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Sample records for activated sludge samples

  1. Extraction DNA from Activated Sludge-Comparing with Soil Sample

    谢冰; 奚旦立; 陈季华

    2003-01-01

    DNA directly extraction from activated sludge and soil sample with enzyme lyses methods was investigated in this paper. DNA yield from activated sludge was 3.0 mg/g. VLSS, and 28.2-43.8 μg/g soil respectively. The resulting DNA is suitable for PCR.By studied methods, higher quality and quantity of sludge DNA could be obtained rapidly and inexpensively from large number of samples, and the PCR product obtained from this protocol was not affected by contaminated higher concentration of heavy metals.

  2. Activated Sludge.

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Biases during DNA extraction of activated sludge samples revealed by high throughput sequencing

    Guo, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2012-01-01

    Standardization of DNA extraction is a fundamental issue of fidelity and comparability in investigations of environmental microbial communities. Commercial kits for soil or feces are often adopted for studies of activated sludge because of a lack of specific kits, but they have never been evaluated regarding their effectiveness and potential biases based on high throughput sequencing. In this study, seven common DNA extraction kits were evaluated, based on not only yield/purity but also seque...

  4. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by Klebsiella sp. isolated from an activated sludge sample of waste water treatment plant in Damascus.

    Ghanem, I; Orfi, M; Shamma, M

    2007-01-01

    A chlorpyrifos (CPY)-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from an activated sludge sample collected from the Damascus Wastewater Treatment Plant, Syria. The isolation of Klebsiella sp. was facilitated by the addition of CPY at a rate of 3.84 g/L of sludge weekly (selection pressure). Identification of Klebsiella sp. was done using major staining and biochemical differentiation tests (Gram stain, cytochrome oxidase and some relevant saccharide fermentation tests using biochemical assays). Klebsiella sp. was maintained by culturing in a poor medium consisting of mineral salts and CPY as the sole carbon source. When 3 activated sludge samples were incubated in the presence of CPY (13.9 g/L sludge), 46% of added CPY were degraded within 4 d. By comparison, within 4 d the isolated Klebsiella sp. was found to break down 92% of CPY when co-incubated in a poor mineral medium in which CPY was the sole carbon source (13.9 g/L poor medium). Isolated Klebsiella sp. was able to tolerate up to 17.3 g of CPY in the poor medium. PMID:18062192

  5. Inorganic fractions in extracellular polymeric substance extracted from activated sludge and biofilm samples by different methods.

    Zhang, Leiyan; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili; Ren, Hongqiang

    2012-01-01

    This study highlighted the inorganic fractions in the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) extract from two activated sludges and one biofilm. Nine EPS extraction methods (centrifugation, sonication, cation exchange resin (CER) + sonication, CER, heating, formaldehyde + heating, formaldehyde + NaOH, ethanol and EDTA) were used in the study. The EPS extracts had large inorganic fractions, which ranged from 28% to 94% of the EPS dry weight. The EPS inorganic fraction was dependent on the source of the sludge and wastewater, the kinds of bacteria and the extraction method. The EPS extracts obtained by heating and sonication had smaller inorganic fractions than those obtained by centrifugation. The compositions of the inorganic fraction of EPS extracts obtained with CER and sonication + CER showed similar trends. The chemical extraction methods could contaminate the inorganic composition of EPS extracts by impurities, carrying over of the extractant itself or by changing the pH of the solution. Ethanol was the most effective extractant for obtaining inorganic ions. PMID:22828296

  6. Radiochemistry determination of activity concentration of 210Pb in sludge and scale samples of UN-SEAL PETROBRAS, Sergipe

    The presence of radionuclides of the 238U and 232Th series in sludge and scales generated inactivities of oil E and P is a well known phenomenon. Scales formed in the inner surface of ducts are constituted basically of CaCO3 and BaSO4 precipitates, being responsible for the gradual reduction in oil production. Sludge, on the other hand, is a mixture of solid debris (sand and rust particles) and oil that accumulate in the bottom of vessels (storage tanks and separators) normally in the form of sulfate and carbonate deposits. The most important radionuclides normally found in sludge and scale are 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 228Th. The presence of these radionuclides may cause a significant dose to workers, with the consequent increase in the risk of stochastic effects. A program of studies aiming to determine the activity concentration of radionuclides of the two above mentioned series in scales and sludge samples collected in an E and P unit of PETROBRAS in the State of Sergipe (UN-SEAL), is under way in the Department of Nuclear Energy of the Federal University of Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE). The analyses already carried through by gamma spectrometry had indicated the existence of high concentrations of radium, showing the necessity of extending the survey for other elements of the 238U series. This work, therefore, aims to determine the activity concentrations of 210Pb through radiochemical analysis, as well as, to evaluate some available techniques for the determination of 210Pb in the above-mentioned matrix. (author)

  7. Activated Sludge Rheology

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank;

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling and...... filtration). It therefore is an important property related to process performance, including process economics. To account for this, rheological behaviour is being included in process design, necessitating its measurement. However, measurements and corresponding protocols in literature are quite diverse...

  8. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining

  9. Influence of thermal extraction of extracellular polymeric substances on cell integrity in activated sludge and membrane bioreactor samples.

    Antonelli, M; Bialek, K; Teli, A; Citterio, S; Malpei, F

    2011-02-01

    The influence of the soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) heating extraction method on cell viability was evaluated for each phase of the protocol using epifluorescence microscopy. In addition, the effect of different centrifugation conditions (2700 g at 24 degrees C; 12,000 g at 4 degrees C) was also tested. Sludge samples were collected from a conventional wastewater treatment and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant fed in parallel. Results show that different centrifugation parameters do not induce cell membrane damaging. Heating significantly influences membrane integrity; for instance, 75 to 90% of initial viable cells are damaged during this phase, possibly leading to the predominance of protein compared to carbohydrate content. The protein content in EPS is 60 to 88 mg bovine serum albumin/ g volatile suspended solids (VSS); higher values observed in MBR sludge samples are probably attributable to the different characteristics of microbial flocs and process operating parameters. Carbohydrate concentrations are not significantly different regardless of applied procedure and sludge type, and are between 10.4 to 11.6 mg glucose/g VSS. PMID:21449471

  10. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.;

    2003-01-01

    gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination for......In the process of wastewater treatment hydrolysis of polymeric substances is the first and rate-limiting step. A closer study of the enzymes catalysing these reactions is essential for a better understanding of the microbial activity in the wastewater treatment process. Therefore, development of...... the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge. The sludge was continuously stirred in the presence of either buffer alone or in the presence of detergent and/or chelating agents. In all cases, a marked reduction in floc size was observed upon continuous stirring. However, no lipase...

  11. Activated Sludge Ozonation to Reduce Sludge Production in MBR

    HE Sheng-bing; XUE Gang; WANG Bao-zhen

    2005-01-01

    The total experimental period was divided into two stages.At the first stage, a series of batch studies were carried out to get an understanding of the effect of ozonation on sludge properties. At the following stages, three MBRs with different amounts of activated sludge to be ozonated were run in parallel for a long period to evaluate the influence of sludge ozonation on sludge yield and permeate quality.Through batch study, it was found that ozone could disrupt the cell walls and caused the release of plasm from the cells,then the amounts of soluble organics in the solution increased with ozonation time. With the rise of soluble organics, the amount of soluble organics to be mineralized increased as well, which wonld reduce the soluble organics content. For the counteraction between these two aspects, a pseudo-balance could be achieved, and soluble organics would vary in a limited range. Sludge ozonation also increased the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in the solution. In addition, ozonation was effective in improving sludge settling property. On the basis of batch study, a suitable ozone dosage of 0.16 kgO3/kgMLSS wasdetermined. Three systems were run in parallel for a total period of 39 days, it was demonstrated that a part of activated sludge ozonation could reduce sludge production significantly, and biological performance of mineralization and nitrification would not be inhibited due to sludge ozonation. Experimental results proved that the combination of ozonation unit with MBR unit could achieve an excellent quality of permeate as well as a small quantity of sludge production, and economic analysis indicated that an additional ozonation operating cost for treatment of both wastewater and sludge was only 0.096Yuan (US $0.011,5)/m3 wastewater.

  12. Effect of cations on activated sludge dewatering

    Raynaud, M.; Vaxelaire, J.; Héritier, P.; Baudez, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Even after mechanical dewatering, the residual water within activated sludge remains high. Due to its complex structure, this material is usually extremely compressible and known to be difficult to dewater. The ability of sludge to dewater depends on its biological nature, its composition and also the type of treatment it comes from. Indeed, changes in ionic strength and in ionic composition of sludge affect the stability of structural properties of activated sludge and thus the dewatering...

  13. Degradation of corticosteroids during activated sludge processing.

    Miyamoto, Aoi; Kitaichi, Yuko; Uchikura, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory tests of the decomposition of corticosteroids during activated sludge processing were investigated. Corticosteroid standards were added to activated sludge, and aliquots were regularly taken for analysis. The corticosteroids were extracted from the samples using a solid-phase extraction method and analyzed LC-MS. Ten types of corticosteroids were measured and roughly classified into three groups: 1) prednisolone, triamcinolone, betamethasone, prednisolone acetate, and hydrocortisone acetate, which decomposed within 4 h; 2) flunisolide, betamethasone valerate, and budesonide of which more than 50% remained after 4 h, but almost all of which decomposed within 24 h; and 3) triamcinolone acetonide, and fluocinolone acetonide of which more than 50% remained after 24 h. The decomposed ratio was correlated with each corticosteroid's Log P, especially groups 2) and 3). PMID:24390495

  14. Cations and activated sludge floc structure

    Park, Chul

    2002-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate the effect of cations on activated sludge characteristics and also to determine their influence on digestion performance. For this purpose, cations in solution and in floc were evaluated along with various activated sludge characteristics and the collected waste activated sludge underwent both anaerobic and aerobic digestion. It was found that large amounts of biopolymer (protein + polysaccharide) remained in the effluent of WWTP that received high in...

  15. INFLUENCE OF SELECTED PHARMACEUTICALS ON ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY

    Agnieszka Tomska

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics - sulfanilamide and erythromycin on activated sludge dehydrogenase activity with use of trifenyltetrazolinum chloride (TTC test. Dehydrogenases activity is an indicator of biochemical activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge or the ability to degrade organic compounds in waste water. TTC test is particularly useful for the regularity of the course of treatment, in which the presence of inhibitors of biochemical reactions and toxic compounds are present. It was observed that the dehydrogenase activity decreases with the increase of a antibiotics concentration. The lowest value of the dehydrogenase activity equal to 32.4 μmol TF / gMLSS obtained at sulfanilamide concentration 150mg / l. For this sample, an inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was 31%.

  16. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil Ocorrência de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado em Campinas, SP, Brasil

    Luciana Urbano Santos; Taís Rondello Bonatti; Romeu Cantusio Neto; Regina Maura Bueno Franco

    2004-01-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans associated with drinking water. Contaminated sewage effluents are recognized as a potential source of waterborne protozoa. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these parasites in sewage samples in Brazil, we compared the efficiency of two procedures for concentrating cysts and oocysts in activated sludge samples of one sewage treatment plant. For this, the samples were submitted to i) concentr...

  17. Who is actively denitrifying in activated sludge?

    Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    -scale wastewater treatment plant the transcripts (mRNA) of the nirS, nirK and nosZ denitrification genes expressed under acetate or amino acid consumption were amplified, sequenced and identified. This revealed that the majority of the denitrifiers belonged to Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria, while only few...... genetic diversity was observed from the nirS transcripts and not the nosZ transcripts. Likewise, denitrifying cultures obtained from the activated sludge affiliated with the same Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria as detected with the denitrification genes, except one culture, which affiliated with...... Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, potential denitrifying genera of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria were quantified in the activated sludge with 16S rRNA gene probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This revealed that Aquaspirillum-related bacteria were dominant followed by bacteria related to Azoarcus...

  18. Biosorption of fluoroquinolones by activated sludge and aerobic granules sludge

    Ferreira, Vanessa R. A.; Amorim, Catarina L.; Cravo, Sara M.; Tiritan, Maria E.; Castro, Paula M. L.; Afonso, Carlos M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oral communication Antibiotic residues have been detected in various environmental matrices, such as surface water and even drinking water. Although present at low levels (μg/L, ng/L), many antibiotics are bioaccumulative, pseudo-persistent and can promote resistance/alterations in bacterial populations [1]. Recent studies on antibiotics removal by activated sludge (AS) and aerobic granules (AGS) show biosorption as the dominant process, determining the fate of these micropollutants [2-3]....

  19. HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE SECONDARY CLARIFIERS

    This study documented the hydraulic characteristics of typical activated sludge clarifiers. Modifications to the clarifier structures were made in an attempt to improve clarifier hydraulic characteristics and performance. Innovative fluorometric dye tracer studies were used to ob...

  20. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  1. Activated Sludge and other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes.

    Li, Chunying; Wei, Li; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhang, Yuhua; Wei, Dong

    2016-10-01

    This is a literature review for the year 2015 and contains information specifically associated with suspended growth processes including activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and sequencing batch reactors. The review encompasses modeling and kinetics, nutrient removal, system design and operation. Compared to past reviews, many topics show increase in activity in 2015. These include, fate and effect of xenobiotics, industrial wastes treatment with sludge, and pretreatment for the activated sludge. These topics are referred to the degradation of constituents in activated sludge. Other sections include population dynamics, process microbiology give an insight into the activated sludge. The subsection in industrial wastes: converting sewage sludge into biogases was also mentioned. PMID:27620082

  2. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-29

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  3. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-08-05

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  4. Comparison of membrane fouling during short-term filtration of aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated adopting internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor. The contradistinctive experiment about short-term membrane fouling between aerobic granular sludge system and activated sludge system were investigated. The membrane foulants was also characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The results showed that the aerobic granular sludge had excellent denitrification ability; the removal efficiency of TN could reach 90%. The aerobic granular sludge could alleviate membrane fouling effectively. The steady membrane flux of aerobic granular sludge was twice as much as that of activated sludge system. In addition, it was found that the aerobic granular sludge could result in severe membrane pore-blocking, however, the activated sludge could cause severe cake fouling. The major components of the foulants were identified as comprising of proteins and polysaccharide materials.

  5. Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge

    Nybroe, Ole; Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance...... measured as colony forming units of heterotrophic bacteria. A panel of four enzyme activity assays, α-glucosidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, esterase and dehydrogenase were used to characterize activated sludge and anaerobic hydrolysis sludge from a pilot scale plant. The enzymatic activity profiles were...... distinctly different, suggesting that microbial populations were different, or had different physiological properties, in the two types of sludge. Enzyme activity profiles in activated sludge from four full-scale plants seemed to be highly influenced by the composition of the inlet. Addition of hydrolysed...

  6. Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge

    Nybroe, Ole; Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    measured as colony forming units of heterotrophic bacteria. A panel of four enzyme activity assays, α-glucosidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, esterase and dehydrogenase were used to characterize activated sludge and anaerobic hydrolysis sludge from a pilot scale plant. The enzymatic activity profiles were...... distinctly different, suggesting that microbial populations were different, or had different physiological properties, in the two types of sludge. Enzyme activity profiles in activated sludge from four full-scale plants seemed to be highly influenced by the composition of the inlet. Addition of hydrolysed......The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance...

  7. Alum sludge: a sampling method for the radioactivity in waters

    The alum coagulation and settling steps used in water treatment plants can be the basis of a method to concentrate radionuclides present in very small amounts in soft waters. Indeed, the gamma spectrum of a dried alum sludge shows the presence of a number of naturally occurring radionuclides, of fission and activation products unobservable unless a preconcentration step is carried out. The floc sampling technique is described. The different methods developed to relate the amount of floc to the volume of water, are presented; they are based either on the chemical characterisation of the suspended matter or on the use of internal standards like 137Cs and 7Be. The question of the distribution of some radionuclides between the liquid and the solid phases in the rivers and that of their retention by the floc is discussed: the results show clearly the importance of the suspended matter as a carrier for the radioactivity

  8. Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located on the floor and in the pits of the 105-K basins

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the sampling of the sludge found on the floor and in the remote pits of the 105-K Basins to provide: (1) basic data for the sludges that have not been characterized to-date and (2) representative Sludge material for process tests to be made by the SNF Project/K Basins sludge treatment process subproject. The sampling equipment developed will remove representative samples of the radioactive sludge from underwater at the K Basins, depositing them in shielded containers for transport to the Hanford Site laboratories. Included in the present document is the basic background logic for selection of the samples to meet the requirements established in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO), HNF-2033, for this sampling activity. The present document also includes the laboratory analyses, methods, procedures, and reporting that will be required to meet the DQO

  9. Mixing and sampling of sludge-frit-CST slurries

    The Thermal Fluids Lab of SRTC designed, built and operated a 1/240th-scale test facility to perform a series of mixing and sampling tests with aqueous and sludge-based slurries of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin. Note that the CST-based Ion Exchange (IX) process is one of the two options being assessed as a replacement to the original In-Tank TPB Precipitation Process to remove cesium from the high level waste stream. The particle size of as-received CST resin ranges from 200--800 microns, which is larger than the glass frit size range of 75--175 microns. This raises two technical issues of homogeneity and Hydragardregsign sampling of CST slurries. Seven different test series were conducted to address these issues. The first four tests used two batches of aqueous slurries of 10-wt% CST and the remaining three tests used three different batches of sludge-based slurries. Test results showed that the aqueous slurry of 10-wt% of ''as-received'' CST could not be effectively mixed with an agitator speed representative of DWPF mixing conditions. However, this slurry can easily be re-suspended by agitator. The agitation system could not effectively reduce the CST particle size. However, prolonged (18 hrs) repeated pumping of the slurry through a centrifugal pump broke up 55% of CST particles. The sludge-frit batch was homogeneously mixed under DWPF representative mixing conditions and the Hydragardregsign samples of sludge-frit slurry showed an excellent agreement with process tank grab samples. The sludge-frit reduced CST slurry was also homogeneously mixed under DWPG mixing conditions. However, the Hydragardregsign samples exhibited about 12% frit depletion as compared to grab samples. The CST/sludge ratios showed an excellent agreement with grab samples. Finally, the sludge-frit slurry with ''as-received'' CST repeatedly plugged the Hydrgardregsign sampler and no steady flow conditions were achieved. However, this sludge batch was well mixed in the process tank

  10. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (Hex , D , and Raeq), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (Hex , D , and Raeq), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  11. Metaproteomics provides functional insight into activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    Paul Wilmes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Through identification of highly expressed proteins from a mixed culture activated sludge system this study provides functional evidence of microbial transformations important for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor was successfully operated for different levels of EBPR, removing around 25, 40 and 55 mg/l P. The microbial communities were dominated by the uncultured polyphosphate-accumulating organism "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis". When EBPR failed, the sludge was dominated by tetrad-forming alpha-Proteobacteria. Representative and reproducible 2D gel protein separations were obtained for all sludge samples. 638 protein spots were matched across gels generated from the phosphate removing sludges. 111 of these were excised and 46 proteins were identified using recently available sludge metagenomic sequences. Many of these closely match proteins from "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" and could be directly linked to the EBPR process. They included enzymes involved in energy generation, polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, glyoxylate/TCA cycle, fatty acid beta oxidation, fatty acid synthesis and phosphate transport. Several proteins involved in cellular stress response were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Importantly, this study provides direct evidence linking the metabolic activities of "Accumulibacter" to the chemical transformations observed in EBPR. Finally, the results are discussed in relation to current EBPR metabolic models.

  12. Thermal activation of an industrial sludge for a possible valorization

    Lamrani Sanae

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work fits within the framework of sustainable management of sludge generated from wastewater treatment in industrial network. The studied sludge comes from an industry manufacturing sanitary ware products.Physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization was performed to give an identity card to the sludge. We noted the absence of metal pollution.The industrial sludge has been subjected to thermal activation at various temperatures (650°C to 850°C. The pozzolanic activity was evaluated by physico- chemical and mechanical methods [1]. Pozzolanicity measurement was carried out based on Chapelle test and conductivity revealed the existence of pozzolanic properties of the calcined samples. The best pozzolanic reactivity was obtained for the sample calcined at 800°C. We noticed a decrease in the reactivity of the sample calcined at 850°C. In addition, analysis by means of X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that sludge recrystallization begins at a temperature of 850°C. Pozzolanicity index of the thermally treated samples was determined by measuring the mechanical resistance of mortar specimens previously kept in a saturated lime solution for 28 days (ASTM C618 [2]. The best pozzolanic activity index was obtained for the sample calcined at 800°C (109.1%.This work is a contribution to the research for new supplying sources of raw materials and additives in the field of construction. It presents a proposition of a promising solution for the valorization of waste material as an additive instead of being discharged into open air dumps causing a major environmental problem.

  13. The role of lipids in activated sludge floc formation

    Anna Liza Kretzschmar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge is widely used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater globally and the formation of activated sludge flocculates (flocs underpins the ability to separate sludge from treated water. Despite the importance of activated sludge flocs to human civilization there have been precious few attempts to rationally design fit for purpose flocs using a bottom-up approach based on a solid scientific foundation. Recently we have been developing experimental models for activated sludge floc formation based on the colonization and consumption of particulate organic matter (chitin and cellulose. In this study we lay the foundation for investigation of activated sludge floc formation based on biofilm formation around spheres of the lipid glycerol trioleate (GT that form spontaneously when GT is introduced into activated sludge incubations. Sludge biomass was observed to associate tightly with the lipid spheres. An increase in extracellular lipase activity was associated with a decrease in size of the colonized lipid spheres over a 25 day incubation. Bacterial community composition shifted from predominantly Betaproteobacteria to Alphaproteobacteria in GT treated sludge. Four activated sludge bacteria were isolated from lipid spheres and two of them were shown to produce AHL like quorum sensing signal activity, suggesting quorum sensing may play a role in lipid spheres colonization and biodegradation in activated sludge. The development of this experimental model of activated sludge floc formation lays the foundation for rational production of flocs for wastewater treatment using lipids as floc nuclei and further development of the flocculate life-cycle concept.

  14. DOWNFLOW GRANULAR FILTRATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE EFFLUENTS

    The performance of downflow granular filters subjected to effluents from activated sludge processes was investigated at the EPA-DC Pilot Plant in Washington, D.C. Several media combinations were investigated, including both single anthracite and dual anthracite-sand configuration...

  15. DENSITY CURRENTS IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SECONDARY CLARIFIERS

    Density currents form in activated sludge secondary clarifiers because the mixed liquor has a density greater than the treated wastewater in the clarifier. This causes the mixed liquor to plunge to the bottom of the clarifier establishing relatively high velocity currents within ...

  16. Denitrifying activity of activated sludge in suspension and in biofilm

    Cortez, Susana; Teixeira, P.; Oliveira, Rosário; Mota, M.

    2008-01-01

    A method based on measuring substrate depletion rate was developed to evaluate the denitrifying activity of activated sludge in suspension and in biofilm form in anoxic serum flasks. The adapted activated sludge inoculum was grown as biofilm in an anoxic rotating biological contactor (RBC). Acetate was used as external carbon source to obtain a carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 2. The results showed that the specific activity of cells in biofilm form was higher than in planktonic for...

  17. Analysis of sewage sludge and cover soil by neutron activation analysis

    The Korean government reported that in 2005, 4395 tons/day of sewage sludge were generated from sewage disposal facilities in Korea and only 11.03% of it was reused. In addition, as a direct landfill of sewage sludge was forbidden from June 2003, research for a relevant disposal technique has been increasing. In this study, the aims were to analyze the collected sewage sludge samples and to evaluate the possibility for their reuse by a comparison of the elemental contents from a sewage sludge and a cover soil. Sludge samples were collected from a sewage disposal plant in Daejeon city and the cover soil was produced by a dilution of a sewage sludge with quicklime. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed to determine the elemental contents in the samples. Twenty seven elements were analyzed and their concentrations were compared. (author)

  18. Upflow Sludge Blanket Filtration (USBF: An Innovative Technology in Activated Sludge Process

    R Saeedi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new biological domestic wastewater treatment process, which has been presented these days in activated sludge modification, is Upflow Sludge Blanket Filtration (USBF. This process is aerobic and acts by using a sludge blanket in the separator of sedimentation tank. All biological flocs and suspended solids, which are presented in the aeration basin, pas through this blanket. The performance of a single stage USBF process for treatment of domestic wastewater was studied in laboratory scale.Methods: The pilot of USBF has been made from fiberglass and the main electromechanical equipments consisted of an air com­pressor, a mixing device and two pumps for sludge return and wastewater injection. The wastewater samples used for the experiments were prepared synthetically to have qualitative characteristics similar to a typical domestic wastewater (COD= 277 mg/l, BOD5= 250 mg/l and TSS= 1 mg/l.Results: On the average, the treatment system was capable to remove 82.2% of the BOD5 and 85.7% of COD in 6 h hydraulic re­tention time (HRT. At 2 h HRT BOD and COD removal efficiencies dramatically reduced to 50% and 46.5%, respectively.Conclusion: Even by increasing the concentrations of pollutants to as high as 50%, the removal rates of all pollutants were re­mained similar to the HRT of 6 h.

  19. Thermal activation of an industrial sludge for a possible valorization

    Lamrani Sanae; Ben Allal Laïla; Ammari Mohammed; Boutamou Sara; Azmani Amina

    2014-01-01

    This work fits within the framework of sustainable management of sludge generated from wastewater treatment in industrial network. The studied sludge comes from an industry manufacturing sanitary ware products.Physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization was performed to give an identity card to the sludge. We noted the absence of metal pollution.The industrial sludge has been subjected to thermal activation at various temperatures (650°C to 850°C). The pozzolanic activity was evaluate...

  20. Modeling of Activated Sludge Floc Characteristics

    Ibrahim H. Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The activated sludge system needs to improve the operational performance and to achieve more effective control. To realize this, a better quantitative understanding of the biofloc characteristics is required. The objectives of this study were to: (i Study the biofloc characteristics from kinetics-mass transfer interaction point of view by quantification of the weight of the aerobic portion of the activated sludge floc to the total floc weight. (ii Study the effect of bulk concentrations of oxygen and nitrates, power input and substrates diffusivity on the portion aerobic portion of the floc. Approach: An appropriate mathematical model based on heterogeneous modeling is developed for activated sludge flocs. The model was taking into account three growth processes: Carbon oxidation, nitrification and de-nitrification in terms of four components: substrate, nitrate, ammonia, and oxygen. The model accounts for the internal and external mass transfer limitations and relates the external mass transfer resistance with power input. The floc model equations were two- point boundary value differential equations. Therefore a central finite difference method is employed. Results: The percentage aerobic portion increased with increasing with oxygen bulk concentrations and power input and decreases when the bulk concentration of ammonia and substrate increases. Both will compete to consume the internal oxygen by autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria through aerobic growth processes. The biofloc activity through the profiles was either totally active or partially active. The totally active biofloc is either totally aerobic or aerobic and anoxic together. Conclusions: The heterogeneous floc model was able to describe the biofloc characteristics and reflects the real phenomena existing in the activated sludge processes.

  1. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  2. The digestibility of waste activated sludges.

    Park, Chul; Abu-Orf, Mohammad M; Novak, John T

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory digestion studies using waste activated sludges (WAS) were conducted to compare the digestion performance between anaerobic and aerobic processes. Nine samples of WAS from seven wastewater treatment plants were collected and batch-digested under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions for 30 days at 25 degrees C. The cation content of wastewater (both floc and solution phases) and solution biopolymer (protein and polysaccharide) was measured before and after digestion and compared with volatile solids destruction data. The study revealed that each digestion process was associated with a distinct biopolymer fraction, which accounted for differences in volatile solids reduction under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The anaerobic digestion data showed strong correlations between soluble protein generation, ammonium production, percent volatile solids reduction, and floc iron (Fe). These data suggest that the amount of volatile solids destroyed by anaerobic digestion depends on the Fe content of floc. In aerobic digestion, polysaccharide accumulated in solution along with calcium and magnesium. For aerobic digestion, correlations between divalent cation release and the production of inorganic nitrogen were found. This implies that divalent cation-bound biopolymer, thought to be lectin-like protein, was the primary organic fraction degraded under aerobic conditions. The results of the study show that the cation content in wastewater is an important indicator of the material that will digest under anaerobic or aerobic conditions and that some of the volatile solids will digest only under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions. PMID:16553167

  3. Characterization Of The As-Received Sludge Batch 9 Qualification Sample (Htf-51-15-81)

    Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel have been requested to qualify the next sludge batch (Sludge Batch 9 – SB9) for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To accomplish this task, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has sent SRNL a 3-L slurried sample of Tank 51H (HTF-51-15-81) to be characterized, washed, and then used in a lab-scale demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet (potentially after combining with Tank 40H sludge). This report documents the first steps of the qualification process – characterization of the as-received Tank 51H qualification sample. These results will be used to support a reprojection of SB9 by SRR from which final Tank 51H washing, frit development, and Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) activities will be based.

  4. Preparation of ferric-activated sludge-based adsorbent from biological sludge for tetracycline removal.

    Yang, Xin; Xu, Guoren; Yu, Huarong; Zhang, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Ferric activation was novelly used to produce sludge-based adsorbent (SBA) from biological sludge through pyrolysis, and the adsorbents were applied to remove tetracycline from aqueous solution. The pyrolysis temperature and mass ratio (activator/dried sludge) greatly influenced the surface area and pore characteristics of SBA. Ferric activation could promote the porous structure development of adsorbents, and the optimum preparation conditions were pyrolysis temperature 750°C and mass ratio (activator/dried sludge) 0.5. In batch experiments, ferric-activated SBA showed a higher adsorption capacity for tetracycline than non-activated SBA, because the enhanced mesoporous structure favored the diffusion of tetracycline into the pores, the iron oxides and oxygen-containing functional groups in the adsorbents captured tetracycline by surface complexation. The results indicate that ferric activation is an effective approach for preparing adsorbents from biological sludge to remove tetracycline, providing a potential option for waste resource recovery. PMID:27038265

  5. High-rate anaerobic co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and activated sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation.

    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria; Karlsson, Marielle; Truong, Xu-Bin; Björn, Annika; Karlsson, Anna; Svensson, Bo H; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2016-10-01

    Kraft fibre sludge from the pulp and paper industry constitutes a new, widely available substrate for the biogas production industry, with high methane potential. In this study, anaerobic digestion of kraft fibre sludge was examined by applying continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with sludge recirculation. Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 800days, one on fibre sludge (R1), and the other on fibre sludge and activated sludge (R2). Additions of Mg, K and S stabilized reactor performance. Furthermore, the Ca:Mg ratio was important, and a stable process was achieved at a ratio below 16:1. Foaming was abated by short but frequent mixing. Co-digestion of fibre sludge and activated sludge resulted in more robust conditions, and high-rate operation at stable conditions was achieved at an organic loading rate of 4g volatile solids (VS)L(-1)day(-1), a hydraulic retention time of 4days and a methane production of 230±10NmL per g VS. PMID:27453288

  6. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  7. Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located in fuel storage canisters of the 105-K West basin

    Baker, R.B.

    1997-04-30

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the first sampling of sludge from the K West Basin spent fuel canisters. The specially developed sampling equipment removes representative samples of sludge while maintaining the radioactive sample underwater in the basin pool (equipment is described in WHC-SD-SNF-SDD-004). Included are the basic background logic for sample selection, the overall laboratory analyses required and the laboratory reporting required. These are based on requirements put forth in the data quality objectives (WHC-SD-SNF-DQO-012) established for this sampling and characterization activity.

  8. Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located in fuel storage canisters of the 105-K West basin

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the first sampling of sludge from the K West Basin spent fuel canisters. The specially developed sampling equipment removes representative samples of sludge while maintaining the radioactive sample underwater in the basin pool (equipment is described in WHC-SD-SNF-SDD-004). Included are the basic background logic for sample selection, the overall laboratory analyses required and the laboratory reporting required. These are based on requirements put forth in the data quality objectives (WHC-SD-SNF-DQO-012) established for this sampling and characterization activity

  9. Gravity Drainage of Activated Sludge on Reed Beds

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Dominiak, Dominik Marek; Keiding, Kristian;

    operation of reed beds and the efficiencies are often lower than predicted. One reason is that the sludge quality varies from plant to plant and even within plants from time to time. No good method exists for measuring the sludge quality with respect to drainage characteristics. A new experimental method...... has therefore been developed to measure relevant quality parameters: specific cake resistance, settling velocity and cake compressibility. It has been found that activated sludge form highly compressible cake even at the low compressive pressures obtained during drainage. Numerical simulation shows......Activated sludge is a by-product from waste water treatment plants, and the water content in the sludge is high (> 90%). Among several methods to remove the water, sludge drying reed beds are often used to dewater the sludge by drainage. There is, however, no well-defined criterion for design and...

  10. Biohydrogen production using waste activated sludge disintegrated by gamma irradiation

    Highlights: • The waste activated sludge could be disintegrated by gamma irradiation. • The disintegrated sludge could be used for biohydrogen production. • Combined alkali-irradiation treatment achieved the highest solubilization of sludge. - Abstract: The biohydrogen production using the disintegrated and dissolved sludge by gamma irradiation was studied. The experimental results showed that gamma irradiation and irradiation combined with alkali pretreatment could disintegrate and dissolve waste activated sludge for biohydrogen production. The alkali-irradiation treatment of the sludge at pH = 12 and 20 kGy achieved the highest disintegration and dissolution, i.e., it could destroy the cell walls and release organic matters (such as soluble COD, polysaccharides and protein) into the solution. The disintegrated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for biohydrogen production

  11. Sampling and analysis of sludge from the Hanford K East basin

    Sludge samples from the floor of the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool has been retrieved and analyzed. Both chemical and physical properties have been determined. The results are to be used to determine the disposition of the bulk of the sludge and possibly assess the impact of residual sludge on dry storage of the associated intact metallic uranium fuel elements

  12. Investigation of Seasonal Heavy Metal Contents in the Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plant: Case Study

    Turgay Dere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, composite sewage sludge samples were taken from the drying beds of the Elazig City Activated Sludge Treatment Plant in order to investigate the seasonal heavy metal concentrations in the samples. According to the results of the analysis, the acid extractable annual heavy metal concentrations of the effluent sludge coming from the drying beds were found as Fe >Zn> Mn >Cu >Cr >Ni >Pb> Co> Cd. İron concentration in the sewage sludge was found to be the highest where Cd was detected in the lowest concentration value. According to the independent t-test applied to the summer and winter pollution loads of the sewage sludge, statistical differences for the average values were observed between the groups for the iron, copper, and cadmium contents (p0.05.

  13. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs...

  14. Proteomics reliability for micropollutants degradation insight into activated sludge systems.

    Buttiglieri, Gianluigi; Collado, Neus; Casas, Nuria; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on pharmaceutical trace compounds degradation pathways in wastewater. The potential of the proteomics approach has been evaluated to extract information on activated sludge microbial metabolism in degrading a trace concentration of a pharmaceutical compound (ibuprofen). Ibuprofen is one of the most consumed pharmaceuticals, measured in wastewater at very high concentrations and, despite its high removal rates, found in different environmental compartments. Aerated and completely mixed activated sludge batch tests were spiked with ibuprofen at 10 and 1,000 μg L(-1). Ibuprofen concentrations were determined in the liquid phase: 100% removal was observed and the kinetics were estimated. The solid phase was sampled for proteomics purposes. The first objective was to apply proteomics to evaluate protein profile variations in a complex matrix such as activated sludge. The second objective was to determine, at different ibuprofen concentrations, which proteins followed pre-defined trends. No newly expressed proteins were found. Nonetheless, the obtained results suggest that proteomics itself is a promising methodology to be applied in this field. Statistical and comparative studies analyses provided, in fact, useful information on biological reproducibility and permitted us to detect 62 proteins following coherent and plausible expected trends in terms of presence and intensity change. PMID:26360747

  15. Immobilization of activated sludge using improved polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel

    2007-01-01

    The microbial immobilization method using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel as an immobilizing material was improved and used for entrapment of activated sludge. The OUR (oxygen uptake rate) was used to characterize the biological activity of immobilized activated sludge. Three kinds of PVA-immobilized particles of activated sludge, that is, PVA-boric acid beads, PVA-sodium nitrate beads and PVA-orthophosphate beads was prepared, and their biological activity was compared by measuring the OUR value. The bioactivity of both autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms of activated sludge was determined using different synthetic wastewater media (containing 250 mg/L COD and 25 mg/L NH4+-N). The experimental results showed that the bioactivity and stability of the three kinds of immobilized activated sludge was greatly improved after activation. With respect of the bioactivity and the mechanical stability, the PVA-orthophosphate method may be a promising and economical technique for microbial immobilization.

  16. Activated sewage sludge, a potential animal foodstuff. Part I. Proximate and mineral content; seasonal variation

    Tacon, A.G.J.; Ferns, P.N.

    1979-08-01

    A detailed proximate and mineral analysis of activated sewage sludge is described. Samples were collected at bi-weekly intervals from a rural domestic sewage works for one year. The following annual ranges and mean values were determined for the chemical components within the sludge samples: moisture, total nitrogen, crude protein, Lowry protein, fat, saponification value, available carbohydrate as glucose, fiber, ash, acid insoluble ash, and 26 elements. The seasonal variation patterns observed are discussed. 23 references

  17. Microbial diversity differences within aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge flocs.

    Winkler, M-K H; Kleerebezem, R; de Bruin, L M M; Verheijen, P J T; Abbas, B; Habermacher, J; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we investigated during 400 days the microbial community variations as observed from 16S DNA gene DGGE banding patterns from an aerobic granular sludge pilot plant as well as the from a full-scale activated sludge treatment plant in Epe, the Netherlands. Both plants obtained the same wastewater and had the same relative hydraulic variations and run stable over time. For the total bacterial population, a similarity analysis was conducted showing that the community composition of both sludge types was very dissimilar. Despite this difference, general bacterial population of both systems had on average comparable species richness, entropy, and evenness, suggesting that different bacteria were sharing the same functionality. Moreover, multi-dimensional scaling analysis revealed that the microbial populations of the flocculent sludge system moved closely around the initial population, whereas the bacterial population in the aerobic granular sludge moved away from its initial population representing a permanent change. In addition, the ammonium-oxidizing community of both sludge systems was studied in detail showing more unevenness than the general bacterial community. Nitrosomonas was the dominant AOB in flocculent sludge, whereas in granular sludge, Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira were present in equal amounts. A correlation analysis of process data and microbial data from DGGE gels showed that the microbial diversity shift in ammonium-oxidizing bacteria clearly correlated with fluctuations in temperature. PMID:23064482

  18. Chemical Inhibitors for Biomass Yield Reduction in Activated Sludge

    Mayhew, Maxine Eleanor

    1999-01-01

    Increasing legislation and rising treatment and disposal costs have promoted optimisation of the activated sludge process to encompass reduction of waste biomass. Manipulation of process control such as increasing sludge age and decreasing food to microorganism ratio can lower waste sludge production, but capital works as well as increased operating costs in the form of power requirement for oxygen supply may be required. The need for a cost effective method of biomass reductio...

  19. Polyphosphate Kinase from Activated Sludge Performing Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal†

    Katherine D McMahon; Dojka, Michael A.; Pace, Norman R.; Jenkins, David; Keasling, Jay D.

    2002-01-01

    A novel polyphosphate kinase (PPK) was retrieved from an uncultivated organism in activated sludge carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Acetate-fed laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors were used to maintain sludge with a high phosphorus content (approximately 11% of the biomass). PCR-based clone libraries of small subunit rRNA genes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to verify that the sludge was enriched in Rhodocyclus-like β-Proteobacteria kn...

  20. Advanced sludge treatment affects extracellular polymeric substances to improve activated sludge dewatering.

    Neyens, Elisabeth; Baeyens, Jan; Dewil, Raf; De heyder, Bart

    2004-01-30

    The management of wastewater sludge, now often referred to as biosolids, accounts for a major portion of the cost of the wastewater treatment process and represents significant technical challenges. In many wastewater treatment facilities, the bottleneck of the sludge handling system is the dewatering operation. Advanced sludge treatment (AST) processes have been developed in order to improve sludge dewatering and to facilitate handling and ultimate disposal. The authors have extensively reported lab-scale, semi-pilot and pilot investigations on either thermal and thermochemical processes, or chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide. To understand the action of these advanced sludge technologies, the essential role played by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) needs to be understood. EPS form a highly hydrated biofilm matrix, in which the micro-organisms are embedded. Hence they are of considerable importance in the removal of pollutants from wastewater, in bioflocculation, in settling and in dewatering of activated sludge. The present paper reviews the characteristics of EPS and the influence of thermochemical and oxidation mechanisms on degradation and flocculation of EPS. Experimental investigations on waste activated sludge are conducted by the authors to evaluate the various literature findings. From the experiments, it is concluded that AST methods enhance cake dewaterability in two ways: (i) they degrade EPS proteins and polysaccharides reducing the EPS water retention properties; and (ii) they promote flocculation which reduces the amount of fine flocs. PMID:15177096

  1. Characteristics of KE Basin Sludge Samples Archived in the RPL - 2007

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2011-11-22

    Samples of sludge were collected from the K East fuel storage basin (KE Basin) floor, contiguous pits (Weasel Pit, North Load Out Pit, Dummy Elevator Pit, and Tech View Pit), and fuel storage canisters between 1995 and 2003 for chemical and radionuclide concentration analysis, physical property determination, and chemical process testing work. Because of the value of the sludge in this testing and because of the cost of obtaining additional fresh samples, an ongoing program of sludge preservation has taken place with the goals to track the sludge identities and preserve, as well as possible, the sludge composition by keeping the sludge in sealed jars and maintaining water coverage on the sludge consistent with the controlling Fluor Hanford (FH) Sampling and Analysis plans and FH contracts with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This work was originally initiated to provide material for planned hydrothermal treatment testing in accordance with the test plan for the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) corrosion process chemistry follow on testing (Delegard et al. 2007). Although most of the planned hydrothermal testing was canceled in July 2007 (as described in the forward of Delegard et al. 2007), sample consolidation and characterization was continued to identify a set of well-characterized sludge samples that are suited to support evolving STP initiatives. The work described in the letter was performed by the PNNL under the direction of the Sludge Treatment Project, managed by Fluor Hanford.

  2. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for improving anaerobic stabilization.

    Tiehm, A; Nickel, K; Zellhorn, M; Neis, U

    2001-06-01

    The pretreatment of waste activated sludge by ultrasonic disintegration was studied in order to improve the anaerobic sludge stabilization. The ultrasound frequency was varied within a range from 41 to 3217 kHz. The impact of different ultrasound intensities and treatment times was examined. Sludge disintegration was most significant at low frequencies. Low-frequency ultrasound creates large cavitation bubbles which upon collapse initiate powerful jet streams exerting strong shear forces in the liquid. The decreasing sludge disintegration efficiency observed at higher frequencies was attributed to smaller cavitation bubbles which do not allow the initiation of such strong shear forces. Short sonication times resulted in sludge floc deagglomeration without the destruction of bacteria cells. Longer sonication brought about the break-up of cell walls, the sludge solids were distintegrated and dissolved organic compounds were released. The anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge following ultrasonic pretreatment causing microbial cell lysis was significantly improved. There was an increase in the volatile solids degradation as well as an increase in the biogas production. The increase in digestion efficiency was proportional to the degree of sludge disintegration. To a lesser degree the deagglomeration of sludge flocs also augmented the anaerobic volatile solids degradation. PMID:11337847

  3. Using Boiling for Treating Waste Activated Sludge

    2002-01-01

    In this work we investigated the feasibility of using short time, low superheat boiling to treat biological sludge. The treated sludge exhibited reduced filterability and enhanced settleability. The boiling treatment released a large amount of extra-cellular polymers (ECPs) from the solid phase and reduced the microbial density levels of the total coliform bacteria and the heterotrophic bacteria. A diluted sludge is preferable for its high degree of organic hydrolysis and sufficient reduction in microbial density levels.

  4. On-line Measurements of Settling Charateristics in Activated Sludge

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben

    An on-line settling column for measuring the dynamic variations of settling velocity of activated sludge has been developed. The settling column is automatic and self-cleansing insuring continuous and reliable measurements. The settling column was tested on sludge from a batch reactor where sucrose...

  5. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus;

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... difference between nitrifying activated sludge and suspended biofilm carrier removal of several pharmaceuticals was demonstrated. Biofilm carriers from full-scale nitrifying wastewater treatment plants, demonstrated considerably higher removal rates per unit biomass (i.e. suspended solids for the sludges and...... attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast to...

  6. Bacterial composition of activated sludge - importance for floc and sludge properties

    Nielsen, Per H.; Thomsen, Trine R.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2003-07-01

    Activated sludge flocs consist of numerous constituents which, together with other factors, are responsible for floc structure and floc properties. These properties largely determine the sludge properties such as flocculation, settling and dewaterability. In this paper we briefly review the present knowledge about the role of bacteria in relation to floc and sludge properties, and we present a new approach to investigate the identity and function of the bacteria in the activated sludge flocs. The approach includes identification of the important bacteria and a characterization of their physiological and functional properties. It is carried out by use of culture-independent molecular biological methods linked with other methods to study the physiology and function maintaining a single cell resolution. Using this approach it was found that floc-forming properties differed among the various bacterial groups, e.g. that different microcolony-forming bacteria had very different sensitivities to shear and that some of them deflocculated under anaerobic conditions. in our opinion, the approach to combine identity with functional analysis of the dominant bacteria in activated sludge by in situ methods is a very promising way to investigate correlations between presence of specific bacteria, and floc and sludge properties that are of interest. (author)

  7. SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-11-16

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest

  8. Sludge Batch 7B Qualification Activities With SRS Tank Farm Sludge

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest

  9. Extracellular protein analysis of activated sludge and their functions in wastewater treatment plant by shotgun proteomics

    Peng Zhang; Yu Shen; Jin-Song Guo; Chun Li; Han Wang; You-Peng Chen; Peng Yan; Ji-Xiang Yang; Fang Fang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, proteins in extracellular polymeric substances extracted from anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic sludges of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were analyzed to probe their origins and functions. Extracellular proteins in WWTP sludges were identified using shotgun proteomics, and 130, 108 and 114 proteins in anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic samples were classified, respectively. Most proteins originated from cell and cell part, and their most major molecular functions were catalytic activ...

  10. Enhancement of activated sludge disintegration and dewaterability by Fenton process

    Heng, G. C.; Isa, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of sludge. This excess sludge is an inevitable drawback inherent to the activated sludge process. In this study, the waste activated sludge was obtained from the campus wastewater treatment plant at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia. Fenton pretreatment was optimized by using the response surface methodology (RSM) to study the effects of three operating conditions including the dosage of H2O2 (g H2O2/kg TS), the molar ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ and reaction time. The optimum operating variables to achieve MLVSS removal 65%, CST reduction 28%, sCOD 11000 mg/L and EPS 500 mg/L were: 1000 g H2O2/kg TS, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 70 and reaction time 45 min. Fenton process was proved to be able to enhance the sludge disintegration and dewaterability.

  11. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Elissen, Hellen H J; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30°C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus, feces from these worms and with mixtures of these substrates. A significant synergistic effect of the worms or their feces on methane production from the high-loaded sludge or on its digestion rate was not observed. However, a positive effect on low-loaded activated sludge, which generally has a lower anaerobic biodegradability, cannot be excluded. The results furthermore showed that the high-loaded sludge provides an excellent feed for L. variegatus, which is promising for concepts where worm biomass is considered a resource for technical grade products such as coatings and glues. PMID:26998797

  12. System design description for the consolidated sludge sampling system for K Basins floor and fuel canisters

    This System Design Description describes the Consolidated Sludge Sampling System used in the gathering of sludge samples from K Basin floor and fuel canisters. This document provides additional information on the need for the system, the functions and requirements of the systems, the operations of the system, and the general work plan used in its' design and development

  13. Test plan for K Basin Sludge Canister and Floor Sampling Device

    Meling, T.A.

    1995-03-28

    This document provides the test plan and procedure forms for conducting the functional and operational acceptance testing of the K Basin Sludge Canister and Floor Sampling Device(s). These samplers samples sludge off the floor of the 100K Basins and out of 100K fuel storage canisters.

  14. Sampling and analysis plan for the consolidated sludge samples from the canisters and floor of the 105-K East basin

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for sampling of fuel canister and floor Sludge from the K East Basin to complete the inventory of samples needed for Sludge treatment process testing. Sample volumes and sources consider recent reviews made by the Sludge treatment subproject. The representative samples will be characterized to the extent needed for the material to be used effectively for testing. Sampling equipment used allows drawing of large volume sludge samples and consolidation of sample material from a number of basin locations into one container. Once filled, the containers will be placed in a cask and transported to Hanford laboratories for recovery and evaluation. Included in the present SAP are the logic for sample location selection, laboratory analysis procedures required, and reporting needed to meet the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) for this initiative

  15. STP K Basin Sludge Sample Archive at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY2014

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) currently houses 88 samples (~10.5 kg) of K Basin sludge (81 wet and seven dry samples) on behalf of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), which is managed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Selected samples are intended to serve, in part, as sentinels to enhance understanding of sludge properties after long-term storage, and thus enhance understanding of sludge behavior following transfer to sludge transfer and storage containers (STSCs) and storage at the Hanford 200 Area central plateau. In addition, remaining samples serve in contingency for future testing requirements. At PNNL, the samples are tracked and maintained under a prescriptive and disciplined monthly sample-monitoring program implemented by PNNL staff. This report updates the status of the K Basin archive sludge sample inventory to April 2014. The previous inventory status report, PNNL 22245 (Fiskum et al. 2013, limited distribution report), was issued in February of 2013. This update incorporates changes in the inventory related to repackaging of 17 samples under test instructions 52578 TI052, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging for Continued Long Term Storage, and 52578 TI053, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging Post-2014 Shear Strength Measurements. Note that shear strength measurement results acquired in 2014 are provided separately. Specifically, this report provides the following: • a description of the K Basin sludge sample archive program and the sample inventory • a summary and images of the samples that were repackaged in April 2014 • up-to-date images and plots of the settled density and water loss from all applicable samples in the inventory • updated sample pedigree charts, which provide a roadmap of the genesis and processing history of each sample in the inventory • occurrence and deficiency reports associated with sample storage and repackaging

  16. Disturbance and temporal partitioning of the activated sludge metacommunity.

    Vuono, David C; Benecke, Jan; Henkel, Jochen; Navidi, William C; Cath, Tzahi Y; Munakata-Marr, Junko; Spear, John R; Drewes, Jörg E

    2015-02-01

    The resilience of microbial communities to press disturbances and whether ecosystem function is governed by microbial composition or by the environment have not been empirically tested. To address these issues, a whole-ecosystem manipulation was performed in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. The parameter solids retention time (SRT) was used to manipulate microbial composition, which started at 30 days, then decreased to 12 and 3 days, before operation was restored to starting conditions (30-day SRT). Activated sludge samples were collected throughout the 313-day time series in parallel with bioreactor performance ('ecosystem function'). Bacterial small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were surveyed from sludge samples resulting in a sequence library of >417,000 SSU rRNA genes. A shift in community composition was observed for 12- and 3-day SRTs. The composition was altered such that r-strategists were enriched in the system during the 3-day SRT, whereas K-strategists were only present at SRTs⩾12 days. This shift corresponded to loss of ecosystem functions (nitrification, denitrification and biological phosphorus removal) for SRTs⩽12 days. Upon return to a 30-day SRT, complete recovery of the bioreactor performance was observed after 54 days despite an incomplete recovery of bacterial diversity. In addition, a different, yet phylogenetically related, community with fewer of its original rare members displaced the pre-disturbance community. Our results support the hypothesis that microbial ecosystems harbor functionally redundant phylotypes with regard to general ecosystem functions (carbon oxidation, nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus accumulation). However, the impacts of decreased rare phylotype membership on ecosystem stability and micropollutant removal remain unknown. PMID:25126758

  17. Disturbance and temporal partitioning of the activated sludge metacommunity

    Vuono, David C; Benecke, Jan; Henkel, Jochen; Navidi, William C; Cath, Tzahi Y; Munakata-Marr, Junko; Spear, John R; Drewes, Jörg E

    2015-01-01

    The resilience of microbial communities to press disturbances and whether ecosystem function is governed by microbial composition or by the environment have not been empirically tested. To address these issues, a whole-ecosystem manipulation was performed in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. The parameter solids retention time (SRT) was used to manipulate microbial composition, which started at 30 days, then decreased to 12 and 3 days, before operation was restored to starting conditions (30-day SRT). Activated sludge samples were collected throughout the 313-day time series in parallel with bioreactor performance (‘ecosystem function'). Bacterial small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were surveyed from sludge samples resulting in a sequence library of >417 000 SSU rRNA genes. A shift in community composition was observed for 12- and 3-day SRTs. The composition was altered such that r-strategists were enriched in the system during the 3-day SRT, whereas K-strategists were only present at SRTs⩾12 days. This shift corresponded to loss of ecosystem functions (nitrification, denitrification and biological phosphorus removal) for SRTs⩽12 days. Upon return to a 30-day SRT, complete recovery of the bioreactor performance was observed after 54 days despite an incomplete recovery of bacterial diversity. In addition, a different, yet phylogenetically related, community with fewer of its original rare members displaced the pre-disturbance community. Our results support the hypothesis that microbial ecosystems harbor functionally redundant phylotypes with regard to general ecosystem functions (carbon oxidation, nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus accumulation). However, the impacts of decreased rare phylotype membership on ecosystem stability and micropollutant removal remain unknown. PMID:25126758

  18. Biotreatment of hydrocarbons contaminated soils by addition of activated sludges

    Activated sludges from the wastewater treatment of an oil refinery were characterized in order to improve the biotreatment of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. The objective was to evaluate whether such industrial wastes that are being sent to landfills could be used for any useful purposes. A sand pit soil that contained 416 mg PAHs/kg and a gas station soil containing 1 mg PAHs/kg were evaluated. The study showed that activated sludges contain high concentration of oil and grease. Activated sludges were also found to be a valuable source of nitrogen and adapted bacteria

  19. Microbial lipids and stable foam formation in the activated sludge process.

    Goddard, A J; Forster, C F

    1991-01-01

    The presence of fats and oils in sewage has been related to the formation of stable foams in activated sludge treatment systems. Foam forming microbes can utilise and, in some cases, store lipid substrates. Since surface lipids would confer the hydrophobicity necessary for flotation on the sludge biomass, the extractable lipids in foaming and non-foaming biomass samples were examined. Both pure mono-cultures and sludge samples were used. The results showed that, whilst there were some differences in the lipid profiles of the mono-cultures, the different sludge types did not show any significant pattern or variation which could be used as a lipid-based explanation for foam formation. PMID:1907713

  20. Active heterotrophic biomass and sludge retention time (SRT) as determining factors for biodegradation kinetics of pharmaceuticals in activated sludge.

    Majewsky, Marius; Gallé, Tom; Yargeau, Viviane; Fischer, Klaus

    2011-08-01

    The present study investigates the biodegradation of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) by active biomass in activated sludge. Active heterotrophs (X(bh)) which are known to govern COD removal are suggested as a determining factor for biological PhAC removal as well. Biodegradation kinetics of five polar PhACs were determined in activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants which differed in size, layout and sludge retention time (SRT). Results showed that active fractions of the total suspended solids (TSS) differed significantly between the two sludges, indicating that TSS does not reveal information about heterotrophic activity. Furthermore, PhAC removal was significantly faster in the presence of high numbers of heterotrophs and a low SRT. Pseudo first-order kinetics were modified to include X(bh) and used to describe decreasing PhAC elimination with increasing SRT. PMID:21652206

  1. Biotransformation and adsorption of pharmaceutical and personal care products by activated sludge after correcting matrix effects.

    Deng, Yu; Li, Bing; Yu, Ke; Zhang, Tong

    2016-02-15

    This study reported significant suppressive matrix effects in analyses of six pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in activated sludge, sterilized activated sludge and untreated sewage by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Quantitative matrix evaluation on selected PPCPs supplemented the limited quantification data of matrix effects on mass spectrometric determination of PPCPs in complex environment samples. The observed matrix effects were chemical-specific and matrix-dependent, with the most pronounced average effect (-55%) was found on sulfadiazine in sterilized activated sludge. After correcting the matrix effects by post-spiking known amount of PPCPs, the removal mechanisms and biotransformation kinetics of selected PPCPs in activated sludge system were revealed by batch experiment. Experimental data elucidated that the removal of target PPCPs in the activated sludge process was mainly by biotransformation while contributions of adsorption, hydrolysis and volatilization could be neglected. High biotransformation efficiency (52%) was observed on diclofenac while other three compounds (sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole and roxithromycin) were partially biotransformed by ~40%. The other two compounds, trimethoprim and carbamazepine, showed recalcitrant to biotransformation of the activated sludge. PMID:26706769

  2. CONDITIONING PROCESS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FRESH ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    SALAM K. AL-DAWERY

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fresh activated sludge in many wastewater treatment plants may be considered unhealthy due to the large amount of organic and organism content. Due to the lack of research on municipal sludge, there is an apparent scarcity of actual data. Thus, this work will focus on the characterization of fresh activated sludge. The effect of dosage of different polyelectrolytes and coagulants has been investigated at pH level in a comparative fashion that is commonly associated with fresh activated sludge. The results indicated that the cationic polyelectrolytes had significant effluence on the sludge properties, degree of flocculation and water quality. With respect to the optical analyses, it was observed that the floc sizes and densities were increased with rise concentrations of both types of cationic polyelectrolytes. It was found that the cationic CPAM-80 was the most effective chemical among other six used chemicals especially for solutions with pH near neutrality despite of the variations in feed properties of the fresh activated sludge. This polyelectrolyte gave lower turbidity, lower sludge volume index, faster zone settling rate and large floc density.

  3. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil Ocorrência de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado em Campinas, SP, Brasil

    Luciana Urbano Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans associated with drinking water. Contaminated sewage effluents are recognized as a potential source of waterborne protozoa. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these parasites in sewage samples in Brazil, we compared the efficiency of two procedures for concentrating cysts and oocysts in activated sludge samples of one sewage treatment plant. For this, the samples were submitted to i concentration by the ether clarification procedure (ECP and to ii purification by sucrose flotation method (SFM and aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence. Giardia cysts were present in all samples (100.0%; n = 8 when using ECP and kit 1 reagents, while kit 2 resulted in six positive samples (85.7%; n = 7. As for SFM, cysts were detected in 75.0% and 100.0% of these samples (for kit 1 and 2, respectively. Regarding Cryptosporidium, two samples (25.0%; kit 1 and 28.5% for kit 2 were detected positive by using ECP, while for SFM, only one sample (examined by kit 1 was positive (12.5%. The results of the control trial revealed Giardia and Cryptosporidium recovery efficiency rates for ECP of 54.5% and 9.6%, while SFM was 10.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Considering the high concentration detected, a previous evaluation of the activated sludge before its application in agriculture is recommended and with some improvement, ECP would be an appropriate simple technique for protozoa detection in sewage samples.Giardia e Cryptosporidium causaram vários surtos epidêmicos de gastroenterite, associados à água potável. Efluentes de esgoto contaminados foram incriminados como uma fonte potencial de cistos e oocistos. Uma investigação foi conduzida para verificar a presença de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado de uma Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto. Para isto as amostras foram submetidas: i a concentração pelo

  4. Characterization of the SRNL-Washed tank 51 sludge batch 9 qualification sample

    Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel have been requested to qualify the next sludge batch (Sludge Batch 9 – SB9) for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To accomplish this task, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) sent SRNL a 3-L sample of Tank 51H slurry to be characterized, washed, and then used in a lab-scale demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet (after combining with Tank 40H sludge). SRNL has washed the Tank 51H sample per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. A part of the qualification process is extensive radionuclide and chemical characterization of the SRNL-washed Tank 51H slurry. This report documents the chemical characterization of the washed slurry; radiological characterization is in progress and will be documented in a separate report. The analytical results of this characterization are comparable to the Tank Farm projections. Therefore, it is recommended that SRNL use this washed slurry for the ongoing SB9 qualification activities.

  5. Characterization of the SRNL-Washed tank 51 sludge batch 9 qualification sample

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel have been requested to qualify the next sludge batch (Sludge Batch 9 – SB9) for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To accomplish this task, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) sent SRNL a 3-L sample of Tank 51H slurry to be characterized, washed, and then used in a lab-scale demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet (after combining with Tank 40H sludge). SRNL has washed the Tank 51H sample per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. A part of the qualification process is extensive radionuclide and chemical characterization of the SRNL-washed Tank 51H slurry. This report documents the chemical characterization of the washed slurry; radiological characterization is in progress and will be documented in a separate report. The analytical results of this characterization are comparable to the Tank Farm projections. Therefore, it is recommended that SRNL use this washed slurry for the ongoing SB9 qualification activities.

  6. Modelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment

    Kurtanjeka, Ž.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge wastewater treatment is a highly complex physical, chemical and biological process, and variations in wastewater flow rate and its composition, combined with time-varying reactions in a mixed culture of microorganisms, make this process non-linear and unsteady. The efficiency of the process is established by measuring the quantities that indicate quality of the treated wastewater, but they can only be determined at the end of the process, which is when the water has already been processed and is at the outlet of the plant and released into the environment.If the water quality is not acceptable, it is already too late for its improvement, which indicates the need for a feed forward process control based on a mathematical model. Since there is no possibility of retracing the process steps back, all the mistakes in the control of the process could induce an ecological disaster of a smaller or bigger extent. Therefore, models that describe this process well may be used as a basis for monitoring and optimal control of the process development. This work analyzes the process of biological treatment of wastewater in the Velika Gorica plant. Two empirical models for the description of the process were established, multiple linear regression model (MLR with 16 predictor variables and piecewise linear regression model (PLR with 17 predictor variables. These models were developed with the aim to predict COD value of the effluent wastewater at the outlet, after treatment. The development of the models is based on the statistical analysis of experimental data, which are used to determine the relations among individual variables. In this work are applied linear models based on multiple linear regression (MLR and partial least squares (PLR methods. The used data were obtained by everyday measurements of the quantities that indicate the quality of the input and output water, working conditions of the plant and the quality of the activated sludge

  7. Sampling and analysis of radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Ceo, R.N.; Ferrada, J.J.; Griest, W.H.; Keller, J.M.; Schenley, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The sampling and analysis of the radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), as well as two of the evaporator service facility storage tanks at ORNL, are described. Aqueous samples of the supernatant liquid and composite samples of the sludges were analyzed for major constituents, radionuclides, total organic carbon, and metals listed as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Liquid samples from five tanks and sludge samples from three tanks were analyzed for organic compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Target Compound List. Estimates were made of the inventory of liquid and sludge phases in the tanks. Descriptions of the sampling and analytical activities and tabulations of the results are included. The report provides data in support of the design of the proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant, the Liquid Low-Level Waste Solidification Project, and research and development activities (R D) activities in developing waste management alternatives. 7 refs., 8 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Application of activated sludge as a complementary in bioethanol production

    Hamzeh Imani; Azam Jeihanipour; Mohammad Ali Asadollahi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Excess activated sludge contains large amounts of components such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfur which can theoretically be used as a nutrient source in fermentation processes to produce value added materials. In the present study, the possibility to grow Saccharomyces cerevisiae and produce ethanol on pretreated and untreated activated sludge as a nutrient source was investigated. Materials and methods: In this article, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CEN.PK...

  9. Purification of total DNA extracted from activated sludge.

    Shan, Guobin; Jin, Wenbiao; Lam, Edward K H; Xing, Xinhui

    2008-01-01

    Purification of the total DNA extracted from activated sludge samples was studied. The effects of extraction buffers and lysis treatments (lysozyme, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sonication, mechanical mill and thermal shock) on yield and purity of the total DNA extracted from activated sludge were investigated. It was found that SDS and mechanical mill were the most effective ways for cell lysis, and both gave the highest DNA yields, while by SDS and thermal shock, the purest DNA extract could be obtained. The combination of SDS with other lysis treatment, such as sonication and thermal shock, could apparently increase the DNA yields but also result in severe shearing. For the purification of the crude DNA extract, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone was used for the removal of humic contaminants. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, potassium acetate and phenol/chloroform were used to remove proteins and polysaccharides from crude DNA. Crude DNA was further purified by isopropanol precipitation. Thus, a suitable protocol was proposed for DNA extraction, yielding about 49.9 mg (total DNA)/g volatile suspended solids, and the DNA extracts were successfully used in PCR amplifications for 16S rDNA and 16S rDNA V3 region. The PCR products of 16S rDNA V3 region allowed the DGGE analysis (denatured gradient gel electrophoresis) to be possible. PMID:18572527

  10. Purification of total DNA extracted from activated sludge

    2008-01-01

    Purification of the total DNA extracted from activated sludge samples was studied. The effects of extraction buffers and lysis treatments (lysozyme, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sonication, mechanical mill and thermal shock) on yield and purity of the total DNA extracted from activated sludge were investigated. It was found that SDS and mechanical mill were the most effective ways for cell lysis, and both gave the highest DNA yields, while by SDS and thermal shock, the purest DNA extract could be obtained. The combination of SDS with other lysis treatment, such as sonication and thermal shock, could apparently increase the DNA yields but also result in severe shearing. For the purification of the crude DNA extract, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone was used for the removal of humic contaminants. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, potassium acetate and phenol/chloroform were used to remove proteins and polysaccharides from crude DNA. Crude DNA was further purified by isopropanol precipitation. Thus, a suitable protocol was proposed for DNA extraction, yielding about 49.9 mg (DNA)/g volatile suspended solids, and the DNA extracts were successfully used in PCR amplifications for 16S rDNA and 16S rDNA V3 region. The PCR products of 16S rDNA V3 region allowed the DGGE analysis (denatured gradient gel electrophoresis) to be possible.

  11. Oxygen-activated sludge considerations for industrial applications

    Adams, C.E.; Eckenfelder, W.W.; Koon, J.H.; Shelby, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    An economic comparison between air- and oxygen-activated sludge systems shows that for a plant designed to handle 60,000 lb/day of BOD, the oxygen system is $1.9 million less costly than an air system employing low-speed mechanical surface aerators. The factors to consider when evaluating the potential of pure oxygen for industrial wastewater applications are discussed, including organic removal kinetics, equilibrium aeration basin temperature and pH, stripping of volatile organics (e.g., toluene and benzene), control of odors, susceptibility to shock loadings, operating mixed liquor volatile suspended solids levels, sludge production, and sludge settleability.

  12. COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT MODELS FOR RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    A. H. Khalili Garakani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge flow rheology is a very complicated phenomenon. Studies related to activated sludge tend to classify sludge as non-Newtonian fluid. Until now, several theories have been built to describe the complex behavior of activated sludge with varying degrees of success. In this article, seven different models for viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids (i.e., Power law, Bingham plastic, Herschel-Bulkley, Casson, Sisko, Carreau and Cross were considered to evaluate their predictive capability of apparent viscosity of activated sludge. Results showed that although evaluating the constants in the four-parameter models is difficult, they provide the best prediction of viscosity in the whole range of shear rates for activated sludge. For easier prediction of viscosity at different mixed liquor suspended solids (2.74-31g/L, temperature (15-25°C and shear rate (1-1000/s, simple correlations were proposed. Comparing the results with the experimental data revealed that the proposed correlations are in good agreement with real apparent viscosities.

  13. Diversity and dynamics of Archaea in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant

    Fredriksson, Nils Johan; Hermansson, Malte; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background The activated sludge process is one of the most widely used methods for treatment of wastewater and the microbial community composition in the sludge is important for the process operation. While the bacterial communities have been characterized in various activated sludge systems little is known about archaeal communities in activated sludge. The diversity and dynamics of the Archaea community in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant were investigated by fluores...

  14. Sample preparation of drinking, ground and waste water as well as of sewage sludge, residual materials and wastes

    The primary objective of the preparation of water and sewage sludge samples consists in reducing the volume of the sample aimed at increasing their activity concentration or specific activity, that means the radionuclide(s) to be determined are to be enriched in the sample in order to reduce the detection limit. As a rule, a simplified preparation procedure may be used, such as evaporation of water samples, drying of sludge samples, because the determination of nuclides by means of gamma spectroscopy is performed parallely and undisturbedly. It is also usual to combine different preparation procedures, e.g. to evaporate a water sample converting it into a measuring preparation in filter geometry for gamma spectroscopy, and further converting it into an yttrium-90 measuring preparation in order to determine strontium-90 via the daughter nuclide. (orig./DG)

  15. [Biodiversity and Function Analyses of BIOLAK Activated Sludge Metagenome].

    Tian, Mei; Liu, Han-hu; Shen, Xin; Zhao, Fang-qing; Chen, Shuai; Yao, Yong-jia

    2015-05-01

    The BIOLAK is a multi-stage activated sludge process, which has been successfully promoted worldwide. However, the biological community and function of the BIOLAK activated sludge ( the core component in the process) have not been reported so far. In this study, taking Lianyungang Dapu Industrial Zone WWTP as an example, a large-scale metagenomic data (428 588 high-quality DNA sequences) of the BIOLAK activated sludge were obtained by means of a new generation of high-throughput sequencing technology. Amazing biodiversity was revealed in the BIOLAK activated sludge, which included 47 phyla, 872 genera and 1351 species. There were 33 phyla identified in the Bacteria domain (289 933 sequences). Proteohacteria was the most abundant phylum (62.54%), followed by Bacteroidetes (11.29%), Nitrospirae ( 5. 65%) and Planctomycetes (4.79%), suggesting that these groups played a key role in the BIOLAK wastewater treatment system. Among the 748 bacterial genera, Nitrospira (5.60%) was the most prevalent genus, which was a key group in the nitrogen cycle. Followed by Gemmatimonas (2.45%), which was an important genus in the biological phosphorus removal process. In Archaea domain (1019 sequences), three phyla and 39 genera were detected. In Eukaryota domain (1055 sequences), 60 genera and 10 phyla were identified, among which Ciliophora was the largest phylum (257 sequences). Meanwhile, 448 viral sequences were detected in the BIOLAK sludge metagenome, which were dominated by bacteriophages. The proportions of nitrogen, aromatic compounds and phosphorus metabolism in the BIOLAK sludge were 2.50%, 2.28% and 1.56%, respectively, which were higher than those in the sludge of United States and Australia. Among four processes of nitrogen metabolism, denitrification-related genes were most abundant (80.81%), followed by ammonification (12.78%), nitrification,(4.38%) and nitrogen fixation (2.04%). In conclusion, the BIOLAK activated sludge had amazing biodiversity, meanwhile

  16. Application of Gamma irradiation in treatment of Waste Activated Sludge to Obtain Class a Biosolids

    Mohammed I. AL-Ghonaiem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main objective of the current study was investigation of the possible application of Gamma irradiation for treatment of the activated sludge generated wastewater treatment stations, to achieve the standard requirements in term of pathogens content. Approach: Activated sludge samples were collected from Riyadh wastewater plant and analyzed quantitatively for the presence of important bacterial parameters including fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. The collected samples were treated with various doses of Gamma irradiation and bacterial count was determined. Results: The results indicated that all tested sludge samples were positive for the presence of fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp, with different counts in different stages of wastewater treatment. The raw sludge showed to have the highest coliforms and Salmonella spp counts of 1.1×108 and 2×103 MPN g-1 dry sludge, respectively. Furthermore, coliforms and Salmonella spp were detected in final resulted sludge with count of 2.5×107 and 6×102 MPN g-1 dry sludge, respectively. It was found that treatment of samples with gamma irradiation was able to reduce the fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp effectively and the reduction efficiency was increased by increasing the irradiation dose. Fecal coliforms and Salmonella counts were reduced to less than 100 MPN g-1 dry sludge by exposing to 1.5 and 0.25 kGy respectively. Furthermore, Gamma radiation dose of 2.0 kGy was able to remove both fecal coliforms and Salomnella spp completely. In addition, D10 values were determined and was found to be 0.25 and 0.24 kGy for fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp., respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results indicating that the resulted activated sludge generated from Riyadh wastewater plant are rich with important pathogens and therefore further treatment procedures are necessary to achieve the required standards, before any land application. Application of

  17. Nitrogen in the Process of Waste Activated Sludge Anaerobic Digestion

    Suschka Jan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary or secondary sewage sludge in medium and large WWTP are most often processed by anaerobic digestion, as a method of conditioning, sludge quantity minimization and biogas production. With the aim to achieve the best results of sludge processing several modifications of technologies were suggested, investigated and introduced in the full technical scale. Various sludge pretreatment technologies before anaerobic treatment have been widely investigated and partially introduced. Obviously, there are always some limitations and some negative side effects. Selected aspects have been presented and discussed. The problem of nitrogen has been highlighted on the basis of the carried out investigations. The single and two step - mesophilic and thermophilic - anaerobic waste activated sludge digestion processes, preceded by preliminary hydrolysis were investigated. The aim of lab-scale experiments was pre-treatment of the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline and hydrodynamic disintegration. Depending on the pretreatment technologies and the digestion temperature large ammonia concentrations, up to 1800 mg NH4/dm3 have been measured. Return of the sludge liquor to the main sewage treatment line means additional nitrogen removal costs. Possible solutions are discussed.

  18. Sorption and degradation of bisphenol A by aerobic activated sludge

    Laboratory-scale batch experiments were conducted to investigate the sorption and degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) at μg/L range in an aerobic activated sludge system. The sorption isotherms and thermodynamics indicated that the sorption of BPA on sludge was mainly a physical process in which partitioning played a dominating role. The values of sorption coefficient Koc were between 621 and 736 L/kg in the temperature range of 10-30 deg. C. Both mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) and temperature influenced BPA sorption on sludge. The degradation of BPA by acclimated activated sludge could be described by first-order reaction equation with the first-order degradation rate constant of 0.80 h-1 at 20 deg. C. The decrease of initial COD concentration and the increase of MLSS concentration and temperature enhanced BPA degradation rate. The removal of BPA in the activated sludge system was characterized by a quick sorption on the activated sludge and subsequent biodegradation

  19. Cometabolic degradation of organic wastewater micropollutants by activated sludge and sludge-inherent microorganisms.

    Fischer, Klaus; Majewsky, Marius

    2014-08-01

    Municipal wastewaters contain a multitude of organic trace pollutants. Often, their biodegradability by activated sludge microorganisms is decisive for their elimination during wastewater treatment. Since the amounts of micropollutants seem too low to serve as growth substrate, cometabolism is supposed to be the dominating biodegradation process. Nevertheless, as many biodegradation studies were performed without the intention to discriminate between metabolic and cometabolic processes, the specific contribution of the latter to substance transformations is often not clarified. This minireview summarizes current knowledge about the cometabolic degradation of organic trace pollutants by activated sludge and sludge-inherent microorganisms. Due to their relevance for communal wastewater contamination, the focus is laid on pharmaceuticals, personal care products, antibiotics, estrogens, and nonylphenols. Wherever possible, reference is made to the molecular process level, i.e., cometabolic pathways, involved enzymes, and formed transformation products. Particular cometabolic capabilities of different activated sludge consortia and various microbial species are highlighted. Process conditions favoring cometabolic activities are emphasized. Finally, knowledge gaps are identified, and research perspectives are outlined. PMID:24866947

  20. Low intensity ultrasound stimulates biological activity of aerobic activated sludge

    LIU Hong; YAN Yixin; WANG Wenyan; YU Yongyong

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to explore a procedure to improve biological wastewater treatment efficiency using low intensity ultrasound.The aerobic activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was used as the experimental material.Oxygen uptake rate(OUR)of the activated sludge (AS)was determined to indicate the changes of AS activity stimulated by ultrasound at 35 kHZ for 0-40 min with ultrasonic intensities of 0-1.2 W/cm2.The highest OUR was observed at the ultrasonic intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 and an irradiation period of 10 min;more than 15% increase was achieved immediately after sonication.More significantly,the AS activity stimulated by ultrasound could last 24 h after sonication,and the AS activity achieved its peak value within 8 h after sonication.or nearly 100% higher than the initial level after sonication.Therefore,to improve the wastewater treatment efficiency of bioreactors,ultrasound with an intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 could be employed to irradiate a part of the AS in the bioreactor for 10 min every 8 h.

  1. Enrichment and activity of methanotrophic microorganisms from municipal wastewater sludge.

    Siniscalchi, Luciene Alves Batista; Vale, Isabel Campante; Dell'Isola, Jéssica; Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto; Calabria Araujo, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, methanotrophic microorganisms were enriched from a municipal wastewater sludge taken from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor. The enrichment was performed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with an autotrophic medium containing nitrite and nitrate. The microbial community composition of the inoculum and of the enrichment culture after 100 days of SBR operation was investigated and compared with the help of data obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analyses. The nitrite and nitrate removal efficiencies were 68% and 53%, respectively, probably due to heterotrophic denitrification. Archaeal cells of the anaerobic methanotrophic Archaic (ANME)-I and ANME-II groups were detected by polymerase chain reaction throughout the whole cultivation period. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that community composition was different among the two samples analysed. The dominant phyla found in the inoculum were Synergistestes, Firmicutes and Euryarchaeota, while Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria prevailed in the enriched biomass. The cultivation conditions decreased Methanobacterium abundance from 8% to 1%, and enriched for methanotrophic bacteria such as Methylocaldum, Methylocistis and Methylosinus. Sequences of Methylocaldum sp. accounted for 2.5% of the total reads. The presence and high predominance of Verrucomicrobia in the enriched biomass suggested that other unknown methanotrophic species related to that phylum might also have occurred in the reactor. Anaerobic methane oxidation activity was measured for both samples, and showed that the activity of the enrichment culture was nearly three times higher than the activity of the inoculum. Taken together, these results showed that the inoculum type and cultivation conditions were properly suited for methanotrophic enrichment. PMID:25495866

  2. Contamination of PAHs in Sludge Samples from the Yangtze River Delta Area

    SHEN Rong-Yan; LUO Yong-Ming; ZHANG Gang-Ya; TENG Ying; LI Zhen-Gao; WU Long-Hua

    2007-01-01

    To ascertain the contaminated conditions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge and to evaluate the risk of application of this sludge for agricultural purposes, 44 sludge samples obtained from 15 cities in the Yangtze River Delta area of China were investigated using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after ultrasonic extraction and silica gel cleanup. PAHs' contents ranged from 0.0167 to 15.4860 mg kg-1 (dry weight, DW) and averaged 1.376 mg kg-1, with most samples containing<1.5 mg kg-1. Pyrene (PY), fluoranthene (FL), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IND), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP) were the most dominant compounds, ranging from 0.1582 to 0.2518 mg kg-1. Single PAH, such as naphthalene (NAP, 2-benzene rings), phenan-threne (PA, 3-benzene rings), PY (4-benzene rings), and FL (3-benzene rings), had high detection rates (76.1%-93.5%). The distribution patterns of PAHs were found to vary with the sludge samples; however, the patterns showed that a few compounds with 2- and 3-benzene rings were commonly found in the samples, whereas those with 4-, 5-, and 6-benzene rings were usually less commonly found. All the 44 sludge samples were within the B[a]P concentration limit for sludge applied to agricultural land in China (< 3.0 mg kg-1). The probable sources of PAH contamination in the sludge samples were petroleum, petroleum products, and combustion of liquid and solid fuel. The concentrations and distributions of the 16 PAHs in sludge were related to sludge type, source, and treatment technology, together with the physicochemical properties.

  3. Combined γ-ray irradiation-activated sludge treatment of humic acid solution from landfill leachate

    Humic acid, which is a typical microbially refractory organic substance, was extracted from a landfill leachate. The humic acid solution (COD=367 mg 1-1; TOC=293 mg 1-1; BOD=27 mg 1-1) was applied to a batch scale activated sludge treatment after the modification of its biodegradability by γ-ray irradiation. The BOD increased to 64 mg 1-1 by irradiation of 15 kGy (1.5 Mrad), while the COD and TOC decreased to 231 and 230 mg 1-1, respectively. When the irradiated sample was treated with an activated sludge, the BOD decreased rapidly to a similar value as the unirradiated sample. The elimination efficiency of TOC by the sludge treatment was approximately equal to that obtained by irradiation of 15 kGy. These facts suggest a utility of applying microbial processes after radiation treatment of microbially refractory wastewaters. (author)

  4. The abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in activated sludge under autotrophic domestication.

    Li, Qiang; Ma, Chao; Sun, Shifang; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Jun; Song, Cunjiang

    2013-04-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) play a key role in nitrogen-removal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as they can transform ammonia into nitrite. AOB can be enriched in activated sludge through autotrophic domestication although they are difficult to be isolated. In this study, autotrophic domestication was carried out in a lab-scale sequencing-batch-reactor (SBR) system with two activated sludge samples. The ammonia removal capacity of the sludge samples increased during the domestication, and pH exhibited a negative correlation with the ammonia removal amount, which indicated that it was one important factor of microbial ammonia oxidation. The count of AOB, measured by the most probable number (MPN) method, increased significantly during autotrophic domestication as ammonia oxidation efficiency was enhanced. We investigated the changes in the community structure of AOB before and after domestication by amoA clone library and T-RFLP profile. It showed that AOB had been successfully enriched and the community structure significantly shifted during the domestication. Two groups of AOB were found in sludge samples: Nitrosomonas-like group remained predominant all the time and Nitrosospira-like group changed obviously. Simultaneously, the total heterotrophic bacteria were investigated by MPN and Biolog assay. The metabolic diversity of heterotrophs had changed minutely, although the count of them decreased significantly and lost superiority of microbial communities in the sludge. PMID:24620598

  5. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g−1 of copper, 487 μg g−1 of lead, 793 μg g−1 of zinc, 27 μg g−1 of nickel and 2.3 μg g−1 of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 gdry weight L−1 waste activated sludge, 80–85% of the copper, 66–69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94–99% of the nickel and 73–83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. - Highlights: • Heavy metals were leached during anaerobic acidification of waste activated sludge. • The process does not require the addition of chelating or oxidizing agents. • The metal leaching efficiencies (66 to 99%) were comparable to chemical leaching. • The produced leachate may be used for metal recovery and biogas production. • The produced digested sludge may be used as soil conditioner

  6. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    Meulepas, Roel J.W., E-mail: roel.meulepas@wetsus.nl [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Thuwal 13955-69000 (Saudi Arabia); Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Saikaly, Pascal E. [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Thuwal 13955-69000 (Saudi Arabia); Lens, Piet N.L. [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g{sup −1} of copper, 487 μg g{sup −1} of lead, 793 μg g{sup −1} of zinc, 27 μg g{sup −1} of nickel and 2.3 μg g{sup −1} of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 g{sub dry} {sub weight} L{sup −1} waste activated sludge, 80–85% of the copper, 66–69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94–99% of the nickel and 73–83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. - Highlights: • Heavy metals were leached during anaerobic acidification of waste activated sludge. • The process does not require the addition of chelating or oxidizing agents. • The metal leaching efficiencies (66 to 99%) were comparable to chemical leaching. • The produced leachate may be used for metal recovery and biogas production. • The produced digested sludge may be used as soil conditioner.

  7. An activated sludge model for xenobiotic organic micro-pollutants (ASM-X)

    Plósz, Benedek; Lehnberg, K.; Dott, W.;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an evaluation of the process model developed by Plósz et al. (2010a) to predict the fate of antibiotics xenobiotic organic micro-pollutants (XOMs) in activated sludge systems. Instead of spiking the batch reactors with reference substances, observations were made using the...... XOMs content of pre-clarified municipal sewage. Evaluation of the model structure is carried out in dynamic simulations using data obtained in samples taken in a measuring campaign in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Our results suggest that the sorption of the...

  8. Use of metagenomic approaches to isolate lipolytic genes from activated sludge.

    Liaw, Ren-Bao; Cheng, Mei-Ping; Wu, Ming-Che; Lee, Chia-Yin

    2010-11-01

    The aims of this study were to access the bacterial diversity and isolate lipolytic genes using the metagenomic approach in activated sludge of a swine wastewater treatment facility. On the basis of BLASTN analysis of 16S rRNA gene clones, most of these communities (90%) were of uncultivated bacteria. The metagenomic library was constructed using a plasmid vector and DNA extracted directly from activated sludge samples. The average insert size was approximately 5.1 kb. A total of 12 unique and lipolytic clones were obtained using the tributyrin plate assay. The rate of discovering a lipolytic clone in this study was as high as 0.31%. Molecular analysis revealed that most of the 16 putative lipolytic enzymes showed 28-55% identity with non-redundant protein sequences in the database. Briefly, this study demonstrates that activated sludge is an ideal bioresource for isolating new lipolytic enzymes. PMID:20639117

  9. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    Meulepas, Roel J W

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342μgg-1 of copper, 487μgg-1 of lead, 793μgg-1 of zinc, 27μgg-1 of nickel and 2.3μgg-1 of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3gdry weightL-1 waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead.

  10. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge.

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal E; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g(-1) of copper, 487 μg g(-1) of lead, 793 μg g(-1) of zinc, 27 μg g(-1) of nickel and 2.3 μg g(-1) of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 gdry weight L(-1) waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. PMID:25659306

  11. Aerobic storage under dynamic conditions in activated sludge processes

    Majone, M.; Dircks, K.

    1999-01-01

    In activated sludge processes, several plant configurations (like plug-flow configuration of the aeration tanks, systems with selectors, contact-stabilization processes or SBR processes) impose a concentration gradient of the carbon sources to the biomass. As a consequence, the biomass grows under...... main reference to its relevance on population dynamics in the activated sludge. Possible conceptual approaches to storage modelling are also presented, including both structured and unstructured modelling. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....... mechanisms can also contribute to substrate removal, depending on the microbial composition and the previous "history" of the biomass. In this paper the type and the extent of this dynamic response is discussed by review of experimental studies on pure cultures, mixed cultures and activated sludges and with...

  12. Evidence that microorganisms cause inactivation of viruses in activated sludge.

    Ward, R L

    1982-01-01

    Virus loss in activated sludge appeared to be caused by microorganisms. This conclusion is supported by the finding that poliovirus infectivity decreased during incubation in mixed-liquor suspended solids, primarily because of a sedimentable, heat-sensitive component. Furthermore, broth spiked with mixed-liquor suspended solids acquired antiviral activity during incubation.

  13. High-rate activated sludge communities have a distinctly different structure compared to low-rate sludge communities, and are less sensitive towards environmental and operational variables.

    Meerburg, Francis A; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E.; Roume, Hugo; Seuntjens, Dries; Dietmar H. Pieper; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    High-rate activated sludge processes allow for the recovery of organics and energy from wastewaters. These systems are operated at a short sludge retention time and high sludge-specific loading rates, which results in a higher sludge yield and better digestibility than conventional, low-rate activated sludge. Little is known about the microbial ecology of high-rate systems. In this work, we address the need for a fundamental understanding of how high-rate microbial communities differ from low...

  14. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil: Activated sludge treatability study

    Batch activated sludge treatability studies utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils (diesel oil and leaded gasoline) were conducted to determine: initial indigenous biological activity in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; limiting factors of microbiological growth by investigating nutrient addition, chemical emulsifiers, and co-substrate; acclimation of indigenous population of microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as sole carbon source; and temperature effects. Soil samples were taken from three different contaminated sites and sequencing batch reactors were run. Substrate (diesel fuel) and nutrient were added as determined by laboratory analysis of orthophosphate, ammonia nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. Substrate was made available to the bacterial mass by experimenting with four different chemical emulsifiers. Indigenous microorganisms capable of biotransforming hydrocarbons seem to be present in all the contaminated soil samples received from all sites. Microscopic analysis revealed no visible activity at the beginning of the study and presence of flagellated protozoa, paramecium, rotifers, and nematodes at the end of the year. Nutrient requirements and the limiting factors in microorganism growth were determined for each site. An emulsifier was initially necessary to make the substrate available to the microbial population. Decreases in removal were found with lowered temperature. Removal efficiencies ranged from 50-90%. 95 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs

  15. Formation of nitrous oxide (N2O) in activated sludge from waste-water treatment plants

    In activated sludge from wastewater treatment plants nitrous oxide is formed, under reduced levels of oxygen or anoxic conditions. Especially higher nitrite concentration stimulated stronger production of N2O under anoxic conditions. Already when the dissolved O2 falls below 1,8 mg/l, N2O formation sets in. The maximal N2O production is observed at about 0,9 mg/l O2. As dissolved O2 sinks even further (to near zero), the rate of N2O formation falls again, unless other unfavorable environmental conditions stimulate N2O production. Activated sludge from the same treatment plant taken at different times can show quite different N2O production under standard conditions. N2O formation in activated sludge samples taken from different treatment plants ranges from 20 to more than 7000 ml N2O per hour per kg of protein (biomass). These experiments indicate, in addition, that sludges with particularly high N2O formation showed remarkebly lower nitrification rates upon aeration than sludges with lower N2O production. - The floc-forming bacteria, which under anoxic conditions use nitrate in place of oxygen as electron acceptor in an anaerobic respiration and which can contribute to N2O formation, are members of different metabolic groups. (orig.)

  16. Transient Response of Aerobic and Anoxic Activated Sludge Activities to Sudden Substrate Concentration Changes

    Sin, G.; Vanrolleghem, P.A.; Gernaey, Krist

    2004-01-01

    The state-of-the-art understanding of activated sludge processes as summarized in activated sludge models (ASMs) predicts an instantaneous increase in the biomass activity (which is measured, e.g., by the corresponding respiration rate OUR, NUR, etc.) under sudden substrate concentration changes....

  17. Effect of Various Polar Solvents to The Improvement of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Bacterial Quinones from Activated Sludge

    ., Irvan

    2010-01-01

    Extraction and identification of bacterial quinones is becoming increasingly important. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the possibility of extracting quinones from activated sludge using supercritical fluid extraction and also to investigate the effect of various polar solvents in order to improve the yield. A ± 0.1 g freeze-dried activated sludge sample was extracted at 35o C, 20 Mpa using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). This technique was able to extra...

  18. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity. PMID:25398411

  19. Impact of solid retention time and nitrification capacity on the ability of activated sludge to remove pharmaceuticals

    Falås, Per; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Ledin, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    Removal of five acidic pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and clofibric acid) by activated sludge from five municipal activated sludge treatment processes, with various sludge ages and nitrification capacities, was assessed through batch experiments. The increase in aero...

  20. Re-activation characteristics of preserved aerobic granular sludge

    ZHANG Li-li; ZHANG Bo; HUANG Yu-feng; CAI Wei-min

    2005-01-01

    In some industrial plants, wastewater was intermittently or seasonally generated. There may be periods during which wastewater treatment facilities have to be set into an idle phase over several weeks. When wastewater was generated again, the activated sludge flocs may have disintegrated. In this experiment, re-activation characteristics of aerobic granular sludge starved for 2 months were investigated.Specific oxygen utilization rate(SOUR) was used as an indicator to evaluate the metabolic activity of the sludge. The results revealed that aerobic granular sludge could be stored up to two months without running the risk of losing the integrity of the granules and metabolic potentials. The apparent color of aerobic granules stored at room temperature gradually turned from brownish-yellowish to gray brown.They appeared brownish-yellowish again 2 weeks after re-activation. The velocity and strength of granules after 2-month idle period could achieved. A stable effluent COD concentration of less than 150 mg/L was achieved during the re-activation process.

  1. Determination of the kinetic and stoichiometric constant in a conventional bioreactor of activated sludge, to scale

    The activated sludge process is the one of the most efficient process, when it comes to removal of organic matter. Implementing in the lab is quite easy, economic technically feasible, and simultaneously offers the possibility of using the results obtained in the lab to be applied in field by determining the kinetic and stoichiometric constants. The activated sludge system was designed, built and operated in the water quality lab, at the Military University in Bogota, Colombia. The bioreactor has an aeration chamber, a sedimentation tank and a feeding source with wastewater taken from a meat packing plant in Bogota. The research was carried out for 3 months, in two stages as follows: in the first stage and in order to obtain a high concentration of biomass the acclimatizing process was carried out. This step allows the bioreactor to run in a continuous flow. In the second stage, the bioreactor was taken in to operation and fed with the acclimated sludge at different sludge ages. This would allow us to determine the kinetics, and the stoichiometric constants. The bioreactor was run with a hydraulic retention time of 8 hours and for different sludge ages (5, 10, and 15 days). The system was monitored with a daily grab samples, and pH, temperature as well as the DBO5 and suspended volatile solids were terminated

  2. Theoretical and practical aspects of modelling activated sludge processes

    Meijer, S.C.F.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the full-scale validation and calibration of a integrated metabolic activated sludge model for biological phosphorus removal. In chapters 1 and 2 the metabolic model is described, in chapters 3 to 6 the model is tested and in chapters 7 and 8 the model is put into practice. Cha

  3. Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes

    Yung-Tse Hung

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature published in 2008, 2009 and 2010 relating to activated sludge treatment of wastewater is presented. The review considers information on the topics of modeling and kinetics; process microbiology; nitrogen and phosphorus removal; treatment and effects of xenobiotics; oxygen transfer; and solids separation.

  4. ACTIVATED SLUDGE CLARIFIERS: DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND RESEARCH PRIORITIES

    The literature review of 320 references was conducted in an EPA-funded project to identify the needs for further research on activated sludge clarifier design and performance. The findings were summarized in a report and used as a basis of a 3-day research needs symposium. The pr...

  5. EVALUATION OF AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SECONDARY CLARIFIER DISTRIBUTED INLET

    Secondary clarifiers are crucial to the overall performance of the activated sludge process. Research over the last 40 years indicates that density currents are factors which degrade clarifier performance when not considered in design. However, present designs of most center-feed...

  6. Optimized operation and design of alternating activated sludge processes

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Keesman, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation study with the scope to optimise the plant design and operation strategy of 2-reactors alternating activated sludge processes with only flow schedule and aeration on/off as control inputs. The methodology is to simulate the application of receding horizon optimal con

  7. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA of industrial sludge from the aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment

    Danieli Schneiders

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, specific methanogenic activity (SMA tests were performed on textile sludge and food industry sludge. The textile sludge from an activated sludge was collected at the entrance of the secondary biologic clarifier and the food sludge was collected in a UASB reactor. Once collected, the sludges were characterized and tested for SMA. It was found that the microrganisms present in the food sludge had SMA of 0.17 gCOD-CH4 gSSV.d-1 and 337.05 mL of methane production, while the microrganisms of the textile sludge presented 0.10 gCOD-CH4 gSSV.d-1 of SMA and 3.04 mL of methane production. Therefore, the food sludge was more suitable to be used as a starting inoculum in UASB.

  8. Contribution of stratified extracellular polymeric substances to the gel-like and fractal structures of activated sludge.

    Yuan, D Q; Wang, Y L; Feng, J

    2014-06-01

    The gel-like and fractal structures of activated sludge (AS) before and after extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extraction as well as different EPS fractions were investigated. The contributions of individual components in different EPS fractions to the gel-like behavior of sludge samples by enzyme treatment were examined as well. The centrifugation and ultrasound method was employed to stratify the EPS into slime, loosely and tightly bound EPS (LB- and TB-EPS). It was observed that all samples behaved as weak gels with weak-link. TB-EPS and AS after LB-EPS extraction showed the strongest elasticity in higher concentrations and highest mass fractal dimension, which may indicate the key role of TB-EPS in the gel-like and fractal structures of the sludge. Effects of protease or amylase on the gel-like property of sludge samples differed in the presence of different EPS fractions. PMID:24651018

  9. Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Activated Sludge Flocs: Extraction, Identification, and Investigation of Their Link with Cations and Fate in Sludge Digestion

    Park, Chul

    2007-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge are known to account for the flocculent nature of activated sludge. Extensive studies over the last few decades have attempted to extract and characterize activated sludge EPS, but a lack of agreement between studies has also been quite common. The molecular makeup of EPS has, however, remained nearly unexplored, leaving their identity, function, and fate over various stages in the activated sludge system mainly unknown. In spite o...

  10. The efficiency of different phenol-degrading bacteria and activated sludges in detoxification of phenolic leachates.

    Kahru, A; Reiman, R; Rätsep, A

    1998-07-01

    Phenolic composition, toxicity and biodegradability of three different phenolic leachates/samples was studied. Samples A and C were the leachates from the oil-shale industry spent shale dumps at Kohtla-Järve, Estonia. Sample B was a laboratory-prepared synthetic mixture of 7 phenolic compounds mimmicking the phenolic composition of the leachate A. Toxicity of these 3 samples was analyzed using two photobacterial test (BioTox and Microtox), Daphnia test (DAPHTOXKIT F pulex) and rotifiers' test (ROTOXKIT F). All the LC50 values were in the range of 1-10%, leachate A being the most toxic. The growth and detoxifying potential (toxicity of the growth medium was measured using photobacterial tests) of 3 different phenol-utilizing bacteria and acclimated activated sludges was studied in shake-flask cultures. 30% leachate A (altogether 0.6 mM total phenolic compounds) was too toxic to rhodococci and they did not grow. Cell number of Kurthia sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in 30% leachate A increased by 2 orders of magnitude but despite of the growth of bacteria the toxicity of the leachate did not decrease even by 7 weeks of cultivation. However, if the activated sludge was used instead of pure bacterial cultures the toxicity of the 30% leachate A was eliminated already after 3 days of incubation. 30% samples B and C were detoxified by activated sludge even more rapidly, within 2 days. As the biodegradable part of samples A and B should be identical, the detoxification of leachate A compared to that of sample B was most probably inhibited by inorganic (e.g. sulphuric) compounds present in the leachate A. Also, the presence of toxic recalcitrant organic compounds in the leachate A (missed by chemical analysis) that were not readily biodegradable even by activated sludge consortium should not be excluded. PMID:9650267

  11. Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-13

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)—are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  12. Analysis of Sludge Batch 3 (Macrobatch4) DWPF Pour Stream Glass Sample for Canister s02312

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3), Macrobatch 4 (MB4) in March 2004 as part of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 272. Sludge Batch 3 is a blend of the contents Tank 40 remaining from Sludge Batch 2 (SB2), the sludge that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51 and Canyon Np solution additions made directly to Tank 40. The sludge transferred from Tank 51 contained sludges from Tanks 7, 18 and 19 along with precipitated solutions of U, Pu/Gd and Am/Cm from the F and H Canyons. The blend of sludge from Tank 51, Tank 40, and the Canyon additions defines SB3 (or MB4). The sludge slurry is received into the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and is processed through the SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Tank and fed to the melter. During the processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample. This glass sample is taken to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program and complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Two glass samples were obtained while pouring Canisters S02312 and S02315 which were sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility. Sample S02312 was designated for analysis, while sample S02315 was designated for archival storage. This report contains the visual observations of the as-received glass sample, results for the density, chemical composition, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the calculated and measured radionuclide results needed for the Production Record for Canister S02312. The following conclusions were drawn from the examination of this DWPF pour stream glass sample: (1) The glass sample taken during the filling of DWPF Canister S02312 weighed 41.69 g and was generally dark and reflective. (2) Minor inclusions, on the order of 1 (micro)m in size, of noble metals were seen in the glass via contained scanning electron

  13. Presence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in sludge samples from several Spanish water treatment plants

    Sludge samples from eleven potable water treatment plants (PWTP), three waste water treatment plants (WWTP) and an industrial water treatment plant (IWTP), located in different areas of Spain, mainly in Catalonia, were analyzed for their radiological content in order to determine whether they could be considered as industries affected by naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). In general, samples from the PWTPs showed higher activity values for the alpha and gamma emitting isotopes than the WWTPs and the IWTP. For example, samples from the area located in the north of Catalonia show values of 234U, 235U and 238U in the range of 84.4-792.1 Bq/kg, 3.3-26.8 Bq/kg and 63.8-585.9 Bq/kg, respectively. In general, for PWTP, the values obtained for the gamma emitter and alpha emitter isotopes showed that both the geology and the industrial activities correlate with the values measured. The magnitude of these results demonstrates the need to measure the radionuclide content of these samples before reaching a decision about their final disposal.

  14. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Droste, R.L.; Fernandes, L.; Sun, X. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Enhanced Lipid and Biodiesel Production from Glucose-Fed Activated Sludge: Kinetics an Microbial Community Analysis

    An innovative approach to increase biofuel feedstock lipid yields from municipal sewage sludge via manipulation of carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio and glucose loading in activated sludge bioreactors was investigated. Sludge lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (biodiesel) yields (% cel...

  16. Diversity of Dominant Bacterial Taxa in Activated Sludge Promotes Functional Resistance following Toxic Shock Loading

    Saikaly, Pascal

    2010-12-14

    Examining the relationship between biodiversity and functional stability (resistance and resilience) of activated sludge bacterial communities following disturbance is an important first step towards developing strategies for the design of robust biological wastewater treatment systems. This study investigates the relationship between functional resistance and biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa by subjecting activated sludge samples, with different levels of biodiversity, to toxic shock loading with cupric sulfate (Cu[II]), 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP), or 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Respirometric batch experiments were performed to determine the functional resistance of activated sludge bacterial community to the three toxicants. Functional resistance was estimated as the 30 min IC50 or the concentration of toxicant that results in a 50% reduction in oxygen utilization rate compared to a referential state represented by a control receiving no toxicant. Biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-T-RFLP) targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. Statistical analysis of 30 min IC50 values and PCR-T-RFLP data showed a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between functional resistance and microbial diversity for each of the three toxicants tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a positive correlation between biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa in activated sludge and functional resistance. In this system, activated sludge bacterial communities with higher biodiversity are functionally more resistant to disturbance caused by toxic shock loading. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. Characterization of the tank 51 alternate reductant sludge batch 9 slurry sample (HTF-51-15-130)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    Tank 51 slurry sample HTF-51-15-130 was collected following sludge washing at the Tank Farm. The sample was received at SRNL and then characterized in preparation for qualification of the alternate reductant Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) flowsheet. In this characterization, densities, solids distribution, elemental constituents, anionic constituents, carbon content, and select radioisotopes were quantified.

  18. Analysis Of DWPF Sludge Batch 6 (Macrobatch 7) Pour Stream Glass Samples

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), also referred to as Macrobatch 7 (MB7), in June 2010. SB6 is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), H-Canyon Np transfers and SB6 that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51.1 SB6 was processed using Frit 418. Sludge is received into the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and is processed through the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator Tank (SME). The treated sludge slurry is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and fed to the melter. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP) and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. The DWPF requested various analyses of radioactive glass samples obtained from the melter pour stream during processing of SB6 as well as reduction/oxidation (REDOX) analysis of MFT samples to determine the impact of Argon bubbling. Sample analysis followed the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and an Analytical Study Plan (ASP). Four Pour Stream (PS) glass samples and two MFT slurry samples were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from the DWPF. Table 1-1 lists the sample information for each pour stream glass sample. SB6 PS3 (S03472) was selected as the official pour stream sample for SB6 and full analysis was requested. This report details the visual observations of the as-received SB6 PS No.3 glass sample as well as results for the chemical composition, Product Consistency Test (PCT), radionuclide content, noble metals, and glass density. REDOX results will be provided for all four pour stream samples and vitrified samples of MFT-558 and MFT-568A. Where appropriate, data from other pour stream samples will be provided.

  19. ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 6 (MACROBATCH 7) POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLES

    Johnson, F.

    2012-01-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), also referred to as Macrobatch 7 (MB7), in June 2010. SB6 is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), H-Canyon Np transfers and SB6 that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51.1 SB6 was processed using Frit 418. Sludge is received into the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and is processed through the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator Tank (SME). The treated sludge slurry is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and fed to the melter. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP) and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. The DWPF requested various analyses of radioactive glass samples obtained from the melter pour stream during processing of SB6 as well as reduction/oxidation (REDOX) analysis of MFT samples to determine the impact of Argon bubbling. Sample analysis followed the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and an Analytical Study Plan (ASP). Four Pour Stream (PS) glass samples and two MFT slurry samples were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from the DWPF. Table 1-1 lists the sample information for each pour stream glass sample. SB6 PS3 (S03472) was selected as the official pour stream sample for SB6 and full analysis was requested. This report details the visual observations of the as-received SB6 PS No.3 glass sample as well as results for the chemical composition, Product Consistency Test (PCT), radionuclide content, noble metals, and glass density. REDOX results will be provided for all four pour stream samples and vitrified samples of MFT-558 and MFT-568A. Where appropriate, data from other pour stream samples will be provided.

  20. Indigenous microalgae-activated sludge cultivation system for wastewater treatment

    Anbalagan, Anbarasan

    2016-01-01

    The municipal wastewater is mainly composed of water containing anthropogenic wastes that are rich in nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous. The cost for biological treatment of wastewater is increasing globally due to the population growth in urban cities. In general, the activated sludge (AS) process is a biological nutrient removal process used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The AS is composed of different microorganisms in which bacteria play a crucial role in wastew...

  1. Bioadsorption of 4-Chlorophenol to the Activated Sludge

    2000-01-01

    The adsorption behaviour of 4-chlorophenol from aqueous solution to activated sludge was quantitatively characterized in this paper. The effects of the initial pH values, initial chlorophenol concentration and adsorbent dosage on bioadsorption were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 110.5 mg/g at 100 mg/L initial concentration. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were applied to describe the biosorption processes and the isotherm constants were evaluated.

  2. Activated sludge process based on artificial neural network

    张文艺; 蔡建安

    2002-01-01

    Considering the difficulty of creating water quality model for activated sludge system, a typical BP artificial neural network model has been established to simulate the operation of a waste water treatment facilities. The comparison of prediction results with the on-spot measurements shows the model, the model is accurate and this model can also be used to realize intelligentized on-line control of the wastewater processing process.

  3. Activated sludge filterability and full-scale membrane bioreactor operation

    Krzeminski, P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite continuous developments in the field of MBR technology, membrane fouling together with the associated energy demand and related costs issues remain major challenges. The efficiency of the filtration process in an MBR is governed by the activated sludge filterability, which is still limitedly understood and is determined by the interactions between the biomass, the wastewater and the applied process conditions. The purpose of this thesis is to increase understanding of the factors impa...

  4. Rapid determination of filamentous microorganisms in activated sludge; Determinacion rapida de microorganismos filamentosos en fangos activados

    Arnaiz, C.; Jimenez, C.; Estevez, F. [Empresa Municipal de Abastecimiento y Saneamiento de Aguas de Sevilla (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Despite many methods available biomass estimation of a bioprocess may sometimes become laborious and impracticable. Samples containing filamentous organisms, as in Wastewater Treatment Plants, present special counting difficulties. If they are abundant they may need to be estimated separately. In this work a counting method for these organisms is show. The main goal is to improve chlorination of activated sludge suffering bulking or foaming through a quantitative record of filamentous bacteria. (Author) 12 refs.

  5. Filamentous sulfur bacteria of activated sludge: characterization of Thiothrix, Beggiatoa, and Eikelboom type 021N strains.

    Williams, T. M.; Unz, R F

    1985-01-01

    Seventeen strains of filamentous sulfur bacteria were isolated in axenic culture from activated sludge mixed liquor samples and sulfide-gradient enrichment cultures. Isolation procedures involved plating a concentrated inoculum of washed filaments onto media containing sulfide or thiosulfate. The isolates were identified as Thiothrix spp., Beggiatoa spp., and an organism of uncertain taxonomic status, designated type 021N. All bacteria were gram negative, reduced nitrate, and formed long, mul...

  6. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  7. ELIMINATION OF THE CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF POUR STREAM SAMPLE AND THE GLASS FABRICATION AND TESTING OF THE DWPF SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    Amoroso, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-11

    A recommendation to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification sample was made by a Six-Sigma team chartered to eliminate non-value-added activities for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) sludge batch qualification program and is documented in the report SS-PIP-2006-00030. That recommendation was supported through a technical data review by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is documented in the memorandums SRNL-PSE-2007-00079 and SRNL-PSE-2007-00080. At the time of writing those memorandums, the DWPF was processing sludge-only waste but, has since transitioned to a coupled operation (sludge and salt). The SRNL was recently tasked to perform a similar data review relevant to coupled operations and re-evaluate the previous recommendations. This report evaluates the validity of eliminating the characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification samples based on sludge-only and coupled operations. The pour stream sample has confirmed the DWPF's ability to produce an acceptable waste form from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) blending and product composition/durability predictions for the previous sixteen years but, ultimately the pour stream analysis has added minimal value to the DWPF's waste qualification strategy. Similarly, the information gained from the glass fabrication and PCT of the sludge batch qualification sample was determined to add minimal value to the waste qualification strategy since that sample is routinely not representative of the waste composition ultimately processed at the DWPF due to blending and salt processing considerations. Moreover, the qualification process has repeatedly confirmed minimal differences in glass behavior from actual radioactive waste to glasses fabricated from simulants or batch chemicals. In

  8. Elimination Of The Characterization Of DWPF Pour Stream Sample And The Glass Fabrication And Testing Of The DWPF Sludge Batch Qualification Sample

    A recommendation to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification sample was made by a Six-Sigma team chartered to eliminate non-value-added activities for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) sludge batch qualification program and is documented in the report SS-PIP-2006-00030. That recommendation was supported through a technical data review by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is documented in the memorandums SRNL-PSE-2007-00079 and SRNL-PSE-2007-00080. At the time of writing those memorandums, the DWPF was processing sludge-only waste but, has since transitioned to a coupled operation (sludge and salt). The SRNL was recently tasked to perform a similar data review relevant to coupled operations and re-evaluate the previous recommendations. This report evaluates the validity of eliminating the characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification samples based on sludge-only and coupled operations. The pour stream sample has confirmed the DWPF's ability to produce an acceptable waste form from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) blending and product composition/durability predictions for the previous sixteen years but, ultimately the pour stream analysis has added minimal value to the DWPF's waste qualification strategy. Similarly, the information gained from the glass fabrication and PCT of the sludge batch qualification sample was determined to add minimal value to the waste qualification strategy since that sample is routinely not representative of the waste composition ultimately processed at the DWPF due to blending and salt processing considerations. Moreover, the qualification process has repeatedly confirmed minimal differences in glass behavior from actual radioactive waste to glasses fabricated from simulants or batch chemicals. In contrast, the

  9. Determination of 90Sr and 210Pb in sludge samples using a LOV-MSFIA system and liquid scintillation counting

    There has been increasing interest recently in the capacity of water treatment plants to concentrate and eliminate radionuclides from raw water. As the normal operation in these plants generates high quantities of sludge, which can be considered a naturally occurring radioactive material, it is important to gather information about its radiological content. Therefore, in order to determine the activity values of two radioactive beta emitters with minimal sample manipulation, an automated lab-on-valve and multisyringe flow injection system has been developed to achieve the sequential preconcentration and separation of 90Sr and 210Pb using an extraction chromatographic resin (Sr-spec). Activities of both isotopes were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The developed method was validated by analyzing three samples from three different intercomparison exercises and good Z-score values (between 0.1 and 1) and trueness values (between 10% and 17%) were obtained. The method was then also satisfactorily applied to sludge samples taken from a Spanish drinking water treatment plant which treats water from the Ebro River. The proposed method offers advantages over existing methods as it allows the sequential separation of both isotopes, simply by changing the elution conditions and using a semi-automated approach. Therefore, the method is less time consuming and environmentally friendly. - Highlights: • Flow system methodologies have been developed for the sequential separation of 90Sr and 210Pb. • Two radioactive beta emitters are determined with minimum sample manipulation. • Sludge samples from DWTP which were considered to be NORM samples have been analyzed. • Activities of both isotopes have been measured by liquid scintillation counting

  10. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to the activated sludge process

    The discharge of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from industrial waste or disposal of such materials from commercial and/or domestic use will inevitably occur with increasing production and enter into wastewater treatment facilities with unknown consequences. Therefore, a better knowledge of the toxicity of CNTs to biological processes in wastewater treatment will be critical. This study examined the toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the microbial communities in activated sludge. A comparative study using the activated sludge respiration inhibition test was performed on both unsheared mixed liquor and sheared mixed liquor to demonstrate the potential toxicity posed by MWCNTs and to illustrate the extent of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in protecting the microorganisms from the toxicity of CNTs. Respiration inhibition was observed for both unsheared and sheared mixed liquor when MWCNTs were present, however, greater respiration inhibition was observed for the sheared mixed liquor. The toxicity observed by the respiration inhibition test was determined to be dose-dependent; the highest concentration of MWCNTs exhibited the highest respiration inhibition. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images demonstrated direct physical contact between MWCNTs and activated sludge flocs.

  11. Effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali treatments on physicochemical and biological properties of waste activated sludge

    Ruiz Hernando, María

    2015-01-01

    [eng] The development of treatment processes to reduce or reuse sewage sludge is crucial for a proper environmental management. Segregating primary from secondary sludge allows for better reuse of secondary sludge, since digested secondary sludge is better suited for agricultural application, containing about double concentration in nutrients but significantly less contaminants. However, secondary sludge (also called waste activated sludge (WAS)) is difficult to dewater compared with primary...

  12. Micropollutant degradation via extracted native enzymes from activated sludge.

    Krah, Daniel; Ghattas, Ann-Kathrin; Wick, Arne; Bröder, Kathrin; Ternes, Thomas A

    2016-05-15

    A procedure was developed to assess the biodegradation of micropollutants in cell-free lysates produced from activated sludge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This proof-of-principle provides the basis for further investigations of micropollutant biodegradation via native enzymes in a solution of reduced complexity, facilitating downstream protein analysis. Differently produced lysates, containing a variety of native enzymes, showed significant enzymatic activities of acid phosphatase, β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase in conventional colorimetric enzyme assays, whereas heat-deactivated controls did not. To determine the enzymatic activity towards micropollutants, 20 compounds were spiked to the cell-free lysates under aerobic conditions and were monitored via LC-ESI-MS/MS. The micropollutants were selected to span a wide range of different biodegradabilities in conventional activated sludge treatment via distinct primary degradation reactions. Of the 20 spiked micropollutants, 18 could be degraded by intact sludge under assay conditions, while six showed reproducible degradation in the lysates compared to the heat-deactivated negative controls: acetaminophen, N-acetyl-sulfamethoxazole (acetyl-SMX), atenolol, bezafibrate, erythromycin and 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine (10-OH-CBZ). The primary biotransformation of the first four compounds can be attributed to amide hydrolysis. However, the observed biotransformations in the lysates were differently influenced by experimental parameters such as sludge pre-treatment and the addition of ammonium sulfate or peptidase inhibitors, suggesting that different hydrolase enzymes were involved in the primary degradation, among them possibly peptidases. Furthermore, the transformation of 10-OH-CBZ to 9-CA-ADIN was caused by a biologically-mediated oxidation, which indicates that in addition to hydrolases further enzyme classes (probably oxidoreductases) are present in the native lysates. Although the

  13. Investigating the fate of activated sludge extracellular proteins in sludge digestion using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Park, Chul; Helm, Richard F; Novak, John T

    2008-12-01

    The fate of activated sludge extracellular proteins in sludge digestion was investigated using three different cation-associated extraction methods and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Extraction methods used were the cation exchange resin (CER) method for extracting calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+), sulfide extraction for removing iron, and base treatment (pH 10.5) for dissolving aluminum. Extracellular polymeric substances extracted were then subjected to SDS-PAGE, and the resultant protein profiles were examined before and after sludge digestion. The SDS-PAGE results showed that three methods led to different SDS-PAGE profiles for both undigested and digested sludges. The results further revealed that CER-extracted proteins remained mainly undegraded in anaerobic digestion, but were degraded in aerobic digestion. While the fate of sulfide- and base-extracted proteins was not clear for aerobic digestion, their changes in anaerobic digestion were elucidated. Most sulfide-extracted proteins were removed by anaerobic digestion, while the increase in protein band intensity and diversity was observed for base-extracted proteins. These results suggest that activated sludge flocs contain different fractions of proteins that are distinguishable by their association with certain cations and that each fraction undergoes different fates in anaerobic and aerobic digestion. The proteins that were resistant to degradation and generated during anaerobic digestion were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification results and their putative roles in activated sludge and anaerobic digestion are discussed in this study. PMID:19146099

  14. Effects of total solids content on waste activated sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion and its sludge dewaterability.

    Wang, Tianfeng; Chen, Jie; Shen, Honglang; An, Dong

    2016-10-01

    The role of total solids content on sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion was investigated in batch reactors. A range of total solids content from 2% to 10% was evaluated with two replicates. The lowest inhibitory concentration for free ammonia and total ammonia of sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion was 110.9-171.4mg/L and 1313.1-1806.7mg/L, respectively. The volumetric biogas production rate increased with increasing of total solids content, but the corresponding biogas yield per gram volatile solid decreased. The result of normalized capillary suction time indicated that the dewaterability of digested sludge at high total solids content was poor, while solid content of sediment obtained by centrifuging sludge at 2000g for 10min increased with increasing of total solids content of sludge. The results suggest that thickened sludge mixed with dewatered sludge at an appropriate ratio could get high organic loading rate, high biogas yield and adequate dewatering effort. PMID:26897469

  15. Modeling Aspects of Activated Sludge Processes Part l l: Mathematical Process Modeling and Biokinetics of Activated Sludge Processes

    Mathematical process modeling and biokinetics of activated sludge process were reviewed considering different types of models. It has been evaluated the task group models of ASMI. and 2, and 3 versioned by Henze et al considering the conditions of each model and the different processes of which every model consists. It is revealed that ASMI contains some defects avoided in ASM3. Relied on homogeneity, Models can be classified into homogenous models characterized by taking the activated sludge process as one phase. In this type of models, the internal mass transfer inside the floes was neglected.. Hence, the kinetic parameter produces can be considered inaccurate. The other type of models is the heterogeneous model This type considers the mass transfer operations in addition to the biochemical reaction processes; hence, the resulted kinetic parameters can be considered more accurate than that of homogenous type

  16. DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY ANALYTICAL METHOD VERIFICATION FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    Click, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Henry Ajo, H

    2008-07-25

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO3 acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestion of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) SRAT Receipt and SB5 SRAT Product samples. The SB5 SRAT Receipt and SB5 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB5 Batch composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), to form the SB5 Blend composition. The results for any one particular element should not be used in any way to identify the form or speciation of a particular element in the sludge or used to estimate ratios of compounds in the sludge. A statistical comparison of the data validates the use of the DWPF CC method for SB5 Batch composition. However, the difficulty that was encountered in using the CC method for SB4 brings into question the adequacy of CC for the SB5 Blend. Also, it should be noted that visible solids remained in the final diluted solutions of all samples digested by this method at SRNL (8 samples total), which is typical for the DWPF CC method but not seen in the other methods. Recommendations to the DWPF for application to SB5 based on studies to date: (1) A dissolution study should be performed on the WAPS

  17. Effects of heavy metal and other elemental additives to activated sludge on growth of Eisenia foetida

    Hartenstein, R. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse); Neuhauser, E.F.; Narahara, A.

    1981-09-01

    The approximate level at which added concentrations of certain elements would cause an activated sludge to induce a toxic effect upon the growth of Eisenia foetida was determined. During 43 trials on sludge samples obtained throughout 1 year of study, earthworms grew from 3 to 10 mg live wt at hatching to 792 mg +- 18% (mean +- C.V.) in 8 weeks, when sludge was 24/sup 0/C and contained no additives. None of several elements commonly used in microbial growth media enhanced the growth rate of the earthworm. At salt concentrations up to about 6.6% on a dry wt basis, none of six anions tested was in and of itself toxic, while five of 15 cations - Co, Hg, Cu, Ni, and Cd - appeared specifically to inhibit growth rate or cause death. Manganese, Cr, and Pb were innocuous even at the highest levels of application - 22,000, 46,000, and 52,000 mg/kg, respectively. Neither the anionic nor cationic component of certain salts, such as NaCl or NH/sub 4/Cl, could be said to inhibit growth, which occurred only at high concentrations of these salts (about 3.3 and/or 6.6%). Below 7 mmho/cm, toxicity could not be correlated with electrolytic conductance, though higher values may help to explain the nonspecific growth inhibitory effects of salts like NaCl and KCl. Nor could toxicity ever be ascribed to hydrogen ion activity, since sludge pH was not altered even at the highest salt dose. It is concluded that except under very extreme conditions, the levels of heavy metals and salts generally found in activated sludges will not have an adverse affect on the growth of E. foetida.

  18. Fate and effect of naphthenic acids on oil refinery activated sludge wastewater treatment systems.

    Misiti, Teresa; Tezel, Ulas; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2013-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a complex group of alkyl-substituted acyclic, monocyclic and polycyclic carboxylic acids present in oil sands process waters, crude oil, refinery wastewater and petroleum products. Crude oil, desalter brine, influent, activated sludge mixed liquor and effluent refinery samples were received from six United States refineries. The total acid number (TAN) of the six crudes tested ranged from 0.12 to 1.5 mg KOH/g crude oil and correlated to the total NA concentration in the crudes. The total NA concentration in the desalter brine, influent, activated sludge mixed liquor and effluent samples ranged from 4.2 to 40.4, 4.5 to 16.6, 9.6 to 140.3 and 2.8 to 11.6 mg NA/L, respectively. The NAs in all wastewater streams accounted for less than 16% of the total COD, indicating that many other organic compounds are present and that NAs are a minor component in refinery wastewaters. Susceptibility tests showed that none of the activated sludge heterotrophic microcosms was completely inhibited by NAs up to 400 mg/L. Growth inhibition ranging from 10 to 59% was observed in all microcosms at and above 100 mg NA/L. NAs chronically-sorbed to activated sludge mixed liquor biomass and powdered activated carbon (PAC) were recalcitrant and persistent. More than 80% of the total NAs remained in the solid phase at the end of the 10-day desorption period (five successive desorption steps). Throughout a 90-day incubation period, the total NA concentration decreased by 33 and 51% in PAC-free and PAC-containing mixed liquor microcosms, respectively. The lower molecular weight fraction of NAs was preferentially degraded in both mixed liquors. The persistence of the residual, higher molecular weight NAs is likely a combination of molecular recalcitrance and decreased bioavailability when chronically-sorbed to the biomass and/or PAC. PMID:23141768

  19. Activating lignite and sludge by electro-hydraulic impulse

    CHEN Deshu; LIAO Zhenfang; DENG Xiaogang; ZHAO Jianxin; KANG Yongfeng

    2003-01-01

    A uewce to activate lignite and SlUdge by electro-hydraulic impulse is presented. It comprises an impulse current generator constituted by a high voltage transformer, a high voltage silicon rectifier, a current-limiting resistor, a capacitor bank and an air-break switch, and a lignite and sludge appliance made up of two plane electrodes and a working chamber. The installation activates the lignite or sludge delivered to the working chamber by the impulse current that is from the generator to puncture the main gap in the working chamber, raise the temperature therein up to (20 000 to 40 000) K and the energy density to as high as 109 J.rn-3, and form a plasma piston. The alternative development and attenuation of plasma expansion makes the lignite in a number of physical and chemical processes resulting in diverse active radicals and ions, and also breaks it into grains mostly smaller than 250 μm. It is founded by experimental study that the technology can raise the content of nitro nitrogen by 1.4 to 1.5 times and that of dissoluble organic substances by 5 to 10 times which is probably attributed to the decomposition of the ample germs in the lignite. The calculated power requirement to activate lignite is about (50 to 60) kW.h.t-1. In comparison with muck applied to cucumber cultivation, the activated lignite demonstrates its features as an effective and economical green fertilizer by the same yield with half amount. These findings imply a promising access to green fertilizer.

  20. Analysis Of DWPF Sludge Batch 7a (Macrobatch 8) Pour Stream Samples

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed

  1. Analysis Of DWPF Sludge Batch 7a (Macrobatch 8) Pour Stream Samples

    Johnson, F. C.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2012-10-24

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed.

  2. Rapid detection of Nocardia amarae in the activated sludge process using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Iwahori, K; Miyata, N; Morisada, S; Suzuki, N

    2000-01-01

    Nocardia amarae, a mycolic acid-containing bacterium, has often been reported to cause foaming of activated sludge in wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the number of N. amarae cells in the activated sludge process was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with anti-N. amarae polyclonal antibody. Use of the antibody enabled N. amarae to be detected at levels of 10(4) to 10(7) colony forming units. On the other hand, the antibody reacted with only a small portion of activated sludge, in which no N. amarae cells were detected by the plate count method. Competitive ELISA was employed to estimate the N. amarae cells in samples taken from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, including raw wastewater and activated sludge foam. The cell numbers estimated by competitive ELISA corresponded well with those obtained by plate counts. Hence, the antibody produced in this study was shown to be effective for the rapid monitoring of N. amarae in the activated sludge process. PMID:16232779

  3. Verification Of The Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Process Digestion Methods For The Sludge Batch 8 Qualification Sample

    This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Dissolution (PF) and Cold Chem (CC) method digestions and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption analysis of Hg digestions from the DWPF Hg digestion method of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples. The SB8 SRAT Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB8 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), to form the SB8 Blend composition

  4. Verification Of The Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Process Digestion Methods For The Sludge Batch 8 Qualification Sample

    Click, D. R.; Edwards, T. B.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Brown, L. W.

    2013-03-18

    This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Dissolution (PF) and Cold Chem (CC) method digestions and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption analysis of Hg digestions from the DWPF Hg digestion method of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples. The SB8 SRAT Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB8 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), to form the SB8 Blend composition.

  5. Effect of process variables on the production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates by activated sludge

    Nader Mokhtarani; Hossein Ganjidoust; Ebrahim Vasheghani Farahani

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates are known to be temporarily stored by microorganisms in activated sludge, especially in anaerobic-aerobic processes. Due to the problems resulted from the disposals of plastic wastes and excess sludge of wastewater treatment plants, the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by treating activated sludge and determining the effect of process variables were the main issues of this paper. In this research, an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor was used to make...

  6. ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF WASTED VEGETABLES AND ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    Saev, M.; Koumanova, B.; Ivan, Simeonov

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of activated sludge (AS) and wasted vegetables (wasted cucumbers (WC) and wasted tomatoes (WT)) was carried out at mesophilic conditions (34 ± 0.5 0C). A continuously stirred bioreactor with volume of 5 dm3 (3 dm3 working volume) was used. The digestion was examined in semi-continuous mode and 30 days hydraulic retention time. Total solids, volatile solids, COD and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were determined according to the standard methods. Daily the total biogas produ...

  7. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)

    1993-12-31

    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Physicochemical changes effected in activated sludge by the earthworm Eisenia foetida. [Concentration of heavy metals during sludge catabolism

    Hartenstein, R. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse); Hartenstein, F.

    1981-09-01

    Measurements were made of some physicochemical changes effected in activated sludge by the earthworm Eisenia foetida following conversion of the sludge into wormcasts. Mineralization was accelerated 1.3-fold and 2% of the minerals were assimilated. The rate at which heavy metals were concentrated during sludge catabolism was also accelerated. Castings stabilized within 2 weeks, as indexed by respirometry. Nucleic acids, which can be used as an index of microbial biomass, were present at a greater concentration in the wormcasts than in the sludge, while the phenolic content, which may potentially serve as an index of humification, was less concentrated. Other changes included a reduction in pH and an increase in oxidation-reduction potential and cation exchange capacity. The major general effect of E. foetida on the physicochemical properties of activated sludge is to convert a material which has a relatively small surface/volume ratio into numerous particles with an overall large S/V ratio, thus accelerating decomposition, mineralization, drying, and preclusion of malodor.

  9. Characterization of the in situ ecophysiology of novel phylotypes in nutrient removal activated sludge treatment plants

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Awata, Takanori; Nierychlo, Marta;

    2015-01-01

    An in depth understanding of the ecology of activated sludge nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems requires detailed knowledge of the community composition and metabolic activities of individual members. Recent 16S rRNA gene amplicon surveys of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants...

  10. Gamma irradiation induced disintegration of waste activated sludge for biological hydrogen production

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, gamma irradiation was applied for the disintegration and dissolution of waste activated sludge produced during the biological wastewater treatment, and the solubilized sludge was used as substrate for bio-hydrogen production. The experimental results showed that the solubilization of waste activated sludge was 53.7% at 20 kGy and pH=12, and the SCOD, polysaccharides, protein, TN and TP contents in the irradiated sludge solutions was 3789.6 mg/L, 268.3 mg/L, 1881.5 mg/L, 132.3 mg/L and 80.4 mg/L, respectively. The irradiated sludge was used for fermentative hydrogen production, and the hydrogen yield was 10.5±0.7 mL/g SCODconsumed. It can be concluded that the irradiated waste activated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for fermentative hydrogen production.

  11. Determination of Poly-β-Hydroxybutyrate and Poly-β-Hydroxyvalerate in Activated Sludge by Gas-Liquid Chromatography

    Comeau, Yves; Hall, Kenneth J.; Oldham, William K.

    1988-01-01

    A convenient gas-liquid chromatography procedure to quantify poly-β-hydroxybutyrate and poly-β-hydroxyvalerate in activated sludge was developed by combining lyophilization of the samples, purification of the chloroform phase by water reextraction, and the use of capillary columns. With a flame ionization detector the sensitivity was estimated at 10−5 g/liter.

  12. Bioaugmentation to improve nitrification in activated sludge treatment.

    Leu, Shao-Yuan; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2010-06-01

    Bioaugmentation is a proposed technique to improve nutrient removal in municipal wastewater treatment. Compared with commonly used nitrification/denitrification (NDN) processes, bioaugmentation may be able to reduce tankage or land requirements. Many approaches for bioaugmentation have been developed, but few studies have compared the benefits among different approaches. This paper quantifies the effectiveness of bioaugmentation processes and investigates three major "onsite" bioaugmentation alternatives: 1) the parallel-plants approach, which uses acclimated biomass grown in a nitrifying "long-SRT" (sludge retention time) plant to augment a low-SRT treatment plant; 2) the enricher-reactor approach, which uses an offline reactor to produce the augmentation cultures; and 3) the enricher-reactor/return activated sludge (ER-RAS) approach, which grows enrichment culture in a reaeration reactor that receives a portion of the recycle activated sludge. Kinetic models were developed to simulate each approach, and the benefits of various approaches are presented on the same basis with controllable parameters, such as bioaugmentation levels, aeration tank volume, and temperatures. Examples were given to illustrate the potential benefits of bioaugmentation by upgrading a "carbon-only" wastewater treatment plant to nitrification. Simulation results suggested that all bioaugmentation approaches can decrease the minimum SRT for nitrification. The parallel-plants approach creates the highest concentration of biomass but may fail at too low temperature. The ER-RAS approach likely would be more useful at lower temperature and required less reactor volume; enricher-reactor approach would likely be more advantageous in the presence of inhibitory compound(s). PMID:20572460

  13. Wastewater treatment in a hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor

    A novel hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor (HASBR), which contained both suspended and attached-growth biomass perfect mixing cells in series, was developed by installing standing and hanging baffles and introducing plastic brushes into a conventional activated sludge (CAS) reactor. It was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The effects on the operational performance of developing the suspended and attached-growth biomass and reactor configuration were investigated. The change of the flow regime from complete-mix to plug-flow, and the addition of plastic brushes as a support for biofilm, resulted in considerable improvements in the COD, nitrogen removal efficiency of domestic wastewater and sludge settling properties. In steady state, approximately 98 ± 2% of the total COD and 98 ± 2% of the ammonia of the influent were removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 593 ± 11 mg COD/L and 43 ± 5 mg N/L, respectively, at a HRT of 10 h. These results were 93 ± 3 and 6 ± 3% for the CAS reactor, respectively. Approximately 90 ± 7% of the total COD was removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 654 ± 16 mg COD/L at a 3 h HRT, and in the organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.36 kg COD m-3 day-1. The result for the CAS reactor was 60 ± 3%. Existing CAS plants can be upgraded by changing the reactor configuration and introducing biofilm support media into the aeration tank

  14. Grazing by protozoa as selection factor for activated sludge bacteria.

    Güde, H

    1979-09-01

    In continuous culture enrichments that were inoculated with activated sludge and were fed with polymeric substrates, freely dispersed single-celled bacteria belonging to theCytophaga group dominated among the initial populations, irrespective of the activated sludge source. These populations were grazed by flagellated protozoa which after several days reached high cell densities. Other morphologic bacterial groups such as spiral-shaped or filamentous bacteria then became dominant. In defined mixed culture experiments with bacterial isolates from the enrichment cultures, it was shown that a "grazing-resistant"Microcyclus strain outgrew aCytophaga strain in the presence of grazing protozoa. In contrast, theCytophaga strain competed successfully with theMicrocyclus strain and with other "grazing-resistant" strains under protozoa-free conditions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that assumed grazing resistance factors such as floccing or filamentous growth were lost by some of the strains when they were grown for several generations in continuous culture under the same conditions, but in the absence of protozoa. PMID:24232496

  15. THE EFFECT OF THE SLUDGE RECYCLE RATIO IN AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF AMOL'S INDUSTRIAL PARK WASTEWATER

    BAHAR HOSSEINI; GHASEM NAJAFPOUR DARZI; MAEDEH SADEGHPOUR; MOSTAFA ASADI

    2008-01-01

    An activated sludge aeration tank and a sedimentation basin were used to treat Amol’s industrial park effluents originating from all industrial units. A continuous system was implemented and the kinetic parameters were measured.The parameters such as rate constant, substrate utilization rate constant, yield and decay coefficient were 2.12 d-1, 232.4 mg l-1, 0.33 g/g of substrate and 0.096 d−1, respectively. The hydraulic retention times (HRT) were in the range of 9 to 27 h. The sludge recycle...

  16. Effects of waste activated sludge and surfactant addition on primary sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids accumulation.

    Ji, Zhouying; Chen, Guanlan; Chen, Yinguang

    2010-05-01

    This paper focused on the effects of waste activated sludge (WAS) and surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) addition on primary sludge (PS) hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) accumulation in fermentation. The results showed that sludge hydrolysis, SCFA accumulation, NH(4)(+)-N and PO(4)(3-)-P release, and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction were increased by WAS addition to PS, which were further increased by the addition of SDBS to the mixture of PS and WAS. Acetic, propionic and valeric acids were the top three SCFA in all experiments. Also, the fermentation liquids of PS, PS+WAS, and PS+WAS+SDBS were added, respectively, to municipal wastewater to examine their effects on biological municipal wastewater treatment, and the enhancement of both wastewater nitrogen and phosphorus removals was observed compared with no fermentation liquid addition. PMID:20096564

  17. Analysis Of DWPF Sludge Batch 7A (Macrobatch 8) Pour Stream Samples

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of oxides for the official SB7a pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%). (2) The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7a is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7a pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7a Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample. (3) As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the official SB7a pour stream sample. (4) The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7a pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.64 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental

  18. ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8) POUR STREAM SAMPLES

    Johnson, F.

    2012-05-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of oxides for the official SB7a pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%). (2) The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7a is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7a pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7a Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample. (3) As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the official SB7a pour stream sample. (4) The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7a pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.64 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental

  19. "The Effects of Temperature and PH on Settlability of Activated Sludge Flocs"

    Gh Ghanizadeh

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The effluent quality of a sewage treatment plant using activated sludge process and finally secondary treatment depends on the flocculation efficiency and settling of the flocs. The survey of various treatment processes in water and wastewater treatment shows that temperature and pH are the important factors affecting efficiency of flocculation and settling properties. This study was performed to determine the effects of pH and temperature on settling of the flocs in activated sludge process. It was carried out for three months in two phases, using mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS, obtained from aeration tank from one of wastewater treatment plants in Tehran. In the primary phase, the temperature of samples was increased from 15°C to 35°C. As a result, the sludge volume index (SVI and effluent suspended solids increased and consequently, COD removal percent decreased. In the second phase, the pH was increased from 5.7 to 9. As a result, SVI and effluent suspended solids decreased and COD removal percent increased.

  20. Effect of low temperature on highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in activated sludge.

    He, Su; Ding, Li-Li; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jin-Ju; Ren, Hong-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Low temperature is a limiting factor for the microbial activity of activated sludge for sewage treatment plant in winter. Highly unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) constituents and microbial structure in activated sludge at low temperature were investigated. Over 12 gigabases of metagenomic sequence data were generated with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The result showed 43.11% of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in the activated sludge participated in UFA biosynthesis, and γ-Linolenic could be converted to Arachidonic acid at low temperature. The highly UFA biosynthesis in activated sludge was n-6 highly UFA biosynthesis, rather than n-3 highly UFA biosynthesis. The microbial community structures of activated sludge were analyzed by PLFA and high-throughput sequencing (HiSeq) simultaneously. Acidovorax, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Polaromonas occupied higher percentage at 5°C, and genetic changes of highly UFA biosynthesis derived from microbial community structures change. PMID:27035483

  1. Improving Settling Dynamics of Activated Sludge by Adding Fine Talc Powder

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben; Clauss, F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of adding varying mixtures of talc and chlorite powder to activated sludge in order to improve the settling characteristic has been studied. The powder is found to improve the settling velocity of the sludge, strictly by increasing the average density of the sludge floc aggregate. The...... settling velocity was measured with a recirculated settling column under different concentrations and turbulence levels. Numerical simulation of a secondary settling tank indicates that adding fine powder will improve the overall performance considerably....

  2. Long term effects on petrochemical activated sludge on plants and soil. Plant growth and metal absorption

    Tedesco, M.J.; Gianello, C. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Ribas, P.I.F.; Carvalho, E.B. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao

    1993-12-31

    An experiment to study the effects of several application rates of excess activated sludge on plants, soil and leached water was started in 1985. Sludge was applied for six years and increased plant growth due to its nitrogen and phosphorous contribution, even though the decomposition rate in soil is low. Plant zinc, cadmium and nickel content increased with sludge application, while liming decreased the amounts of these metals taken up by plants. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  3. Can ultrasonically disintegrated activated sludge be exploited as an internal carbon source for denitrification?

    Lambert, Nico; Smets, Ilse; Impe, Jan Van; Dewil, Raf

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of a solubilized sludge carbon source from waste activated sludge by using ultrasonic treatment or a combination of ultrasonic treatment and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated. First the release of sCOD and the associated immediate sludge reduction as a result of the ultrasonic disintegration was experimentally studied. Respirometric data were used to quantify the amount of rapidly biodegradable COD (SS) that was formed during the disintegration process. In the second phase of ...

  4. Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic conditions

    Chen, Xijuan; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Furgal, Karolina;

    2011-01-01

    triclosan- methyl was investigated in activated sludge from a standard activated sludge WWTP equipped with enhanced biological phosphorus removal. The removal was found to occur mainly under aerobic conditions while under anoxic (nitrate reducing) and anaerobic conditions rather low removal rates were...

  5. Identification of Quorum-Sensing Signal Molecules and a Biosynthetic Gene in Alicycliphilus sp. Isolated from Activated Sludge.

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Okutsu, Noriya; Xie, Xiaonan; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge is a complicated mixture of various microorganisms that is used to treat sewage and industrial wastewater. Many bacteria produce N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as a quorum-sensing signal molecule to regulate the expression of the exoenzymes used for wastewater treatment. Here, we isolated an AHL-producing bacteria from an activated sludge sample collected from an electronic component factory, which we named Alicycliphilus sp. B1. Clone library analysis revealed that Alicycliphilus was a subdominant genus in this sample. When we screened the activated sludge sample for AHL-producing strains, 12 of 14 the AHL-producing isolates were assigned to the genus Alicycliphilus. A putative AHL-synthase gene, ALISP_0667, was cloned from the genome of B1 and transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α. The AHLs were extracted from the culture supernatants of the B1 strain and E. coli DH5α cells harboring the ALISP_0667 gene and were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as N-(3-hydroxydecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone and N-(3-hydroxydodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. The results of comparative genomic analysis suggested that the quorum-sensing genes in the B1 strain might have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer within activated sludge. PMID:27490553

  6. An ecosystem analysis of the activated sludge microbial community.

    Yiannakopoulou, Trissevyene V

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken (i) to investigate the interactions of the activated sludge microbial community in a chemostat with the "environment", such as the substrate composition and variations, (ii) to investigate how these interactions affect the quality of the treated effluent and (iii) to determine the limits or applicability conditions to the indicators and to the prediction potential of the treated effluent quality. This work presents (a) the experimental results obtained from a reactor fed municipal wastewater (Data Set2-DS2) concerning the reactor's operating conditions and the microbial community of the sludge (b) comparisons between DS2 and an older Data Set (DS1) obtained when the reactor was fed synthetic substrate, all other experimental conditions being identical, and (c) simulation results and sensitivity analyses of two model runs (R1 and R2, corresponding to DS1 and DS2). The first trophic level (P(1)) of the DS2 microbial community consisted of bacteria, the second trophic level (P(2)) of bacteria-eating protozoa, rotifers and nematodes and the third trophic level (P(3)) of carnivorous protozoa and arthropods. Rotifers were an important constituent of the DS2 microbial community. The DS1 and DS1 communities differed in total size, trophic level sizes and species composition. Correlations between the major microbial groups of DS2 community and either loading rates or effluent quality attributes were generally low, but the correlation of bacteria with SVI and ammonia in the effluent was better. Also, the ratio of rotifers to protozoa in P(2) was correlated to BOD in the effluent. The results of this work indicate that predictions of the treated effluent quality based only on protozoa may not be safe. Sensitivity analysis of R2 run indicate that, when variation in Y and K(d) biokinetic coefficients of the sludge are combined with fluctuations in composition and quality of municipal wastewater entering the reactor, then sufficient significant

  7. Characterization of functional microorganism groups and substrate in activated sludge and wastewater by AUR, NUR and OUR

    Kristensen, G. Holm; Jørgensen, P. Elberg; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    Activated sludge functional microorganism groups: nitrifiers, denitrifiers and heterotrophs, were characterized through determinations of maximum specific utilization rates of ammonia (AUR) nitrate (NUR) and oxygen (OUR). Characterizations of the functional groups were done on activated sludges...

  8. Optimization of polyhydroxylalkanoates production from excess activated sludge

    Polyhydroxy alkanoates (PHAS) produced by microbial fermentation are biodegradable and can be used as environmentally-friendly substitutes for conventional plastics to resolve the environmental problems associated with plastics wastes. However, widespread applications of PHA are hampered by high production cost. In this study, activated sludge bacteria from a conventional wastewater treatment process were induced, by controlling the carbon-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the reactor liquor, to accumulate PHA as a low-cost source of biodegradable plastic. Specific polymer yield increased to a maximum of O.27 g polymer/g dry cell mass when the C:N ratio was increased from 24 to 144, whereas specific growth yield decreased with increasing C:N ratio. An optimum C:N ratio of 96 provided the highest overall polymer production yield of 0.09 g polymer/g carbonaceous substrate consumed. Moreover, an intermittent nitrogen feeding program was established to further optimize the polymer volumetric productivity. The overall polymer production yield of O.11 g polymer/g carbonaceous substrate consumed was achieved under C:N ratio of 96 by feeding nitrogen in the reactor liquor once every 4 cycles. While reducing the production costs of biodegradable plastics, this technique also reduced the amount of excess sludge generated from the wastewater treatment process as the polymer portion of biomass was extracted for use. (Author)

  9. Sludge Batch 7 Acceptance Evaluation: Radionuclide Concentrations In Tank 51 SB7 Qualification Sample Prepared At SRNL

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Seven (SB7) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB7 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB6. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB7 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter qualification sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-10-125) received on September 18, 2010. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. With consultation from the Liquid Waste Organization, the qualification sample was then modified by several washes and decants, which included addition of Pu from H Canyon and sodium nitrite per the Tank Farm corrosion control program. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40. Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB7 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0031. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task I.2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task III.2.) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB7 will be taken and transferred to SRNL for measurement of these radionuclides

  10. Comparison of Extended Aeration Activated Sludge Process and Activated Sludge with Lime Addition Method for Biosolids Stabilization

    M. Farzadkia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to disposal biosolids from Serkan sewage treatment plant and lime stabilized biosolids, from April 2002 to March 2003. Lime stabilization of biosolids was performed in the reactor with 30-liter capacity at Hamadan medical sciences university. Average amounts of VS/TS ratio, SOUR, fecal coliform and viable helminth ova density in disposal biosolids from Serkan treatment plant were 0.754, 3.395 mg.02/g.vs.h, 1.93x108 MPN/g of dry solids and 1100 ova/4 g of dry solids, respectively. By lime addition ratio about 0.4 g Ca(OH2 /g of dry solids of biosolids, pH was not dropped under 12 and fecal coliform was not growth after 30 days. Disposal biosolids from Serkan treatment plant was raw. Lime addition could be stabilized this biosolid and the products could be well used as a landfill cover, or a soil conditioner. Capital and annual cost of activated sludge with lime stabilization biosolids was cheaper than extended aeration activated sludge about 45 and 55%, respectively.

  11. Analysis Of The Sludge Batch 7b (Macrobatch 9) DWPF Pour Stream Glass Sample

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9), in January 2012. SB7b is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and the SB7b material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7b was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Form Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Two pour stream glass samples were collected while processing SB7b. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where one was analyzed and the other was archived. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: The sum of oxides for the official SB7b pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%); The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7b is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7b pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7b Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample; As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the SB7b pour stream sample; The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7b pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.8 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass; The measured density of the SB7b pour stream glass was 2.70 g/cm3; The Fe2+/ΣFe ratio of the SB7b pour stream samples was 0.07

  12. Analysis Of The Sludge Batch 7b (Macrobatch 9) DWPF Pour Stream Glass Sample

    Johnson, F. C.; Crawford, C. L.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-11-18

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9), in January 2012. SB7b is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and the SB7b material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7b was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Form Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Two pour stream glass samples were collected while processing SB7b. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where one was analyzed and the other was archived. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: The sum of oxides for the official SB7b pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%); The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7b is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7b pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7b Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample; As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the SB7b pour stream sample; The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7b pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.8 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass; The measured density of the SB7b pour stream glass was 2.70 g/cm{sup 3}; The Fe{sup 2+}/ΣFe ratio of the SB7b pour stream samples was 0.07.

  13. SLUDGE BATCH 5 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    Bannochie, C; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

    2008-07-28

    transferred to SRNL for measurement of these radionuclides. Data presented in this report represents the measured or estimated radionuclide concentrations obtained from several standard and special analytical methods performed by Analytical Development (AD) personnel within SRNL. The method for I-129 measurement in sludge is described in detail. Most of these methods were performed on solutions resulting from the dissolutions of the slurry samples. Concentrations are given for twenty-nine radionuclides along with total alpha and beta activity. Values for total gamma and total gamma plus beta activities are also calculated. Results also indicate that 98% of the Tc-99 and 92% of the I-129 that could have been in this sludge batch have been removed by chemical processing steps in the SRS Canyons or Tank Farm.

  14. Verification Of The Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Process Digestion Method For The Sludge Batch 7A Qualification Sample

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO3 acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see DWPF Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestions of Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples. The SB7a SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constituates the SB7a Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), to form the Sb7a Blend composition.

  15. Semitechnical investigations regarding the integration of biological phosphorus elimination and denitrification into two-stage sludge activation plants. Final report

    Simultaneous denitrification is achieved by a measuring and control device which controls the aeration intensity of the activated sludge basin. Decisive parameters are the concentrations of nitrate or, alternatively, ammonium (higher priority) and oxygen present in the site of reaction (activated sludge tank). The ammonium control device which is to be operated in the second activated sludge unit, first cascade, is described. (orig.)

  16. Improving Settling Characteristics of Pure Oxygen Activated Sludge by Stripping of Carbon Dioxide.

    Kundral, Somshekhar; Mudragada, Ratnaji; Coro, Ernesto; Moncholi, Manny; Mora, Nelson; Laha, Shonali; Tansel, Berrin

    2015-06-01

    Increased microbial activity at high ambient temperatures can be problematic for secondary clarifiers and gravity concentrators due to carbon dioxide (CO2) production. Production of CO2 in gravity concentrators leads to septic conditions and poor solids separation. The CO2 production can also be corrosive for the concrete surfaces. Effectiveness of CO2 stripping to improve solids settling was investigated using the sludge volume index (SVI) as the indicator parameter. Carbon dioxide was stripped by aeration from the sludge samples. Results from the study show that aeration also increased the pH values in the mixed liquor while removing CO2 and improving sludge settling. After 10 minutes of aeration at a rate of 0.37 m3 air/m3 water/min, 90% CO2 stripping was achieved. Based on the 30 min settling tests, the SVI increased by 26±1% after CO2 stripping while the pH increased by 0.8±0.1 pH units. PMID:26459818

  17. Effects of Metal Nanoparticles on Methane Production from Waste-Activated Sludge and Microorganism Community Shift in Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2016-05-01

    Extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer and industrial products has led to concerns about their potential environmental impacts; however, the influences of different NPs (e.g., nZVI (nano zero-valent iron), Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on the anaerobic digestion of sludge have not yet been studied in depth. Additionally, a new guideline or the use of different NPs in the anaerobic digestion of sludge should be established to improve the anaerobic digestion of sludge and avoid inhibitory effects. This study investigated the effects of four representative NPs (i.e., nZVI, Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on methane production during the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). The presence of 10 mg/g total suspended solids (TSS) nZVI and 100 mg/g TSS Fe2O3 NPs increased methane production to 120% and 117% of the control, respectively, whereas 500 mg/g TSS Ag NPs and 500 mg/g TSS MgO NPs generated lower levels of methane production (73.52% and 1.08% that of the control, respectively). These results showed that low concentrations of nZVI and Fe2O3 NPs promoted the amount of microbes (Bacteria and Archaea) and activities of key enzymes but that higher concentrations of Ag NPs and MgO NPs inhibited them.

  18. Effects of Metal Nanoparticles on Methane Production from Waste-Activated Sludge and Microorganism Community Shift in Anaerobic Granular Sludge.

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2016-01-01

    Extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer and industrial products has led to concerns about their potential environmental impacts; however, the influences of different NPs (e.g., nZVI (nano zero-valent iron), Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on the anaerobic digestion of sludge have not yet been studied in depth. Additionally, a new guideline or the use of different NPs in the anaerobic digestion of sludge should be established to improve the anaerobic digestion of sludge and avoid inhibitory effects. This study investigated the effects of four representative NPs (i.e., nZVI, Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on methane production during the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). The presence of 10 mg/g total suspended solids (TSS) nZVI and 100 mg/g TSS Fe2O3 NPs increased methane production to 120% and 117% of the control, respectively, whereas 500 mg/g TSS Ag NPs and 500 mg/g TSS MgO NPs generated lower levels of methane production (73.52% and 1.08% that of the control, respectively). These results showed that low concentrations of nZVI and Fe2O3 NPs promoted the amount of microbes (Bacteria and Archaea) and activities of key enzymes but that higher concentrations of Ag NPs and MgO NPs inhibited them. PMID:27166174

  19. Fenton peroxidation improves the drying performance of waste activated sludge.

    Dewil, Raf; Baeyens, Jan; Neyens, Elisabeth

    2005-01-31

    Advanced sludge treatment processes (AST) reduce the amount of sludge produced and improve the dewaterability, thus probably also affecting the heat transfer properties and the drying characteristics of the sludge. This paper studies the influence of the Fenton peroxidation on the thermal conductivity of the sludge. Results demonstrate that the Fenton's peroxidation positively influences the sludge cake consistency and hence enhances the mechanical dewaterability and the drying characteristics of the dewatered sludge. For the two sludges used in this study, i.e. obtained from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) of Tienen and Sint-Niklaas--the dry solids content of the mechanically dewatered sludge increased from 22.5% to 40.3% and from 18.7% to 35.2%, respectively. The effective thermal conductivity k(e) of the untreated and the peroxidized sludges is measured and used to determine the heat transfer coefficient h(s). An average improvement for k(e) of 16.7% (Tienen) and 5.8% (Sint-Niklaas) was observed. Consequently the value of h(s) increased with 15.6% (Tienen) and 5.0% (Sint-Niklaas). This increased heat transfer coefficient in combination with the increased dewaterability has direct implications on the design of sludge dryers. A plate-to-plate calculation of a multiple hearth dryer illustrates that the number of plates required to dry the peroxidized sludge to 90% DS is less than half the number of plates needed to dry untreated sludge. This results in reduced dryer dimensions or a higher capacity for an existing dryer of given dimensions. PMID:15629575

  20. Sludge reduction potential of the activated sludge process by integrating an oligochaete reactor

    An oligochaete reactor linked to an integrated oxidation ditch with vertical cycle (IODVC) was used to investigate the sludge reduction potential induced by worms. The presence of Tubificidae was observed in the worm reactor throughout the operational period after its inoculation, and Tubificidae was occasionally found in the IODVC. Free-swimming worms, Aeolosoma hemprichi, Nais elinguis, and Aulophorus furcatus, were found in both the IODVC and the worm reactor, but A. hemprichi was dominant. A. hemprichi reached its maximum, 322 and 339 Aeolosoma/mL mixed liquor on day 49 in the worm reactor and the IODVC, respectively. The presence of oligochaetes or the integration of worm reactor with the IODVC had little effect on sludge yield, but the worm growth was helpful for improving sludge settling characteristics. The average sludge yield and sludge volume index (SVI) in the IODVC were 0.33 kgSS/kgCODremoved and 78 mL/g, respectively. The worm presence had little impact on effluent quality of the IODVC, but it caused phosphorus release into the effluent. The average COD, NH4+-N, and SS concentrations in the effluent of the IODVC were 49.06, 12.82, and 58.25 mg/L, respectively. No total nitrogen (TN) release into the effluent of the IODVC occurred

  1. Radiochemical analysis of 210Pb e 226Ra in samples of sludges and scales in petroleum industry

    The exploration and production of oil can generate different types of waste, such as scales, which are formed in the internal surface of pipes and equipment, sludges that is deposited in water/oil separators, storage tanks and valves and water that is removed along with the oil, which bring to the surface some of the radionuclides present in the rock matrix. From a radiological point of view, the most important radionuclides, which appear in sludges and scales are 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb and 228Th, since the exposure to these radionuclides can represent a significant dose on workers. The analysis already performed using gamma spectrometry in samples of sludge and scales indicated the presence of high concentrations of radio isotopes, showing the need to enlarge the radiometric survey including other elements of the 238U series. This work focuses on radiochemical determination of 210Pb and 226Ra concentrations in samples of sludge and scales

  2. Development of a model describing virus removal process in an activated sludge basin

    Kim, T.; Shiragami, N. Unno, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-20

    The virus removal process from the liquid phase in an activated sludge basin possibly consists of physicochemical processes, such as adsorption onto sludge flocs, biological processes such as microbial predating and inactivation by virucidal components excreted by microbes. To describe properly the virus behavior in an activated sludge basin, a simple model is proposed based on the experimental data obtained using a poliovirus type 1. A three-compartments model, which include the virus in the liquid phase and in the peripheral and inner regions of sludge flocs is employed. By using the model, the Virus removal process was successfully simulated to highlight the implication of its distribution in the activated sludge basin. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Adverse effects of erythromycin on the structure and chemistry of activated sludge

    This study examines the effects of erythromycin on activated sludge from two French urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Wastewater spiked with 10 mg/L erythromycin inhibited the specific evolution rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 79% (standard deviation 34%) and the specific N-NH4+ evolution rate by 41% (standard deviation 25%). A temporary increase in COD and tryptophan-like fluorescence, as well as a decrease in suspended solids, were observed in reactors with wastewater containing erythromycin. The destruction of activated sludge flocs was monitored by automated image analysis. The effect of erythromycin on nitrification was variable depending on the sludge origin. Erythromycin inhibited the specific nitrification rate in sludge from one WWTP, but increased the nitrification rate at the other facility. - Erythromycin toxicity on activated sludge is expected to reduce pollution removal.

  4. Adverse effects of erythromycin on the structure and chemistry of activated sludge

    Louvet, J.N.; Giammarino, C.; Potier, O. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique-CNRS, Nancy University, INPL, 1, rue Grandville, BP 20451, F-54001 Nancy Cedex (France); Pons, M.N., E-mail: marie-noelle.pons@ensic.inpl-nancy.f [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique-CNRS, Nancy University, INPL, 1, rue Grandville, BP 20451, F-54001 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2010-03-15

    This study examines the effects of erythromycin on activated sludge from two French urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Wastewater spiked with 10 mg/L erythromycin inhibited the specific evolution rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 79% (standard deviation 34%) and the specific N-NH{sub 4}{sup +} evolution rate by 41% (standard deviation 25%). A temporary increase in COD and tryptophan-like fluorescence, as well as a decrease in suspended solids, were observed in reactors with wastewater containing erythromycin. The destruction of activated sludge flocs was monitored by automated image analysis. The effect of erythromycin on nitrification was variable depending on the sludge origin. Erythromycin inhibited the specific nitrification rate in sludge from one WWTP, but increased the nitrification rate at the other facility. - Erythromycin toxicity on activated sludge is expected to reduce pollution removal.

  5. Biological Treatment of tannery wastewater using activated sludge process

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of Activated Sludge Process (ASP) for the treatment of tannery wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions. A bench scale model comprising of an aeration tank and final clarifier was used for this purpose. The model was operated continuously for 267 days. Settled tannery wastewater was used as influent to the aeration tank. Five days Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the influent and effluent were measured to find process efficiency at various mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and hydraulic detention time. The results of the study demonstrated that an efficiency of above 90% and 80% for BOD5 and COD, respectively could be obtained if the ASP is operated at an MLVSS concentration of 3500 mg/L keeping an aeration time of 12 hours. (author)

  6. Anoxic Activated Sludge Monitoring with Combined Nitrate and Titrimetric Measurements

    Petersen, B.; Gernaey, Krist; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental procedure for anoxic activated sludge monitoring with combined nitrate and titrimetric measurements is proposed and evaluated successfully with two known carbon sources, (-)acetate and dextrose. For nitrate measurements an ion-selective nitrate electrode is applied to allow for...... frequent measurements, and thereby the possibility for detailed determination of the denitrification biokinetics. An internal nitrate electrode calibration is implemented in the experiments to avoid the often-encountered electrode drift problem. It was observed that the best experimental design was with...... the carbon source in excess, since excess nitrate provoked nitrite build-up thereby complicating the data interpretation. A conceptual model could quantitatively describe the experimental observations and thus link the experimentally measured proton production with the consumption of electron acceptor...

  7. ACTIVATED SLUDGE DESIGN ON MS.EXCEL 8.0

    Köksal SARICAOĞLU

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the planing of the Activated Sludge Method used on Environmental Engineering, was done by MS Excel 8.0, which very commonly used for spread sheet design. The program contained five sections. They are; the "DATA" section to enter the available data for calculations, the "RESULTS" section to show the outcomes of calculations, the "DETERMINATION of DIMENSIONS" section to determine the dimensions of the reactor, the "CALCULATION of AIR DIFFUSER" section to calculate the dimensions and capacity of air diffuser and the "EVALUATION" section to evaluate the results of calculations according to the criteria. The aim of this study was, to demonstrate that every engineer ca do easily needed programs related to her or his field using Excel's functions although can not know about any program language.

  8. [Microbial composition of the activated sludges of the Moscow wastewater treatment plants].

    Kallistova, A Iu; Pimenov, N V; Kozlov, M N; Nikolaev, Iu A; Dorofeev, A G; Aseeva, V G; Grachev, V A; Men'ko, E V; Berestovskaia, Iu Iu; Nozhevnikova, A N; Kevbrina, M V

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the major technologically important microbial groups (ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing, phosphate-accumulating, foam-inducing, and anammox bacteria, as well as planctomycetes and methanogenic archaea) was characterized for the aeration tanks of the Moscow wastewater treatment facilities. FISH investigation revealed that aerobic sludges were eubacterial communities; the metabolically active archaea contributed insignificantly. Stage II nitrifying microorganisms and planctomycetes were significant constituents of the bacterial component of activated sludge, with Nitrobacter spp. being the dominant nitrifier. No metabolically active anammox bacteria were revealed in the sludge from aeration tanks. The sludge from the aeration tanks using different wastewater treatment technologies were found to differ in characteristics. Abundance of the nitrifying and phosphate-accumulating bacteria in the sludges generally correlated with microbial activity, in microcosms and with efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater. The highest microbial numbers and activity were found in the sludges of the tanks operating according to the technologies developed in the universities of Hanover and Cape Town. The activated sludge from the Novokur yanovo facilities, where abundant growth of filamentous bacteria resulted in foam formation, exhibited the lowest activity The group of foaming bacteria included Gordonia spp. and Acinetobacter spp., utilizing petroleum and motor oils, Sphaerotilus spp. utilizing unsaturated fatty acids, and Candidatus 'Microthrix parvicella'. Thus, the data on abundance and composition of metabolically active microorganisms obtained by FISH may be used for the technological control of wastewater treatment. PMID:25844473

  9. THE EFFECT OF THE SLUDGE RECYCLE RATIO IN AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF AMOL'S INDUSTRIAL PARK WASTEWATER

    BAHAR HOSSEINI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An activated sludge aeration tank and a sedimentation basin were used to treat Amol’s industrial park effluents originating from all industrial units. A continuous system was implemented and the kinetic parameters were measured.The parameters such as rate constant, substrate utilization rate constant, yield and decay coefficient were 2.12 d-1, 232.4 mg l-1, 0.33 g/g of substrate and 0.096 d−1, respectively. The hydraulic retention times (HRT were in the range of 9 to 27 h. The sludge recycle ratios in the range from 0.3 to 1 were considered. The COD removal, SVI and DO were determined and the optimal values were obtained. It was observed that at HRT of 16 h and the sludge recycle ratio of 0.85, the COD removal and SVI were 95 and 85 %, respectively. The sludge recycle ratio greater than 0.85 had no significant effect on the COD removal.

  10. Nitrogen removal from wastewater and external waste activated sludge reutilization/reduction by simultaneous sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox (SFDA).

    Wang, Bo; Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Mengyue; Wang, Shuying

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous nitrogen removal and external waste activated sludge (WAS) reutilization/reduction by using the synergy of sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox processes in up-flow reactors (SFDA). Pre-treated domestic wastewater and synthetic wastewater (containing nitrite ∼20mg/L, ammonium ∼10mg/L in both) were fed to 1# and 2# SFDA, respectively. Long-term operation of 1# SFDA was investigated with achieving the peak ammonium removal rate of 0.021 and nitrite removal rate of 0.081kgN/(m(3)d) as nitrogen loading rate elevated from 0.075 to 0.106kgN/(m(3)d). Negative effect of dissolved oxygen on anammox or fermentation in the 2# SFDA was demonstrated negligible due to rapid depletion by microorganisms. Furthermore, a "net" sludge reduction of 38.8% was obtained due to sludge decay and organics consumption by denitrification. The SFDA process was expected to potentially be used for nitrogen removal and WAS reutilization/reduction in full-scale application. PMID:27140818

  11. Genomic and in situ investigations of the novel uncultured Chloroflexi associated with 0092 morphotype filamentous bulking in activated sludge

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Karst, Søren Michael; Nierychlo, Marta;

    2016-01-01

    Overgrowth of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) leads to impaired sludge settleability, a condition known as bulking, which is a common operational problem worldwide. Filaments with the Eikelboom 0092 morphotype are commonly associated with such bulking ...

  12. Removal of Organic Micropollutants by Aerobic Activated Sludge

    Wang, Nan

    2013-06-01

    The study examined the removal mechanism of non-acclimated and acclimated aerobic activated sludge for 29 target organic micropollutants (OMPs) at low concentration. The selection of the target OMPs represents a wide range of physical-chemical properties such as hydrophobicity, charge state as well as a diverse range of classes, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. The removal mechanisms of OMPs include adsorption, biodegradation, hydrolysis, and vaporization. Adsorption and biodegradation were found to be the main routes for OMPs removal for all target OMPs. Target OMPs responded to the two dominant removal routes in different ways: (1) complete adsorption, (2) strong biodegradation and weak adsorption, (3) medium biodegradation and adsorption, and (4) weak sorption and weak biodegradatio. Kinetic study showed that adsorption of atenolol, mathylparaben and propylparaben well followed first-order model (R2: 0.939 to 0.999) with the rate constants ranging from 0.519-7.092 h-1. For biodegradation kinetics, it was found that benzafibrate, bisphenol A, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, caffeine and DEET followed zero-order model (K0:1.15E-4 to 0.0142 μg/Lh-1, R2: 0.991 to 0.999), while TCEP, naproxen, dipehydramine, oxybenzone and sulfamethoxazole followed first-order model (K1:1.96E-4 to 0.101 h-1, R2: 0.912 to 0.996). 4 Inhibition by sodium azide (NaN3)and high temperature sterilization was compared, and it was found that high temperature sterilization will damage cells and change the sludge charge state. For the OMPs adaptation removal study, it was found that some of OMPs effluent concentration decreased, which may be due to the slow adaptation of the sludge or the increase of certain bacteria culture; some increased due to chromic toxicity of the chemicals; most of the OMPs had stable effluent concentration trend, it was explained that some of the OMPs were too difficutl to remove while other showed strong quick adaptation

  13. Effects of ozonation on disinfection and microbial activity in waste activated sludge for land application

    Ahn, Kyu-Hong; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Hong, Jun-Seok; Lim, Byung-Ran

    2003-07-01

    Effects of ozonation on microbial biomass activity and community structure in waste activated sludges from various treatment plants were investigated. The densities of viable cells and microbial community structure in the sludges treated with ozone at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS were measured on the basis of the respiratory quinone profile and LIVE/DEAD Backlight(TM). The results from the bacterial concentration and quinone profiles of the waste activated sludge showed that respiratory activities of microorganisms were detected at the ozone dose of 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS. However, fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus and Salmonella sp. in the ozonized sludge were not detected. This result implies that some microorganisms might be more tolerant to ozonation than the pathogenic indicators. The pathogens reduction requirements for Class A biosolids were still met by the ozonation at 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS.

  14. SLUDGE BATCH 6 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION: RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB6 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    Bannochie, C.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, D.

    2010-05-21

    to SRNL for measurement of these radionuclides. The results presented in this report are those necessary for DWPF to assess if the Tank 51 SB6 sample prepared at SRNL meets the requirements for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program. The sample is the same as that on which the chemical composition was reported. Concentrations are given for thirty-four radionuclides along with total alpha and beta activity. Values for total gamma and total gamma plus beta activities are also calculated. Results also indicate that 99% of the Tc-99 and at least 90% of the I-129 that could have been in this sludge batch have been removed by chemical processing steps in the SRS Canyons or Tank Farm.

  15. Sludge Batch 6 Acceptance Evaluation: Radionuclide Concentrations In Tank 51 SB6 Qualification Sample Prepared At SRNL

    SRNL for measurement of these radionuclides. The results presented in this report are those necessary for DWPF to assess if the Tank 51 SB6 sample prepared at SRNL meets the requirements for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program. The sample is the same as that on which the chemical composition was reported. Concentrations are given for thirty-four radionuclides along with total alpha and beta activity. Values for total gamma and total gamma plus beta activities are also calculated. Results also indicate that 99% of the Tc-99 and at least 90% of the I-129 that could have been in this sludge batch have been removed by chemical processing steps in the SRS Canyons or Tank Farm.

  16. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater by a hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas)

    Escola Casas, Monica; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Ooi, Gordon Tze Hoong;

    2015-01-01

    Hospital wastewater contributes a significant input of pharmaceuticals into municipal wastewater. The combination of suspended activated sludge and biofilm processes, as stand-alone or as hybrid process, has been suggested as a possible solution for hospital wastewater treatment. HybasTM is a...... hybrid process, based on the integrated fixed-film activated sludge technology, where plastic carriers for biofilm growth are suspended within activated sludge. To investigate the potential of a hybrid system for the removal of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater a pilot plant consisting of a series...

  17. Hydrolysis of particulate substrate by activated sludge under aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions

    Henze, Mogens; Mladenovski, C.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of hydrolysis of particulate organic substrate by activated sludge has been made. Raw municipal wastewater was used as substrate. It was mixed with activated sludge from a high loaded activated sludge plant with pure oxygen aeration. During 4 days batch experiments under aerobic......, anoxic and anaerobic conditions, the hydrolysis was following through the production of ammonia. The hydrolysis rate of nitrogeneous compounds is significantly affected by the electron donor available. The rate is high under aerobic conditions, medium under anaerobic conditions and low under anoxic...... conditions. The ratio between the hydrolysis rates under aerobic and under anoxic conditions are very similar to the respiration rates measured as electron equivalents....

  18. [Detection of anaerobic processes and microorganisms in immobilized activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant with intense aeration].

    Litti, Iu V; Nekrasova, V K; Kulikov, N I; Siman'kova, M V; Nozhevnikova, A N

    2013-01-01

    Attached activated sludge from the Krasnaya Polyana (Sochi) wastewater treatment plant was studied after the reconstruction by increased aeration and water recycle, as well as by the installation of a bristle carrier for activated sludge immobilization. The activated sludge biofilms developing under conditions of intense aeration were shown to contain both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Activity of a strictly anaerobic methanogenic community was revealed, which degraded organic compounds to methane, further oxidized by aerobic methanotrophs. Volatile fatty acids, the intermediates of anaerobic degradation of complex organic compounds, were used by both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Anaerobic oxidation of ammonium with nitrite (anammox) and the presence of obligate anammox bacteria were revealed in attached activated sludge biofilms. Simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic degradation of organic contaminants by attached activated sludge provides for high rates of water treatment, stability of the activated sludge under variable environmental conditions, and decreased excess sludge formation. PMID:25509405

  19. Effect of heavy metals on nitrification performance in different activated sludge processes

    To understand the toxic effect of heavy metals on the nitrification mechanisms of activated sludge, this study identified the specific ammonia utilization rate (SAUR) inhibited by Pb, Ni and/or Cd shock loadings. Seven different heavy metal combinations (Pb, Ni, Cd, Pb + Ni, Ni + Cd, Pb + Cd, and Pb + Ni + Cd) with seven different heavy metal concentrations (0, 2, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 40 ppm, respectively) were examined by batch experiments, where the activated sludge was taken from either sequencing batch reactor (SBR) or anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2O) processes. The experimental results showed the SAUR inhibition rate was Ni > Cd > Pb. No significant inhibition in the nitrification reaction of the activated sludge was observed even when as much as 40 ppm Pb was added. In addition, no synergistic effect was found when different heavy metals were simultaneously added in different concentrations, and the overall inhibition effect depended on the heavy metal with the highest toxicity. Further, first order kinetic reaction could model the behavior of SAUR inhibition on activated sludge when adding heavy metals, and the SAUR inhibition formula was derived as SAUR=(SAURmax-SAURmin)xe-ric+SAURmin. On the other hand, the heavy metal adsorption ability in both the activated sludge system was Pb = Cd > Ni. The specific adsorption capacity of activated sludge on heavy metal increased as the heavy metal concentration increased or the mixed liquid volatile suspended solid (MLVSS) decreased. The batch experiments also showed the heavy metal adsorption capacity of the SBR sludge was larger than the A2O sludge. Finally, the most predominant bacteria in the phylogenetic trees of SBR and A2O activated sludges were proteobacteria, which contributed to 42.1% and 42.8% of the total clones.

  20. Environmental biodegradation of haloarchaea-produced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) in activated sludge.

    Liu, Xiao-Bin; Wu, Lin-Ping; Hou, Jing; Chen, Jun-Yu; Han, Jing; Xiang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    Novel poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) copolymers produced by haloarchaea are excellent candidate biomaterials. However, there is no report hitherto focusing on the biodegradation of PHBHV synthesized by haloarchaea. In this study, an environmental biodegradation of haloarchaea-produced PHBHV films, with 10~60 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) composition and different microchemical structures, was studied in nutrition-depleted activated sludge. The changes in mass, molar mass, chemical composition, thermal properties, and surface morphology were monitored. The mass and molar mass of each film decreased significantly, while the PHA monomer composition remained unchanged with time. Interestingly, the sample of random copolymer PHBHV-2 (R-PHBHV-2) (3HV, 30 mol%) had the lowest crystallinity and was degraded faster than R-PHBHV-3 containing the highest 3HV content or the higher-order copolymer PHBHV-1 (O-PHBHV-1) possessing the highest surface roughness. The order of biodegradation rate was in the opposite trend to the degree of crystallizability of the films. Meanwhile, thermal degradation temperature of most films decreased after biodegradation. Additionally, the surface erosion of films was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The dominant bacteria probably responsible for the degradation process were identified in the activated sludge. It was inferred that the degradation rate of haloarchaea-produced PHBHV films mainly depended on sample crystallinity, which was determined by monomer composition and microchemical structure and in turn strongly influenced surface morphology. PMID:27098259

  1. "Study of the Biological Treatment of Industrial Waste Water by the Activated Sludge Unit"

    MK Sharifi-Yazdi; C.Azimi; MB Khalili

    2001-01-01

    The activated sludge process simply involves bringing together wastewater and a mixed culture of microorganisms under aerobic conditions. The system usually includes a secondary treatment given to the settled sewage, and requires an environment in which active microorganisms are maintained in intimate contact with wastewater in the presence of sufficient oxygen. In this study, the treatment of industrial effluents, by using laboratory activated sludge unit was investigated. The reduction of t...

  2. Estimation of effluent quality parameters from an activated sludge system using quantitative image analysis

    Mesquita, D. P.; A.L. Amaral; Ferreira, Eugénio C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The efficiency of an activated sludge system is generally evaluated by determining several key parameters related to organic matter removal, nitrification and/or denitrification processes. Off-line methods for the determination of these parameters are commonly labor, time consuming, and environmentally harmful. In contrast, quantitative image analysis (QIA) has been recognized as a prompt method for assessing activated sludge contents and structure. In the present study an activated ...

  3. Bioproduction of volatile fatty acid from the fermentation of waste activated sludge for in situ denitritation.

    Wang, Bo; Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shuying

    2016-04-01

    Waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation integrated with denitritation (the reduction of nitrite to dinitrogen gas) at different pHs was investigated in batch-mode reactors over a 24-day period. The results showed that in comparison with controlled pHs, the volatile fatty acid (VFA) bioproduction for in situ denitritation was significantly improved at uncontrolled pH. VFA fermented from WAS was quickly consumed by denitritation at uncontrolled pH, which accelerated sludge degradation. On the other hand, sludge digestion was benefited from the alkalinity produced from denitritation, while methanogenesis was prohibited by alkalinity and nitrite. The integrated sludge fermentation and denitritation can be cost-effectively applied to wastewater treatment plants, so that organic substrates (e.g., VFAs) are produced for denitritation via simultaneous sludge fermentation, which enables WAS reutilization and enhances nitrogen removal efficiency without the need of external carbon sources. PMID:26475401

  4. Influence of copper nanoparticles on the physical-chemical properties of activated sludge.

    Hong Chen

    Full Text Available The physical-chemical properties of activated sludge, such as flocculating ability, hydrophobicity, surface charge, settleability, dewaterability and bacteria extracellular polymer substances (EPS, play vital roles in the normal operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. The nanoparticles released from commercial products will enter WWTPs and can induce potential adverse effects on activated sludge. This paper focused on the effects of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs on these specific physical-chemical properties of activated sludge. It was found that most of these properties were unaffected by the exposure to lower CuNPs concentration (5 ppm, but different observation were made at higher CuNPs concentrations (30 and 50 ppm. At the higher CuNPs concentrations, the sludge surface charge increased and the hydrophobicity decreased, which were attributed to more Cu2+ ions released from the CuNPs. The carbohydrate content of EPS was enhanced to defense the toxicity of CuNPs. The flocculating ability was found to be deteriorated due to the increased cell surface charge, the decreased hydrophobicity, and the damaged cell membrane. The worsened flocculating ability made the sludge flocs more dispersed, which further increased the toxicity of the CuNPs by increasing the availability of the CuNPs to the bacteria present in the sludge. Further investigation indicated that the phosphorus removal efficiency decreased at higher CuNPs concentrations, which was consistent with the deteriorated physical-chemical properties of activated sludge. It seems that the physical-chemical properties can be used as an indicator for determining CuNPs toxicity to the bacteria in activated sludge. This work is important because bacteria toxicity effects to the activated sludge caused by nanoparticles may lead to the deteriorated treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment, and it is therefore necessary to find an easy way to indicate this toxicity.

  5. STABILIZATION OF ACTIVE SLUDGE AFTER WASTEWATER TREATMENT CONTAMINATED BY PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Olena Semenova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Biochemical purification of wastewater containing refined petroleum products takes place due to the oxidation of pollutants by active sludge organisms. As a result of this process the intense consumption of pollutants by active sludge and its growth occurs. Therefore, the possibility to use active sludge containing refined petroleum products after wastewater treatment requires its stabilization. Methods: In this work the oxidation by a 30% hydrogen peroxide solution was studied for its use as a stabilizer. Chemical oxidizers, including hydrogen peroxide destroy organic polymers retaining free water thus promoting water release from the structure of sludge particles. On the other hand remains of fine structured oxidized biopolymers can lead to filter clogging, that is, reduce moisture exchange of sludge. Results: The experiment was carried out to find out the correlation between the doses of hydrogen peroxide and the resistivity value of sludge filtration. Discussion: Stabilized active sludge can be used as a fuel for boiler rooms, which in its turn will reduce natural gas consumption for the enterprise needs.

  6. Performance of calcium peroxide for removal of endocrine-disrupting compounds in waste activated sludge and promotion of sludge solubilization.

    Zhang, Ai; Wang, Jie; Li, Yongmei

    2015-03-15

    Removal of six phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estriol, bisphenol A, and 4-nonylphenols) from waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated using calcium peroxide (CaO2) oxidation. Effects of initial pH and CaO2 dosage were investigated. The impacts of CaO2 treatment on sludge solubilization and anaerobic digestion were also evaluated. Specifically, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in EDC degradation during CaO2 oxidation was tested. Effects of 6 metal ions contained in the sludge matrix on EDC degradation were also evaluated. The results showed that CaO2 treatment can be a promising technology for EDC removal and facilitating sludge reuse. The EDC removal efficiencies increased with the increase in CaO2 dosage. At CaO2 doses of more than 0.34 g per gram of total solid (g g(-1) TS), more than 50% of EDCs were removed in a wide pH range of 2-12. Higher removal efficiencies were achieved at initial pH values of 12 and 2. The products of EDCs during CaO2 oxidation had less estrogenic activity than the originals. Under the conditions of neutral pH and CaO2 dosage = 0.34 g g(-1) TS, the sludge solubilization can be improved by increasing the soluble total organic carbon (STOC) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction by 25% and 27% in 7 d, respectively; the volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was enhanced by 96% in the 15 d following anaerobic digestion. The ROS released by CaO2 are the main factors contributing to EDC removal, among which, hydroxyl radicals (OH) play the most important role. Metal ions contained in the sludge matrix also affected EDC removal. For most cases, Fe, Cu, and Zn had positive effects; Mn and Ag had negative effects; and Mg had an insignificant effect on EDC removal. PMID:25613412

  7. Inhibition of total oxygen uptake by silica nanoparticles in activated sludge

    Sibag, Mark [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byeong-Gyu [School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Changwon [Energy Lab, Environment Group, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, 130 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwan Hyung; Lee, Jae Woo [Department of Environmental Engineering and Program in Environmental Technology and Policy, Korea University, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Maeng, Sung Kyu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jinwoo, E-mail: jinwoocho@sejong.edu [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Silica nanoparticles (SNP) inhibit total oxygen uptake in activated sludge. • Relatively smaller SNP are inhibitorier than larger SNP. • SNP alters C15:0, C16:0 and C18:0 in activated sludge fatty acid methyl ester profile. - Abstract: Nanoparticle toxicity to biological activities in activated sludge is largely unknown. Among the widely used nanoparticles, silica nanoparticles (SNP) have a limited number of studies associated with inhibition to the activated sludge process (ASP). We demonstrated SNP inhibition of activated sludge respiration through oxygen uptake rate (OUR) measurement. Based on the percentage inhibition of total oxygen consumption (I{sub T}), we observed that smaller SNPs (12 nm, I{sub T} = 33 ± 3%; 151 nm, I{sub T} = 23 ± 2%) were stronger inhibitors than larger SNPs (442 and 683 nm, I{sub T} = 5 ± 1%). Transmission electron micrographs showed that some of the SNPs were adsorbed on and/or apparently embedded somewhere in the microbial cell membrane. Whether SNPs are directly associated with the inhibition of total oxygen uptake warrants further studies. However, it is clear that SNPs statistically significantly altered the composition of microbial membrane lipids, which was more clearly described by principal component analysis and weighted Euclidian distance (PCA-ED) of the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) data. This study suggests that SNPs potentially affect the biological activity in activated sludge through the inhibition of total oxygen uptake.

  8. Inhibition of total oxygen uptake by silica nanoparticles in activated sludge

    Highlights: • Silica nanoparticles (SNP) inhibit total oxygen uptake in activated sludge. • Relatively smaller SNP are inhibitorier than larger SNP. • SNP alters C15:0, C16:0 and C18:0 in activated sludge fatty acid methyl ester profile. - Abstract: Nanoparticle toxicity to biological activities in activated sludge is largely unknown. Among the widely used nanoparticles, silica nanoparticles (SNP) have a limited number of studies associated with inhibition to the activated sludge process (ASP). We demonstrated SNP inhibition of activated sludge respiration through oxygen uptake rate (OUR) measurement. Based on the percentage inhibition of total oxygen consumption (IT), we observed that smaller SNPs (12 nm, IT = 33 ± 3%; 151 nm, IT = 23 ± 2%) were stronger inhibitors than larger SNPs (442 and 683 nm, IT = 5 ± 1%). Transmission electron micrographs showed that some of the SNPs were adsorbed on and/or apparently embedded somewhere in the microbial cell membrane. Whether SNPs are directly associated with the inhibition of total oxygen uptake warrants further studies. However, it is clear that SNPs statistically significantly altered the composition of microbial membrane lipids, which was more clearly described by principal component analysis and weighted Euclidian distance (PCA-ED) of the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) data. This study suggests that SNPs potentially affect the biological activity in activated sludge through the inhibition of total oxygen uptake

  9. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (...

  10. Analysis Of Sludge Batch 4 (Macrobatch 5) For Canister S02902 And Sludge Batch 5 (Macrobatch 6) For Canister S03317 DWPF Pour Stream Glass Samples

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), Macrobatch 5 (MB5) on May 29, 2007. Sludge Batch 4 was a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and SB4 material qualified in Tank 51. On November 28, 2008, DWPF began processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) from Tank 40 which is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from SB4, SB5 material qualified in Tank 51 and H-Canyon Pu and Np transfers. SB4 was processed using Frit 510 and SB5 used Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. During the processing of SB4 and SB5, glass samples were obtained during the pouring of canisters S02902 and S03317, respectively. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed (durability, chemical and radionuclide composition). The following observations and conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of the oxides for the chemical composition of both the SB4 and SB5 pour stream glasses is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) acceptance limits (95 (le) sum of oxides (le) 105). (2) The calculated Sludge Dilution Factor (SDF) for SB4 is 2.52. The measured radionuclide content is in good agreement with the calculated values from the dried sludge results from the SB4 Waste Acceptance Production Specification (WAPS) sample (References 1 and 19). (3) The calculated SDF for SB5 is 2.60. The measured radionuclide content is in good agreement with the calculated values from the dried sludge results from the SB5 WAPS sample (References 2 and 20). (4) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis shows there are noble metal inclusions, primarily ruthenium, present in both pour stream samples. (5) The Product

  11. ANALYSIS OF SLUDGE BATCH 4 (MACROBATCH 5) FOR CANISTER S02902 AND SLUDGE BATCH 5 (MACROBATCH 6) FOR CANISTER S03317 DWPF POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLES

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.

    2010-10-04

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), Macrobatch 5 (MB5) on May 29, 2007. Sludge Batch 4 was a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and SB4 material qualified in Tank 51. On November 28, 2008, DWPF began processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) from Tank 40 which is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from SB4, SB5 material qualified in Tank 51 and H-Canyon Pu and Np transfers. SB4 was processed using Frit 510 and SB5 used Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. During the processing of SB4 and SB5, glass samples were obtained during the pouring of canisters S02902 and S03317, respectively. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed (durability, chemical and radionuclide composition). The following observations and conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of the oxides for the chemical composition of both the SB4 and SB5 pour stream glasses is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) acceptance limits (95 {le} sum of oxides {le} 105). (2) The calculated Sludge Dilution Factor (SDF) for SB4 is 2.52. The measured radionuclide content is in good agreement with the calculated values from the dried sludge results from the SB4 Waste Acceptance Production Specification (WAPS) sample (References 1 and 19). (3) The calculated SDF for SB5 is 2.60. The measured radionuclide content is in good agreement with the calculated values from the dried sludge results from the SB5 WAPS sample (References 2 and 20). (4) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis shows there are noble metal inclusions, primarily ruthenium, present in both pour stream samples. (5) The Product

  12. Inhibitory effect of ammonia nitrogen on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic granular sludge

    2006-01-01

    A series of batch experiments were conducted in 125 mL serum bottles to assess the toxicity of different concentrations of ammonia nitrogen to the specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic granular sludge from upflow anaerobic sludge bed(UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed(EGSB) reactors. The effects of pH value and temperature on toxicity of ammonia nitrogen to anaerobes were investigated. The results show that the specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic granular sludge suffers inhibition from ammonia nitrogen, the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen that produce 50% inhibition of specific methanogenic activity for sludge from UASB and EGSB reactor are 2.35 and 2.75 g/L, respectively. Hydrogen utilizing methanogens suffers less inhibition from ammonia nitrogen than that of acetate utilizing methanogens. Hydrogen-producing acetogens that utilize propionate and butyrate as substrates suffer serious inhibition from ammonia nitrogen. The toxicity of ammonia nitrogen to anaerobic granular sludge enhances when pH value and temperature increase. Anaerobic granular sludge can bear higher concentrations of ammonia nitrogen after being acclimated by ammonia nitrogen for 7 d.

  13. Batch system for study of Cr(VI) Bio sorption by dried waste activated sludge

    Activated sludge from wastewater treatment systems contains both bacteria and protozoa. The cell wall of bacteria essentially consists of various compounds, such as carboxyl, acidic polysaccharides,lipids, amino acids and other components. (Author)

  14. Management experience on microthrix parvicella bulking in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant

    Activated sludge wastewater treatment processes may give inefficiencies due to biological imbalances involving biomass. In fact, external causes as temperature lowering can increase the proliferation of the filamentous bacterium Microthrix parvicella into activated sludge flocks. Microthrix parvicella increases may create dangerous bulking phenomena compromising secondary settling without varying bio-kinetic parameters. In this case of study, a method to defeat growth of Microthrix parvicella has been set up. Aluminium poly-chloride (PAC) has been added to activated sludge contained into oxidation tanks of a municipal wastewater treatment plant, where a large growth of Microthrix parvicella has been periodically observed. It has been demonstrated that a definite PAC concentration can reduce Microthrix parvicella proliferation into activated sludge flocks so bulking phenomena can be well reduced

  15. Comparison of bacterial communities of conventional and A-stage activated sludge systems

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A.; Lotti, T.; Garcia-Ruiz, M.J.; Gonzalez-Lopez, J.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial community structure of 10 different wastewater treatment systems and their influents has been investigated through pyrosequencing, yielding a total of 283486 reads. These bioreactors had different technological configurations: conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems and very highly

  16. Effects of activated sludge flocs and pellets seeds on aerobic granule properties

    Huacheng Xu; Pinjing He; Guanzhao Wang; Liming Shao

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic granules seeded with activated sludge fiocs and pellets (obtained from activated sludge flocs) were cultivated in two sequencing batch reactors and their characteristics were compared.Compared with granules seeded with activated sludge flocs, those seeded with pellets had shorter start-up time, larger diameter, better chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency, and higher hydrophobicity, suspended solid concentration, and Mg2+ content.The different inocula led the granule surface with different microbial morphologies, but did not result in different distribution patterns of extracellular polymeric substances and cells.The anaerobic bacterium Anoxybacillus sp.was detected in the granules seeded with pellets.These results highlighted the advantage of pellet over activated sludge floc as the seed for aerobic granulation and wastewater treatment.

  17. Improved computational model (AQUIFAS) for activated sludge, integrated fixed-film activated sludge, and moving-bed biofilm reactor systems, Part I: Semi-empirical model development.

    Sen, Dipankar; Randall, Clifford W

    2008-05-01

    Research was undertaken to develop a model for activated sludge, integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS), and moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems. The model can operate with up to 12 cells (reactors) in series, with biofilm media incorporated to one or more cells, except the anaerobic cells. The process configuration can be any combination of anaerobic, anoxic, aerobic, post-anoxic with or without supplemental carbon, and reaeration; it can also include any combination of step feed and recycles, including recycles for mixed liquor, return activated sludge, nitrates, and membrane bioreactors. This paper presents the structure of the model. The model embeds a biofilm model into a multicell activated sludge model. The biofilm flux rates for organics, nutrients, and biomass can be computed by two methods--a semi-empirical model of the biofilm that is relatively simpler, or a diffusional model that is computationally intensive. The values of the kinetic parameters for the model were measured using pilot-scale activated sludge, IFAS, and MBBR systems. For the semiempirical version, a series of Monod equations were developed for chemical oxygen demand, ammonium-nitrogen, and oxidized-nitrogen fluxes to the biofilm. Within the equations, a second Monod expression is used to simulate the effect of changes in biofilm thickness and fraction nitrifiers in the biofilm. The biofilm flux model is then linked to the activated sludge model. The diffusional model and the verification of the models are presented in subsequent papers (Sen and Randall, 2008a, 2008b). The model can be used to quantify the amount of media and surface area required to achieve nitrification, identify the best locations for the media, and optimize the dissolved oxygen levels and nitrate recycle rates. Some of the advanced features include the ability to apply different media types and fill fractions in cells; quantify nitrification, denitrification, and biomass production in the biofilm and

  18. Leachate Treatment by Batch Decant Activated Sludge Process and Powdered Activated Carbon Addition

    Y Hashempur; R Rezaei Kalantary; Jaafarzadeh, N.; Jorfi, S.

    2009-01-01

    "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Direct biodegradation of landfill leachate is too difficult because of high concentrations of COD and NH3 and also the presence of toxic compounds. The main objective of this study was to application of Strurvite precipitation as a pretreatment stage, in order to remove inhibitors of biodegradation before the batch decant activated sludge process with addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC)."nMaterials and Methods: Strurvite precipitated leachate was intro...

  19. Adsorption of Phenols and Chlorophenols in Wastewaters on Activated Carbon and Dried Activated Sludge

    YENER, Jülide

    1999-01-01

    One of the methods used for removal of phenols and chlorophenols from the wastewaters of petroleum refineries, coke, medicine, dye, plastics, pesticide, insecticide, and paper industry is the adsorption process. In this study, adsorption of phenol, o-chlorophenol and p-chlorophenol from aqueous solutions on to granular activated carbon and dried activated sludge was investigated as a function of pH, initial pollutant concentration and functional groups. Effects of these parameters on...

  20. The Utilization of Activated Sludge Polyhydroxyalkanoates for the Production of Biodegradable Plastics

    Punrattanasin, Warangkana

    2001-01-01

    Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) systems were used for the development of a system and operating procedures for the high production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by wastewater treatment (activated sludge) bacterial cultures. It was found that unbalanced growth conditions stimulated massive PHA production in activated sludge biomass. Operating conditions had a significant effect on PHA production and the composition of the accumulated copolymer when either laboratory prepared mixtures of org...

  1. Trouble Shooting and Performance Enhancement in Activated Sludge Process for Treatment of Textile Wastewaters

    Mehali J. Mehta; Bansari M. Ribadiya

    2014-01-01

    The untreated textile wastewater can cause rapid depletion of dissolved oxygen if it is directly discharged into the surface water sources due to its high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD) value. This paper focuses on various troubles in performance of activated sludge process and performance enhancement by suggesting remedial measures to ensure the proper operation of activated sludge process(ASP).Also, it is noted that modification and alternativ...

  2. N-Tox® - Early warning of nitrification toxicity for activated sludge treatment

    Callister, S.; Stephenson, Tom; Butler, M. D.; Cartmell, Elise

    2006-01-01

    N-Tox® is a new technique for evaluating the nitrification efficiency in industrial or municipal activated sludge systems, using direct measurement of nitrous oxide (N20) as an indicator of nitrification failure. Research using pilot-scale activated sludge plants treating real settled wastewater has demonstrated that detection of increased N2O concentration in the aeration tanks by N-Tox® is able to provide early warning of nitrification failure. The N-Tox® monitor relies on...

  3. Control and identification in activated sludge processes = Regeling en indentifikatie in aktief-slib processen

    Lukasse, L.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is about control and identification in activated sludge processes (ASP's). The chapters in this thesis are divided in two parts. Part I deals with the development of the best feasible, close-to-optimal adaptive receding horizon optimal controller (RHOC) for N-removal in a continuously mixed alternating activated sludge process reactor. Subsequently this controller and the most common existing controllers are mutually compared by means of simulations. In addition the application of...

  4. Effective Utilization of Waste Activated Sludge For Bioremediation and Bioenergy Production

    Nazlina Haiza Mohd Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Activated sludge system is widely used in treating wastewater. However, this system creates a lot of waste activated sludge (WAS). The abundance of WAS creates serious problem to municipalities and industries in term of treatment cost and waste management. Hence, the purpose of my Ph. D. study is to seek an appropriate means for WAS management. Here, four approaches for utilizing WAS effectively are investigated; 1) WAS reduction at low temperature by using low temperature tolerant bacteria, ...

  5. Microthrix parvicella bulking treatment by metallic salts addition : activated sludge impact

    Durban, Nadège

    2015-01-01

    Addition of metallic salts has been proposed to control the proliferation of Microthrix parvicella in low-loaded wastewater treatment plants (WWTP).The work presented in this document aimed at evaluating the efficiency of such treatment in the control of bulking events. The impact of aluminium addition on the activated sludge settling properties, on the process performance and on the microorganisms presents in the activated sludge, particularly it’s specificity for M. parvicella, was assessed...

  6. Chemical properties population of nitrites oxidizers, urease and phosphatase activities in sewage sludge-amended soils

    Bonmati Pont, Manuel; Pujolà Cunill, Montserrat; Saña Vilaseca, Josep; Soliva Torrentó, Montserrat; Felipó, Ma. Teresa (María Teresa); Garau, M; B. Ceccanti; P. Nannipieri

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work has been to determine the effect of sterilized and non-sterilized, aerobically or anaerobically digested sewage sludges on urease and phosphatase aetivities, on populations of nitrite oxidizers and on some chemical properties in laboratory conditions and for long incubation periods. Both urease an phosphatase activities were affected when anaerobic sludges were added to the soil. The inhibitory effects on both enzyme activities attributed to the presence of...

  7. Challenges encountered when expanding activated sludge models: a case study based on N2O production

    Snip, Laura; Boiocchi, Riccardo; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Jeppsson, U.; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice in wastewater engineering to extend standard activated sludge models (ASMs) with extra process equations derived from batch experiments. However, such experiments have often been performed under conditions different from the ones normally found in wastewater treatment plants......-scale activated sludge plant. Finally, the simulation results show large differences in oxygen uptake rates, nitritation rates and consequently the quantity of N2O emission (G(N2O)) using the different models...

  8. Wastewater treatment--adsorption of organic micropollutants on activated HTC-carbon derived from sewage sludge.

    Kirschhöfer, Frank; Sahin, Olga; Becker, Gero C; Meffert, Florian; Nusser, Michael; Anderer, Gilbert; Kusche, Stepan; Klaeusli, Thomas; Kruse, Andrea; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Organic micropollutants (MPs), in particular xenobiotics and their transformation products, have been detected in the aquatic environment and the main sources of these MPs are wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, an additional cleaning step is necessary. The use of activated carbon (AC) is one approach to providing this additional cleaning. Industrial AC derived from different carbonaceous materials is predominantly produced in low-income countries by polluting processes. In contrast, AC derived from sewage sludge by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a regional and sustainable alternative, based on waste material. Our experiments demonstrate that the HTC-AC from sewage sludge was able to remove most of the applied MPs. In fact more than 50% of sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac and bezafibrate were removed from artificial water samples. With the same approach carbamazepine was eliminated to nearly 70% and atrazine more than 80%. In addition a pre-treated (phosphorus-reduced) HTC-AC was able to eliminate 80% of carbamazepine and diclofenac. Atrazine, sulfamethoxazole and bezafibrate were removed to more than 90%. Experiments using real wastewater samples with high organic content (11.1 g m(-3)) succeeded in proving the adsorption capability of phosphorus-reduced HTC-AC. PMID:26877044

  9. Comparison of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extraction from two different activated sludges.

    Zhang, Leiyan; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted with five different extraction protocols from two different activated sludges were studied. The results showed that the major EPS constituent extracted by centrifugation was protein for the sludge in sequencing batch reactor treating chemical wastewater, and nucleic acid for the sludge in moving bed biofilm reactor treating synthetic urban wastewater. The order of EPS extraction amounting from the two sludges was formaldehyde + NaOH > formaldehyde + heating > EDTA > heating > centrifugation. The different extraction methods, the wastewater type, and activated sludge source greatly affected the amount and composition of EPS. The chemical extracted methods were more effective than the physical methods in extracting EPS for the two sludges. Moreover, formaldehyde combined NaOH was most effective in extracting EPS for the two sludges. However, chemical extraction could contaminate the EPS solution, which was pointed out by infra-red analysis and was also proved by cell lyses during EPS extraction and carrying over of the chemical extractant. Therefore, this study highlights that the choice of EPS extraction method should consider both the extraction yield and content and the contamination of extracting reagents to the EPS solution. The extraction procedures should be optimized and most effective. PMID:22864444

  10. Elucidating further phylogenetic diversity among the Defluviicoccus-related glycogen-accumulating organisms in activated sludge.

    McIlroy, Simon; Seviour, Robert J

    2009-12-01

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO) are thought to out-compete the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in activated sludge communities removing phosphate (P). Two GAO groups are currently recognized, the gammaproteobacterial Candidatus'Competibacter phosphatis', and the alphaproteobacterial Defluviicoccus vanus-related tetrad forming organisms (TFOs). Both are phylogenetically diverse based on their 16S rRNA sequences, with the latter currently considered to contain members falling into three distinct clusters. This paper identifies members of an additional fourth Defluviicoccus cluster from 16S rRNA gene clone library data obtained from a laboratory-scale activated sludge plant community removing P, and details FISH probes designed against them. Probe DF181A was designed to target a single sequence and DF181B designed against the remaining sequences in the cluster. Cells hybridizing with these probes in the biomass samples tested always appeared as either TFOs or in large clusters of small cocci. Members of the Defluviicoccus-related organisms were commonly found in full-scale wastewater treatments plants, sometimes as a dominant population. PMID:23765935