norlander, Allison E; Chen, Wei; Bonami, Rachel H; Marshall, Andrew F; Poffenberger, Greg; Weyand, Cornelia M; Madhur, Meena S; Moore, Daniel J; Harrison, David G; Guzik, Tomasz J

    2016-07-01

    Emerging evidence supports an important role for T cells in the genesis of hypertension. Because this work has predominantly been performed in experimental animals, we sought to determine whether human T cells are activated in hypertension. We used a humanized mouse model in which the murine immune system is replaced by the human immune system. Angiotensin II increased systolic pressure to 162 versus 116 mm Hg for sham-treated animals. Flow cytometry of thoracic lymph nodes, thoracic aorta, and kidney revealed increased infiltration of human leukocytes (CD45(+)) and T lymphocytes (CD3(+) and CD4(+)) in response to angiotensin II infusion. Interestingly, there was also an increase in the memory T cells (CD3(+)/CD45RO(+)) in the aortas and lymph nodes. Prevention of hypertension using hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide prevented the accumulation of T cells in these tissues. Studies of isolated human T cells and monocytes indicated that angiotensin II had no direct effect on cytokine production by T cells or the ability of dendritic cells to drive T-cell proliferation. We also observed an increase in circulating interleukin-17A producing CD4(+) T cells and both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that produce interferon-γ in hypertensive compared with normotensive humans. Thus, human T cells become activated and invade critical end-organ tissues in response to hypertension in a humanized mouse model. This response likely reflects the hypertensive milieu encountered in vivo and is not a direct effect of the hormone angiotensin II. PMID:27217403

  15. Human activity and rest in situ.

    Roenneberg, Till; Keller, Lena K; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Vetter, Céline; Winnebeck, Eva C

    2015-01-01

    Our lives are structured by the daily alternation of activity and rest, of wake and sleep. Despite significant advances in circadian and sleep research, we still lack answers to many of the most fundamental questions about this conspicuous behavioral pattern. We strongly believe that investigating this pattern in entrained conditions, real-life and daily contexts-in situ-will help the field to elucidate some of these central questions. Here, we present two common approaches for in situ investigation of human activity and rest: the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) and actimetry. In the first half of this chapter, we provide detailed instructions on how to use and interpret the MCTQ. In addition, we give an overview of the main insights gained with this instrument over the past 10 years, including some new findings on the interaction of light and age on sleep timing. In the second half of this chapter, we introduce the reader to the method of actimetry and share our experience in basic analysis techniques, including visualization, smoothing, and cosine model fitting of in situ recorded data. Additionally, we describe our new approach to automatically detect sleep from activity recordings. Our vision is that the broad use of such easy techniques in real-life settings combined with automated analyses will lead to the creation of large databases. The resulting power of big numbers will promote our understanding of such fundamental biological phenomena as sleep. PMID:25707281

  16. Vergleichende in vitro-Studie zur Relaxationswirkung von Atosiban, Glyceroltrinitrat und Nifedipin auf das Myometrium von prämenopausalen Frauen (mit klinischem Bezug zur Dysmenorrhoe)

    Wölker, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of atosiban, nitroglycerine and nifedipin on the contractility of nonpregnant uterine tissue in vitro. Analogous to advanced studies with pregnant myometrium as in vitro-model for labour and tocolysis, this study should allow a clinical refer to dysmenorrhea and its therapy. Methods: 146 myometrial strips (2x2x10 mm) were obtained from 25 hysterectomy specimens and placed in organ bath with krebs solution. One end of the strip was fixed, the other was flex...

  17. Role of cyclic GMP in cells with the properties of smooth muscle cultured from the rat myometrium

    Cells growing in culture with previously described properties of rat uterine smooth muscle accumulated 45Ca2+ from the medium. Ca2+ uptake by these cells was stimulated by the addition to the medium of 8-bromo-cGMP but not by 8-bromo-cAMP. Ca2+ uptake was also stimulated by carbachol and by the nitro-vasodilator nitroprusside. Although cholinergic agonists have been shown previously to stimulate contraction but not cGMP synthesis in the rat myometrium, both carbachol and nitroprusside stimulated cGMP production by the cultured cells. These results suggested the cells had cholinergic receptor-medicated functions that reflected some neurotransmitter-sensitive properties of uterine smooth muscle in situ. When determined by a specific radioligand binding assay, subcellular fractions of the cultured cells bound muscarinic cholinergic agonists and antagonists with affinities expected of the muscarinic receptor. The cells were also sensitive to the β-adrenergic catecholamine agonist isoproterenol, which stimulated cAMP production but not Ca2+ uptake. Carbachol failed to inhibit isoproterenol-dependent cAMP production, which is an important property of the cholinergic receptor in uterine smooth muscle in situ. These results suggest some but not all acetylcholine-sensitive properties of uterine smooth muscle may be retained in cell culture

  18. The climatic change induced by human activities

    The climate of the Earth is a changing climate. Along their history many natural climate changes have existed in all time scales. At the present time we use the term climate changes have existed in all time scales. At the present time we use the term climate change in a restricted way, understanding that we have referring to a singular change that has their origin in the modification of the natural composition of the atmosphere. The increase of greenhouse gases from the second half the XVIII century, is due to the human activities of fossil fuels burning to obtain energy and to industrial and agricultural activities needing for the development of a world which population has been duplicated between 1960 and 2000, until overcoming the 6,000 million inhabitants. In particular, the concentrations of carbon dioxide-CO2 have increased in a 34%. The more recent emission scenarios proposed by the IPCC (SRES, 2000) are based on hypothesis about the population evolution, the energy consumption and the word patterns of development, which are grouped in four families dominated as A1, A2, B1 and B2. The answer for these scenarios from a range of climate models results in an increase of the world average surface atmospheric temperature between 1,4 degree centigrade and 5,8 degree centigrade and a corresponding sea level rise understood between 9 cm and 88 cm. The changes in the precipitation patterns show us that could be above to the current one in high and media latitudes and below in subtropical latitudes, with exceptions highly depending of the model used. (Author)

  19. New activity pattern in human interactive dynamics

    Formentin, Marco; Lovison, Alberto; Maritan, Amos; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the response function of human agents as demonstrated by written correspondence, uncovering a new pattern for how the reactive dynamics of individuals is distributed across the set of each agent’s contacts. In long-term empirical data on email, we find that the set of response times considered separately for the messages to each different correspondent of a given writer, generate a family of heavy-tailed distributions, which have largely the same features for all agents, and whose characteristic times grow exponentially with the rank of each correspondent. We furthermore show that this new behavioral pattern emerges robustly by considering weighted moving averages of the priority-conditioned response-time probabilities generated by a basic prioritization model. Our findings clarify how the range of priorities in the inputs from one’s environment underpin and shape the dynamics of agents embedded in a net of reactive relations. These newly revealed activity patterns might be universal, being present in other general interactive environments, and constrain future models of communication and interaction networks, affecting their architecture and evolution.

  20. Human Activity Detection and Recognition Algorithm from Video Surveillances

    Kanchan Gaikwad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach for automatic recognition of human activities from video sequences. Visual study of human motion is currently one of the most active research topics in computer vision. This strong interest is determined by a wide spectrum of promising applications in many areas such as virtual reality, smart surveillance, perceptual interface, etc. Human motion analysis concerns the detection, tracking and recognition of people. This paper includes the tracking of human activity from video sequencing images. Here we first make frames from video and apply GMM on it. Using HMM we classify the activity and detect the activity. The importance is on three major issues involved in a general human motion analysis system, namely human detection, tracking and activity understanding.

  1. Visualizing signatures of human activity in cities across the globe

    Kondor, Dániel; Thebault, Pierrick; Grauwin, Sebastian; Gódor, István; Moritz, Simon; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Ratti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The availability of big data on human activity is currently changing the way we look at our surroundings. With the high penetration of mobile phones, nearly everyone is already carrying a high-precision sensor providing an opportunity to monitor and analyze the dynamics of human movement on unprecedented scales. In this article, we present a technique and visualization tool which uses aggregated activity measures of mobile networks to gain information about human activity shaping the structur...

  2. Reshaping Human Antibodies: Grafting an Antilysozyme Activity

    Verhoeyen, Martine; Milstein, Cesar; Winter, Greg

    1988-03-01

    The production of therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies by hybridoma technology has proved difficult, and this has prompted the ``humanizing'' of mouse monoclonal antibodies by recombinant DNA techniques. It was shown previously that the binding site for a small hapten could be grafted from the heavy-chain variable domain of a mouse antibody to that of a human myeloma protein by transplanting the hypervariable loops. It is now shown that a large binding site for a protein antigen (lysozyme) can also be transplanted from mouse to human heavy chain. The success of such constructions may be facilitated by an induced-fit mechanism.

  3. Transcription analysis of the myometrium of labouring and non-labouring women

    Sharp, Gemma C.; Hutchinson, James L.; Nanette, Hibbert; Freeman, Thomas; Saunders, Philippa; Norman, Jane

    2016-01-01

    An incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate normal human labour at term seriously hampers the development of effective ways to predict, prevent and treat disorders such as preterm labour. Appropriate analysis of large microarray experiments that compare gene expression in non-labouring and labouring gestational tissues is necessary to help bridge these gaps in our knowledge. In this work, gene expression in 48 (22 labouring, 26 non-labouring) lower-segment myometrial...

  4. Transcription Analysis of the Myometrium of Labouring and Non-Labouring Women

    Sharp, Gemma C.; Hutchinson, Lawrence; Hibbert, Nannette; Freeman, Tom; Saunders, Philippa; Norman, Jane

    2016-01-01

    An incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate normal human labour at term seriously hampers the development of effective ways to predict, prevent and treat disorders such as preterm labour. Appropriate analysis of large microarray experiments that compare gene expression in non-labouring and labouring gestational tissues is necessary to help bridge these gaps in our knowledge. In this work, gene expression in 48 (22 labouring, 26 non-labouring) lower-segment myometrial...

  5. Selective activation of neuromuscular compartments within the human trapezius muscle

    Holtermann, A; Roeleveld, K; Mork, P J;

    2009-01-01

    was to investigate whether subdivisions within the human trapezius can be independently activated by voluntary command using biofeedback guidance. Bipolar electromyographical electrodes were situated on four subdivisions of the trapezius muscle. The threshold for "active" and "rest" for each...

  6. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...... and in established cell lines was reduced to about the same basic level after treatment with heparin, a highly specific inhibitor of CKII activity. The activity of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase was virtually the same in fibroblasts and various human tumour cell lines investigated....

  7. C-Reactive Protein Activates Complement in Infarcted Human Myocardium

    Nijmeijer, Remco; Lagrand, Wim K.; Lubbers, Yvonne T. P.; Visser, Cees A.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Hack, C. Erik

    2003-01-01

    Circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) constitute a cardiovascular risk marker. Immunohistochemical studies have revealed co-localization of CRP and activated complement in human infarcted myocardium suggesting CRP to enhance inflammation in ischemic myocardium by inducing local complement activation. The aim was to establish whether CRP activates complement in infarcted human myocardium and to assess the relationship between this activation and the duration of infarction. Myocardial ...

  8. Recombinant human interleukin 5 is a selective activator of human eosinophil function

    1988-01-01

    Human rIL-5 was found to selectively stimulate morphological changes and the function of human eosinophils. This molecule is thus a prime candidate for the selective eosinophilia and eosinophil activation seen in disease.

  9. Physiological increases in lactate inhibit intracellular calcium transients, acidify myocytes and decrease force in term pregnant rat myometrium.

    Hanley, Jacqui-Ann; Weeks, Andrew; Wray, Susan

    2015-10-15

    Lactate is increased in myometrial capillary blood from women in slow or non-progressive labour (dystocia), suggesting that it is detrimental to uterine contractions. There are, however, no studies of the effect of lactate on the myometrium. We therefore investigated its effects and mechanism of action on myometrial strips from term pregnant rats. The effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractility in response to sodium lactate and other weak acids (1-20 mM) were studied. In some experiments, simultaneous force and intracellular Ca(2+) or pH (pH(i)) were measured with Indo-1 or Carboxy-SNARF, respectively. Statistical differences were tested using non-parametric tests. Lactate significantly decreased spontaneous contractility with an EC50 of 3.9 mM. Propionate, butyrate and pyruvate also reduced contractions with similar potency. The effects of lactate were reduced in the presence of oxytocin but remained significant. Lactate decreased pH(i) and nulling the decrease in pH(i) abolished its effects. We also show that lactate inhibited Ca(2+) transients, with these changes mirroring those produced on force. If Ca(2+) entry was enhanced by depolarization (high KCl) or applying the Ca(2+) channel agonist, Bay K 4644, the effects of lactate were abolished. Taken together, these data show that lactate in the physiological range potently decreases myometrial contractility as a result of its inhibition of Ca(2+) transients, which can be attributed to the induced acidification. The present study suggests that the accumulation of extracellular lactate will reduce myometrial contractions and could therefore contribute to labour dystocia. PMID:26223765

  10. Activities of Human Gene Nomenclature Committee

    NONE

    2002-07-16

    The objective of this project, shared between NIH and DOE, has been and remains to enable the medical genetics communities to use common names for genes that are discovered by different gene hunting groups, in different species. This effort provides consistent gene nomenclature and approved gene symbols to the community at large. This contributes to a uniform and consistent understanding of genomes, particularly the human as well as functional genomics based on comparisons between homologous genes in related species (human and mice).

  11. Loss of the repressor REST in uterine fibroids promotes aberrant G protein-coupled receptor 10 expression and activates mammalian target of rapamycin pathway

    Varghese, Binny V.; Koohestani, Faezeh; McWilliams, Michelle; Colvin, Arlene; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Kinsey, William H.; Nowak, Romana A.; Nothnick, Warren B.; Chennathukuzhi, Vargheese M.

    2013-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are the most common tumors of the female reproductive tract, occurring in up to 77% of reproductive-aged women, yet molecular pathogenesis remains poorly understood. A role for atypically activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids has been suggested in several studies. We identified that G protein-coupled receptor 10 [GPR10, a putative signaling protein upstream of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase–protein kinase B/AKT–mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT–mTOR) pathway] is aberrantly expressed in uterine fibroids. The activation of GPR10 by its cognate ligand, prolactin releasing peptide, promotes PI3K–AKT–mTOR pathways and cell proliferation specifically in cultured primary leiomyoma cells. Additionally, we report that RE1 suppressing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencing factor (REST/NRSF), a known tumor suppressor, transcriptionally represses GPR10 in the normal myometrium, and that the loss of REST in fibroids permits GPR10 expression. Importantly, mice overexpressing human GPR10 in the myometrium develop myometrial hyperplasia with excessive extracellular matrix deposition, a hallmark of uterine fibroids. We demonstrate previously unrecognized roles for GPR10 and its upstream regulator REST in the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids. Importantly, we report a unique genetically modified mouse model for a gene that is misexpressed in uterine fibroids. PMID:23284171

  12. Vergleich der in-vitro Wirkung von Atosiban und Magnesium sowie ihrer Kombination auf humanes Myometrium von Schwangeren

    Machinek, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of the oxytocin receptor antagonist atosiban, magnesium and the combination of these two substances on spontaneous as well as oxytocin-induced contractions of myometrial strips from healthy pregnant women at term. Methods: During elective cesareans myometrial biopsies were taken from the lower segment of the uterus and trimmed into 2 x 2 x 10 mm longitudinal strips within 12 hours after biopsy. 101 myometrial strips obtained from 30 women showed re...

  13. Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase activity in human lymphocytes

    Griffin, G.D.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1981-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase (AHM), an enzyme of key importance in metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA), is present in human lymphocytes. Studies investing the relation of activity of AHM in human lymphocytes to parameters such as disease state, PNA exposure, in vitro mitogen stimulation, etc. have been summarized in this report. Some studies have demonstrated increased AHM activity in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers (compared to nonsmokers), and in lung cancer patients when compared to appropriate control groups. These observations are confused by extreme variability in human lymphocyte AHM activities, such variability arising from factors such as genetic variation in AHM activity, variation in in vitro culture conditions which affect AHM activity, and the problematical relationship of common AHM assays to actual PNA metabolism taking place in lymphocytes. If some of the foregoing problems can be adequately addressed, lymphocyte AHM activity could hold the promise of being a useful biomarker system for human PNA exposure.

  14. Human Activity Recognition in AAL Environments Using Random Projections

    Robertas Damaševičius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic human activity recognition systems aim to capture the state of the user and its environment by exploiting heterogeneous sensors attached to the subject’s body and permit continuous monitoring of numerous physiological signals reflecting the state of human actions. Successful identification of human activities can be immensely useful in healthcare applications for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, for automatic and intelligent activity monitoring systems developed for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose the method for activity recognition and subject identification based on random projections from high-dimensional feature space to low-dimensional projection space, where the classes are separated using the Jaccard distance between probability density functions of projected data. Two HAR domain tasks are considered: activity identification and subject identification. The experimental results using the proposed method with Human Activity Dataset (HAD data are presented.

  15. Transcription Analysis of the Myometrium of Labouring and Non-Labouring Women.

    Sharp, Gemma C; Hutchinson, James L; Hibbert, Nanette; Freeman, Tom C; Saunders, Philippa T K; Norman, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    An incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate normal human labour at term seriously hampers the development of effective ways to predict, prevent and treat disorders such as preterm labour. Appropriate analysis of large microarray experiments that compare gene expression in non-labouring and labouring gestational tissues is necessary to help bridge these gaps in our knowledge. In this work, gene expression in 48 (22 labouring, 26 non-labouring) lower-segment myometrial samples collected at Caesarean section were analysed using Illumina HT-12 v4.0 BeadChips. Normalised data were compared between labouring and non-labouring groups using traditional statistical methods and a novel network graph approach. We sought technical validation with quantitative real-time PCR, and biological replication through inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis with published microarray data. We have extended the list of genes suggested to be associated with labour: Compared to non-labouring samples, labouring samples showed apparent higher expression at 960 probes (949 genes) and apparent lower expression at 801 probes (789 genes) (absolute fold change ≥1.2, rank product percentage of false positive value (RP-PFP) MTAB-3136) to facilitate progression of this work. PMID:27176052

  16. Window Size Impact in Human Activity Recognition

    Oresti Banos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1–2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities.

  17. ActivityNet: A Large-Scale Video Benchmark for Human Activity Understanding

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba

    2015-06-02

    In spite of many dataset efforts for human action recognition, current computer vision algorithms are still severely limited in terms of the variability and complexity of the actions that they can recognize. This is in part due to the simplicity of current benchmarks, which mostly focus on simple actions and movements occurring on manually trimmed videos. In this paper we introduce ActivityNet, a new largescale video benchmark for human activity understanding. Our benchmark aims at covering a wide range of complex human activities that are of interest to people in their daily living. In its current version, ActivityNet provides samples from 203 activity classes with an average of 137 untrimmed videos per class and 1.41 activity instances per video, for a total of 849 video hours. We illustrate three scenarios in which ActivityNet can be used to compare algorithms for human activity understanding: untrimmed video classification, trimmed activity classification and activity detection.

  18. Human-induced soil degradation activities

    Oldeman L.R.; Van Baren J.H. V.

    1998-01-01

    Soil degradation is occurring over vast areas. The GLASOD and ASSOD projects reflect the present status of human-induced soil degradation and its impact on food productivity related to productivity changes observed in the recent past. However, there is a great need for well-documented, reliable soil information and other related data at national and regional levels to better understand and qualify the impact of changing soil conditions or biomass production.

  19. Mapping human brain activity in vivo.

    Mazziotta, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    A wide range of structural and functional techniques now exists to map the human brain in health and disease. These approaches span the gamut from external tomographic imaging devices (positron-emission tomography, single photon-emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography), to surface detectors (electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation), to measurements made directly on the brain's surface or beneath it (intrinsic sign...

  20. Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity in human serum.

    Hashimoto,Noriaki

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity was detected in human serum. Serum was preincubated with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and trypsin to activate the enzyme prior to assay. Type IV collagen, purified from human placentas and radiolabeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride, was used as the substrate. The enzyme activity was measured at pH 7.5 and inhibited by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or heat. The assay of type IV collagen-degrading enzyme in human serum might be useful for estimating the degradation of type IV collagen.

  1. Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity in human serum.

    Hashimoto, Noriaki; Kobayashi,Michio; Watanabe,Akiharu; Higashi,Toshiro; Tsuji, Takao

    1988-01-01

    Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity was detected in human serum. Serum was preincubated with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and trypsin to activate the enzyme prior to assay. Type IV collagen, purified from human placentas and radiolabeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride, was used as the substrate. The enzyme activity was measured at pH 7.5 and inhibited by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or heat. The assay of type IV collagen-degrading enzyme in human serum might be useful...

  2. Activation of human immunodeficiency virus by radiation

    It was recently demonstrated that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can induce the HIV promoter as well as activate the complete virus in cultured cells (Valerie et al., 1988). This and subsequent observations, reviewed in this article, suggest a possibility that radiation exposure may accelerate development of AIDS in HIV-infected individuals. They also indicate that studies on HIV activation by stressors, including radiation, may advance our understanding of some phenomena that follow HIV infection. (author)

  3. β-Catenin activation contributes to the pathogenesis of adenomyosis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Oh, Seo Jin; Shin, Jung-Ho; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Hee Sun; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Broaddus, Russell R; Taketo, Makoto M; Lydon, John P; Leach, Richard E; Lessey, Bruce A; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Lim, Jeong Mook; Jeong, Jae-Wook

    2013-10-01

    Adenomyosis is defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. Despite its frequent occurrence, the precise aetiology and physiopathology of adenomyosis is still unknown. WNT/β-catenin signalling molecules are important and should be tightly regulated for uterine function. To investigate the role of β-catenin signalling in adenomyosis, the expression of β-catenin was examined. Nuclear and cytoplasmic β-catenin expression was significantly higher in epithelial cells of human adenomyosis compared to control endometrium. To determine whether constitutive activation of β-catenin in the murine uterus leads to development of adenomyosis, mice that expressed a dominant stabilized β-catenin in the uterus were used by crossing PR-Cre mice with Ctnnb1(f(ex3)/+) mice. Uteri of PR(cre) (/+) Ctnnb1(f(ex3)/+) mice displayed an abnormal irregular structure and highly active proliferation in the myometrium, and subsequently developed adenomyosis. Interestingly, the expression of E-cadherin was repressed in epithelial cells of PR(cre) (/+) Ctnnb1(f(ex3)/+) mice compared to control mice. Repression of E-cadherin is one of the hallmarks of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The expression of SNAIL and ZEB1 was observed in some epithelial cells of the uterus in PR(cre) (/+) Ctnnb1(f(ex3)/+) mice but not in control mice. Vimentin and COUP-TFII, mesenchymal cell markers, were expressed in some epithelial cells of PR(cre) (/+) Ctnnb1(f(ex3)/+) mice. In human adenomyosis, the expression of E-cadherin was decreased in epithelial cells compared to control endometrium, while CD10, an endometrial stromal marker, was expressed in some epithelial cells of human adenomyosis. These results suggest that abnormal activation of β-catenin contributes to adenomyosis development through the induction of EMT. PMID:23784889

  4. Supporting Human Activities - Exploring Activity-Centered Computing

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Bardram, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    -hoc collaboration based on shared material, and organized in terms of well-defined, recurring, work activities. We propose that this kind of work can be supported by a pervasive computing infrastructure together with domain-specific services, both designed from a perspective where work activities are first class......In this paper we explore an activity-centered computing paradigm that is aimed at supporting work processes that are radically different from the ones known from office work. Our main inspiration is healthcare work that is characterized by an extreme degree of mobility, many interruptions, ad...

  5. Cercarial glycocalyx of Schistosoma mansoni activates human complement.

    Samuelson, J C; Caulfield, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Human complement activation by cercariae and schistosomula of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni was studied in vitro. Cercariae are composed of tails which are shed after infection of the host and bodies which transform into the larvae or schistosomula after infection. After incubation in fresh normal human serum (NHS), cercarial tails bound more anti-C3 antibodies than did cercarial bodies (CB), and the tails were rapidly lysed, while the attached CB remained intact. Complement activati...

  6. Human activities change marine ecosystems by altering predation risk.

    Madin, Elizabeth M P; Dill, Lawrence M; Ridlon, April D; Heithaus, Michael R; Warner, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    In ocean ecosystems, many of the changes in predation risk - both increases and decreases - are human-induced. These changes are occurring at scales ranging from global to local and across variable temporal scales. Indirect, risk-based effects of human activity are known to be important in structuring some terrestrial ecosystems, but these impacts have largely been neglected in oceans. Here, we synthesize existing literature and data to explore multiple lines of evidence that collectively suggest diverse human activities are changing marine ecosystems, including carbon storage capacity, in myriad ways by altering predation risk. We provide novel, compelling evidence that at least one key human activity, overfishing, can lead to distinct, cascading risk effects in natural ecosystems whose magnitude exceeds that of presumed lethal effects and may account for previously unexplained findings. We further discuss the conservation implications of human-caused indirect risk effects. Finally, we provide a predictive framework for when human alterations of risk in oceans should lead to cascading effects and outline a prospectus for future research. Given the speed and extent with which human activities are altering marine risk landscapes, it is crucial that conservation and management policy considers the indirect effects of these activities in order to increase the likelihood of success and avoid unfortunate surprises. PMID:26448058

  7. Impact of the spatial context on human communication activity

    Dashdorj, Zolzaya; Sobolevsky, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Technology development produces terabytes of data generated by hu- man activity in space and time. This enormous amount of data often called big data becomes crucial for delivering new insights to decision makers. It contains behavioral information on different types of human activity influenced by many external factors such as geographic infor- mation and weather forecast. Early recognition and prediction of those human behaviors are of great importance in many societal applications like hea...

  8. Random isolation of gene activator elements from the human genome.

    Hamada, H

    1986-01-01

    Long-range-acting gene activator elements were randomly isolated from the human genome by functional selection. HeLa cells were transfected with an enhancer trap, a plasmid containing an enhancerless xanthine-guanosine phosphoribosyltransferase (gpt) gene transcribed from the simian virus 40 early promoter, and stably transformed GPT+ cells were selected. From several transformants, human DNA sequences flanking the enhancer trap were cloned. Two gene activators (GA1 and GA2) were found in the...

  9. Invading the Mediterranean Sea: biodiversity patterns shaped by human activities

    Katsanevakis, Stelios; Coll, Marta; Piroddi, Chiara; STEENBEEK Jeroen; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Zenetos, Argyro; Cardoso, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Human activities, such as shipping, aquaculture, and the opening of the Suez Canal, have caused the introduction of nearly 1,000 alien species in the Mediterranean Sea. We investigated how human activities, offering pathways for the introduction of alien species, may shape the biodiversity patterns in the Mediterranean. Richness of Red Sea species introduced through the Suez Canal (Lessepsian species) is very high along the eastern Mediterranean coastline, reaching a maximum of 129 species pe...

  10. Telomere elongation in immortal human cells without detectable telomerase activity.

    Bryan, T M; Englezou, A; J Gupta; Bacchetti, S; Reddel, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    Immortalization of human cells is often associated with reactivation of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds TTAGGG repeats onto telomeres and compensates for their shortening. We examined whether telomerase activation is necessary for immortalization. All normal human fibroblasts tested were negative for telomerase activity. Thirteen out of 13 DNA tumor virus-transformed cell cultures were also negative in the pre-crisis (i.e. non-immortalized) stage. Of 35 immortalized cell line...

  11. Dietary methanol regulates human gene activity.

    Anastasia V Shindyapina

    Full Text Available Methanol (MeOH is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-mediated conversion of MeOH to formaldehyde (FA, which is toxic. Our recent genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain demonstrated that an increase in endogenous MeOH after ADH inhibition led to a significant increase in the plasma MeOH concentration and a modification of mRNA synthesis. These findings suggest endogenous MeOH involvement in homeostasis regulation by controlling mRNA levels. Here, we demonstrate directly that study volunteers displayed increasing concentrations of MeOH and FA in their blood plasma when consuming citrus pectin, ethanol and red wine. A microarray analysis of white blood cells (WBC from volunteers after pectin intake showed various responses for 30 significantly differentially regulated mRNAs, most of which were somehow involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. There was also a decreased synthesis of hemoglobin mRNA, HBA and HBB, the presence of which in WBC RNA was not a result of red blood cells contamination because erythrocyte-specific marker genes were not significantly expressed. A qRT-PCR analysis of volunteer WBCs after pectin and red wine intake confirmed the complicated relationship between the plasma MeOH content and the mRNA accumulation of both genes that were previously identified, namely, GAPDH and SNX27, and genes revealed in this study, including MME, SORL1, DDIT4, HBA and HBB. We hypothesized that human plasma MeOH has an impact on the WBC mRNA levels of genes involved in cell signaling.

  12. Telomerase Activity in Human Ovarian Carcinoma

    Counter, Christopher M.; Hirte, Hal W.; Bacchetti, Silvia; Harley, Calvin B.

    1994-04-01

    Telomeres fulfill the dual function of protecting eukaryotic chromosomes from illegitimate recombination and degradation and may aid in chromosome attachment to the nuclear membrane. We have previously shown that telomerase, the enzyme which synthesizes telomeric DNA, is not detected in normal somatic cells and that telomeres shorten with replicative age. In cells immortalized in vitro, activation of telomerase apparently stabilizes telomere length, preventing a critical destabilization of chromosomes, and cell proliferation continues even when telomeres are short. In vivo, telomeres of most tumors are shorter than telomeres of control tissues, suggesting an analogous role for the enzyme. To assess the relevance of telomerase and telomere stability in the development and progression of tumors, we have measured enzyme activity and telomere length in metastatic cells of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. We report that extremely short telomeres are maintained in these cells and that tumor cells, but not isogenic nonmalignant cells, express telomerase. Our findings suggest that progression of malignancy is ultimately dependent upon activation of telomerase and that telomerase inhibitors may be effective antitumor drugs.

  13. Active ingredients against human epidermal aging.

    Lorencini, Márcio; Brohem, Carla A; Dieamant, Gustavo C; Zanchin, Nilson I T; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-05-01

    The decisive role of the epidermis in maintaining body homeostasis prompted studies to evaluate the changes in epidermal structure and functionality over the lifetime. This development, along with the identification of molecular mechanisms of epidermal signaling, maintenance, and differentiation, points to a need for new therapeutic alternatives to treat and prevent skin aging. In addition to recovering age- and sun-compromised functions, proper treatment of the epidermis has important esthetic implications. This study reviews active ingredients capable of counteracting symptoms of epidermal aging, organized according to the regulation of specific age-affected epidermal functions: (1) several compounds, other than retinoids and derivatives, act on the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, supporting the protective barrier against mechanical and chemical insults; (2) natural lipidic compounds, as well as glycerol and urea, are described as agents for maintaining water-ion balance; (3) regulation of immunological pathogen defense can be reinforced by natural extracts and compounds, such as resveratrol; and (4) antioxidant exogenous sources enriched with flavonoids and vitamin C, for example, improve solar radiation protection and epidermal antioxidant activity. The main objective is to provide a functional classification of active ingredients as regulatory elements of epidermal homeostasis, with potential cosmetic and/or dermatological applications. PMID:24675046

  14. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of human intestinal defensin 5.

    Porter, E M; van Dam, E; Valore, E V; Ganz, T

    1997-01-01

    Defensins are antibiotic peptides expressed in human and animal myeloid and epithelial cells. Due to the limited availability of natural peptides, the properties of human epithelial defensins have not been studied. We assayed the microbicidal activity of recombinant human intestinal defensin 5 (rHD-5) in the presence of salt (O to 150 mM NaCl) with varied pH (pH 5.5 to pH 8.5) and trypsin (25 and 250 microg/ml). rHD-5 exhibits microbicidal activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia ...

  15. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses. PMID:26656575

  16. COMMUNICATIVE INTERACTION ACTIVITIES USING HUMAN INTEREST STORIES

    Song Shunling

    1983-01-01

    @@ As an EFL teacher actively engaged in promoting communicative approach in teaching post-intermediate students I have been all the time aware of the risks involved in classroom discussion and debate in the target language. Despite elaborate preparations on thepart of both teacher and students and numerous encouraging cues from the teacher to induce an adequate interaction during the session, the end product is anything but satisfactory: few more able students may hog the show for a few minutes while the rest clamp up, then stony silence dominates and the teacher has recourse to monologue.

  17. Echocardiographic image of an active human heart

    2003-01-01

    Echocardiographic images provide quick, safe images of the heart as it beats. While a state-of-the art echocardiograph unit is part of the Human Research Facility on International Space Station, quick transmission of images and data to Earth is a challenge. NASA is developing techniques to improve the echocardiography available to diagnose sick astronauts as well as study the long-term effects of space travel on their health. Echocardiography uses ultrasound, generated in a sensor head placed against the patient's chest, to produce images of the structure of the heart walls and valves. However, ultrasonic imaging creates an enormous volume of data, up to 220 million bits per second. This can challenge ISS communications as well as Earth-based providers. Compressing data for rapid transmission back to Earth can degrade the quality of the images. Researchers at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation are working with NASA to develop compression techniques that meet imaging standards now used on the Internet and by the medical community, and that ensure that physicians receive quality diagnostic images.

  18. Structure activity relationships of human galactokinase inhibitors.

    Liu, Li; Tang, Manshu; Walsh, Martin J; Brimacombe, Kyle R; Pragani, Rajan; Tanega, Cordelle; Rohde, Jason M; Baker, Heather L; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Blackman, Burchelle; Bougie, James M; Leister, William H; Auld, Douglas S; Shen, Min; Lai, Kent; Boxer, Matthew B

    2015-02-01

    Classic Galactosemia is a rare inborn error of metabolism that is caused by deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT), an enzyme within the Leloir pathway that is responsible for the conversion of galactose-1-phosphate (gal-1-p) and UDP-glucose to glucose-1-phosphate and UDP-galactose. This deficiency results in elevated intracellular concentrations of its substrate, gal-1-p, and this increased concentration is believed to be the major pathogenic mechanism in Classic Galactosemia. Galactokinase (GALK) is an upstream enzyme of GALT in the Leloir pathway and is responsible for conversion of galactose and ATP to gal-1-p and ADP. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the identification of a small-molecule inhibitor of human GALK would act to prevent the accumulation of gal-1-p and offer a novel entry therapy for this disorder. Herein we describe a quantitative high-throughput screening campaign that identified a single chemotype that was optimized and validated as a GALK inhibitor. PMID:25553891

  19. Natural radiation exposure modified by human activities

    We are now living in the radiation environment modified by our technology. It is usually called 'Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation' and have been discussed in the UNSCEAR Reports as an important source of exposure. The terrestrial radionuclide concentrations as well as the intensity of cosmic rays are considered to have been constant after our ancestors came down from trees and started walking on their two feet. However, we have been changing our environment to be more comfortable for our life and consequently ambient radiation levels are nomore what used to be. In this paper exposures due to natural radiation modified by our following activities are discussed: housing, balneology, cave excursion, mountain climbing, skiing, swimming, smoking and usage of mineral water, well water, coal, natural gas, phosphate rocks and minerals. In the ICRP Publication No. 39, it is clearly mentioned that even natural radiation should be controlled as far as it is controllable. We have to pay more attention to our activities not to enhance the exposure due to unnecessary, avoidable radiation. (author)

  20. Neutron activation analysis of human hair

    As a part of IAEA research project, ''Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants'', a survey was carried out to elucidate the levels of various trace element concentration in hair of local population in the Tokyo Metropolitan areas, by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 202 scalp hair samples were collected from the inhabitants classified by sex and five age classes. Irradiation was made in the Rikkyo University 100 kW TRIGA MARK-II reactor. Using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and counting time, forty elements were determined. The relationship between several trace element contents in hair and such factors as sex, age class, hair treatment, smoking habit and dental treatment, was analyzed by using the method of multiple regression. It was shown that (1) Hair treatment had a predominant effect on the contents of bromine, magnesium and calcium in hair, (2) Aging and amoking contributed increasing mercury content in hair, and hair treatment acted reversely. (author)

  1. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts. PMID:26555621

  2. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    Highlights: → PPARα activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. → PPARα activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. → PPARα activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. → PPARα activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPARα in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPARα using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPARα by GW7647, a potent PPARα agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPARγ, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPARα activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPARγ is activated. On the other hand, PPARα activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPARα-dependent manner. Moreover, PPARα activation increased the production of CO2 and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPARα stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPARα agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected effects of PPARα activation are very valuable for managing diabetic conditions accompanied by obesity, because PPAR

  3. Immunohistochemical evaluation of leiomyoma tissue and normal myometrium in patients with uter-ine leiomyoma during hypo- and hyperestrogenic conditions caused by of use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone ana-logues

    Medvedev M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In study immunohistochemical an alysis of markers of proliferation, apoptosis, extracellular ma trix degradation, angiogenesis and steroid hormone receptors in myomatous tissue and myometrium was conducted in 62 patients with uterine leiomyomas during long-term and short-term correction of hormonal status by gosere line acetate. Studies have shown that pseudocapsule of fibroids at immunohistochemical level is unchanged myometrium. For le iomyoma tissue compared to myometrium were characteristic greater expression of steroid hormone receptors and aromatase, inhibition of apoptosis, greater expression of angiogenic factors compared to unchanged myometrium. Under the action of GnRH-a direct and medi-ated by reduction of estradiol occurred molecular changes, which cover almost all parts of th e pathogenesis of fibroids and include inhibition of expression of estrogen receptor and aromat ase synthesis, enhancing of e xpression of progesterone recep-tors, inhibition of proliferation and angi ogenesis, accelerated degradation of ECM. Under the influence of hyperestrogeny caused by flare-up effect of GnRH-a and direct peripheral effect of GnRH analogs progression of uterine leiomyoma pro-vides increased sensitivity of uterine myocyt es to ischemia. Despite the obvious role of antiapoptotic factor bcl-2 in the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids, short- and long-term hormonal treatment with GnRH-a does not lead to significant changes in its expression.

  4. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing. PMID:26966964

  5. Human activity recognition from object interaction in domestic scenarios

    Flores Vázquez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the recognition of human activity based on the interaction between people and objects in domestic settings, specifically in a kitchen. In order to achieve the aim of recognizing activity it is necessary to establish a procedure and essential equipment. Regarding the procedure, in a simplified manner, it is based on capturing local images where the activity takes place using a colour camera (RGB), and processing the above mentioned images to recognize the present objects an...

  6. GIS spatio-temporal modeling of human maritime activities

    Le Guyader, Damien; Gourmelon, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Coastal seas are important for human societies with many and diverse activities. These space and resource consuming activities exert an increasing pressure on the environment and sometimes result in conflicting interactions. Understanding these interactions remains a challenge for research and civil society. A methodology is proposed to describe the spatio-temporal distribution of several activities in coastal seas. An application is developed in the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France). Spatial, ...

  7. A Competitive Approach for Human Activity Recognition on Smartphones

    Reiss, Attila; Hendeby, Gustaf; Stricker, Didier

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a competitive approach developed for an activity recognition challenge. The competition was defined on a new and publicly available dataset of human activities, recorded with smartphone sensors. This work investigates different feature sets for the activity recognition task of the competition. Moreover, the focus is also on the introduction of a new, confidence-based boosting algorithm called ConfAda- Boost.M1. Results show that the new classification method outperforms c...

  8. Perceiving emotions in human-human and human-animal interactions: Hemodynamic prefrontal activity (fNIRS) and empathic concern.

    Vanutelli, Maria Elide; Balconi, Michela

    2015-09-25

    In the last years social neuroscience research attempted to identify the neural networks underlying the human ability to perceive others' emotions, a core process in establishing meaningful social bonds. A large amount of papers arose and identified common and specific empathy-based networks with respect to stimulus type and task. Despite the great majority of studies focused on human-human contexts, we do not establish relations with only other humans, but also with non-human animals. The aim of the present work was to explore the brain mechanisms involved in empathic concern for people who interacts with both peers and other species. Participants have been assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while viewing pictures depicting humans interacting with both other men and women (human-human condition: HH), or with dogs and cats (human-animal: HA). Results showed that aggressive HH interactions elicited greater prefrontal activity (PFC) than HA ones while, when considering HA interactions, friendly ones were related to higher cortical activity. Finally, oxy (O2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) increasing related to the processing of aggressive interactions positively correlated with different empathic measures, within more specific brain regions. Results were elucidated with respect to available evidence on emotion perception, empathic neural mechanisms and their functional meaning for human-animal contexts. PMID:26272301

  9. Modeling and Visualization of Human Activities for Multicamera Networks

    Aswin C. Sankaranarayanan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicamera networks are becoming complex involving larger sensing areas in order to capture activities and behavior that evolve over long spatial and temporal windows. This necessitates novel methods to process the information sensed by the network and visualize it for an end user. In this paper, we describe a system for modeling and on-demand visualization of activities of groups of humans. Using the prior knowledge of the 3D structure of the scene as well as camera calibration, the system localizes humans as they navigate the scene. Activities of interest are detected by matching models of these activities learnt a priori against the multiview observations. The trajectories and the activity index for each individual summarize the dynamic content of the scene. These are used to render the scene with virtual 3D human models that mimic the observed activities of real humans. In particular, the rendering framework is designed to handle large displays with a cluster of GPUs as well as reduce the cognitive dissonance by rendering realistic weather effects and illumination. We envision use of this system for immersive visualization as well as summarization of videos that capture group behavior.

  10. Detection of cardiac activity changes from human speech

    Tovarek, Jaromir; Partila, Pavol; Voznak, Miroslav; Mikulec, Martin; Mehic, Miralem

    2015-05-01

    Impact of changes in blood pressure and pulse from human speech is disclosed in this article. The symptoms of increased physical activity are pulse, systolic and diastolic pressure. There are many methods of measuring and indicating these parameters. The measurements must be carried out using devices which are not used in everyday life. In most cases, the measurement of blood pressure and pulse following health problems or other adverse feelings. Nowadays, research teams are trying to design and implement modern methods in ordinary human activities. The main objective of the proposal is to reduce the delay between detecting the adverse pressure and to the mentioned warning signs and feelings. Common and frequent activity of man is speaking, while it is known that the function of the vocal tract can be affected by the change in heart activity. Therefore, it can be a useful parameter for detecting physiological changes. A method for detecting human physiological changes by speech processing and artificial neural network classification is described in this article. The pulse and blood pressure changes was induced by physical exercises in this experiment. The set of measured subjects was formed by ten healthy volunteers of both sexes. None of the subjects was a professional athlete. The process of the experiment was divided into phases before, during and after physical training. Pulse, systolic, diastolic pressure was measured and voice activity was recorded after each of them. The results of this experiment describe a method for detecting increased cardiac activity from human speech using artificial neural network.

  11. Activity of antiretroviral drugs in human infections by opportunistic agents

    Izabel Galhardo Demarchi; Daniela Maira Cardozo; Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides; Ricardo Alberto Moliterno; Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira; Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso; Dennis Armando Bertolini; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski; Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira; Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni

    2012-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is used in patients infected with HIV. This treatment has been shown to significantly decrease opportunist infections such as those caused by viruses, fungi and particularly, protozoa. The use of HAART in HIV-positive persons is associated with immune reconstitution as well as decreased prevalence of oral candidiasis and candidal carriage. Antiretroviral therapy benefits patients who are co-infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human ...

  12. Gastrointestinal-active oligosaccharides from human milk and functional foods

    Albrecht, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), konjac glucomannan (KGM), breast milk, baby feces, gastrointestinal metabolization, blood-group specific conjugates, CE-LIF-MSn   Oligosaccharides, as present in human milk or supplemented to food, are renowned for their biological activity in the gastrointestinal tract. So far, little is known about the implication of oligosaccharide structures on their gastrointestinal fate. The influence of diet-related olig...

  13. Autoproteolytic Cleavage and Activation of Human Acid Ceramidase*

    Shtraizent, Nataly; Eliyahu, Efrat; Park, Jae-Ho; He, Xingxuan; Shalgi, Ruth; Schuchman, Edward H.

    2008-01-01

    Herein we report the mechanism of human acid ceramidase (AC; N-acylsphingosine deacylase) cleavage and activation. A highly purified, recombinant human AC precursor underwent self-cleavage into α and β subunits, similar to other members of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily. This reaction proceeded with first order kinetics, characteristic of self-cleavage. AC self-cleavage occurred most rapidly at acidic pH, but also at neutral pH. Site-directed mutagene...

  14. Multiple biological activities of human recombinant interleukin 1.

    Dinarello, C A; Cannon, J. G.; Mier, J W; Bernheim, H. A.; LoPreste, G; Lynn, D L; Love, R N; Webb, A C; Auron, P. E.; Reuben, R C

    1986-01-01

    Complementary DNA coding for human monocyte interleukin 1 (IL-1), pI 7 form, was expressed in Escherichia coli. During purification, IL-1 activity on murine T cells was associated with the recombinant protein. Homogeneous human recombinant IL-1 (hrIL-1) was tested in several assays to demonstrate the immunological and inflammatory properties attributed to this molecule. hrIL-1 induced proliferative responses in a cloned murine T cell in the presence of suboptimal concentrations of mitogen, wh...

  15. Human receptor activation by aroclor 1260, a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture.

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A; States, J Christopher; Coslo, Denise M; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Cave, Matthew C

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXRα), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ≥10 μg/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (≥20 μg/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) suppressed PPARα activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPARα. PMID:24812009

  16. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI): Science Activities

    Niu, A; Haubold, H J; Doi, T

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) aims at promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities; creating awareness among countries on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications; and building capacity in microgravity education and research. HSTI has been conducting various scientific activities to promote microgravity education and research. The primary science activity is called 'Zero-gravity Instrument Distribution Project', in which one-axis clinostats will be distributed worldwide. The distribution project will provide unique opportunities for students and researchers to observe the growth of indigenous plants in their countries in a simulated microgravity condition and is expected to create a huge dataset of plant species with their responses to gravity.

  17. Protein composition of catalytically active human telomerase from immortal cells

    Cohen, Scott B; Graham, Mark E; Lovrecz, George O;

    2007-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex that adds 5'-TTAGGG-3' repeats onto the ends of human chromosomes, providing a telomere maintenance mechanism for approximately 90% of human cancers. We have purified human telomerase approximately 10(8)-fold, with the final elution dependent on the...... enzyme's ability to catalyze nucleotide addition onto a DNA oligonucleotide of telomeric sequence, thereby providing specificity for catalytically active telomerase. Mass spectrometric sequencing of the protein components and molecular size determination indicated an enzyme composition of two molecules...... each of telomerase reverse transcriptase, telomerase RNA, and dyskerin....

  18. CRISPR RNA-guided activation of endogenous human genes

    Maeder, Morgan L.; Linder, Samantha J; Cascio, Vincent M.; Fu, Yanfang; Ho, Quan H; Joung, J Keith

    2013-01-01

    Catalytically inactive CRISPR-associated 9 nuclease (dCas9) can be directed by short guide RNAs (gRNAs) to repress endogenous genes in bacteria and human cells. Here we show that a dCas9-VP64 transcriptional activation domain fusion protein can be directed by single or multiple gRNAs to increase expression of specific endogenous human genes. These results provide an important proof-of-principle that CRISPR-Cas systems can be used to target heterologous effector domains in human cells.

  19. Bacterial expression of human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase: solubility, activity, purification.

    Wilson, K; Mole, D J; Binnie, M; Homer, N Z M; Zheng, X; Yard, B A; Iredale, J P; Auer, M; Webster, S P

    2014-03-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is an enzyme central to the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. KMO has been implicated as a therapeutic target in several disease states, including Huntington's disease. Recombinant human KMO protein production is challenging due to the presence of transmembrane domains, which localise KMO to the outer mitochondrial membrane and render KMO insoluble in many in vitro expression systems. Efficient bacterial expression of human KMO would accelerate drug development of KMO inhibitors but until now this has not been achieved. Here we report the first successful bacterial (Escherichia coli) expression of active FLAG™-tagged human KMO enzyme expressed in the soluble fraction and progress towards its purification. PMID:24316190

  20. Determination of the functional size of oxytocin receptors in plasma membranes from mammary gland and uterine myometrium of the rat by radiation inactivation

    Soloff, M.S.; Beauregard, G.; Potier, M.

    1988-05-01

    Gel filtration of detergent-solubilized oxytocin (OT) receptors in plasma membrane fractions from both regressed mammary gland and labor myometrium of the rat, showed that specific (/sup 3/H)OT binding was associated with a heterogeneously sized population of macromolecules. As radiation inactivation is the only method available to measure the apparent molecular weights of membrane proteins in situ, we used this approach to define the functional sizes of OT receptors. The results indicate that both mammary and myometrial receptors are uniform in size and of similar molecular mass. Mammary and myometrial receptors were estimated to be 57.5 +/- 3.8 (SD) and 58.8 +/- 1.6 kilodaltons, respectively. Knowledge of the functional size of OT receptors will be useful in studies involving the purification and characterization of the receptor and associated membrane components.

  1. Estrogen biosynthesis in human uterine adenomyosis

    Estrogen biosynthesis (aromatiase activity) was investigated in human adenomyosis tissue and compared with that of the normal myometrium, endometrium, and endometrical cancer tissues. Homogenates were incubated with [1,2,6,7-3H]androstenedione and NADPH at 37 deg. C for 1 h. After stopping the enzymatic reaction with ethyl acetate, [4-14C]estrone and [4-14C]estradiol-17β were added to the incubated sample. Estrone and estradiol were purified and identified by Bio-Rad AG1-X2 column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography and co-crystallization. Estrogen formed in the incubated sample was calculated from the 3H/14C ratio of the final crystal. The value for estrone formed from androstenedione was 52-132 fmol.h-1.g-1 wet weight. Aromatase activity in the adenomyosis tissues was higher than that in normal endometrial or myometrial tissues, but lower than that found in myometrial or endometrial tumour tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of danazol, progresterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate on adenomyosis cells in primary cultures. Aromatase activity in adenomyosis was blocked by danazol, but stimulated by progesterone and MPA. These results indicate that aromatase activity in adenomyosis may contribute to the growth of the ectopic endometrial tissue which occurs in this disease. (author)

  2. Estrogen biosynthesis in human uterine adenomyosis

    Urabe, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Takara; Kitawaki, Jo; Honjo, Hideo; Okada, Hiroji (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan))

    1989-01-01

    Estrogen biosynthesis (aromatiase activity) was investigated in human adenomyosis tissue and compared with that of the normal myometrium, endometrium, and endometrical cancer tissues. Homogenates were incubated with (1,2,6,7-{sup 3}H)androstenedione and NADPH at 37 deg. C for 1 h. After stopping the enzymatic reaction with ethyl acetate, (4-{sup 14}C)estrone and (4-{sup 14}C)estradiol-17{beta} were added to the incubated sample. Estrone and estradiol were purified and identified by Bio-Rad AG1-X2 column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography and co-crystallization. Estrogen formed in the incubated sample was calculated from the {sup 3}H/{sup 14}C ratio of the final crystal. The value for estrone formed from androstenedione was 52-132 fmol{sup .}h{sup -1.}g{sup -1} wet weight. Aromatase activity in the adenomyosis tissues was higher than that in normal endometrial or myometrial tissues, but lower than that found in myometrial or endometrial tumour tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of danazol, progresterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate on adenomyosis cells in primary cultures. Aromatase activity in adenomyosis was blocked by danazol, but stimulated by progesterone and MPA. These results indicate that aromatase activity in adenomyosis may contribute to the growth of the ectopic endometrial tissue which occurs in this disease. (author).

  3. Impact of the human activities on the climate

    In the framework of the A2 scenario of the GIEC, the possible impacts on the french climate, of the human activities are examined. It seems that the human activities imposed and will be able to impose a faster change of the climate than the natural changes. For the hundred coming years the main characteristics could be: an increase of the temperature, an increase of the rains in winter and a decrease in summer, a decrease of the water in soils expected in freezing areas and an increase of the drought periods. (A.L.B.)

  4. Chloride transport in human fibroblasts is activated by hypotonic shock

    Incubation of human skin fibroblasts in hypotonic media induced the activation of 36Cl- efflux which was roughly proportional to the decrease in the osmolality of the media. The efflux of 36Cl- was insensitive to DIDS plus furosemide and inhibited by addition of a Cl- channel blocker such as 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB). We propose that a conductive pathway for Cl- transport, almost silent in isotonic conditions, is activated by exposing human fibroblasts to hypotonic shock, this conclusion being supported by evidence that also 36Cl- influx was enhanced by hypotonic medium

  5. Implications of Special Regions to Conducting Human Activities on Mars

    Rummel, J. D.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D. W.; Jones, M. A.; Hipkin, V.

    2014-12-01

    A MEPAG Science Analysis Group (SAG) has undertaken an analysis of Special Regions (SR) on Mars—regions where indigenous martian life could exist or where Earth microbes, if introduced, could survive and reproduce. The SR-SAG has considered the impact of SR on future human activities on the martian surface. Human exploration requires access to in-situ resources, some of which may be found in SR. Water and oxygen for ISRU are found in the atmosphere, surface/near-surface ice, hydrated minerals, and perchlorates. Water ice is most abundant at latitudes poleward of ~60 degrees, but polar darkness, cold temperatures, and CO2 degassing present hazards to human operations in these regions. Accessible water is more limited toward the equator, though temperature and solar energy conditions become more favorable. The possible presence of liquid water in Recurring Slope Lineae and active gullies leads to their treatment as SR. Fuel for surface operations and propellants for crew ascent could be manufactured from the martian atmosphere and surface materials, but dust in the atmosphere may clog ISRU equipment and perchlorate is toxic to humans. Power may be produced from solar or nuclear energy. Reliance on solar energy limits operations to the equatorial zone where easily accessible ice resources are limited. Nuclear power allows surface operations at a range of latitudes, but waste heat could convert some non-SR into SR. Radiation shielding is necessary for long-term human operations on Mars and could be obtained by deposition of regolith or by water storage in tanks or as ice around habitats, or the use of underground habitats. SR-SAG recognizes that it will be impossible for all human-associated processes and operations to be conducted within entirely closed systems. Protocols need to be established so (1) human missions to Mars will not contaminate SR nor be contaminated by materials from them, and (2) human activities on Mars will avoid converting areas into SR.

  6. Magnetogastrographic detection of gastric electrical response activity in humans

    The detection and characterization of gastric electrical activity has important clinical applications, including the early diagnosis of gastric diseases in humans. In mammals, this phenomenon has two important features: an electrical control activity (ECA) that manifests itself as an electric slow wave (with a frequency of 3 cycles per minute in humans) and an electrical response activity (ERA) that is characterized by spiking potentials during the plateau phase of the ECA. Whereas the ECA has been recorded in humans both invasively and non-invasively (magnetogastrography-MGG), the ERA has never been detected non-invasively in humans before. In this paper, we report on our progress towards the non-invasive detection of ERA from the human stomach using a procedure that involves the application of principal component analysis to MGG recordings, which were acquired in our case from ten normal human patients using a Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer. Both pre- and post-prandial recordings were acquired for each patient and 20 min of recordings (10 min of pre-prandial and 10 min of post-prandial data) were analysed for each patient. The mean percentage of ECA slow waves that were found to exhibit spikes of suspected ERA origin was 41% and 61% for pre- and post-prandial recordings, respectively, implying a 47% ERA increase post-prandially (P < 0.0001 at a 95% confidence level). The detection of ERA in humans is highly encouraging and points to the possible use of non-invasive ERA recordings as a valuable tool for the study of human gastric disorders

  7. Characterization of acid sphingomyelinase activity in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Christiane Mühle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism, acid sphingomyelinase (ASM is involved in the regulation of cell fate and signaling via hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to form ceramide. While increased activity of the lysosomal form has been associated with various pathological conditions, there are few studies on secretory ASM limited only to cell models, plasma or serum. METHODS: An optimized assay based on a fluorescent substrate was applied to measure the ASM activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF collected from mice and from 42 patients who were classified as controls based on normal routine CSF values. RESULTS: We have detected ASM activity in human CSF, established a sensitive quantitative assay and characterized the enzyme's properties. The enzyme resembles plasmatic ASM including protein stability and Zn(2+-dependence but the assays differ considerably in the optimal detergent concentration. Significantly increased activities in the CSF of ASM transgenic mice and undetectable levels in ASM knock-out mice prove that the measured ASM activity originates from the ASM-encoding gene SMPD1. CSF localized ASM activities were comparable to corresponding serum ASM levels at their respective optimal reaction conditions, but no correlation was observed. The large variance in ASM activity was independent of sex, age or analyzed routine CSF parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Human and mouse CSF contain detectable levels of secretory ASM, which are unrelated to serum ASM activities. Further investigations in humans and in animal models will help to elucidate the role of this enzyme in human disease and to assess its value as a potential biomarker for disease type, severity, progress or therapeutic success.

  8. Human ECG signal parameters estimation during controlled physical activity

    Maciejewski, Marcin; Surtel, Wojciech; Dzida, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    ECG signal parameters are commonly used indicators of human health condition. In most cases the patient should remain stationary during the examination to decrease the influence of muscle artifacts. During physical activity, the noise level increases significantly. The ECG signals were acquired during controlled physical activity on a stationary bicycle and during rest. Afterwards, the signals were processed using a method based on Pan-Tompkins algorithms to estimate their parameters and to test the method.

  9. Antibacterial activity of mangrove leaf extracts against human pathogens

    G. Sahoo; N. S. S. Mulla; Ansari, Z.A.; Mohandass, C.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of leaf extract of mangroves, namely, Rhizophora mucronata, Sonneratia alba and Exoecaria agallocha from Chorao island, Goa was investigated against human bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. As compared to aqueous, ethanol extract showed broad-spectrum activity. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria Salmonella typhi was inhibited by the ethanol extract of S. alba leaf whereas the ot...

  10. Recognition of Human Activities Using Continuous Autoencoders with Wearable Sensors

    Lukun Wang

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an approach for recognizing human activities with wearable sensors. The continuous autoencoder (CAE) as a novel stochastic neural network model is proposed which improves the ability of model continuous data. CAE adds Gaussian random units into the improved sigmoid activation function to extract the features of nonlinear data. In order to shorten the training time, we propose a new fast stochastic gradient descent (FSGD) algorithm to update the gradients of CAE. The recons...

  11. Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager

    Luo, Qingming

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

  12. The interaction between ICT and human activity-travel behavior

    Kwan, M.P.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between information and communication technologies (ICT) and human activity-travel behavior has been an important theme in transportation research in recent years. Researchers have recognized that an increase in the use of ICT may lead to changes in the location, timing and duration

  13. Activation of the insular cortex during dynamic exercise in humans

    Williamson, James; Nobrega, A C; McColl, R;

    1997-01-01

    role as a site for regulation of autonomic activity. 2. Eight subjects were studied during voluntary active cycling and passively induced cycling. Additionally, four of the subjects underwent passive movement combined with electrical stimulation of the legs. 3. Increases in regional cerebral blood flow...... during active, but not passive cycling. There were no significant changes in rCBF for the right insula. Also, the magnitude of rCBF increase for leg primary motor areas was significantly greater for both active cycling and passive cycling combined with electrical stimulation compared with passive cycling...... alone. 5. These findings provide the first evidence of insular activation during dynamic exercise in humans, suggesting that the left insular cortex may serve as a site for cortical regulation of cardiac autonomic (parasympathetic) activity. Additionally, findings during passive cycling with electrical...

  14. Corticospinal contribution to arm muscle activity during human walking

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    When we walk, our arm muscles show rhythmic activity suggesting that the central nervous system contributes to the swing of the arms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether corticospinal drive plays a role in the control of arm muscle activity during human walking. Motor evoked...... potentials (MEPs) elicited in the posterior deltoid muscle (PD) by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were modulated during the gait cycle in parallel with changes in the background EMG activity. There was no significant difference in the size of the MEPs at a comparable level of background EMG during...... inhibitory interneurones, the suppression is in all likelihood caused by removal of a corticospinal contribution to the ongoing EMG activity. The data thus suggest that the motor cortex makes an active contribution, through the corticospinal tract, to the ongoing EMG activity in arm muscles during walking....

  15. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo, E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected

  16. Cost-Sensitive Bayesian Control Policy in Human Active Sensing

    Sheeraz Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An important but poorly understood aspect of sensory processing is the role of active sensing, the use of self-motion such as eye or head movements to focus sensing resources on the most rewarding or informative aspects of the sensory environment. Here, we present behavioral data from a visual search experiment, as well as a Bayesian model of within-trial dynamics of sensory processing and eye movements. Within this Bayes-optimal inference and control framework, which we call C-DAC (Context-Dependent Active Controller, various types of behavioral costs, such as temporal delay, response error, and sensor repositioning cost, are explicitly minimized. This contrasts with previously proposed algorithms that optimize abstract statistical objectives such as anticipated information gain (Infomax (Butko and Movellan, 2010 and one-step look-ahead accuracy (greedy MAP (Najemnik and Geisler, 2005. We find that C-DAC captures human visual search dynamics better than previous models, in particular a certain form of “confirmation bias” apparent in the way human subjects utilize prior knowledge about the spatial distribution of the search target to improve search speed and accuracy. We also examine several computationally efficient approximations to C-DAC that may present biologically more plausible accounts of the neural computations underlying active sensing, as well as practical tools for solving active sensing problems in engineering applications. To summarize, this paper makes several key contributions: human visual search behavioral data, a context-sensitive Bayesian active sensing model, a comparative study between different models of human active sensing, and a family of efficient approximations to the optimal model.

  17. Human activity and climate variability project: annual report 2001

    Knowledge of the state of the Australian environment, including natural climate variability, prior to colonial settlement is vital if we are to define and understand the impact of over two hundred years of post-industrial human activity on our landscape. ANSTO, in conjunction with university partners, is leading a major research effort to provide natural archives of human activity and climate variability over the last 500 years in Australia, utilising a variety of techniques, including lead-210 and radiocarbon dating and analyses of proxy indicators (such as microfossils) as well as direct evidence (such as trace elements) of human activity and climate variability. The other major project objectives were to contribute to the understanding of the impact of human induced and natural aerosols in the East Asian region on climate through analysis and sourcing of fine particles and characterisation of air samples using radon concentrations and to contribute to the improvement of land surface parameterisation schemes and investigate the potential to use stable isotopes to improve global climate models and thus improve our understanding of future climate

  18. Muscular activity and its relationship to biomechanics and human performance

    Ariel, Gideon

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to address the issue of muscular activity, human motion, fitness, and exercise. Human activity is reviewed from the historical perspective as well as from the basics of muscular contraction, nervous system controls, mechanics, and biomechanical considerations. In addition, attention has been given to some of the principles involved in developing muscular adaptations through strength development. Brief descriptions and findings from a few studies are included. These experiments were conducted in order to investigate muscular adaptation to various exercise regimens. Different theories of strength development were studied and correlated to daily human movements. All measurement tools used represent state of the art exercise equipment and movement analysis. The information presented here is only a small attempt to understand the effects of exercise and conditioning on Earth with the objective of leading to greater knowledge concerning human responses during spaceflight. What makes life from nonliving objects is movement which is generated and controlled by biochemical substances. In mammals. the controlled activators are skeletal muscles and this muscular action is an integral process composed of mechanical, chemical, and neurological processes resulting in voluntary and involuntary motions. The scope of this discussion is limited to voluntary motion.

  19. Human monoamine oxidase A gene determines levels of enzyme activity.

    Hotamisligil, G S; Breakefield, X O

    1991-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a critical enzyme in the degradative deamination of biogenic amines throughout the body. Two biochemically distinct forms of the enzyme, A and B, are encoded in separate genes on the human X chromosome. In these studies we investigated the role of the structural gene for MAO-A in determining levels of activity in humans, as measured in cultured skin fibroblasts. The coding sequence of the mRNA for MAO-A was determined by first-strand cDNA synthesis, PCR amplificatio...

  20. Toshiba's activity concerning technology succession and human resource development

    Recently, from the viewpoint of the reduction of carbon-dioxide emission that cause global warming and the energy security, the importance of nuclear power generation is recognized again as an effective approach for solving the problems, and many nuclear power plants are planed to be constructed worldwide. On the other hand, the experienced engineers will face the time of the retirement in the near future and technology succession and human resource development has become important problems. In this paper, Toshiba's Nuclear Energy Systems and Services Division's activity concerning technology succession and human resource development will be introduced. (author)

  1. The DNA methylation profile of activated human natural killer cells.

    Wiencke, John K; Butler, Rondi; Hsuang, George; Eliot, Melissa; Kim, Stephanie; Sepulveda, Manuel A; Siegel, Derick; Houseman, E Andres; Kelsey, Karl T

    2016-05-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are now recognized to exhibit characteristics akin to cells of the adaptive immune system. The generation of adaptive memory is linked to epigenetic reprogramming including alterations in DNA methylation. The study herein found reproducible genome wide DNA methylation changes associated with human NK cell activation. Activation led predominately to CpG hypomethylation (81% of significant loci). Bioinformatics analysis confirmed that non-coding and gene-associated differentially methylated sites (DMS) are enriched for immune related functions (i.e., immune cell activation). Known DNA methylation-regulated immune loci were also identified in activated NK cells (e.g., TNFA, LTA, IL13, CSF2). Twenty-one loci were designated high priority and further investigated as potential markers of NK activation. BHLHE40 was identified as a viable candidate for which a droplet digital PCR assay for demethylation was developed. The assay revealed high demethylation in activated NK cells and low demethylation in naïve NK, T- and B-cells. We conclude the NK cell methylome is plastic with potential for remodeling. The differentially methylated region signature of activated NKs revealed similarities with T cell activation, but also provided unique biomarker candidates of NK activation, which could be useful in epigenome-wide association studies to interrogate the role of NK subtypes in global methylation changes associated with exposures and/or disease states. PMID:26967308

  2. Activities of human RRP6 and structure of the human RRP6 catalytic domain

    Januszyk, Kurt; Liu, Quansheng; Lima, Christopher D. (SKI)

    2011-08-29

    The eukaryotic RNA exosome is a highly conserved multi-subunit complex that catalyzes degradation and processing of coding and noncoding RNA. A noncatalytic nine-subunit exosome core interacts with Rrp44 and Rrp6, two subunits that possess processive and distributive 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease activity, respectively. While both Rrp6 and Rrp44 are responsible for RNA processing in budding yeast, Rrp6 may play a more prominent role in processing, as it has been demonstrated to be inhibited by stable RNA secondary structure in vitro and because the null allele in budding yeast leads to the buildup of specific structured RNA substrates. Human RRP6, otherwise known as PM/SCL-100 or EXOSC10, shares sequence similarity to budding yeast Rrp6 and is proposed to catalyze 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease activity on a variety of nuclear transcripts including ribosomal RNA subunits, RNA that has been poly-adenylated by TRAMP, as well as other nuclear RNA transcripts destined for processing and/or destruction. To characterize human RRP6, we expressed the full-length enzyme as well as truncation mutants that retain catalytic activity, compared their activities to analogous constructs for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rrp6, and determined the X-ray structure of a human construct containing the exoribonuclease and HRDC domains that retains catalytic activity. Structural data show that the human active site is more exposed when compared to the yeast structure, and biochemical data suggest that this feature may play a role in the ability of human RRP6 to productively engage and degrade structured RNA substrates more effectively than the analogous budding yeast enzyme.

  3. Production of biologically active recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Ward, P P; Lo, J Y; Duke, M; May, G S; Headon, D R; Conneely, O M

    1992-07-01

    We report the production of recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae. Expression of human lactoferrin (hLF), a 78 kD glycoprotein, was achieved by placing the cDNA under the control of the A. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter and the 3' flanking region of the A. niger glucoamylase gene. Using this system, hLF is expressed and secreted into the growth medium at levels up to 25 mg/l. The recombinant lactoferrin is indistinguishable from human milk lactoferrin with respect to its size, immunoreactivity, and iron-binding capacity. The recombinant protein appears to be appropriately N-linked glycosylated and correctly processed at the N-terminus by the A. oryzae secretory apparatus. Lactoferrin is the largest heterologous protein and the first mammalian glycoprotein expressed in the Aspergillus system to date. Hence, this expression system appears suitable for the large-scale production and secretion of biologically active mammalian glycoproteins. PMID:1368268

  4. Human hair identification by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Nondestructive neutron activation technique was used to analyze 17 elements (Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cl, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) in 75 human hair samples in 5 different locations, respectively, from 15 glassware workers. The analytical results were treated further statistically to find the elemental distribution among different human hairs and to identify the individual's hair. The identifying probability of one's hair by the comparison of elemental concentrations is found to be 104-106 times higher from the same person's than from any other person's. The standard deviation of the elemental concentrations of samples taken from 5 different locations of one person is about 5 time smaller than the standard deviation for individual's hair. These data support the possibility of using NAA of hair for human hair identification. (author)

  5. Ontology-based improvement to human activity recognition

    Tahmoush, David; Bonial, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Human activity recognition has often prioritized low-level features extracted from imagery or video over higher-level class attributes and ontologies because they have traditionally been more effective on small datasets. However, by including knowledge-driven associations between actions and attributes while recognizing the lower-level attributes with their temporal relationships, we can attempt a hybrid approach that is more easily extensible to much larger datasets. We demonstrate a combination of hard and soft features with a comparison factor that prioritizes one approach over the other with a relative weight. We then exhaustively search over the comparison factor to evaluate the performance of a hybrid human activity recognition approach in comparison to the base hard approach at 84% accuracy and the current state-of-the-art.

  6. Optimal Recognition Method of Human Activities Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Oniga Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is an exhaustive analysis of the various factors that may influence the recognition rate of the human activity using wearable sensors data. We made a total of 1674 simulations on a publically released human activity database by a group of researcher from the University of California at Berkeley. In a previous research, we analyzed the influence of the number of sensors and their placement. In the present research we have examined the influence of the number of sensor nodes, the type of sensor node, preprocessing algorithms, type of classifier and its parameters. The final purpose is to find the optimal setup for best recognition rates with lowest hardware and software costs.

  7. Optimal Recognition Method of Human Activities Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Oniga, Stefan; József, Sütő

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research is an exhaustive analysis of the various factors that may influence the recognition rate of the human activity using wearable sensors data. We made a total of 1674 simulations on a publically released human activity database by a group of researcher from the University of California at Berkeley. In a previous research, we analyzed the influence of the number of sensors and their placement. In the present research we have examined the influence of the number of sensor nodes, the type of sensor node, preprocessing algorithms, type of classifier and its parameters. The final purpose is to find the optimal setup for best recognition rates with lowest hardware and software costs.

  8. Nondestructive multielementary analysis of human hair by neutron activation

    Various elements contained in human hair have been used for an index of environmental pollution effect of human body. Nondestructive neutron activation analysis was applied to hair samples on 61 inhabitants of a local district which was free from air pollution. At Rikkyo University hair samples were irradiated for 3 minutes or 15 hours (5 hours/day, 3 days) in a TRIGA Mark II Reactor with a neutron flux of 1.5x1012 n/cm2/sec. The activities were measured by a Ge(Li) detector. 18 elements could be determined: Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, I, Mg, Mn, Na, S and V with the 3 minute irradiation method, and As, Au, Cr, K, La, Sb and Zn with the 15 hour irradiation method. Concentration-distribution histograms, and differences in distribution patterns of these elements caused by permanent wave treatment, sex or age were discussed. (auth.)

  9. A voltage-activated proton current in human cardiac fibroblasts

    A voltage-activated proton current in human cardiac fibroblasts, measured using the whole-cell recording configuration of the patch-clamp technique, is reported. Increasing the pH of the bathing solution shifted the current activation threshold to more negative potentials and increased both the current amplitude and its rate of activation. Changing the pH gradient by one unit caused a 51 mV shift in the reversal potential of the current, demonstrating a high selectivity for protons of the channel carrying the current. Extracellularly applied Zn2+ reversibly inhibited the current. Activation of the current contributes to the resting membrane conductance under conditions of intracellular acidosis. It is proposed that this current in cardiac fibroblasts is involved in the regulation of the intracellular pH and the membrane potential under physiological conditions as well as in response to pathological conditions such as ischemia

  10. Preservation of metabolic activity in lyophilized human erythrocytes.

    Goodrich, R P; Sowemimo-Coker, S O; Zerez, C R; Tanaka, K R

    1992-01-01

    Normal human erythrocytes (RBC) were freeze-dried under conditions that caused minimal modification in normal RBC metabolic activities. Because of the known effects of long-term storage on metabolic activities, we studied the effects of our lyophilization process on RBC metabolism. Of all the metabolic enzymes studied, only triosephosphate isomerase (D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ketol-isomerase, EC 5.3.1.1), enolase (2-phospho-D-glyceratehydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.11), and pyruvate kinase (ATP:pyr...

  11. Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels in human leukemic T cells

    1992-01-01

    Using the patch-clamp technique, we have identified two types of Ca(2+)- activated K+ (K(Ca)) channels in the human leukemic T cell line. Jurkat. Substances that elevate the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), such as ionomycin or the mitogenic lectin phytohemagglutinin (PHA), as well as whole-cell dialysis with pipette solutions containing elevated [Ca2+]i, activate a voltage-independent K+ conductance. Unlike the voltage-gated (type n) K+ channels in these cells, the majority of K(C...

  12. Human hair neutron activation analysis: analysis on population level, mapping

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia. (author)

  13. Activation of superior colliculi in humans during visual exploration

    Karnath Hans-Otto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual, oculomotor, and – recently – cognitive functions of the superior colliculi (SC have been documented in detail in non-human primates in the past. Evidence for corresponding functions of the SC in humans is still rare. We examined activity changes in the human tectum and the lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN in a visual search task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and anatomically defined regions of interest (ROI. Healthy subjects conducted a free visual search task and two voluntary eye movement tasks with and without irrelevant visual distracters. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signals in the SC were compared to activity in the inferior colliculi (IC and LGN. Results Neural activity increased during free exploration only in the SC in comparison to both control tasks. Saccade frequency did not exert a significant effect on BOLD signal changes. No corresponding differences between experimental tasks were found in the IC or the LGN. However, while the IC revealed no signal increase from the baseline, BOLD signal changes at the LGN were consistently positive in all experimental conditions. Conclusion Our data demonstrate the involvement of the SC in a visual search task. In contrast to the results of previous studies, signal changes could not be seen to be driven by either visual stimulation or oculomotor control on their own. Further, we can exclude the influence of any nearby neural structures (e.g. pulvinar, tegmentum or of typical artefacts at the brainstem on the observed signal changes at the SC. Corresponding to findings in non-human primates, our data support a dependency of SC activity on functions beyond oculomotor control and visual processing.

  14. Exergy Analysis of Human Respiration Under Physical Activity

    Albuquerque Neto, Cyro; Pellegrini, Luiz Felipe; Ferreira, Maurício Silva; DE OLIVEIRA JR., SILVIO; Yanagihara, Jurandir Itizo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an exergy analysis of the human body under physical activity. A model of the respiratory system and a model of the thermal system were used for this purpose. These models consider heat and mass transfers in lungs, tissues and blood. Each component of these models is represented by a uniform compartment governed by equations for diffusion, convection, O2 consumption, CO2/heat generation and heat and mass transfer with the environment. The models allow the calculation of the...

  15. Concurrent activities and instructed human fixed-interval performance.

    Barnes, D; Keenan, M

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments explored the effects of two types of concurrent activity on human fixed-interval performance. Eight adult subjects were given access to either reading material or a working television set across three fixed-interval values (60 s, 300 s, and 600 s). During Experiment 1, 2 subjects produced "scalloped" patterns and reported no verbal regulation (e.g., counting) in the presence of the reading material, but shifted to low-rate patterns and reported verbal regulation when the readi...

  16. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human

    Koolen, N.; Dereymaeker, A.; Räsänen, O.; Jansen, K.; Vervisch, J.; Matic, V.; Naulaers, G.; De Vos, M.; Van Huffel, S.; Vanhatalo, S.

    2016-01-01

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. PMID:26876605

  17. Interactions between cardiac, respiratory, and brain activity in humans

    Musizza, Bojan; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2005-05-01

    The electrical activity of the heart (ECG), respiratory function and electric activity of the brain (EEG) were simultaneously recorded in conscious, healthy humans. Instantaneous frequencies of the heart beat, respiration and α-waves were then determined from 30-minutes recordings. The instantaneous cardiac frequency was defined as the inverse value of the time interval between two consecutive R-peaks. The instantaneous respiratory frequency was obtained from recordings of the excursions of thorax by application of the Hilbert transform. To obtain the instantaneous frequency of α-waves, the EEG signal recorded from the forehead was first analysed using the wavelet transform. Then the frequency band corresponding to α-waves was extracted and the Hilbert transform applied. Synchronization analysis was performed and the direction of coupling was ascertained, using pairs of instantaneous frequencies in each case. It is shown that the systems are weakly bidirectionally coupled. It was confirmed that, in conscious healthy humans, respiration drives cardiac activity. We also demonstrate from these analyses that α-activity drives both respiration and cardiac activity.

  18. Monitoring human and vehicle activities using airborne video

    Cutler, Ross; Shekhar, Chandra S.; Burns, B.; Chellappa, Rama; Bolles, Robert C.; Davis, Larry S.

    2000-05-01

    Ongoing work in Activity Monitoring (AM) for the Airborne Video Surveillance (AVS) project is described. The goal for AM is to recognize activities of interest involving humans and vehicles using airborne video. AM consists of three major components: (1) moving object detection, tracking, and classification; (2) image to site-model registration; (3) activity recognition. Detecting and tracking humans and vehicles form airborne video is a challenging problem due to image noise, low GSD, poor contrast, motion parallax, motion blur, and camera blur, and camera jitter. We use frame-to- frame affine-warping stabilization and temporally integrated intensity differences to detect independent motion. Moving objects are initially tracked using nearest-neighbor correspondence, followed by a greedy method that favors long track lengths and assumes locally constant velocity. Object classification is based on object size, velocity, and periodicity of motion. Site-model registration uses GPS information and camera/airplane orientations to provide an initial geolocation with +/- 100m accuracy at an elevation of 1000m. A semi-automatic procedure is utilized to improve the accuracy to +/- 5m. The activity recognition component uses the geolocated tracked objects and the site-model to detect pre-specified activities, such as people entering a forbidden area and a group of vehicles leaving a staging area.

  19. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human.

    Koolen, N; Dereymaeker, A; Räsänen, O; Jansen, K; Vervisch, J; Matic, V; Naulaers, G; De Vos, M; Van Huffel, S; Vanhatalo, S

    2016-05-13

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. PMID:26876605

  20. Haptoglobin inhibits phospholipid transfer protein activity in hyperlipidemic human plasma

    Leon Carlos G

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haptoglobin is a plasma protein that scavenges haemoglobin during haemolysis. Phospholipid Transfer Protein (PLTP transfers lipids from Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL to High Density Lipoproteins (HDL. PLTP is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis which causes coronary artery disease, the leading cause of death in North America. It has been shown that Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1 binds and regulates PLTP activity. Haptoglobin can also bind to Apo-A1, affecting the ability of Apo-A1 to induce enzymatic activities. Thus we hypothesize that haptoglobin inhibits PLTP activity. This work tested the effect of Haptoglobin and Apo-A1 addition on PLTP activity in human plasma samples. The results will contribute to our understanding of the role of haptoglobin on modulating reverse cholesterol transport. Results We analyzed the PLTP activity and Apo-A1 and Haptoglobin content in six hyperlipidemic and six normolipidemic plasmas. We found that Apo-A1 levels are proportional to PLTP activity in hyperlipidemic (R2 = 0.66, p 2 = 0.57, p > 0.05. When the PLTP activity was graphed versus the Hp/Apo-A1 ratio in hyperlipidemic plasma there was a significant correlation (R2 = 0.69, p Conclusion These findings suggest an inhibitory effect of Haptoglobin over PLTP activity in hyperlipidemic plasma that may contribute to the regulation of reverse cholesterol transport.

  1. Dynamic phenomena and human activity in an artificial society

    Grabowski, A.; Kruszewska, N.; Kosiński, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    We study dynamic phenomena in a large social network of nearly 3×104 individuals who interact in the large virtual world of a massive multiplayer online role playing game. On the basis of a database received from the online game server, we examine the structure of the friendship network and human dynamics. To investigate the relation between networks of acquaintances in virtual and real worlds, we carried out a survey among the players. We show that, even though the virtual network did not develop as a growing graph of an underlying network of social acquaintances in the real world, it influences it. Furthermore we find very interesting scaling laws concerning human dynamics. Our research shows how long people are interested in a single task and how much time they devote to it. Surprisingly, exponent values in both cases are close to -1 . We calculate the activity of individuals, i.e., the relative time daily devoted to interactions with others in the artificial society. Our research shows that the distribution of activity is not uniform and is highly correlated with the degree of the node, and that such human activity has a significant influence on dynamic phenomena, e.g., epidemic spreading and rumor propagation, in complex networks. We find that spreading is accelerated (an epidemic) or decelerated (a rumor) as a result of superspreaders’ various behavior.

  2. Antiviral activity of purified human breast milk mucin.

    Habte, Habtom H; Kotwal, Girish J; Lotz, Zoë E; Tyler, Marilyn G; Abrahams, Melissa; Rodriques, Jerry; Kahn, Delawir; Mall, Anwar S

    2007-01-01

    Human breast milk is known to contain numerous biologically active components which protect breast fed infants against microbes, viruses, and toxins. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize the breast milk mucin and determine its anti-poxvirus activity. In this study human milk mucin, free of contaminant protein and of sufficient quantity for further analysis, was isolated and purified by Sepharose CL-4B gel filtration and cesiumchloride density-gradient centrifugation. Based on the criteria of size and appearance of the bands and their electrophoretic mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, Western blotting together with the amino acid analysis, it is very likely that the human breast milk mucin is MUC1. It was shown that this breast milk mucin inhibits poxvirus activity by 100% using an inhibition assay with a viral concentration of 2.4 million plaque-forming units/ml. As the milk mucin seems to aggregate poxviruses prior to their entry into host cells, it is possible that this mucin may also inhibit other enveloped viruses such as HIV from entry into host cells. PMID:17361093

  3. Cefoxitin and Cephalothin: Antimicrobial Activity, Human Pharmacokinetics, and Toxicology

    Brumfitt, William; Kosmidis, John; Hamilton-Miller, Jeremy M. T.; Gilchrist, James N. G.

    1974-01-01

    Cefoxitin, a semisynthetic cephamycin, has been compared with the widely used parenteral cephalosporin, cephalothin, in terms of antibacterial activity, human pharmacokinetics, and toxicity. For both compounds, minimal inhibitory concentrations were within the therapeutic range against the 156 gram-positive cocci tested (except group D streptococci), but cephalothin was 8 to 20 times more active. Regarding the 313 gram-negative organisms tested, both antibiotics were of approximately equal activity against cephalothin-susceptible strains, but cefoxitin was outstandingly superior against Providencia spp. and indole-producing Proteus spp., and markedly better against Serratia marcescens and Bacteroides fragilis. Against these organisms, cefoxitin but not cephalothin would be expected to be therapeutically valuable. Antibiotic activity levels in the serum and urine of 18 human volunteers after parenteral administration were higher and more prolonged in the case of cefoxitin, which had an average terminal serum half-life of about 45 min and a urinary recovery of about 90%. Cefoxitin was entirely nontoxic and, given intramuscularly, slightly less painful then cephalothin. These preliminary results suggest that cephamycins may prove to be a significant chemotherapeutic advance. PMID:15830475

  4. Cinobufagin Modulates Human Innate Immune Responses and Triggers Antibacterial Activity.

    Xie, Shanshan; Spelmink, Laura; Codemo, Mario; Subramanian, Karthik; Pütsep, Katrin; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Olliver, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine Chan-Su is widely used for treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, but also as a remedy for infections such as furunculosis, tonsillitis and acute pharyngitis. The clinical use of Chan-Su suggests that it has anti-infective effects, however, the mechanism of action is incompletely understood. In particular, the effect on the human immune system is poorly defined. Here, we describe previously unrecognized immunomodulatory activities of cinobufagin (CBG), a major bioactive component of Chan-Su. Using human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), we show that LPS-induced maturation and production of a number of cytokines was potently inhibited by CBG, which also had a pro-apoptotic effect, associated with activation of caspase-3. Interestingly, CBG triggered caspase-1 activation and significantly enhanced IL-1β production in LPS-stimulated cells. Finally, we demonstrate that CBG upregulates gene expression of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hBD-2 and hBD-3 in DCs, and induces secretion of HNP1-3 and hCAP-18/LL-37 from neutrophils, potentiating neutrophil antibacterial activity. Taken together, our data indicate that CBG modulates the inflammatory phenotype of DCs in response to LPS, and triggers an antibacterial innate immune response, thus proposing possible mechanisms for the clinical effects of Chan-Su in anti-infective therapy. PMID:27529866

  5. Human Activity Recognition as Time-Series Analysis

    Hyesuk Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a system that can recognize daily human activities with a Kinect-style depth camera. Our system utilizes a set of view-invariant features and the hidden state conditional random field (HCRF model to recognize human activities from the 3D body pose stream provided by MS Kinect API or OpenNI. Many high-level daily activities can be regarded as having a hierarchical structure where multiple subactivities are performed sequentially or iteratively. In order to model effectively these high-level daily activities, we utilized a multiclass HCRF model, which is a kind of probabilistic graphical models. In addition, in order to get view-invariant, but more informative features, we extract joint angles from the subject’s skeleton model and then perform the feature transformation to obtain three different types of features regarding motion, structure, and hand positions. Through various experiments using two different datasets, KAD-30 and CAD-60, the high performance of our system is verified.

  6. Antibacterial activity of mangrove leaf extracts against human pathogens

    G Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of leaf extract of mangroves, namely, Rhizophora mucronata, Sonneratia alba and Exoecaria agallocha from Chorao island, Goa was investigated against human bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. As compared to aqueous, ethanol extract showed broad-spectrum activity. The multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria Salmonella typhi was inhibited by the ethanol extract of S. alba leaf whereas the other two resistant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. were inhibited by the ethanol extract of leaves of all the species. The aqueous extract of S. alba and E. agallocha showed their activity against P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis, respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, phenol and volatile oils in the leaves of mangroves. Further studies using different solvents for extraction are necessary to confirm that mangroves are a better source for the development of novel antibiotics.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Mangrove Leaf Extracts against Human Pathogens.

    Sahoo, G; Mulla, N S S; Ansari, Z A; Mohandass, C

    2012-07-01

    The antibacterial activity of leaf extract of mangroves, namely, Rhizophora mucronata, Sonneratia alba and Exoecaria agallocha from Chorao island, Goa was investigated against human bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. As compared to aqueous, ethanol extract showed broad-spectrum activity. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria Salmonella typhi was inhibited by the ethanol extract of S. alba leaf whereas the other two resistant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. were inhibited by the ethanol extract of leaves of all the species. The aqueous extract of S. alba and E. agallocha showed their activity against P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis, respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, phenol and volatile oils in the leaves of mangroves. Further studies using different solvents for extraction are necessary to confirm that mangroves are a better source for the development of novel antibiotics. PMID:23626390

  8. Human ZCCHC12 activates AP-1 and CREB signaling as a transcriptional co-activator

    Hong Li; Qian Liu; Xiang Hu; Du Feng; Shuanglin Xiang; Zhicheng He; Xingwang Hu; Jianlin Zhou; Xiaofeng Ding; Chang Zhou; Jian Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Mouse zinc finger CCHC domain containing 12 gene (ZCCHC12) has been identified as a transcriptional co-activator of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) sig-naling,and human ZCCHC12 was reported to be related to non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation (NS-XLMR).However,the details of how human ZCCHCI2 involve in the NS-XLMR still remain unclear.In this study,we identified a novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the middle of human ZCCHC12 protein which is responsible for the nuclear localization.Multiple-tissue northern blot analysis indi-cated that ZCCHC12 is highly expressed in human brain.Furthermore,in situ hybridization showed that ZCCHC12 is specifically expressed in neuroepithelium of forebrain,midbrain,and diencephalon regions of mouse E10.5 embryos.Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that ZCCHC12 enhanced the transcrip-tional activities of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) as a co-activator.In conclusion,we identified a new NLS in ZCCHC12 and figured out that ZCCHC12 functions as a transcriptional co-activator of AP-1 and CREB.

  9. Mechanotransduction mechanisms for coordinating uterine contractions in human labor.

    Young, Roger C

    2016-08-01

    This review presents evolving concepts of how the human uterus contracts in pregnancy, with emphasis on the mechanisms of long-distance signaling. Action potential propagation has historically been assumed to be the sole mechanism for signaling and tissue recruitment over both short and long distances. However, data in animals and humans indicate that a single action potential does not travel distances greater than a few centimeters. To address this enigma, a long-distance signaling mechanism based on hydraulic signaling and mechanotransduction is developed. By combining this mechanism for long-distance signaling with the action potential propagation mechanism for signaling over short distances, a comprehensive dual mechanism model (or 'dual model') of uterine function is formulated. Mechanotransduction is an accepted phenomenon of myometrium, but the dual model identifies mechanotransduction as relevant to normal labor. For hydraulic signaling, a local contraction slightly increases intrauterine pressure, which globally increases wall tension. Increased wall tension then mechanically induces additional local contractions that further raise pressure. This leads to robust, positive feedback recruitment that explains the emergence of consistently strong contractions of human labor. Three key components of the dual model - rapid long-distance signaling, mechanical triggering, and electrical activity - converge with the concept of mechanically sensitive electrogenic pacemakers distributed throughout the wall. The dual model retains excitation-contraction coupling and action potential propagation for signaling over short distances (<10cm) and hence is an extension of the action potential model rather than a replacement. PMID:27165050

  10. Natural image classification driven by human brain activity

    Zhang, Dai; Peng, Hanyang; Wang, Jinqiao; Tang, Ming; Xue, Rong; Zuo, Zhentao

    2016-03-01

    Natural image classification has been a hot topic in computer vision and pattern recognition research field. Since the performance of an image classification system can be improved by feature selection, many image feature selection methods have been developed. However, the existing supervised feature selection methods are typically driven by the class label information that are identical for different samples from the same class, ignoring with-in class image variability and therefore degrading the feature selection performance. In this study, we propose a novel feature selection method, driven by human brain activity signals collected using fMRI technique when human subjects were viewing natural images of different categories. The fMRI signals associated with subjects viewing different images encode the human perception of natural images, and therefore may capture image variability within- and cross- categories. We then select image features with the guidance of fMRI signals from brain regions with active response to image viewing. Particularly, bag of words features based on GIST descriptor are extracted from natural images for classification, and a sparse regression base feature selection method is adapted to select image features that can best predict fMRI signals. Finally, a classification model is built on the select image features to classify images without fMRI signals. The validation experiments for classifying images from 4 categories of two subjects have demonstrated that our method could achieve much better classification performance than the classifiers built on image feature selected by traditional feature selection methods.

  11. Xanthine oxidase activity regulates human embryonic brain cells growth

    Kevorkian G. A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Involvement of Xanthine Oxidase (XO; EC1.1.3.22 in cellular proliferation and differentiation has been suggested by the numerous investigations. We have proposed that XO might have undoubtedly important role during the development, maturation as well as the death of human embryos brain cells. Methods. Human abortion material was utilized for the cultivation of brain cells (E90. XO activity was measured by the formation of uric acid in tissue. Cell death was detected by the utility of Trypan Blue dye. Results. Allopurinol suppressed the XO activity in the brain tissue (0.12 ± 0.02; 0.20 ± 0.03 resp., p < 0.05. On day 12th the number of cells in the culture treated with the Allopurinol at the early stage of development was higher in comparison with the Control (2350.1 ± 199.0 vs 2123 ± 96 and higher in comparison with the late period of treatment (1479.6 ± 103.8, p < < 0.05. In all groups, the number of the dead cells was less than in Control, indicating the protective nature of Allopurinol as an inhibitor of XO. Conclusions. Allopurinol initiates cells proliferation in case of the early treatment of the human brain derived cell culture whereas at the late stages it has an opposite effect.

  12. Multi-dimensional dynamics of human electromagnetic brain activity

    Tetsuo eKida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG are invaluable neuroscientific tools for unveiling human neural dynamics in three dimensions (space, time, and frequency, which are associated with a wide variety of perceptions, cognition, and actions. MEG/EEG also provides different categories of neuronal indices including activity magnitude, connectivity, and network properties along the three dimensions. In the last 20 years, interest has increased in inter-regional connectivity and complex network properties assessed by various sophisticated scientific analyses. We herein review the definition, computation, short history, and pros and cons of connectivity and complex network (graph-theory analyses applied to MEG/EEG signals. We briefly describe recent developments in source reconstruction algorithms essential for source-space connectivity and network analyses. Furthermore, we discuss a relatively novel approach used in MEG/EEG studies to examine the complex dynamics represented by human brain activity. The correct and effective use of these neuronal metrics provides a new insight into the multi-dimensional dynamics of the neural representations of various functions in the complex human brain.

  13. Relationship between acrosin activity of human spermatozoa and oxidative stress

    AdelA.Zalata; AshrafH.Ahmed; ShyamS.R.Allamaneni; H.Comhaire; AshokAgarwal

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To study the association between seminal oxidative stress and human sperm acrosin activity.Methods: It is a prospective study consisting of 30 infertile men and 12 fertile normozoospermic volunteers. A full history, clinical examination and scrotal ultrasound were done to exclude other related factors such as smoking and varicocele. Presence of white blood cells (WBCs) in semen samples was evaluated by peroxidase staining. Lipid peroxidation in spermatozoa was induced after incubating with ferrous sulphate (4mmol/L) and sodium ascorbate (20 mmol/L). Induced peroxidation of spermatozoa was assessed by determining the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Acrosin activity was measured using the gelatinolysis technique. The halo diameters around the sperm heads and the percentages of spermatozoa showing halo formation were evaluated. An acrosin activity index was calculated by multiplying the halo diameter by the halo formation rate. Results: A significant difference was observed in acrosin activity parameters and TBARS levels between samples with WBCs (>1×106/mL of ejaculate) and those without. This difference was also noted between the normozoospermic and the oligoasthenoteratozoospermic semen samples. The TBARS production by spermatozoa had a significant negativecorrelation with the acrosin activity index (r=-0.89, P<0.001). Conclusion: The presence of oxidative stress in an individual with leukocytospermia and/or abnormal semen parameters is associated with impaired sperm function as measured by its acrosin activity. (Asian J Androl 2004 Dec; 6:313-318)

  14. Virulent Treponema pallidum activates human vascular endothelial cells.

    Riley, B S; Oppenheimer-Marks, N; Hansen, E J; Radolf, J D; Norgard, M V

    1992-03-01

    Perivascular lymphocytic infiltration, fibrin deposition, and endothelial cell abnormalities consistent with cellular activation are prominent histopathologic features of syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum. Because activated endothelial cells play important roles in lymphocyte homing and hemostasis, the ability of virulent T. pallidum to activate cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was investigated. T. pallidum induced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and procoagulant activity on the surface of HUVEC. Electron microscopy of T. pallidum-stimulated HUVEC revealed extensive networks of fibrin strands not observed in cultures without treponemes. ICAM-1 expression in HUVEC also was promoted by a 47-kDa integral membrane lipoprotein purified from T. pallidum, implicating a role for spirochete membrane lipoproteins in endothelial cell activation. The combined findings are consistent with the pathology of syphilis and provide the first evidence that a pathogenic spirochetal bacterium such as T. pallidum or its constituent integral membrane lipoprotein(s) can activate directly host vascular endothelium. PMID:1347056

  15. Circadian pattern and burstiness in human communication activity

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kertész, János; Kaski, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    The temporal pattern of human communication is inhomogeneous and bursty, as reflected by the heavy tail distribution of the inter-event times. For the origin of this behavior two main mechanisms have been suggested: a) Externally driven inhomogeneities due to the circadian and weekly activity patterns and b) intrinsic correlation based inhomogeneity rooted deeply in the task handling strategies of humans. Here we address this question by providing systematic de-seasoning methods to remove the circadian and weekly patterns from the time series of communication events. We find that the heavy tails of the inter-event time distributions are robust with respect to this procedure indicating that burstiness is mostly caused by the latter mechanism b). Moreover, we find that our de-seasoning procedure improves the scaling behavior of the distribution.

  16. Human factors in remote control engineering development activities

    Human factors engineering, which is an integral part of the advanced remote control development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is described. First, work at the Remote Systems Development Facility (RSDF) has shown that operators can perform a wide variety of tasks, some of which were not specifically designed for remote systems, with a dextrous electronic force-reflecting servomanipulator and good television remote viewing capabilities. Second, the data collected during mock-up remote maintenance experiments at the RSDF have been analyzed to provide guidelines for the design of human interfaces with an integrated advanced remote maintenance system currently under development. Guidelines have been provided for task allocation between operators, remote viewing systems, and operator controls. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  17. Through the Interface - a human activity approach to user interfaces

    Bødker, Susanne

    In providing a theoretical framework for understanding human- computer interaction as well as design of user interfaces, this book combines elements of anthropology, psychology, cognitive science, software engineering, and computer science. The framework examines the everyday work practices of us...... users when analyzing and designing computer applications. The text advocates the unique theory that computer application design is fundamentally a collective activity in which the various practices of the participants meet in a process of mutual learning.......In providing a theoretical framework for understanding human- computer interaction as well as design of user interfaces, this book combines elements of anthropology, psychology, cognitive science, software engineering, and computer science. The framework examines the everyday work practices of...

  18. High Accuracy Human Activity Monitoring using Neural network

    Sharma, Annapurna; Chung, Wan-Young

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the designing of a neural network for the classification of Human activity. A Triaxial accelerometer sensor, housed in a chest worn sensor unit, has been used for capturing the acceleration of the movements associated. All the three axis acceleration data were collected at a base station PC via a CC2420 2.4GHz ISM band radio (zigbee wireless compliant), processed and classified using MATLAB. A neural network approach for classification was used with an eye on theoretical and empirical facts. The work shows a detailed description of the designing steps for the classification of human body acceleration data. A 4-layer back propagation neural network, with Levenberg-marquardt algorithm for training, showed best performance among the other neural network training algorithms.

  19. Information Flow Model of Human Extravehicular Activity Operations

    Miller, Matthew J.; McGuire, Kerry M.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Future human spaceflight missions will face the complex challenge of performing human extravehicular activity (EVA) beyond the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Astronauts will become increasingly isolated from Earth-based mission support and thus will rely heavily on their own decision-making capabilities and onboard tools to accomplish proposed EVA mission objectives. To better address time delay communication issues, EVA characters, e.g. flight controllers, astronauts, etc., and their respective work practices and roles need to be better characterized and understood. This paper presents the results of a study examining the EVA work domain and the personnel that operate within it. The goal is to characterize current and historical roles of ground support, intravehicular (IV) crew and EV crew, their communication patterns and information needs. This work provides a description of EVA operations and identifies issues to be used as a basis for future investigation.

  20. Expression of immunoreactive urocortin in human tissue

    GU Qing; Vicki L Clifton; CUI Ying; HUI Ning; ZHOU Xiao-ning; HE Qian; HAN Qing-feng; SHA Jin-yan; Roger Smith

    2001-01-01

    To localize where urocortin is expressed in human tissue in an attempt to study its physiological functions. Methods: Expression of immunoreactive urocortin in different human tissue was examined using a specific urocortin antibody and the immunoperoxidase staining method. Results: Immunoreactive urocortin was observed in the anterior pituitary cells, decidual stromal cells, syncytiotrophoblasts, amnion epithelium, the vascular smooth muscles of myometrium, fallopian tube and small intestine. Conclusion: The study indicates that urocortin is expressed in some specific areas of human tissue. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that urocortin is produced locally as an endocrine factor, which may act as a neural regulator and a regulator of local blood flow.

  1. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich; he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  2. [The effects of PEMF on the activation of human monocytes].

    Chen, Xiaoying; Han, Xiaoyu; Wang, Qian; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on the activation of human monocytes (THP-1). Cultured THP-1 cells were exposed to PEMF stimulation with radiation of 32Hz or 64Hz respectively, using sinusoidal wave, and 1mT, twice a day, 30 minutes each time, with an interval of 8 hours, for 3 days. Those with 0Hz stimulation served as the controls. Monocytes activation was monitored by measuring both the release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) from monocytes and their adhesion to monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs was evaluated by cell counting method. The secretion of MCP-1 from THP-1 cells was detected by ELISA and MCP-1 mRNA expression was assessed by real time quantitative RT-PCR. The data showed that exposure to PEMF with above parameters could significantly inhibit the adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs and decrease the MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression. The results demonstrated that exposure to PEMF of 1mT, 32Hz or 64Hz for 3 days could significantly inhibit the activation of THP-1 cells. PMID:23016400

  3. Recognition of Human Activities Using Continuous Autoencoders with Wearable Sensors.

    Wang, Lukun

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an approach for recognizing human activities with wearable sensors. The continuous autoencoder (CAE) as a novel stochastic neural network model is proposed which improves the ability of model continuous data. CAE adds Gaussian random units into the improved sigmoid activation function to extract the features of nonlinear data. In order to shorten the training time, we propose a new fast stochastic gradient descent (FSGD) algorithm to update the gradients of CAE. The reconstruction of a swiss-roll dataset experiment demonstrates that the CAE can fit continuous data better than the basic autoencoder, and the training time can be reduced by an FSGD algorithm. In the experiment of human activities' recognition, time and frequency domain feature extract (TFFE) method is raised to extract features from the original sensors' data. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) method is applied to feature reduction. It can be noticed that the dimension of each data segment is reduced from 5625 to 42. The feature vectors extracted from original signals are used for the input of deep belief network (DBN), which is composed of multiple CAEs. The training results show that the correct differentiation rate of 99.3% has been achieved. Some contrast experiments like different sensors combinations, sensor units at different positions, and training time with different epochs are designed to validate our approach. PMID:26861319

  4. Evaluation of hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes.

    de Lima, Jefferson Muniz; Sarmento, Ronaldo Rodrigues; de Souza, Joelma Rodrigues; Brayner, Fábio André; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; Padilha, Rafael; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Porto, Isaque Jerônimo; Batista, Roberta Ferreti Bonan Dantas; de Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; de Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed chains of β-(1-4) D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This compound is obtained by partial or total deacetylation of chitin in acidic solution. The chitosan-based hemostatic agents have been gaining much attention in the management of bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes. The preparation of nanoparticles was achieved by ionotropic gelification technique followed by neutralization with NaOH 1 mol/L(-1). The hemagglutination activity was performed on a solution of 2% erythrocytes (pH 7.4 on PBS) collected from five healthy volunteers. The hemolysis determination was made by spectrophotometric analysis. Chitosan nanoparticle solutions without NaOH addition changed the reddish colour of the wells into brown, suggesting an oxidative reaction of hemoglobin and possible cell lysis. All neutralized solutions of chitosan nanoparticles presented positive haemagglutination, without any change in reaction color. Chitosan nanoparticles presented hemolytic activity ranging from 186.20 to 223.12%, while neutralized solutions ranged from 2.56 to 72.54%, comparing to distilled water. Results highlight the need for development of new routes of synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles within human physiologic pH. PMID:25759815

  5. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  6. Effect of histamine and histamine analogues on human isolated myometrial strips.

    Martínez-Mir, M. I.; Estañ, L.; Morales-Olivas, F. J.; Rubio, E.

    1992-01-01

    1. The effect of histamine and histamine H1- and H2-receptor agonists on isolated myometrium strips of premenopausal women has been examined. The effect of acetylcholine was also determined. 2. Histamine, 2-pyridylethylamine, 4-methylhistamine and acetylcholine, but not dimaprit, produced a concentration-related contractile response in human isolated myometrial strips. Histamine also produced a further contraction in human isolated myometrial strips precontracted with KCl (55 mM). 3. The cont...

  7. Malate dehydrogenase activity in human seminal plasma and spermatozoa homogenates

    Hulya Leventerler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Malate Dehydrogenase is an important enzyme of the Krebs cycle, most cells require this enzyme for their metabolic activity. We evaluated the Malate Dehydrogenase (NAD/NADP activity in human seminal plasma and sperm homogenates in normozoospermic, fertile and infertile males. Also glucose and fructose concentrations were determined in the seminal plasma samples. Material and Methods: Malate Dehydrogenase (NAD/NADP activity in human seminal plasma and sperm homogenates of normozoospermic and infertile males was determined by spectrophotometric method. Semen analysis was considered according to the WHO Criteria. Results: Malat Dehydrogenase-NAD value in seminal plasma (the mean ± SD, mU/ml of asthenoteratospermic (40.0±25.7 and azospermic (38.0±43.6 groups were significantly lower than normozoospermic, (93.9±52.1 males. Malat Dehydrogenase-NAD value in sperm homogenates (the mean ± SD, mU/ 20x106 sperm of teratospermic group (136.8±61.8 was significantly higher compared to the normozoospermic (87.3±26.5 males. Glucose concentration (mg/dl in asthenoteratospermic (4.0±1.4 and azospermic (15.4±6.4 groups were significantly higher than fertile (2.0±2.1 males. Also fructose concentration (mg/dl in asthenoteratospermic (706.6±143.3 and azospermic (338.1±228.2 groups were significantly high compared to the normozoospermic (184.7±124.8 group. Conclusion: Sperm may be some part of the source of Malat Dehydrogenase activity in semen. Malat Dehydrogenase activity in seminal plasma has an important role on energy metabolism of sperm. Intermediate substrates of Krebs cycle might have been produced under the control of Malat Dehydrogenase and these substrates may be important for sperm motility and male infertility. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 648-658

  8. Human activities and climate and environment changes: an inevitable relation

    The human interference in the environment and the consequent climate change is today a consensus. The climate change can be local, regional and global. The global climate change is mainly caused by the greenhouse gases, and consequently the climate change intervenes in the environment. The interference cycle emerges in several forms and results in several consequences. However, the Global Warming has certainly the most import global impact. The main cause of the increase in the temperature (Greenhouse Effect) is the intensive use of the fossil fuels. Thus, to minimize the climatic changes actions are necessary to reduce, to substitute and to use with more efficient the fossil fuels. Looking at the past, the old agriculturists may have released greenhouse gases since thousand years ago, thus, modifying slowly but in significant form the earth climate much before the Industrial Age. If this theory is confirmed, its consequences would be decisive for the man history in the planet. For example, in parts of the North America and Europe the current temperatures could be even four Celsius degrees smaller. This change in temperature is enough to hinder agricultural used of these regions and consequently to diminish the human development. The main focus of this work is to perform a retrospective in some of civilizations who collapse due to environmental problems and make a historical description of the human activities (agriculture and livestock) since the primordium of the man up to the Industrial Age, aiming at the man interference on the natural dynamics of the global climate and the environment. This work will show through data comparisons and inferences that the gases emissions from these activities had a significant magnitude comparatively by the emissions after the Industrial Age. It is also demonstrated that the climate and environment interference was inevitable because the human evolution was caused by these activities. Another important point of this work is to

  9. Co-activation based parcellation of the human frontal pole.

    Ray, K L; Zald, D H; Bludau, S; Riedel, M C; Bzdok, D; Yanes, J; Falcone, K E; Amunts, K; Fox, P T; Eickhoff, S B; Laird, A R

    2015-12-01

    Historically, the human frontal pole (FP) has been considered as a single architectonic area. Brodmann's area 10 is located in the frontal lobe with known contributions in the execution of various higher order cognitive processes. However, recent cytoarchitectural studies of the FP in humans have shown that this portion of cortex contains two distinct cytoarchitectonic regions. Since architectonic differences are accompanied by differential connectivity and functions, the frontal pole qualifies as a candidate region for exploratory parcellation into functionally discrete sub-regions. We investigated whether this functional heterogeneity is reflected in distinct segregations within cytoarchitectonically defined FP-areas using meta-analytic co-activation based parcellation (CBP). The CBP method examined the co-activation patterns of all voxels within the FP as reported in functional neuroimaging studies archived in the BrainMap database. Voxels within the FP were subsequently clustered into sub-regions based on the similarity of their respective meta-analytically derived co-activation maps. Performing this CBP analysis on the FP via k-means clustering produced a distinct 3-cluster parcellation for each hemisphere corresponding to previously identified cytoarchitectural differences. Post-hoc functional characterization of clusters via BrainMap metadata revealed that lateral regions of the FP mapped to memory and emotion domains, while the dorso- and ventromedial clusters were associated broadly with emotion and social cognition processes. Furthermore, the dorsomedial regions contain an emphasis on theory of mind and affective related paradigms whereas ventromedial regions couple with reward tasks. Results from this study support previous segregations of the FP and provide meta-analytic contributions to the ongoing discussion of elucidating functional architecture within human FP. PMID:26254112

  10. 77 FR 33774 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    2012-06-07

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project... of Collection: Education and Human Resources Project Monitoring Clearance. OMB Approval Number: 3145... States and internationally. The Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR), a unit within...

  11. Human Erythropoietin Dimers with Markedly Enhanced in vivo Activity

    Sytkowski, Arthur J.; Dotimas Lunn, Elizabeth; Davis, Kerry Lynn; Feldman, Laurie; Siekman, Suvia

    1998-02-01

    Human erythropoietin, a widely used and important therapeutic glycoprotein, has a relatively short plasma half-life due to clearance by glomerular filtration as well as by other mechanisms. We hypothesized that an erythropoietin species with a larger molecular size would exhibit an increased plasma half-life and, potentially, an enhanced biological activity. We now report the production of biologically active erythropoietin dimers and trimers by chemical crosslinking of the conventional monomeric form. We imparted free sulfhydryl residues to a pool of erythropoietin monomer by chemical modification. A second pool was reacted with another modifying reagent to yield monomer with male-imido groups. Upon mixing these two pools, covalently linked dimers and trimers were formed that were biologically active in vitro. The plasma half-life of erythropoietin dimers in rabbits was >24 h compared with 4 h for the monomers. Importantly, erythropoietin dimers were biologically active in vivo as shown by their ability to increase the hematocrits of mice when injected subcutaneously. In addition, the dimers exhibited >26-fold higher activity in vivo than did the monomers and were very effective after only one dose. Dimeric and other oligomeric forms of Epo may have an important role in therapy.

  12. Human cytomegalovirus IE2 protein interacts with transcription activating factors

    徐进平; 叶林柏

    2002-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IE86 Cdna was cloned into Pgex-2T and fusion protein GST-IE86 was expressed in E. Coli. SDS-PAGE and Western blot assay indicated that fusion protein GST-IE86 with molecular weight of 92 ku is soluble in the supernatant of cell lysate. Protein GST and fusion protein GST-IE86 were purified by affinity chromatography. The technology of co-separation and specific affinity chromatography was used to study the interactions of HCMV IE86 protein with some transcriptional regulatory proteins and transcriptional factors. The results indicated that IE86 interacts separately with transcriptional factor TFIIB and promoter DNA binding transcription trans-activating factors SP1, AP1 and AP2 to form a heterogenous protein complex. These transcriptional trans-activating factors, transcriptional factor and IE86 protein were adsorbed and retained in the affinity chromatography simultaneously. But IE86 protein could not interact with NF-Кb, suggesting that the function of IE86 protein that can interact with transcriptional factor and transcriptional trans-activating factors has no relevance to protein glycosylation. IE86 protein probably has two domains responsible for binding transcriptional trans-activating regulatory proteins and transcriptional factors respectively, thus activating the transcription of many genes. The interactions accelerated the assembly of the transcriptional initiation complexes.

  13. Activation of human mitochondrial pantothenate kinase 2 by palmitoylcarnitine

    Leonardi, Roberta; Rock, Charles O.; Jackowski, Suzanne; Zhang, Yong-Mei

    2007-01-01

    The human isoform 2 of pantothenate kinase (PanK2) is localized to the mitochondria, and mutations in this protein are associated with a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. PanK2 inhibition by acetyl-CoA is so stringent (IC50 < 1 μM) that it is unclear how the enzyme functions in the presence of intracellular CoA concentrations. Palmitoylcarnitine was discovered to be a potent activator of PanK2 that functions to competitively antagonize acetyl-CoA inhibition. Acetyl-CoA was a competitive...

  14. Spontaneous neural activity during human slow wave sleep

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Schabus, Manuel; Desseilles, Martin; Albouy, Geneviève; Boly, Mélanie; Darsaud, Annabelle; Gais, Steffen; Rauchs, Géraldine; Sterpenich, Virginie; Vandewalle, Gilles; Carrier, Julie; Moonen, Gustave; Balteau, Evelyne; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, André

    2008-01-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) is associated with spontaneous brain oscillations that are thought to participate in sleep homeostasis and to support the processing of information related to the experiences of the previous awake period. At the cellular level, during SWS, a slow oscillation (140 μV) and delta waves (75–140 μV) during SWS in 14 non-sleep-deprived normal human volunteers. Significant increases in activity were associated with these waves in several cortical areas, including the inferior f...

  15. Towards a sensor for detecting human presence and activity

    Benezeth, Yannick; Laurent, Hélène; Emile, Bruno; Rosenberger, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a vision-based system for human detection and tracking in indoor environment allowing to collect higher level information on people activity. The developed presence sensor based on video analysis, using a static camera is ¯rst of all presented. Composed of three main steps, the ¯rst one consists in change detection using a background model updated at di®erent levels to manage the most common variations of the environment. A moving objects tracking based on interest p...

  16. 2000 years of human activity in Tuchola Pinewoods (northern Poland)

    Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Słowiński, Michał; Lutyńska, Monika; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    During the last two millennia human activity and their settlements together with varying climate conditions strongly influenced landscape scale changes. Especially within palaeoecological records these environmental responses are well expressed. However, a robust age control is needed for the evaluation and interpretation of biotic proxies.We present a record from the annually laminated (varved) sediments of Lake Czechowskie, located in northern Poland. The investigated record covers the past 2000 years and demonstrates the continuous vegetation history and human activity in the Northern part of the Tuchola Pinewoods. The chronology was established by varve counting and confirmed by AMS 14C dating, 137Cs activity measurement and a tephra layer (Askja 1875). We used high-resolution biotic (pollen, green algae and diatom analysis) sedimentological (varve and sublayer thickness variations) and geochemical (µ-XRF data) proxies to reconstruct the environmental changes within a time of increasing human activity and fluctuating climatic conditions. Based on different spatial sampling and measuring increments the temporal resolution varies between subseasonal (µ-XRF), annual (varves) up to five-varveresolution (biotic proxies) making it possible to trace even short lasting local and regional changes. Our results display visible human pressure in this area between 50- 350 yr. AD (Roman Period) exerted by tribes related to the Wielbark Culture. The development of persisting settlements and agriculture took place at expense of surrounding hornbeam forests. An intensification of lake productivity (expressed as an increase of varve thickness) started after 250 AD. If this lake ecosystem response relates to an intensified agriculture (and a possible transport of nutrients from neighboring rural lands) or to a climate shift will be further discussed. The rapid decline of human indicators about 350 years AD at the transition to the migration period might be related to cooler

  17. Radioimmunological activity of 22K variant of human growth hormone

    From a preparation of human growth hormone its integral variant (hGH-22K) was isolated by isoelectric focusing, having a pI of 5,20 and relative mobility (Rm) of 0,621 in the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Several experiments for the characterization of the isolated variant were carried out. The immunological properties was tested by radioimmunoassay (RIE), in which the activity of the isolated variant and the activity of the total preparation were compared. The dose response-curves obtained by RIE were found to be considered parallels (p < 0,01). It was checked using the F test between the slope of the two curves. The parallelism shown the immunochemical identity of the two preparation and indicates that the separation process developed does not produce alterations in the immunological properties of the variant. (Author)

  18. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

    Salmon, Michael D. [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom); Ahluwalia, Jatinder, E-mail: j.ahluwalia@uel.ac.uk [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-17

    Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

  19. Activity clocks: spreading dynamics on temporal networks of human contact

    Gauvin, Laetitia; Cattuto, Ciro; Barrat, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Dynamical processes on time-varying complex networks are key to un- derstanding and modeling a broad variety of processes in socio-technical systems. Here we focus on empirical temporal networks of human proxim- ity and we aim at understanding the factors that, in simulation, shape the arrival time distribution of simple spreading processes. Abandoning the notion of wall-clock time in favour of node-specific clocks based on activ- ity exposes robust statistical patterns in the arrival times across different social contexts. Using randomization strategies and generative models constrained by data, we show that these patterns can be understood in terms of heterogeneous inter-event time distributions coupled with hetero- geneous numbers of events per edge. We also show, both empirically and by using a synthetic dataset, that significant deviations from the above behavior can be caused by the presence of edge classes with strong activity correlations.

  20. Synthesis of catechol estrogens by human uterus and leiomyoma

    Homogenates of human endometrial, myometrial and leiomyoma tissues were incubated with (2,4,6,7-3H)-estradiol and tritiated catechol estrogens were isolated and identified. Though 2- and 4-hydroxylations were about the same in endometrium, 4-hydroxylation was two to four fold higher than 2-hydroxylation in myometrium and leiomyoma. However, endometrium showed greater capacity to form both 2- and 4-hydroxyestrogens than the other two tissues. Both 2- and 4-hydroxylations were significantly less than in myometrium. In view of the reports indicating that inhibitors of catechol 0-methyl transferase (COMT) might act as antineoplastic agents due to their interference with t-RNA methylases and since catechol estrogens inhibit COMT, the present results suggest that endogenous synthesis of catechol estrogens may play an important role in the pathophysiology of uterine leiomyoma

  1. Modelling large scale human activity in San Francisco

    Gonzalez, Marta

    2010-03-01

    Diverse group of people with a wide variety of schedules, activities and travel needs compose our cities nowadays. This represents a big challenge for modeling travel behaviors in urban environments; those models are of crucial interest for a wide variety of applications such as traffic forecasting, spreading of viruses, or measuring human exposure to air pollutants. The traditional means to obtain knowledge about travel behavior is limited to surveys on travel journeys. The obtained information is based in questionnaires that are usually costly to implement and with intrinsic limitations to cover large number of individuals and some problems of reliability. Using mobile phone data, we explore the basic characteristics of a model of human travel: The distribution of agents is proportional to the population density of a given region, and each agent has a characteristic trajectory size contain information on frequency of visits to different locations. Additionally we use a complementary data set given by smart subway fare cards offering us information about the exact time of each passenger getting in or getting out of the subway station and the coordinates of it. This allows us to uncover the temporal aspects of the mobility. Since we have the actual time and place of individual's origin and destination we can understand the temporal patterns in each visited location with further details. Integrating two described data set we provide a dynamical model of human travels that incorporates different aspects observed empirically.

  2. Recognition of Human Activities Using Continuous Autoencoders with Wearable Sensors

    Lukun Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an approach for recognizing human activities with wearable sensors. The continuous autoencoder (CAE as a novel stochastic neural network model is proposed which improves the ability of model continuous data. CAE adds Gaussian random units into the improved sigmoid activation function to extract the features of nonlinear data. In order to shorten the training time, we propose a new fast stochastic gradient descent (FSGD algorithm to update the gradients of CAE. The reconstruction of a swiss-roll dataset experiment demonstrates that the CAE can fit continuous data better than the basic autoencoder, and the training time can be reduced by an FSGD algorithm. In the experiment of human activities’ recognition, time and frequency domain feature extract (TFFE method is raised to extract features from the original sensors’ data. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA method is applied to feature reduction. It can be noticed that the dimension of each data segment is reduced from 5625 to 42. The feature vectors extracted from original signals are used for the input of deep belief network (DBN, which is composed of multiple CAEs. The training results show that the correct differentiation rate of 99.3% has been achieved. Some contrast experiments like different sensors combinations, sensor units at different positions, and training time with different epochs are designed to validate our approach.

  3. Human Endogenous Retrovirus W Activity in Cartilage of Osteoarthritis Patients

    Signy Bendiksen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of viruses in osteoarthritis remains controversial because the prevalence of viral nucleic acid sequences in peripheral blood or synovial fluid from osteoarthritis patients and that in healthy control subjects are similar. Until now the presence of virus has not been analyzed in cartilage. We screened cartilage and chondrocytes from advanced and non-/early osteoarthritis patients for parvovirus B19, herpes simplex virus-1, Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus-6, hepatitis C virus, and human endogenous retroviruses transcripts. Endogenous retroviruses transcripts, but none of the other viruses, were detected in 15 out the 17 patients. Sequencing identified the virus as HERV-WE1 and E2. HERV-W activity was confirmed by high expression levels of syncytin, dsRNA, virus budding, and the presence of virus-like particles in all advanced osteoarthritis cartilages examined. Low levels of HERV-WE1, but not E2 envelope RNA, were observed in 3 out of 8 non-/early osteoarthritis patients, while only 3 out of 7 chondrocytes cultures displayed low levels of syncytin, and just one was positive for virus-like particles. This study demonstrates for the first time activation of HERV-W in cartilage of osteoarthritis patients; however, a causative role for HERV-W in development or deterioration of the disease remains to be proven.

  4. Blood-group-Ii-active gangliosides of human erythrocyte membranes

    More than ten new types of gangliosides, in addition to haematoside and sialosylparagloboside, were isolated from human erythrocyte membranes. These were separated by successive chromatographies on DAEA-Sephadex, on porous silica-gel columns and on thin-layer silica gel as acetylated compounds. Highly potent blood-group-Ii and moderate blood-group-H activities were demonstrated in some of the ganglioside fractions. The gangliosides incorporated into chlolesterol/phosphatidylcholine liposomes stoicheiometrically inhibited binding of anti-(blood-group-I and i) antibodies to a radioiodinated blood-group-Ii-active glycoprotein. The fraction with the highest blood-group-I activity, I(g) fraction, behaved like sialosyl-deca- to dodeca-glycosylceramides on t.l.c. Certain blood-group-I and most of the i-determinants were in partially or completely cryptic form and could be unmasked by sialidase treatment. Thus the I and i antigens, which are known to occur on internal structures of blood-group-ABH-active glycoproteins in secretions, also occur in the interior of the carbohydrate chains of erythrocyte gangliosides. (author)

  5. Metabolic activity and collagen turnover in human tendon in response to physical activity

    Kjaer, M; Langberg, H; Miller, B F;

    2005-01-01

    Connective tissue of the human tendon plays an important role in force transmission. The extracellular matrix turnover of tendon is influenced by physical activity. Blood flow, oxygen demand, and the level of collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinases increase with mechanical loading. Gene...... degree of net collagen synthesis. These changes modify the biomechanical properties of the tissue (for example, viscoelastic characteristics) as well as the structural properties of the in collagen (for example, cross-sectional area). Mechanical loading of human tendon does result in a marked...

  6. The influence of human activity in the Arctic on climate and climate impacts

    Huntington, H.P. [23834 The Clearing Dr., Eagle River, AK 99577 (United States); Boyle, M. [Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6S 1K4 (Canada); Flowers, G.E. [Department of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Weatherly, J.W. [Snow and Ice Division, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Hamilton, L.C. [Department of Sociology, University of New Hampshire, 20 College Road, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Hinzman, L. [Water and Environment Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, P.O. Box 755860, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Gerlach, C. [Department of Anthropology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, P.O. Box 757720, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Zulueta, R. [Department of Biology, Global Change Research Group, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, PS-240, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Nicolson, C. [Department of Natural Resources Conservation, University of Massachusetts, 160 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, MA , 01003 (United States); Overpeck, J. [Institute for the Study of Planet Earth, University of Arizona, 715 North Park Avenue, 2nd Floor, Tucson, AZ, 85721 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    Human activities in the Arctic are often mentioned as recipients of climate-change impacts. In this paper we consider the more complicated but more likely possibility that human activities themselves can interact with climate or environmental change in ways that either mitigate or exacerbate the human impacts. Although human activities in the Arctic are generally assumed to be modest, our analysis suggests that those activities may have larger influences on the arctic system than previously thought. Moreover, human influences could increase substantially in the near future. First, we illustrate how past human activities in the Arctic have combined with climatic variations to alter biophysical systems upon which fisheries and livestock depend. Second, we describe how current and future human activities could precipitate or affect the timing of major transitions in the arctic system. Past and future analyses both point to ways in which human activities in the Arctic can substantially influence the trajectory of arctic system change.

  7. Is Peroxiredoxin II's peroxidase activity strongly inhibited in human erythrocytes?

    Benfeitas, Rui; Selvaggio, Gianluca; Antunes, Fernando; Coelho, Pedro; Salvador, Armindo

    2014-10-01

    H2O2 elimination in human erythrocytes is mainly carried out by catalase (Cat), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) and the more recently discovered peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2). However, the contribution of Prx2 to H2O2 consumption is still unclear. Prx2's high reactivity with H2O2 (kPrx2=10×10(7) M(-1)s(-1), kCat =7×10(7) M(-1)s(-1), kGPx1 =4×10(7) M(-1)s(-1)) and high abundance ([Prx2]= 570µM, [Cat]= 32µM, [GPx1]= 1µM) suggest that under low H2O2 supply rates it should consume >99% of the H2O2. However, extensive evidence indicates that in intact erythrocytes Prx2 contributes no more than Cat to H2O2 consumption. In order for this to be attained, Prx2's effective rate constant with H2O2would have to be just ~10(5) M(-1)s(-1), much lower than that determined in multiple experiments with the purified proteins. Nevertheless, nearly all Prx2 is oxidized within 1min of exposing erythrocytes to a H2O2 bolus, which is inconsistent with an irreversible inhibition. A mathematical model of the H2O2 metabolism in human erythrocytes [Benfeitas et al. (2014) Free Radic. Biol. Med.] where Prx2 either has a low kPrx2 or is subject to a strong (>99%) but readily reversible inhibition achieves quantitative agreement with detailed experimental observations of the responses of the redox status of Prx2 in human erythrocytes and suggests functional advantages of this design (see companion abstract). By contrast, a variant where Prx2 is fully active with kPrx2=10(8) M(-1)s(-1) shows important qualitative discrepancies. Altogether, these results suggest that Prx2's peroxidase activity is strongly inhibited in human erythrocytes. We acknowledge fellowship SFRH/BD/51199/2010, grants PEst-C/SAU/LA0001/2013-2014, PEst-OE/QUI/UI0612/2013, PEst-OE/QUI/UI0313/2014, and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-020978 (PTDC/QUI-BIQ/119657/2010) co-financed by FEDER through the COMPETE program and by FCT. PMID:26461310

  8. Endothelin 1 activates and sensitizes human C-nociceptors.

    Namer, Barbara; Hilliges, Marita; Orstavik, Kristin; Schmidt, Roland; Weidner, Christian; Torebjörk, Erik; Handwerker, Hermann; Schmelz, Martin

    2008-07-01

    Microneurography was used to record action potentials from afferent C-fibers in cutaneous fascicles of the peroneal nerve in healthy volunteers. Afferent fibers were classified according to their mechanical responsiveness to von Frey stimulation (75g) into mechano-responsive and mechano-insensitive nociceptors. Various concentrations of Endothelin1 (ET1) and Histamine were injected into the receptive fields of C-fibers. Activation and heat sensitization were monitored. Axon reflex flare and psychophysical ratings were assessed after injection of ET1 and codeine into the forearms after pre-treatment with an H1 blocker or sodium chloride. 65% of mechanosensitive nociceptors were activated by ET1. One-third showed long lasting responses (>15min). In contrast, none of thirteen mechano-insensitive fibers were activated. Sensitization to heat was observed in 62% of mechanosensitive and in 46% of mechano-insensitive fibers. Injection of ET1 produced a widespread axon reflex flare, which was suppressed by pre-treatment with an H1 receptor blocker. In addition, pain sensations were induced more often than itching by ET1 in contrast to codeine. No wheal was observed after injection of ET1. Both itching and pain were decreased after H1 blocker treatment. In summary: (1) In humans ET1 activates mechanosensitive, but not mechano-insensitive, nociceptors. (2) Histamine released from mast cells is not responsible for all effects of ET1 on C-nociceptors. (3) ET1 could have a differential role in pain compared to other chemical algogens which activate additionally or even predominantly mechano-insensitive fibers. PMID:17884295

  9. Purification of human plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF;1-0-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine is synthesized by a variety of cells. It induces hypotension, and activates platelets, neutrophils, and macrophages at nanomolar concentrations. Removal of the acetate abolishes biological activity, and is catalyzed by a specific PAF acetylhydrolase present in plasma and tissues. The authors developed a rapid assay, based on separation of [3H]acetate from [3H-acetyl]PAF by reversed-phase chromatography. In human plasma the enzyme exhibits an apparent Km of 5.7μM, with a Vmax of 0.027μmol/h/mg. Ultracentrifugation in density gradients showed that 30% of the activity is associated with high density lipoproteins (HDL) and 70% with low density lipoproteins (LDL). The enzyme was purified from LDL by precipitation with Na phosphotungstate and MgCl2, solubilization with Tween 20, column chromatography and electrophoresis. This procedure resulted in a preparation that was 21,000-fold purified from plasma (spec. act. 575μmol/h/mg) with a recovery of 10%. The purified enzyme has a molecular weight of about 43,000, a broad pH optimum (peak 7.5-8.0), and a pl of 4.6. It has greater activity when PAF is in a micellar, as compared to monomeric, and exhibits surface dilution kinetics, which may be important in vivo. The purification and characterization of this enzyme will allow detailed studies of its role in PAF metabolism

  10. Exosomes: novel effectors of human platelet lysate activity

    E Torreggiani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the popularity of platelet-rich plasma (PRP and platelet lysate (PL in orthopaedic practice, the mechanism of action and the effectiveness of these therapeutic tools are still controversial. So far, the activity of PRP and PL has been associated with different growth factors (GF released during platelet degranulation. This study, for the first time, identifies exosomes, nanosized vesicles released in the extracellular compartment by a number of elements, including platelets, as one of the effectors of PL activity. Exosomes were isolated from human PL by differential ultracentrifugation, and analysed by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC treated with three different exosome concentrations (0.6 μg, 5 μg and 50 μg showed a significant, dose-dependent increase in cell proliferation and migration compared to the control. In addition, osteogenic differentiation assays demonstrated that exosome concentration differently affected the ability of MSC to deposit mineralised matrix. Finally, the analysis of exosome protein content revealed a higher amount of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 as compared to PL. In regards to RNA content, an enrichment of small RNAs in exosomes as compared to donor platelets has been found. These results suggest that exosomes consistently contribute to PL activity and could represent an advantageous nanodelivery system for cell-free regeneration therapies.

  11. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation. PMID:26990572

  12. Interactions between occlusion and human brain function activities.

    Ohkubo, C; Morokuma, M; Yoneyama, Y; Matsuda, R; Lee, J S

    2013-02-01

    There are few review articles in the area of human research that focus on the interactions between occlusion and brain function. This systematic review discusses the effect of occlusion on the health of the entire body with a focus on brain function. Available relevant articles in English from 1999 to 2011 were assessed in an online database and as hard copies in libraries. The selected 19 articles were classified into the following five categories: chewing and tongue movements, clenching and grinding, occlusal splints and occlusal interference, prosthetic rehabilitation, and pain and stimulation. The relationships between the brain activity observed in the motor and sensory cortices and movements of the oral and maxillofacial area, such as those produced by gum chewing, tapping and clenching, were investigated. It was found that the sensorimotor cortex was also affected by the placement of the occlusal interference devices, splints and implant prostheses. Brain activity may change depending on the strength of the movements in the oral and maxillofacial area. Therefore, mastication and other movements stimulate the activity in the cerebral cortex and may be helpful in preventing degradation of a brain function. However, these findings must be verified by evidence gathered from more subjects. PMID:22624951

  13. Determination of phosphodiesterase I activity in human blood serum.

    Hynie, I; Meuffels, M; Poznanski, W J

    1975-09-01

    Phosphodiesterase I (EC 3.1.4.1) activity was detected in normal human blood serum. The enzyme is stable at laboratory temperature for three days, but is inactivated at pH less than 7. The pH for optimum activity increases with the substrate concentration (under the conditions used, from pH 9.0 to 10.2) and, conversely, the Km increases with pH and buffer concentration. The enzyme is inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetate but not by phosphate (0.1 mol/liter). We developed a simple quantitative method for its determination, based on hydrolysis of the p-nitrophenyl ester of thymidine 5'-monophosphate and subsequent measurement of the liberated p-nitrophenol at 400 nm in NaOH (0.1 mol/liter). Normal values (mean +/- 2 SD) were determined to be 33 +/- 6.4 U/liter. Preliminary studies indicate that phosphodiesterase I activity is greater than normal in serum of patients with necrotic changes in the liver or kidney or in cases of breast cancer, but not in that of patients with myocardial infarction, bone cancer, lung cancer, or chronic liver cirrhosis. PMID:168991

  14. Exosomes: novel effectors of human platelet lysate activity.

    Torreggiani, E; Perut, F; Roncuzzi, L; Zini, N; Baglìo, S R; Baldini, N

    2014-01-01

    Despite the popularity of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet lysate (PL) in orthopaedic practice, the mechanism of action and the effectiveness of these therapeutic tools are still controversial. So far, the activity of PRP and PL has been associated with different growth factors (GF) released during platelet degranulation. This study, for the first time, identifies exosomes, nanosized vesicles released in the extracellular compartment by a number of elements, including platelets, as one of the effectors of PL activity. Exosomes were isolated from human PL by differential ultracentrifugation, and analysed by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC) treated with three different exosome concentrations (0.6 μg, 5 μg and 50 μg) showed a significant, dose-dependent increase in cell proliferation and migration compared to the control. In addition, osteogenic differentiation assays demonstrated that exosome concentration differently affected the ability of MSC to deposit mineralised matrix. Finally, the analysis of exosome protein content revealed a higher amount of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) as compared to PL. In regards to RNA content, an enrichment of small RNAs in exosomes as compared to donor platelets has been found. These results suggest that exosomes consistently contribute to PL activity and could represent an advantageous nanodelivery system for cell-free regeneration therapies. PMID:25241964

  15. Activation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle is dependent on exercise intensity and AMPK activation.

    Schwalm, Céline; Jamart, Cécile; Benoit, Nicolas; Naslain, Damien; Prémont, Christophe; Prévet, Jérémy; Van Thienen, Ruud; Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2015-08-01

    In humans, nutrient deprivation and extreme endurance exercise both activate autophagy. We hypothesized that cumulating fasting and cycling exercise would potentiate activation of autophagy in skeletal muscle. Well-trained athletes were divided into control (n = 8), low-intensity (LI, n = 8), and high-intensity (HI, n = 7) exercise groups and submitted to fed and fasting sessions. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis before, at the end, and 1 h after a 2 h LI or HI bout of exercise. Phosphorylation of ULK1(Ser317) was higher after exercise (P diet. PMID:25957282

  16. Which activation function of cooperation describes human behavior?

    Jarynowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Properties of cooperation's probability function in Prisoner`s Dilemma have impact on evolution of game. Basic model defines that probability of cooperation depends linearly, both on the player's altruism and the co-player's reputation. I propose modification of activation function to smooth one (hyperbolic tangent with scaling parameter a, which corresponds to its shape) and observe three phases for different range of a. (1) For small a, strategies seem to randomly change in time and situation of mixed choices (one cooperates and second defects) dominate. (2) For medium a, players choose only one strategy for given period of time (the common state can switch to opposite one with some probability). (3) For large a, mixed strategy (once defect, once cooperate) is coexisting with common strategies and no change is allowed. I believe that proposed function characterizes better socio-economical phenomena and especially phase 1 and 2 contain most of human behavior.

  17. Neutron activation analysis of organohalogens in Chinese human hair

    To effectively extract organohalogens from human hair, two factors, the extracting time and hair length on the extraction efficiency of organohalogens were studied by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD), respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of extractable organohalogens (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) in hair samples from angioma and control babies were also measured by the established method. The results indicated that the optimal Soxhlet-extraction time for EOX and EPOX in hair was from 8 to 11 hours, and the extraction efficiencies for organochlorine pesticides in hair were in the order of powder >2 mm>5 mm. Also, the mean levels of EOCl and EPOCl in hair of the angioma babies were significantly higher than those in the control babies (PEOClEPOCl<0.05), which implied the possible relationship between the environmental pollution and angioma. (author)

  18. Efficiency of Human Activity on Information Spreading on Twitter

    Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Benito, R M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the collective reaction to individual actions is key to effectively spread information in social media. In this work we define efficiency on Twitter, as the ratio between the emergent spreading process and the activity employed by the user. We characterize this property by means of a quantitative analysis of the structural and dynamical patterns emergent from human interactions, and show it to be universal across several Twitter conversations. We found that some influential users efficiently cause remarkable collective reactions by each message sent, while the majority of users must employ extremely larger efforts to reach similar effects. Next we propose a model that reproduces the retweet cascades occurring on Twitter to explain the emergent distribution of the user efficiency. The model shows that the dynamical patterns of the conversations are strongly conditioned by the topology of the underlying network. We conclude that the appearance of a small fraction of extremely efficient users resul...

  19. Safety activities and human resource development at NCA

    Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly (NCA) has been safely operated since the first criticality in December 1963. The topics covered in this Yayoi Meeting Report are: (1) the outline of NCA, (2) the safety control situation mainly after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, (3) educational training incorporates the lessons learned in this earthquake, and (4) human resource development during 2008-2015. Regarding safety control, facility maintenance has been conducted systematically according to the maintenance plan from the viewpoint of preventive maintenance. Regarding educational training, two disaster handling training based on the safety regulation and one nuclear emergency drill based on the emergency drill plan for licensee of nuclear energy activity based on the Act of Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness every year. Regarding human resource development, development training was given to 358 people including students. This year, training that does not require NCA operation was conducted including gamma-ray spectrum measurement of NCA fuel rod and neutron deceleration property measurement using 252Cf neutron source. (S.K.)

  20. Exergy Analysis of Human Respiration Under Physical Activity

    Jurandir Itizo Yanagihara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper presents an exergy analysis of the human body under physical activity. A model of the respiratory system and a model of the thermal system were used for this purpose. These models consider heat and mass transfers in lungs, tissues and blood. Each component of these models is represented by a uniform compartment governed by equations for diffusion, convection, O2 consumption, CO2/heat generation and heat and mass transfer with the environment. The models allow the calculation of the exergy destruction in the lung and tissues, and the contribution of each entropy generation mechanism in the total generation. Furthermore, a discussion is proposed regarding the efficiency of the human body under physical exercise.

  1. Sensitivity of the Indian Monsoon to Human Activities

    B. KNOPF; K. ZICKFELD; M. FLECHSIG; V. PETOUKHOV

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the authors perform an extensive sensitivity analysis of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall to changes in parameters and boundary conditions which are influenced by human activities. For this study, the authors use a box model of the Indian monsoon which reproduces key features of the observed monsoon dynamics such as the annual course of precipitation and the transitions between winter and summer regimes. Because of its transparency and computational efficiency, this model is highly suitable for exploring the effects of anthropogenic perturbations such as emissions of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide, and land cover changes, on the Indian monsoon. Results of a systematic sensitivity analysis indicate that changes in those parameters which are related to emissions of greenhouse gases lead to an increase in Indian summer rainfall. In contrast, all parameters related to higher atmospheric aerosol concentrations lead to a decrease in Indian rainfall. Similarly, changes in parameters which can be related to forest conversion or desertification, act to decrease the summer precipitation. The results indicate that the sign of precipitation changes over India will be dependent on the direction and relative magnitude of different human perturbations.

  2. Neutron activation analysis of human hair and health

    Full text: Periodically increasing and decreasing enthusiasm has accompanied the studies of medical significance of human hair elemental composition for at least two decades. In this field, nuclear analytical methods play an extremely important role, especially the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This paper tries to add some new knowledge to this problem. There were collected and analyzed hair samples from 2 500 practically healthy inhabitants of Uzbekistan. This allowed to estimate average concentrations of elements and intervals of concentration for normal population. Average data for 11 regions of Uzbekistan were compared with medical statistics data for these regions. There were found significant correlations for some diseases. In addition were found correlations in world wide scale. These data and previously obtained data in clinical conditions allowed to elaborate algorithm of estimation of health status according to human hair elemental composition. Reliability for many cases was very high. This allows to focus for more detailed diagnostic procedures and measures for the body elemental status correction

  3. Neurotrophin receptors expression and JNK pathway activation in human astrocytomas

    Neurotrophins are growth factors that regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis in the nervous system. Their diverse actions are mediated through two different transmembrane – receptor signaling systems: Trk receptor tyrosine kinases (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC) and p75NTR neurotrophin receptor. Trk receptors promote cell survival and differentiation while p75NTR induces, in most cases, the activity of JNK-p53-Bax apoptosis pathway or suppresses intracellular survival signaling cascades. Robust Trk activation blocks p75NTR -induced apoptosis by suppressing the JNK-p53-Bax pathway. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the expression levels of neurotrophin receptors, Trks and p75NTR, and the activation of JNK pathway in human astrocytomas and in adjacent non-neoplastic brain tissue. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded serial sections from 33 supratentorial astrocytomas (5 diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas, WHO grade II; 6 anaplastic astrocytomas, WHO grade III; 22 glioblastomas multiforme, WHO grade IV) were immunostained following microwave pretreatment. Polyclonal antibodies against TrkA, TrkB, TrkC and monoclonal antibodies against p75NTR and phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK) and c-Jun (pc-Jun) were used. The labeling index (LI), defined as the percentage of positive (labeled) cells out of the total number of tumor cells counted, was determined. Moderate to strong, granular cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for TrkA, TrkB and TrkC receptors was detected in greater than or equal to 10% of tumor cells in the majority of tumors independently of grade; on the contrary, p75NTR receptor expression was found in a small percentage of tumor cells (~1%) in some tumors. The endothelium of tumor capillaries showed conspicuous immunoreactivity for TrkB receptor. Trk immunoreactivity seemed to be localized in some neurons and astrocytes in non-neoplastic tissue. Phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK) and c-Jun (pc-Jun) were significantly co-expressed in a tumor grade

  4. Activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase in human cells by the mycotoxin patulin

    Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, is often detectable in moldy fruits and their derivative products. PAT led to a concentration-dependent and time-dependent increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Exposure of HEK293 cells to concentrations above 5 μM PAT for 30 min induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation; activation of ERK1/2 was also observed after 24 h incubation with 0.05 μM of PAT. Treatment of human PBMCs for 30 min with 30 μM PAT dramatically increased the phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels. Both MEK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suppressed ERK1/2 activation in either HEK293 or MDCK cells. In HEK293 cells, U0126-mediated inhibition of PAT-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation resulted in a significant decrease in levels of DNA damage, expressed as tail moment values, in the single cell gel electrophoresis assay. Conversely, U0126 did not affect cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, and the DNA synthesis rate in PAT-treated cultures. Exposure of HEK293 cells for 90 min to 15 μM PAT elevated the levels of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) mRNA, but not of c-fos, fosB, and junB mRNAs. These results indicate that in human cells, PAT causes a rapid and persistent activation of ERK1/2 and this signaling pathway plays an important role in mediating PAT-induced DNA damage and egr-1 gene expression

  5. Chemotactic Activity on Human Neutrophils to Streptococcus mutans

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate chemotactic activity o neutrophil to S. mutans. Chemotaxis assay was performed in blind well chambers. Materials and Methods: Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS containing 106 S. mutans,  108 S. mutans, 10-8 M fMLP, or HBSS alone were placed in the lower wells of the chamber and covered with polycorbonate membrane filter. Neutrophils suspension (2x105 cells was then placed in the upper compartment. After incubation for 60 mins at 37ºC in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2, the filters were removed and stained with Giemsa. Result: ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences among groups (p<0.05, indicating that S. mutans induced neutrophils chemotaxis. The number of neutrophils migration in response to 108 S. mutans and 106 S. mutans were signifiantly greater compared to fMLP (p<0.05. Conclusion: S. mutans may activate human neutrophils, resulting in the chemotaxis of the neutrophils.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.99

  6. Comparative studies of placentation and immunology in non-human primates suggest a scenario for the evolution of deep trophoblast invasion and an explanation for human pregnancy disorders

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2011-01-01

    Deep trophoblast invasion in the placental bed has been considered the hallmark of human pregnancy. It occurs by two routes, interstitial and endovascular, and results in transformation of the walls of the spiral arteries as they traverse the decidua and the inner third of the myometrium. Disturb......Deep trophoblast invasion in the placental bed has been considered the hallmark of human pregnancy. It occurs by two routes, interstitial and endovascular, and results in transformation of the walls of the spiral arteries as they traverse the decidua and the inner third of the myometrium....... Disturbances in this process are associated with reproductive disorders such preeclampsia. In contrast, trophoblast invasion in Old World monkeys occurs only by the endovascular route and seldom reaches the myometrium. Recently, it was shown that this pattern is maintained in gibbons, but that the human...... arrangement also occurs in chimpanzee and gorilla. There is an interesting parallel with results from placental immunology regarding the evolution of the major histocompatability complex class I antigen HLA-C and its cognate receptors. HLA-C is not present in Old World monkeys or gibbons. It emerged in the...

  7. Human Activities in Natura 2000 Sites: A Highly Diversified Conservation Network

    Tsiafouli, Maria A.; Apostolopoulou, Evangelia; Mazaris, Antonios D.; Kallimanis, Athanasios S; Drakou, Evangelia G.; Pantis, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The Natura 2000 network was established across the European Union’s (EU) Member States with the aim to conserve biodiversity, while ensuring the sustainability of human activities. However, to what kind and to what extent Natura 2000 sites are subject to human activities and how this varies across Member States remains unspecified. Here, we analyzed 111,269 human activity records from 14,727 protected sites in 20 Member States. The frequency of occurrence of activities differs among countries...

  8. Exergy performance of human body under physical activities

    The aim of this work is to apply performance indicators for individuals under physical activity based on the concepts of exergy destroyed and exergy efficiency. The cardiopulmonary exercise test is one of the most used tests to assess the functional capacity of individuals with varying degrees of physical training. To perform the exergy analysis during the test, it is necessary to calculate heat and mass flow rates, associated with radiation, convection, vaporization and respiration, determined from the measurements and some relations found in the literature. The energy balance allowed the determination of the internal temperature over time and the exergy variation of the body along the experiment. Eventually, it was possible to calculate the destroyed exergy and the exergy efficiency from the exergy analysis. The exergy rates and flow rates are dependent of the exercise level and the body metabolism. The results show that the relation between the destroyed exergy and the metabolism is almost constant during the test, furthermore its value has a great dependence of the subject age. From the exergy analysis it was possible to divide the subjects according to their training level, for the same destroyed exergy, subjects with higher lactate threshold can perform more work. - Highlights: • Exergy analysis was applied to the human body under physical activities. • Concept of maximum available work from ATP hydrolysis was compared with exergy analysis results. • For the same destroyed exergy, subjects with higher lactate threshold can perform more work. • Runners during physical activities tend to a state of minimum destroyed exergy and maximum exergy efficiency

  9. Complement alternative pathway activation in human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Filip M Segers

    Full Text Available The innate immune system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Recently we reported complement activation in human NASH. However, it remained unclear whether the alternative pathway of complement, which amplifies C3 activation and which is frequently associated with pathological complement activation leading to disease, was involved. Here, alternative pathway components were investigated in liver biopsies of obese subjects with healthy livers (n = 10 or with NASH (n = 12 using quantitative PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Properdin accumulated in areas where neutrophils surrounded steatotic hepatocytes, and colocalized with the C3 activation product C3c. C3 activation status as expressed by the C3c/native C3 ratio was 2.6-fold higher (p<0.01 in subjects with NASH despite reduced native C3 concentrations (0.94±0.12 vs. 0.57±0.09; p<0.01. Hepatic properdin levels positively correlated with levels of C3c (rs = 0.69; p<0.05 and C3c/C3 activation ratio (rs = 0.59; p<0.05. C3c, C3 activation status (C3c/C3 ratio and properdin levels increased with higher lobular inflammation scores as determined according to the Kleiner classification (C3c: p<0.01, C3c/C3 ratio: p<0.05, properdin: p<0.05. Hepatic mRNA expression of factor B and factor D did not differ between subjects with healthy livers and subjects with NASH (factor B: 1.00±0.19 vs. 0.71±0.07, p = 0.26; factor D: 1.00±0.21 vs. 0.66±0.14, p = 0.29;. Hepatic mRNA and protein levels of Decay Accelerating Factor tended to be increased in subjects with NASH (mRNA: 1.00±0.14 vs. 2.37±0.72; p = 0.22; protein: 0.51±0.11 vs. 1.97±0.67; p = 0.28. In contrast, factor H mRNA was downregulated in patients with NASH (1.00±0.09 vs. 0.71±0.06; p<0.05 and a similar trend was observed with hepatic protein levels (1.12±0.16 vs. 0.78±0.07; p = 0.08. Collectively, these data suggest a role for alternative

  10. Polystyrene nanoparticles activate ion transport in human airway epithelial cells

    McCarthy J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available J McCarthy1, X Gong2, D Nahirney2, M Duszyk2, MW Radomski11School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panoz Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Over the last decade, nanotechnology has provided researchers with new nanometer materials, such as nanoparticles, which have the potential to provide new therapies for many lung diseases. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of polystyrene nanoparticles on epithelial ion channel function.Methods: Human submucosal Calu-3 cells that express cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and baby hamster kidney cells engineered to express the wild-type CFTR gene were used to investigate the actions of negatively charged 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles on short-circuit current in Calu-3 cells by Ussing chamber and single CFTR Cl- channels alone and in the presence of known CFTR channel activators by using baby hamster kidney cell patches.Results: Polystyrene nanoparticles caused sustained, repeatable, and concentration-dependent increases in short-circuit current. In turn, these short-circuit current responses were found to be biphasic in nature, ie, an initial peak followed by a plateau. EC50 values for peak and plateau short-circuit current responses were 1457 and 315.5 ng/mL, respectively. Short-circuit current was inhibited by diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, a CFTR Cl- channel blocker. Polystyrene nanoparticles activated basolateral K+ channels and affected Cl- and HCO3- secretion. The mechanism of short-circuit current activation by polystyrene nanoparticles was found to be largely dependent on calcium-dependent and cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of CFTR Cl- channels. Recordings from isolated inside-out patches using baby hamster kidney cells confirmed the direct activation of CFTR Cl- channels by the nanoparticles.Conclusion: This is the first study to identify

  11. Human activity and landscape change at Adjiyska Vodenitsa, central Bulgaria

    Chiverrell, R. C.; Archibald, Z.

    2009-04-01

    reflects processes during the late Holocene, with the low level hill slopes flanking the river littered with small agricultural communities. It is easy to envisage the landscape as one made susceptible to erosion by human activity feeding materials through the Momina Klissoura Gorge to the Belovo fan near the settlement at Adjiyska Vodenitsa. Sharp increases in non-arboreal pollen during the period 2880-1620 BP, associated with Greek and Roman times, in the Rila Mountains, have been attributed to seasonal animal husbandry in the higher mountains, with associated permanent settlement in the surrounding lowlands.

  12. Activation of human tonsil and skin mast cells by agonists of proteinase activated receptor-2

    Shao-heng HE; Hua XIE; Yi-ling FU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of the agonists of proteinase activated receptor (PAR)-2,and histamine on degranulation of human mast cells. Methods: Human mast cells were enzymatically dispersed from tonsil and skin tissues. The dis persed cells were then cultured with various stimuli, and tryptase and histamine levels in cell supernatants collected from challenge tubes were measured. Results:PAR-2 agonist peptide SLIGKV provoked a dose-dependent release of histamine from skin mast cells. It also induced tryptase release from tonsil mast cells, tcLIGRLO appeared less potent than SLIGKV in induction of release of histamine and tryptase. Trypsin was able to induce a "bell" shape increase in tryptase release from tonsil mast cells. It was also able to induce a dose-dependent release of histamine from both tonsil and skin mast cells. The actions of trypsin on mast cells were inhibited by soy bean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) or α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT).Time course study revealed that both stimulated tryptase or histamine release initiated within 10 s and reached their peak release between 4 and 6 min. Pretreatment of cells with metabolic inhibitors or pertussis toxin reduced the ability of mast cells to release tryptase or histamine. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the in vitro tryptase release properties of human tonsil and skin mast cells suggested a novel type of mast cell heterogeneity. The activation of mast cells by PAR-2 agonists indicated a self-amplification mechanism of mast cell degranulation.

  13. Human breast cancer cell-mediated bone collagen degradation requires plasminogen activation and matrix metalloproteinase activity

    Hill Peter A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer cells frequently metastasize to the skeleton and induce extensive bone destruction. Cancer cells produce proteinases, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and the plasminogen activator system (PAS which promote invasion of extracellular matrices, but whether these proteinases degrade bone matrix is unclear. To characterize the role that breast cancer cell proteinases play in bone degradation we compared the effects of three human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231, ZR-75-1 and MCF-7 with those of a normal breast epithelial cell line, HME. The cell lines were cultured atop radiolabelled matrices of either mineralized or non-mineralized bone or type I collagen, the principal organic constituent of bone. Results The 3 breast cancer cell lines all produced significant degradation of the 3 collagenous extracellular matrices (ECMs whilst the normal breast cell line was without effect. Breast cancer cells displayed an absolute requirement for serum to dissolve collagen. Degradation of collagen was abolished in plasminogen-depleted serum and could be restored by the addition of exogenous plasminogen. Localization of plasmin activity to the cell surface was critical for the degradation process as aprotinin, but not α2 antiplasmin, prevented collagen dissolution. During ECM degradation breast cancer cell lines expressed urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA and uPA receptor, and MMPs-1, -3, -9,-13, and -14. The normal breast epithelial cell line expressed low levels of MMPs-1, and -3, uPA and uPA receptor. Inhibitors of both the PAS (aprotinin and PA inhibitor-1 and MMPs (CT1166 and tisue inhibitor of metalloproteinase blocked collagen degradation, demonstrating the requirement of both plasminogen activation and MMP activity for degradation. The activation of MMP-13 in human breast cancer cells was prevented by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 but not by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, suggesting

  14. Differences in neural activation for object-directed grasping in chimpanzees and humans.

    Hecht, Erin E; Murphy, Lauren E; Gutman, David A; Votaw, John R; Schuster, David M; Preuss, Todd M; Orban, Guy A; Stout, Dietrich; Parr, Lisa A

    2013-08-28

    The human faculty for object-mediated action, including tool use and imitation, exceeds that of even our closest primate relatives and is a key foundation of human cognitive and cultural uniqueness. In humans and macaques, observing object-directed grasping actions activates a network of frontal, parietal, and occipitotemporal brain regions, but differences in human and macaque activation suggest that this system has been a focus of selection in the primate lineage. To study the evolution of this system, we performed functional neuroimaging in humans' closest living relatives, chimpanzees. We compare activations during performance of an object-directed manual grasping action, observation of the same action, and observation of a mimed version of the action that consisted of only movements without results. Performance and observation of the same action activated a distributed frontoparietal network similar to that reported in macaques and humans. Like humans and unlike macaques, these regions were also activated by observing movements without results. However, in a direct chimpanzee/human comparison, we also identified unique aspects of human neural responses to observed grasping. Chimpanzee activation showed a prefrontal bias, including significantly more activity in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas human activation was more evenly distributed across more posterior regions, including significantly more activation in ventral premotor cortex, inferior parietal cortex, and inferotemporal cortex. This indicates a more "bottom-up" representation of observed action in the human brain and suggests that the evolution of tool use, social learning, and cumulative culture may have involved modifications of frontoparietal interactions. PMID:23986247

  15. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  16. Myelostimulatory activity of recombinant human interleukin-2 in mice

    In a series of studies designed to extend our understanding of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and to study the effect of biologic response modifiers on bone marrow, we observed that administering recombinant human (rH) IL-2 to normal mice resulted in an increase in the frequency of colony-forming units-culture (CFU-C) in bone marrow. In addition, rH IL-2 was able to accelerate host recovery from cyclophosphamide (CTX)- or radiation-induced bone marrow depression and peripheral blood leukopenia. Not only can rH IL-2 accelerate, in a dose-dependent manner, the return of bone marrow, peripheral blood cellularity, and CFU-C frequency to normal levels following cytoreduction by CTX or irradiation, but it also significantly increases CFU-C frequency to greater than normal levels. Furthermore, rH IL-2 can significantly prolong survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of irradiation or CTX. Thus, multiple mechanisms are responsible for the synergistic therapeutic activity associated with rH IL-2 and CTX. rH IL-2 does not act only as an immunomodulatory agent in the presence or absence of suppressor T cells, but also accelerates host recovery from cytoreductive agents, resulting in decreased leukopenia and perhaps resistances to secondary infection. Thus, rH IL-2 plus chemotherapy may increase therapeutic activity against neoplastic disease, not only by adding immune stimulation to the direct antitumor effect of the drug but also by allowing delivery of higher, more effective doses of chemotherapy

  17. Calcium channel activity of purified human synexin and structure of the human synexin gene

    Synexin is a calcium-dependent membrane binding protein that not only fuses membranes but also acts as a voltage-dependent calcium channel. The authors have isolated and sequenced a set of overlapping cDNA clones for human synexin. The derived amino acid sequence of synexin reveals strong homology in the C-terminal domain with a previously identified class of calcium-dependent membrane binding proteins. These include endonexin II, lipocortin I, calpactin I heavy chain (p36), protein II, and calelectrin 67K. The Mr 51,000 synexin molecule can be divided into a unique, highly hydrophobic N-terminal domain of 167 amino acids and a conserved C-terminal region of 299 amino acids. The latter domain is composed of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. Analysis of the entire structure reveals possible insights into such diverse properties as voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity, ion selectivity, affinity for phospholipids, and membrane fusion

  18. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  19. Human population and activities in Forsmark. Site description

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced.The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations.The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (Environmental Impact Assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments.The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Forsmark area', an area of 19.5 km2 near Forsmark nuclear power plant. The land use in the Forsmark area differs notably from the land use in Uppsala laen (laen = county). Only 0.04% of the total area is developed (built-up) compared to 4.9% in Uppsala laen and only 4% is agricultural land compared to 25% in the county. Furthermore, there are far more forest, wetlands and water areas in the Forsmark area. The forest area represents as much as 72.5% of the total area.The Forsmark area is uninhabited, and its surroundings are very sparsely populated. In 2002, the population density in Forsmark was 1.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, which was 24 times lower than in Uppsala laen. The population density in the parish has been

  20. Human population and activities in Forsmark. Site description

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced.The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations.The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (Environmental Impact Assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments.The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Forsmark area', an area of 19.5 km{sup 2} near Forsmark nuclear power plant. The land use in the Forsmark area differs notably from the land use in Uppsala laen (laen = county). Only 0.04% of the total area is developed (built-up) compared to 4.9% in Uppsala laen and only 4% is agricultural land compared to 25% in the county. Furthermore, there are far more forest, wetlands and water areas in the Forsmark area. The forest area represents as much as 72.5% of the total area.The Forsmark area is uninhabited, and its surroundings are very sparsely populated. In 2002, the population density in Forsmark was 1.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, which was 24 times lower than in Uppsala laen. The population density in the

  1. In vitro antiproliferative activity of Annona reticulata roots on human cancer cell lines

    Suresh, H. M.; B Shivakumar; K.Hemalatha; S S Heroor; Hugar, D. S.; Sambasiva Rao, K. R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The phytochemical and pharmacological activities of Annona reticulata components suggest a wide range of clinical application in lieu of cancer chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Ethanol and aqueous extracts of roots of Annona reticulata Linn were studied for their in vitro antiproliferative activity on A-549 (human lung carcinoma), K-562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia bone marrow), HeLa (human cervix) and MDA-MB (human adenocarcinoma mammary gland) cancer cell lines by MTT...

  2. Differences in Neural Activation for Object-Directed Grasping in Chimpanzees and Humans

    Hecht, Erin E.; Murphy, Lauren E.; Gutman, David A.; Votaw, John R.; Schuster, David M; Todd M Preuss; Orban, Guy A.; Stout, Dietrich; Parr, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    The human faculty for object-mediated action, including tool use and imitation, exceeds that of even our closest primate relatives and is a key foundation of human cognitive and cultural uniqueness. In humans and macaques, observing object-directed grasping actions activates a network of frontal, parietal, and occipitotemporal brain regions, but differences in human and macaque activation suggest that this system has been a focus of selection in the primate lineage. To study the evolution of ...

  3. Dopamine receptor activation increases HIV entry into primary human macrophages.

    Peter J Gaskill

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers.

  4. Impact of human activities on soil respiration:A review

    2009-01-01

    Soil respiration is one of the primary fluxes of carbon between soils and the atmosphere.It is produced by rhizosphere respiration and soil microbial respiration.Soil respiration is not only affected by environmental factors,but also changes with the hu-man-induced disturbances of ecosystems.Land-use,the measures of land management,the pollution of soil,and so on can affect soil respiration and change the soil efflux.According to some research,the authors summed up their impacts on soil respiration by human activities through land-use changes and land-management measures among agroecosystem,grassland ecosystem,and for-est ecosystem.The results showed that (1) when adding fertilization to farmland,the soil respiration will increase;(2) fenced land can decrease soil respiration,while soil respiration in the grazed land at a grassland ecosystem will decline with the increasing of grazing intensity;(3) with grassland fertilization;farmland cultivation;fire,fertilization,and cutting of forest,conflicting results were found in the changes of soil respiration.Perhaps plant species,site condition,and measurement season can lead to different results on soil respiration.

  5. Activation of transforming potential of the human insulin receptor gene

    A retrovirus containing part of the human insulin receptor (hIR) gene was constructed by replacing ros sequences in the avian sarcoma virus UR2 with hIR cDNA sequences coding for 46 amino acids of the extracellular domain and the entire transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the β subunit of hIR. The resulting virus, named UIR, contains the hIR sequence fused to the 5' portion of the UR2 gag gene coding for p19. UIR is capable of transforming chicken embryo fibroblasts and promoting formation of colonies in soft agar; however, it does not form tumors in vivo. A variant that arose from the parental UIR is capable of efficiently inducing sarcomas in vivo. UIR-transformed cells exhibit higher rates of glucose uptake and growth than normal cells. The 4-kilobase UIR genome codes for a membrane-associated, glycosylated gag-hIR fusion protein of 75 kDa designated P75/sup gag-hir/. P75/sup gag-hir/ contains a protein tyrosine kinase activity that is capable of undergoing autophosphorylation and of phosphorylating foreign substrates in vitro; it is phosphorylated at both serine and tyrosine residues in vivo

  6. Activation of transforming potential of the human insulin receptor gene

    Wang, L.H.; Lin, B.; Jong, S.M.J.; Dixon, D.; Ellis, L.; Roth, R.A.; Rutter, W.J.

    1987-08-01

    A retrovirus containing part of the human insulin receptor (hIR) gene was constructed by replacing ros sequences in the avian sarcoma virus UR2 with hIR cDNA sequences coding for 46 amino acids of the extracellular domain and the entire transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the ..beta.. subunit of hIR. The resulting virus, named UIR, contains the hIR sequence fused to the 5' portion of the UR2 gag gene coding for p19. UIR is capable of transforming chicken embryo fibroblasts and promoting formation of colonies in soft agar; however, it does not form tumors in vivo. A variant that arose from the parental UIR is capable of efficiently inducing sarcomas in vivo. UIR-transformed cells exhibit higher rates of glucose uptake and growth than normal cells. The 4-kilobase UIR genome codes for a membrane-associated, glycosylated gag-hIR fusion protein of 75 kDa designated P75/sup gag-hir/. P75/sup gag-hir/ contains a protein tyrosine kinase activity that is capable of undergoing autophosphorylation and of phosphorylating foreign substrates in vitro; it is phosphorylated at both serine and tyrosine residues in vivo

  7. Rhythmic Working Memory Activation in the Human Hippocampus

    Marcin Leszczyński

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM maintenance is assumed to rely on a single sustained process throughout the entire maintenance period. This assumption, although fundamental, has never been tested. We used intracranial electroencephalography (EEG recordings from the human hippocampus in two independent experiments to investigate the neural dynamics underlying WM maintenance. We observed periodic fluctuations between two different oscillatory regimes: Periods of “memory activation” were reflected by load-dependent alpha power reductions and lower levels of cross-frequency coupling (CFC. They occurred interleaved with periods characterized by load-independent high levels of alpha power and CFC. During memory activation periods, a relevant CFC parameter (load-dependent changes of the peak modulated frequency correlated with individual WM capacity. Fluctuations between these two periods predicted successful performance and were locked to the phase of endogenous delta oscillations. These results show that hippocampal maintenance is a dynamic rather than constant process and depends critically on a hierarchy of oscillations.

  8. Effect of morphine on sympathetic nerve activity in humans

    Carter, Jason R.; Sauder, Charity L.; Ray, Chester A.

    2002-01-01

    There are conflicting reports for the role of endogenous opioids on sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to exercise in humans. A number of studies have utilized naloxone (an opioid-receptor antagonist) to investigate the effect of opioids during exercise. In the present study, we examined the effect of morphine (an opioid-receptor agonist) on sympathetic and cardiovascular responses at rest and during isometric handgrip (IHG). Eleven subjects performed 2 min of IHG (30% maximum) followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) before and after systemic infusion of morphine (0.075 mg/kg loading dose + 1 mg/h maintenance) or placebo (saline) in double-blinded experiments on separate days. Morphine increased resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; 17 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 2 bursts/min; P < 0.01) and increased mean arterial pressure (MAP; 87 +/- 2 to 91 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.02), but it decreased heart rate (HR; 61 +/- 4 to 59 +/- 3; P < 0.01). However, IHG elicited similar increases for MSNA, MAP, and HR between the control and morphine trial (drug x exercise interaction = not significant). Moreover, responses to PEMI were not different. Placebo had no effect on resting, IHG, and PEMI responses. We conclude that morphine modulates cardiovascular and sympathetic responses at rest but not during isometric exercise.

  9. Activities of nuclear human resource development in nuclear industry

    Since 2007, the JAIF (Japan Atomic Industrial Forum) had established the nuclear energy human resource development council to make analysis of the issue on nuclear human resource development. The author mainly contributed to develop its road map as a chairman of working group. Questionnaire survey to relevant parties on issues of nuclear human resource development had been conducted and the council identified the six relevant issues and ten recommendations. Both aspects for career design and skill-up program are necessary to develop nuclear human resource at each developing step and four respective central coordinating hubs should be linked to each sector participating in human resource development. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus response towards human activities

    Eigil Reimers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the question of how human activities and infrastructure influence reindeer/caribou’s (Rangifer tarandus behaviour and habitat use and review studies based on current methodologies. Anthropogenic activities have a direct affect on Rangifer behaviour through the senses hearing, sight and smell, and all of these are important tools for behavioural risk assessment. Short term indirect responses, such as habituation, sensitisation, avoidance, and displacement, develop through neutral, positive or negative associations towards stimulus in terms of Rangifer’s ability to experience, learn, and remember. Long term behavioural responses develop through interaction with predators and, for reindeer, also domestication. A survey of the literature dealing with behavioural studies reveals that although Rangifer in most cases retreat from anthropogenic activities, comfort distances (i.e. distances beyond which animal behaviour or activity are not influenced are relatively short. In most cases, energetic implications appear moderate and small compared to other natural, biotic influences such as disturbance (and death caused by insect and/or predator harassment. Unless obstructing access, physical constructions of various kinds apparently have limited effects on Rangifer behaviour or habitat use. On the other hand, constructions that do obstruct or limit access and recreational or other motorized and non-motorized activities appear to have stronger impacts on avoidance and redistribution of Rangifer. Behavioural effects that might decrease survival and reproduction include retreat from favourable habitat near disturbance sources and reduction of time spent feeding with resulting energy depletion over time. Rangifer habitat use, habitat avoidance, and feeding preferences are governed by a complexity of natural interacting factors. Domestication, habituation and sensitisation are essential in shaping Rangifer’s adaptability, and should be included

  11. Release of human immunodeficiency virus by THP-1 cells and human macrophages is regulated by cellular adherence and activation.

    Shattock, R.J.; Friedland, J S; Griffin, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    Macrophage adherence, an important regulatory signal, has the potential to affect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) production either directly or by priming monocytes to respond to other activating signals. We have investigated the role of adherence as an activator of HIV-1 transcription and release. The effects of adherence on HIV-1 transcription were examined by using THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line, transfected with HIV long terminal repeat (LTR)-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase...

  12. Human activity and climate variability project - annual report 2002

    Work is well underway on identifying the spatial and temporal extent, direction and range of trace element transport across Tasmania through analysis of lake sediments; A follow up investigation of sedimentation and pollution in the Nattai River catchment following the devastating 2001 bushfires in the region has been completed; The project has been extended to include investigations of evidence of human impacts in the highly sensitive and ecologically important Great Lakes of coastal NSW. This has involved the expansion of our collaboration to include Geoscience Australia; Contributions have been made to the IGBP HITE project. Further contributions will be made as the evidence gathered is drawn together and interpreted; Over the coming year, focus will be placed on completion of the investigation of the extent of aerial transport of trace elements across Tasmania over the last 200 years as well as evidence for human activity and impacts on the Great Lakes region of NSW. Further investigation of potential climate signals from sites in northern Australia will also be made. The first 12 months of data for all ACE-Asia radon and fine particle sites is now available with preliminary analyses performed; The seasonal variability of background radon concentration at each of the radon monitoring sites has been characterised for the available data; Major components related to industrial pollution and soil sources in China have been identified and quantified; Regional and seasonal variations and trends in aerosol constituents have been measured and compared across more than 2.8Mk2 of sampling area; The Hok Tsui and Kosan detectors were visited for general maintenance and recalibration; A grant application to the APN has been submitted in support of regional inventory analyses based on radon time series; Progress on the processing and interpretation of radon data was presented at the Cape Grim Science Meeting (6-7 February 2002) and the 7th Biennial SPERA Conference on

  13. Quantitative morphological assessment of microvascular network of leiomyoma tissue and the layers of myometrium in patients with uterine leiomyoma with hypo- and hyperestrogenic conditions induced by different schemes of gonadotroping relising hormone agonists therapy

    Medvedev M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microvascular components of myomatous tissue and the layers of myometrium were evaluated using mорmorphometric analysis in 35 patients with uterine leiomyoma with long-term and short-term preoperative hormonal correction with Gosereline Acetate. Our results show that the microvessels density depends on morphological type of the fibroid, which in case of the cellular leiomyoma is 2.9 times greater compared to the regular one. The tissue is characterized by decreased vascularization of simple leiomyoma as compared to surrounding myometrium. In conditions of a drug-induced 3-month menopause density of microvessels was significantly decreased. In conditions of elevated levels of sex steroids amount of microvessels in fibrois tissue increases, with expanding of the lumen of arterioles and metarterioles and thickening of their walls. Hipoestrogenic condition contributes significantly to reduction of the average diameter of arterioles in the tissue of cellular and simple leiomyoma, which in some cases leads to complete obliteration of the vessels. Short-time hypere-strogenemia leads to a statistically significant increase in wall thickness of arterioles in fibroid tissue samples. Similar changes observed in vessels of pseudocapsula of women with cellular leiomyoma.

  14. Detection of fat in lipomatous tumors of the myometrium by means of computed tomography and chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging; Deteccion de grasa en tumores lipomatosos del miometrio mediante TC y RM con tecnica de Desplazamiento Quimico

    Costa, S.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Delgado, F.; Ripolles, T. [Hospital Universitario Doctor Peset. Valencia (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Lipomatous tumors of the myometrium are rare lesions composed of varying amounts of mature fatty tissue. Our objective was to assess the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance MR findings associated with these tumors and determine the utility of the chemical shift imaging technique in the detection of fact within these focal uterine masses. Lipomatous focal uterine lesions were detected in three women by means of ultrasound. The patients underwent CT and MR using the chemical shift imaging technique and in-phase and opposed phase T1-weighted gradient-echo images. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the results were carried out, based on the attenuations and relations of signal intensity. The tumors were hypoattenuated in CT seans and hyperintense in T1-weighted images, showing a decreased signal in opposed phase T1-weighted images when compared with in-phase images. The percentage change (between 2% and 3%) is probably proportional to the differing proportions of fact and muscle elements present in these lipoleiomyomas. Lipomatous tumors of the myometrium are uterine lesions with a varying proportion of fact. Their fat composition can be detected by CT and MR. The chemical shift imaging technique reveals the variations in the proportions of fat in these tumors. Since the presence of fat within uterine lesions is virtually diagnostic of the myometrial lipomatous tumor, the chemical shift imaging technique contributes to the characterization of these lesions. (Author) 11 refs.

  15. Dietary Flavonoids as Therapeutics for Preterm Birth: Luteolin and Kaempferol Suppress Inflammation in Human Gestational Tissues In Vitro

    Courtney Wall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection/inflammation is commonly associated with preterm birth (PTB, initiating uterine contractions and rupture of fetal membranes. Proinflammatory cytokines induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM and prostaglandins which initiate uterine contractions. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and activator-protein- (AP-1 have key roles in the formation of these prolabour mediators. In nongestational tissues, dietary flavonoids such as luteolin and kaempferol inhibit NF-κB, AP-1, and their downstream targets. The aim of this study was to determine if luteolin and kaempferol reduce infection-induced prolabour mediators in human gestational tissues. Fetal membranes were incubated with LPS, and primary amnion cells and myometrial cells were incubated with IL-1β in the absence or presence of luteolin or kaempferol. Luteolin and kaempferol significantly reduced LPS-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8 and prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGF2α in fetal membranes, IL-1β-induced COX-2 gene expression and prostaglandin production in myometrium, and IL-1β-induced MMP-9 activity in amnion and myometrial cells. Luteolin and kaempferol decreased IL-1β-induced NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity and nuclear c-Jun expression. In conclusion, luteolin and kaempferol inhibit prolabour mediators in human gestational tissues. Given the central role of inflammation in provoking preterm labour, phytophenols may be a therapeutic approach to reduce the incidence of PTB.

  16. A Set of Activity-Based Probes to Visualize Human (Immuno)proteasome Activities.

    de Bruin, Gerjan; Xin, Bo Tao; Kraus, Marianne; van der Stelt, Mario; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; Kisselev, Alexei F; Driessen, Christoph; Florea, Bogdan I; Overkleeft, Herman S

    2016-03-18

    Proteasomes are therapeutic targets for various cancers and autoimmune diseases. Constitutively expressed proteasomes have three active sites, β1c, β2c, and β5c. Lymphoid tissues also express the immunoproteasome subunits β1i, β2i, and β5i. Rapid and simultaneous measurement of the activity of these catalytic subunits would assist in the discovery of new inhibitors, improve analysis of proteasome inhibitors in clinical trials, and simplify analysis of subunit expression. In this work, we present a cocktail of activity-based probes that enables simultaneous gel-based detection of all six catalytic human proteasome subunits. We used this cocktail to develop specific inhibitors for β1c, β2c, β5c, and β2i, to compare the active-site specificity of clinical proteasome inhibitors, and to demonstrate that many hematologic malignancies predominantly express immunoproteasomes. Furthermore, we show that selective and complete inhibition of β5i and β1i is cytotoxic to primary cells from acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patients. PMID:26511210

  17. Human interleukin 7: molecular cloning and growth factor activity on human and murine B-lineage cells.

    Goodwin, R G; Lupton, S; Schmierer, A; Hjerrild, K J; Jerzy, R; Clevenger, W; Gillis, S; Cosman, D; Namen, A E

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA encoding biologically active human interleukin 7 was isolated by hybridization with the homologous murine clone. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that this cDNA was capable of encoding a protein of 177 amino acids with a signal sequence of 25 amino acids and a calculated mass of 17.4 kDa for the mature protein. Recombinant human interleukin 7 stimulated the proliferation of murine pre-B cells and was active on cells harvested from human bone marrow that are enriched for B-lineage...

  18. Human activities and Holocene environmental change in NW Spain

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; Kaal, Joeri; Costa-Casais, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    [EN] Crutzen and Stoermer (2000) introduced the concept of “Anthropocene”, to highlight the beginning of a new, human-dominated, geological epoch, one in which the degree of alteration of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG) concentrations by humans is large enough to produce significant changes in the climate system. Its beginning was set to 1800 AD, at the onset of the Industrial Revolution, assuming that human influence on the atmosphere was negligible before this date. Others see the start ...

  19. Recombinant human migration inhibitory factor has adjuvant activity.

    Weiser, W Y; Pozzi, L M; Titus, R G; David, J R

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant human migration inhibitory factor (MIF), isolated through functional expression cloning in COS-1 cells, up-regulates expression of genes encoding HLA-DR and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and elaboration of IL-1 beta by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Administration of soluble bovine serum albumin or human immunodeficiency virus 120-kDa glycoprotein (HIV gp120) to mice in the presence of recombinant MIF together with incomplete Freund's adjuvant induced a strong T-cell prolife...

  20. The inheritance of human erythrocyte catechol-O-methyltransferase activity

    Erythrocyte catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity was analyzed in 107 individuals from 23 families. The observed activities were consistent with an autosomal codominant inheritance of the gene coding for erythrocyte COMT activity. (author)

  1. A New Slow Releasing, H2S Generating Compound, GYY4137 Relaxes Spontaneous and Oxytocin-Stimulated Contractions of Human and Rat Pregnant Myometrium

    Robinson, Hayley; Wray, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Better tocolytics are required to help prevent preterm labour. The gaseotransmitter Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) has been shown to reduce myometrial contractility and thus is of potential interest. However previous studies used NaHS, which is toxic and releases H2S as a non-physiological bolus and thus alternative H2S donors are sought. GYY4137 has been developed to slowly release H2S and hence better reflect endogenous physiological release. We have examined its effects on spontaneous and oxytoci...

  2. Aminobisphosphonates Synergize with Human Cytomegalovirus To Activate the Antiviral Activity of Vγ9Vδ2 Cells.

    Daguzan, Charline; Moulin, Morgane; Kulyk-Barbier, Hanna; Davrinche, Christian; Peyrottes, Suzanne; Champagne, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are activated through their TCR by neighboring cells producing phosphoantigens. Zoledronate (ZOL) treatment induces intracellular accumulation of the phosphoantigens isopentenyl pyrophosphate and ApppI. Few attempts have been made to use immunomanipulation of Vγ9Vδ2 lymphocytes in chronic viral infections. Although Vγ9Vδ2 T cells seem to ignore human CMV (HCMV)-infected cells, we examined whether they can sense HCMV when a TCR stimulus is provided with ZOL. Fibroblasts treated with ZOL activate Vγ9Vδ2 T cells to produce IFN-γ but not TNF. Following the same treatment, HCMV-infected fibroblasts stimulate TNF secretion and an increased production of IFN-γ, indicating that Vγ9Vδ2 cells can sense HCMV infection. Increased lymphokine production was observed with most clinical isolates and laboratory HCMV strains, HCMV-permissive astrocytoma, or dendritic cells, as well as "naive" and activated Vγ9Vδ2 cells. Quantification of intracellular isopentenyl pyrophosphate/ApppI following ZOL treatment showed that HCMV infection boosts their accumulation. This was explained by an increased capture of ZOL and by upregulation of HMG-CoA synthase and reductase transcription. Using an experimental setting where infected fibroblasts were cocultured with γδ cells in submicromolar concentrations of ZOL, we show that Vγ9Vδ2 cells suppressed substantially the release of infectious particles while preserving uninfected cells. Vγ9Vδ2 cytotoxicity was decreased by HCMV infection of targets whereas anti-IFN-γ and anti-TNF Abs significantly blocked the antiviral effect. Our experiments indicate that cytokines produced by Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have an antiviral potential in HCMV infection. This should lead to in vivo studies to explore the possible antiviral effect of immunostimulation with ZOL in this context. PMID:26819204

  3. Human population and activities at Simpevarp. Site description

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced. The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations. The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (environmental impacts assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments. The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Simpevarp area', an area of 127.0 km2 near Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The land use in Simpevarp area differs notably from the land use in Kalmar laen. The forest area is far more dominating in Simpevarp area than in Kalmar laen and it represents as much as 89% compared to 63% of the total area. Only 4.4% of the area is arable land compared to 11.6% in Kalmar laen and only 0.3% is of other type (wetlands, bare rock, quarries, pites etc) compared to 15.6% in the county. The main observation is that Simpevarp area is a sparsely populated area located in a relatively lightly populated county. In 2002, the population density was 7.4 inhabitants/km2, three times lower than in Kalmar laen. The demography statistics show no

  4. Human population and activities at Simpevarp. Site description

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced. The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations. The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (environmental impacts assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments. The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Simpevarp area', an area of 127.0 km{sup 2} near Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The land use in Simpevarp area differs notably from the land use in Kalmar laen. The forest area is far more dominating in Simpevarp area than in Kalmar laen and it represents as much as 89% compared to 63% of the total area. Only 4.4% of the area is arable land compared to 11.6% in Kalmar laen and only 0.3% is of other type (wetlands, bare rock, quarries, pites etc) compared to 15.6% in the county. The main observation is that Simpevarp area is a sparsely populated area located in a relatively lightly populated county. In 2002, the population density was 7.4 inhabitants/km{sup 2}, three times lower than in Kalmar laen. The

  5. Human population and activities at Simpevarp. Site description

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced. The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations. The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (environmental impacts assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments. The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Simpevarp area', an area of 127.0 km{sup 2} near Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The land use in Simpevarp area differs notably from the land use in Kalmar laen. The forest area is far more dominating in Simpevarp area than in Kalmar laen and it represents as much as 89% compared to 63% of the total area. Only 4.4% of the area is arable land compared to 11.6% in Kalmar laen and only 0.3% is of other type (wetlands, bare rock, quarries, pites etc) compared to 15.6% in the county. The main observation is that Simpevarp area is a sparsely populated area located in a relatively lightly populated county. In 2002, the population density was 7.4 inhabitants/km{sup 2}, three times lower than in Kalmar laen. The

  6. The contribution of Kv7 channels to pregnant mouse and human myometrial contractility

    McCallum, Laura A; Pierce, Stephanie L.; ENGLAND, SARAH K.; Greenwood, Iain A.; Tribe, Rachel M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Premature birth accounts for approximately 75% of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the developed world. Despite this, methods for identifying and treating women at risk of preterm labour are limited and many women still present in preterm labour requiring tocolytic therapy to suppress uterine contractility. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of Kv7 channel activators as potential uterine smooth muscle (myometrium) relaxants in tissues from pregnant mice and women. Myo...

  7. Activity of recombinant trypsin isoforms on human proteinase-activated receptors (PAR): mesotrypsin cannot activate epithelial PAR-1, -2, but weakly activates brain PAR-1

    Grishina, Zoryana; Ostrowska, Ewa; Halangk, Walter; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Reiser, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Trypsin-like serine proteinases trigger signal transduction pathways through proteolytic cleavage of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) in many tissues. Three members, PAR-1, PAR-2 and PAR-4, are trypsin substrates, as trypsinolytic cleavage of the extracellular N terminus produces receptor activation. Here, the ability of the three human pancreatic trypsin isoforms (cationic trypsin, anionic trypsin and mesotrypsin (trypsin IV)) as recombinant proteins was tested on PARs.Using fura 2 [Ca2...

  8. Purinergic effects on Na,K-ATPase activity differ in rat and human skeletal muscle

    Juel, Carsten; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-01-01

    P2Y receptor activation may link the effect of purines to increased maximal in vitro activity of the Na,K-ATPase in rat muscle. The hypothesis that a similar mechanism is present in human skeletal muscle was investigated with membranes from rat and human skeletal muscle....

  9. Transcriptional activation of JC virus by human T-lymphotropic virus type I Tax protein in human neuronal cell lines.

    Okada, Y; Sawa, H; Tanaka, S; Takada, A; Suzuki, S; Hasegawa, H; Umemura, T; Fujisawa, J; Tanaka, Y; Hall, W W; Nagashima, K

    2000-06-01

    Polyomavirus JC (JCV) causes the human demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The recent demonstration of cases of PML in association with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infection prompted us to examine whether the HTLV-I-encoded regulatory protein Tax activates JCV transcription. By employing a dual luciferase assay, we initially found that the expression of Tax activated the transcriptional potential of both early and late promoters of JCV in human neuronal but not in non-neuronal cells. We subsequently analyzed the mechanism of Tax-induced activation of the JCV promoter in neuronal cells with the following results: 1) the JCV promoter that lacks the NF-kappaB-binding motif could not be activated by Tax; 2) the overexpression of IkappaBalpha abolished Tax-induced transcriptional activation of the JCV promoter; 3) a Tax mutant (M22) lacking the potential for activation via the NF-kappaB pathway did not activate the JCV promoter. Furthermore, Tax enhances the gene expression of JCV T antigen and VP1. We examined mechanisms of the cell-specific activation of the JCV promoter by Tax. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated the presence of Tax-bound protein(s) that were specifically present in non-neuronal cells. This study is the first demonstration of the activation of JCV promoter by HTLV-I Tax in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner. PMID:10828075

  10. Global Night-Time Lights for Observing Human Activity

    Hipskind, Stephen R.; Elvidge, Chris; Gurney, K.; Imhoff, Mark; Bounoua, Lahouari; Sheffner, Edwin; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Pettit, Donald R.; Fischer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We present a concept for a small satellite mission to make systematic, global observations of night-time lights with spatial resolution suitable for discerning the extent, type and density of human settlements. The observations will also allow better understanding of fine scale fossil fuel CO2 emission distribution. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey recommends more focus on direct observations of human influence on the Earth system. The most dramatic and compelling observations of human presence on the Earth are the night light observations taken by the Defence Meteorological System Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Beyond delineating the footprint of human presence, night light data, when assembled and evaluated with complementary data sets, can determine the fine scale spatial distribution of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding fossil fuel carbon emissions is critical to understanding the entire carbon cycle, and especially the carbon exchange between terrestrial and oceanic systems.

  11. Formalization of process activity performance estimation approach using human competencies.

    Bennour, Meziane; Crestani, Didier

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In a changing environment, the human factor is a key element to ensure the survival of an enterprise. It is hence necessary to model and analyse the enterprise processes with regard to both human and material resources. A French approach to process performance and its relation to the competence concept are presented. Several studies in which competence is integrated in the estimation of process performance are presented, and the method developed is described. It integrates...

  12. Therapeutic Role of Rifaximin in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Clinical Implication of Human Pregnane X Receptor Activation

    Cheng, Jie; Yatrik M. Shah; Ma, Xiaochao; Pang, Xiaoyan; Tanaka, Toshiya; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Frank J. Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Human pregnane X receptor (PXR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Rifaximin, a human PXR activator, is in clinical trials for treatment of IBD and has demonstrated efficacy in Crohn's disease and active ulcerative colitis. In the current study, the protective and therapeutic role of rifaximin in IBD and its respective mechanism were investigated. PXR-humanized (hPXR), wild-type, and Pxr-null mice were treated with rifaximin in the dextran sulfate sod...

  13. Human ADAM 12 (meltrin alpha) is an active metalloprotease

    Loechel, F; Gilpin, B J; Engvall, E; Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U M

    1998-01-01

    in a latent form, probably by means of a cysteine switch. The zymogen could be activated chemically by alkylation with N-ethylmaleimide. Cleavage of the prodomain at a site for a furin-like endopeptidase resulted in an ADAM 12 protein with proteolytic activity. The protease activity was sensitive to...... 12 is catalytically active. We used the trapping mechanism of alpha2-macroglobulin to assay for protease activity of wild-type and mutant ADAM 12 proteins produced in a COS cell transfection system. We found that ADAM 12 is synthesized as a zymogen, with the prodomain maintaining the metalloprotease...

  14. Evaluation of an active multi-body human model for braking and frontal crash events

    MEIJER, R.; Elrofai, H.B.H.; Broos, W.J.C.; Hassel, E. van

    2013-01-01

    Active safety systems that start to act moments before the crash might be capable of anticipating the occupant’s position, either by correcting it, or by taking the out-of-position into account. For the development and evaluation of such active safety systems, recently a run-time efficient multidirectional computer human model that can simulate active as well as passive human behaviour has been developed. The objective of this study was to evaluate this so-called active human model for simula...

  15. TELOMERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN GASTRIC AND COLORECTAL CANCER AND SURROUNDING TISSUES

    CHEN Wen; ZHANG Qiao; WAN De-sen; CUN Ling-yun; WU Cheng-qiu; PAN Zhi-zhong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the telomerase activities in human gastric and colorectal tumors. Methods: The telomerase activity was assayed by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) technique. Forty human tumor samples including 9 colonic, 20 rectal and 11gastric carcinomas and their surrounding tissues were used for the detection. Results: Thirty-six out of 40human tumor samples exhibited telomerase activity regardless of the stages or the differentiation of the tumors. However, only 1 out of 39 tumor surrounding tissues showed telomerase activity. Conclusion: Telomerase may be a good diagnosis biomarker for tumor detection.

  16. Comprehensive Analysis of Human Endogenous Retrovirus Transcriptional Activity in Human Tissues with a Retrovirus-Specific Microarray

    Seifarth, Wolfgang; Frank, Oliver; Zeilfelder, Udo; Spiess, Birgit; Alex D Greenwood; Hehlmann, Rüdiger; Leib-Mösch, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Retrovirus-like sequences account for 8 to 9% of the human genome. Among these sequences, about 8,000 pol-containing proviral elements have been identified to date. As part of our ongoing search for active and possibly disease-relevant human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), we have recently developed an oligonucleotide-based microarray. The assay allows for both the detection and the identification of most known retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT)-related nucleic acids in biological samples...

  17. Radioimmunoassay for human pancreatic amylase: comparison of human serum amylase by measurement of enzymatic activity and by radioimmunoassay

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human pancreatic amylase has been developed for the determination of human serum amylase content. The assay was shown to be sensitive (7 ng/mI), reproducible and specific, but human pancreatic amylase and salivary amylase could not be distinguished by the antiserum used. In normal subjects, the mean concentration of amylase determined by the RIA was found to be 122.1 ng/ml (range: 55-250 ng/ml). A good correlation was observed between the concentration of amylase and its enzymatic activity in normal subjects. In some instances with high amylase activity, however, the rise in enzymatic activity was not accompanied by increasing amount of amylase content. (Auth.)

  18. Human odontoblast-like cells produce nitric oxide with antibacterial activity upon TLR2 activation

    Jean-Christophe FARGES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of cariogenic oral bacteria into enamel and dentin during the caries process triggers an immune/inflammatory response in the underlying pulp tissue, the reduction of which is considered a prerequisite to dentinogenesis-based pulp regeneration. If the role of odontoblasts in dentin formation is well known, their involvement in the antibacterial response of the dental pulp to cariogenic microorganisms has yet to be elucidated. Our aim here was to determine if odontoblasts produce nitric oxide (NO with antibacterial activity upon activation of Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2, a cell membrane receptor involved in the recognition of cariogenic Gram-positive bacteria. Human odontoblast-like cells differentiated from dental pulp explants were stimulated with the TLR2 synthetic agonist Pam2CSK4. We found that NOS1, NOS2 and NOS3 gene expression was increased in Pam2CSK4-stimulated odontoblast-like cells compared to unstimulated ones. NOS2 was the most up-regulated gene. NOS1 and NOS3 proteins were not detected in Pam2CSK4-stimulated or control cultures. NOS2 protein synthesis, NOS activity and NO extracellular release were all augmented in stimulated samples. Pam2CSK4-stimulated cell supernatants reduced Streptococcus mutans growth, an effect counteracted by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME. In vivo, the NOS2 gene was up-regulated in the inflamed pulp of carious teeth compared with healthy ones. NOS2 protein was immunolocalized in odontoblasts situated beneath the caries lesion but not in pulp cells from healthy teeth. These results suggest that odontoblasts may participate to the antimicrobial pulp response to dentin-invading Gram-positive bacteria through NOS2-mediated NO production. They might in this manner pave the way for accurate dental pulp healing and regeneration.

  19. The effect of dietary fiber on human pancreatic enzyme activity in vitro.

    Dunaif, G; Schneeman, B O

    1981-06-01

    Human pancreatic juice was used as a source of amylase, lipase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. The human pancreatic juice was incubated with one of several dietary fibers, including alfalfa, oat bran, pectin. Solka Floc, wheat bran, and xylan. In addition, the human pancreatic juice was incubated without any fiber, which was used as the control. Incubation with Solka Floc (cellulose) and xylan (a hemicellulose) resulted in a substantial loss of activity in all enzymes assayed. Wheat bran and oat bran decreased amylase and chymotrypsin activity, while alfalfa decreased trypsin and chymotrypsin activity. Incubation with pectin significantly increased amylase and chymotrypsin activity. The mechanism by which sources of dietary fiber can alter enzyme activity is currently unknown. This effect of a dietary component on the activity of human pancreatic enzymes emphasizes the need to investigate further the effects of dietary fiber on digestion and absorption in the small intestine to understand fully its effects on metabolism. PMID:6165234

  20. Proliferative activity in the juxtaradicular human periodontal ligament.

    Sayaniwas, M; Hilliges, M; Lindskog, S

    1999-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate cell proliferation, assessed by MIB 1, with respect to the type and the distribution of proliferating cells in the healthy juxtaradicular periodontal ligament (PDL) from completely formed human teeth. Immunohistochemical markers against vimentin, CD68 and S-100 were used to characterize cell type. The applicability of the immunohistochemical method on explants of human PDL was also evaluated. The results indicated that under physiological conditions, the majority of the proliferating cells in the PDL were mesenchymal cells predominantly located paravascularly in the middle third of the PDL. Furthermore, MIB 1 reacting with the Ki-67 antigen together with the avidin-biotin-complex technique was proved to be an efficient marker of cell proliferation in explants of human PDL. PMID:10815567

  1. Endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) activity in human vascular smooth muscle

    Maguire, Janet J.; Johnson, Christopher M.; Mockridge, James W; Davenport, Anthony P

    1997-01-01

    We have characterized the human smooth muscle endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) present in the media of the endothelium-denuded human umbilical vein preparation.Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and ET-2 were potent constrictors of umbilical vein with EC50 values of 9.2 nM and 29.6 nM, respectively. ET-1 was at least 30 times more potent than ET-3 suggesting the presence of constrictor ETA receptors. Little or no response was obtained to the ETB-selective agonist sarafotoxin 6c. These data suggest that en...

  2. Human Activity Differentially Redistributes Large Mammals in the Canadian Rockies National Parks

    Jenny Coleshill

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available National parks are important for conservation of species such as wolves (Canis lupus and elk (Cervus canadensis. However, topography, vegetation conditions, and anthropogenic infrastructure within parks may limit available habitat. Human activity on trails and roads may lead to indirect habitat loss, further limiting available habitat. Predators and prey may respond differentially to human activity, potentially disrupting ecological processes. However, research on such impacts to wildlife is incomplete, especially at fine spatial and temporal scales. Our research investigated the relationship between wolf and elk distribution and human activity using fine-scale Global Positioning System (GPS wildlife telemetry locations and hourly human activity measures on trails and roads in Banff, Kootenay, and Yoho National Parks, Canada. We observed a complex interaction between the distance animals were located from trails and human activity level resulting in species adopting both mutual avoidance and differential response behaviors. In areas < 50 m from trails human activity led to a mutual avoidance response by both wolves and elk. In areas 50 - 400 m from trails low levels of human activity led to differential responses; wolves avoided these areas, whereas elk appeared to use these areas as a predation refugia. These differential impacts on elk and wolves may have important implications for trophic dynamics. As human activity increased above two people/hour, areas 50 - 400 m from trails were mutually avoided by both species, resulting in the indirect loss of important montane habitat. If park managers are concerned with human impacts on wolves and elk, or on these species' trophic interactions with other species, they can monitor locations near trails and roads and consider hourly changes of human activity levels in areas important to wildlife.

  3. Enhanced transcriptional activation by E2 proteins from the oncogenic human papillomaviruses.

    Kovelman, R; Bilter, G K; Glezer, E; Tsou, A Y; Barbosa, M S

    1996-01-01

    A systematic comparison of transcriptional activation by papillomavirus E2 proteins revealed that the E2 proteins from high-risk human papillomaviruses (human papillomavirus type 16 [HPV-16] and HPV-18) are much more active than are the E2 proteins from low-risk HPVs (HPV-6b and HPV-11). Despite the tropism of HPVs for particular epithelial cell types, this difference in transcriptional activation was observed in a number of different epithelial and nonepithelial cells. The enhanced activitie...

  4. Effects of nutrient liquids on human gastroduodenal motor activity.

    White, C M; Poxon, V; Alexander-Williams, J

    1983-01-01

    The effects of intragastric infusion of 10% Intralipid and 10% dextrose on the intraluminal pressures in the antrum, pylorus and duodenal bulb have been examined. Ten studies with each infusate have been performed in 10 normal subjects and the results compared with those obtained previously in 22 studies during intragastric infusion of isotonic saline. During saline infusion, contractile activity varied. In six studies fasting motor activity persisted; in the remainder, variable activity, wit...

  5. Gene–Physical Activity Interactions: Overview of Human Studies

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity level is an important component of the total daily energy expenditure and as such contributes to body weight regulation. A body of data indicates that the level of physical activity plays a role in the risk of excessive weight gain, in weight loss programs, and particularly in the prevention of weight regain. Most studies dealing with potential gene–physical activity interaction effects use an exercise and fitness or performance paradigm as opposed to an obesity-driven model...

  6. Oral glucose ingestion attenuates exercise-induced activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase in human skeletal muscle

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Klein, Ditte Kjærsgaard;

    2006-01-01

    5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to be a 'metabolic master switch' regulating various aspects of muscle glucose and fat metabolism. In isolated rat skeletal muscle, glucose suppresses the activity of AMPK and in human muscle glycogen loading decreases exercise-induced AMPK...

  7. Activation of human immunodeficiency virus by ultraviolet radiation

    This article reviews the current status of knowledge about UV-induced HIV activation. A brief description of HIV structure and, in particular, its gene promoter is given. The effects of UVR exposure of cells on HIV activation and HIV promoter induction will be reviewed. Some events that follow production of DNA damage and lead, via activation of an oncogene, to HIV promoter induction will be discussed. Possible consequences of promoter induction and HIV activation for the cell and the virus are mentioned. The review concludes with a discussion of practical aspects and perspectives in this research area. (author)

  8. Neutron activation analysis of manganese in human hair and serum

    Objective and method of manganese determination in human hair and serum in toxicology are presented considering the occupational exposure of welders. The results are discussed in detail with regard to the frequency distribution and to the reliability of identification of welders and non-welders. (author)

  9. Generation of monoclonal antibodies to native active human glycosyltransferases

    Vester-Christensen, Malene Bech; Bennett, Eric Paul; Clausen, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates serve a wide range of biological functions in cells and tissues. Their biosynthesis involves more than 200 distinct glycosyltransferases in human cells, and the expression, properties, and topology of these enzymes regulate the glycosylation patterns of proteins and lipids...

  10. Monoclonal antibodies to the human insulin receptor that activate glucose transport but not insulin receptor kinase activity

    Forsayeth, J.R.; Caro, J.F.; Sinha, M.K.; Maddux, B.A.; Goldfine, I.D.

    1987-05-01

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced that reacted with the ..cap alpha.. subunit of the human insulin receptor. All three both immunoprecipitated /sup 125/I-labeled insulin receptors from IM-9 lymphocytes and competitively inhibited /sup 125/I-labeled insulin binding to its receptor. Unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor autophosphorylation in both intact IM-9 lymphocytes and purified human placental insulin receptors. Moreover, unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor-mediated phosphorylation of exogenous substrates. However, like insulin, two of the three antibodies stimulated glucose transport in isolated human adipocytes. One antibody, on a molar basis, was as potent as insulin. These studies indicate, therefore, that monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor can mimic a major function of insulin without activating receptor kinase activity. They also raise the possibility that certain actions of insulin such as stimulation of glucose transport may not require the activation of receptor kinase activity.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies to the human insulin receptor that activate glucose transport but not insulin receptor kinase activity

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced that reacted with the α subunit of the human insulin receptor. All three both immunoprecipitated 125I-labeled insulin receptors from IM-9 lymphocytes and competitively inhibited 125I-labeled insulin binding to its receptor. Unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor autophosphorylation in both intact IM-9 lymphocytes and purified human placental insulin receptors. Moreover, unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor-mediated phosphorylation of exogenous substrates. However, like insulin, two of the three antibodies stimulated glucose transport in isolated human adipocytes. One antibody, on a molar basis, was as potent as insulin. These studies indicate, therefore, that monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor can mimic a major function of insulin without activating receptor kinase activity. They also raise the possibility that certain actions of insulin such as stimulation of glucose transport may not require the activation of receptor kinase activity

  12. Spatiotemporal Data Mining, Analysis, and Visualization of Human Activity Data

    Li, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the research challenge of developing efficient new methods for discovering useful patterns and knowledge in large volumes of electronically collected spatiotemporal activity data. I propose to analyze three types of such spatiotemporal activity data in a methodological framework that integrates spatial analysis, data…

  13. Learning to Recognize Human Activities from Soft Labeled Data

    N. Hu; Z. Lou; G. Englebienne; B. Kröse

    2014-01-01

    An activity recognition system is a very important component for assistant robots, but training such a system usually requires a large and correctly labeled dataset. Most of the previous works only allow training data to have a single activity label per segment, which is overly restrictive because t

  14. Activated T lymphocytes disappear from circulation during endotoxemia in humans

    Suarez Krabbe, Karen; Kemp, Helle Bruunsgaard; Qvist, Jesper;

    2002-01-01

    disappearance were characterized by an activated phenotype (CD45RA(-) CD45RO(+)) as well as a phenotype linked to apoptosis (CD95(+) CD28(-)). In conclusion, endotoxin-induced lymphopenia reflects the disappearance from the circulation of activated lymphocytes prone to undergo apoptosis....

  15. Using Movement and Intentions to Understand Human Activity

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Kumar, Shawn; Abrams, Richard A.; Mehta, Ritesh

    2009-01-01

    During perception, people segment continuous activity into discrete events. They do so in part by monitoring changes in features of an ongoing activity. Characterizing these features is important for theories of event perception and may be helpful for designing information systems. The three experiments reported here asked whether the body…

  16. Telomerase activity and telomere length in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Huang, G T; Lee, H S; Chen, C H; Chiou, L L; Lin, Y W; Lee, C Z; Chen, D S; Sheu, J C

    1998-11-01

    Telomerase activity is activated and telomere length altered in various types of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 39 HCC tissues and the corresponding non-tumour livers were analysed and correlated with clinical parameters. Telomere length was determined by terminal restriction fragment assay, and telomerase activity was assayed by telomeric repeat amplification protocol. Telomerase activity was positive in 24 of the 39 tumour tissues (1.15-285.13 total product generated (TPG) units) and in six of the 39 non-tumour liver tissues (1.05-1.73 TPG units). In the 28 cases analysed for telomere length, telomere length was shortened in 11 cases, lengthened in six cases, and unaltered in 11 cases compared with non-tumour tissues. Neither telomere length nor telomerase activity was correlated to any clinical parameters. PMID:10023320

  17. Current status and issues of nuclear human resource development/General activities of Japan nuclear human resource development network

    The Japan Nuclear Human Resource Development Network (JN-HRD Net) was established in November 2010 with the aim of developing a framework for mutual cooperation and information sharing among nuclear-related organizations. Although the tasks and goals of developing human resources in the nuclear field have been shifted since the accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the necessity of fostering capable personnel in this field stays unchanged and the importance of our network activities has further emphasized. The meeting of JN-HRD Net was held on the 5th of February 2013, where its activities by each field were reported and views and opinions were actively exchanged between more than 90 participants. This paper briefly describes current status and issues of JN-HRD Net and its general activities conducted by the JN-HRD Net secretariat. (J.P.N.)

  18. FSH Receptor (FSHR) Expression in Human Extragonadal Reproductive Tissues and the Developing Placenta, and the Impact of Its Deletion on Pregnancy in Mice1

    Stilley, Julie A.W.; Christensen, Debora E.; Dahlem, Kristin B.; Guan, Rongbin; Santillan, Donna A.; ENGLAND, SARAH K.; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Kirby, Patricia A.; Segaloff, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    Expression and function of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) in females were long thought to be limited to the ovary. Here, however, we identify extragonadal FSHR in both the human female reproductive tract and the placenta, and test its physiological relevance in mice. We show that in nonpregnant women FSHR is present on: endothelial cells of blood vessels in the endometrium, myometrium, and cervix; endometrial glands of the proliferative and secretory endometrium; cervical gl...

  19. The effect of human activity noise on the acoustic quality in open plan office

    Dehlbæk, Tania Stenholt; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas;

    2016-01-01

    A disadvantage of open plan offices is the noise annoyance. Noise problems in open plan offices have been dealt with in several studies, and standards have been set up. Still, what has not been taken into account is the effect of human activity noise on acoustic conditions. In this study......, measurements of the general office noise levels and the room acoustic conditions according to ISO 3382-3 have been carried out in five open plan offices. Probability density functions of the sound pressure level have been obtained, and the human activity noise has been identified. Results showed a decrease in...... D2,S have an impact on the variation in the activity noise. At 1 kHz, the technical background noise influences human activity noise positively. In both octave bands, the human activity noise level varies significantly with the office type, from a call center to a lawyer’s office....

  20. The Role of Consciousness in Human Cognitive Activity

    Victor M. Allakhverdov

    2009-01-01

    The problem of consciousness is examined in the article. It is argued that all the existing approaches to consciousness do not explain the role consciousness plays in human life. An attempt of revealing and describing the principles of the mind’s work is made. Experimental phenomena observed by the author and his followers, particularly, the tendency of previously non-realized ideas not to be realized subsequently, are reviewed. The discussion of these phenomena allows to formulate a novel vi...

  1. Mud Origin, Characterisation and Human Activities (MOCHA): Final report

    Fettweis, M.; Du Four, I.; Zeelmaekers, E.; Baeteman, C.; Francken, F.; Houziaux, J.-S.; Mathys, M; Nechad, B.; Pison, V.; Vandenberghe, N.; Van den Eynde, D; Van Lancker, V. R. M; Wartel, S.

    2007-01-01

    The cohesive sediments, which are frequently found in the Belgian nearshore zone (southern North Sea), are of different age such as tertiary clays and Holocene, modern and recently deposited muds. The area is characterised by a turbidity maximum. The source areas of the recently deposited muds and the effect of human impact vs. natural processes on the distribution and/or erosion of these sediments have been investigated using historic and recent bottom samples, in situ and remote sensing (sa...

  2. Expression of functionally active sialylated human erythropoietin in plants

    Jez, Jakub; Castilho, Alexandra; Grass, Josephine; Vorauer-Uhl, Karola; Sterovsky, Thomas; Altmann, Friedrich; Steinkellner, Herta

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), a glycohormone, is one of the leading biopharmaceutical products. The production of rhEPO is currently restricted to mammalian cell expression systems because of rhEPO's highly complex glycosylation pattern, which is a major determinant for drug-efficacy. Here we evaluate the ability of plants to produce different glycoforms of rhEPO. cDNA constructs were delivered to Nicotiana benthamiana (N. benthamiana) and transiently expressed by a viral based ex...

  3. Mapping pain activation and connectivity of the human habenula

    Shelton, L.; Pendse, G.; Maleki, N.; Moulton, E. A.; Lebel, A; Becerra, L.; Borsook, D

    2012-01-01

    The habenula, located in the posterior thalamus, is implicated in a wide array of functions. Animal anatomical studies have indicated that the structure receives inputs from a number of brain regions (e.g., frontal areas, hypothalamic, basal ganglia) and sends efferent connections predominantly to the brain stem (e.g., periaqueductal gray, raphe, interpeduncular nucleus). The role of the habenula in pain and its anatomical connectivity are well-documented in animals but not in humans. In this...

  4. Managing the Activities Against Trafficking in Human Beings

    Ion GANE

    2012-01-01

    Organized crime has a long history and has permanently adapted to the weaknesses of the legal system, procedures and operational capabilities of the national Law Enforcement Agencies. Economic discomfort appears to be the main reason for illegal migration movement throughout the world. Due to unemployment, many human beings become victims of trafficking- prostitution and slavery. Nevertheless, many of the willing migrants undertake the hazardous travel to their destination country with crimin...

  5. Antenatal architecture and activity of the human heart

    Pervolaraki, Eleftheria; Anderson, Richard A.; Benson, Alan P.; Hayes-Gill, Barrie; Holden, Arun V; Moore, Benjamin J. R.; Paley, Martyn N.; Zhang, Henggui

    2013-01-01

    We construct the components for a family of computational models of the electrophysiology of the human foetal heart from 60 days gestational age (DGA) to full term. This requires both cell excitation models that reconstruct the myocyte action potentials, and datasets of cardiac geometry and architecture. Fast low-angle shot and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) of foetal hearts provides cardiac geometry with voxel resolution of approximately 100 µm. DT-MRI measures the rela...

  6. Telomere attrition and Chk2 activation in human heart failure

    Oh, Hidemasa; Wang, Sam C.; Prahash, Arun; Sano, Motoaki; Moravec, Christine S.; Taffet, George E.; Michael, Lloyd H.; Youker, Keith A.; Entman, Mark L.; Schneider, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The “postmitotic” phenotype in adult cardiac muscle exhibits similarities to replicative senescence more generally and constitutes a barrier to effective restorative growth in heart disease. Telomere dysfunction is implicated in senescence and apoptotic signaling but its potential role in heart disorders is unknown. Here, we report that cardiac apoptosis in human heart failure is associated specifically with defective expression of the telomere repeat- binding factor TRF2, telomere shortening...

  7. Group B streptococcal infection and activation of human astrocytes.

    Terri D Stoner

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS is the leading cause of life-threatening meningitis in human newborns in industrialized countries. Meningitis results from neonatal infection that occurs when GBS leaves the bloodstream (bacteremia, crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB, and enters the central nervous system (CNS, where the bacteria contact the meninges. Although GBS is known to invade the BBB, subsequent interaction with astrocytes that physically associate with brain endothelium has not been well studied.We hypothesize that human astrocytes play a unique role in GBS infection and contribute to the development of meningitis. To address this, we used a well- characterized human fetal astrocyte cell line, SVG-A, and examined GBS infection in vitro. We observed that all GBS strains of representative clinically dominant serotypes (Ia, Ib, III, and V were able to adhere to and invade astrocytes. Cellular invasion was dependent on host actin cytoskeleton rearrangements, and was specific to GBS as Streptococcus gordonii failed to enter astrocytes. Analysis of isogenic mutant GBS strains deficient in various cell surface organelles showed that anchored LTA, serine-rich repeat protein (Srr1 and fibronectin binding (SfbA proteins all contribute to host cell internalization. Wild-type GBS also displayed an ability to persist and survive within an intracellular compartment for at least 12 h following invasion. Moreover, GBS infection resulted in increased astrocyte transcription of interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and VEGF.This study has further characterized the interaction of GBS with human astrocytes, and has identified the importance of specific virulence factors in these interactions. Understanding the role of astrocytes during GBS infection will provide important information regarding BBB disruption and the development of neonatal meningitis.

  8. Chemosensory Cues to Conspecific Emotional Stress Activate Amygdala in Humans

    Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R.; Strey, Helmut H.; Botanov, Yevgeny; Tolkunov, Denis; Rubin, Denis; Weber, Jochen; Frederick, Blaise DeBonneval; Savoy, Robert L.; Cox, David

    2009-01-01

    Alarm substances are airborne chemical signals, released by an individual into the environment, which communicate emotional stress between conspecifics. Here we tested whether humans, like other mammals, are able to detect emotional stress in others by chemosensory cues. Sweat samples collected from individuals undergoing an acute emotional stressor, with exercise as a control, were pooled and presented to a separate group of participants (blind to condition) during four experiments. In an fM...

  9. Human-Computer Interaction and Operators' Performance Optimizing Work Design with Activity Theory

    Bedny, Gregory Z

    2010-01-01

    Directed to a broad and interdisciplinary audience, this book provides a complete account of what has been accomplished in applied and systemic-structural activity theory. It presents a new approach to applied psychology and the study of human work that has derived from activity theory. The selected articles demonstrate the basic principles of studying human work and particularly computer-based work in complex sociotechnical systems. The book includes examples of applied and systemic-structural activity theory to HCI and man-machine-systems, aviation, safety, design and optimization of human p

  10. Mobile phone usage in complex urban systems: a space-time, aggregated human activity study

    Tranos, Emmanouil; Nijkamp, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The present study aims to demonstrate the importance of digital data for investigating space-time dynamics of aggregated human activity in urban systems. Such dynamics can be monitored and modelled using data from mobile phone operators regarding mobile telephone usage. Using such an extensive dataset from the city of Amsterdam, this paper introduces space-time explanatory models of aggregated human activity patterns. Various modelling experiments and results are presented, which demonstrate that mobile telephone data are a good proxy of the space-time dynamics of aggregated human activity in the city.

  11. Noise-driven activation in human intermittent control: a double-well potential model

    Zgonnikov, Arkady

    2014-01-01

    In controlling unstable systems humans switch intermittently between the passive and active behavior instead of controlling the system in a continuous manner. The notion of noise-driven control activation provides a richer alternative to the conventional threshold-based models of intermittent motor control. The present study represents the control activation as a random walk in a continuously changing double-well potential. The match between the proposed model and the previous data on human balancing of virtual stick prompts that the double-well approach can aid in explaining complex dynamics of human behavior in control processes.

  12. Preliminary Research on the Application of Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification in the Myometrium Lesions%声触诊组织量化技术在子宫肌层病变中的应用初探

    耿京; 唐军; 祁文娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To conduct a preliminary research on the value of applying virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) in the assessment of myometrium lesions. Methods VTQ technology was used to examine myometriura lesions of 78 cases of uterine fibroids, 16 cases of uterine adenomyosis and 83 cases of normal uterus wall. Measurement values were recorded and statistical analysis was performed. Results VTQ means of uterine fibroids and denomyosis are respectively 3.58 ?0.76 and 3.53 ?1.08, which are significantly greater than that of normal uterus wall of 2.84 ?0.89 (P<0.05).Conclusion The VTQ showed that the hardness of myometrium lesions of uterine fibroids and adenomyosis had increased significantly compared with those of normal uterus wall, indicating that there is value of applying VTQ in uterine muscle wall lesions.%目的 初步探讨声触诊组织量化技术(VTQ)在子宫肌层病变中的应用价值.方法 应用VTQ技术检测78例子宫肌瘤患者及16例子宫腺肌症患者的宫壁病变区以及83例正常子宫宫壁,并对记录测量数值进行统计分析.结果 子宫肌瘤VTQ均值3.58±0.76、子宫腺肌症VTQ均值3.53±1.08,均明显大于正常子宫宫壁VTQ均值2.84±0.89(P<0.05).结论 正常宫壁与病变宫壁之间弹性比较有统计学差异,说明弹性超声应用在子宫肌壁病变有一定价值.

  13. Temperament, character and serotonin activity in the human brain

    Tuominen, L; Salo, J; Hirvonen, J;

    2013-01-01

    The psychobiological model of personality by Cloninger and colleagues originally hypothesized that interindividual variability in the temperament dimension 'harm avoidance' (HA) is explained by differences in the activity of the brain serotonin system. We assessed brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT...

  14. Mitogenic activity in human embryonic fibroblasts early after infection by human cytomegalovirus.

    Takehara, N; Ryoke, K; Kurimura, T

    1982-01-01

    We have characterized the nonspecific lymphocyte stimulation by extracts of human cytomegalovirus-infected human embryonic fibroblasts. Cell extracts prepared at 5 h postinfection (early extract) and 72 h postinfection (late extract) were both highly mitogenic in lymphocyte preparations from adult blood, cord blood, and rabbit blood. Maximum stimulation of the lymphocytes was observed on day 3 after the addition of early or late extract under optimal conditions. Early extract stimulated both ...

  15. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Jandová, A; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; M. Cifra; Pokorný, J.

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich; he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of ...

  16. Concurrent multitasking: From neural activity to human cognition

    Nijboer, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Multitasking has become an important part of our daily lives. This delicate juggling act between several activities occurs when people drive, when they are working, and even when they should be paying attention in the classroom. While multitasking is typically considered as something to avoid, there are instances where we are perfectly capable at performing multiple activities concurrently. It is therefore important that we understand how multitasking works, so that we can predict when engagi...

  17. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  18. Regulation of the human SLC25A20 expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in human hepatoblastoma cells

    Tachibana, Keisuke, E-mail: nya@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takeuchi, Kentaro; Inada, Hirohiko [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamasaki, Daisuke [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ishimoto, Kenji [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko [Laboratory for System Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Doi, Takefumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-11-20

    Solute carrier family 25, member 20 (SLC25A20) is a key molecule that transfers acylcarnitine esters in exchange for free carnitine across the mitochondrial membrane in the mitochondrial {beta}-oxidation. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the regulation of {beta}-oxidation. We previously established tetracycline-regulated human cell line that can be induced to express PPAR{alpha} and found that PPAR{alpha} induces the SLC25A20 expression. In this study, we analyzed the promoter region of the human slc25a20 gene and showed that PPAR{alpha} regulates the expression of human SLC25A20 via the peroxisome proliferator responsive element.

  19. Positive and negative reinforcement activate human auditory cortex

    Tina Weis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies suggest that reward modulates neural activity in sensory cortices, but less is known about punishment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an auditory discrimination task, where participants had to judge the duration of frequency modulated tones. In one session correct performance resulted in financial gains at the end of the trial, in a second session incorrect performance resulted in financial loss. Incorrect performance in the rewarded as well as correct performance in the punishment condition resulted in a neutral outcome. The size of gains and losses was either low or high (10 or 50 Euro cent depending on the direction of frequency modulation. We analyzed neural activity at the end of the trial, during reinforcement, and found increased neural activity in auditory cortex when gaining a financial reward as compared to gaining no reward and when avoiding financial loss as compared to receiving a financial loss. This was independent on the size of gains and losses. A similar pattern of neural activity for both gaining a reward and avoiding a loss was also seen in right middle temporal gyrus, bilateral insula and pre-supplemental motor area, here however neural activity was lower after correct responses compared to incorrect responses. To summarize, this study shows that the activation of sensory cortices, as previously shown for gaining a reward is also seen during avoiding a loss.

  20. Activated human mast cells induce LOX-1-specific scavenger receptor expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Mervi Alanne-Kinnunen

    Full Text Available Activated mast cells in atherosclerotic lesions degranulate and release bioactive compounds capable of regulating atherogenesis. Here we examined the ability of activated human primary mast cells to regulate the expression of the major scavenger receptors in cultured human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs.Components released by immunologically activated human primary mast cells induced a transient expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1 mRNA in HMDMs, while the expression of two other scavenger receptors, MSR1 and CD36, remained unaffected. The LOX-1-inducing secretory components were identified as histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1, which exhibited a synergistic effect on LOX-1 mRNA expression. Histamine induced a transient expression of LOX-1 protein. Mast cell -induced increase in LOX-1 expression was not associated with increased uptake of oxidized LDL by the macrophages.Mast cell-derived histamine, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 act in concert to induce a transient increase in LOX-1 expression in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The LOX-1-inducing activity potentially endows mast cells a hitherto unrecognized role in the regulation of innate immune reactions in atherogenesis.

  1. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of the human diet

    Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Cunningham, P.L.; Felton, J.S.

    1993-01-15

    The mutagenic activity and the mass amount of heterocyclic amines responsible for the mutagenic activity have been measured in some cooked foods. Cooked meats are the predominant source of mutagenic activity in the diet with values ranging from 0 to 10,000 revertants per gram reported in the Ames/Salmonelia test with strain TA98. Several heterocyclic amines are present and have been quantified using solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. Frying at higher temperatures and for longer times produces the greatest mutagenic response, and concomitantly, the largest amounts of heterocyclic amines. Most of the mutagenic activity in fried meat samples can be accounted for by MelQx, DiMelQx and IQ, although other heterocylic amines are present and PHIP mutagenic activity becomes significant at higher temperatures. Non-meat products such as baked breads can also form significant mutagenic activity, particularly when overcooked. Commercially prepared hamburgers made from meat substitutes such as tofu, wheat gluten or tempeh and fried at 210{degrees}C have up to 10% of the mutagenic activity of a fried beef patty cooked under the same conditions. When detected, amounts of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties range from a total of 0.35 ng/g for commercial beef hamburgers to 142 ng/g for a beef patty cooked over a barbecue. Dietary intake is expected to have a large range, from less than one microgram per day to over 50 micrograms per day based on current knowledge of known heterocyclic amine chemicals and heterocyclic amine-containing foods.

  2. A Novel Wearable Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition Approach Using Artificial Hydrocarbon Networks.

    Ponce, Hiram; Martínez-Villaseñor, María de Lourdes; Miralles-Pechuán, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Human activity recognition has gained more interest in several research communities given that understanding user activities and behavior helps to deliver proactive and personalized services. There are many examples of health systems improved by human activity recognition. Nevertheless, the human activity recognition classification process is not an easy task. Different types of noise in wearable sensors data frequently hamper the human activity recognition classification process. In order to develop a successful activity recognition system, it is necessary to use stable and robust machine learning techniques capable of dealing with noisy data. In this paper, we presented the artificial hydrocarbon networks (AHN) technique to the human activity recognition community. Our artificial hydrocarbon networks novel approach is suitable for physical activity recognition, noise tolerance of corrupted data sensors and robust in terms of different issues on data sensors. We proved that the AHN classifier is very competitive for physical activity recognition and is very robust in comparison with other well-known machine learning methods. PMID:27399696

  3. A Novel Wearable Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition Approach Using Artificial Hydrocarbon Networks

    Ponce, Hiram; Martínez-Villaseñor, María de Lourdes; Miralles-Pechuán, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Human activity recognition has gained more interest in several research communities given that understanding user activities and behavior helps to deliver proactive and personalized services. There are many examples of health systems improved by human activity recognition. Nevertheless, the human activity recognition classification process is not an easy task. Different types of noise in wearable sensors data frequently hamper the human activity recognition classification process. In order to develop a successful activity recognition system, it is necessary to use stable and robust machine learning techniques capable of dealing with noisy data. In this paper, we presented the artificial hydrocarbon networks (AHN) technique to the human activity recognition community. Our artificial hydrocarbon networks novel approach is suitable for physical activity recognition, noise tolerance of corrupted data sensors and robust in terms of different issues on data sensors. We proved that the AHN classifier is very competitive for physical activity recognition and is very robust in comparison with other well-known machine learning methods. PMID:27399696

  4. Micrurus snake venoms activate human complement system and generate anaphylatoxins

    Tanaka Gabriela D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Micrurus, coral snakes (Serpentes, Elapidae, comprises more than 120 species and subspecies distributed from the south United States to the south of South America. Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and further respiratory arrest within a few hours after envenomation. Clinical observations show mainly neurotoxic symptoms, although other biological activities have also been experimentally observed, including cardiotoxicity, hemolysis, edema and myotoxicity. Results In the present study we have investigated the action of venoms from seven species of snakes from the genus Micrurus on the complement system in in vitro studies. Several of the Micrurus species could consume the classical and/or the lectin pathways, but not the alternative pathway, and C3a, C4a and C5a were generated in sera treated with the venoms as result of this complement activation. Micrurus venoms were also able to directly cleave the α chain of the component C3, but not of the C4, which was inhibited by 1,10 Phenanthroline, suggesting the presence of a C3α chain specific metalloprotease in Micrurus spp venoms. Furthermore, complement activation was in part associated with the cleavage of C1-Inhibitor by protease(s present in the venoms, which disrupts complement activation control. Conclusion Micrurus venoms can activate the complement system, generating a significant amount of anaphylatoxins, which may assist due to their vasodilatory effects, to enhance the spreading of other venom components during the envenomation process.

  5. Profiling gene expression induced by protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2 activation in human kidney cells.

    Jacky Y Suen

    Full Text Available Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2 has been implicated through genetic knockout mice with cytokine regulation and arthritis development. Many studies have associated PAR2 with inflammatory conditions (arthritis, airways inflammation, IBD and key events in tumor progression (angiogenesis, metastasis, but they have relied heavily on the use of single agonists to identify physiological roles for PAR2. However such probes are now known not to be highly selective for PAR2, and thus precisely what PAR2 does and what mechanisms of downstream regulation are truly affected remain obscure. Effects of PAR2 activation on gene expression in Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293, a commonly studied cell line in PAR2 research, were investigated here by comparing 19,000 human genes for intersecting up- or down-regulation by both trypsin (an endogenous protease that activates PAR2 and a PAR2 activating hexapeptide (2f-LIGRLO-NH(2. Among 2,500 human genes regulated similarly by both agonists, there were clear associations between PAR2 activation and cellular metabolism (1,000 genes, the cell cycle, the MAPK pathway, HDAC and sirtuin enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and anti-complement function. PAR-2 activation up-regulated four genes more than 5 fold (DUSP6, WWOX, AREG, SERPINB2 and down-regulated another six genes more than 3 fold (TXNIP, RARG, ITGB4, CTSD, MSC and TM4SF15. Both PAR2 and PAR1 activation resulted in up-regulated expression of several genes (CD44, FOSL1, TNFRSF12A, RAB3A, COPEB, CORO1C, THBS1, SDC4 known to be important in cancer. This is the first widespread profiling of specific activation of PAR2 and provides a valuable platform for better understanding key mechanistic roles of PAR2 in human physiology. Results clearly support the development of both antagonists and agonists of human PAR2 as potential disease modifying therapeutic agents.

  6. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Tariq Javed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results showed that methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna leaves has moderate antifungal effect against Microsporm canis and fruit extract possess good antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus  and  Preudomonas aeroginosa. Moreover, Dichloromethane extract of Terminalia arjuna bark and fruit posses moderate phytotoxic activity

  7. Activation of human T lymphocytes by Leishmania lipophosphoglycan

    Kemp, M; Theander, T G; Handman, E;

    1991-01-01

    This study describes Leishmania antigen-induced activation of lymphocytes isolated from Kenyan donors, previously treated for visceral leishmaniasis, and from Danish and Kenyan controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from cured Kala-Azar patients proliferated and produced Interferon......-gamma in vitro in response to lipophosphoglycan (LPG) isolated from Leishmania major. The proliferative response was mainly due to activation of CD2-positive T cells. PBMC from controls did not respond to LPG, but to sonicates prepared from both L. major and L. donovani promastigotes. The surface glycoprotein GP...... 63 failed to activate PBMC from any of the donors tested. These results show that the individuals cured from visceral leishmaniasis had expanded T-cell clones recognizing LPG, conceivably as a result of Leishmania infection. The LPG preparation was without detectable protein contamination. Thus...

  8. Neutron activation analysis of multielement in human organs

    To obtain the reference values or ranges of the elemental abundances in organs of Japanese male, neutron activation analysis was applied to nine kinds of autopsied organs, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, spleen and thyroid. An applicability of multielement analysis of organs was studied prior to ordinary work. Accuracy and precision were investigated by analyzing the IAEA Certified Reference Materials, Horse Kidney, Whey Powder and Marine Sediment. The changes of count rate on various weights and the variations of the elemental abundances of five portions in organ were examined. It was found that organs were homogeneous for neutron activation analysis, except for kidney and lung. (author)

  9. Retinoic acid upregulates the plasminogen activator system in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Braungart, E; Magdolen, V; Degitz, K

    2001-05-01

    The activation of the proteolytic plasminogen activator system is important for the re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Keratinocytes synthesize and secrete the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which binds to its specific receptor on keratinocytes. Receptor-bound urokinase-type plasminogen activator efficiently activates cell surface bound plasminogen. This results in pericellular proteolysis, which facilitates keratinocyte migration. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator activity is specifically controlled by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and -2. As retinoids have been reported to accelerate epithelialization of skin wounds in animal studies and clinical settings, we investigated the effects of all-trans retinoic acid on the plasminogen activator system in human epidermal keratinocytes. As tested in a chromogenic plasminogen activation assay, incubation with 10 microM all-trans retinoic acid caused a marked induction of cell-associated plasminogen activity after 24 h, and this induction was blocked by neutralizing anti-urokinase-type plasminogen activator antibodies, but not anti-tissue-type plasminogen activator antibodies. All-trans retinoic acid lead to a strong increase in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor cell surface expression (flow cytometry) after 24 h. At this time-point, tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and -2 proteins were not or only slightly increased. Northern blot analyses revealed that all-trans retinoic acid caused an early and short-lived increase of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, but a prolonged induction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor mRNA levels. Collectively, these data suggest that all-trans retinoic acid activates the plasminogen activator system in human epidermal keratinocytes by differentially regulating activating and inhibiting components

  10. In-Vitro Archaeacidal Activity of Biocides against Human-Associated Archaea

    Saber Khelaifia; Jean Michel Brunel; Michel Drancourt

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several methanogenic archaea have been detected in the human intestinal microbiota. These intestinal archaea may contaminate medical devices such as colonoscopes. However, no biocide activity has been reported among these human-associated archaea. METHODOLOGY: The minimal archaeacidal concentration (MAC) of peracetic acid, chlorhexidine, squalamine and twelve parent synthetic derivatives reported in this study was determined against five human-associated methanogenic archaea inclu...

  11. Variable Transcriptional Activity of Endogenous Retroviruses in Human Breast Cancer▿ †

    Frank, Oliver; Verbeke, Caroline; Schwarz, Norbert; Mayer, Jens; Fabarius, Alice; Hehlmann, Rüdiger; Leib-Mösch, Christine; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) account for up to 9% of the human genome and include more than 800 elements related to betaretroviruses. While mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is the accepted etiological agent of mammary tumors in mice, the role of retroviral elements in human breast cancer remains elusive. Here, we performed a comprehensive microarray-based analysis of overall retroviral transcriptional activities in 46 mammary gland tissue specimens representing pairs of nonmalignant ...

  12. Effect of human colostrum on interleukin-2 production and natural killer cell activity.

    Sirota, L.; Straussberg, R; Notti, I.; Bessler, H

    1995-01-01

    The effect of human colostrum on the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and on natural killer (NK) cell activity by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated in 50 healthy women. At concentrations as low as 0.5%, human colostrum stimulated IL-2 production; at a higher concentration (10%), IL-2 secretion was inhibited. A time and dose dependent inhibitory effect of colostrum on NK cytotoxicity was also observed. This inhibition could be reversed by the addition of human recomb...

  13. Ecobiological assessment of a freshwater lake at Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica, with reference to human activities

    Ingole, B.S.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The scale and magnitude of probable impact of human activities over a decade (1983-1994) on the freshwater lake Priyadarshini, at Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica, was assessed through an ecological study conducted over an annual cycle during...

  14. Increased digitalis-like activity in human cerebrospinal fluid after expansion of the extracellular fluid volume

    The present study was designed to determine whether acute expansion of the extracellular fluid volume influenced the digitalis-like activity of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), previously described. Human CSF samples, drawn before and 30 minutes after the intravenous infusion of 1 liter of either saline or glucose solutions, were assayed for digitalis-like activity by inhibition of either the 86Rb+ uptake into human erythrocytes or by the activity of a purified Na+-K+ ATPase. The CSF inhibitory activity on both systems significantly increased after the infusion of sodium solutions but did not change after the infusion of glucose. These results indicate that the digitalis-like factor of human CSF might be involved in the regulation of the extracellular fluid volume and electrolyte content and thereby in some of the physiological responses to sodium loading. 31 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  15. Eleanor Roosevelt and the Declaration of Human Rights: A Simulation Activity.

    Gilbert, Sally; Shollenberger, Kathy

    2001-01-01

    Provides a brief background on Eleanor Roosevelt and the Declaration of Human Rights. Presents a lesson wherein students simulate the creation of the Declaration of Human Rights and consider the leadership skills of Eleanor Roosevelt. Explains that the activity requires three class periods and some student preparation before the lesson. (CMK)

  16. Human Research Program Science Management: Overview of Research and Development Activities

    Charles, John B.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of research and development activities of NASA's Human Research Science Management Program is presented. The topics include: 1) Human Research Program Goals; 2) Elements and Projects within HRP; 3) Development and Maintenance of Priorities; 4) Acquisition and Evaluation of Research and Technology Proposals; and 5) Annual Reviews

  17. New method in the criminalistics: neutron-activation analysis of the human hair

    The application of the neutron activation analysis for the examination of human hair for criminological purposes is discussed. Earlier Nal scintillation detector and 256-channels analyzer were used and only form trace elements could be detected in the hair. Recently using Ge/Li detector and a 1024-channels analyzer 11 trace elements were detected in the human hair. (H.E.)

  18. 77 FR 74517 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    2012-12-14

    ... the second notice for public comment; the first was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 33774... FOUNDATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...: Education and Human Resources Program Monitoring Clearance. OMB Approval Number: 3145-NEW. Type of...

  19. Hsp60 is actively secreted by human tumor cells.

    Anna M Merendino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hsp60, a Group I mitochondrial chaperonin, is classically considered an intracellular chaperone with residence in the mitochondria; nonetheless, in the last few years it has been found extracellularly as well as in the cell membrane. Important questions remain pertaining to extracellular Hsp60 such as how generalized is its occurrence outside cells, what are its extracellular functions and the translocation mechanisms that transport the chaperone outside of the cell. These questions are particularly relevant for cancer biology since it is believed that extracellular chaperones, like Hsp70, may play an active role in tumor growth and dissemination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since cancer cells may undergo necrosis and apoptosis, it could be possible that extracellular Hsps are chiefly the result of cell destruction but not the product of an active, physiological process. In this work, we studied three tumor cells lines and found that they all release Hsp60 into the culture media by an active mechanism independently of cell death. Biochemical analyses of one of the cell lines revealed that Hsp60 secretion was significantly reduced, by inhibitors of exosomes and lipid rafts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that Hsp60 release is the result of an active secretion mechanism and, since extracellular release of the chaperone was demonstrated in all tumor cell lines investigated, our observations most likely reflect a general physiological phenomenon, occurring in many tumors.

  20. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Tariq Javed; Sana Riaz; Muhammad Uzair; Gulam Mustafa; Ayesha Mohyuddin; Bashir Ahmad Ch.

    2016-01-01

    World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results...

  1. Activation of human monocytes with proteolytic gliadin fragments

    Jelínková, L.; Tučková, Ludmila; Tlaskalová, Helena

    Elsevier. 02, č. 1 (2002), s. 91. ISSN 1568-9972. [Presentations at the International Congress on Autoimmunity /3./. 01.02.2002-02.02.2002, Geneva] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : activation * monocytes * proteolytic Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  2. Polyphenol derivatives inhibit human neutrophil activity by suppressing oxidative burst

    Drábiková, K.; Perečko, T.; Nosáľ, R.; Harmatha, Juraj; Šmidrkal, J.; Jančinová, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, Suppl.1 (2012), s. 31-31. ISSN 1337-6853. [Interdisciplinary Toxicological Conference & Advanced Toxicological Course /17./. 27.08.2012-31.08.2012, Stará Lesná] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : polyphenol derivatives * neutrophil activity * pinosylvin Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  3. Mechanisms regulating regional cerebral activation during dynamic handgrip in humans

    Williamson, James; Friedman, D B; Mitchell, J H; Secher, N H; Friberg, L

    1996-01-01

    type of afferent input required for this cerebral activation. The rCBF was measured at +5.0 and +9.0 cm above the orbitomeatal (OM) plane in 13 subjects during 1) rest; 2) dynamic left-hand contractions; 3) postcontraction ischemia (metaboreceptor afferents); and 4) biceps brachii tendon vibration...

  4. Identification of human gustatory cortex by activation likelihood estimation

    Veldhuizen, M.G.; Albrecht, J.; Zelano, C.; Boesveldt, S.; Breslin, P.; Lundstrom, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last two decades, neuroimaging methods have identified a variety of taste-responsive brain regions. Their precise location, however, remains in dispute. For example, taste stimulation activates areas throughout the insula and overlying operculum, but identification of subregions has been in

  5. Baseline brain activity fluctuations predict somatosensory perception in humans

    Boly, M.; Balteau, E.; Schnakers, C.; Degueldre, C.; Moonen, G.; Luxen, A.; Phillips, C.; Peigneux, P.; Maquet, P.; Laureys, S.

    2007-01-01

    In perceptual experiments, within-individual fluctuations in perception are observed across multiple presentations of the same stimuli, a phenomenon that remains only partially understood. Here, by means of thulium–yttrium/aluminum–garnet laser and event-related functional MRI, we tested whether variability in perception of identical stimuli relates to differences in prestimulus, baseline brain activity. Results indicate a positive relationship between conscious perception of low-intensity somatosensory stimuli and immediately preceding levels of baseline activity in medial thalamus and the lateral frontoparietal network, respectively, which are thought to relate to vigilance and “external monitoring.” Conversely, there was a negative correlation between subsequent reporting of conscious perception and baseline activity in a set of regions encompassing posterior cingulate/precuneus and temporoparietal cortices, possibly relating to introspection and self-oriented processes. At nociceptive levels of stimulation, pain-intensity ratings positively correlated with baseline fluctuations in anterior cingulate cortex in an area known to be involved in the affective dimension of pain. These results suggest that baseline brain-activity fluctuations may profoundly modify our conscious perception of the external world. PMID:17616583

  6. Mission Activity Planning for Humans and Robots on the Moon

    Weisbin, C.; Shelton, K.; Lincoln, W.; Elfes, A.; Smith, J.H.; Mrozinski, J.; Hua, H.; Adumitroaie, V.; Silberg, R.

    2008-01-01

    A series of studies is conducted to develop a systematic approach to optimizing, both in terms of the distribution and scheduling of tasks, scenarios in which astronauts and robots accomplish a group of activities on the Moon, given an objective function (OF) and specific resources and constraints. An automated planning tool is developed as a key element of this optimization system.

  7. Concurrent multitasking : From neural activity to human cognition

    Nijboer, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Multitasking has become an important part of our daily lives. This delicate juggling act between several activities occurs when people drive, when they are working, and even when they should be paying attention in the classroom. While multitasking is typically considered as something to avoid, there

  8. A Pattern Mining Approach to Sensor-based Human Activity Recognition

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Wu, Zhanqing;

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing human activities from sensor readings has recently attracted much research interest in pervasive computing due to its potential in many applications such as assistive living and healthcare. This task is particularly challenging because human activities are often performed in not only a...... real life because activities can be interleaved and performed concurrently in many different ways. In this paper, we propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize sequential, interleaved and concurrent activities in a unified framework. We exploit Emerging Pattern—a discriminative pattern that...... describes significant changes between classes of data—to identify sensor features for classifying activities. Different from existing learning-based approaches which require different training datasets for building activity models, our activity models are built upon the sequential activity trace only and...

  9. Inhibition of Human Dendritic Cell Activation by Hydroethanolic But Not Lipophilic Extracts of Turmeric (Curcuma longa)

    Krasovsky, Joseph; Chang, David H; Deng, Gary; Yeung, Simon; Lee, Mavis; Leung, Ping Chung; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna; Cassileth, Barrie; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.

    2008-01-01

    Turmeric has been extensively utilized in Indian and Chinese medicine for its immune-modulatory properties. Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells specialized to initiate and regulate immunity. The ability of DCs to initiate immunity is linked to their activation status. The effects of turmeric on human DCs have not been studied. Here we show that hydroethanolic (HEE) but not lipophilic “supercritical” extraction (SCE) of turmeric inhibits the activation of human DCs in response t...

  10. Surface markers of cloned human T cells with various cytolytic activities

    1981-01-01

    Human T cells stimulated in secondary allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) were cloned under limiting conditions in microculture systems using T cell growth factor and irradiated allogeneic cells. Clones with lytic activity against either phytohemagglutinin-induced blast cells bearing the stimulating alloantigen(s) (cytotoxic T lymphocyte [CTL] activity), L1210 mouse lymphoma cells coated with rabbit antibody (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity [ADCC]), or K562 human target ce...

  11. Assessing the impact of climate variability and human activities on streamflow variation

    Chang, J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Water resources in river systems have been changing under the impact of both climate variability and human activities. Assessing the respective impact on decadal streamflow variation is important for water resource management. By using an elasticity-based method and calibrated TOPMODEL and VIC hydrological models, we quantitatively isolated the relative contributions that human activities and climate variability made to decadal streamflow changes in Jinghe basin, located in ...

  12. Assessing the impact of climate variability and human activity to streamflow variation

    Chang, J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Water resources in river systems have been changing under the impacts of both climate variability and human activities. Assessing the respective impacts on decadal streamflow variation is important for water resources management. By using an elasticity-based method, calibrated TOPMODEL and VIC hydrologic models, we have quantitatively isolated the relative contributions that human activity and climate variability made to decadal streamflow changes in Jinhe b...

  13. Assessing the impact of climate variability and human activities on streamflow variation

    Chang, Jianxia; Zhang, Hongxue; Wang, Yimin; Zhu, Yuelu

    2016-01-01

    Water resources in river systems have been changing under the impact of both climate variability and human activities. Assessing the respective impact on decadal streamflow variation is important for water resource management. By using an elasticity-based method and calibrated TOPMODEL and VIC hydrological models, we quantitatively isolated the relative contributions that human activities and climate variability made to decadal streamflow changes in the Jinghe basin, located...

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 gp120 and gp160 envelope proteins modulate mesangial cell gelatinolytic activity.

    Singhal, P. C.; Sagar, S.; D. Chandra; Garg, P

    1995-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often develop glomerular lesions (mesangial expansion and sclerosis). Modulation of matrix degradation may be important in the expansion of the mesangium. We studied the effect of HIV sera and HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins on gelatinolytic activity of human mesangial cells. HIV serum-treated cells showed lower (P < 0.01) gelatinolytic activity when compared with cells treated with control serum (control serum, 4.3 +/- 0.1 versus HIV se...

  15. Management of human resources in the physical activity and sport: concepts and perspectives

    Campos Izquierdo, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The management proper of human resources in organizations of physical activity and sport is essential to ensure the quality, efficiency and professionalism of service offered and even, if not done the right way can produce the benefits become a nuisance and risks to health, safety and education of citizens and for society as such. The perspective of management and organization of human resources in the states of physical activity and sport should be comprehensive, integrated and cross, which ...

  16. Differential complement activation and susceptibility to human serum bactericidal action by Vibrio species.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of Vibrio vulnificus to resist human serum bactericidal action and to activate human complement was compared with similar cultures of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Both V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus had similar survival rates in sera and were much more resistant to killing than was V. cholerae. In contrast, V. vulnificus activated significantly less serum complement than did V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus. The relative ability of V. vulnificus to surviv...

  17. Sustained Inflammasome Activity in Macrophages Impairs Wound Healing in Type 2 Diabetic Humans and Mice

    Rita E Mirza; Fang, Milie M.; Eileen M Weinheimer-Haus; Ennis, William J.; Koh, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that sustained activity of the Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome in wounds of diabetic humans and mice contributes to the persistent inflammatory response and impaired healing characteristic of these wounds. Macrophages (Mp) isolated from wounds on diabetic humans and db/db mice exhibited sustained inflammasome activity associated with low level of expression of endogenous inflammasome inhibitors. Soluble factors in the biochemical milieu of thes...

  18. MD-2 determinants of nickel and cobalt-mediated activation of human TLR4.

    Alja Oblak

    Full Text Available Recent findings unexpectedly revealed that human TLR4 can be directly activated by nickel ions. This activation is due to the coordination of nickel by a cluster of histidine residues on the ectodomain of human TLR4, which is absent in most other species. We aimed to elucidate the role of MD-2 in the molecular mechanism of TLR4/MD-2 activation by nickel, as nickel binding site on TLR4 is remote from MD-2, which directly binds the endotoxin as the main pathological activator of TLR4. We identified MD-2 and TLR4 mutants which abolished TLR4/MD-2 receptor activation by endotoxin but could nevertheless be significantly activated by nickel, which acts in synergy with LPS. Human TLR4/MD-2 was also activated by cobalt ions, while copper and cadmium were toxic in the tested concentration range. Activation of TLR4 by cobalt required MD-2 and was abolished by human TLR4 mutations of histidine residues at positions 456 and 458. We demonstrated that activation of TLR4 by nickel and cobalt ions can trigger both the MyD88-dependent and the -independent pathway. Based on our results we propose that predominantly hydrophobic interactions between MD-2 and TLR4 contribute to the stabilization of the TLR4/MD-2/metal ion complex in a conformation that enables activation.

  19. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity in human leucocytes after freezing.

    Hill, R S; Kennedy, M; Mackinder, C

    1978-01-01

    Human peripheral blood leucocytes (neutrophil-rich) were collected either with heparin or acid citrate dextrose, frozen with dimethyl sulphoxide at a controlled rate, stored in liquid nitrogen at--196 degrees C and reconstituted with a solution containing dextran. After reconstitution, 20.2% of cells (in absolute numbers 1 in 5 fresh cells) showed a strongly positive nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reaction. The quantitative NBT test confirmed the synthesis of formazan/10(6) reconstituted neutrophilsa s15% of the fresh capacity. A slow titration reconstitution method for cells did not improve the functional capacity of thawed leucocytes as judged by the NBT test. When comparing anticoagulants, heparin increased the post-reconstitution cell yields after freezing and increased the absolute number of reconstituted cells capable of developing a positive NBT reaction. PMID:643322

  20. A mathematical model of human thymidine kinase 2 activity

    Radivoyevitch, Tom; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Wang, Liya;

    2011-01-01

    _ The mitochondrial enzyme thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) phosphorylates deoxythymidine (dT) and deoxycytidine (dC) to form dTMP and dCMP, which in cells rapidly become the negative-feedback end-products dTTP and dCTP. TK2 kinetic activity exhibits Hill coefficients of ∼0.5 (apparent negative cooperati......_ The mitochondrial enzyme thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) phosphorylates deoxythymidine (dT) and deoxycytidine (dC) to form dTMP and dCMP, which in cells rapidly become the negative-feedback end-products dTTP and dCTP. TK2 kinetic activity exhibits Hill coefficients of ∼0.5 (apparent negative...

  1. Rate-invariant recognition of humans and their activities.

    Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Srivastava, Anuj; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K; Chellappa, Rama

    2009-06-01

    Pattern recognition in video is a challenging task because of the multitude of spatio-temporal variations that occur in different videos capturing the exact same event. While traditional pattern-theoretic approaches account for the spatial changes that occur due to lighting and pose, very little has been done to address the effect of temporal rate changes in the executions of an event. In this paper, we provide a systematic model-based approach to learn the nature of such temporal variations (time warps) while simultaneously allowing for the spatial variations in the descriptors. We illustrate our approach for the problem of action recognition and provide experimental justification for the importance of accounting for rate variations in action recognition. The model is composed of a nominal activity trajectory and a function space capturing the probability distribution of activity-specific time warping transformations. We use the square-root parameterization of time warps to derive geodesics, distance measures, and probability distributions on the space of time warping functions. We then design a Bayesian algorithm which treats the execution rate function as a nuisance variable and integrates it out using Monte Carlo sampling, to generate estimates of class posteriors. This approach allows us to learn the space of time warps for each activity while simultaneously capturing other intra- and interclass variations. Next, we discuss a special case of this approach which assumes a uniform distribution on the space of time warping functions and show how computationally efficient inference algorithms may be derived for this special case. We discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of both approaches and show their efficacy using experiments on gait-based person identification and activity recognition. PMID:19398409

  2. Human Receptor Activation by Aroclor 1260, a Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K. Cameron; Clair, Heather B.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A.; States, J. Christopher; Coslo, Denise M.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), ...

  3. Powerful Bactericidal Activity of Moxifloxacin in Human Leprosy▿

    Pardillo, Fe Eleanor F.; Burgos, Jasmin; Fajardo, Tranquilino T.; Cruz, Eduardo Dela; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Paredes, Rose Maria D.; Andaya, Cora Evelyn S.; Gelber, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    In a clinical trial of moxifloxacin in eight multibacillary leprosy patients, moxifloxacin proved highly effective. In all trial patients, a single 400-mg dose of moxifloxacin resulted in significant killing (P ≤ 0.006) of Mycobacterium leprae, ranging from 82% to 99%, with a mean of 91%. In all instances, no viable bacilli were detected with an additional 3 weeks of daily therapy, this observed rapid bactericidal activity being matched previously only by rifampin. On moxifloxacin therapy, sk...

  4. Down-regulation of human neutrophil activity by natural polyphenols

    Drábiková, K.; Perečko, T.; Nosáľ, R.; Harmatha, Juraj; Šmidrkal, J.; Jančinová, V.

    Bratislava : Institute of Experimental Pharmacology & Toxicology SAS, 2012 - (Bauer, V.; Mach, M.; Navarová, J.; Sotníková, R.), s. 98-108 ISBN 978-80-971042-0-7. [Drugs: Their Action in Pharmacology and Toxicology. Bratislava (SK), 31.05.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : activity of neutrophils * reactive oxygen species * natural polyphenols Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  5. Baseline brain activity fluctuations predict somatosensory perception in humans

    Boly, M; Balteau, E.; Schnakers, C; Degueldre, C.; Moonen, G.; Luxen, A.; Phillips, C.; Peigneux, P; Maquet, P; Laureys, S.

    2007-01-01

    In perceptual experiments, within-individual fluctuations in perception are observed across multiple presentations of the same stimuli, a phenomenon that remains only partially understood. Here, by means of thulium–yttrium/aluminum–garnet laser and event-related functional MRI, we tested whether variability in perception of identical stimuli relates to differences in prestimulus, baseline brain activity. Results indicate a positive relationship between conscious perception of low-intensity so...

  6. Functional Structure of Spontaneous Sleep Slow Oscillation Activity in Humans

    Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Debarnot, Ursula; d'Ascanio, Paola; Landi, Alberto; Gemignani, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Background During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep synchronous neural oscillations between neural silence (down state) and neural activity (up state) occur. Sleep Slow Oscillations (SSOs) events are their EEG correlates. Each event has an origin site and propagates sweeping the scalp. While recent findings suggest a SSO key role in memory consolidation processes, the structure and the propagation of individual SSO events, as well as their modulation by sleep stages and cortical areas have ...

  7. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Jandová, Anna; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jiří

    Vol. 329. Bristol: IOP, 2011 - (Cifra, M.; Pokorny, J.; Kučera, O.), 012030 ISSN 1742-6588. [9th International Frohlich's Symposium on Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells - Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics. Praha (CZ), 01.07.2011-03.07.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : Biochemical research * Cellular structure * Control groups Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  8. Exosomes: novel effectors of human platelet lysate activity

    E Torreggiani; F Perut; Roncuzzi, L; N Zini; SR Baglìo; N Baldini

    2014-01-01

    Despite the popularity of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet lysate (PL) in orthopaedic practice, the mechanism of action and the effectiveness of these therapeutic tools are still controversial. So far, the activity of PRP and PL has been associated with different growth factors (GF) released during platelet degranulation. This study, for the first time, identifies exosomes, nanosized vesicles released in the extracellular compartment by a number of elements, including platelets, as one...

  9. The effect of anti-human plasminogen monoclonal antibodies on Glu-plasminogen activation by plasminogen activators

    M. Akrami

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human plasminogen is a plasma glycoprotein synthesized mainly in the liver. Conversion of plasminogen to plasmin by plasminogen activators is a key event in the fibrinolytic system. In this study, we investigated the effects of two anti-human plasminogen monoclonal antibodies, A1D12 and MC2B8 on Glu-plasminogen activation in presence of u-PA, t-PA and streptokinase. Methods: Producing of Hybridoma antibodies was performed by fusion of spleen cells from BALB/C mice immunized with Glu-plasminogen and NS1 myeloma cells. Antibody binding to Human Glu-plasminogen was assessed using an ELISA assay. Activation of plasminogen was determined by measuring plasmin generation using the chromogenic substrate S-2251 and the effect of monoclonal antibodies, A1D12 and MC2B8 on plasminogen activation in solution was then evaluated. Initial rates and kinetic parameters of plasminogen activation in the presence of monoclonal antibodies were calculated. The effect of the monoclonal antibody MC2B8 on the rate of plasmin hydrolysis was measured. The effect of F(ab'2 fragment of A1D12 on u-PA catalyzed-plasminogen activation also compared with the effect of the whole antibody in this reaction. Results: ELISA assay showed that the antibodies reacted well with antigens. A1D12 increased the maximum velocity (Vmax of plasminogen activation by each of the three plasminogen activators and MC2B8 decreased it. In all activation reactions, the KM value of plasminogen activation did not significantly change in the presence of antibody A1D12 whereas antibody MC2B8 increased the KM value of plasminogen activation by u-PA, fibrin monomer dependent t-PA and streptokinase. Monoclonal antibody MC2B8 had no significant effect on plasmin hydrolysis rate of synthetic substrate S-2251. Activation rate of plasminogen by u-PA in the lower concentration of F (ab2 fragment of A1D12 was identical to activation in the presence of the whole antibody. Conclusion: The binding of

  10. Quantitation of fibroblast activation protein (FAP-specific protease activity in mouse, baboon and human fluids and organs

    Fiona M. Keane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The protease fibroblast activation protein (FAP is a specific marker of activated mesenchymal cells in tumour stroma and fibrotic liver. A specific, reliable FAP enzyme assay has been lacking. FAP's unique and restricted cleavage of the post proline bond was exploited to generate a new specific substrate to quantify FAP enzyme activity. This sensitive assay detected no FAP activity in any tissue or fluid of FAP gene knockout mice, thus confirming assay specificity. Circulating FAP activity was ∼20- and 1.3-fold less in baboon than in mouse and human plasma, respectively. Serum and plasma contained comparable FAP activity. In mice, the highest levels of FAP activity were in uterus, pancreas, submaxillary gland and skin, whereas the lowest levels were in brain, prostate, leukocytes and testis. Baboon organs high in FAP activity included skin, epididymis, bladder, colon, adipose tissue, nerve and tongue. FAP activity was greatly elevated in tumours and associated lymph nodes and in fungal-infected skin of unhealthy baboons. FAP activity was 14- to 18-fold greater in cirrhotic than in non-diseased human liver, and circulating FAP activity was almost doubled in alcoholic cirrhosis. Parallel DPP4 measurements concorded with the literature, except for the novel finding of high DPP4 activity in bile. The new FAP enzyme assay is the first to be thoroughly characterised and shows that FAP activity is measurable in most organs and at high levels in some. This new assay is a robust tool for specific quantitation of FAP enzyme activity in both preclinical and clinical samples, particularly liver fibrosis.

  11. Ornithine decarboxylase, mitogen-activated protein kinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expressions in human colon tumors

    Takahiro Nemoto; Shunichiro Kubota; Hideyuki Ishida; Nobuo Murata; Daijo Hashimoto

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expressions of omithine decarboxylase (ODC), MMP-2, and Erk, and their relationship in human colon tumors.METHODS: ODC activity, MMP-2 expression, and mitogenactivated protein (MAP) kinase activity (Erk phosphorylation) were determined in 58 surgically removed human colon tumors and their adjacent normal tissues, using [1-14C]-ornithine as a substrate, ELISA assay, and Western blotting, respectively.RESULTS: ODC activity, MMP-2 expression, and Erk phosphorylation were significantly elevated in colon tumors, compared to those in adjacent normal tissues. A significant correlation was observed between ODC activities and MMP-2 levels.CONCLUSION: This is the first report showing a significant correlation between ODC activities and MMP-2 levels in human colon tumors. As MMP-2 is involved in cancer invasion and metastasis, and colon cancer overexpresses ODC, suppression of ODC expression may be a rational approach to treat colon cancer which overexpresses ODC.

  12. Human activities recognition by head movement using partial recurrent neural network

    Tan, Henry C. C.; Jia, Kui; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2003-06-01

    Traditionally, human activities recognition has been achieved mainly by the statistical pattern recognition methods or the Hidden Markov Model (HMM). In this paper, we propose a novel use of the connectionist approach for the recognition of ten simple human activities: walking, sitting down, getting up, squatting down and standing up, in both lateral and frontal views, in an office environment. By means of tracking the head movement of the subjects over consecutive frames from a database of different color image sequences, and incorporating the Elman model of the partial recurrent neural network (RNN) that learns the sequential patterns of relative change of the head location in the images, the proposed system is able to robustly classify all the ten activities performed by unseen subjects from both sexes, of different race and physique, with a recognition rate as high as 92.5%. This demonstrates the potential of employing partial RNN to recognize complex activities in the increasingly popular human-activities-based applications.

  13. Withaferin A inhibits activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in human breast cancer cells

    Lee, Joomin; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Singh, Shivendra V

    2010-01-01

    We have shown previously that withaferin A (WA), a promising anticancer constituent of Ayurvedic medicine plant Withania somnifera, inhibits growth of human breast cancer cells in culture and in vivo in association with apoptosis induction. The present study builds on these observations and demonstrates that WA inhibits constitutive as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6)-inducible activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is an oncogenic transcription factor act...

  14. Purinergic effects on Na,K-ATPase activity differ in rat and human skeletal muscle.

    Carsten Juel

    Full Text Available P2Y receptor activation may link the effect of purines to increased maximal in vitro activity of the Na,K-ATPase in rat muscle. The hypothesis that a similar mechanism is present in human skeletal muscle was investigated with membranes from rat and human skeletal muscle.Membranes purified from rat and human muscles were used in the Na,K-ATPase assay. Incubation with ADP, the stable ADP analogue MeS-ADP and UDP increased the Na+ dependent Na,K-ATPase activity in rat muscle membranes, whereas similar treatments of human muscle membranes lowered the Na,K-ATPase activity. UTP incubation resulted in unchanged Na,K-ATPase activity in humans, but pre-incubation with the antagonist suramin resulted in inhibition with UTP, suggesting that P2Y receptors are involved. The Na,K-ATPase in membranes from both rat and human could be stimulated by protein kinase A and C activation. Thus, protein kinase A and C activation can increase Na,K-ATPase activity in human muscle but not via P2Y receptor stimulation.The inhibitory effects of most purines (with the exception of UTP in human muscle membranes are probably due to mass law inhibition of ATP hydrolysis. This inhibition could be blurred in rat due to receptor mediated activation of the Na,K-ATPase. The different effects could be related to a high density of ADP sensitive P2Y1 and P2Y13 receptors in rat, whereas the UTP sensitive P2Y11 could be more abundant in human. Alternatively, rat could possesses a mechanism for protein-protein interaction between P2Y receptors and the Na,K-ATPase, and this mechanism could be absent in human skeletal muscle (perhaps with the exception of the UTP sensitive P2Y11 receptor.Rat muscle is not a reliable model for purinergic effects on Na,K-ATPase in human skeletal muscle.

  15. Immunologic activation of human syncytiotrophoblast by Plasmodium falciparum

    Peterson David S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria during pregnancy is characterized by the sequestration of malaria-infected red blood cells (iRBC in the intervillous spaces of the placenta, often accompanied by the infiltration of maternal mononuclear cells, causing substantial maternal and foetal/infant morbidity. The iRBC bind to receptors expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast (ST. How ST responds to this interaction remains poorly understood. Because it is known that ST is immunoactive and can respond to infectious agents, the consequences of this ST-iRBC interaction should be investigated. Methods An in vitro system was used to assess the biochemical and immunological changes induced in ST by ST-adherent iRBCs. Changes in ST mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation were assessed by immunoblotting and mRNA expression levels of selected cytokine and chemokines in primary ST bound by iRBC were determined using real-time, reverse transcription PCR. In addition, secreted cytokine and chemokine proteins were assayed by standard ELISA, and chemotaxis of PBMC was assessed using a two-chamber assay system. Results Following iRBC/ST interaction, ST C-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1 was activated and modest increases in the mRNA expression of TGF-β and IL-8/CXCL8 were observed. In addition, this interaction increased secretion of MIF and MIP-1α/CCL3 by ST and induced migration of PBMC towards iRBC-stimulated ST. Conclusion Results from this study provide the first evidence that ST participates in shaping the local immunological milieu and in the recruitment of maternal immune cells to the maternal blood space during placental malaria infection.

  16. HIV-1 latency in actively dividing human T cell lines

    Berkhout Ben

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eradication of HIV-1 from an infected individual cannot be achieved by current drug regimens. Viral reservoirs established early during the infection remain unaffected by anti-retroviral therapy and are able to replenish systemic infection upon interruption of the treatment. Therapeutic targeting of viral latency will require a better understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying the establishment and long-term maintenance of HIV-1 in resting memory CD4 T cells, the most prominent reservoir of transcriptional silent provirus. However, the molecular mechanisms that permit long-term transcriptional control of proviral gene expression in these cells are still not well understood. Exploring the molecular details of viral latency will provide new insights for eventual future therapeutics that aim at viral eradication. Results We set out to develop a new in vitro HIV-1 latency model system using the doxycycline (dox-inducible HIV-rtTA variant. Stable cell clones were generated with a silent HIV-1 provirus, which can subsequently be activated by dox-addition. Surprisingly, only a minority of the cells was able to induce viral gene expression and a spreading infection, eventhough these experiments were performed with the actively dividing SupT1 T cell line. These latent proviruses are responsive to TNFα treatment and alteration of the DNA methylation status with 5-Azacytidine or genistein, but not responsive to the regular T cell activators PMA and IL2. Follow-up experiments in several T cell lines and with wild-type HIV-1 support these findings. Conclusion We describe the development of a new in vitro model for HIV-1 latency and discuss the advantages of this system. The data suggest that HIV-1 proviral latency is not restricted to resting T cells, but rather an intrinsic property of the virus.

  17. Evaluation of accuracy, precision and determination limit in the human hair analysis using neutron activation method

    The accuracy, precision and determination limit were evaluated for determination of Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Se, V and Zn in human head hair by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The precision was examined by analyzing human hair sample, and the results of relative standard deviations obtained ranged from 3.9 to 16.2%. The results accuracy was evaluated by using reference materials GBW 09101 Human Hair and NIES 5 Human Hair. Currie criterion was used for calculation of the determination limit. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Determination of thorium in human urine by neutron activation

    A routine procedure for the determination of thorium in urine of workers has been developed by the neutron activation method. The technique suggested by Dang, et. al. has been modified in order to reduce the cost involved and the sample processing time. The samples were irradiated in the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Boston) reactor, in a thermal neutron flux of 8 x 10 12n.cm-2.s-1 for 3,5 hours. Thorium-232 was determined by counting 233Pa. (author) 6 refs.; 2 tabs

  19. Classification of human activity on water through micro-Dopplers using deep convolutional neural networks

    Kim, Youngwook; Moon, Taesup

    2016-05-01

    Detecting humans and classifying their activities on the water has significant applications for surveillance, border patrols, and rescue operations. When humans are illuminated by radar signal, they produce micro-Doppler signatures due to moving limbs. There has been a number of research into recognizing humans on land by their unique micro-Doppler signatures, but there is scant research into detecting humans on water. In this study, we investigate the micro-Doppler signatures of humans on water, including a swimming person, a swimming person pulling a floating object, and a rowing person in a small boat. The measured swimming styles were free stroke, backstroke, and breaststroke. Each activity was observed to have a unique micro-Doppler signature. Human activities were classified based on their micro-Doppler signatures. For the classification, we propose to apply deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), a powerful deep learning technique. Rather than using conventional supervised learning that relies on handcrafted features, we present an alternative deep learning approach. We apply the DCNN, one of the most successful deep learning algorithms for image recognition, directly to a raw micro-Doppler spectrogram of humans on the water. Without extracting any explicit features from the micro-Dopplers, the DCNN can learn the necessary features and build classification boundaries using the training data. We show that the DCNN can achieve accuracy of more than 87.8% for activity classification using 5- fold cross validation.

  20. Differential activation of nerve fibers with magnetic stimulation in humans

    Olree Kenneth S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earlier observations in our lab had indicated that large, time-varying magnetic fields could elicit action potentials that travel in only one direction in at least some of the myelinated axons in peripheral nerves. The objective of this study was to collect quantitative evidence for magnetically induced unidirectional action potentials in peripheral nerves of human subjects. A magnetic coil was maneuvered to a location on the upper arm where physical effects consistent with the creation of unidirectional action potentials were observed. Electromyographic (EMG and somatosensory evoked potential (SEP recordings were then made from a total of 20 subjects during stimulation with the magnetic coil. Results The relative amplitudes of the EMG and SEP signals changed oppositely when the current direction in the magnetic coil was reversed. This effect was consistent with current direction in the coil relative to the arm for all subjects. Conclusion A differential evocation of motor and sensory fibers was demonstrated and indicates that it may be possible to induce unidirectional action potentials in myelinated peripheral nerve fibers with magnetic stimulation.

  1. Active synthesis of epidermal growth factor in human mammary glands

    Mieczysław Walczak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human milk contains considerable number of growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. There are no data comparing the EGF and IGF-1 levels in the serum and milk of breast-feeding women. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess a possible relationship between the concentrations of these growth factors. Material and methods. Thirty-nine women in child-birth were included in the study. All women provided blood and milk samples during the first six hours after delivery. EGF (by immunoenzymatic method and IGF-1 (by radioimmunossay method concentrations were measured in both media. Results. EGF breast milk concentrations ranged from 3.18 to 4.51 ng/ml and on average were significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than those found in the women’s serum (from 0.02 to 0.13 ng/ml. The opposite distribution was found for IGF-1 levels. Its milk concentrations ranged from 8.8 to 61.9 ng/ml and on average were significantly lower (p < 0.0001 than the serum concentrations (from 192.6 to 595.3 ng/ml. No correlation was found between the serum and milk concentrations of both growth factors. Conclusion. EGF seems to be synthesized locally in mammary glands, whereas IGF-1 probably permeates into the milk from the vascular bed.  

  2. MOHAWC. Models of human activities in work contexts

    The overall objective of the MOHAWC Action is to formulate and extend a unifying framework for cognitive studies of human agents coping with complex work domains. Central issues are methods for analysis and representation of knowledge about complex domains, analysis of cognitive control, mental models and heuristics applied in complex work domains, distributed decision making and forms of cooperative work, the role of tacit knowledge in agents' performance in complex work domains, and cognitive simulation methods for testing models of cognitive performance. The nature of computer mediated work and how such work should be designed and organised to be optimally effective and satisfying is considered. The focus is mainly on various forms of process industry, such as nuclear power and steel production. Dynamic decision making, where the decision-maker has to make a series of interdependent decisions under conditions where the state of the system with which he or she is working changes, both as a consequence of the decision maker's actions and autonomously, and where the decisions must be made in real time is analysed. MOHAWC taxonomy has played a central role as a framework for identifying important research problems and for integrating results. The Risoe team has contributed a major analysis of and illustration of how the MOHAWC taxonomy can be used in the design of interfaces. (AB) (97 refs.)

  3. Analysis of human enamel and dentine by neutron activation analysis

    Determination of trace elements in dental tissues has been of great interest to study the correlation between element composition and caries as well as food habits of individuals. In the present study dentine and enamel samples from healthy individuals were analysed by neutron activation analysis. The teeth were provided form dental clinics, and they were previously washed using purified water and acetone. Then they were dried at 40 deg C and ground in a agate mortar. The samples and element standards were irradiated with thermal neutrons at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Long irradiations of 8 h under thermal neutron flux of 5x1012 n cm-2 s-1 were used for Ca, Na, Sr and Zn determinations. In short irradiations of 15 s and under neutron flux of 1012 n cm-2 s-1 the elements Mg, Mn, Na e Sr were determined. The induced gamma activities of the samples and standards were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. Elemental concentrations were calculated by comparative method. Results obtained showed that Ca, Mg and Na are present in both tissues at the level of percentages and the elements Mn, Sr and Zn at the μg g-1 levels. For quality control of the results the certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1486 Bone Meal were analysed. (author)

  4. Functional activity of human hepatocytes under traumatic disease.

    Kudryavtseva, M V; Stein, G I; Shashkov, B V; Kudryavtsev, B N

    1998-03-01

    Absorption and fluorescent cytophotometry techniques were applied to studies of RNA as well as of total glycogen and its fractions as the parameters of functional activity of the hepatocytes in patients with severe mechanical trauma, both with and without autointoxication (AI). Slides were stained with gallocyanine-chromalums to determine the RNA content and were processed by the fluorescent PAS-reaction for the glycogen content. To trace the dynamics of RNA and glycogen contents in the liver punction biopsies were done in the same patients. A quick increase in the RNA content took place in both groups of patients at the first period (within the first 3 days) of traumatic disease. At the second period of disease the hepatocyte RNA content in patients without AI was found to decrease up to the initial level whereas that in patients with AI increased on the average by 36% of the initial values. The total glycogen content in hepatocytes of all the patients changed insignificantly in the course of disease but its labile fraction in patients with AI decreased to 70% of the total. The increase of hepatocyte synthetic activity and the maintenance of the high glycogen level are indicative of the large compensatory potential of the liver that enables it to carry an intensive functional load under AI conditions. PMID:9570502

  5. Angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and cognitive impairment during hypoglycaemia in healthy humans

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thomsen, Carsten E; Høgenhaven, Hans;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In type 1 diabetes increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia is associated with high angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. We tested in healthy humans the hypothesis that this association is explained by the reduced ability of subjects with high ACE activity to maintain normal...

  6. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  7. Characterization of human endothelial cell urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor protein and messenger RNA

    Barnathan, E S; Kuo, A; Karikó, K;

    1990-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC) express receptors for urokinase-type plasminogen activators (u-PA). The immunochemical nature of this receptor and its relationship to u-PA receptors expressed by other cell types is unknown. Cross-linking active site-blocked u-PA to HUVEC...

  8. Human Capital and Economic Activity in Urban America. Staff Report No. 332

    Abel, Jaison R.; Gabe, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the relationship between human capital and economic activity in U.S. metropolitan areas, extending the literature in two ways. First, we utilize new data on metropolitan area GDP to measure economic activity. Results show that a one-percentage-point increase in the proportion of residents with a college degree is associated with about a…

  9. Transepithelial activation of human leukocytes by probiotics and commensal bacteria: Role of Enterobacteriaceae-type endotoxin

    Baeuerlein, Annette; Ackermann, Stefanie; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to clarify whether commercially available probiotics induce greater trans-epithelial activation of human leukocytes than do commensal, food-derived and pathogenic bacteria and to identify the compounds responsible for this activation. Eleven different bacterial s...

  10. Human health and ecological risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities

    This paper summarizes the methodologies for estimating human health and ecological risks resulting from Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. DOE is currently assessing these activities as part of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM-PEIS)

  11. Plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is independent of sympathetic activity in humans

    Eldrup, E; Christensen, N J; Andreasen, J;

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the origin of plasma DOPA (3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine), the relationship between plasma DOPA and acute or chronic changes in sympathetic activity has been studied. Plasma DOPA and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with...... electrochemical detection. Administration of clonidine to healthy men decreased plasma NE markedly compared to no drug. Plasma DOPA decreased slightly but significantly with time, but values were identical after clonidine compared to no drug. Baseline plasma NE concentrations were significantly reduced in...... diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy compared to diabetics without neuropathy, whereas baseline plasma DOPA concentrations were similar in the three groups investigated: 6.55 (5.03-7.26, median [interquartile range], n = 8) nmol l-1 in diabetics with neuropathy, 7.41 (5.79-7.97, n = 8) nmol l-1 in...

  12. Postirradiation proliferative activity and morphology of human bone marrow

    Bone marrow cells distribution by cell cycle stages (S, G1/0, G2+M) were studied by flow cytometry and myelograms analyzed in 13 subjects occupationally irradiated during an emergency situation, in 19 patients administered radiotherapy, and in 26 normal subjects. Low-dose (0,2 to 0,4 Gy) exposure was associated with an increase of proliferative activity, higher doses (1 to 4 Gy) caused a reduction of the share of cells in the phase of DNA synthesis and an expressed block at the C2+M stage. The studied parameters of cellular cycle reflect the degree of radiation exposure and together with myelogram values may be regarded as diagnostic characteristics of hemopoiesis. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    Ozguven, Salih; Turoglu, H.T. [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Ones, Tunc [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Kozyatagi/Kadikoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, Yusuf; Imeryuz, Nese [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  14. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing 18F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the 18F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  15. Kinetics of the Factor XIa catalyzed activation of human blood coagulation Factor IX.

    Walsh, P N; Bradford, H; Sinha, D.; Piperno, J R; Tuszynski, G P

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of activation of human Factor IX by human Factor XIa was studied by measuring the release of a trichloroacetic acid-soluble tritium-labeled activation peptide from Factor IX by a modification of a method described for bovine Factor IX activation by Zur and Nemerson (Zur, M., and Y. Nemerson, 1980, J. Biol. Chem., 255:5703-5707). Initial rates of trichloroacetic acid-soluble 3H-release were linear over 10-30 min of incubation of Factor IX (88 nM) with CaCl2 (5 mM) and with pure (g...

  16. Human Dcp2: a catalytically active mRNA decapping enzyme located in specific cytoplasmic structures

    van Dijk, Erwin; Cougot, Nicolas; Meyer, Sylke; Babajko, Sylvie; Wahle, Elmar; Séraphin, Bertrand

    2002-01-01

    We have cloned cDNAs for the human homologues of the yeast Dcp1 and Dcp2 factors involved in the major (5′–3′) and NMD mRNA decay pathways. While yeast Dcp1 has been reported to be the decapping enzyme, we show that recombinant human Dcp2 (hDcp2) is enzymatically active. Dcp2 activity appears evolutionarily conserved. Mutational and biochemical analyses indicate that the hDcp2 MutT/Nudix domain mediates this activity. hDcp2 generates m7GDP and 5′-phosphorylated mRNAs that are 5′–3′ exonucleas...

  17. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) inhibits human breast cancer cell line tumorigenicity

    Yao, Pei-Li; Morales, Jose L.; Zhu, Bokai; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Gonzalez, Frank J; Peters, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of activation and over-expression of the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ in human MDA-MB-231 (ER−) and MCF7 (ER+) breast cancer cell lines was examined. Target gene induction by ligand activation of PPARβ/δ was increased by over-expression of PPARβ/δ compared to controls. Over-expression of PPARβ/δ caused a decrease in cell proliferation in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells compared to controls while ligand activation of PPARβ/δ further inhibited proliferation of MCF7 but not MDA-MB-231 cells. Ov...

  18. Tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator in human epileptogenic pathologies

    A.M. Iyer; E. Zurolo; K. Boer; J.C. Baayen; F. Giangaspero; A. Arcella; G.C. Di Gennaro; V. Esposito; W.G.M. Spliet; P.C. van Rijen; D. Troost; J.A. Gorter; E. Aronica

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates the involvement of plasminogen activators (PAs) in a number of physiologic and pathologic events in the CNS. Induction of both tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) has been observed in different experimental models of ep

  19. Activity-based computing: computational management of activities reflecting human intention

    Bardram, Jakob E; Jeuris, Steven; Houben, Steven

    2015-01-01

    An important research topic in artificial intelligence is automatic sensing and inferencing of contextual information, which is used to build computer models of the user’s activity. One approach to build such activity-aware systems is the notion of activity-based computing (ABC). ABC is a computing...

  20. Human retinal pigment epithelial cells inhibit proliferation and IL2R expression of activated T cells

    Kaestel, Charlotte G; Jørgensen, Annette; Nielsen, Mette;

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells on activated T cells. Activated T cells were cocultured with adult and foetal human RPE cells whereafter apoptosis and proliferation were determined by flow cytometry and (3)H...... addition to use of TCR negative T cell lines. The expression of IL2R-alpha -beta and -gamma chains of activated T cells was analysed by flow cytometry after incubation of T cells alone or with RPE cells. Human RPE cells were found to inhibit the proliferation of activated T cells by a cell contact......-dependent mechanism. The RPE cells inhibitory abilities were not affected by blocking of any of the tested surface molecules. The inhibition of the T cells' proliferation correlates with a decreased expression of IL2R-beta and -gamma chains. The T cells regain their ability to proliferate and increase their IL2R...

  1. Kallikrein Promotes Inflammation in Human Dental Pulp Cells Via Protease-Activated Receptor-1.

    Hayama, Tomomi; Kamio, Naoto; Okabe, Tatsu; Muromachi, Koichiro; Matsushima, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Plasma kallikrein (KLKB1), a serine protease, cleaves high-molecular weight kininogen to produce bradykinin, a potent vasodilator and pro-inflammatory peptide. In addition, KLKB1 activates plasminogen and other leukocyte and blood coagulation factors and processes pro-enkephalin, prorenin, and C3. KLKB1 has also been shown to cleave protease-activated receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells to regulate the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor. In this study, we investigated KLKB1-dependent inflammation and activation of protease-activated receptor-1 in human dental pulp cells. These cells responded to KLKB1 stimulation by increasing intracellular Ca(2+) , upregulating cyclooxygenase-2, and secreting prostaglandin E2 . Remarkably, SCH79797, an antagonist of protease-activated receptor-1, blocked these effects. Thus, these data indicate that KLKB1 induces inflammatory reactions in human dental tissues via protease-activated receptor 1. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1522-1528, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26566265

  2. Sensor Data Acquisition and Processing Parameters for Human Activity Classification

    Sebastian D. Bersch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that parameter selection for data sampling frequency and segmentation techniques (including different methods and window sizes has an impact on the classification accuracy. For Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, no clear information to select these parameters exists, hence a wide variety and inconsistency across today’s literature is observed. This paper presents the empirical investigation of different data sampling rates, segmentation techniques and segmentation window sizes and their effect on the accuracy of Activity of Daily Living (ADL event classification and computational load for two different accelerometer sensor datasets. The study is conducted using an ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA based on 32 different window sizes, three different segmentation algorithm (with and without overlap, totaling in six different parameters and six sampling frequencies for nine common classification algorithms. The classification accuracy is based on a feature vector consisting of Root Mean Square (RMS, Mean, Signal Magnitude Area (SMA, Signal Vector Magnitude (here SMV, Energy, Entropy, FFTPeak, Standard Deviation (STD. The results are presented alongside recommendations for the parameter selection on the basis of the best performing parameter combinations that are identified by means of the corresponding Pareto curve.

  3. Altered behaviour in spotted hyenas associated with increased human activity

    Boydston, E.E.; Kapheim, K.M.; Watts, H.E.; Szykman, M.; Holekamp, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate how anthropogenic activity might affect large carnivores, we studied the behaviour of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) during two time periods. From 1996 to 1998, we documented the ecological correlates of space utilization patterns exhibited by adult female hyenas defending a territory at the edge of a wildlife reserve in Kenya. Hyenas preferred areas near dense vegetation but appeared to avoid areas containing the greatest abundance of prey, perhaps because these were also the areas of most intensive livestock grazing. We then compared hyena behaviour observed in 1996-98 with that observed several years earlier and found many differences. Female hyenas in 1996-98 were found farther from dens, but closer to dense vegetation and to the edges of their territory, than in 1988-90. Recent females also had larger home ranges, travelled farther between consecutive sightings, and were more nocturnal than in 1988-90. Finally, hyenas occurred in smaller groups in 1996-98 than in 1988-90. We also found several changes in hyena demography between periods. We next attempted to explain differences observed between time periods by testing predictions of hypotheses invoking prey abundance, climate, interactions with lions, tourism and livestock grazing. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that increased reliance on the reserve for livestock grazing was responsible for observed changes. That behavioural changes were not associated with decreased hyena population density suggests the behavioural plasticity typical of this species may protect it from extinction. ?? 2003 The Zoological Society of London.

  4. Energy efficiency and human activity: Past trends, future prospects

    This book, sponsored by the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI), presents a detailed analysis of changes in world energy use over the past twenty years. It considers the future prospects of energy demand, and discusses ways of restraining growth in consumption in order to meet environmental and economic development goals. Based on a decade of research by the authors and their colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in collaboration with the SEI, it presents information on energy use and the forces shaping it in the industrial, developing, and formerly planned economies. Looking separately at industry, passenger travel, freight transport, and the residential and service sectors, the authors describe the impact on energy use of growth in activity, structural change, and change in energy intensities, and discuss the role of energy prices and energy conservation policies in the industrial countries and the former Soviet Union. The book presents an overview of the potential for improving energy efficiency, and discusses the policies that could help realize the potential. While calling for strong action by governments and the private sector, the authors stress the importance of considering the full range of factors that will shape realization of the energy efficiency potential around the world

  5. Energy and human activity: Steps toward a sustainable future

    The potential for improving energy efficiency is enormous, but exploitation of this resource has slowed in recent years. This is regrettable for several reasons. First, not incorporating higher efficiency now often means passing up opportunities that will be more expensive or even impossible to implement in the future. This is especially true for long-lived capital, such as new buildings. Second, reduced research and development into new efficiency options will make it more difficult to accelerate the pace of efficiency improvements in the future. Finally, the flow of more efficient technologies to the non-OECD countries will be hindered by the slowdown in efficiency improvement in the OECD countries. Well-designed policies can help recapture the momentum that has been lost. Some key steps for stimulating more careful use of energy are: rationalize energy pricing and gradually internalize environmental externalities; improve present energy-using capital; implement energy-efficiency standards or agreements for new products and buildings; encourage higher energy efficiency in new products and buildings; promote international cooperation for R ampersand D technology transfer; adjust policies that encourage energy-intensive activities; and promote population restraint worldwide. 25 refs

  6. Development and application of human cell lines engineered to metabolically activate structurally diverse environmental mutagens

    Crespi, C. I.; Langenbach, Robert; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Gelboin, Harry V.; Penman, B. W.

    1993-03-01

    Cytochromes P450 are responsible for the mutagenic/carcinogenic activation of many environmental promutagens/procarcinogens. These enzymes are present at highest concentrations in liver in vivo but are markedly absent in tester organisms for most in vitro mutagenicity test systems. Two approaches have been used to supply needed metabolic activation, incorporation of an extracellular activating system, usually derived from a rodent liver and introduction of activating enzymes into the target cell. The latter approach appears to result in a more sensitive testing system because of the close proximity of the activating enzymes and the target DNA. Human cell lines have been developed which stably express human cytochromes P450 and other cDNAs which have been introduced individually or in combination. The resulting cell lines are exquisitely sensitive to exposure to promutagens and procarcinogens. Mutagenicity is measured at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) and thymidine kinase (tk) gene loci. The most versatile cell line, designated MCL-5, stably express five cDNAs encoding all of the human hepatic P450s known to be principally responsible for known human procarcinogen activation. The induction of mutation is observed in MCL-5 cells upon exposure to ng/ml levels of model compounds such as nitrosamines, aflatoxin B1 and benzo(a)pyrene. A lower volume mutagenicity assay has been developed for use with samples available in limited amounts. Human lymphoblast mutation assays have been used to screen for mutagenic activity sediment samples from a polluted watershed. Two sediment samples were found to have mutagenic activity to human lymphoblasts.

  7. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity by purified human breast milk mucin (MUC1) in an inhibition assay.

    Habte, Habtom H; de Beer, Corena; Lotz, Zoë E; Tyler, Marilyn G; Kahn, Delawir; Mall, Anwar S

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that breast-feeding is responsible for approximately 40% of the HIV transmissions from HIV-positive mothers to children. Human breast milk, however, is known to contain numerous biologically active components which protect breast-fed infants against bacteria, viruses, and toxins. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize breast milk mucin and to determine its anti-HIV-1 activity in an HIV inhibition assay. Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography and caesium chloride isopycnic density gradient purification were used to isolate and purify the mucin. Following Western blotting and amino acid analysis, an HIV-1 inhibition assay was carried out to determine the anti-HIV-1 activity of crude breast milk and purified milk mucin (MUC1) by incubating them with HIV-1 prior to infection of the human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM SS cells). SDS-PAGE analysis of the mucin, together with its amino acid composition and Western blotting, suggested that this purified mucin from human breast milk was MUC1. The HIV inhibition assay revealed that while the purified milk mucin (MUC1) inhibited the HIV-1 activity by approximately 97%, there was no inhibition of the HIV-1 activity by crude breast milk. Although the reason for this is not clear, it is likely that because the MUC1 in crude milk is enclosed by fat globules, there may not be any physical contact between the mucin and the virus in the crude breast milk. Thus, there is a need to free the mucin from the fat globules for it to be effective against the virus. PMID:17878743

  8. Statins Activate Human PPAR Promoter and Increase PPAR mRNA Expression and Activation in HepG2 Cells

    Makoto Seo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR mRNA expression, but the mechanism of this increased PPAR production remains elusive. To examine the regulation of PPAR production, we examined the effect of 7 statins (atorvastatin, cerivastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin on human PPAR promoter activity, mRNA expression, nuclear protein levels, and transcriptional activity. The main results are as follows. (1 Majority of statins enhanced PPAR promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells transfected with the human PPAR promoter. This enhancement may be mediated by statin-induced HNF-4. (2 PPAR mRNA expression was increased by statin treatment. (3 The PPAR levels in nuclear fractions were increased by statin treatment. (4 Simvastatin, pravastatin, and cerivastatin markedly enhanced transcriptional activity in 293T cells cotransfected with acyl-coenzyme A oxidase promoter and PPAR/RXR expression vectors. In summary, these data demonstrate that PPAR production and activation are upregulated through the PPAR promoter activity by statin treatment.

  9. Effect of nutritional status on human paraoxonase-1 activity in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Sztanek Ferenc (1982-) (orvos); Seres Ildikó (1954-) (biokémikus); Harangi Mariann (1974-) (belgyógyász, endokrinológus); Lőcsey Lajos (1946-2013) (belgyógyász, nephrológus); Koncsos Péter (1982-) (belgyógyász); Paragh György (1953-) (belgyógyász, kardiológus, endokrinológus, lipidológus, sürgősségi orvostani szakorvos, belgyógyászati angiológiai minősített orvos)

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods: The association between nutritional status, antioxidant human paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and low grade inflammation in hemodialized (HD) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine PON1 paraoxonase and lactonase activities, ADMA, adiponectin and leptin concentrations, and to clarify the relationship between paraoxonase activity and a set of cardiovascular risk factors in malnourished, normal weight and obese HD patie...

  10. Global maps of climate change impacts on the favourability for human habitation and economic activity

    Füssel, Hans-Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the statistical relationship between climatic factors and the global distribution of population and economic activity. Building on this analysis, a new method is developed for assessing geographically explicit impacts of climate change on the suitability of regions for human habitation and economic activity. This method combines information about differences in the conditional distributions of population density and economic activity across climate categories with climate ...

  11. A Compositional Look at the Human Gastrointestinal Microbiome and Immune Activation Parameters in HIV Infected Subjects

    Mutlu, Ece A.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Losurdo, John; Swanson, Garth; Siewe, Basile; Forsyth, Christopher; French, Audrey; DeMarais, Patricia; Sun, Yan; Koenig, Lars; Cox, Stephen; Engen, Phillip; Chakradeo, Prachi; Abbasi, Rawan; Gorenz, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Author Summary Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection related illness progresses despite the control of the virus itself by medications that stop the replication of the virus. This happens because the immune system gets activated. While the causes for such activation of the immune system are not exactly known, immune activation in HIV infection may be occurring as a result of bacteria or their products in the digestive tract. This study looks at the types of bacteria that reside in the ...

  12. Differential Effects of Tacrolimus versus Sirolimus on the Proliferation, Activation and Differentiation of Human B Cells

    Traitanon, Opas; Mathew, James M.; La Monica, Giovanna; Xu, Luting; Mas, Valeria; Gallon, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The direct effect of immunosuppressive drugs calcineurin inhibitor (Tacrolimus, TAC) and mTOR inhibitor (Sirolimus, SRL) on B cell activation, differentiation and proliferation is not well documented. Purified human B cells from healthy volunteers were stimulated through the B Cell Receptor with Anti-IgM + anti-CD40 + IL21 in the absence / presence of TAC or SRL. A variety of parameters of B cell activity including activation, differentiation, cytokine productions and proliferation were monit...

  13. IN VITRO INHIBITION OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN RED BLOOD CELLS BY CADMIUM AND LEAD

    Abdollahi, M.; M. Biukabadi M. A. Ebrahimzadeh

    1998-01-01

    The effects of cadmium and lead on human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity were studied. Blood used in this study was obtained from 24 healthy individuals, then after hemolysation, treated with 3 various concentrations of cadmium and lead. A strong inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was noted in treated samples by cadmium and lead. The remaining activity In the case of lead, the remaining activity was found to be 81% with the highest concentration , S7% with the middle and 94% with th...

  14. Effects of Detergents on Catalytic Activity of Human Endometase/Matrilysin-2, a Putative Cancer Biomarker†

    Park, Hyun I.; Lee, Seakwoo; Ullah, Asad; Cao, Qiang; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of hydrolytic enzymes that play significant roles in development, morphogenesis, inflammation, and cancer invasion. Endometase (matrilysin 2 or MMP-26) is a putative early biomarker for human carcinomas. The effects of the ionic and nonionic detergents on catalytic activity of endometase were investigated. The hydrolytic activity of endometase was detergent concentration-dependent exhibiting a bell-shaped curve with its maximum activity near the c...

  15. Enhancement of Candida albicans killing activity of separated human epidermal cells by ultraviolet radiation

    Ultraviolet irradiation enhanced the Candida albicans killing activity of freshly separated human epidermal cells in vitro. The simulation was dose-dependent and was not due to soluble extracellular factors acting on non-irradiated epidermal cells. The enhancement of the killing activity remained unchanged when epidermal cells were depleted of Langerhans cells. Protein synthesis inhibitors and prostaglandin antagonists inhibited the ultraviolet-induced augmentation of killing activity. (author)

  16. Comparison of fusion methods based on DST and DBN in human activity recognition

    2011-01-01

    Ambient assistive living environments require sophisticated information fusion and reasoning techniques to accurately identify activities of a person under care. In this paper, we explain, compare and discuss the application of two powerful fusion methods, namely dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN) and Dempster-Shafer theory (DST), for human activity recognition. Both methods are described, the implementation of activity recognition based on these methods is explained, and model acquisition and composition are ...

  17. Expression, processing and transcriptional regulation of granulysin in short-term activated human lymphocytes

    Groscurth Peter; Dumrese Claudia; Sundstrom Hanna; Walch Michael; Latinovic-Golic Sonja; Ziegler Urs

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Granulysin, a cytotoxic protein expressed in human natural killer cells and activated T lymphocytes, exhibits cytolytic activity against a variety of intracellular microbes. Expression and transcription have been partially characterised in vitro and four transcripts (NKG5, 519, 520, and 522) were identified. However, only a single protein product of 15 kDa was found, which is subsequently processed to an active 9 kDa protein. Results In this study we investigated generatio...

  18. Differential effects of dimethylsulfoxide on the activities of human DNA polymerases alpha and delta.

    Lee, M Y; Toomey, N L

    1986-01-01

    The effects of dimethylsulfoxide on the activities of purified human placental DNA polymerase alpha and DNA polymerase delta were examined. DNA polymerase alpha was inhibited by dimethylsulfoxide, whereas DNA polymerase delta was significantly activated, by as much as 6-fold. Kinetic data show that the effect of dimethylsulfoxide on DNA polymerase delta activity was due to a reduction in the apparent Km for its substrate, dTTP. This novel finding of the differential effects of dimethylsulfoxi...

  19. Assessing human mirror activity with EEG mu rhythm: A meta-analysis.

    Fox, Nathan A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Yoo, Kathryn H; Bowman, Lindsay C; Cannon, Erin N; Vanderwert, Ross E; Ferrari, Pier F; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2016-03-01

    A fundamental issue in cognitive neuroscience is how the brain encodes others' actions and intentions. In recent years, a potential advance in our knowledge on this issue is the discovery of mirror neurons in the motor cortex of the nonhuman primate. These neurons fire to both execution and observation of specific types of actions. Researchers use this evidence to fuel investigations of a human mirror system, suggesting a common neural code for perceptual and motor processes. Among the methods used for inferring mirror system activity in humans are changes in a particular frequency band in the electroencephalogram (EEG) called the mu rhythm. Mu frequency appears to decrease in amplitude (reflecting cortical activity) during both action execution and action observation. The current meta-analysis reviewed 85 studies (1,707 participants) of mu that infer human mirror system activity. Results demonstrated significant effect sizes for mu during execution (Cohen's d = 0.46, N = 701) as well as observation of action (Cohen's d = 0.31, N = 1,508), confirming a mirroring property in the EEG. A number of moderators were examined to determine the specificity of these effects. We frame these meta-analytic findings within the current discussion about the development and functions of a human mirror system, and conclude that changes in EEG mu activity provide a valid means for the study of human neural mirroring. Suggestions for improving the experimental and methodological approaches in using mu to study the human mirror system are offered. PMID:26689088

  20. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antimicrobial Activity against Some Human Pathogenic Strains

    Parisa Shokryazdan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits.

  1. In vitro antiproliferative activity of Annona reticulata roots on human cancer cell lines

    H M Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The phytochemical and pharmacological activities of Annona reticulata components suggest a wide range of clinical application in lieu of cancer chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Ethanol and aqueous extracts of roots of Annona reticulata Linn were studied for their in vitro antiproliferative activity on A-549 (human lung carcinoma, K-562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia bone marrow, HeLa (human cervix and MDA-MB (human adenocarcinoma mammary gland cancer cell lines by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] colorimetric assay. Results: The ethanol extract exhibited a prominent inhibitory effect against A-549, K-562, HeLa and MDA-MB human cancer cell lines at a concentration range between 10 and 40 μg/ml, whereas the aqueous extract showed a lower activity at the same concentration. Simultaneously, the effect of the ethanol extract toward the inhibition of Vero cell line proliferation was lower in comparison with the cancer cell lines. Conclusion: The significant antiproliferative activity of the ethanol extract of Annona reticulata roots against A-549, K-562, HeLa and MDA-MB human cancer cell lines may be attributed toward the collective presence of acetogenins, alkaloids and lower inhibitory effect on Vero cell line, which suggests Annona reticulata be used as a chemopreventive agent in cancer therapy.

  2. Serum inflammatory mediators as markers of human Lyme disease activity.

    Mark J Soloski

    Full Text Available Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005 in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG, CXCL10 (IP-10 and CCL19 (MIP3B were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively. There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01 and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375. The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.

  3. Studying the Anti-aging Effect of Human Growth Hormone on Human Fibroblast Cells via Telomerase Activity

    Nader Chaparzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In recent years, studies have focused on the telomerase for cancer treatmentby repressing telomerase in cancerous cells or prevent cell aging by activating it in theaged cells. Thus, in these studies natural and synthetic agents have been used to repressor activate telomerase. In this research, we investigated the effects of human growth hormone(hGH on aging via evaluation of telomerase activity.Materials and Methods: Primary human foreskin fibroblast cells were isolated, culturedand treated with different concentrations of hGH. BrdU and MTT cell proliferation assaysand cells number counting. Cell aging was assayed by the senescence sensitivegalactosidase staining method. Telomerase activity was measured with a telomerasePCR ELISA kit.Data were analyzed with SPSS software (one-way ANOVA and univariateANOVA.Results: Our results indicated that cells treated with a lower concentration (0.1, 1 ng/mlof hGH had more green color cells (aged cells. Furthermore, cell proliferation increasedwith increasing hGH concentrations (10 to 100 ng/ml which was significant in comparisonwith untreated control cells. TRAP assay results indicated that telomerase activityincreased with increasing hGH concentration, but there was no significant difference. Additionally,more rapid cell growth and telomerase activity was noted in the absence of H2O2when compared with the presence of H2O2, which was significantly different.Conclusion: Although increasing cell proliferation along with increasing hGH concentrationwas confirmed by all cell proliferation assays, only the cell counting test was statisticallysignificant. Thus, it is inconclusive that hGH (up to 100 ng/ml has an anti-agingeffect. Also, because there was no significant difference in the telomerase activity results(in spite of increasing progress along with increasing hGH concentration we can not certainlyconclude that hGH (up to 100 ng/ml impacts telomerase activity.

  4. a Three-Step Spatial-Temporal Clustering Method for Human Activity Pattern Analysis

    Huang, W.; Li, S.; Xu, S.

    2016-06-01

    How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time) to four dimensions (space, time and semantics). More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people "say" for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The results show that the

  5. The effect of human activities and their associated noise on ungulate behavior.

    Casey L Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of anthropogenic noise on terrestrial wildlife is a relatively new area of study with broad ranging management implications. Noise has been identified as a disturbance that has the potential to induce behavioral responses in animals similar to those associated with predation risk. This study investigated potential impacts of a variety of human activities and their associated noise on the behavior of elk (Cervus elaphus and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana along a transportation corridor in Grand Teton National Park. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted roadside scan surveys and focal observations of ungulate behavior while concurrently recording human activity and anthropogenic noise. Although we expected ungulates to be more responsive with greater human activity and noise, as predicted by the risk disturbance hypothesis, they were actually less responsive (less likely to perform vigilant, flight, traveling and defensive behaviors with increasing levels of vehicle traffic, the human activity most closely associated with noise. Noise levels themselves had relatively little effect on ungulate behavior, although there was a weak negative relationship between noise and responsiveness in our scan samples. In contrast, ungulates did increase their responsiveness with other forms of anthropogenic disturbance; they reacted to the presence of pedestrians (in our scan samples and to passing motorcycles (in our focal observations. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that ungulates did not consistently associate noise and human activity with an increase in predation risk or that they could not afford to maintain responsiveness to the most frequent human stimuli. Although reduced responsiveness to certain disturbances may allow for greater investment in fitness-enhancing activities, it may also decrease detections of predators and other environmental cues and increase conflict with humans.

  6. Arylesterase Phenotype-Specific Positive Association Between Arylesterase Activity and Cholinesterase Specific Activity in Human Serum

    Yutaka Aoki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cholinesterase (ChE specific activity is the ratio of ChE activity to ChE mass and, as a biomarker of exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors, has a potential advantage over simple ChE activity. Objective: To examine the association of several potential correlates (serum arylesterase/paraoxonase activity, serum albumin, sex, age, month of blood collection, and smoking with plasma ChE specific activity. Methods: We analyzed data from 195 cancer-free controls from a nested case-control study, accounting for potential confounding. Results: Arylesterase activity had an independent, statistically significant positive association with ChE specific activity, and its magnitude was the greatest for the arylesterase phenotype corresponding to the QQ PON1192 genotype followed by phenotypes corresponding to QR and RR genotypes. Serum albumin was positively associated with ChE specific activity. Conclusions: Plasma arylesterase activity was positively associated with plasma ChE specific activity. This observation is consistent with protection conferred by a metabolic phenotype resulting in reduced internal dose.

  7. Impacts of human activity modes and climate on heavy metal "spread" in groundwater are biased.

    Chen, Ming; Qin, Xiaosheng; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater quality deterioration has attracted world-wide concerns due to its importance for human water supply. Although more and more studies have shown that human activities and climate are changing the groundwater status, an investigation on how different groundwater heavy metals respond to human activity modes (e.g. mining, waste disposal, agriculture, sewage effluent and complex activity) in a varying climate has been lacking. Here, for each of six heavy metals (i.e. Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd and Cu) in groundwater, we use >330 data points together with mixed-effect models to indicate that (i) human activity modes significantly influence the Cu and Mn but not Zn, Fe, Pb and Cd levels, and (ii) annual mean temperature (AMT) only significantly influences Cu and Pb levels, while annual precipitation (AP) only significantly affects Fe, Cu and Mn levels. Given these differences, we suggest that the impacts of human activity modes and climate on heavy metal "spread" in groundwater are biased. PMID:27003366

  8. The 2001 activities and the 3rd workshop of the human resources development project in FNCA

    In 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), organized by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project are two kinds of activity; In-workshop activity and Outside-of-workshop activity. The 3rd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on October 29 to November 1, at the Nuclear Training Center of KAERI. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The secretariat for the Human Resources Development Project is provided by the Nuclear Training Center of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Nuclear Technology and Education Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report consists of presentation papers and materials at the Workshop as In-Workshop Activity, a document of project review on Human Resources Development for the fourth Coordinators Meeting of FNCA at Tokyo on March, 2002, a letter of proposal from the Project Leader of Japan to the project leaders of the participating countries, and training materials of participating countries as Outside-Workshop Activity. (author)

  9. Human TLR8 is activated upon recognition of Borrelia burgdorferi RNA in the phagosome of human monocytes

    Cervantes, Jorge L.; La Vake, Carson J.; Weinerman, Bennett; Luu, Stephanie; O'Connell, Caitlin; Verardi, Paulo H.; Salazar, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosed Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease spirochete, induces a robust and complex innate immune response in human monocytes, in which TLR8 cooperates with TLR2 in the induction of NF-κB-mediated cytokine production, whereas TLR8 is solely responsible for transcription of IFN-β through IRF7. We now establish the role of Bb RNA in TLR8-mediated induction of IFN-β. First, using TLR2-transfected HEK.293 cells, which were unable to phagocytose intact Bb, we observed TLR2 activation by lipoprotein-rich borrelial lysates and TLR2 synthetic ligands but not in response to live spirochetes. Purified Bb RNA, but not borrelial DNA, triggered TLR8 activation. Neither of these 2 ligands induced activation of TLR7. Using purified human monocytes we then show that phagocytosed live Bb, as well as equivalent amounts of borrelial RNA delivered into the phagosome by polyethylenimine (PEI), induces transcription of IFN-β and secretion of TNF-α. The cytokine response to purified Bb RNA was markedly impaired in human monocytes naturally deficient in IRAK-4 and in cells with knockdown TLR8 expression by small interfering RNA. Using confocal microscopy we provide evidence that TLR8 colocalizes with internalized Bb RNA in both early (EEA1) and late endosomes (LAMP1). Live bacterial RNA staining indicates that spirochetal RNA does not transfer from the phagosome into the cytosol. Using fluorescent dextran particles we show that phagosomal integrity in Bb-infected monocytes is not affected. We demonstrate, for the first time, that Bb RNA is a TLR8 ligand in human monocytes and that transcription of IFN-β in response to the spirochete is induced from within the phagosomal vacuole through the TLR8-MyD88 pathway. PMID:23906644

  10. Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus

    Davis, M.G.; Kenney, S.C.; Kamine, J.; Pagano, J.S.; Huang, E.S.

    1987-12-01

    Almost all homosexual patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are also actively infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The authors have hypothesized that an interaction between HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may exist at a molecular level and contribute to the manifestations of HIV infection. In this report, they demonstrate that the immediate-early gene region of HCMV, in particular immediate-early region 2, trans-activates the expression of the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase that is fused to the HIV long terminal repeat and carried by plasmid pHIV-CAT. The HCMV immediate-early trans-activator increases the level of mRNA from the plamid pHIV-CAT. The sequences of HIV that are responsive to trans-activation by the HDMV immediate-early region are distinct from HIV sequences that are required for response to the HIV tat. The stimulation of HIV gene expression by HDMV gene functions could enhance the consequences of HIV infection in persons with previous or concurrent HCMV infection.

  11. Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus

    Almost all homosexual patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are also actively infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The authors have hypothesized that an interaction between HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may exist at a molecular level and contribute to the manifestations of HIV infection. In this report, they demonstrate that the immediate-early gene region of HCMV, in particular immediate-early region 2, trans-activates the expression of the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase that is fused to the HIV long terminal repeat and carried by plasmid pHIV-CAT. The HCMV immediate-early trans-activator increases the level of mRNA from the plamid pHIV-CAT. The sequences of HIV that are responsive to trans-activation by the HDMV immediate-early region are distinct from HIV sequences that are required for response to the HIV tat. The stimulation of HIV gene expression by HDMV gene functions could enhance the consequences of HIV infection in persons with previous or concurrent HCMV infection

  12. Involvement of protease activation in modulating radiation-sensitivity of human cells

    Molecular mechanisms that supervise radiation-susceptibility of human cells are one of the important problems in molecular biology. We previously hypothesized that proteases may play a key role in cellular functions triggered by radiation as well as those in SOS functions of E. coli. We describe proteases activity induced immediately after UV (254-nm wavelength ultraviolet ray) and X-ray irradiation of cultured human cells. The activity was estimated by reaction in vitro, using enzyme preparations of cell lysates and 125I-fibrin as a substrate in the presence of plasminogen. Based on the previous findings that the activity of UV-induced proteases is specifically inhibited by antipain and enhanced by interferons, partial purification was performed, revealing a single activity peak of approximate 20 kDa on gel filtration chromatography. This activity seemed to be involved in the radio-resistance of cells against UV, because the activation correlated with increased resistance of cells to UV cell-killing. Moreover, the activation was also observed in association with hypomutable change of cells mutagenized with ethylmethanesulfonate and cells pretreated with human interferons prior to UV irradiation, when UV-induced mutagenicity was estimated by detection of K-ras codon 12 mutations. However, human RSa cells, with high sensitivity to cell-killing and mutagenicity of X-ray, showed increased levels of proteases activity immediately after X-ray irradiation. Therefore, it seems likely that proteases are activated by different ionizing or non-ionizing radiation, and that the proteases may play radio -sensitive or -protective roles in human cells. (author)

  13. MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE ENTERPRISE AS MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE HUMAN: SEARCH ANALYSIS

    Ruslan Flerovich Vildanov; Aidar Sultangalievich Puryaev

    2014-01-01

    Actualized demand of manufactury company's efficiency from the point of quality charachteristics. Reveal unbreakable connection of man and organisation, on example of the comparative analysis of man's and manufacture company's activities. Studing models of company's and men's activities in order to reveal similarity. In order of their implementation to the economics assumes opportunity of using scientific methods, which use for studying functions, vital activities and behavior of the men.

  14. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects

    KlaasRWesterterp

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure, in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, total energy expenditure is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. T...

  15. Response of ESV to Climate Change and Human Activities in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Rusuli, Yusufujiang; Sidik, Halida; Gupur, Adila; Hong, Jiang; Kadir, Rayila

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem goods and services refer to the dependence of economic wealth and human well-being on natural systems. It is a common knowledge that the changing of structure and function of the ecosystem due to climate change and human activities. It is a priority issue to study on various spatiotemporal scales, the sensitivity of ecosystems to climate change and anthropogenic pressure in inland areas. In an effort to better understand the influence of climate change and human activities on ecosystem services, we evaluated the change in ESV of the Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang, China from 1973 to 2014 employing methods of MK, MK Sneyers, ESV and dynamic degree of LUCC. The Landsat images, digital elevation model (DEM) and metrological data were applied to assessing the ESV and its change. According to the degree of effects of the climate change and human activities, the research area was divided into two parts: the mountain area and the plain oasis area at a contour of 1400 m above sea level. According to type and affect, the land cover was classified as water, wetland, desert, fields, glacier, warm shrub grassland, cold meadow steppe and highland vegetation. We analyzed the relationship between the variation of ESV and precipitation, and evaporation and then quantitatively differentiated the influence of climate change and human activities on ESV. Results show that: (1) distinct change points of precipitation and evaporation in mountain and plain oasis of the Yanqi basin were detected by the MK-Sneyers test. The precipitation increased and the evaporation declined in mountain and plain oasis in the same way. Enlargement of agricultural areas to accommodate an increased population and socio-economic development was detected by conversion matrix of LUCC in oasis area. As a result, the variation of ESV was caused by climate change and human activities jointly; (2) the declining trend of ESV in the mountain area was mainly caused by shrinking of the glacier area; (3) ESV was

  16. Evaluation of perfluoroalkyl acid activity using primary mouse and human hepatocytes

    While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is known about the biological activity of other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) detected in the environment. Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-1 cells, our group has previously evaluated a variety of PFAAs for activity associated with activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Here we use primary heptatocytes to further assess the biological activity of a similar group of PFAAs using custom designed Taqman Low Density Arrays. Primary mouse and human hepatoyctes were cultured for 48 h in the presence of varying concentrations of 12 different PFAAs or Wy14,643, a known activator of PPARα. Total RNA was collected and the expression of 48 mouse or human genes evaluated. Gene selection was based on either in-house liver microarray data (mouse) or published data using primary hepatocytes (human). Gene expression in primary mouse hepatocytes was more restricted than expected. Genes typically regulated in whole tissue by PPARα agonists were not altered in mouse cells including Acox1, Me1, Acaa1a, Hmgcs1, and Slc27a1. Cyp2b10, a gene regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor and a transcript normally up-regulated by in vivo exposure to PFAAs, was also unchanged in cultured mouse hepatocytes. Cyp4a14, Ehhadh, Pdk4, Cpt1b, and Fabp1 were regulated as expected in mouse cells. A larger group of genes were differentially expressed in human primary hepatocytes, however, little consistency was observed across compounds with respect to which genes produced a significant dose response making the determination of relative biological activity difficult. This likely reflects weaker activation of PPARα in human versus rodent cells as well as variation among individual cell donors. Unlike mouse cells, CYP2B6 was up-regulated in human hepatocytes by a number of PFAAs as was PPARδ. Rankings were conducted on the limited

  17. Glutathione peroxidase activity in cell cultures from differentregions of human epididymis

    Enrique Castellón; Hernán Rioseco; Juan Rojas; Michel Royer; Eduardo Salas; Héctor Contreras; Christian Huidobro

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the secretory activity and androgen regulation of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in epithelial cell cultures from human epididymis. Methods: Tissue was obtained from patients undergoing therapeutic orchidectomy for prostatic cancer. Epithelial cell cultures were obtained from the caput, corpus and cauda epididymides. Enzymatic activity was measured in conditioned media by colorimetric methods in absence or presence of 1, 10 or 100 nmol.L-1from corpus and cauda than caput epididymidis. The presence of different concentrations of testosterone increase enzyme activity in cell cultures from all epididymal regions. Addition of flutamide reverses the androgen dependent increase of GPx activity. Conclusion: GPx activity is secreted from human epididymal cells in a region dependent manner and is regulated by androgens.

  18. Multi-Agent System for Managing Human Activities in Space Operations

    Schrenkenghost, Debra; Bonasso, R. Peter

    2006-01-01

    In manned space operations today, the astronauts' activity schedules are preplanned and adjusted daily on Earth. We have developed the Distributed Collaboration and Interaction (DCI) multi-agent system to investigate automating aspects of human activity management. The DCI System assists (1) plan generation, (2) human activity tracking, (3) plan revision, and (4) mixed initiative interaction with the plan. We have deployed and evaluated the DCI system at JSC to assist control engineers in managing anomaly handling activities for automated life support systems. DCI operated round the clock for 20 months in the Water Research Facility at JSC. Using this software, we reduced anomaly response time by engineers from up to 10 hours in previous tests to under an hour. Based on this evaluation, we conclude that agent assistance for schedule management has potential to improve astronaut activity awareness and reduce response time in situations where crew are interrupted to handle anomalies.

  19. Physical activity is associated with retained muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with palmitate

    Green, C J; Bunprajun, T; Pedersen, B K;

    2013-01-01

    in satellite cells challenged with palmitate. Although the benefits of physical activity on whole body physiology have been well investigated, this paper presents novel findings that both diet and exercise impact satellite cells directly. Given the fact that satellite cells are important for muscle......  The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity is associated with preserved muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with saturated fatty acids. Human muscle satellite cells were isolated from sedentary or active individuals and differentiated into myocytes in culture...... and correlated positively to JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, muscle satellite cells retain metabolic differences associated with physical activity. Physical activity partially protects myocytes from fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and inactivity is associated with dysregulation of metabolism...

  20. Human eosinophil innate response to Alternaria fungus through protease-activated receptor-2.

    Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Wada, Kota; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Kita, Hirohito

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. An association between eosinophilic inflammation and infection or colonization by fungi has also been long recognized. However, the mechanisms underlying how eosinophils are activated and how they release proinflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators such as major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin remain largely unknown. We used a fungus, i.e. Alternaria, as a model microbe relevant to human asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the immune recognition of ubiquitous environmental allergens. Human eosinophils are activated by live Alternaria alternata organisms, release their granule proteins, and kill the fungi. Eosinophils, but not neutrophils, respond to secreted products from A. alternata. We found that eosinophils are equipped with innate cellular activation machinery that responds to an extracellular aspartate protease secreted by Alternaria. Aspartate protease activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 probably involves a novel mechanism different from that for serine protease activation of PAR-2. Thus, human eosinophils may recognize certain danger signals or virulence factors produced by fungi and provoke inflammatory responses against these organisms. Dysregulation of such an innate immune mechanism may be involved in the pathophysiology of certain human inflammatory diseases, including asthma and CRS. PMID:21646807

  1. Benzo(a)pyrene activation and detoxification by human pulmonary alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes

    Comparisons of pulmonary alveolar macrophages and circulating lymphocytes from five smokers and five nonsmokers for their ability to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography were carried out. Utilizing this approach, further investigation of activation and detoxification by several human cell types could provide the basis for more precise and comprehensive studies of carcinogen and drug metabolism in the human lung, and for a better assessment of cancer risk in selected populations

  2. C-reactive protein increases plasminogen activator inhibitor–1 expression in human endothelial cells

    Chen, Changyi; Nan, Bicheng; Lin, Peter; Yao, Qizhi

    2007-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker which predicts cardiovascular disease. However, it is not fully understood whether CRP has direct effects on endothelial functions and gene expression. The purpose of current study was to determine the effects and molecular mechanisms of CRP on the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in human endothelial cells. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) were treated with CRP at clinically relevant concentrations for d...

  3. Establishment of human T cell clones exhibiting natural killer-like activity

    Alam, Shahabuddin; Katakura, Yoshinori; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    1999-01-01

    We have succeeded in establishing a method to reproducibly immortalize human T cells by oncogene(s) transfection (Alam, 1997). This study was based on our previous discoveries that these immortalized T cell lines contained T cells which showed cytotoxicity against K562 cells in MHC-nonrestricted manner. Then we attempted to obtain human T cell clones exhibiting natural killer-like activity. Here, we tried to establish clones from these immortalized T cell lines by limiting dilution after stim...

  4. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    Ying Liu; Yasushi Fukuwatari; Ko Okumura; Kazuyoshi Takeda; Ken-ichi Ishibashi; Mai Furukawa; Naohito Ohno; Kazu Mori; Ming Gao; Masuro Motoi

    2008-01-01

    We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei). Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Take...

  5. Influences of human activities on seabird populations in the North Sea

    Tasker, M.L.; Becker, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the North Sea's seabird resource, which is of great international importance. It reviews the significance of human activities on seabirds; these are persecution, fishing, eutrophication, chemical pollution, introduction of alien predators, rising sea level, and oil pollution. The paper speculates on future trends. Some suggestions to reduce human pressures, to use seabirds as monitors of the marine environment and to conserve their populations more effectively are made.

  6. Determination of fluoride in human nails via cyclic instrumental neutron activation analysis

    The role of fluorine in human health has become somewhat controversial. It is widely accepted as protective against dental caries, may be protective against osteoporosis, and has been very conservatively implicated with osteosarcoma in male rats. The develepment of a neutron activation analysis method and its application to the analysis of human nails is reported. It has been found that toenails collected in population-based epidemiology studies apparently reflect fluoride intake. (author) 11 refs.; 2 tabs

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Broad and Ultrapotent Human Monoclonal Antibodies with Therapeutic Activity against Chikungunya Virus.

    Smith, Scott A; Silva, Laurie A; Fox, Julie M; Flyak, Andrew I; Kose, Nurgun; Sapparapu, Gopal; Khomandiak, Solomiia; Khomadiak, Solomiia; Ashbrook, Alison W; Kahle, Kristen M; Fong, Rachel H; Swayne, Sherri; Doranz, Benjamin J; McGee, Charles E; Heise, Mark T; Pal, Pankaj; Brien, James D; Austin, S Kyle; Diamond, Michael S; Dermody, Terence S; Crowe, James E

    2015-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted RNA virus that causes acute febrile infection associated with polyarthralgia in humans. Mechanisms of protective immunity against CHIKV are poorly understood, and no effective therapeutics or vaccines are available. We isolated and characterized human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize CHIKV infectivity. Among the 30 mAbs isolated, 13 had broad and ultrapotent neutralizing activity (IC50 vaccine development. PMID:26159721

  8. Induction of procoagulant activity on human endothelial cells by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Geelen, S; Bhattacharyya, C; Tuomanen, E

    1992-01-01

    The inflammatory response in infection caused by gram-negative organisms involves induction of procoagulant activity (PCA) on human endothelial cells. Although infections caused by gram-positive organisms are also associated with fibrin formation and thrombosis, the bacterial determinants inducing PCA are unknown. This study shows that intact pneumococci and the pneumococcal cell wall efficiently induce PCA on human endothelial cells. Upon exposure of endothelial cells to pneumococci, PCA was...

  9. Murine eosinophil differentiation factor. An eosinophil-specific colony- stimulating factor with activity for human cells

    1986-01-01

    A purified murine lymphokine, eosinophil differentiation factor (EDF), was found to be a selective stimulus for the clonal proliferation and differentiation of murine eosinophil progenitor cells, establishing it as the murine eosinophil colony-stimulating factor (Eo-CSF). EDF was also active on human eosinophil progenitors and mature blood eosinophils, but had no effect on neutrophil or macrophage precursor cells, nor on blood neutrophils. In culture of human bone marrow cells, EDF stimulated...

  10. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 3 Controls Neural Stem Cell Activation in Mice and Humans

    Jinah Han

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs continuously produce new neurons within the adult mammalian hippocampus. NSCs are typically quiescent but activated to self-renew or differentiate into neural progenitor cells. The molecular mechanisms of NSC activation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that adult hippocampal NSCs express vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR 3 and its ligand VEGF-C, which activates quiescent NSCs to enter the cell cycle and generate progenitor cells. Hippocampal NSC activation and neurogenesis are impaired by conditional deletion of Vegfr3 in NSCs. Functionally, this is associated with compromised NSC activation in response to VEGF-C and physical activity. In NSCs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, VEGF-C/VEGFR3 mediates intracellular activation of AKT and ERK pathways that control cell fate and proliferation. These findings identify VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling as a specific regulator of NSC activation and neurogenesis in mammals.

  11. Assessment of physical activity of the human body considering the thermodynamic system.

    Hochstein, Stefan; Rauschenberger, Philipp; Weigand, Bernhard; Siebert, Tobias; Schmitt, Syn; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2016-07-01

    Correctly dosed physical activity is the basis of a vital and healthy life, but the measurement of physical activity is certainly rather empirical resulting in limited individual and custom activity recommendations. Certainly, very accurate three-dimensional models of the cardiovascular system exist, however, requiring the numeric solution of the Navier-Stokes equations of the flow in blood vessels. These models are suitable for the research of cardiac diseases, but computationally very expensive. Direct measurements are expensive and often not applicable outside laboratories. This paper offers a new approach to assess physical activity using thermodynamical systems and its leading quantity of entropy production which is a compromise between computation time and precise prediction of pressure, volume, and flow variables in blood vessels. Based on a simplified (one-dimensional) model of the cardiovascular system of the human body, we develop and evaluate a setup calculating entropy production of the heart to determine the intensity of human physical activity in a more precise way than previous parameters, e.g. frequently used energy considerations. The knowledge resulting from the precise real-time physical activity provides the basis for an intelligent human-technology interaction allowing to steadily adjust the degree of physical activity according to the actual individual performance level and thus to improve training and activity recommendations. PMID:26296149

  12. Vav3 oncogene activates estrogen receptor and its overexpression may be involved in human breast cancer

    Dong Zhongyun

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous study revealed that Vav3 oncogene is overexpressed in human prostate cancer, activates androgen receptor, and stimulates growth in prostate cancer cells. The current study is to determine a potential role of Vav3 oncogene in human breast cancer and impact on estrogen receptor a (ERα-mediated signaling axis. Methods Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed in 43 breast cancer specimens and western blot analysis was used for human breast cancer cell lines to determine the expression level of Vav3 protein. The impact of Vav3 on breast cancer cell growth was determined by siRNA knockdown of Vav3 expression. The role of Vav3 in ERα activation was examined in luciferase reporter assays. Deletion mutation analysis of Vav3 protein was performed to localize the functional domain involved in ERα activation. Finally, the interaction of Vav3 and ERα was assessed by GST pull-down analysis. Results We found that Vav3 was overexpressed in 81% of human breast cancer specimens, particularly in poorly differentiated lesions. Vav3 activated ERα partially via PI3K-Akt signaling and stimulated growth of breast cancer cells. Vav3 also potentiated EGF activity for cell growth and ERα activation in breast cancer cells. More interestingly, we found that Vav3 complexed with ERα. Consistent with its function for AR, the DH domain of Vav3 was essential for ERα activation. Conclusion Vav3 oncogene is overexpressed in human breast cancer. Vav3 complexes with ERα and enhances ERα activity. These findings suggest that Vav3 overexpression may aberrantly enhance ERα-mediated signaling axis and play a role in breast cancer development and/or progression.

  13. Vav3 oncogene activates estrogen receptor and its overexpression may be involved in human breast cancer

    Our previous study revealed that Vav3 oncogene is overexpressed in human prostate cancer, activates androgen receptor, and stimulates growth in prostate cancer cells. The current study is to determine a potential role of Vav3 oncogene in human breast cancer and impact on estrogen receptor a (ERα)-mediated signaling axis. Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed in 43 breast cancer specimens and western blot analysis was used for human breast cancer cell lines to determine the expression level of Vav3 protein. The impact of Vav3 on breast cancer cell growth was determined by siRNA knockdown of Vav3 expression. The role of Vav3 in ERα activation was examined in luciferase reporter assays. Deletion mutation analysis of Vav3 protein was performed to localize the functional domain involved in ERα activation. Finally, the interaction of Vav3 and ERα was assessed by GST pull-down analysis. We found that Vav3 was overexpressed in 81% of human breast cancer specimens, particularly in poorly differentiated lesions. Vav3 activated ERα partially via PI3K-Akt signaling and stimulated growth of breast cancer cells. Vav3 also potentiated EGF activity for cell growth and ERα activation in breast cancer cells. More interestingly, we found that Vav3 complexed with ERα. Consistent with its function for AR, the DH domain of Vav3 was essential for ERα activation. Vav3 oncogene is overexpressed in human breast cancer. Vav3 complexes with ERα and enhances ERα activity. These findings suggest that Vav3 overexpression may aberrantly enhance ERα-mediated signaling axis and play a role in breast cancer development and/or progression

  14. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI): Activity Status in 2012

    Ochiai, M; Haubold, H J; Doi, T

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) was launched by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) within the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. The Initiative aims at promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities, creating awareness among countries on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications, and building capacity in microgravity education and research. HSTI has conducted a series of outreach activities and expert meetings bringing together participants from around the world. HSTI will also be implementing science and educational activities in relevant areas to raise the capacities, particularly in developing countries, in pursuit of the development goals of the United Nations, thus contributing to promoting the peaceful uses of outer space.

  15. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil.

    Queiroz, R A; Soriano, E P; Carvalho, M V D; Caldas-Junior, A F; Souza, E H A; Coelho-Junior, L G T M; Campello, R I C; Almeida, A C; Farias, R C A P; Vasconcellos, A

    2016-07-25

    The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855) (on two skeletons), and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies. PMID:27463832

  16. Antagonistic activity of antibiotic producing Streptomyces sp. against fish and human pathogenic bacteria

    Nazmul Hossain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attempts were made to isolate Streptomyces sp. from soil samples of two different regions of Bangladesh and evaluate their antagonistic activity against fish and human pathogenic bacteria. A total of 10 isolates were identified as Streptomyces sp. based on several morphological, physiological and biochemical tests. Cross streak method was used to observe the antagonistic activity of the Streptomyces sp. isolates against different fish pathogens belonging to the genus Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Edwardsiella and human clinical isolates belonging to the genus Klebsiella, Salmonella and Streptococcus. Seven Streptomyces sp. isolates showed antagonism against both fish and human pathogenic bacteria. Four isolates viz., N24, N26, N28 and N47 showed broad spectrum of antagonistic activity (80-100% against all genera of fish and human pathogenic bacteria. The isolate N49 exhibited highest spectrum of antagonism against all fish pathogens (90-100% but comparatively lower degree of antagonism against human pathogens (50-60%. Rest of the two isolates (N21 and N23 showed variability in their antagonism. Results showed that broad spectrum antibiotic(s could be developed from the isolates N24, N26, N28 and N47against several human and fish pathogens. The isolate N49 could be a potential source of antibiotic, especially for fish pathogenic bacteria.

  17. Elemental analysis of human serum and serum protein fractions by thermal neutron activation

    Some applications of thermal neutron activation for the determination of elemental contents in human serum and human serum protein fractions are presented. Firstly total serum is dealt with, secondly serum protein fractions obtained by gel filtration are described. A brief review on the role of (trace) elements in human health and disease and a compilation of literature data for elemental contents in human serum, as obtained by neutron activation techniques, are given. The most important sources of statistical and systematic errors are evaluated. Results for the contents of sodium, potassium, magnesium, bromine, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, cesium and antimony in serum are given, with emphasis on control of accuracy and precision. The possible relation between selenium in blood and cancer occurrence in humans is discussed. The results of elemental analyses from cancer patients and from a patient receiving a cytostatic treatment are presented. A survey of literature results for the determination of protein-bound elemental contents in serum is presented. Subsequently, results from a study on the behaviour of elements during gel filtration are discussed. Gel-element and protein-element interactions are studied. Finally the protein-bound occurrence of trace elements in human serum is determined by gel filtration and neutron activation analysis. Results for both desalting and fractionation are given, for the elements bromine, copper, manganese, vanadium, selenium, zinc, rubidium, iron and iodine. (Auth.)

  18. Human movements and abstract motion displays activate different processes in the observer's motor system.

    Agosta, Sara; Battelli, Lorella; Casile, Antonino

    2016-04-15

    Brain imaging studies have shown that observation of both bodily movements and abstract motion displays complying with human kinematics activate the observer's motor cortex. However, it is unknown whether the same processes are active in the two conditions. Here, we addressed this issue using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to directly compare cortico-spinal excitability during observation of actions and motion stimuli that complied with or violated normal human kinematics. We found that kinematics significantly modulated the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) produced by TMS during observation of both human and abstract motion stimuli. However, only the temporal unfolding of cortico-spinal excitability during observation of human movements significantly correlated with instantaneous stimulus velocity. This correlation was present for normal movements and also for a subset of the movements having unnatural kinematics. Furthermore, bodily movements for which we found no correlation between MEPs and stimulus velocity produced significantly higher MEPs. Our novel results suggest a dissociation in how human movements and abstract motion displays engage the observer's motor system. Specifically, while both stimulus types significantly activate the observer's motor cortex, only bodily movements produce patterns of cortico-spinal excitability that closely follow the velocity profile of the observed movement. This internal "re-enactment" of observed bodily movements seems to be only partially attuned to normal human kinematics. PMID:26854559

  19. Active surveillance of Q fever in human and animal population of Cyprus

    Psaroulaki Anna

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A long-term active surveillance of Q fever was conducted in Cyprus organized in two phases. Methods Following serological tests and identification of seropositive humans and animals for C. burnetii in two villages (VIL1 and VIL2, all seronegative individuals were followed up for one year on a monthly basis by trained physicians to detect possible seroconversion for Q fever. In the second phase of the study, active surveillance for one year was conducted in the entire Cyprus. Physicians were following specific case definition criteria for Q fever. Standardized questionnaires, a geographical information system on a regional level, Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA examinations and shell vial technique were used. Results Eighty-one seronegative humans and 239 seronegative animals from both villages participated in the first phase surveillance period of Q fever. Despite the small number of confirmed clinical cases (2 humans and 1 goat, a significant percentage of new seropositives for C. burnetii (44.4% of human participants and 13.8% of animals was detected at the end of the year. During the second phase of surveillance, 82 humans, 100 goats, and 76 sheep were considered suspected cases of Q fever. However, only 9 human, 8 goat, and 4 sheep cases were serologically confirmed, while C. burnetii was isolated from three human and two animal samples. The human incidence rate was estimated at 1.2 per 100,000 population per year. Conclusion A small number of confirmed clinical cases of Q fever were observed despite the high seroprevalence for C. burnetii in human and animal population of Cyprus. Most of the cases in the local population of Cyprus appear to be subclinical. Moreover further studies should investigate the role of ticks in the epidemiology of Q fever and their relation to human seropositivity.

  20. Dexamethasone down-regulates, the activity of promoter from human al (Ⅱ) procollagen gene

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of dexamethasone on the promoter activity of human al(1) procollagen gene.Methods Fibroblasts from human skin were primary cultured and subcultured. (1) The effects of dexamethasone on the human skin fibroblasts were determined by BrdU incorporation into DNA of fibroblasts. (2) Three plasmids containing various engths of 5' flanksequence of human al(1) procollagen gene and CAT as reporter gene were constructed, and were transfected into the human skin fi-broblasts by FuGENE Transfecfion Reagent. The effects of dexamethasone on 3 plasmids were determined by CAT - ELlSA. Results (1)After 24h of treatment on the fibroblasts with 110-9 ~110-4mol/L examethasone in DMEM containing 2% or 10% FCS, BrdU in-corporation into DNA showed no difference ( P > 0.05) . (2) the 3 plasmids were transfected into fibroblasts and then treated with 110-5mol/L and 110-6mol/L dexamethasones for 24h, relative CAT values were different belwent dexamethasone and control,higher dexamethasone(110 -5mol/L} and lower examethasone(110 -6mol/L) ( P <0. 05) . ConcluSion Dexamethasone has noeffects on the proliferation of human skin fibroblasts, and it has negative effect on the promoter activity of human al(1) procollagengene, which is dose- dependent.

  1. Methodologic basis for the radioimmunoassay of endogenous LH-like activity in human prostatic tissue

    The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the radioimmunological determination of the activity of LH-like substances in the human prostate. The material comprised 19 specimens of prostatic tissue obtained during transbladder extirpation in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Tissues of human testes and human sceletal muscle were used as controls. The method adopted for LH extraction from the membrane fraction of human prostatic tissue appeared to be sufficiently specific, accurate and sensitive for routine laboratory investigations. The concentrations of the LH-like immunoreactivity in human testicular tissue was found to be 57, 46 and 70 mU per g of the membrane fraction while those of the prostatic gland tissues ranged from 34 to 155 mU per g of the membrane fraction. However such LH-like substance was not found in human sceletal muscle tissue. It seems that the LH-type activity is an indirect proof for the existence of LH receptors in the human prostate. (orig.)

  2. Activities of IAEA related to human interface in man-machine system

    The present paper outlines some activities of IAEA related to human interface in man-machine systems. It has been recognized for quite some time that in large and complex man-machine interactive systems human errors can contribute substantially to failures of these systems, and that the improvement in the human interface in man-machine systems is essential for the safety of the plant. Many important surveys have been made in some member countries. These studies and operational experience have shown that it is possible to substantially reduce this adverse impact of human errors in nuclear power plant operations by the application of human factors technology. This technology. This technology includes: (1) selection of people with the requisite skills and knowledge and providing them with job-relevant training, (2) maintenance of the necessary job qualifications for each person in the plant, (3) design of man-machine interfaces which are fully compatible with the capabilities and limitations of the people in the system, and (4) design of job operations, including written materials, to facilitate required quality of human performance. A review is made of education/training, operator support systems, human error data collection, analysis of safety significant events and future activities. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Intein-mediated Rapid Purification of Recombinant Human Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide

    Rong-jie YU; An HONG; Yun DAI; Yuan GAO

    2004-01-01

    In order to obtain the recombinant human PACAP efficiently by intein-mediated single column purification, a gene encoding human PACAP was synthesized and cloned into Escherichia coli expression vector pKYB. The recombinant vector pKY-PAC was transferred into E. coli ER2566 cells and the target protein was over-expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of a self-cleavable affinity tag. After the PACAPintein-CBD fusion protein was purified by chitin-affinity chromatography, the self-cleavage activity of the intein was induced by DTT and the rhPACAP was released from the chitin-bound intein tag. The activity of the rhPACAP to stimulate cyclic AMP accumulation was detected using the human pancreas carcinoma cells SW1990. Twenty-two milligrams of rhPACAP with the purity over 98% was obtained by single column purification from 1 liter of induced culture. The preliminary biological assay indicated that the rhPACAP, which has an extra Met at its N-terminus compared with the native human PACAP, had the similar activity of stimulating cAMP accumulation with the standard PACAP38 in the SW1990 cells. A new efficient production procedure of the active recombinant human PACAP was established.

  4. Human activity response and prevention strategies on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province

    FANG; Yiping; CHEN; Guojie

    2003-01-01

    Ten major factors have been selected to judge the degree of disturbance from human activity and the corresponding relationship of the impact on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province. Correlation analysis has demonstrated that stock-carrying capacity, percentage of land reclamation, population density, GDP per capita, mineral modulus and percentage of forest coverage are the 6 most relevant human activity factors. The analysis on the degree of disturbance has shown that population pressure, excessive or unreasonable activities in development of resources and destructive behavior of humans are the main causes of soil and water loss. Consequently, solving the various problems in the negative activity of humans and regulating human behavior are the first tasks that should be tackled in the conservation of water and soil. In the new era, the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss are measures based on the foundation of the ecosystem, which is a kind of management strategy for sustainable development. The foundation of this method is made up of the system innovations and breakthroughs in terms of aims, philosophy, measures, and aspects of the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss, simultaneous advance from the conceptual, policy, spatial, technical and mode levels and system integration on the treatment strategies.

  5. Constitutive activation of Beta-catenin in uterine stroma and smooth muscle leads to the development of mesenchymal tumors in mice.

    Tanwar, Pradeep S; Lee, Ho-Joon; Zhang, LiHua; Zukerberg, Lawrence R; Taketo, Makoto M; Rueda, Bo R; Teixeira, Jose M

    2009-09-01

    Leiomyomas and other mesenchymally derived tumors are the most common neoplasms of the female reproductive tract. Presently, very little is known about the etiology and progression of these tumors, which are the primary indication for hysterectomies. Dysregulated WNT signaling through beta-catenin is a well-established mechanism for tumorigenesis. We have developed a mouse model that expresses constitutively activated beta-catenin in uterine mesenchyme driven by the expression of Cre recombinase knocked into the Müllerian-inhibiting substance type II receptor promoter locus to investigate its effects on uterine endometrial stroma and myometrium. These mice show myometrial hyperplasia and develop mesenchymal tumors with 100% penetrance that exhibit histological and molecular characteristics of human leiomyomas and endometrial stromal sarcomas. By immunohistochemistry, we also show that both transforming growth factor beta and the mammalian target of rapamycin are induced by constitutive activation of beta-catenin. The prevalence of the tumors was greater in multiparous mice, suggesting that their development may be a hormonally driven process or that changes in uterine morphology during pregnancy and after parturition induce injury and repair mechanisms that stimulate tumorigenesis from stem/progenitor cells, which normally do not express constitutively activated beta-catenin. Additionally, adenomyosis and endometrial gland hyperplasia were occasionally observed in some mice. These results show evidence suggesting that dysregulated, stromal, and myometrial WNT/beta-catenin signaling has pleiotropic effects on uterine function and tumorigenesis. PMID:19403928

  6. Activity and expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and matrix metalloproteinases in human colorectal cancer

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) are involved in colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis. There is still debate whether the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 differs between tumors located in the colon and rectum. We designed this study to determine any differences in the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA system between colon and rectal cancer tissues. Cancer tissue samples were obtained from colon carcinoma (n = 12) and rectal carcinomas (n = 10). MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were examined using gelatin zymography and Western blotting; their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), were assessed by Western blotting. uPA, uPAR and PAI-1 were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The activity of uPA was assessed by casein-plasminogen zymography. In both colon and rectal tumors, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 protein levels were higher than in corresponding paired normal mucosa, while TIMP-2 level in tumors was significantly lower than in normal mucosa. The enzyme activities or protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and their endogenous inhibitors did not reach a statistically significant difference between colon and rectal cancer compared with their normal mucosa. In rectal tumors, there was an increased activity of uPA compared with the activity in colon tumors (P = 0.0266), however urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) showed no significant difference between colon and rectal cancer tissues. These findings suggest that uPA may be expressed differentially in colon and rectal cancers, however, the activities or protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, PAI-1 and uPAR are not affected by tumor location in the colon or the rectum

  7. Hepatic cytochrome P450 activity, abundance, and expression throughout human development

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Ansong, Charles; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Smith, Jordan N.; Corley, Richard A.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2016-07-01

    Cytochrome P450s are Phase I metabolic enzymes that play critical roles in the biotransformation of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. The expression and activity of P450 enzymes can vary considerably throughout human development, especially when comparing fetal development to neonates, children, and adults. In an effort to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the ontogeny of P450 expression and activity we employed a multi-omic characterization of P450 transcript expression, protein abundance, and functional activity. To quantify the functional activity of individual P450s we employ activity-based protein profiling, which uses modified mechanism-based inhibitors of P450s as chemical probes, in tandem with proteomic analyses to quantify activity. Our results reveal life-stage-dependent variability in P450 expression, abundance, and activity throughout human development and frequent discordant relationships between expression and activity. The results were used to distribute P450s into three general classes based upon developmental stage of expression and activity. We have significantly expanded the knowledge of P450 ontogeny, particularly at the level of individual P450 activity. We anticipate that our ontogeny results will be useful for enabling predictive therapeutic dosing, and for avoiding potentially adverse and harmful reactions during maturation from both therapeutic drugs and environmental xenobiotics.

  8. Comparison of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in ex vivo human skin and reconstructed human skin models from SkinEthic.

    Eilstein, Joan; Léreaux, Guillaume; Budimir, Natali; Hussler, Georges; Wilkinson, Simon; Duché, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Skin function is not limited to a physical barrier. According to its total surface area, it is also considered as an extra-hepatic metabolizing organ. In vitro engineered human skins have been developed to replace limited ex vivo normal human skin samples (NHS). Thus, assessing and comparing skin models from SkinEthic [Episkin™, RHE™ and the full thickness model (FTM)] with NHS in terms of metabolic capability are essential. The apparent activities of main cutaneous isoforms of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases (CYP1A1/1B1, 2B6/2C18/2E1, 3A5/3A7), esterase, glutathione-S-[(GST), A, M, P, T], N-acetyl-(NAT1), uridinyl-diphosphate glucuronyl-(UDPGT 1A family) and sulfo-(SULT1A1) transferases were determined using probe substrates. Mean activities indicative of CYP1A1/1B1 (expressed as pmol/mg protein/6 h) in RHE™ (2.8) and FTM (2.6) were very similar to NHS (3.0) while Episkin™ showed a higher activity (9.1). Activities of CYP3A5/3A7 in FTM (3.3) and Episkin™ (3.6) were similar to NHS (3.8) while activity in RHE™ (13.3) was higher. CYP2B6/2C18/2E1 activity was below LOQ (0.5) in all skin models and NHS. Comparable intrinsic metabolic clearances were measured between NHS and skin models for esterase, UDPGT, GST and NAT1 activities. SULT1A1 activity toward probe substrates was not detected in skin models and observed at the limit of detection in NHS. Weak cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, high esterase and transferase activities suggested that NHS and skin models exhibited limited functionalization and much greater detoxification (hydrolytic and conjugating) capacities. These results demonstrate that skin models are similar to NHS in terms of metabolic functionality toward xenobiotics investigated and useful tools to assess both the local efficiency and safety of cosmetics. PMID:24658324

  9. Detection of type V collagen-degrading enzyme activity in human liver.

    Kobayashi,Michio

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Type V collagen-degrading enzyme activity was detected as a metalloprotease acting at neutral pH in the human liver. Type V collagen extracted from human placenta and labeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride was used as the substrate in the assay. Four major degradation products with relatively high molecular weights were observed upon polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the incubation mixture of type V collagen and liver homogenate. The significance of the measurement of this enzyme activity was discussed in relation to the clarification of the mechanism of liver fibrosis.

  10. A Novel Bile Acid-Activated Vitamin D Receptor Signaling in Human Hepatocytes

    Han, Shuxin; Li, Tiangang; Ellis, Ewa; Strom, Stephen; Chiang, John Y. L.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is activated by natural ligands, 1α, 25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2-D3] and lithocholic acid (LCA). Our previous study shows that VDR is expressed in human hepatocytes, and VDR ligands inhibit bile acid synthesis and transcription of the gene encoding cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). Primary human hepatocytes were used to study LCA and 1α,25(OH)2-D3 activation of VDR signaling. Confocal immunofluorescent microscopy imaging and immunoblot analysis showed that ...

  11. Characterization of human endothelial cell urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor protein and messenger RNA

    Barnathan, E S; Kuo, A; Karikó, K; Rosenfeld, L; Murray, S C; Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Weiner, D; Henkin, J; Cines, D B

    1990-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC) express receptors for urokinase-type plasminogen activators (u-PA). The immunochemical nature of this receptor and its relationship to u-PA receptors expressed by other cell types is unknown. Cross-linking active site-blocked u-PA to HUVEC...... endothelial cell cDNA library using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and oligonucleotide primers corresponding to the DNA sequence of the receptor cloned from transformed human fibroblasts (Roldan et al, EMBO J 9:467, 1990). The size of the cDNA (approximately 1,054 base pairs, bp) and the presence of a...

  12. ACYCLOVIR IS ACTIVATED INTO A HIV-1 REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITOR IN HERPESVIRUS-INFECTED HUMAN TISSUES

    Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Tchesnokov, Egor P.; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Biancotto, Angélique; Brichacek, Beda; Elliott, Julie; Fromentin, Emilie; Shattock, Robin; Anton, Peter; Gorelick, Robert; Balzarini, Jan; McGuigan, Christopher; Derudas, Marco; Götte, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    For most viruses, there is a need for antimicrobials that target unique viral molecular properties. Acyclovir (ACV) is one such drug. It is activated into a human herpesvirus (HHV) DNA polymerase inhibitor exclusively by HHV kinases and, thus, does not suppress other viruses. Here, we show that ACV suppresses HIV-1 in HHV-coinfected human tissues, but not in HHV-free tissue or cell cultures. However, addition of HHV-6-infected cells renders these cultures sensitive to anti-HIV ACV activity. W...

  13. Human movement activity classification approaches that use wearable sensors and mobile devices

    Kaghyan, Sahak; Sarukhanyan, Hakob; Akopian, David

    2013-03-01

    Cell phones and other mobile devices become part of human culture and change activity and lifestyle patterns. Mobile phone technology continuously evolves and incorporates more and more sensors for enabling advanced applications. Latest generations of smart phones incorporate GPS and WLAN location finding modules, vision cameras, microphones, accelerometers, temperature sensors etc. The availability of these sensors in mass-market communication devices creates exciting new opportunities for data mining applications. Particularly healthcare applications exploiting build-in sensors are very promising. This paper reviews different approaches of human activity recognition.

  14. A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Velappan, Nileena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

  15. Salivary Alpha Amylase Activity in Human Beings of Different Age Groups Subjected to Psychological Stress

    Sahu, Gopal K.; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M.

    2013-01-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different a...

  16. The genome of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum IPLA 36007, a human intestinal strain with isoflavone-activation activity

    Alegría, Ángel; Delgado, Susana; Guadamuro, Lucía; Flórez García, Ana Belén; Felis, Giovanna E.; Torriani, Sandra; Mayo Pérez, Baltasar

    2014-01-01

    Background Bifidobacterium species, including Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, are among the dominant microbial populations of the human gastrointestinal tract. They are also major components of many commercial probiotic products. Resident and transient bifidobacteria are thought to have several beneficial health effects. However, our knowledge of how these bacteria interact and communicate with host cells remains poor. This knowledge is essential for scientific support of their purported h...

  17. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase stimulates the nuclear localization of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase in human diploid fibroblasts

    Kwon, Hyun Jin; Rhim, Ji Heon; Jang, Ik-Soon; Kim, Go-Eun; Park, Sang Chul; Yeo, Eui-Ju

    2010-01-01

    In addition to its well-known glycolytic activity, GAPDH displays multiple functions, such as nuclear RNA export, DNA replication and repair, and apoptotic cell death. This functional diversity depends on its intracellular localization. In this study, we explored the signal transduction pathways involved in the nuclear translocation of GAPDH using confocal laser scanning microscopy of immunostained human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs). GAPDH was present mainly in the cytoplasm when cultured wi...

  18. Influence of activating hormones on human platelet membrane Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity

    Resink, T.J.; Dimitrov, D.; Stucki, S.; Buehler, F.R.

    1986-07-16

    Intact platelets were pretreated with hormones and thereafter membranes were prepared and Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity determined. Thrombin decreased the V/sub max/ of Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase after pretreatment of intact platelets. Platelet activating factor, vasopressin and ADP also decreased Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or A23187 or ionomycin alone had no effect, while the simultaneous pretreatment with TPA and Ca/sup 2 +/-ionophore decreased Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity. cAMP elevating agents prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/) and forskolin had no influence per se on Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase, but antagonized the inhibitory effect of thrombin. The data suggest a close connection between phosphoinositide metabolism and the Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase system.

  19. Arachidonic acid pathway activates multidrug resistance related protein in cultured human lung cells.

    Torky, Abdelrahman; Raemisch, Anja; Glahn, Felix; Foth, Heidi

    2008-05-01

    Primary cultures of human lung cells can serve as a model system to study the mechanisms underlying the effects of irritants in air and to get a deeper insight into the (patho)physiological roles of the xenobiotic detoxification systems. For 99 human lung cancer cases the culture duration for bronchial epithelium and peripheral lung cells (PLC) are given in term of generations and weeks. Using this system, we investigated whether and how prostaglandins (PG) modify multidrug resistance related protein (MRP) function in normal human lung cells. PGF2alpha had no effect on MRP function, whereas PGE2 induced MRP activity in cultured NHBECs. The transport activity study of MRP in NHBEC, PLC, and A549 under the effect of exogenously supplied PGF2alpha (10 microM, 1 day) using single cell fluorimetry revealed no alteration in transport activity of MRP. PG concentrations were within the physiological range. COX I and II inhibitors indomethacin (5, 10 microM) and celecoxib (5, 10 microM) could substantially decrease the transport activity of MRP in NHBEC, PLC, and A549 in 1- and 4-day trials. Prostaglandin E2 did not change cadmium-induced caspase 3/7 activation in NHBECs and had no own effect on caspase 3/7 activity. Cadmium chloride (5, 10 microM) was an effective inducer of caspase 3/7 activation in NHBECs with a fivefold and ninefold rise of activity. In primary human lung cells arachidonic acid activates MRP transport function only in primary epithelial lung cells by prostaglandin E2 but not by F2alpha mediated pathways and this effect needs some time to develop. PMID:17943274

  20. DMEM enhances tyrosinase activity in B16 mouse melanoma cells and human melanocytes

    Panpen Diawpanich

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Media components may affect the activities of cultured cells. In this study, tyrosinase activity was evaluated by using B16-F10 mouse melanoma cell lines (B16-F10 and primary human melanocytes cultured in different media. An optical density measurement and a L-dopa reaction assay were used as the determination of the tyrosinase activity. The study of B16-F10 found the optical density to be 2010, 2246 and 2961 in cells cultured in RPMI Medium 1640 (RPMI1640,Minimum Essential Medium (MEM and Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM, respectively. Moreover, compared to RPMI 1640 and MEM, DMEM showed the darkest color of melanin formation in culture media and in cells after the L-dopa reaction assay. Addition of kojic acid showed a significant inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity in all media.Whereas MCDB153 showed no significant effect on human melanocytes, DMEM caused a dramatic increase in tyrosinase activity after 4 days of cultivation. Addition of kojic acid showed a significant tyrosinase inhibitory effect in DMEM only. Furthermore, an active ingredient in green tea, epigallocathechin gallate (EGCG could inhibit tyrosinase activity in both B16-F10 and human melanocytes cultured in DMEM. In summary, these results suggest that DMEM is a suitable medium that provides high detection sensitivity in a tyrosinase inhibition assay.