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Sample records for activated partial thromboplastin

  1. Dilute Russell's viper venom and activated partial thromboplastin time in lupus anticoagulant diagnosis: is mixing essential?

    Chandrashekar, Vani

    2016-06-01

    Dilute Russell's viper venom (DRVV) testing and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) have been effectively used in combination for lupus anticoagulant testing. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of mixing in activated partial thromboplastin and dilute Russell's viper venom testing for evaluation of lupus anticoagulants. Citrated blood from patients who were not on oral anticoagulant therapy was studied. Mixing study with 1 : 1 normal plasma for elevated APTT and also few samples with elevated screen time was carried out. Elevated APTT was seen in only 48.1% of patients with lupus anticoagulant. Correction of APTT was seen in 27.8% of lupus anticoagulant-positive patients. DRVV test on mixing resulted in 83.8% false-negative values. Integrated DRVV test could be a standalone test for testing lupus anticoagulant. Mixing study may be restricted for patients on oral anticoagulants or patients with strong lupus anticoagulant. PMID:26626041

  2. Sequential thrombosis and bleeding in a woman with a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time

    Pearce Michael I; Spencer Akpan; Ames Paul RJ

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Simultaneous or sequential haemorrhage and thrombosis in the presence of a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is a rare occurrence: we describe the case a 37 year old lady who developed post-delivery deep vein thrombosis treated with low molecular heparin and warfarin followed a week later by extensive bruising over legs and forearms, a significant drop in haemoglobin and a very prolonged aPTT. Further tests revealed an acquired factor VIII inhibitor at 35 Bethesd...

  3. Sequential thrombosis and bleeding in a woman with a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time.

    Spencer, Akpan; Pearce, Michael I; Ames, Paul Rj

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous or sequential haemorrhage and thrombosis in the presence of a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is a rare occurrence: we describe the case a 37 year old lady who developed post-delivery deep vein thrombosis treated with low molecular heparin and warfarin followed a week later by extensive bruising over legs and forearms, a significant drop in haemoglobin and a very prolonged aPTT. Further tests revealed an acquired factor VIII inhibitor at 35 Bethesda Units. We discuss the clinical and laboratory implications and provide a literature review of simultaneous thrombophilia and haemophilia in the presence of a prolonged aPTT. PMID:22032246

  4. Sequential thrombosis and bleeding in a woman with a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time

    Pearce Michael I

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simultaneous or sequential haemorrhage and thrombosis in the presence of a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT is a rare occurrence: we describe the case a 37 year old lady who developed post-delivery deep vein thrombosis treated with low molecular heparin and warfarin followed a week later by extensive bruising over legs and forearms, a significant drop in haemoglobin and a very prolonged aPTT. Further tests revealed an acquired factor VIII inhibitor at 35 Bethesda Units. We discuss the clinical and laboratory implications and provide a literature review of simultaneous thrombophilia and haemophilia in the presence of a prolonged aPTT.

  5. Thrombolytic fibrin specificity influences activated partial thromboplastin time prolongation in vitro.

    Tsikouris, J P; Ii, K C; Fike, D S; Cox, C D; Meyerrose, G E; Seifert, C F

    2002-12-01

    Despite limited comparative data, guidelines suggest the same concomitant unfractionated heparin (UFH) dose for all fibrin-specific thrombolytic agents in acute myocardial infarction. Since a supratherapeutic activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) correlates with adverse outcomes, clarifying effects of various agents on aPTT are needed. The present in vitro study evaluated the influence of alteplase (rt-PA), reteplase (r-PA), and tenecteplase (TNK) on aPTT prolongation. Blood samples from healthy volunteers (n = 12) were treated with equipotent concentrations of rt-PA, r-PA, and TNK, with and without UFH. Samples of each treatment group were incubated at 37 degrees C; aPTT and fibrinogen activity were measured after 4 h. Mean aPTT values for rt-PA alone and r-PA alone were prolonged versus those of TNK alone (P = 0.001 for both). Combined with UFH, rt-PA and r-PA increased the aPTT versus UFH alone (P < 0.05 for both). Interestingly, TNK + UFH reduced the aPTT versus UFH alone (P < 0.001). A negative correlation existed between fibrinogen activity and aPTT for all treatments, except TNK alone. The present investigation illustrates that an agent with maximal fibrin specificity (TNK) has minimal effect on the aPTT, while agents with less fibrin specificity are more likely to prolong the aPTT, with and without UFH present. PMID:12441912

  6. COMPARATIVE ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME (APTT) AND PROTHROMBIN TIME (PT) PROFILE OF INDIAN SNAKES Naja naja, Echis carinatus, Vipera russelli HELPFUL IN ESTABLISHING THEIR SUPERIOR THERAPEUTIC PROCOAGULANT EFFICACY

    Saroj C.L; More S.S; Umesh Hallikeri; Gadag J.R

    2010-01-01

    Comparative profile studies on the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and the Prothrombin Time (PT) of Naja naja (Indian cobra), Vipera russelli (Indian Russell’s viper) Echis carinatus (Indian saw scaled viper) proving their superior Procoagulant efficacy than the normal platelet poor plasma.

  7. COMPARATIVE ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME (APTT AND PROTHROMBIN TIME (PT PROFILE OF INDIAN SNAKES Naja naja, Echis carinatus, Vipera russelli HELPFUL IN ESTABLISHING THEIR SUPERIOR THERAPEUTIC PROCOAGULANT EFFICACY

    Saroj C.L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative profile studies on the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT and the Prothrombin Time (PT of Naja naja (Indian cobra, Vipera russelli (Indian Russell’s viper Echis carinatus (Indian saw scaled viper proving their superior Procoagulant efficacy than the normal platelet poor plasma.

  8. Evaluation of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time mixing studies using an estimated factor correction method.

    Chen, Jian; Phillips, Bonnie; Chandler, Wayne L

    2016-01-01

    Mixing studies for prolonged prothrombin time (PT)/activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) are used to estimate whether the prolongation is due to an inhibitor or factor deficiency. We propose a new method of mixing study interpretation based on estimation of average factor level changes. Factor level vs. PT/aPTT curves were prepared for single factor, vitamin K-dependent factor, and all factor deficiencies. These curves were used to predict the factor level in the sample and the correction needed to differentiate deficiencies from inhibitors. We compared this estimated factor correction (EFC) method to normal range, percentage correction, and Rosner index. For a given factor level, multiple factor deficiencies prolonged the PT/aPTT more than single factor deficiency, necessitating different thresholds for defining correction on mixing studies. The EFC method was superior to other the correction methods, correctly identifying 38 of 39 known inhibitors, single and multiple factor deficiencies, and correctly identifying inhibitor vs. deficiency in 50 of 59 patient samples. In 99 adult patient mixing studies over 18 months, 30% showed deficiency only, 30% inhibitor only, whereas 40% showed evidence of both. The EFC method for PT/aPTT mixing study interpretation was more accurate than the comparison methods at determining deficiency versus inhibitor. PMID:26397883

  9. Determining the effect of storage conditions on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen concentration in rat plasma samples.

    Goyal, Vinod Kumar; Kakade, Somesh; Pandey, Santosh Kumar; Gothi, Anil Kalidas; Nirogi, Ramakrishna

    2015-10-01

    Coagulation parameters are usually included in clinical and preclinical safety studies to evaluate the effect of xenobiotics on the extrinsic or intrinsic pathways of coagulation. The analysis is generally performed at the time of terminal sacrifice where many activities are scheduled. Chances of delay in analysis are likely particularly when blood is collected for coagulation via the abdominal vena cava. This experiment was planned to assess the variations in coagulation parameters caused by delay in analysis as well as by storage conditions. Blood was collected from the posterior vena cava under isoflurane anesthesia, and the plasma was separated immediately. Coagulation parameters were evaluated at 0, 6, 24 and 48 h from the plasma stored at room temperature, as well as plasma stored under refrigerated and freezing conditions. Stability of the analytes in blood was also evaluated under refrigerated conditions for 6 h. All parameters were analyzed using a semi-automated coagulometer. Prothrombin time (PT) was stable under all three storage conditions for up to 6 h. Although statistically significant differences were observed for activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at room and refrigeration temperatures for up to 6 h, the difference was clinically non-relevant. Fibrinogen was found to be the most stable parameter that showed consistency in results even up to 48 h under all three storage conditions. Plasma for PT can be stored and analyzed without any significant changes for up to 6 h from the actual blood collection, while fibrinogen level testing can be extended for up to 48 h after collection under any storage condition. For reliable APTT results, plasma samples should be run immediately after collection. PMID:26206586

  10. Indium-111-labeled platelets: effect of heparin on uptake by venous thrombi and relationship to the activated partial thromboplastin time

    The goal of heparin thepapy in deep vein thrombosis is to prevent thrombus extension. The relationship between thrombus extension and the results of coagulation tests used to monitor heparin thepapy is unclear. To expose this relationship, we studied the effect of several heparin regimens on the accretion of indium-111-labeled platelets on fresh venous thrombi, as detected by gamma imaging, and monitored the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Six dogs were treated with a 300-U/kg bolus of heparin followed by a 90-U/kg/hour heparin infusion, a dose of heparin sufficient to increase the APTT to levels greater than eight times baseline (APTT ratio); platelet accretion (thrombus imaging) occurred only after the heparin effect was reversed with protamine sulfate. Nineteen dogs were treated with a 150-U/kg bolus of heparin followed by a 4-hour, 45-U/kg/hour heparin infusion; a thrombus was demonstrated only after protamine injection in 12 (mean APTT ratio 1.3 +/- 0.19) and before protamine injection in seven. In thirteen of these 19 dogs, 30 minutes separated the platelet injection from heparin therapy, while in six this duration was less than 30 minutes. In four of these six dogs, thrombi were demonstrated before protamine therapy and at APTT ratios greater than 3.0. Finally, 10 dogs were treated with a 100-U/kg bolus followed by a 3-hour, 50-U/kg/hour heparin infusion, after which the APTT was allowed to return to baseline values spontaneously. In all 10 dogs, a thrombus was demonstrated only after cessation of the heparin infusion, and at a mean APTT ratio of 1.4 +/- 0.15 times baseline. These results suggest that, except with very early platelet injection, platelet accretion by thrombi is consistently inhibited by heparin at APTT ratios greater than 2.5

  11. Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time Testing: A Comparative Effectiveness Study in a Million-Patient Sample.

    Manu N Capoor

    Full Text Available A substantial fraction of all American healthcare expenditures are potentially wasted, and practices that are not evidence-based could contribute to such waste. We sought to characterize whether Prothrombin Time (PT and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT tests of preoperative patients are used in a way unsupported by evidence and potentially wasteful.We evaluated prospectively-collected patient data from 19 major teaching hospitals and 8 hospital-affiliated surgical centers in 7 states (Delaware, Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and the District of Columbia. A total of 1,053,472 consecutive patients represented every patient admitted for elective surgery from 2009 to 2012 at all 27 settings. A subset of 682,049 patients (64.7% had one or both tests done and history and physical (H&P records available for analysis. Unnecessary tests for bleeding risk were defined as: PT tests done on patients with no history of abnormal bleeding, warfarin therapy, vitamin K-dependent clotting factor deficiency, or liver disease; or aPTT tests done on patients with no history of heparin treatment, hemophilia, lupus anticoagulant antibodies, or von Willebrand disease. We assessed the proportion of patients who received PT or aPTT tests who lacked evidence-based reasons for testing.This study sought to bring the availability of big data together with applied comparative effectiveness research. Among preoperative patients, 26.2% received PT tests, and 94.3% of tests were unnecessary, given the absence of findings on H&P. Similarly, 23.3% of preoperative patients received aPTT tests, of which 99.9% were unnecessary. Among patients with no H&P findings suggestive of bleeding risk, 6.6% of PT tests and 7.1% of aPTT tests were either a false positive or a true positive (i.e. indicative of a previously-undiagnosed potential bleeding risk. Both PT and aPTT, designed as diagnostic tests, are apparently used as screening tests

  12. 111In-labeled platelets: effects of heparin on uptake by venous thrombi and relationship to the activated partial thromboplastin time

    The goal of heparin therapy in deep vein thrombosis is to prevent thrombus extension. The relationship between thrombus extension and the results of coagulation tests used to monitor heparin therapy is unclear. To explore this relationship, we studied the effect of several heparin regimens on the accretion of 111In-labeled platelets on fresh venous thrombi, as detected by gamma imaging, and monitored the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Six dogs were treated with a 300-U/kg bolus of heparin followed by a 90-U/kg/hour heparin infusion, a dose of heparin sufficient to increase the APTT to levels greater than eight times baseline (APTT ratio); platelet accretion (thrombus imaging) occurred only after the heparin effect was reversed with protamine sulfate. Nineteen dogs were treated with a 150-U/kg bolus of heparin followed by a 4-hour, 45-U/kg/hour heparin infusion; a thrombus was demonstrated only after protamine injection in 12 (mean APTT ratio 1.3 +/- 0.19) and before protamine injection in seven. In thirteen of these 19 dogs, 30 minutes separated the platelet injection from heparin therapy, while in six this duration was less than 30 minutes. In four of these six dogs, thrombi were demonstrated before protamine therapy and at APTT ratios greater than 3.0. Finally, 10 dogs were treated with a 100-U/kg bolus followed by a 3-hour, 50-U/kg/hour heparin infusion, after which the APTT was allowed to return to baseline values spontaneously. In all 10 dogs, a thrombus was demonstrated only after cessation of the heparin infusion, and at a mean APTT ratio of 1.4 +/- 0.15 times baseline. These results suggest that, except with very early platelet injection, platelet accretion by thrombi is consistently inhibited by heparin at APTT ratios greater than 2.5. Platelet accretion by venous thrombi occurs within narrow limits of heparin effect as reflected by the APTT

  13. Valores de referência do tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa em cães Reference ranges of prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT in dogs

    Sonia Terezinha dos Anjos Lopes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os fatores de coagulação são parte integrante da hemostasia normal, e tanto as coagulopatias hereditárias como adquiridas que envolvem este sistema são de grande importância veterinária, geralmente evidenciadas por manifestações clínicas, tais como, petéquias, equimoses, hematomas e sangramentos tardios. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a determinação dos valores de referência do tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa, por métodos manuais. Para tanto, utilizou-se "kits" para dosagens humanas, devido à inexistência de produtos similares de uso específico veterinário. Foram utilizados 40 cães clinicamente sadios, sem raça definida, machos ou fêmeas, de diferentes idades. As amostras sanguíneas foram de 2,5ml cada, colhidas por venopunção cefálica e acondicionadas em tubos de centrífuga contendo 0,25ml de citrato de sódio a 3,8%. O plasma foi imediatamente separado por centrifugação e as determinações de TP e TTPa foram realizadas utilizando-se "kits" comerciais "HemoStat Thromboplastin-SIª" e "HemoStat aPTT-El b", respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos foram de 6,87 ± 1,4 segundos para o TP com valores mínimo e máximo de 4,07 e 9,67, respectivamente, e de 15,10 ± 1,6 segundos para TTPa com valores mínimo e máximo de 11,9 e 18,3, respectivamente. Conclui-se, que os valores obtidos neste trabalho podem ser utilizados como referência. Os reagentes utilizados para plasma humano podem ser empregados para o plasma de cães.The coagulation factors are part of normal hemostasis, and both hereditary and acquired coagulopathies that involve this system have an important role in veterinary medicine, generally evidenced by clinical signs such as: petechias, ecchymosis, hematomas and late hemorrhagies. The objective of this experiment was to determine reference range values of prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, for manual methods. Human commercial

  14. Avaliação do desempenho dos reagentes do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada utilizados para detectar o anticoagulante lúpico Assessment of the performance of reagents of activated partial thromboplastin time used to detect the lupus anticoagulant

    Fernanda Chiuso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O anticoagulante lúpico é uma imunoglobulina pertencente à família dos anticorpos antifosfolípides. A sua ação in vitro é interferir nos testes de coagulação dependentes de fosfolípides. O tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA é um teste utilizado como screening na pesquisa do anticoagulante lúpico. Os reagentes utilizados neste teste apresentam grandes variações quanto à sensibilidade. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho dos reagentes do TTPA e detectar a presença do anticoagulante lúpico através de diferentes testes da coagulação. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A pesquisa do anticoagulante lúpico foi realizada em 50 amostras plasmáticas de pacientes do sexo feminino através dos testes do TTPA, do tempo de coagulação do caulim (TCC, do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada diluída (TTPAd e do tempo do veneno da víbora de Russel diluído (TVVRd. Três cefalinas comerciais foram avaliadas pelos testes do TTPA e do TTPAd. Na comparação entre os reagentes estudados foi aplicado o cálculo do intervalo de confiança (95%. RESULTADOS: Os três reagentes avaliados apresentaram boa concordância e os métodos utilizados responderam bem à pesquisa do anticoagulante lúpico. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÃO: As três cefalinas comerciais avaliadas podem ser utilizadas na rotina laboratorial para a pesquisa do anticoagulante lúpico.INTRODUCTION: The lupus anticoagulant is an immunoglobin which belongs to the antiphospholid antibodies family. Its in vitro function is to interfere with coagulation tests that are dependent on phospholipids. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT is a test used as screening on lupus anticoagulant research. Reagents used in this test demonstrate wide sensitivity ranges. OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of APTT reagents and detect the presence of lupus anticoagulant through various coagulation tests. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The lupus anticoagulant research was performed in plasma from 50

  15. Activated partial thromboplastin time measurement is not associated with clinical outcomes in patients with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes treated with unfractionated heparin.

    Thomas, Michael P; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Chiswell, Karen; Cohen, Marc; Kontos, Michael C; Antman, Elliott M; Ferguson, James J; Califf, Robert M; Goodman, Shaun G; Becker, Richard C

    2012-07-01

    Our objective was to determine the association of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) with recurrent ischemic events and non-coronary artery bypass surgery-related thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding. We studied 4,985 patients with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) participating in SYNERGY, a prospective, randomized, international trial designed to emulate contemporary practice wherein unfractionated heparin (UFH) is given intravenously and titrated according to a weight-adjusted dosing nomogram to a target aPTT of 1.5-2 times the upper limit of normal (approximately 50-70 s). Aspirin was administered to 95% of patients, clopidogrel to 63%, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors to 58%. More than 90% of patients underwent early coronary angiography, and 69% were revascularized. Used as a time-dependent covariate, aPTT was evaluated as a predictor of time to ischemic or major hemorrhagic events in proportional hazards regression models. Using discrete variable analysis, aPTT was categorized as persistently below a lower threshold of anticoagulation (70 vs. ≤70 s) for major hemorrhagic events. UFH treatment lasted a median of 42 (30, 78) h. At >6-12 (n = 3,021), >12-24 (n = 3,406), and >24-48 (n = 2,497) h, 34, 41, and 46% of patients achieved the target aPTT range, respectively. Both before and after adjusting for baseline predictors of anticoagulant response and risk score (age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, ST depression, and renal function), no significant relationship between aPTT values and recurrent ischemic events or major bleeding was found. No relationship was observed between clinical outcomes and aPTT values persistently above or below the designated thresholds. Measurements of aPTT were not associated with clinical outcomes among patients with NSTE ACS treated with UFH. The required intensity of anticoagulation for benefit may be relatively modest when UFH is administered

  16. Avaliação de fibrinogênio, tempo de tromboplastina parcial e tempo de protrombina em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio Evaluation of fibrinogen, activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Marinês Lavall Dias

    2007-04-01

    during the acute phase of AMI were related to cardiovascular death or a new AMI event. This incidence was higher in the age range of 44 to 75 years in men, and 56 to 90 in women. Approximately 73% of patients presented family history of coronary heart disease (CHD, 66% were smokers, 63% presented hypertension and most of them were sedentary. Increased incidence of AMI in extreme temperatures was also observed. For fibrinogen concentrations (Fbr, results demonstrated significant difference (p < 0.05 between control and AMI patients. Considering troponin (TROP, creatine kinase (CK, the MB fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB and leukocytes count, results showed statistically significant differences. However, partial thromboplastin time activated (PTAT, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, and triglyceride levels presented no significant difference between the studied groups. In conclusion, this work demonstrated a trend towards increasing fibrinogen concentration in patients with AMI, revealing that it may be considered one of the cardiac markers for AMI.

  17. Normalization of Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time Correlates with Low Levels of Dabigatran in a Patient with Severe Sepsis

    Højland, Rikke Ebenhard; Thorup, Stine Borch; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen

    2015-01-01

    The oral anticoagulant dabigatran etexilate can be a challenge when patients need acute surgery. Sepsis and acute renal failure exacerbate the anticoagulant effect. There is no specific reversal agent for dabigatran etexilate, but it can be removed by hemodialysis. We present a case where a patient...... treated with dabigatran etexilate was admitted to intensive care unit with severe sepsis and acute renal failure and in need of bilateral lower limp amputation due to ischemia. The patient had severe coagulopathy and was treated with continuous venovenous hemofiltration in attempt to remove dabigatran...

  18. 21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thromboplastin generation test. 864.7900 Section 864.7900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Thromboplastin generation test. (a) Identification. A thromboplastin generation test is a device used to...

  19. Change in tissue thromboplastin content of brain following trauma

    Pathak Ashis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue thromboplastin (TTP is an integral membrane protein contributing to coagulopathy after trauma of brain, which is a rich source of TTP. Aims: A study was undertaken to establish the TTP content of various areas of normal brain and estimate the changes in TTP activity of brain in response to varying degrees of trauma. Materials and Methods: Samples from different areas of brain of ten cadavers were used as controls and they were compared with contused brain tissue obtained after surgery in 25 head injury (HI patients of varying severity. Results: In the study group, the TTP activity of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes after HI was significantly raised in contrast to that of the control group. The TTP activity was also significantly higher in the severe HI patients than those having moderate HI. The mode of injury and the time lapse after HI had no significant bearing on the TTP activity. Subjects above 40 years of age demonstrated a higher mean TTP activity after HI, though it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study provides quantitative data on TTP activity of normal brain and highlights the role of TTP in coagulopathy following HI through its increased activity after HI, more so in the severe HI group.

  20. Influence of heparin and thromboplastin in half-life of 125I-protein C in rat blood

    The influence of heparin and thromboplastin on the halflife of 125I-protein C in rat blood was under investigation. The intravenous administration of heparin resulted in the prolongation of t1/2 to 6.5 h, that could be explained by inhibition of thrombin generation. Upon the 40-min infusion of thromboplastin the rate of 125I-protein C decay in blood enhanced. That could be explained by the generation of the endogenous thrombin and participation of thrombomodulin in the protein C activation as well as in the removal of the endogenous thrombin from blood

  1. Anticoagulant activity of original synthetic peptide derivatives.

    Drozd, N N; Tolstenkov, A S; Makarov, V A; Miphtakhova, N T; Voyushina, T L; Sergeev, M E

    2008-01-01

    Original synthetic peptide derivatives exhibit anticoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo. They delayed fibrin clot formation from human blood plasma in tests for the intrinsic coagulation pathway (activated partial thromboplastin time) and final stage of plasma coagulation (thrombin time) and inhibited amidolytic activity of thrombin. We determined the minimum effective dose of the most active compound providing a 2-fold lengthening of blood clotting time (activated partial thromboplastin time test and thrombin time test), which persisted for 2-3 h. PMID:19024001

  2. Partial characterization and anticoagulant activity of a heterofucan from the brown seaweed Padina gymnospora

    Silva T.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown algae Padina gymnospora contain different fucans. Powdered algae were submitted to proteolysis with the proteolytic enzyme maxataze. The first extract of the algae was constituted of polysaccharides contaminated with lipids, phenols, etc. Fractionation of the fucans with increasing concentrations of acetone produced fractions with different proportions of fucose, xylose, uronic acid, galactose, and sulfate. One of the fractions, precipitated with 50% acetone (v/v, contained an 18-kDa heterofucan (PF1, which was further purified by gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-75 using 0.2 M acetic acid as eluent and characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis in 0.05 M 1,3 diaminopropane/acetate buffer at pH 9.0, methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Structural analysis indicates that this fucan has a central core consisting mainly of 3-ß-D-glucuronic acid 1-> or 4-ß-D-glucuronic acid 1 ->, substituted at C-2 with alpha-L-fucose or ß-D-xylose. Sulfate groups were only detected at C-3 of 4-alpha-L-fucose 1-> units. The anticoagulant activity of the PF1 (only 2.5-fold lesser than low molecular weight heparin estimated by activated partial thromboplastin time was completely abolished upon desulfation by solvolysis in dimethyl sulfoxide, indicating that 3-O-sulfation at C-3 of 4-alpha-L-fucose 1-> units is responsible for the anticoagulant activity of the polymer.

  3. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra

  4. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    Partial pressure neutral gas measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an open-quotes active spectrometer.close quotes In prior work utilizing band pass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne, and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitation by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  5. Saline obtaining and time standardization of prothrombin using thromboplastin of human placenta.

    María de Jesús Sánchez Bouza

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determining prothombine ‘s time is an important lab test in the study of coagulation disorders. To develop this essay the main reactive was thromboplastin , a substance that is presented in tissue and that has been obtained habitually from the human brain or certain animals but its extraction in labs or its commercial acquisition is difficult at present. Objective: To obtain Thromboplastin throughout the extraction of human placenta and to standardise the determination of pro-time into the obtained reactive Method: Placenta from normal delivery was used from which thromboplastin was obtained using a saline extraction. The reactive was compared with thromboplastin from human brain from ¨Dr. Hermanos Ameijeiras¨ Hospital in Havana City in a group of patients with and without anticoagulant treatment . With the extracted thromplastin similar or compatible results were obtained than with the habitual reactives by using easier and cheaper process.

  6. Valores de referência do tempo de protrombina (TP) e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa) em cães Reference ranges of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in dogs

    Sonia Terezinha dos Anjos Lopes; Mauren Picada Emanuelli; Claudete Schmidt; Alceu Gaspar Raiser; Alexandre Mazzanti; Aline Souza Alves

    2005-01-01

    Os fatores de coagulação são parte integrante da hemostasia normal, e tanto as coagulopatias hereditárias como adquiridas que envolvem este sistema são de grande importância veterinária, geralmente evidenciadas por manifestações clínicas, tais como, petéquias, equimoses, hematomas e sangramentos tardios. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a determinação dos valores de referência do tempo de protrombina (TP) e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa), por métodos manuais. Para tanto, ...

  7. Implementation of the ISTH classification of non-overt DIC in a thromboplastin induced rabbit model

    Berthelsen, Line Olrik; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Wiinberg, Bo;

    2009-01-01

      Validation of animal models of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) to human DIC is crucial in order to translate findings in research models to treatment modalities for DIC in humans. ISTH classifications of overt and non-overt human DIC have proven to have a high diagnostic accuracy......, but the scoring systems have rarely been applied to animal models of DIC. In this study, we use rabbit brain thromboplastin (thromboplastin) to induce DIC in a rabbit model and test the applicability of the ISTH criteria for standardized diagnosis of DIC. Cardiovascular and haematological parameters...... from rabbits, either saline-injected or administered 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 or 5 mg thromboplastin/kg as a single bolus, were collected at four timepoints over a 90 minute period. All groups of rabbits were scored at each time point according to the ISTH diagnostic criteria for non-overt DIC. Injection of 5...

  8. Variability in the results of inr (international normalized ratio: a comparison of six commercial thromboplastin brands

    Fernanda Daniela Serralvo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The efficacy and safety in treatment with oral anticoagulants are dependent on the monitoring of the effect of anticoagulants by the prothrombin time (PT. The system INR (International Normalized Ratio was developed to minimize the variability in the PT, mainly because of the thromboplastin reagent used. Objective: Compare the results of INR employing six thromboplastins and plasmas of patients using oral anticoagulants. Materials and Methods: For this study, 96 patients using oral anticoagulants and that had TP collected for monitoring anticoagulants were selected randomly. INR values were determined using six commercially available thromboplastin brands. Results and Discussion: Of the 96 patients, 29 were with the INR between 2 and 3 when used reagents Dade-Behring®, Human do Brasil® and Diagnostica Stago®. Regardless of the range of INR, the results obtained with the reagent Labtest® were statistically different from the Dade-Behring®, from Diagnostica Stago®, Trinity Biotech and Bios Diagnostica®. With INR between 2 and 3 only differences were observed between the results of brands and Bios Diagnostica® Labtest®. With INR above 3, the results of Labtest® were different from the Dade-Behring®, from Diagnostica Stago®, Trinity Biotech® and Bios Diagnostica®. Conclusion: Despite the establishment of INR, there are still significant differences in INR results depending on the thromboplastin brand used, which can interfere with the therapeutic approach in relation to oral anticoagulants.

  9. Biological activity of fucoidan from leafy bladderwort (Utricularia aurea Lour.)

    Chotigeat, W.; Phongdara, A.; Choosawad, D.

    2005-01-01

    Fucoidan extracted from aquatic plant Utricularia aurea was 1.3% of dry weight and comprised glucuronic acid 62.5% and fucose 4.98% of the crude extract and 28.74% of the fucose was sulfate. The fucoidan was investigated for antibacterial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of crude fucoidan against Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli was 20 and 10 mg/ml. Moreover, the fucoidan had anticoagulant activity. The crude fucoidan had activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at ...

  10. Theory of partial agonist activity of steroid hormones

    Carson C. Chow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The different amounts of residual partial agonist activity (PAA of antisteroids under assorted conditions have long been useful in clinical applications but remain largely unexplained. Not only does a given antagonist often afford unequal induction for multiple genes in the same cell but also the activity of the same antisteroid with the same gene changes with variations in concentration of numerous cofactors. Using glucocorticoid receptors as a model system, we have recently succeeded in constructing from first principles a theory that accurately describes how cofactors can modulate the ability of agonist steroids to regulate both gene induction and gene repression. We now extend this framework to the actions of antisteroids in gene induction. The theory shows why changes in PAA cannot be explained simply by differences in ligand affinity for receptor and requires action at a second step or site in the overall sequence of reactions. The theory also provides a method for locating the position of this second site, relative to a concentration limited step (CLS, which is a previously identified step in glucocorticoid-regulated transactivation that always occurs at the same position in the overall sequence of events of gene induction. Finally, the theory predicts that classes of antagonist ligands may be grouped on the basis of their maximal PAA with excess added cofactor and that the members of each class differ by how they act at the same step in the overall gene induction process. Thus, this theory now makes it possible to predict how different cofactors modulate antisteroid PAA, which should be invaluable in developing more selective antagonists.

  11. Heterofucans from the Brown Seaweed Canistrocarpus cervicornis with Anticoagulant and Antioxidant Activities

    Hugo Alexandre de Oliveira Rocha; Sara Lima Cordeiro; Mariana Santana Santos Pereira Costa; Luciana Guimaraes Alves; Nednaldo Dantas-Santos; Gabriel Pereira Fidelis; Leonardo Thiago Duarte Barreto Nobre; Rafael Barros Gomes Camara; Leandro Silva Costa

    2011-01-01

    Fucan is a term used to denominate a family of sulfated polysaccharides rich in sulfated L-fucose. We extracted six fucans from Canistrocarpus cervicornis by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. These heterofucans are composed mainly of fucose, glucuronic acid, galactose and sulfate. No polysaccharide was capable of prolonging prothrombin time (PT) at the concentration assayed. However, all polysaccharides prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). ...

  12. Photothermally enhanced catalytic activity of partially aggregated gold nanoparticles

    Kim, Jun-Hyun, E-mail: jkim5@ilstu.edu; Lavin, Brian W.; Boote, Brett W.; Pham, Julie A. [Illinois State University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2012-07-15

    This report describes the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in aqueous solution upon exposure to a solar-simulated light. As monodispersed GNPs possess a strong but narrow absorption band in the visible areas, anisotropic/partially aggregated GNPs are designed to have a strong and wide absorption band across visible to near-infrared wavelengths of light. Given their strong and broad absorption properties, these partially aggregated GNPs exhibited slightly superior photothermally induced heating of the reaction medium (i.e., water) when compared to the monodispersed GNPs upon exposure to a solar-simulated light. Subsequently, the catalytic reduction of 4-NP to 4-aminophenol was examined in the presence of various GNPs with and without the irradiation of light. While the monodispersed GNPs exhibited a moderate increase in the reaction rates of 4-NP with the light irradiation, the partially aggregated GNPs afforded the notable enhancement of the reaction rate, presumably due to their higher photon-to-heat conversion efficiency.

  13. Photothermally enhanced catalytic activity of partially aggregated gold nanoparticles

    This report describes the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in aqueous solution upon exposure to a solar-simulated light. As monodispersed GNPs possess a strong but narrow absorption band in the visible areas, anisotropic/partially aggregated GNPs are designed to have a strong and wide absorption band across visible to near-infrared wavelengths of light. Given their strong and broad absorption properties, these partially aggregated GNPs exhibited slightly superior photothermally induced heating of the reaction medium (i.e., water) when compared to the monodispersed GNPs upon exposure to a solar-simulated light. Subsequently, the catalytic reduction of 4-NP to 4-aminophenol was examined in the presence of various GNPs with and without the irradiation of light. While the monodispersed GNPs exhibited a moderate increase in the reaction rates of 4-NP with the light irradiation, the partially aggregated GNPs afforded the notable enhancement of the reaction rate, presumably due to their higher photon-to-heat conversion efficiency.

  14. Antibacterial activity of rhizome of curcuma aromatica and partial purification of active compounds

    S Revathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hexane extract of Curcuma aromatica, a plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae was tested on 10 bacterial strains (clinical isolates and standard strains. Agar diffusion method was adopted for determining the antibacterial activity of the extract. The hexane extract was found to be active against all Gram-positive strains tested, but inactive against Gram-negative strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined and found to be 539 ΅g/ml. The phytochemical analysis of hexane extract by gas chromatography mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 13 compounds. The crude hexane extract was partially purified by thin layer chromatography. The zone showing good antibacterial activity was analysed further by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, UV/Vis spectrophotometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the probable presence of germacrone.

  15. Sympathoadrenal activity during exercise in partial diabetic and diabetic rats

    Houwing, H; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E; Steffens, A.B

    1997-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is associated with altered fat and carbohydrate metabolism and disturbed sympathoadrenal functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the short-term diabetic state alters the activity of the sympathoadrenal system and of the adrenal cortex during

  16. Immunomodulatory Activity and Partial Characterisation of Polysaccharides from Momordica charantia

    Yuan-Yuan Deng; Yang Yi; Li-Fang Zhang; Rui-Fen Zhang; Yan Zhang; Zhen-Cheng Wei; Xiao-Jun Tang; Ming-Wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant’s polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP) fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and M...

  17. Biological activity of fucoidan from leafy bladderwort (Utricularia aurea Lour.

    Chotigeat, W.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan extracted from aquatic plant Utricularia aurea was 1.3% of dry weight and comprised glucuronic acid 62.5% and fucose 4.98% of the crude extract and 28.74% of the fucose was sulfate. The fucoidan was investigated for antibacterial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of crude fucoidan against Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli was 20 and 10 mg/ml. Moreover, the fucoidan had anticoagulant activity. The crude fucoidan had activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT at 4.47 IU/mg.

  18. Activation analysis of copper in foodstuffs after their partial destruction

    The samples analyzed (0.1 to 0.8 g) and the standards were irradiated for 24 hours with thermal neutrons (2x1012 n/cm2s), the ampoules were opened 2 hours after irradiation, 1 mg of non-active Cu carrier was added and the samples were mineralized for about 15 to 20 mins at 600 degC. The ash was leached with 5 ml of hot 10% HCl and following neutralization with ammonia and dilution with 20 ml of 10-3 M HCl, 10 ml of an α-benzoineoxime (2 g), pyridine (100 ml) and chloroform (900 ml) mixture was extracted at pH>=2. The extract was used for measuring radioactivity (6 hours after irradiation) and for spectrophotometric determination of the separation yield by the reverse IDA method (600 nm). The least measurable amount was 10-9 g, the standard deviation +-3.5%, the simultaneous processing of 20 samples took about 3 hours. With this method the results have higher values than with nonradiometric procedures burdened with a systematic error due to Cu losses. (M.K.)

  19. Immunomodulatory Activity and Partial Characterisation of Polysaccharides from Momordica charantia

    Yuan-Yuan Deng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant’s polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and MCP2. The immunomodulatory effects and physicochemical characteristics of these fractions were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that intragastric administration of 150 or 300 mg·kg−·d−1 of MCP significantly increased the carbolic particle clearance index, serum haemolysin production, spleen index, thymus index and NK cell cytotoxicity to normal control levels in cyclophosphamide (Cy-induced immunosuppressed mice. Both MCP1 and MCP2 effectively stimulated normal and concanavalin A-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation in vitro at various doses. The average molecular weights of MCP1 and MCP2, which were measured using high-performance gel permeation chromatography, were 8.55 × 104 Da and 4.41 × 105 Da, respectively. Both fractions exhibited characteristic polysaccharide bands in their Fourier transform infrared spectrum. MCP1 is mainly composed of glucose and galactose, and MCP2 is mainly composed of glucose, mannose and galactose. The results indicate that MCP and its fractions have good potential as immunotherapeutic adjuvants.

  20. Immunomodulatory activity and partial characterisation of polysaccharides from Momordica charantia.

    Deng, Yuan-Yuan; Yi, Yang; Zhang, Li-Fang; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Zhen-Cheng; Tang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant's polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP) fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and MCP2. The immunomodulatory effects and physicochemical characteristics of these fractions were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that intragastric administration of 150 or 300 mg·kg-·d⁻¹ of MCP significantly increased the carbolic particle clearance index, serum haemolysin production, spleen index, thymus index and NK cell cytotoxicity to normal control levels in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced immunosuppressed mice. Both MCP1 and MCP2 effectively stimulated normal and concanavalin A-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation in vitro at various doses. The average molecular weights of MCP1 and MCP2, which were measured using high-performance gel permeation chromatography, were 8.55×10⁴ Da and 4.41×10⁵ Da, respectively. Both fractions exhibited characteristic polysaccharide bands in their Fourier transform infrared spectrum. MCP1 is mainly composed of glucose and galactose, and MCP2 is mainly composed of glucose, mannose and galactose. The results indicate that MCP and its fractions have good potential as immunotherapeutic adjuvants. PMID:25178064

  1. Neuronal Activity in the Subthalamic Cerebrovasodilator Area under Partial-Gravity Conditions in Rats

    Zeredo L Zeredo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reduced-gravity environment in space is known to cause an upward shift in body fluids and thus require cardiovascular adaptations in astronauts. In this study, we recorded in rats the neuronal activity in the subthalamic cerebrovasodilator area (SVA, a key area that controls cerebral blood flow (CBF, in response to partial gravity. “Partial gravity” is the term that defines the reduced-gravity levels between 1 g (the unit gravity acceleration on Earth and 0 g (complete weightlessness in space. Neuronal activity was recorded telemetrically through chronically implanted microelectrodes in freely moving rats. Graded levels of partial gravity from 0.4 g to 0.01 g were generated by customized parabolic-flight maneuvers. Electrophysiological signals in each partial-gravity phase were compared to those of the preceding 1 g level-flight. As a result, SVA neuronal activity was significantly inhibited by the partial-gravity levels of 0.15 g and lower, but not by 0.2 g and higher. Gravity levels between 0.2–0.15 g could represent a critical threshold for the inhibition of neurons in the rat SVA. The lunar gravity (0.16 g might thus trigger neurogenic mechanisms of CBF control. This is the first study to examine brain electrophysiology with partial gravity as an experimental parameter.

  2. Human activities recognition by head movement using partial recurrent neural network

    Tan, Henry C. C.; Jia, Kui; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2003-06-01

    Traditionally, human activities recognition has been achieved mainly by the statistical pattern recognition methods or the Hidden Markov Model (HMM). In this paper, we propose a novel use of the connectionist approach for the recognition of ten simple human activities: walking, sitting down, getting up, squatting down and standing up, in both lateral and frontal views, in an office environment. By means of tracking the head movement of the subjects over consecutive frames from a database of different color image sequences, and incorporating the Elman model of the partial recurrent neural network (RNN) that learns the sequential patterns of relative change of the head location in the images, the proposed system is able to robustly classify all the ten activities performed by unseen subjects from both sexes, of different race and physique, with a recognition rate as high as 92.5%. This demonstrates the potential of employing partial RNN to recognize complex activities in the increasingly popular human-activities-based applications.

  3. Partial purification of a Bacillus licheniformis levansucrase producing levan with antitumor activity.

    Dahech, Imen; Belghith, Karima Srih; Belghith, Hafedh; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2012-10-01

    The extracellular fructosyltransferase (FTase) of a novel strain of Bacillus licheniformis capable of producing fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and a polysaccharide type levan was obtained and partially purified. The purification was achieved by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE cellulose and gel filtration chromatographies. The enzyme was partially purified as determined by SDS-PAGE, and the specific activity reached was 67.5, representing a purification factor of 177 and yield of 40%. Levan was isolated from the cultures of B. licheniformis. The levan was composed mainly of fructose residues when analyzed by TLC after acid hydrolysis and NMR analysis. In a previous study, the levan produced exhibited a hypoglycemiant activity. The present paper deals with the study of the antitumor and anti-cytotoxic effect of levan produced by B. licheniformis strain. In the in vitro antitumor activity test of levan against some tumor cell lines, relatively the significantly high activity was observed against the HepG(2). PMID:22579870

  4. Avaliação de fibrinogênio, tempo de tromboplastina parcial e tempo de protrombina em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio Evaluation of fibrinogen, activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Marinês Lavall Dias; José Edson Paz da Silva; Aline B. Wohlfahrt; Natália Brucker

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho procurou ressaltar a importância de parâmetros laboratoriais como marcadores de risco no infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM). O IAM é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública no mundo, sendo que dois terços dos pacientes que buscam atendimento emergencial não têm causa cardíaca, não havendo necessidade de hospitalização. Concentrações de fibrinogênio medidas durante a fase aguda do IAM foram associadas a morte cardiovascular ou novo evento de IAM. A incidência de eventos foi maior...

  5. Haploinsufficiency of Def Activates p53-Dependent TGFβ Signalling and Causes Scar Formation after Partial Hepatectomy

    Zhihui Zhu; Jun De Chen; Jing-Wei Xiong; Jinrong Peng

    2014-01-01

    The metazoan liver exhibits a remarkable capacity to regenerate lost liver mass without leaving a scar following partial hepatectomy (PH). Whilst previous studies have identified components of several different signaling pathways that are essential for activation of hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration, the mechanisms that enable such regeneration to occur without accompanying scar formation remain poorly understood. Here we use the adult zebrafish liver, which can regenerate wi...

  6. Characterization of the protein C activator Protac from the venom of the southern copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) snake.

    Stocker, K; Fischer, H; Meier, J; Brogli, M; Svendsen, L

    1987-01-01

    A single chain glycopeptide with a molecular weight of approximately 37,000, an isoelectric point of 3.0 +/- 0.2 and a carbohydrate content of approximately 20% was isolated from the venom of the southern copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix. It was capable of converting zymogen protein C in plasma of man and various vertebrates into its activated form, a serine proteinase which exerts an anticoagulant effect. Conversion of the zymogen protein C into the active proteinase was demonstrated by measuring the prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time due to proteolytic degradation of factors Va and VIIIa by the activation product, as well as by direct measurement of the generated enzyme activity by means of a synthetic chromogenic substrate. Intravenous injection of the venom protein C activator into rabbits caused prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Repeated subcutaneous injections led to formation of an antibody which formed, with purified protein C activator as well as with crude A. contortrix venom, a precipitating complex devoid of protein C activator potency. As revealed by activity measurements and by immunodiffusion experiments, the venoms of various A. contortrix, A. bilineatus subspecies contain similar protein C activators. PMID:3590209

  7. Partially Oxidized Sub-10 nm MnO Nanocrystals with High Activity for Water Oxidation Catalysis

    Jin, Kyoungsuk; Chu, Arim; Park, Jimin; Jeong, Donghyuk; Jerng, Sung Eun; Sim, Uk; Jeong, Hui-Yun; Lee, Chan Woo; Park, Yong-Sun; Yang, Ki Dong; Kumar Pradhan, Gajendra; Kim, Donghun; Sung, Nark-Eon; Hee Kim, Sun; Nam, Ki Tae

    2015-05-01

    The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is considered a major bottleneck in the overall water electrolysis process. In this work, highly active manganese oxide nano-catalysts were synthesized via hot injection. Facile surface treatment generated Mn(III) species on monodisperse 10 nm MnO nanocrystals (NCs). Size dependency of MnO NCs on OER activity was also investigated. Surprisingly, the partially oxidized MnO NCs only required 530 mV @ 5 mA cm-2 under near neutral conditions.

  8. Partially Oxidized Sub-10 nm MnO Nanocrystals with High Activity for Water Oxidation Catalysis

    Kyoungsuk Jin; Arim Chu; Jimin Park; Donghyuk Jeong; Sung Eun Jerng; Uk Sim; Hui-Yun Jeong; Chan Woo Lee; Yong-Sun Park; Ki Dong Yang; Gajendra Kumar Pradhan; Donghun Kim; Nark-Eon Sung; Sun Hee Kim; Ki Tae Nam

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is considered a major bottleneck in the overall water electrolysis process. In this work, highly active manganese oxide nano-catalysts were synthesized via hot injection. Facile surface treatment generated Mn(III) species on monodisperse 10 nm MnO nanocrystals (NCs). Size dependency of MnO NCs on OER activity was also investigated. Surprisingly, the partially oxidized MnO NCs only required 530 mV @ 5 mA cm−2 under near neutral conditions.

  9. Partially Hydrogenated Graphene Materials Exhibit High Electrocatalytic Activities Related to Unintentional Doping with Metallic Impurities.

    Jankovský, Ondřej; Libánská, Alena; Bouša, Daniel; Sedmidubský, David; Matějková, Stanislava; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2016-06-13

    Partially hydrogenated graphene materials, synthesized by the chemical reduction/hydrogenation of two different graphene oxides using zinc powder in acidic environment or aluminum powder in alkaline environment, exhibit high electrocatalytic activities, as well as electrochemical sensing properties. The starting graphene oxides and the resultant hydrogenated graphenes were characterized in detail. Their electrocatalytic activity was examined in the oxygen reduction reaction, whereas sensing properties towards explosives were tested by using picric acid as a redox probe. Findings indicate that the high electrocatalytic performance originates not only from the hydrogenation of graphene, but also from unintentional contamination of graphene with manganese and other metals during synthesis. A careful evaluation of the obtained data and a detailed chemical analysis are necessary to identify the origin of this anomalous electrocatalytic activity. PMID:27167069

  10. Deformation of partially pumped active mirrors for high average-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers.

    Albach, Daniel; LeTouzé, Geoffroy; Chanteloup, Jean-Christophe

    2011-04-25

    We discuss the deformation of a partially pumped active mirror amplifier as a free standing disk, as implemented in several laser systems. We rely on the Lucia laser project to experimentally evaluate the analytical and numerical deformation models. PMID:21643092

  11. Cerebral blood flow during paroxysmal EEG activation induced by sleep in patients with complex partial seizures

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements were combined with sleep polysomnography in nine patients with complex partial seizures. Two methods were used: the 133Xe method for measuring regional (rCBF) and the stable xenon CT method for local (LCBF). Compared to nonepileptic subjects, who show diffuse CBF decreases during stages I-II, non-REM sleep onset, patients with complex partial seizures show statistically significant increases in CBF which are maximal in regions where the EEG focus is localized and are predominantly seen in one temporal region but are also propagated to other cerebral areas. Both CBF methods gave comparable results, but greater statistical significance was achieved by stable xenon CT methodology. CBF increases are more diffuse than predicted by EEG paroxysmal activity recorded from scalp electrodes. An advantage of the 133Xe inhalation method was achievement of reliable data despite movement of the head. This was attributed to the use of a helmet which maintained the probes approximated to the scalp. Disadvantages were poor resolution (7 cm3) and two-dimensional information. The advantage of stable xenon CT method is excellent resolution (80 mm3) in three dimensions, but a disadvantage is that movement of the head in patients with seizure disorders may limit satisfactory measurements

  12. Cerebral blood flow during paroxysmal EEG activation induced by sleep in patients with complex partial seizures.

    Gozukirmizi, E; Meyer, J S; Okabe, T; Amano, T; Mortel, K; Karacan, I

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements were combined with sleep polysomnography in nine patients with complex partial seizures. Two methods were used: the 133Xe method for measuring regional (rCBF) and the stable xenon CT method for local (LCBF). Compared to nonepileptic subjects, who show diffuse CBF decreases during stages I-II, non-REM sleep onset, patients with complex partial seizures show statistically significant increases in CBF which are maximal in regions where the EEG focus is localized and are predominantly seen in one temporal region but are also propagated to other cerebral areas. Both CBF methods gave comparable results, but greater statistical significance was achieved by stable xenon CT methodology. CBF increases are more diffuse than predicted by EEG paroxysmal activity recorded from scalp electrodes. An advantage of the 133Xe inhalation method was achievement of reliable data despite movement of the head. This was attributed to the use of a helmet which maintained the probes approximated to the scalp. Disadvantages were poor resolution (7 cm3) and two-dimensional information. The advantage of stable xenon CT method is excellent resolution (80 mm3) in three dimensions, but a disadvantage is that movement of the head in patients with seizure disorders may limit satisfactory measurements. PMID:7163722

  13. Cerebral blood flow during paroxysmal EEG activation induced by sleep in patients with complex partial seizures

    Gozukirmizi, E.; Meyer, J.S.; Okabe, T.; Amano, T.; Mortel, K.; Karacan, I.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements were combined with sleep polysomnography in nine patients with complex partial seizures. Two methods were used: the 133Xe method for measuring regional (rCBF) and the stable xenon CT method for local (LCBF). Compared to nonepileptic subjects, who show diffuse CBF decreases during stages I-II, non-REM sleep onset, patients with complex partial seizures show statistically significant increases in CBF which are maximal in regions where the EEG focus is localized and are predominantly seen in one temporal region but are also propagated to other cerebral areas. Both CBF methods gave comparable results, but greater statistical significance was achieved by stable xenon CT methodology. CBF increases are more diffuse than predicted by EEG paroxysmal activity recorded from scalp electrodes. An advantage of the 133Xe inhalation method was achievement of reliable data despite movement of the head. This was attributed to the use of a helmet which maintained the probes approximated to the scalp. Disadvantages were poor resolution (7 cm3) and two-dimensional information. The advantage of stable xenon CT method is excellent resolution (80 mm3) in three dimensions, but a disadvantage is that movement of the head in patients with seizure disorders may limit satisfactory measurements.

  14. Partial purification and biological activities and properties of chick growth factors.

    Takahashi,Fumio

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular stimulating factors on cell proliferation in the supernatants of chick embryo carcases and adult muscles were studied. There were plural stimulating factors in embryonic and adult muscular supernatants that promoted cell proliferation without any supplement of sera and other materials. Salting-out methods with ammonium sulfate, ethanol fractionation, and isoelectric precipitation were used to isolate the stimulating factors, and these three methods proved the presence of plural stimulants on cell proliferation in the supernatants of chick embryo and adult muscles. The stimulants had altered physico-chemical properties and biological activities due to embryological development. The embryonic stimulants enhanced the synthesis of DNA and protein remarkably, and RNA synthesis in whole cell systems slightly. The muscular stimulants enhanced protein synthesis without any stimulation of DNA and RNA synthesis. Partial purification of the stimulants from the ethanol fractions was performed by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and Sephadex gel chromatography.

  15. Aggregate Size and Architecture Determine Microbial Activity Balance for One-Stage Partial Nitritation and Anammox

    Vlaeminck, S.E.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.;

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB) and anoxic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) cooperate in partial nitritation/anammox systems to remove ammonium from wastewater. In this process, large granular microbial aggregates enhance the performance, but little is known about granulation so far......AOB abundance and the activity balance for the different aggregate sizes and (ii) to relate aggregate morphology, size distribution, and architecture putatively to the inoculation and operation of the three reactors. A nitrite accumulation rate ratio (NARR) was defined as the net aerobic nitrite production rate...... divided by the anoxic nitrite consumption rate. The smallest reactor A, B, and C aggregates were nitrite sources (NARR, > 1.7). Large reactor A and C aggregates were granules capable of autonomous nitrogen removal (NARR, 0.6 to 1.1) with internal AnAOB zones surrounded by an AerAOB rim. Around 50% of the...

  16. Structure-activity relationship studies on cholecystokinin: Analogues with partial agonist activity

    Galas, M.C.; Lignon, M.F.; Rodriguez, M.; Mendre, C.; Fulcrand, P.; Laur, J.; Martinez, J. (Centre de Pharmacologie-Endocrinologie, Montpellier (France))

    1988-02-01

    In the present study, hepta- and octapeptide analogues of the C-terminal part of cholecystokinin, modified on the C-terminal phenylalanine residue, were synthesized. CCK analogues were prepared in which the peptide bond between aspartic acid and phenylalanine had or had not been modified and were lacking the C-terminal primary amide function. These CCK derivatives were able to cause full stimulation of amylase release from rat pancreatic acini but without a decrease in amylase release at supramaximal concentrations. There was a close relationship between the abilities of these derivatives to stimulate amylase release and their abilities to inhibit binding of {sup 125}I-BH-CCK-9 to CCK receptors on rat and guinea pig pancreatic acini. These CCK analogues were also able to recognize the guinea pig brain CCK receptors, some of them being particularly potent. The findings indicate that the aromatic ring of phenylalanine is important for the binding to brain and pancreatic CCK receptors, whereas the C-terminal primary amide function is not essential for the binding to pancreatic CCK receptors but is crucial for biological activity of rat pancreatic acini.

  17. Structure-activity relationship studies on cholecystokinin: Analogues with partial agonist activity

    In the present study, hepta- and octapeptide analogues of the C-terminal part of cholecystokinin, modified on the C-terminal phenylalanine residue, were synthesized. CCK analogues were prepared in which the peptide bond between aspartic acid and phenylalanine had or had not been modified and were lacking the C-terminal primary amide function. These CCK derivatives were able to cause full stimulation of amylase release from rat pancreatic acini but without a decrease in amylase release at supramaximal concentrations. There was a close relationship between the abilities of these derivatives to stimulate amylase release and their abilities to inhibit binding of 125I-BH-CCK-9 to CCK receptors on rat and guinea pig pancreatic acini. These CCK analogues were also able to recognize the guinea pig brain CCK receptors, some of them being particularly potent. The findings indicate that the aromatic ring of phenylalanine is important for the binding to brain and pancreatic CCK receptors, whereas the C-terminal primary amide function is not essential for the binding to pancreatic CCK receptors but is crucial for biological activity of rat pancreatic acini

  18. Isotherm-Based Thermodynamic Models for Solute Activities of Organic Acids with Consideration of Partial Dissociation.

    Nandy, Lucy; Ohm, Peter B; Dutcher, Cari S

    2016-06-23

    Organic acids make up a significant fraction of the organic mass in atmospheric aerosol particles. The calculation of gas-liquid-solid equilibrium partitioning of the organic acid is therefore critical for accurate determination of atmospheric aerosol physicochemical properties and processes such as new particle formation and activation to cloud condensation nuclei. Previously, an adsorption isotherm-based statistical thermodynamic model was developed for capturing solute concentration-activity relationships for multicomponent aqueous solutions over the entire concentration range (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C/A 2011, 2012, 2013), with model parameters for energies of adsorption successfully related to dipole-dipole electrostatic forces in solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions for both electrolytes and organics (Ohm et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015). However, careful attention is needed for weakly dissociating semivolatile organic acids. Dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic acid and glutaric acid are treated here as a mixture of nondissociated organic solute (HA) and dissociated solute (H(+) + A(-)). It was found that the apparent dissociation was greater than that predicted by known dissociation constants alone, emphasizing the effect of dissociation on osmotic and activity coefficient predictions. To avoid additional parametrization from the mixture approach, an expression was used to relate the Debye-Hückel hard-core collision diameter to the adjustable solute-solvent intermolecular distance. An improved reference state treatment for electrolyte-organic aqueous mixtures, such as that observed here with partial dissociation, has also been proposed. This work results in predictive correlations for estimation of organic acid and water activities for which there is little or no activity data. PMID:27222917

  19. Disease: H01078 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available H01078 Fletcher factor deficiency; Prekallikrein deficiency Fletcher factor deficiency, also cal ... ed much prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time ... and delayed thromboplastin generation but normal p ... rothrombin time . Hematologic disease hsa04610(3818) Complement and ...

  20. Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies

    ... tests may include: Activated Partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) Russell viper venom time Thromboplastin inhibition test Tests for ... Textbook of Rheumatology . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 82. Holbrook A, Schulman S, Witt DM, ...

  1. Identification of BRCA1 missense substitutions that confer partial functional activity: potential moderate risk variants?

    Lovelock, Paul K; Spurdle, Amanda B; Mok, Myth TS; Farrugia, Daniel J; Lakhani, Sunil R; Healey, Sue; Arnold, Stephen; Buchanan, Daniel; Investigators, kConFab; Couch, Fergus J; Henderson, Beric R; Goldgar, David E; Tavtigian, Sean V; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Brown, Melissa A

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Many of the DNA sequence variants identified in the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 remain unclassified in terms of their potential pathogenicity. Both multifactorial likelihood analysis and functional approaches have been proposed as a means to elucidate likely clinical significance of such variants, but analysis of the comparative value of these methods for classifying all sequence variants has been limited. Methods We have compared the results from multifactorial likelihood analysis with those from several functional analyses for the four BRCA1 sequence variants A1708E, G1738R, R1699Q, and A1708V. Results Our results show that multifactorial likelihood analysis, which incorporates sequence conservation, co-inheritance, segregation, and tumour immunohistochemical analysis, may improve classification of variants. For A1708E, previously shown to be functionally compromised, analysis of oestrogen receptor, cytokeratin 5/6, and cytokeratin 14 tumour expression data significantly strengthened the prediction of pathogenicity, giving a posterior probability of pathogenicity of 99%. For G1738R, shown to be functionally defective in this study, immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed previous findings of inconsistent 'BRCA1-like' phenotypes for the two tumours studied, and the posterior probability for this variant was 96%. The posterior probabilities of R1699Q and A1708V were 54% and 69%, respectively, only moderately suggestive of increased risk. Interestingly, results from functional analyses suggest that both of these variants have only partial functional activity. R1699Q was defective in foci formation in response to DNA damage and displayed intermediate transcriptional transactivation activity but showed no evidence for centrosome amplification. In contrast, A1708V displayed an intermediate transcriptional transactivation activity and a normal foci formation response in response to DNA damage but induced centrosome amplification. Conclusion

  2. Licensing activities for the partial decommissioning of IRT-2000 research reactor in Sofia

    The project for refurbishment of IRT-2000 research reactor in Sofia into low-power reactor (200 kW) is based on the retention of some IRT-2000 buildings, facilities and equipment. The activities, which determine the partial decommissioning should be realized in accordance with preliminary developed licensing documents as General Plan, Safety Analysis Report and Environment Impact assessment Report. The goal of these documents is to provide and guarantee safe and effective activities with radioactive materials, to define strictly the dismantling procedures, and in the same time to minimize their influence on the environment. The Technical Tasks for General Plan, Safety Analysis Report and Environment Impact Assessment Report have been prepared and will be presented as preliminary licensing documents to the National Regulatory Body for approval before their application. A Quality Management system is being developed nowadays at INRNE. After its certification some requirements of the regulatory body will be completed. This certified QA system is a major part of the licensing procedure for the reconstruction of IRT-2000 research reactor. (author)

  3. Partial neutron capture cross sections of actinides using cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis

    Nuclear waste needs to be characterized for its safe handling and storage. In particular long-lived actinides render the waste characterization challenging. The results described in this thesis demonstrate that Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGAA) with cold neutrons is a reliable tool for the non-destructive analysis of actinides. Nuclear data required for an accurate identification and quantification of actinides was acquired. Therefore, a sample design suitable for accurate and precise measurements of prompt γ-ray energies and partial cross sections of long-lived actinides at existing PGAA facilities was presented. Using the developed sample design the fundamental prompt γ-ray data on 237Np, 241Am and 242Pu were measured. The data were validated by repetitive analysis of different samples at two individual irradiation and counting facilities - the BRR in Budapest and the FRM II in Garching near Munich. Employing cold neutrons, resonance neutron capture by low energetic resonances was avoided during the experiments. This is an improvement over older neutron activation based works at thermal reactor neutron energies. 152 prompt γ-rays of 237Np were identified, as well as 19 of 241Am, and 127 prompt γ-rays of 242Pu. In all cases, both high and lower energetic prompt γ-rays were identified. The most intense line of 237Np was observed at an energy of Eγ=182.82(10) keV associated with a partial capture cross section of σγ=22.06(39) b. The most intense prompt γ-ray lines of 241Am and of 242Pu were observed at Eγ=154.72(7) keV with σγ=72.80(252) b and Eγ=287.69(8) keV with σγ=7.07(12) b, respectively. The measurements described in this thesis provide the first reported quantifications on partial radiative capture cross sections for 237Np, 241Am and 242Pu measured simultaneously over the large energy range from 45 keV to 12 MeV. Detailed uncertainty assessments were performed and the validity of the given uncertainties was demonstrated. Compared

  4. Estimation of active pharmaceutical ingredients content using locally weighted partial least squares and statistical wavelength selection.

    Kim, Sanghong; Kano, Manabu; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Shinji

    2011-12-15

    Development of quality estimation models using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis has been accelerated as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Although linear regression methods such as partial least squares (PLS) are widely used, they cannot always achieve high estimation accuracy because physical and chemical properties of a measuring object have a complex effect on NIR spectra. In this research, locally weighted PLS (LW-PLS) which utilizes a newly defined similarity between samples is proposed to estimate active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content in granules for tableting. In addition, a statistical wavelength selection method which quantifies the effect of API content and other factors on NIR spectra is proposed. LW-PLS and the proposed wavelength selection method were applied to real process data provided by Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., and the estimation accuracy was improved by 38.6% in root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) compared to the conventional PLS using wavelengths selected on the basis of variable importance on the projection (VIP). The results clearly show that the proposed calibration modeling technique is useful for API content estimation and is superior to the conventional one. PMID:22001843

  5. Identification of PPARgamma partial agonists of natural origin (II: in silico prediction in natural extracts with known antidiabetic activity.

    Laura Guasch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural extracts have played an important role in the prevention and treatment of diseases and are important sources for drug discovery. However, to be effectively used in these processes, natural extracts must be characterized through the identification of their active compounds and their modes of action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and using a previously developed virtual screening procedure (carefully validated experimentally, we have predicted as potential peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ partial agonists 12 molecules from 11 extracts known to have antidiabetic activity. Six of these molecules are similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity but whose mechanism of action is unknown. Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be the bioactive molecules responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of the extracts containing them. In addition, we have also identified as potential PPARγ partial agonists 10 molecules from 16 plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity but that are related (i.e., they are from the same genus to plants with known antidiabetic properties. None of the 22 molecules that we predict as PPARγ partial agonists show chemical similarity with a group of 211 known PPARγ partial agonists obtained from the literature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide a new hypothesis about the active molecules of natural extracts with antidiabetic properties and their mode of action. We also suggest plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity that may contain PPARγ partial agonists. These plants represent a new source of potential antidiabetic extracts. Consequently, our work opens the door to the discovery of new antidiabetic extracts and molecules that can be of use, for instance, in the design of new antidiabetic drugs or functional foods focused

  6. Integrating active sensing into reactive synthesis with temporal logic constraints under partial observations

    Fu, Jie; Topcu, Ufuk

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of online reactive planning with sensing actions for systems with temporal logic constraints in partially observable and dynamic environments. With incomplete information on the dynamic environment, reactive controller synthesis amounts to solving a two-player game with partial observations, which has impractically computational complexity. To alleviate the high computational burden, online replanning via sensing actions avoids solving the strategy in the reactive syst...

  7. Evaluation of in vivo partial beta 1/beta 2-agonist activity: a dose-ranging study with carteolol.

    Wheeldon, N M; McDevitt, D G; Lipworth, B J

    1992-01-01

    1. The aims of this study were to investigate the partial agonist profile of carteolol and evaluate methodology for differentiating relative beta 1 and beta 2 partial agonist activity (PAA) in vivo. 2. Eight normal subjects received single oral doses of carteolol 10 mg, 30 mg and 60 mg; nadolol 40 mg; pindolol 30 mg and placebo, given in a single-blind, randomised crossover design. 3. beta 1-PAA was demonstrated with carteolol by dose-related increases in resting heart rate and systolic blood...

  8. Partial dismantling activities prior to the refurbishment of the IRT research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria

    In 2001 the Bulgarian Government took a decision for refurbishment and conversion of the research reactor in Sofia in low power reactor. By reason of this decision it has been performed a partial dismantling of the IRT-Sofia old systems and equipment, with an intention to re-use the concrete bio shield for the new low power research reactor. For most efficient use of resources there was a need for implementation of the engineering project, 'Plan for partial dismantling of equipment of the IRT-Sofia as a part of the refurbishment into low power research reactor' which has been already accomplished. (author)

  9. Softlithographic partial integration of surface-active nanoparticles in a PDMS matrix for microfluidic biodevices

    Demming, Stefanie; Buettgenbach, Stephanus [Institute for Microtechnology (IMT), Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Alte Salzdahlumer Strasse 203, 38124 Braunschweig (Germany); Hahn, Anne; Barcikowski, Stephan [Nanotechnology Department, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH), Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Edlich, Astrid; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Krull, Rainer [Institute of Biochemical Engineering (IBVT), Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Gaussstrasse 17, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The mergence of microfluidics and nanocomposite materials and their in situ structuring leads to a higher integration level within microsystems technology. Nanoparticles (Cu and Ag) produced via laser radiation were suspended in Poly(dimethylsiloxane) to permanently modify surface material. A microstructuring process was implemented which allows the incorporation of these nanomaterials globally or partially at defined locations within a microbioreactor (MBR) for the determination of their antiseptic and toxic effects on the growth of biomass. Partially structured PDMS with nanoparticle-PDMS composite. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. 76 FR 67142 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    2011-10-31

    ... Administrative Review, 75 FR 48644 (August 11, 2010) (``First Rescission''). \\5\\ See Certain Activated Carbon... activated carbon is a powdered, granular, or pelletized carbon product obtained by ``activating'' with heat... activated carbon, including powdered activated carbon (``PAC''), granular......

  11. Influence of Partial Neutralization on Catalytic Activity of Ion Exchange Resin

    Holub, Ladislav; Jeřábek, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 231, 1-2 (2005), s. 21-26. ISSN 1381-1169 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/02/1104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : catalysis * partial neutralization * polymer supports Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.348, year: 2005

  12. Charged particle detectors with active detector surface for partial energy deposition of the charged particles and related methods

    Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R

    2013-02-19

    A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.

  13. Hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 3 interacts with cytosolic 5'(3'-deoxyribonucleotidase and partially inhibits its activity.

    Chiu-Ping Fang

    Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is etiologically involved in liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and B-cell lymphomas. It has been demonstrated previously that HCV non-structural protein 3 (NS3 is involved in cell transformation. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid screening experiment was conducted to identify cellular proteins interacting with HCV NS3 protein. Cytosolic 5'(3'-deoxyribonucleotidase (cdN, dNT-1 was found to interact with HCV NS3 protein. Binding domains of HCV NS3 and cellular cdN proteins were also determined using the yeast two-hybrid system. Interactions between HCV NS3 and cdN proteins were further demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal analysis in cultured cells. The cellular cdN activity was partially repressed by NS3 protein in both the transiently-transfected and the stably-transfected systems. Furthermore, HCV partially repressed the cdN activity while had no effect on its protein expression in the systems of HCV sub-genomic replicons and infectious HCV virions. Deoxyribonucleotidases are present in most mammalian cells and involve in the regulation of intracellular deoxyribonucleotides pools by substrate cycles. Control of DNA precursor concentration is essential for the maintenance of genetic stability. Reduction of cdN activity would result in the imbalance of DNA precursor concentrations. Thus, our results suggested that HCV partially reduced the cdN activity via its NS3 protein and this may in turn cause diseases.

  14. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel indazolyl glucocorticoid receptor partial agonists.

    Gilmore, John L; Sheppeck, James E; Wang, Jim; Dhar, T G Murali; Cavallaro, Cullen; Doweyko, Arthur M; Mckay, Lorraine; Cunningham, Mark D; Habte, Sium F; Nadler, Steven G; Dodd, John H; Somerville, John E; Barrish, Joel C

    2013-10-01

    SAR was used to further develop an indazole class of non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor agonists aided by a GR LBD (ligand-binding domain)-agonist co-crystal structure described in the accompanying paper. Progress towards discovering a dissociated GR agonist guided by human in vitro assays biased the optimization of this compound series towards partial agonists that possessed excellent selectivity against other nuclear hormone receptors. PMID:23916594

  15. Changes in neuronal activity and gene expression in guinea-pig auditory brainstem after unilateral partial hearing loss.

    Dong, S; Mulders, W H A M; Rodger, J; Robertson, D

    2009-03-31

    Spontaneous neural hyperactivity in the central auditory pathway is often associated with deafness, the most common form of which is partial hearing loss. We quantified both peripheral hearing loss and spontaneous activity in single neurons of the contralateral inferior colliculus in a guinea-pig model 1 week after a unilateral partial deafness induced by cochlear mechanical lesion. We also measured mRNA levels of candidate genes in the same animals using quantitative real-time PCR. Spontaneous hyperactivity was most marked in the frequency region of the peripheral hearing loss. Expression of glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), GABA-A receptor subunit alpha-1 (GABRA1), and potassium channel subfamily K member 15 (KCNK15) was decreased ipsilaterally in the cochlear nucleus and bilaterally in the inferior colliculus. A member of RAB family of small GTPase (RAB3A) was decreased in both ipsilateral cochlear nucleus and contralateral inferior colliculus. RAB3 GTPase activating protein subunit 1 (RAB3GAP1) and glycine receptor subunit alpha-1 (GLRA1) were reduced ipsilaterally in the cochlear nucleus only. These results suggest that a decrease in inhibitory neurotransmission and an increase in membrane excitability may contribute to elevated neuronal spontaneous activity in the auditory brainstem following unilateral partial hearing loss. PMID:19356697

  16. Partial Fractionation of Venoms from Two Iranian Vipers, Echis carinatus and Cerastes persicus Fieldi and Evaluation of Their Antiplatelet Activity.

    Mehdizadeh Kashani, Toktam; Vatanpour, Hossein; Zolfagharian, Hossein; Hooshdar Tehrani, Hasan; Heydari, Mohammad Hossein; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Platelet aggregation inhibitory effect and anticoagulant properties of fractions separated from the venoms of Cerastes persicus fieldi and Echis carinatus were investigated. The partial fractionation was performed on a Sephadex G-100 column. Two fractions separated from Cerastes persicus fieldi showed anti platelet aggregation activity on ADP (200 μM)-induced platelet aggregation (ca 80% inhibition). Attempts to measure the antiplatelet aggregation activity of crude Echis carinatus venom and its fractions were not successful due to the protein coagulation of the plasma samples after the addition of venom. Anticoagulant activities of venoms were also evaluated. Total venom of Echis carinatus showed anti coagulant activity in PT test, while its fractions showed procoagulant activity. PMID:24250552

  17. Fluorimetric determination of the active form of tetracycline, chloretetracycline and oxytetracycline in partially decomposed solutions.

    Regosz, A

    1977-11-01

    The content of tetracycline (1), chlortetracycline (2) and oxytetracycline (3) has been determined by use of the fluorimetric method in partially decomposed acqueous solutions of different pH values. The procedure consisted in the extraction of fluorescent calcium and 5.5-diethyl-barbituric acid complexes of 1 and 3 (with 2 calcium complex only) into an organic solvent. In the method, only complexes with undecomposed 1--3 show a strong fluorescence. Products of decomposition of the antibiotics did not affect significantly analytical results. Comparative investigations have been carried out with 1--3 using t.l.c. and turbidimetry. PMID:24855

  18. Synthetic partial agonists reveal key steps in IP3 receptor activation

    Rossi, Ana M.; Riley, Andrew M.; Stephen C Tovey; Taufiq-Ur-Rahman,; Dellis, Olivier; Taylor, Emily J A; Veresov, Valery G.; Potter, Barry V L; Taylor, Colin W.

    2009-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) are ubiquitous intracellular Ca2+ channels. IP3binding to the IP3-binding core (IBC) near the N-terminal initiates conformational changes that lead to opening of a pore. The mechanisms are unresolved. We synthesized 2-O-modified IP3 analogues that are partial agonists of IP3R. These are like IP3 in their interactions with the IBC, but they are less effective than IP3 in rearranging the relationship between the IBC and N-terminal suppressor domain ...

  19. 75 FR 70208 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    2010-11-17

    ... Administrative Review, 74 FR 31690 (July 2, 2009). \\3\\ See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 20988 (April 27... certain activated carbon. Certain activated carbon is a powdered, granular, or pelletized......

  20. Partial characterization of soluble polysaccharides leaves Malva parviflora L. (Malvaceae): prebiotic activity

    Malva parviflora L. (Malvaceae), a spontaneous plant used in traditional medicine is found inGhardaia (Septentrional EastAlgerian Sahara). This paper reports on the extraction and partial characterization of water-soluble polysaccharides from M. parviflorleaves. These polysaccharides were obtained by elimination of the ethanol extract and sequential extraction in distilled water, followed by precipitation in 75% ethanol. The yield of extract is of 1.46%. The crude water soluble polysaccharide extract was further characterized and revealed the average values:15 ± 2,64% total ashes, 17,14 ± 1,43% proteins and 68,18 ± 0,94% carbohydrates, among them 44,96 ± 0,42% are acidic monosaccharides and the rest 55 ± 0,62% are neutral monosaccharides. The considered optimum conditions of hydrolysis by trifluoroacetic acid were: 4 M during 5 hours at 80°C. Anion exchange high performance chromatography of hydrosoluble polysaccharides of Malva leaves indicates the presence of galactose (56.86%), glucuronic acid (20.57%), arabinose (9.04%), rhamnose (8.46%) and mannose (5.05%). The oligosaccharides resulting from the partial hydrolys is of the hydrosoluble polysaccharides stimulate significantly (concentration of 0,333 mg/mL) for 0,1 DO after 24 hours, the growth of Bifido bacterium longum. Their prebiotic effect is notable. (author)

  1. Attempted to estimate for the recovery of liver function after partial hepatectomy by the determination of {sup 67}Ga accumulation into the liver and plasma factor XIII activity

    Abe, Shinya; Fukuoka, Chihiro; Ohkubo, Yasuhito [Tohoku Coll. of Pharmacy, Sendai (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    Gallium-67 accumulation into the liver of partially hepatectomized rats reached a maximum 2 days after partial hepatectomy. The activity of plasma FXIII from hepatectomized rats reached a minimum (70% of levels in normal rats) 2 days after partial hepatectomy. Time course of plasma FXIII activity is inversely related to {sup 67}Ga accumulation pattern. The determination of plasma FXIII activity is a simple and rapid diagnosis procedure and may be used for the estimation to the recover of the liver function after partial hepatectomy. The determination of {sup 67}Ga accumulation into the liver after partial hepatectomy indicates the liver regenerating process but may be not proper for the imaging of regenerating liver function in man because of low liver-to-blood ratio. (author)

  2. TORC1 activity is partially reduced under nitrogen starvation conditions in sake yeast Kyokai no. 7, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Nakazawa, Nobushige; Sato, Aya; Hosaka, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Industrial yeasts are generally unable to sporulate but treatment with the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin restores this ability in a sake yeast strain Kyokai no. 7 (K7), Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This finding suggests that TORC1 is active under sporulation conditions. Here, using a reporter gene assay, Northern and Western blots, we tried to gain insight into how TORC1 function under nitrogen starvation conditions in K7 cells. Similarly to a laboratory strain, RPS26A transcription was repressed and Npr1 was dephosphorylated in K7 cells, indicative of the expected loss of TORC1 function under nitrogen starvation. The expression of nitrogen catabolite repression-sensitive genes, however, was not induced, the level of Cln3 remained constant, and autophagy was more slowly induced than in a laboratory strain, all suggestive of active TORC1. We conclude that TORC1 activity is partially reduced under nitrogen starvation conditions in K7 cells. PMID:26272416

  3. Role of Feedback in AGN-HOST Coevolution: A Study from Partially Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei

    Wang, J

    2014-01-01

    Partially obscured AGNs within a redshift range $z=0.011\\sim0.256$ are used to re-study the role of feedback in the AGN-host coevolution issue in terms of their [OIII]$\\lambda$5007 emission line profile. The spectra of these objects enable us to determine the AGN's accretion properties directly from their broad H$\\alpha$ emission. This is essential for getting rid of the "circular reasoning" in our previous study of narrow emission-line galaxies, in which the [OIII] emission line was used not only as a proxy of AGN's bolometric luminosity, but also as a diagnostic of outflow. In addition, the measurement of $D_n(4000)$ index is improved by removing an underlying AGN's continuum according to the corresponding broad H$\\alpha$ emission. With these improvements, we confirm and reinforce the correlation between $L/L_{\\mathrm{Edd}}$ and stellar population age. More important is that this correlation is found to be related to both [OIII] line blue asymmetry and bulk blueshift velocity, which suggests a linkage betwe...

  4. Isolation and partial characterization of actinomycetes with antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant bacteria

    Smriti Singh; Pramod Kumar; N Gopalan; Bhuvnesh Shrivastava; RC Kuhad; Hotam Singh Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To isolate strains of Actinomycetes from different locations of Gwalior to evaluate its antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant pathogenic strains. Method: Soil samples collected from different niche habitats of Gwalior were serially diluted and plated on selective media. Potential colonies were further purified and stored in agar slants and glycerol stocks. Isolates were biochemically characterized and purified isolates were test against pathogenic microorganisms for screening. Isolates with antagonistic properties were inoculated in production media and secondary metabolites or antimicrobial products were extracted. Result: The seven actinomycetes strains showing maximum antibacterial activity were isolated further characterized based on their colony characteristics and biochemical analyses. The isolates were screened for their secondary metabolites activity on three human pathogenic bacteria are Escherichia coli (E. coli), Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE). Discussion: The strain MITS 1005 was found to be more active against the test bacteria.

  5. Evaluation, partial characterization and purification of acetylcholine esterase enzyme and antiangiogenic activity from marine sponges

    Maushmi Shailesh Kumar; Sukanya Gopalkrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test three marine sponges Halichondria glabrata Keller, 1891; Spirastrellapachyspira (S. pachyspira) Levi, 1958 and Cliona lobata Hancock, 1849 for the presence of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in both young and developed samples from western coastal area of India. S. pachyspira methanolic extract was selected for anti/pro angiogenic activity. Methods:They were evaluated for AChE activity using Ellman’s assay based on production of yellow colored 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoate. Purification of the enzyme was planned using ammonium sulphate precipitation and characterization by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Chorioallantoic membrane (ChAM) assay model was used for angiogenic/antiangiogenic testing. Results:All the three sponges showed good specific enzyme activity and S. pachyspira contained maximum specific enzyme activity. Sixty percent of ammonium sulphate precipitation of crude protein sample gave single band at 66 kDa corresponding to the true AChE. ChAM assay was performed at 62.5, 125.0 and 250.0 µg/mL. Dosage beyond 250 µg/mL extract showed toxic response with anti angiogenic activity at all the concentrations. Conclusions:AChE activity was detected in all samples. Extract showed good anti-angiogenic response at 62.5 µg/mL. Extract was highly toxic affecting microvasculature of ChAM as well as normal growth and development of the embryo at 500 µg/mL. With further characterization of bioactive compounds from the extract of S. pachyspira, the compounds can be developed for anti tumor activity.

  6. Evaluation, partial characterization and purification of acetylcholine esterase enzyme and antiangiogenic activity from marine sponges

    Maushmi Shailesh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test three marine sponges Halichondria glabrata Keller, 1891; Spirastrella pachyspira (S. pachyspira Levi, 1958 and Cliona lobata Hancock, 1849 for the presence of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE in both young and developed samples from western coastal area of India. S. pachyspira methanolic extract was selected for anti/pro angiogenic activity. Methods: They were evaluated for AChE activity using Ellman’s assay based on production of yellow colored 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoate. Purification of the enzyme was planned using ammonium sulphate precipitation and characterization by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Chorioallantoic membrane (ChAM assay model was used for angiogenic/ antiangiogenic testing. Results: All the three sponges showed good specific enzyme activity and S. pachyspira contained maximum specific enzyme activity. Sixty percent of ammonium sulphate precipitation of crude protein sample gave single band at 66 kDa corresponding to the true AChE. ChAM assay was performed at 62.5, 125.0 and 250.0 µg/mL. Dosage beyond 250 µg/mL extract showed toxic response with anti angiogenic activity at all the concentrations. Conclusions: AChE activity was detected in all samples. Extract showed good anti-angiogenic response at 62.5 µg/mL. Extract was highly toxic affecting microvasculature of ChAM as well as normal growth and development of the embryo at 500 µg/mL. With further characterization of bioactive compounds from the extract of S. pachyspira, the compounds can be developed for anti tumor activity.

  7. Purification, partial characterization and antimicrobial activity of Lectin from Chenopodium Quinoa seeds

    Dávia Guimarães POMPEU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel lectin was isolated from the seeds of Chenopodium quinoa. To achieve this end, the crude extract from the quinoa was submitted to two purification steps, Sephadex G50 and Mono Q. The hemagglutinating activity showed that this lectin agglutinates human erythrocytes. Its activity is inhibited by glucose and mannose, and remained stable under a wide range of pH levels and temperatures. The quinoa lectin was found to be a heterodimeric lectin of approximately 60 kDa, consisting of two subunits of approximately 25 kDa and 35 kDa. This lectin had its antimicrobial activity tested against several bacteria strains and effectively inhibited three strains. These strains were all Gram-negative, making this lectin a promising antimicrobial tool.

  8. Full and partial agonists of thromboxane prostanoid receptor unveil fine tuning of receptor superactive conformation and G protein activation.

    Valérie Capra

    Full Text Available The intrahelical salt bridge between E/D(3.49 and R(3.50 within the E/DRY motif on helix 3 (H3 and the interhelical hydrogen bonding between the E/DRY and residues on H6 are thought to be critical in stabilizing the class A G protein-coupled receptors in their inactive state. Removal of these interactions is expected to generate constitutively active receptors. This study examines how neutralization of E(3.49/6.30 in the thromboxane prostanoid (TP receptor alters ligand binding, basal, and agonist-induced activity and investigates the molecular mechanisms of G protein activation. We demonstrate here that a panel of full and partial agonists showed an increase in affinity and potency for E129V and E240V mutants. Yet, even augmenting the sensitivity to detect constitutive activity (CA with overexpression of the receptor or the G protein revealed resistance to an increase in basal activity, while retaining fully the ability to cause agonist-induced signaling. However, direct G protein activation measured through bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET indicates that these mutants more efficiently communicate and/or activate their cognate G proteins. These results suggest the existence of additional constrains governing the shift of TP receptor to its active state, together with an increase propensity of these mutants to agonist-induced signaling, corroborating their definition as superactive mutants. The particular nature of the TP receptor as somehow "resistant" to CA should be examined in the context of its pathophysiological role in the cardiovascular system. Evolutionary forces may have favored regulation mechanisms leading to low basal activity and selected against more highly active phenotypes.

  9. Sucrase Activity and Exopolysaccharide Partial Characterization From Three Weissella confusa Strains

    Amarila Malik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPSs produced by lactic acid bacteria have been well known for their important economic value in food, pharmaceutical and health industries. Large extracellular enzyme sucrases are used by lactic acid bacteria to polymerize EPS, i.e. fructansucrase and glucansucrase. This study aimed to characterize sucrase activity of three Weissella confusa strains MBF8-1, MBF8-2 and MBFCNC-2(1, which were isolated previously from local beverages and their EPS products as well. All strains showed ability to form mucoid and slimy colonies by visual inspection on agar plate using raffinose as substrate suggesting that they possessed fructansucrase activity besides glucansucrase. Obtained EPS products were characterized by HPLC analysis after hydrolysis using 3% TCA at 100C for 1 hour, and by viscosity as well. All strains exhibited similar peak patterns, assuming that all of them possessed fructan EPS product. Supernatant and cell pellet were also analyzed by in situ activity assay performing periodic acid Schiff staining after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; only cell pellet showed sucrase activity. Viscosity observation showed that EPS products from all strains were able to increase the viscosity slightly.

  10. Influence of Partial Neutralization on Catalytic Activity of Ion Exchange Resin

    Holub, Ladislav; Hanková, Libuše; Jeřábek, Karel

    Praha, 2004. PO8. [International Conference on Polymer s and Organic Chemistry POC'04 /11./. 18.07.2004-23.07.2004, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/02/1104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : catalytic activity * exchange resin Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  11. Antifatigue Activity of Liquid Cultured Tricholoma matsutake Mycelium Partially via Regulation of Antioxidant Pathway in Mouse

    Quan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tricholoma matsutake has been popular as food and biopharmaceutical materials in Asian countries for its various pharmacological activities. The present study aims to analyze the antifatigue effects on enhancing exercise performance of Tricholoma matsutake fruit body (ABM and liquid cultured mycelia (TM in mouse model. Two-week Tricholoma matsutake treatment significantly enhances the exercise performance in weight-loaded swimming, rotating rod, and forced running test. In TM- and ABM-treated mice, some factors were observed at 60 min after swimming compared with nontreated mice, such as the increased levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, antioxidative enzymes, and glycogen and the reduced levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species in muscle, liver, and/or serum. Further data obtained from western blot show that CM and ABM have strongly enhanced the activation of 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and the expressions of peroxisome proliferator have activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1 in liver. Our data suggest that both Tricholoma matsutake fruit body and liquid cultured mycelia possess antifatigue effects related to AMPK-linked antioxidative pathway. The information uncovered in our study may serve as a valuable resource for further identification and provide experimental evidence for clinical trials of Tricholoma matsutake as an effective agent against fatigue related diseases.

  12. Partial in vitro analysis of toxic and antigenic activities of eleven Peruvian pitviper snake venoms.

    Guerra-Duarte, C; Lopes-Peixoto, J; Fonseca-de-Souza, B R; Stransky, S; Oliveira, D; Schneider, F S; Lopes-de-Souza, L; Bonilla, C; Silva, W; Tintaya, B; Yarleque, A; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2015-12-15

    This work used eleven Peruvian snake venoms (Bothrops andianus, Bothrops atrox, Bothrops barnetti, Bothrops castelnaudi, Bothriopsis chloromelas, Bothrocophias microphthalmus, Bothrops neuwiedi, Bothriopsis oligolepis, Bothriopsis peruviana, Bothrops pictus and Bothriopsis taeniata) to perform in vitro experimentation and determine its main characteristics. Hyaluronidase (HYAL), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), snake venom serine protease (SVSP) and L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) activities; toxicity by cell viability assays using MGSO3, VERO and HeLa cell lineages; and crossed immunoreactivity with Peruvian (PAV) and Brazilian (BAV) antibothropic polyvalent antivenoms, through ELISA and Western Blotting assays, were determined. Results show that the activities tested in this study were not similar amongst the venoms and each species present their own peculiarities, highlighting the diversity within Bothrops complex. All venoms were capable of reducing cell viability of all tested lineages. It was also demonstrated the crossed recognition of all tested venoms by both antivenoms. PMID:26365916

  13. PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES PRODUCED BY A WILD STRAIN OF A. NIGER

    María Martos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger, isolated from decay citrus peels in the province of Misiones, was able to produce pectinases by submerged fermentation. The enzymatic extract exhibited polygalacturonase, pectinesterase and lyase activities. Others enzymes capable of degrading cell wall polymers were also detected in the enzymatic extract such as cellulases and xylanases. Polygalacturonase was an endo-polygalacturonase. The enzyme exhibited a maximal activity at pH range between 4.5 to 5.0, was stable in the pH range from 2.5 to 5.5 and remained unchanged when was incubated at temperatures lower than 50 ºC. The fungi produced three PG isoenzymes. The enzymatic extract was able to clarify apple juice. The results observed make the pectinolytic enzymes produced by A. niger appropriate for future application in fruit juice processing industries.

  14. Surface structure and catalytic activity of electrodeposited Ni-Fe-Co-Mo alloy electrode by partially leaching Mo and Fe

    LUO Bei-ping; GONG Zhu-qing; REN Bi-ye; YANG Yu-fang; CHEN Meng-jun

    2006-01-01

    Ni-Fe-Mo-Co alloy electrode was prepared in a citrate solution by electrodeposition, and then Mo and Fe were partially leached out from the electrode in 30% KOH solution. The unique surface micromorphology of a hive-like structure was obtained with an average pore size of about 50 nm. The electrode has a very large real surface area and a stable structure. The effects of sodium molybdate concentration on the composition, surface morphology, and structure of electrodes were analyzed by EDS, SEM and XRD. The polarization curves of the different electrodes show that the catalytic activity of electrodes is strongly correlated with the mole fraction of alloy elements (Ni, Fe, Mo, Co), and the addition of cobalt element to Ni-Fe-Mo alloy improves the catalytic activity. The Ni35.63Fe24.67Mo23.52Co16.18 electrode has the best activity for hydrogen evolution reaction(HER), with an over-potential of 66.2 mV, in 30% KOH at 80 ℃ and 200 mA/cm2. The alloy maintains its good catalytic activity for HER during continuous or intermittent electrolysis. Its electrochemical activity and catalytic stability are much higher than the other iron-group with Mo alloy electrodes.

  15. Linking mutagenic activity to micropollutant concentrations in wastewater samples by partial least square regression and subsequent identification of variables.

    Hug, Christine; Sievers, Moritz; Ottermanns, Richard; Hollert, Henner; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2015-11-01

    We deployed multivariate regression to identify compounds co-varying with the mutagenic activity of complex environmental samples. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents with a large share of industrial input of different sampling dates were evaluated for mutagenic activity by the Ames Fluctuation Test and chemically characterized by a screening for suspected pro-mutagens and non-targeted software-based peak detection in full scan data. Areas of automatically detected peaks were used as predictor matrix for partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS) in combination with measured mutagenic activity. Detected peaks were successively reduced by the exclusion of all peaks with lowest variable importance until the best model (high R(2) and Q(2)) was reached. Peaks in the best model co-varying with the observed mutagenicity showed increased chlorine, bromine, sulfur, and nitrogen abundance compared to original peak set indicating a preferential selection of anthropogenic compounds. The PLS regression revealed four tentatively identified compounds, newly identified 4-(dimethylamino)-pyridine, and three known micropollutants present in domestic wastewater as co-varying with the mutagenic activity. Co-variance between compounds stemming from industrial wastewater and mutagenic activity supported the application of "virtual" EDA as a statistical tool to separate toxicologically relevant from less relevant compounds. PMID:26070082

  16. Partial characterization of cold active amylases and proteases of Streptomyces sp. from Antarctica

    Mihaela Cotârleţ; Teodor Gh Negoiţă; Bahrim, Gabriela E.; Peter Stougaard

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate novel enzyme-producing bacteria from vegetation samples from East Antarctica and also to characterize them genetically and biochemically in order to establish their phylogeny. The ability to grow at low temperature and to produce amylases and proteases cold-active was also tested. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the 4 Alga rRNA was 100% identical to the sequences of Streptomyces sp. rRNA from Norway and from the Solomon Islan...

  17. Partial purification and characterization of an antimicrobial activity from the wood extract of mangrove plant Ceriops decandra.

    Simlai, Aritra; Mukherjee, Kalishankar; Mandal, Anurup; Bhattacharya, Kashinath; Samanta, Amalesh; Roy, Amit

    2016-01-01

    The development of resistance towards the antibiotics in use today has been a source of growing concern in the modern healthcare system around the world. To counter this major threat, there is an urgent need for discovery of new antimicrobials. Many plants, like mangroves, possess highly diversified list of natural phytochemicals which are known to have wide range of bioactivities. These phytochemicals can be good sources for the discovery of new drugs. In this study, we report the partial phytochemical characterization and antimicrobial activities of a semi-purified fraction isolated from the wood tissue of Ceriops decandra, a mangrove plant. This fraction named CD-3PM was chromatographically separated from C. decandra wood extract and was subjected to different spectral analyses to determine its partial chemical nature. The structural investigation indicates the presence of two diterpenoids, i) 3β, 13β-Dihydroxy-8-abietaen-7-one and ii) 3β-Hydroxy-8,13-abietadien-7-one in the CD-3PM fraction. The antimicrobial potential of this fraction was evaluated by microdilution-MTT assay against several organisms. Among the nine microorganisms found to be sensitive to the CD-3PM fraction, six organisms are reported to be pathogenic in nature. The CD-3PM fraction with broad spectrum antimicrobial efficacy revealed the presence of two diterpenoids and possesses potential applications in drug discovery process and food processing industries. PMID:27065777

  18. Semi-active control of a sandwich beam partially filled with magnetorheological elastomer

    Dyniewicz, Bartłomiej; Bajkowski, Jacek M.; Bajer, Czesław I.

    2015-08-01

    The paper deals with the semi-active control of vibrations of structural elements. Elastomer composites with ferromagnetic particles that act as magnetorheological fluids are used. The damping coefficient and the shear modulus of the elastomer increases when it is exposed to an electro-magnetic field. The control of this process in time allows us to reduce vibrations more effectively than if the elastomer is permanently exposed to a magnetic field. First the analytical solution for the vibrations of a sandwich beam filled with an elastomer is given. Then the control problem is defined and applied to the analytical formula. The numerical solution of the minimization problem results in a periodic, perfectly rectangular control function if free vibrations are considered. Such a temporarily acting magnetic field is more efficient than a constantly acting one. The surplus reaches 20-50% or more, depending on the filling ratio of the elastomer. The resulting control was verified experimentally in the vibrations of a cantilever sandwich beam. The proposed semi-active control can be directly applied to engineering vibrating structural elements, for example helicopter rotors, aircraft wings, pads under machines, and vehicles.

  19. Measurement of activated rCBF by the 133Xe inhalation technique: a comparison of total versus partial curve analysis

    An initial assessment of the differential sensitivity of total versus partial curve analysis in estimating task related focal changes in cortical blood flow measured by the 133Xe inhalation technique was accomplished by comparing the patterns during the performance of two sensorimotor tasks by normal subjects. The validity of these patterns was evaluated by comparing them to the activation patterns expected from activation studies with the intra-arterial technique and the patterns expected from neuropsychological research literature. Subjects were 10 young adult nonsmoking healthy male volunteers. They were administered two tasks having identical sensory and cognitive components but different response requirements (oral versus manual). The regional activation patterns produced by the tasks varied with the method of curve analysis. The activation produced by the two tasks was very similar to that predicted from the research literature only for total curve analysis. To the extent that the predictions are correct, these data suggest that the 133Xe inhalation technique is more sensitive to regional flow changes when flow parameters are estimated from the total head curve. The utility of the total head curve analysis will be strengthened if similar sensitivity is demonstrated in future studies assessing normal subjects and patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders

  20. Partial chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Daucus crinitus Desf. extracts

    Dib, M. A.; Bendahou, M.; Bendiabdellah, A.; Djabou, N.; Allali, H.; Tabti, B.; Paolini, J.; Costa, J.

    2010-07-01

    The chemical composition of fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction of the roots, leaves and stems from Daucus crinitus Desf. were, determined using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The fatty acid fractions of different organs (leaves, stems and roots) were characterized by lauric acid (17.9, 17.5 and 18.1 % respectively) and other long chain fatty acids (until C22). Qualitative and quantitative differences were reported between the unsaponifiable fractions of different organs from D. crinitus. The unsaponifiable fractions of the leaves, roots and stem showed high amounts of aliphatic components (83.4%, 87.2% and 91.4%, respectively). The monoterpen, diterpen and sesquiterpen components were only present in small percentages. The antimicrobial properties of the D. critinus extracts were tested on four different microorganisms. These extracts were found to be active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. (Author) 35 refs.

  1. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  2. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  3. The HEART mobile phone trial: The partial mediating effects of self-efficacy on physical activity among cardiac patients

    Ralph eMaddison

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ubiquitous use of mobile phones provides an ideal opportunity to deliver interventions to increase physical activity levels. Understanding potential mediators of such interventions is needed to increase their effectiveness. A recent randomized controlled trial of a mobile phone and Internet (mHealth intervention was conducted in New Zealand to determine the effectiveness on exercise capacity and physical activity levels in addition to current cardiac rehabilitation (CR services for people (n=171 with ischaemic heart disease (IHD. Significant intervention effect was observed for self-reported leisure time physical activity and walking, but not peak oxygen uptake (PVO2 at 24 weeks. There was also significant improvement in self-efficacy.Objective: To evaluate the mediating effect of self-efficacy on physical activity levels in an mHealth delivered exercise CR programme. Methods: Treatment evaluations were performed on the principle of intention to treat (ITT. Adjusted regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the main treatment effect on leisure time physical activity and walking at 24 weeks, with and without change in self-efficacy as the mediator of interest. Results: Change in self-efficacy at 24 weeks significantly mediated the treatment effect on leisure time physical activity by 13%, but only partially mediated the effect on walking by 4% at 24 weeks. Conclusion: An mHealth intervention involving text messaging and Internet support had a positive treatment effect on leisure time physical activity and walking at 24 weeks, and this effect was likely mediated through changes in self-efficacy. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention.

  4. Effects of Interlayer Distance and van der Waals Energy on Electrochemical Activation of Partially Reduced Graphite Oxide

    Partially reduced graphite oxide (GOpr) inherits expanded interlayer distance from the parent, graphite oxide (GO), and electronic conductivity from the grandparent, graphite. Indebted to the dual properties, GOpr shows unique behavior so-called electrochemical activation in organic electrolytes; when GOpr is polarized over a certain electrode potential, graphitic layers in GOpr are injected by solvated ions and become ion adsorbing sites permanently. Resultant gravimetric or volumetric capacitance (up to 200 F g−1 or 150 F ml−1) exceeds that of commercially available activated carbon electrodes for electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC). Previous literatures have reported that larger interlayer distance (d) lowers the on-set potential of electrochemical activation of graphitic carbons. However, the reason of this phenomenon has not yet been studied. In this paper, we combined experimental and theoretical approaches to reveal the effect of interlayer distance and van der Waals energy (UvdW) on the electrochemical activation of graphitic carbon. More specifically, we compared the energy for the electrochemical activation (UEA) and the van der Waals energy with respect to the interlayer distance. For this purpose, we devised an experimental method to measure UEA from cyclic voltammogram, and this method was verified by in-situ electrochemical dilatometry. The theoretical value of UvdW was calculated by semi-empirical density functional theory (DFT) and those experimental and theoretical values were linearly in accordance with each other. This finding signifies that (1) the electrochemical activation of graphitic carbon occurs by overcoming van der Waals energy to expand the interlayer distance, (2) and the on-set potential for electrochemical activation is varied by the interlayer distance because of the different van der Waals energy

  5. Rare earth oxide-doped titania nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide

    Li, Jinhuan; Yang, Xia; Yu, Xiaodan; Xu, Leilei; Kang, Wanli; Yan, Wenhua; Gao, Hongfeng; Liu, Zhonghe; Guo, Yihang

    2009-01-01

    Rare-earth oxide-doped titania nanocomposites (RE 3+/TiO 2, where RE = Eu 3+, Pr 3+, Gd 3+, Nd 3+, and Y 3+) were prepared by a one-step sol-gel-solvothermal method. The products exhibited anatase phase structure, mesoporosity, and interesting surface compositions with three oxygen species and two titanium species. The products were used as the photocatalysts to degrade a partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide (HPAM) under UV-light irradiation, a very useful polymer in oil recovery. For comparison, Degussa P25 and as-prepared pure TiO 2 were also tested under the same conditions. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was obtained on as-prepared Eu 3+ (Gd 3+, Pr 3+)/TiO 2 composites, and the reasons were explained. Finally, the degradation pathway of HPAM over the RE 3+/TiO 2 composite was put forward based on the intermediates produced during the photocatalysis procedure.

  6. Vipegitide: a folded peptidomimetic partial antagonist of α2β1 integrin with antiplatelet aggregation activity

    Momic T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tatjana Momic,1 Jehoshua Katzhendler,1 Ela Shai,2 Efrat Noy,3 Hanoch Senderowitz,3 Johannes A Eble,4 Cezary Marcinkiewicz,5 David Varon,2 Philip Lazarovici11School of Pharmacy Institute for Drug Research, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2Department of Hematology, Coagulation Unit, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; 3Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel; 4Institute for Physiological Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; 5Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Linear peptides containing the sequence WKTSRTSHY were used as lead compounds to synthesize a novel peptidomimetic antagonist of α2β1 integrin, with platelet aggregation-inhibiting activity, named Vipegitide. Vipegitide is a 13-amino acid, folded peptidomimetic molecule, containing two α-aminoisobutyric acid residues at positions 6 and 8 and not stable in human serum. Substitution of glycine and tryptophan residues at positions 1 and 2, respectively, with a unit of two polyethylene glycol (PEG molecules yielded peptidomimetic Vipegitide-PEG2, stable in human serum for over 3 hours. Vipegitide and Vipegitide-PEG2 showed high potency (7×10-10 M and 1.5×10-10 M, respectively and intermediate efficacy (40% and 35%, respectively as well as selectivity toward α2 integrin in inhibition of adhesion of α1/α2 integrin overexpressing cells toward respective collagens. Interaction of both peptidomimetics with extracellular active domain of α2 integrin was confirmed in cell-free binding assay with recombinant α2 A-domain. Integrin α2β1 receptor is found on the platelet membrane and triggers collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Vipegitide and Vipegitide-PEG2 inhibited α2β1 integrin-mediated adhesion of human and murine platelets under the flow condition, by 50%. They efficiently blocked adenosine diphosphate

  7. Antithrombotic activities of ferulic acid via intracellular cyclic nucleotide signaling.

    Hong, Qian; Ma, Zeng-Chun; Huang, Hao; Wang, Yu-Guang; Tan, Hong-Ling; Xiao, Cheng-Rong; Liang, Qian-De; Zhang, Han-Ting; Gao, Yue

    2016-04-15

    Ferulic acid (FA) produces protective effects against cardiovascular dysfunctions. However, the mechanisms of FA is still not known. Here we examined the antithrombotic effects of FA and its potential mechanisms. Anticoagulation assays and platelet aggregation was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Thromboxane B2 (TXB2), cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) was determined using enzyme immunoassay kits. Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured using the Griess reaction. Protein expression was detected by Western blotting analysis. Oral administration of FA prevented death caused by pulmonary thrombosis and prolonged the tail bleeding and clotting time in mice,while, it did not alter the coagulation parameters, including the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). In addition, FA (50-200µM) dose-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation induced by various platelet agonists, including adenosine diphosphate (ADP), thrombin, collagen, arachidonic acid (AA), and U46619. Further, FA attenuated intracellular Ca(2)(+) mobilization and TXB2 production induced by the platelet agonists. FA increased the levels of cAMP and cGMP and phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) while decreased phospho-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) in washed rat platelets, VASP is a substrate of cyclic nucleotide and PDE is an enzyme family responsible for hydrolysis of cAMP/cGMP. These results suggest that antithrombotic activities of FA may be regulated by inhibition of platelet aggregation, rather than through inhibiting the release of thromboplastin or formation of thrombin. The mechanism of this action may involve activation of cAMP and cGMP signaling. PMID:26948317

  8. Tissue localization and partial characterization of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide in Achaea janata

    V S Ajitha; D Muraleedharan

    2005-03-01

    Female sex pheromone production in certain moth species have been shown to be regulated by a cephalic endocrine peptidic factor: pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), having 33 amino acid residues. Antisera against synthetic Heliothis zea-PBAN were developed. Using these polyclonals, immunoreactivity was mapped in the nervous system of Achaea janata. Three distinct groups of immunopositive secretory neurons were identified in the suboesophageal ganglion; and immunoreactivity was observed in the corpora cardiaca, thoracic and in the abdominal ganglia. From about 6000 brain sub-oesophageal ganglion complexes, the neuropeptide was isolated; and purified sequentially by Sep-pak and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic methods. Identity of purified PBAN fraction was confirmed with polyclonal antibody by immunoblotting. Molecular mass of the isolated peptide was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, and was found to be 3900 Da, same as that of known H. zea-PBAN. Radiochemical bioassay confirmed the pheromonotropic effect of the isolated neuropeptide in this insect.

  9. Partial characterization of cold active amylases and proteases of Streptomyces sp. from Antarctica

    Mihaela Cotârleţ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate novel enzyme-producing bacteria from vegetation samples from East Antarctica and also to characterize them genetically and biochemically in order to establish their phylogeny. The ability to grow at low temperature and to produce amylases and proteases cold-active was also tested. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the 4 Alga rRNA was 100% identical to the sequences of Streptomyces sp. rRNA from Norway and from the Solomon Islands. The Streptomyces grew well in submerged system at 20ºC, cells multiplication up to stationary phase being drastically increased after 120 h of submerged cultivation. The beta-amylase production reached a maximum peak after seven days, while alpha-amylase and proteases were performing biosynthesis after nine days of submerged cultivation at 20ºC. Newly Streptomyces were able to produce amylase and proteases in a cold environment. The ability to adapt to low temperature of these enzymes could make them valuable ingredients for detergents, the food industry and bioremediation processes which require low temperatures.

  10. Local electronic structure and photoelectrochemical activity of partial chemically etched Ti-doped hematite

    Rioult, Maxime; Belkhou, Rachid; Magnan, Hélène; Stanescu, Dana; Stanescu, Stefan; Maccherozzi, Francesco; Rountree, Cindy; Barbier, Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The direct conversion of solar light into chemical energy or fuel through photoelectrochemical water splitting is promising as a clean hydrogen production solution. Ti-doped hematite (Ti:α-Fe2O3) is a potential key photoanode material, which despite its optimal band gap, excellent chemical stability, abundance, non-toxicity and low cost, still has to be improved. Here we give evidence of a drastic improvement of the water splitting performances of Ti-doped hematite photoanodes upon a HCl wet-etching. In addition to the topography investigation by atomic force microscopy, a detailed determination of the local electronic structure has been carried out in order to understand the phenomenon and to provide new insights in the understanding of solar water splitting. Using synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopy (X-PEEM), we investigated the X-ray absorption spectral features at the L3 Fe edge of the as grown surface and of the wet-etched surface on the very same sample thanks to patterning. We show that HCl wet etching leads to substantial surface modifications of the oxide layer including increased roughness and chemical reduction (presence of Fe2 +) without changing the band gap. We demonstrate that these changes are profitable and correlated to the drastic changes of the photocatalytic activity.

  11. Partial antiviral activities detection of chicken Mx jointing with neuraminidase gene (NA against Newcastle disease virus.

    Yani Zhang

    Full Text Available As an attempt to increase the resistance to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and so further reduction of its risk on the poultry industry. This work aimed to build the eukaryotic gene co-expression plasmid of neuraminidase (NA gene and myxo-virus resistance (Mx and detect the gene expression in transfected mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3 cells, it is most important to investigate the influence of the recombinant plasmid on the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF cells. cDNA fragment of NA and mutant Mx gene were derived from pcDNA3.0-NA and pcDNA3.0-Mx plasmid via PCR, respectively, then NA and Mx cDNA fragment were inserted into the multiple cloning sites of pVITRO2 to generate the eukaryotic co-expression plasmid pVITRO2-Mx-NA. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by restriction endonuclease treatment and sequencing, and it was transfected into the mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3 cells. The expression of genes in pVITRO2-Mx-NA were measured by RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CEF cells then RT-PCR and the micro-cell inhibition tests were used to test the antiviral activity for NDV. Our results showed that co-expression vector pVITRO2-Mx-NA was constructed successfully; the expression of Mx and NA could be detected in both NIH-3T3 and CEF cells. The recombinant proteins of Mx and NA protect CEF cells from NDV infection until after 72 h of incubation but the individually mutagenic Mx protein or NA protein protects CEF cells from NDV infection till 48 h post-infection, and co-transfection group decreased significantly NDV infection compared with single-gene transfection group (P<0. 05, indicating that Mx-NA jointing contributed to delaying the infection of NDV in single-cell level and the co-transfection of the jointed genes was more powerful than single one due to their synergistic effects.

  12. Partial chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Daucus crinitus Desf. extracts

    Paolini, J.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction of the roots, leaves and stems from Daucus crinitus Desf. were, determined using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The fatty acid fractions of different organs (leaves, stems and roots were characterized by lauric acid (17.9, 17.5 and 18.1 % respectively and other long chain fatty acids (until C22. Qualitative and quantitative differences were reported between the unsaponifiable fractions of different organs from D. crinitus. The unsaponifiable fractions of the leaves, roots and stem showed high amounts of aliphatic components (83.4%, 87.2% and 91.4%, respectively. The monoterpen, diterpen and sesquiterpen components were only present in small percentages. The antimicrobial properties of the D. critinus extracts were tested on four different microorganisms. These extracts were found to be active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.La composición química de los ácidos grasos y la fracción insaponificable de raíces, hojas, y tallos de Daucus crinitus Desf. fueron establecidas utilizando cromatografía de gases (GC y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. La fracción de ácidos grasos de los diferentes órganos (hojas, tallos y raíces se caracterizó por el ácido láurico (17.9, 17.5 y 18.1% respectivamente y otros ácidos grasos de cadena larga (hasta C22. Diferencias cualitativas y cuantitativas se registraron entre las fracciones insaponificable de los diferentes órganos de D. crinitus. De hecho, las fracciones insaponificable de la raíz, de la hoja y del tallo mostraron cantidades altas de componentes alifáticos (83.4%, 87.2% y 91.4%, respectivamente. Los componentes monoterpénicos, diterpénicos y sesquiterpénicos solo estuvieron presentes en un pequeño porcentaje. Las propiedades antimicrobianas de los extractos de D. critinus fueron ensayadas en cuatro

  13. Predicting transcription factor activities from combined analysis of microarray and ChIP data: a partial least squares approach

    Strimmer Korbinian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of the network between transcription factors and their targets is important for understanding the complex regulatory mechanisms in a cell. Unfortunately, with standard microarray experiments it is not possible to measure the transcription factor activities (TFAs directly, as their own transcription levels are subject to post-translational modifications. Results Here we propose a statistical approach based on partial least squares (PLS regression to infer the true TFAs from a combination of mRNA expression and DNA-protein binding measurements. This method is also statistically sound for small samples and allows the detection of functional interactions among the transcription factors via the notion of "meta"-transcription factors. In addition, it enables false positives to be identified in ChIP data and activation and suppression activities to be distinguished. Conclusion The proposed method performs very well both for simulated data and for real expression and ChIP data from yeast and E. Coli experiments. It overcomes the limitations of previously used approaches to estimating TFAs. The estimated profiles may also serve as input for further studies, such as tests of periodicity or differential regulation. An R package "plsgenomics" implementing the proposed methods is available for download from the CRAN archive.

  14. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structure, surface morphology and photo catalytic activity of TiO2 films grown on silicone by PLD

    Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structure, surface morphology and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films grown on silicone by PLD. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films have been deposited on silicone (100) substrate of 248 nm at oxygen pressures of 5 to 90 mTorr and temperature of 500oC. The dependence of crystal structure, surface morphology and photocatalytic activity on oxygen partial pressure has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). When the oxygen partial pressure increased from 5 to 20 mTorr, the crystalline phase of the film changed from rutile to anatase and surface morphology became rough. Until the oxygen pressure of 50 mTorr, the formation of the rough surface and the transformation to the anatase phase resulted in a high photacatalytic activity. In this range of oxygen partial pressure, the effect of surface morpology on the photocatalytic activity is significant, However, at oxygen partial pressures over 50 mTorr, the photocatalytic activity was independent of surface morphology. In this range of oxygen pressure, the photocatalytic activity was probably controlled also by the electronic properties of the TiO2 films

  15. Radiation inactivation analysis of assimilatory NADH:nitrate reductase. Apparent functional sizes of partial activities associated with intact and proteolytically modified enzyme

    Recently we demonstrated that target sizes for the partial activities of nitrate reductase were considerably smaller than the 100-kDa subunit which corresponded to the target size of the full (physiologic) activity NADH:nitrate reductase. These results suggested that the partial activities resided on functionally independent domains and that radiation inactivation may be due to localized rather than extensive damage to protein structure. The present study extends these observations and addresses several associated questions. Monophasic plots were observed over a wide range of radiation doses, suggesting a single activity component in each case. No apparent differences were observed over a 10-fold range of concentration for each substrate, suggesting that the observed slopes were not due to marked changes in Km values. Apparent target sizes estimated for partial activities associated with native enzyme and with limited proteolysis products of native enzyme suggested that the functional size obtained by radiation inactivation analysis is independent of the size of the polypeptide chain. The presence of free radical scavengers during irradiation reduced the apparent target size of both the physiologic and partial activities by an amount ranging from 24 to 43%, suggesting that a free radical mechanism is at least partially responsible for the inactivation. Immunoblot analysis of nitrate reductase irradiated in the presence of free radical scavengers revealed formation of distinct bands at 90, 75, and 40 kDa with increasing doses of irradiation rather than complete destruction of the polypeptide chain

  16. Study on extraction of agaropectin from Gelidium amansii and its anticoagulant activity

    QI Huimin; LI Daxin; ZHANG Jingjing; LIU Li; ZHANG Quanbin

    2008-01-01

    Gelidium amansii agar was fractionated on DEAE-cellulose and four fractions were obtained sequentially.The yields of 1.0mol/L NaCl fraction and 2.5mol/L NaCl fraction were 2.80% and 2.03%.They are highly sulfated agar,and named as agaropectin with sulfate content being 22.8% and 32.5%,respectively.The anticoagulant experiment results show that agaropectin could effectively prolong the coagulation time in a dose-dependent manner in vitro.Agaropection could be absorbed and effectively prolong the plasma coagulation time in vivo.After intragastric administration at the doses of 100,200,and 400mg/kg·d in rats for 15 days,TT (thrombin time),CT (coagulation time),PT (prothrombin time),and APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) could be effectively prolonged and the plasma Fib level could be significantly lowered.

  17. Partial priapism

    Høyerup, Peter; Dahl, Claus; Azawi, Nessn Htum

    2014-01-01

    Partial priapism, also called partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum, is a rare urological condition. Factors such as bicycle riding, drug usage, penile trauma and haematological diseases have been associated with the condition. Medical treatment with low molecular weight heparin (...... (LMWH) or acetylsalicylic acid is first choice treatment, and surgery is preserved for patients unresponsive to analgesics. In this report we describe the case of a 70-year-old man with partial priapism after blood transfusions treated successfully with LMWH....

  18. Telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, partially through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ-dependent activity

    Highlights: → Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, acts as a partial PPARγ agonist. → The protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular injury were associated with attenuation of vascular NFκB activation and TNF α. → PPARγ activity of telmisartan was involved in the normalization of vascular PPARγ downregulation in diabetic mice. → We provided the first evidence indicating that PPARγ activity of telmisartan contributed to the protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular complication. -- Abstract: Experimental and clinical data support the notion that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activation is associated with anti-atherosclerosis as well as anti-diabetic effect. Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), acts as a partial PPARγ agonist. We hypothesized that telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications, through PPARγ activation. We compared the effects of telmisartan, telmisartan combined with GW9662 (a PPARγ antagonist), and losartan with no PPARγ activity on vascular injury in obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Compared to losartan, telmisartan significantly ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction, downregulation of phospho-eNOS, and coronary arterial remodeling in db/db mice. More vascular protective effects of telmisartan than losartan were associated with greater anti-inflammatory effects of telmisartan, as shown by attenuation of vascular nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation and tumor necrosis factor α. Coadministration of GW9662 with telmisartan abolished the above mentioned greater protective effects of telmisartan against vascular injury than losartan in db/db mice. Thus, PPARγ activity appears to be involved in the vascular protective effects of telmisartan in db/db mice. Moreover, telmisartan, but not losartan, prevented the downregulation of vascular PPARγ in db/db mice and this effect of telmisartan was cancelled by the coadministration

  19. Telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, partially through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma}-dependent activity

    Toyama, Kensuke; Nakamura, Taishi; Kataoka, Keiichiro [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Yasuda, Osamu [Department of Cardiovascular Clinical and Translational Research, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto (Japan); Fukuda, Masaya; Tokutomi, Yoshiko; Dong, Yi-Fei [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Ogawa, Hisao [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei, E-mail: kimmitsu@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, acts as a partial PPAR{gamma} agonist. {yields} The protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular injury were associated with attenuation of vascular NF{kappa}B activation and TNF {alpha}. {yields} PPAR{gamma} activity of telmisartan was involved in the normalization of vascular PPAR{gamma} downregulation in diabetic mice. {yields} We provided the first evidence indicating that PPAR{gamma} activity of telmisartan contributed to the protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular complication. -- Abstract: Experimental and clinical data support the notion that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) activation is associated with anti-atherosclerosis as well as anti-diabetic effect. Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), acts as a partial PPAR{gamma} agonist. We hypothesized that telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications, through PPAR{gamma} activation. We compared the effects of telmisartan, telmisartan combined with GW9662 (a PPAR{gamma} antagonist), and losartan with no PPAR{gamma} activity on vascular injury in obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Compared to losartan, telmisartan significantly ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction, downregulation of phospho-eNOS, and coronary arterial remodeling in db/db mice. More vascular protective effects of telmisartan than losartan were associated with greater anti-inflammatory effects of telmisartan, as shown by attenuation of vascular nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) activation and tumor necrosis factor {alpha}. Coadministration of GW9662 with telmisartan abolished the above mentioned greater protective effects of telmisartan against vascular injury than losartan in db/db mice. Thus, PPAR{gamma} activity appears to be involved in the vascular protective effects of telmisartan in db/db mice. Moreover, telmisartan, but not losartan, prevented the downregulation of

  20. Vibration reduction in helicopter rotors using an actively controlled partial span trailing edge flap located on the blade

    Millott, T. A.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes an analytical study of vibration reduction in a four-bladed helicopter rotor using an actively controlled, partial span, trailing edge flap located on the blade. The vibration reduction produced by the actively controlled flap (ACF) is compared with that obtained using individual blade control (IBC), in which the entire blade is oscillated in pitch. For both cases a deterministic feedback controller is implemented to reduce the 4/rev hub loads. For all cases considered, the ACF produced vibration reduction comparable with that obtained using IBC, but consumed only 10-30% of the power required to implement IBC. A careful parametric study is conducted to determine the influence of blade torsional stiffness, spanwise location of the control flap, and hinge moment correction on the vibration reduction characteristics of the ACF. The results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of this new approach to vibration reduction. It should be emphasized than the ACF, used together with a conventional swashplate, is completely decoupled from the primary flight control system and thus it has no influence on the airworthiness of the helicopter. This attribute is potentially a significant advantage when compared to IBC.

  1. Cardiovascular protection and antioxidant activity of the extracts from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis act partially via adenosine receptors.

    Yan, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Zhong-Miao; Yao, Hong-Yi; Guan, Yan; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Lin-Hui; Jia, Yong-Liang; Wang, Ru-Wei

    2013-11-01

    Mycelia of cultured Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is one of the most common substitutes for natural CS and was approved for arrhythmia in China. However, the role of CS in ameliorating injury during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is still unclear. We examined effects of extracts from CS on I/R and investigated the possible mechanisms. Post-ischemic coronary perfusion pressure, ventricular function, and coronary flow were measured using the Langendorff mouse heart model. Oxidative stress of cardiac homogenates was performed using an ELISA. Our results indicate that CS affords cardioprotection possibly through enhanced adenosine receptor activation. Cardioprotection was demonstrated by reduced post-ischemic diastolic dysfunction and improved recovery of pressure development and coronary flow. Treatment with CS largely abrogates oxidative stress and damage in glucose- or pyruvate-perfused hearts. Importantly, observed reductions in oxidative stress [glutathione disulfide (GSSG)]/[GSSG + glutathione] and [malondialdehyde (MDA)]/[superoxide dismutase + MDA] ratios as well as the resultant damage upon CS treatment correlate with functional markers of post-ischemic myocardial outcome. These effects of CS were partially blocked by 8-ρ-sulfophenyltheophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist. Our results demonstrate a suppressive role of CS in ischemic contracture. Meanwhile, the results also suggest pre-ischemic adenosine receptor activation may be involved in reducing contracture in hearts pretreated with CS. PMID:23192916

  2. [Variations in hemostasis and fibrinolysis during the treatment of acute myocardial infarct (AMI) with tissue-type plasminogen activator (TTPA). A study of 17 cases].

    Izaguirre Avila, R; Ruiz de Chávez Cervantes, A; Villavicencio, R; Gómez Trigos, A; Mar Chavira, R; Spíndola, M del C; Casanova, J M

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to estimate changes in the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems during the thrombolytic treatment with recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in patients with acute myocardial infarction and correlate with hemorrhagic complications. We studied 17 patients with a 3 hours-continuous systemic infusion of 100 mg of rt-PA. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen splits products, plasminogen, alfa-2-antiplasmin (a-2AP) and antithrombin III (AT-III) were performed before, during and after infusion. Most patients showed lengthening coagulation times. Fibrinogen and plasminogen were decreased and PDF was increased. No variations in alpha-2AP or AT-III were observed. The recuperation of fibrinogen levels occurred in 3 hours and there was hyperfibrinogenemia after day 3. No hemorrhagic complication was observed in patients with abnormalities in these coagulation or fibrinolytic tests. PMID:8347053

  3. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Ventilation on Platelet-activating Factor and Blood Coagulation Function in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-hypopnea Syndrome

    To investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure ventilation (CPAP) on platelet-activating factor (PAF) expression and blood coagulation function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS), the blood sample of 40 patients with OSAS were taken before treatment and on the day 30 after treatment respectively. PAF, thromboxane B2 (TXB2), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrin(FIB) in patients and 37 health controls were detected. The results showed that PAF, TXB2, FIB in OSAS patients before treatment were significantly higher than those of after treatment and control group (P0.05). There were abnormal expression of PAF and hypercoagulability in OSAS patients. CPAP could effectively decrease the expression of PAF, TXB2 and could also correct dysfunction of blood coagulation. It had certain effect in lightening the clinical symptoms in OSAS patients. (authors)

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Partially Oxidized Ag/Au Nanoparticles against the Oral Pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis W83

    Megan S. Holden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in nanotechnology provide opportunities for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. While physicochemical properties of Ag containing nanoparticles (NPs are known to influence the magnitude of their toxicity, it is thought that nanosilver can be made less toxic to eukaryotes by passivation of the NPs with a benign metal. Moreover, the addition of other noble metals to silver nanoparticles, in the alloy formulation, is known to alter the silver dissolution behavior. Thus, we synthesized glutathione capped Ag/Au alloy bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs via the galvanic replacement reaction between maltose coated Ag NPs and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4 in 5% aqueous triblock F127 copolymer solution. We then compared the antibacterial activity of the Ag/Au NPs to pure Ag NPs on Porphyromonas gingivalis W83, a key pathogen in the development of periodontal disease. Only partially oxidized glutathione capped Ag and Ag/Au (Au : Ag ≈ 0.2 NPs inhibited the planktonic growth of P. gingivalis W83. This effect was enhanced in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which simulates the oxidative stress environment in the periodontal pocket during chronic inflammation.

  5. Crustal differentiation due to partial melting of granitic rocks in an active continental margin, the Ryoke Belt, Southwest Japan

    Akasaki, Eri; Owada, Masaaki; Kamei, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    The continental margin of Pacific Asia is dominated by the voluminous Cretaceous to Paleogene granitic rocks. The Ryoke granitoids that occur in the Ryoke Belt in the Southwest Japan Arc are divided into the older and younger granites. The high-K Kibe Granite represents the younger granitic intrusion and is exposed in the Yanai area in the western part of Ryoke Belt. The Kibe Granite is associated with the coeval Himurodake Quartz Diorite and their intrusive age is 91 Ma. However, the Gamano-Obatake Granodiorite, the older granite, intruded the host Ryoke gneisses at 95 Ma. The Gamano-Obatake Granodiorite is characterized by the localized development of migmatitic structure attributed to the intrusion of the Himurodake Quartz Diorite into the granodiorite. Leucocratic pools and patches occur in the granodiorite in the vicinity of the quartz diorite. The Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of the Gamano-Obatake Granodiorite corrected to 91 Ma are plotted within those of the Kibe Granite. Geochemical modeling suggests that partial melting took place in the Gamano-Obatake Granodiorite and resulted in the formation of the Kibe Granite magma. The Himurodake Quartz Diorite is believed to be a heat source for this event. This can be considered as an essential process for the formation of the evolved younger Ryoke granite and for the crustal differentiation in the active continental margin.

  6. Effect of temperature on AOB activity of a partial nitritation SBR treating landfill leachate with extremely high nitrogen concentration.

    Gabarró, J; Ganigué, R; Gich, F; Ruscalleda, M; Balaguer, M D; Colprim, J

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of temperature on ammonia oxidizing bacteria activity in a partial nitritation (PN) sequencing batch reactor. Stable PN was achieved in a 250 L SBR with a minimum operating volume of 111L treating mature landfill leachate containing an ammonium concentration of around 6000 mg N-NH(4)(+)L(-1) at both 25 and 35 °C. A suitable influent to feed an anammox reactor was achieved in both cases. A kinetic model was applied to study the influence of free ammonia (FA), the free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition, and the inorganic carbon (IC) limitation. NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-) concentrations were similar at 25 and 35 °C experiments (about 2500 mg N-NH(4)(+)L(-1) and 3500 mg N-NO(2)(-)L(-1)), FA and FNA concentrations differed due to the strong temperature dependence. FNA was the main source of inhibition at 25 °C, while at 35 °C combined FA and FNA inhibition occurred. DGGE results demonstrated that PN-SBR sludge was enriched on the same AOB phylotypes in both experiments. PMID:23079415

  7. Extending the structure-activity relationship of anthranilic acid derivatives as farnesoid X receptor modulators: development of a highly potent partial farnesoid X receptor agonist.

    Merk, Daniel; Lamers, Christina; Ahmad, Khalil; Carrasco Gomez, Roberto; Schneider, Gisbert; Steinhilber, Dieter; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred

    2014-10-01

    The ligand activated transcription factor nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is involved as a regulator in many metabolic pathways including bile acid and glucose homeostasis. Therefore, pharmacological activation of FXR seems a valuable therapeutic approach for several conditions including metabolic diseases linked to insulin resistance, liver disorders such as primary biliary cirrhosis or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and certain forms of cancer. The available FXR agonists, however, activate the receptor to the full extent which might be disadvantageous over a longer time period. Hence, partial FXR activators are required for long-term treatment of metabolic disorders. We here report the SAR of anthranilic acid derivatives as FXR modulators and development, synthesis, and characterization of compound 51, which is a highly potent partial FXR agonist in a reporter gene assay with an EC50 value of 8 ± 3 nM and on mRNA level in liver cells. PMID:25255039

  8. Identification of the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the independent impact of the affected upper and lower limb, trunk, and unaffected side motor functions on activities of daily living in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 77 stroke patients. Motor functions were assessed using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set, and the activities of daily living performance was assessed using the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure....

  9. Partial priapism

    Hoyerup, Peter; Azawi, Nessn Htum

    2013-01-01

    With only 34 prior cases in world literature, partial priapism (PP), also called partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum, is a rare urological condition. The aetiology and treatment of PP is still unclear, but bicycle riding, trauma, drug usage, sexual intercourse, haematological...... diseases and α-blockers have been associated with PP. In this case report and world literature review, we describe the case of a 50-year-old man suffering from PP after ingesting 100 mg of sildenafil. The patient was treated with a surgical incision for corpus cavernosum and clot evacuation, as a...

  10. Partial root zone drying: regulation of photosynthetic limitations and antioxidant enzymatic activities in young olive (Olea europaea) saplings.

    Aganchich, Badia; Wahbi, Said; Loreto, Francesco; Centritto, Mauro

    2009-05-01

    The effect of partial root drying (PRD) irrigation on split-root olive (Olea europaea L. cv Picholine marocaine) saplings was investigated. An irrigated control and two PRD regimes were applied (control: irrigation applied on both sides of the root system to keep the soil water content close to field capacity; PRD(50): irrigation applied at 50% of the control amount on one side of the root system and irrigation withheld from the other side, with irrigation regimes switched between the sides of the root system every 2 weeks; and PRD(100): irrigation applied at 100% of the control amount on one side and irrigation withheld on the other side, with irrigation regimes switched between the sides of the root system every 2 weeks. Only saplings in the PRD(50) regime were subjected to water-deficit irrigation. The PRD treatments significantly affected water relations and vegetative growth throughout the growing season. Predawn leaf water potential and relative water content differed significantly between the PRD(50) and PRD(100) saplings, leading to reduced stomatal conductance, carbon assimilation, shoot length and leaf number in PRD(50) saplings. However, the PRD(50) water-deficit treatment did not affect the capacity of the saplings to assimilate CO(2). Activities of superoxide dismutase, soluble and insoluble peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase were up-regulated by the PRD(50) and PRD(100) treatments compared with control values. The higher activities of both soluble and insoluble POX observed in PRD(50) saplings may reflect the greater inhibitory effect of this treatment on vegetative growth. Up-regulation of the detoxifying systems in the PRD(100) and PRD(50) saplings may have provided protection mechanisms against irreversible damage to the photosynthetic machinery, thereby allowing the photosynthetic apparatus to function and preventing the development of severe water stress. We also measured CO(2) assimilation rate/internal leaf CO(2) concentration (A

  11. Standardized added metabolic activity (SAM): a partial volume independent marker of total lesion glycolysis in liver metastases

    The standardized added metabolic activity (SAM) is a new marker of total lesion glycolysis that avoids partial volume effect (PVE) and thresholding. SAM is calculated by drawing a volume of interest (VOI1) around the tumour and a larger VOI (VOI2) around VOI1. Subtracting the background activity in VOI2-VOI1 from VOI1 yields SAM. If VOI1 is set at a reasonable distance from the tumour, PVE are avoided. Phantom and initial clinical validation data are presented. Spheres of a Jaszczak phantom were filled with a 5.4, 3.64 and 2.0 times higher concentration relative to background activity and positron emission tomography (PET) data were acquired during 10 min. SAM of all spheres was expressed as a percentage of the expected value (the actual activity ratio minus 1). In 15 patients a 10-min list-mode acquisition PET study centred on their primary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) was performed and images of 1-10 min reconstructed. SAM1-9min values of PSCC were expressed as a percentage of SAM10min. Nineteen patients suffering from liver metastases treated with chemotherapy underwent PET/CT prior to (scan 1) and after 3-6 cycles of chemotherapy (scan 2). SAM and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the liver lesions on scan 1 (SAM1 and SUVmax1) and the percentage reduction between both ΔSAM and ΔSUVmax were related to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) response. For the phantom acquisitions, the mean normalized SAM/sphere volume calculated was 94.9 % (SD 5.9 %) of the expected value. In the PSCC patients, the mean difference between SAM1min and SAM10min was only 4 % (SD 5 %). SUVmax1min and SUVmax10min proved to be not significantly different, but the variability was slightly larger than that of SAM (SD 6.4 %). SAM1 and ΔSAM values for responders versus non-responders were, respectively, 57 (SD 119) versus 297 (SD 625) for SAM1 (p = 0.2) and 99 % (SD 3 %) versus 32 % (SD 44 %) for ΔSAM (p = 0.001). SUVmax1 and ΔSUVmax values in responders

  12. Standardized added metabolic activity (SAM): a partial volume independent marker of total lesion glycolysis in liver metastases

    Mertens, Jeroen; Dobbeleir, Andre; Ham, Hamphrey; Asseler, Yves d' ; Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-09-15

    The standardized added metabolic activity (SAM) is a new marker of total lesion glycolysis that avoids partial volume effect (PVE) and thresholding. SAM is calculated by drawing a volume of interest (VOI{sub 1}) around the tumour and a larger VOI (VOI{sub 2}) around VOI{sub 1}. Subtracting the background activity in VOI{sub 2}-VOI{sub 1} from VOI{sub 1} yields SAM. If VOI{sub 1} is set at a reasonable distance from the tumour, PVE are avoided. Phantom and initial clinical validation data are presented. Spheres of a Jaszczak phantom were filled with a 5.4, 3.64 and 2.0 times higher concentration relative to background activity and positron emission tomography (PET) data were acquired during 10 min. SAM of all spheres was expressed as a percentage of the expected value (the actual activity ratio minus 1). In 15 patients a 10-min list-mode acquisition PET study centred on their primary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) was performed and images of 1-10 min reconstructed. SAM1-9min values of PSCC were expressed as a percentage of SAM10min. Nineteen patients suffering from liver metastases treated with chemotherapy underwent PET/CT prior to (scan 1) and after 3-6 cycles of chemotherapy (scan 2). SAM and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of the liver lesions on scan 1 (SAM1 and SUV{sub max}1) and the percentage reduction between both {Delta}SAM and {Delta}SUV{sub max} were related to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) response. For the phantom acquisitions, the mean normalized SAM/sphere volume calculated was 94.9 % (SD 5.9 %) of the expected value. In the PSCC patients, the mean difference between SAM1min and SAM10min was only 4 % (SD 5 %). SUV{sub max}1min and SUV{sub max}10min proved to be not significantly different, but the variability was slightly larger than that of SAM (SD 6.4 %). SAM1 and {Delta}SAM values for responders versus non-responders were, respectively, 57 (SD 119) versus 297 (SD 625) for SAM1 (p = 0.2) and 99 % (SD 3

  13. Coagulant and anticoagulant activities of Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom.

    Lôbo de Araújo, A; Kamiguti, A; Bon, C

    2001-01-01

    Bothrops lanceolatus venom contains caseinolytic, phospholipase, esterase and haemorrhagic activities. We have investigated the coagulant and anticoagulant actions of B. lanceolatus venom on human citrated plasma and on purified plasma components. Although B. lanceolatus venom up to 50 microg/ml was unable to clot citrated plasma, at concentrations > or = 5 microg/ml the venom dose-dependently clotted purified human fibrinogen, indicating the presence of a thrombin-like enzyme. Human plasma (final concentration > or = 12.5%) dose-dependently inhibited the venom-induced fibrinogen clotting. This finding suggested that endogenous plasma protease inhibitors can affect the venom's action on fibrinogen. To investigate this possibility, B. lanceolatus venom was incubated with different plasma protease inhibitors and the activity on fibrinogen tested. alpha(2)-Macroglobulin and alpha(1)-antitrypsin did not interfere with the coagulant activity of the venom whereas the antithrombin-III/heparin complex partially inhibited this activity. A non-toxic, acidic phospholipase A(2) purified from B. lanceolatus venom prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time in human plasma from 39.7+/-0.5 s (control with saline) to 60.2+/-0.9 s with 50 microg of PLA(2) (p<0.001), suggesting an anticoagulant activity associated with this enzyme. This anticoagulant activity may account for some of the effects of the venom on blood coagulation. PMID:10978756

  14. Identification of the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the independent impact of the affected upper and lower limb, trunk, and unaffected side motor functions on activities of daily living in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 77 stroke patients. Motor functions were assessed using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set, and the activities of daily living performance was assessed using the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure. Further, simple and partial correlation analyses were conducted between each motor function and activities of daily living parameter. [Results] Simple correlation analysis identified significant positive correlations for each pair. In contrast, partial correlation analysis only identified significant positive correlations between the affected lower limb or unaffected side functions and the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure. This discrepancy between the two tests was explained by the significant interaction between the affected upper and lower limb functions and between the trunk and unaffected side functions. [Conclusion] The present study identified the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as the major determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients. These findings suggest that rehabilitation programs can be improved by targeting these areas. PMID:26311957

  15. TRPV1 activation is not an all-or-none event: TRPV1 partial agonism/antagonism and its regulatory modulation

    Blumberg, Peter M.; Pearce, Larry V.; Lee, Jeewoo

    2011-01-01

    TRPV1 has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for pain as well as a broad range of other conditions such as asthma or urge incontinence. The identification of resiniferatoxin as an ultrapotent ligand partially able to dissect the acute activation of TRPV1 from subsequent desensitization and the subsequent intense efforts in medicinal chemistry have revealed that TRPV1 affords a dramatic landscape of opportunities for pharmacological manipulation. While agonism and antagonism have repres...

  16. An assessment of the partial agonist activity of Ro 31-1118, flusoxolol and pindolol in man.

    McCaffrey, P. M.; Riddell, J G; Shanks, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    1. The effects of single oral doses of three beta-adrenoceptor partial agonists (Ro 31-1118, flusoxolol and pindolol), two beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (propranolol and atenolol), two beta-adrenoceptor agonists (salbutamol and prenalterol) and placebo on sleeping heart rate, quality of sleep, supine heart rate, exercise heart rate, blood pressure, forearm blood flow and finger tremor were studied in eight healthy male volunteers. 2. Sleeping heart rate was increased by Ro 31-1118, flusoxolol...

  17. Acetaldehyde partial oxidation on the Au(111) model catalyst surface: C-C bond activation and formation of methyl acetate as an oxidative coupling product

    Karatok, Mustafa; Vovk, Evgeny I.; Shah, Asad A.; Turksoy, Abdurrahman; Ozensoy, Emrah

    2015-11-01

    Partial oxidation of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) on the oxygen pre-covered Au(111) single crystal model catalyst was investigated via Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Temperature Programmed Reaction Spectroscopy (TPRS) techniques, where ozone (O3) was utilized as the oxygen delivery agent providing atomic oxygen to the reacting surface. We show that for low exposures of O3 and small surface oxygen coverages, two partial oxidation products namely, methyl acetate (CH3COOCH3) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) can be generated without the formation of significant quantities of carbon dioxide. The formation of methyl acetate as the oxidative coupling reaction product implies that oxygen pre-covered Au(111) single crystal model catalyst surface can activate C-C bonds. In addition to the generation of these products; indications of the polymerization of acetaldehyde on the gold surface were also observed as an additional reaction route competing with the partial and total oxidation pathways. The interplay between the partial oxidation, total oxidation and polymerization pathways reveals the complex catalytic chemistry associated with the interaction between the acetaldehyde and atomic oxygen on catalytic gold surfaces.

  18. Partial Oxidation of Methane with Sol-Gel Fe/Hf/YSZ Catalyst in Dielectric Barrier Discharge: Catalyst Activation by Plasma

    2006-01-01

    A 1% Fe-30% Hf over yttria-stabilized zirconia catalyst in combination with novel plasma-assisted activation techniques for a direct partial oxidation of methane to methanol was tested using dielectric barrier discharge plasma at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. However, instead of methanol, the reaction products were dominated by H2,CO, CO2, C2, and H2O. A catalytically activated plasma process increased the production of methanol compared with a noncatalytic plasma process. The maximum selectivity of methanol production was achieved using a catalyst that was treated at higher applied power.

  19. Enhanced oxidative stress and platelet activation combined with reduced antioxidant capacity in obese prepubertal and adolescent girls with full or partial metabolic syndrome.

    Karamouzis, I; Pervanidou, P; Berardelli, R; Iliadis, S; Papassotiriou, I; Karamouzis, M; Chrousos, G P; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C

    2011-08-01

    In adults, obesity is a main factor implicated in increased oxidative stress (OS), platelet activation (PA) and impaired antioxidant status (AS), all predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important cardiovascular risk factor, which progressively develops and may already be present during late childhood or adolescence. However, scarce data exist on oxidative-antioxidant balance and PA in childhood and adolescence in the presence of partial (PMetS) or full MetS. The aim of the study was to evaluate OS, PA, and AS in prepubertal and adolescent obese girls with partial or full MetS. 96 girls with a clinical and metabolic evaluation for obesity and 44 healthy normal-weight sex- and age-matched girls were studied. IDF-adopted criteria were used to define full and partial MetS and the patient population was divided into 4 groups: the first comprised 31 pre-pubertal girls with PMetS (PR-PMetS), the second 37 adolescents with PMetS (AD-PMetS), the third 10 prepubertal girls with full MetS (PR-MetS), and the fourth 18 adolescents with full MetS (AD-MetS). The OS was evaluated by measuring plasma 15-F(2t)-Isoprostane levels (15-F(2t)-IsoP) and protein carbonyls, PA by thromboxane B(2) levels (TXB(2)), and AS by serum vitamin E and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels. 15-F(2t)-IsoP, protein carbonyls, and TXB(2) levels were significantly gradually amplified, and vitamin E and TAC reduced, and significantly correlated with obesity from childhood to adolescence and from partial to full MetS. This study demonstrates the loss of the normal homeostatic balance between oxidant-antioxidant state in obese children and adolescents with manifestations of partial and full MetS. PMID:21823055

  20. In-vitro anticoagulant activity of fucoidan derivatives from brown seaweed Laminaria japonica

    WANG Jing; ZHANG Quanbin; ZHANG Zhongshan; HOU Yun; ZHANG Hong

    2011-01-01

    Fucoidan, a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharides, was extracted from Laminariajaponica,an important economic alga species in China. The anticoagulant activity of fucoidan and its derivatives (including sulfated, phosphorylated, and aminated fucoidan) was examined using in-vitro anticoagulant systems. The correlation between chemical variations within the fucoidan group and anticoagulant activity was determined. The in-vitro anticoagulant properties of fucoidan and its derivatives were determined by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT).The results indicate anticoagulant activity in all samples using APTT and TT assays; however, only the fucoidan derivatives affected the PT assay. Thus, the fucoidan derivatives were able to inhibit both intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulants. Fucoidan (FPS) and its derivatives presented better anticoagulant activity than low molecular weight fucoidan (DFPS) and its derivatives, suggesting that molecular weight and proper conformation are contributing factors for anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides. Amino groups have a positive charge and can thus change the charge density of fucoidan. Accordingly, among the tested samples, aminated fucoidan (NF) was the most active reflecting the importance of charge density for anticoagulant activity. Available data obtained using in-vitro models suggest that the sulfate content,sulfate/total-sugar ratio, molecular weight, and the substituted group of fucoidan are important factors for anticoagulant activity but that the influence of sulfate, phosphate and amino groups on anticoagulant activity was different.

  1. In-vitro anticoagulant activity of fucoidan derivatives from brown seaweed Laminaria japonica

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhang, Zhongshan; Hou, Yun; Zhang, Hong

    2011-05-01

    Fucoidan, a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharides, was extracted from Laminaria japonica, an important economic alga species in China. The anticoagulant activity of fucoidan and its derivatives (including sulfated, phosphorylated, and aminated fucoidan) was examined using in-vitro anticoagulant systems. The correlation between chemical variations within the fucoidan group and anticoagulant activity was determined. The in-vitro anticoagulant properties of fucoidan and its derivatives were determined by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). The results indicate anticoagulant activity in all samples using APTT and TT assays; however, only the fucoidan derivatives affected the PT assay. Thus, the fucoidan derivatives were able to inhibit both intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulants. Fucoidan (FPS) and its derivatives presented better anticoagulant activity than low molecular weight fucoidan (DFPS) and its derivatives, suggesting that molecular weight and proper conformation are contributing factors for anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides. Amino groups have a positive charge and can thus change the charge density of fucoidan. Accordingly, among the tested samples, aminated fucoidan (NF) was the most active reflecting the importance of charge density for anticoagulant activity. Available data obtained using in-vitro models suggest that the sulfate content, sulfate/total-sugar ratio, molecular weight, and the substituted group of fucoidan are important factors for anticoagulant activity but that the influence of sulfate, phosphate and amino groups on anticoagulant activity was different.

  2. Partial Activation and Inhibition of TRPV1 Channels by Evodiamine and Rutaecarpine, Two Major Components of the Fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa.

    Wang, Shenglan; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Kogure, Yoko; Zhang, Wensheng; Noguchi, Koichi; Dai, Yi

    2016-05-27

    Evodiamine (1) and rutaecarpine (2) are the two major components of Evodia rutaecarpa, which has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. Using transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-expressing HEK293 cells and patch-clamp recording, the inhibitory actions of 1 and 2 against TRPV1 channels were investigated. The effects of these compounds against capsaicin- or proton-activated TRPV1 activities were evaluated. The results showed that, although 1 and 2 can activate TRPV1, the maximum response was 3.5- or 9-fold lower than that of capsaicin, respectively, suggesting partial agonism. In comparison to capsaicin, coadministration of 1 and capsaicin increased the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of capsaicin-activated TRPV1 currents as shown by a right shift in the dose-response curve, whereas coadministration of 1 with protons failed to inhibit the proton-induced current. Moreover, preadministration of 1, but not 2, inhibited both capsaicin- and proton-induced TRPV1 currents, which might involve channel desensitization. Taken together, 1 and 2 may share the same binding site with capsaicin and act as partial agonists (antagonists) of TRPV1. Evodiamine (1), but not rutaecarpine (2), can desensitize or competitively inhibit the activity of TRPV1. PMID:27159637

  3. Oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme activities of dry-cured bacons as affected by the partial substitution of NaCl with KCl.

    Wu, Haizhou; Yan, Wenjing; Zhuang, Hong; Huang, Mingming; Zhao, Jianying; Zhang, Jianhao

    2016-06-15

    This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on protein and lipid oxidation as well as antioxidant enzyme activities in dry-cured bacons during processing. The partial substitution was 0% KCl (I), 40% KCl (II), and 70% KCl (III). Compared with 0% KCl (I), the substitution of 40% NaCl with KCl did not significantly influence the protein and lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities. The bacons that were treated with 70% KCl treatment (III) showed increased lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH-Px activity, whereas samples treated with formulas I and II showed higher protein oxidation and antioxidant enzyme catalase activity. These results demonstrate that the substitution of NaCl with KCl by more than 40% may significantly affect protein and lipid oxidation and that for the substitution of NaCl in further processed meat products with other chloride salts, salt content is very important for control of protein and lipid biochemical changes in finished products. PMID:26868571

  4. UNDERSTANDING AGN-HOST CONNECTION IN PARTIALLY OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. III. PROPERTIES OF ROSAT-SELECTED SDSS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    As the third paper of our series of studies that aim at examining the AGN-host co-evolution by using partially obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we extend the broad-line composite galaxies (composite AGNs) into ROSAT-selected Seyfert 1.8/1.9 galaxies based upon the ROSAT All Sky Survey/Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 (SDSS-DR5) catalog given by Anderson et al. The SDSS spectra of a total of 92 objects are analyzed by the same method used in our previous studies, after requiring the signal-to-noise ratio in the SDSS r' band to be larger than 20. Combining the ROSAT-selected Seyfert galaxies with the composite AGNs reinforces the tight correlation between the line ratio [O I]/Hα versus Dn (4000), and establishes a new tight correlation between [S II]/Hα versus Dn (4000). Both correlations suggest that the two line ratios are plausible age indicators of the circumnuclear stellar population for typical Type I AGNs in which the stellar populations are difficult to derive from their optical spectra. The ROSAT-selected Seyfert galaxies show that the two correlations depend on the soft X-ray spectral slope α X, which is roughly estimated from the hardness ratios by requiring that the X-ray count rates within 0.1-2.4 keV be larger than 0.02 counts s-1. However, we fail to establish a relationship between α X and Dn (4000), which is likely caused by the relatively large uncertainties of both the parameters (especially for α X because of the AGN intrinsic obscuration). The previously established L/L Edd-Dn (4000) evolutionary sequence is reinforced again by the extension to the ROSAT-selected Seyfert galaxies. These X-ray-selected Seyfert galaxies are, however, biased against the two ends of the sequence, which implies that the X-ray Seyfert galaxies present a population at a middle evolutionary stage.

  5. Influence of bone marrow fat embolism on coagulation activation in an ovine model of vertebroplasty

    Krebs, J; Ferguson, S. J.; Hoerstrup, S P; Goss, B G; Haeberli, A; Aebli, N

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intraoperative cardiovascular deterioration as a result of pulmonary embolization of bone marrow fat is a potentially serious complication during vertebroplasty. The release of fatty material and thromboplastin from the bone marrow cavity during vertebroplasty may activate the coagulation cascade resulting in thrombogenesis, and pharmacological prophylaxis may therefore prevent cardiovascular complications. Thus, the effects of bone marrow fat embolism on coagulation activation du...

  6. The effect of various atomic partial charge schemes to elucidate consensus activity-correlating molecular regions: a test case of diverse QSAR models.

    Kumar, Sivakumar Prasanth; Jha, Prakash C; Jasrai, Yogesh T; Pandya, Himanshu A

    2016-03-01

    The estimation of atomic partial charges of the small molecules to calculate molecular interaction fields (MIFs) is an important process in field-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR). Several studies showed the influence of partial charge schemes that drastically affects the prediction accuracy of the QSAR model and focused on the selection of appropriate charge models that provide highest cross-validated correlation coefficient ([Formula: see text] or q(2)) to explain the variation in chemical structures against biological endpoints. This study shift this focus in a direction to understand the molecular regions deemed to explain SAR in various charge models and recognize a consensus picture of activity-correlating molecular regions. We selected eleven diverse dataset and developed MIF-based QSAR models using various charge schemes including Gasteiger-Marsili, Del Re, Merck Molecular Force Field, Hückel, Gasteiger-Hückel, and Pullman. The generalized resultant QSAR models were then compared with Open3DQSAR model to interpret the MIF descriptors decisively. We suggest the regions of activity contribution or optimization can be effectively determined by studying various charge-based models to understand SAR precisely. PMID:25997097

  7. Understanding AGN-host connection in partially obscured active galactic nuclei. Part III: Properties of ROSAT-selected SDSS AGNs

    Wang, J

    2010-01-01

    As the third paper of our serial studies that are aim at examining the AGN-host coevolution by using partially obscured AGNs, we extend the broad-line composite galaxies (composite AGNs) into ROSAT-selected Seyfert 1.8/1.9 galaxies basing upon the RASS/SDSS-DR5 catalog given by Anderson et al.. The SDSS spectra of in total 92 objects are analyzed by the same method used in our previous studies, after requiring the signal-to-noise ratio in the SDSS r' band is larger than 20. Combing the ROSAT-selected Seyfert galaxies with the composite AGNs reinforces the tight correlation between the line ratio [OI]/H\\alpha vs. D_n(4000), and establishes a new tight correlation between [SII]/H\\alpha vs. D_n(4000). Both correlations suggest the two line ratios are plausible age indicators of the circumnuclear stellar population for typical type I AGNs in which the stellar populations are difficult to be derived from their optical spectra. The ROSAT-selected Seyfert galaxies show that the two correlations depend on the soft X-...

  8. The Role of Water Activity and Capillarity in Partially Saturated Porous Media at Geologic CO2 Storage Sites

    Heath, J. E.; Bryan, C. R.; Matteo, E. N.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The activity of water in supercritical CO2 may affect performance of geologic CO2 storage, including CO2 injectivity, and shrink-swell properties and sealing efficiency of clayey caprocks. We present a pore-scale unit cell model of water film adsorption and capillary condensation as an explicit function of water activity in supercritical CO2. This model estimates water film configuration in slit to other pore shapes with edges and corners. With the model, we investigate water saturation in porous media in mineral-CO2-water systems under different water activities. Maximum water activities in equilibrium with an aqueous phase are significantly less than unity due to dissolution of CO2 in water (i.e., the mole fraction of water in the aqueous phase is much less than one) and variable dissolved salt concentration. The unit cell approach is used to upscale from the single pore to the core-sample-scale, giving saturation curves as a function of water activity in the supercritical phase and the texture of the porous media. We evaluate the model and the importance of water activity through ongoing small angle neutron scattering experiments and other column experiments, which investigate shrink-swell properties and capillarity under realistic in situ stresses. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Stepwise calibration of the activated sludge model no. 1 at a partially denitrifying large wastewater treatment plant.

    Fall, C; Espinosa-Rodriguez, M A; Flores-Alamo, N; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Hooijmans, C M

    2011-11-01

    Activated sludge modeling technology is maturing; however, currently, there exists a great need to increase its use in daily engineering practice worldwide. A good way for building the capacities of the practitioners is to promote good modeling practices and standardize the protocols. In this study, a systematic procedure was proposed to calibrate the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) at a large wastewater treatment plant, by which the model adequately predicted the quality of the effluent and the sludge quantities. A hydraulics model was set up and validated through a tracer test. The Vesilind settling constants were measured and combined with the default value of the flocculent zone settling parameter, to calibrate the clarifiers. A virtual anoxic tank was installed in the return activated sludge to mimic the denitrification occurring in the settlers. In ASM1, the calibrated parameters were only two influent chemical oxygen demand fractions and one kinetic constant (oxygen half-saturation coefficient). PMID:22195426

  10. A New Class of Highly Dispersed VOx Catalysts on Mesoporous Silica: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity in the Partial Oxidation of Ethanol

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Herrera, Jose E.; Hu, Jian Zhi; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles HF

    2006-01-26

    The morphology of vanadium oxide supported on a titania-modified mesoporous silica (MCM-41), obtained by means of a careful grafting process through atomic layer deposition, was studied using a variety of characterization techniques. The XRD together with TEM, 51V-NMR, Raman, FTIR and DRS-UV-Vis results showed that the vanadia species are extremely well dispersed onto the surface of the mesoporous support; the dispersion being stable upon thermal treatments up to 400 °C. Studies of the catalytic activity of these materials were performed using the partial oxidation of ethanol as a probe reaction. The results indicate an intrinsic relationship between dispersion, the presence of a TiO2-VOx phase, and catalytic activity for oxidation and dehydration.

  11. Improvements of anticoagulant activities of silk fibroin films with fucoidan

    2008-01-01

    Fucoidan (FC),an effective anticoagulant constituent extracted from brown algae,was introduced into silk fibroin (SF) for improving its blood compatibility.The SF and SF/FC blend films were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic contact angle determinator (CA).The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the films were evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT),thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) measurements.The endothelial cell attachment and proliferation viability on the film were assessed by micropipette aspiration technique and MTT assay,respectively.The testing results indicated that the introduction of FC increased the roughness,hydrophilicity and sulfate component of the film surface without impeding the formation of β-sheet conformation in SF.More important,FC brought excellent anticoagulant activity and better endothelial cell affinity to SF.The SF/FC blend film was hopeful to be used as blood-contacting biomaterials.

  12. 76 FR 58246 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    2011-09-20

    ... of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 30912, 30913 (May 27, 2011... Activated Carbon Co., Ltd.; OEC Logistic Qingdao Co., Ltd.; Panshan Import and Export Corporation; Pingluo... relevant entries during this review period. Failure to comply with this requirement could result in...

  13. 75 FR 48644 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    2010-08-11

    ... Reviews, 75 FR 29976-29980 (May 28, 2010) (``Initiation''). On June 15, 2010, Calgon Carbon Corporation... Carbon Co., Ltd.; Ningxia Yirong Alloy Iron Co., Ltd.; Ningxia Zhengyuan Activated; OEC Logistic Qingdao... to liquidation of the relevant entries during this review period. Failure to comply with...

  14. Two-chain high molecular weight kininogen induces endothelial cell apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis: partial activity within domain 5.

    Zhang, J C; Claffey, K; Sakthivel, R; Darzynkiewicz, Z; Shaw, D E; Leal, J; Wang, Y C; Lu, F M; McCrae, K R

    2000-12-01

    We previously reported that the binding of two-chain high molecular weight kininogen (HKa) to endothelial cells may occur through interactions with endothelial urokinase receptors. Since the binding of urokinase to urokinase receptors activates signaling responses and may stimulate mitogenesis, we assessed the effect of HKa binding on endothelial cell proliferation. Unexpectedly, HKa inhibited proliferation in response to several growth factors, with 50% inhibition caused by approximately 10 nM HKa. This activity was Zn(2+) dependent and not shared by either single-chain high molecular weight kininogen (HK) or low molecular weight kininogen. HKa selectively inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein and dermal microvascular endothelial cells, but did not affect that of umbilical vein or human aortic smooth muscle cells, trophoblasts, fibroblasts, or carcinoma cells. Inhibition of endothelial proliferation by HKa was associated with endothelial cell apoptosis and unaffected by antibodies that block the binding of HK or HKa to any of their known endothelial receptors. Recombinant HK domain 5 displayed activity similar to that of HKa. In vivo, HKa inhibited neovascularization of subcutaneously implanted Matrigel plugs, as well as rat corneal angiogenesis. These results demonstrate that HKa is a novel inhibitor of angiogenesis, whose activity is dependent on the unique conformation of the two-chain molecule. PMID:11099478

  15. Protamine sulfate down-regulates thrombin generation by inhibiting factor V activation.

    Ni Ainle, Fionnuala

    2009-08-20

    Protamine sulfate is a positively charged polypeptide widely used to reverse heparin-induced anticoagulation. Paradoxically, prospective randomized trials have shown that protamine administration for heparin neutralization is associated with increased bleeding, particularly after cardiothoracic surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The molecular mechanism(s) through which protamine mediates this anticoagulant effect has not been defined. In vivo administration of pharmacologic doses of protamine to BALB\\/c mice significantly reduced plasma thrombin generation and prolonged tail-bleeding time (from 120 to 199 seconds). Similarly, in pooled normal human plasma, protamine caused significant dose-dependent prolongations of both prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. Protamine also markedly attenuated tissue factor-initiated thrombin generation in human plasma, causing a significant decrease in endogenous thrombin potential (41% +\\/- 7%). As expected, low-dose protamine effectively reversed the anticoagulant activity of unfractionated heparin in plasma. However, elevated protamine concentrations were associated with progressive dose-dependent reduction in thrombin generation. To assess the mechanism by which protamine mediates down-regulation of thrombin generation, the effect of protamine on factor V activation was assessed. Protamine was found to significantly reduce the rate of factor V activation by both thrombin and factor Xa. Protamine mediates its anticoagulant activity in plasma by down-regulation of thrombin generation via a novel mechanism, specifically inhibition of factor V activation.

  16. PARTIAL OPTIMIZATION AND STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE (PPO AND PEROXIDASE (POD EXTRACTED FROM CHILLY PEPPER PERICARP

    Atrayee Roy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase(PPO (E.C. number 1.10.3.1 has ubiquitous distribution in almost all living organism. Whereas, peroxidase(POD (E.C. number 1.11.1 act as hormone regulation and defense mechanism in plants. Keeping in pace with their present-day industrial application, efforts have been made to evaluate the activity of these two enzymes (PPO and POD using pepper pericarp (Capsicum annuum L. as an experimental material using catechol and guaiacol as a substrate, respectively. The effects of enzyme extract, substrate, hydrogen peroxide concentration (only for POD, pH and temperature and antimicrobial activity against different bacterial strains were investigated.

  17. Combinatorial protocol in multiple linear regression/partial least-squares directed rationale for the caspase-3 inhibition activity of isoquinoline-1,3,4-trione derivatives.

    Sharma, B K; Pilania, P; Singh, P; Prabhakar, Y S

    2010-01-01

    The caspase-3 inhibition activity of isoquinoline-1,3,4-trione derivatives has been analysed with the topological and molecular features from Dragon software. Analysis of the structural features in conjunction with the biological endpoints in combinatorial protocol in multiple linear regression (CP-MLR) led to the identification of 45 descriptors for modelling the activity. The study clearly suggested the role of rotatable bonds, mean information on the distance degree equality, radial centricity, bond and structural information content of five-order neighbourhood symmetry, atomic van der Waals volumes and the presence or absence of certain structural fragments to optimise the caspase-3 inhibitory activity of titled compounds. The models developed and the participating descriptors advocate that the substituent groups of the isoquinoline moiety hold scope for further modification in the optimization of the caspase-3 inhibitory activity. Analysis of these descriptors in partial least squares (PLS) highlighted their relative significance in modulating the biological response. The selected descriptors are enriched with information corresponding to the activity when compared to the remaining ones. PMID:20373219

  18. Artificial Induction of Twinning by an Active Immunization of Beef Cows Against Inhibin Partially Purified from Porcine Seminal Plasma

    YANG Li-guo; ZHANG Ju-nong; WANG Jin-rong; YE Rong; SANG Run-zi; NIU Shu-li; LIU Cheng-hai

    2002-01-01

    Two hundred and seventy multiparous Chinese Yellow cattle (beef) were selected at 1 to 3months postpartum and divided into three groups (90 cows for each). Animals were given both a primary and booster immunizations with a total dose of 3 mg (Group Th) or 1.5 mg (Group Tl) of seminal preparation containing inhibin activity, emulsified with Freund's complete adjuvant and incomplete adjuvant (for booster), at 3 or 4-week intervals. Other cows were treated with the same volume of seminal preparation without inhibin activity as procedures mentioned above to serve as a control (Group C). Artificial inseminations were given twice at 8 - 12 h intervals when the cow was in heat. Jugular venous blood samples were collected from each cow and used to assay the presence of antibody against seminal preparation by double-diffusion in agar precipitation test and to detect the titer of inhibin antibody by an ELISA method. Data from 247 cows showed that 83.9% (73/87) of cows were in estrus and ovulated 89 ova altogether, of which 19 cows ovulated twin ova and 15 cows produced twins in Group Th (n = 87). However, only 61.1% (44/72) of cows in Group Tl (n=72) and 62.5% (55/88) of cows in Group C were in estrus and ovulated 46 and 52 ova altogether respectively.The ovulation rate (1.27 + 0.03), calving rate ( 126.3% ) and twinning rate (26.3%) in Group Th were greater than those in Groups Tl or C (P<0.01). Furthermore, the ovulation rate was associated with antibody titer in sera of immunized animals (r = 0.7507, P <0.01). These results indicate that active immunization of postpartum cows against inhibin purified from porcine seminal plasma may increase the ovulation rate and induce twinning, suggesting the potential to develop a method to improve fertility in cows.

  19. Paradoxical effects of VEGF on synaptic activity partially involved in notch1 signaling in the mouse hippocampus.

    Yang, Jiajia; Yang, Chunxiao; Liu, Chunhua; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Zhuo

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that the neuronal effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) include modulating learning and memory, plasticity of mature neurons, and synaptic transmission in addition to neurogenesis. However, there is conflicting evidence particularly of its role in the regulation of excitatory synaptic activity. In this study, application of the patch-clamp technique revealed that lower doses (10 and 50 ng/mL) of VEGF enhanced excitatory neurotransmission in hippocampal slices of mice through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. However, the effects were reversed by higher doses of VEGF (>100 ng/mL), which inhibited excitatory neurotransmission via a presynaptic mechanism. These competing, concentration-dependent effects of VEGF suggested that different pathways were involved. The involvement of the Notch1 receptor was tested in the modulation of VEGF on synaptic activity by using heterozygous Notch1(+/-) mice. Notch1 knockdown did not influence the inhibitory effect of high VEGF doses (200 ng/mL) but reduced the enhancement effects of low concentration of VEGF (50 ng/mL) at the postsynaptic level, which might be due to the decreased level of VEGF receptor. The results indicate that the Notch1 receptor plays a role in VEGF-induced modulation of synaptic activity, which provides new insights into a complex VEGF/Notch signaling cross-talk. These findings set the groundwork for understanding new mechanisms of Notch signaling and the neurotrophic effects of VEGF, which is beneficial to develop new therapeutic targets to the VEGF/Notch axis and improve current treatments for neural diseases. PMID:26482652

  20. PARTIAL OPTIMIZATION AND STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE (PPO) AND PEROXIDASE (POD) EXTRACTED FROM CHILLY PEPPER PERICARP

    Atrayee Roy; Bidyut Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase(PPO) (E.C. number 1.10.3.1) has ubiquitous distribution in almost all living organism. Whereas, peroxidase(POD) (E.C. number 1.11.1) act as hormone regulation and defense mechanism in plants. Keeping in pace with their present-day industrial application, efforts have been made to evaluate the activity of these two enzymes (PPO and POD) using pepper pericarp (Capsicum annuum L.) as an experimental material using catechol and guaiacol as a substrate, respectively. The effects...

  1. Isolation, Identification and Partial Characterization of a Lactobacillus casei Strain with Bile Salt Hydrolase Activity from Pulque.

    González-Vázquez, R; Azaola-Espinosa, A; Mayorga-Reyes, L; Reyes-Nava, L A; Shah, N P; Rivera-Espinoza, Y

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate, from pulque, Lactobacillus spp. capable of survival in simulated gastrointestinal stress conditions. Nine Gram-positive rods were isolated; however, only one strain (J57) shared identity with Lactobacillus and was registered as Lactobacillus casei J57 (GenBank accession: JN182264). The other strains were identified as Bacillus spp. The most significant observation during the test of tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions (acidity, gastric juice and bile salts) was that L. casei J57 showed a rapid decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in the viable population at 0 h. Bile salts were the stress condition that most affected its survival, from which deoxycholic acid and the mix of bile salts (oxgall) were the most toxic. L. casei J57 showed bile salt hydrolase activity over primary and secondary bile salts as follows: 44.91, 671.72, 45.27 and 61.57 U/mg to glycocholate, taurocholate, glycodeoxycholate and taurodeoxycholate. In contrast, the control strain (L. casei Shirota) only showed activity over tauroconjugates. These results suggest that L. casei J57 shows potential for probiotic applications. PMID:26566892

  2. The development and medical applications of a simple facility for partial body in vivo neutron activation analysis using californium-252 sources

    A simple and cheap facility for partial body neutron activation analysis has been designed, based on the use of two 100 μg 252Cf neutron sources. The results reported show that calcium can be measured in parts of the body such as the tibia with a precision as good as +- 1.6 % for a radiation dose of 2 rem. The uniformity of the thermal neutron flux density is better than +- 3 % over 10 cm. Some applications of this irradiation facility for studies of trace elements, in particular cadmium in liver and aluminium in liver or brain, have also been explored. However, the sensitivity attainable is not yet sufficient for the study of normal levels, but could be of interest in toxicological investigations

  3. An Orally Active Phenylaminotetralin-Chemotype Serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A Receptor Partial Agonist that Corrects Motor Stereotypy in Mouse Models.

    Canal, Clinton E; Felsing, Daniel E; Liu, Yue; Zhu, Wanying; Wood, JodiAnne T; Perry, Charles K; Vemula, Rajender; Booth, Raymond G

    2015-07-15

    Stereotypy (e.g., repetitive hand waving) is a key phenotype of autism spectrum disorder, Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and its severity correlates with cognitive and attention deficits. There are no effective treatments, however, for stereotypy. Perturbation of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission contributes to stereotypy, suggesting that distinct 5-HT receptors may be pharmacotherapeutic targets to treat stereotypy and related neuropsychiatric symptoms. For example, preclinical studies indicate that 5-HT7 receptor activation corrects deficits in mouse models of Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and clinical trials for autism are underway with buspirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist with relevant affinity at 5-HT7 receptors. Herein, we report the synthesis, in vitro molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and pharmacokinetic parameters in mice after subcutaneous and oral administration of (+)-5-(2'-fluorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine ((+)-5-FPT), a new, dual partial agonist targeting both 5-HT7 (Ki = 5.8 nM, EC50 = 34 nM) and 5-HT1A (Ki = 22 nM, EC50 = 40 nM) receptors. Three unique, heterogeneous mouse models were used to assess the efficacy of (+)-5-FPT to reduce stereotypy: idiopathic jumping in C58/J mice, repetitive body rotations in C57BL/6J mice treated with the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, and repetitive head twitching in C57BL/6J mice treated with the 5-HT2 agonist, DOI. Systemic (+)-5-FPT potently and efficaciously reduced or eliminated stereotypy in each of the mouse models without altering locomotor behavior on its own, and additional tests showed that (+)-5-FPT, at the highest behaviorally active dose tested, enhanced social interaction and did not cause behaviors indicative of serotonin syndrome. These data suggest that (+)-5-FPT is a promising medication for treating stereotypy in psychiatric disorders. PMID:26011730

  4. Activation of Cyclic AMP Synthesis by Full and Partial Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Accordingly, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate CAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of CAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of CAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax concentrations were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of CAMP synthesis. When cimaterol and clenbuterol were added to culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals, there was no detectable effect on stimulation of CAMP synthesis. Finally, these same levels of cimaterol and clenbuterol did not antagonize the stimulation of CAMP by either epinephrine or isoproterenol.

  5. In Vivo Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B: Sustained Partial Correction in Factor IX-Deficient Dogs

    Kay, Mark A.; Rothenberg, Steven; Landen, Charles N.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Leland, Frances; Toman, Carol; Finegold, Milton; Thompson, Arthur R.; Read, M. S.; Brinkhous, Kenneth M.; Woo, Savio L. C.

    1993-10-01

    The liver represents a model organ for gene therapy. A method has been developed for hepatic gene transfer in vivo by the direct infusion of recombinant retroviral vectors into the portal vasculature, which results in the persistent expression of exogenous genes. To determine if these technologies are applicable for the treatment of hemophilia B patients, preclinical efficacy studies were done in a hemophilia B dog model. When the canine factor IX complementary DNA was transduced directly into the hepatocytes of affected dogs in vivo, the animals constitutively expressed low levels of canine factor IX for more than 5 months. Persistent expression of the clotting. factor resulted in reductions of whole blood clotting and partial thromboplastin times of the treated animals. Thus, long-term treatment of hemophilia B patients may be feasible by direct hepatic gene therapy in vivo.

  6. Paracoccidioides lutzii Plp43 is an active glucanase with partial antigenic identity with P. brasiliensis gp43.

    Natanael P Leitão

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. P. brasiliensis main diagnostic antigen is glycoprotein gp43, and its peptide sequence is 81% identical with a P. lutzii ortholog here called Plp43. P. lutzii ("Pb01-like" apparently predominates in Midwestern/Northern Brazil, where high percentages of false-negative reactions using P. brasiliensis antigens have recently been reported. The aim of this work was to produce recombinant Plp43 to study its antigenic identity with gp43.We expressed rPlp43 as a secreted major component in Pichia pastoris and studied its reactivity in immunoblot with PCM patients' sera from Southwestern and Midwestern Brazil.We showed that rPlp43 is not glycosylated and bears glucanase activity. The protein did not react with anti-gp43 monoclonal antibodies in immunoblot, suggesting absence of the corresponding gp43 epitopes. Nevertheless, common epitope(s might exist, considering that gp43-positive PCM sera recognized rPlp43 in immunoblot, while gp43-negative sera (33 out of 51 from patients resident in Midwestern Brazil were also rPlp43-negative. Two genotyped P. lutzii were from patients with gp43-negative sera, suggesting that non-reactive sera are from patients infected with this species.Our data suggest that gp43 and Plp43 bear one or only a few common epitopes and that gp43 cannot be used in diagnosis of PCM patients infected with P. lutzii probably because Plp43 is poorly expressed during infection.

  7. Anti-thrombotic activity and chemical characterization of steroidal saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright.

    Li, Hua; Huang, Wen; Wen, Yanqing; Gong, Guohua; Zhao, Qingbing; Yu, Gang

    2010-12-01

    Steroidal saponins have long attracted scientific attention, due to their structural diversity and significant biological activities. Total steroidal saponins (TSS) extracted from the rhizomes of Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright (DZW) constitute an effective treatment for cardiovascular disease. However, the active constituents contained in DZW rhizomes and their pharmacological properties are not fully understood. The aim of this work is to determine and quantify the active constituents in DZW rhizomes using fingerprint technique, and evaluate its anti-thrombotic activity using inferior vena cava ligation thrombosis rat model and pulmonary thrombosis mice model after being gavaged with TSS for 1 or 2weeks. In the study, a chemical fingerprint method was firstly established and validated to quantify and standardize TSS from DZW rhizomes including parvifloside, protodeltonin, protodioscin, protogracillin, zingiberensis saponin, deltonin, dioscin and trillin. TSS extracted from DZW rhizomes were showed to have the inhibitions on platelet aggregation (PAG) and thrombosis, and prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), and prothrombin time (PT) in a dose-dependent manner in rats. TSS also prolonged the bleeding time and clotting time in a dose-dependent manner in mice. The results indicate that TSS could inhibit thrombosis by both improving the anticoagulation activity and inhibiting PAG action, suggesting that TSS from DZW rhizomes have the potential to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by anti-thrombotic action. PMID:20659537

  8. Biological and Biochemical Potential of Sea Snake Venom and Characterization of Phospholipase A2 and Anticoagulation Activity.

    Damotharan, Palani; Veeruraj, Anguchamy; Arumugam, Muthuvel; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2016-03-01

    This study is designed to isolate and purify a novel anti-clotting protein component from the venom of Enhydrina schistosa, and explore its biochemical and biological activities. The active protein was purified from the venom of E. schistosa by ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-cellulose. The venom protein was tested by various parameters such as, proteolytic, haemolytic, phospholipase and anti-coagulant activities. 80 % purity was obtained in the final stage of purification and the purity level of venom was revealed as a single protein band of about 44 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The results showed that the Potent hemolytic activity was observed against cow, goat, chicken and human (A, B and O positive) erythrocytes. Furthermore, the clotting assays showed that the venom of E. schistosa significantly prolonged in activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and prothrombin time. Venomous enzymes which hydrolyzed casein and gelatin substrate were found in this venom protein. Gelatinolytic activity was optimal at pH 5-9 and (1)H NMR analysis of purified venom was the base line information for the structural determination. These results suggested that the E. schistosa venom holds good promise for the development of novel lead compounds for pharmacological applications in near future. PMID:26855489

  9. Depolymerized glycosaminoglycan and its anticoagulant activities from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Lv; Zhang, Boyuan; Lv, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    A controlled Cu(2+) catalytic free-radical depolymerization process of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was established. The results showed a good linear relationship between 1/Mw and time during the depolymerization. A series of fractions with different molecular weight were obtained, and the physicochemical properties of them were investigated and compared utilizing the chemical method, IR spectra and NMR spectra. The results showed no significant variations of the backbone and branches structures during the depolymerization. Furthermore, the anticoagulant activities of the depolymerized fractions were evaluated by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). The APTT decreases in proportion to the molecular weight following a linear relationship and the prolongation of APTT activity requires at least oligosaccharide of 4 trisaccharide units (about 4000 Da). Their anticoagulant activity of low molecular weight fraction (Mw = 24,755 Da) is similar to LMWH with significantly less bleeding risk. The results suggest that the low molecular weight fraction could be used as a novel anticoagulant with less undesired side effects. PMID:25260572

  10. Effects of fused hirudin on activity of thrombin and function of platelets

    SHEN Li; CHEN Shao-ping; CAI Zai-long; YANG Sheng-sheng; QIN Yong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether fused hirudin peptide has both antithrombin and antiplatelet functions. Methods: The core region of fused hirudin was the C-terminal tail of hirudin(hirudin53-64),which could bind to the anion binding exosite (ABE) of thrombin.Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe(RPPGF) amino acid sequence,a metabolite of bradykinin,was added to the N-terminus of hirudin53-64.It bound to the active site of thrombin.Additionally,Arg-Gly-Asp(RGD)amino acid sequence,an inibitor of glycoprotein Ⅱb/Ⅲa( GP Ⅱb/Ⅲa) receptor,was linked to C-terminus of hirudin53-64.This 26-animo acid-fused hirudin peptide was artificially synthesized,purified and analysed. Results: Fused hirudin peptide significantly lengthened the activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT),thrombin time(TT)and prothrombin time(PT) and inhibited the amidolytic activity of thrombin.The ADP-induced platelet aggregation was markedly inhibited by fused hirudin peptide. Conclusion: Fused hirudin peptide has activity of antithrombin as well as antiplatelet.Therefore bifunctional anticoagulation peptide has capacity to target various components of haemostatic process and may become more powerful antithrombosis agent.

  11. Recombinant activated factor Ⅶ in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with disseminated intravascular coagulation

    ZHUANG Jun-ling; JIANG Qing-wei; XU Ying; WANG Shu-jie

    2011-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a lifethreatening disorder due to hyperinflammation resulting in infiltration of different organs with extensive hemophagocytosis. Severe coagulopathy was one of the main reasons for death in HLH. Over secretion of plasminogen activator by activated macrophages leads to hyperfibrinolysis. We reported a 36-year-old woman who was diagnosed as HLH probably secondary to lymphoma. Massive bleeding from gut and retroperitoneal area were not able to be controlled by conventional hemostatic treatments. This patient received one dose recombinant activated factor Ⅶ (rFVlla) 3.6 mg (70 μg/kg). Hemostatic effect was achieved in 0.5 hour and lasted 24 hours. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were quickly corrected to normal ranges.Fibrinogen level elevated from 0.5 g/L before using rFVIla to 1.8 g/L 20 hours after. Although dexamethasone and etopside were administrated to treat HLH, this patient died from septic shock after persistent neutropenia. This suggests that rFVlla may be effective in the management of intractable hemorrhage in patients with HLH.

  12. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  13. Heterofucans from Dictyota menstrualis have anticoagulant activity

    I.R.L. Albuquerque

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Fucan is a term used to denote a family of sulfated L-fucose-rich polysaccharides which are present in the extracellular matrix of brown seaweed and in the egg jelly coat of sea urchins. Plant fucans have several biological activities, including anticoagulant and antithrombotic, related to the structural and chemical composition of polysaccharides. We have extracted sulfated polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Dictyota menstrualis by proteolytic digestion, followed by separation into 5 fractions by sequential acetone precipitation. Gel electrophoresis using 0.05 M 1,3-diaminopropane-acetate buffer, pH 9.0, stained with 0.1% toluidine blue, showed the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in all fractions. The chemical analyses demonstrated that all fractions are composed mainly of fucose, xylose, galactose, uronic acid, and sulfate. The anticoagulant activity of these heterofucans was determined by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using citrate normal human plasma. Only the fucans F1.0v and F1.5v showed anticoagulant activity. To prolong the coagulation time to double the baseline value in the APTT, the required concentration of fucan F1.0v (20 µg/ml was only 4.88-fold higher than that of the low molecular weight heparin Clexane® (4.1 µg/ml, whereas 80 µg/ml fucan 1.5 was needed to obtain the same effect. For both fucans this effect was abolished by desulfation. These polymers are composed of fucose, xylose, uronic acid, galactose, and sulfate at molar ratios of 1.0:0.8:0.7:0.8:0.4 and 1.0:0.3:0.4:1.5:1.3, respectively. This is the fist report indicating the presence of a heterofucan with higher anticoagulant activity from brown seaweed.

  14. Purification, characterization and in vitro anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots.

    Cai, Weirong; Xu, Huiling; Xie, Liangliang; Sun, Jian; Sun, Taotao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Fu, Qinbao

    2016-04-20

    Three water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (GSP-1, GSP-2 and GSP-3) were obtained from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Their chemical characterizations were determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Moreover, their in vitro anticoagulant activities were evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) assays. GSP-1 and GSP-2 were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose and galacturonic acid, while GSP-3 consisted of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid with a weight-average molecular weight of 5.8×10(4)Da. In comparison with the control group (saline), GSP, GSP-1, GSP-2 and GSP-3 could prolong APTT and TT, but not PT. Overall, GSP-3 exhibited potent anticoagulant activity and would be expected to be a potential source of anticoagulant. PMID:26876858

  15. AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK) Activation by AICAR in Human White Adipocytes Derived from Pericardial White Adipose Tissue Stem Cells Induces a Partial Beige-Like Phenotype

    Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Kristóf, Endre; Doan-Xuan, Quang-Minh; Vida, András; Nagy, Lilla; Horváth, Ambrus; Simon, József; Maros, Tamás; Szentkirályi, István; Palotás, Lehel; Debreceni, Tamás; Csizmadia, Péter; Szerafin, Tamás; Fodor, Tamás; Szántó, Magdolna; Tóth, Attila; Kiss, Borbála; Bacsó, Zsolt; Bai, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Beige adipocytes are special cells situated in the white adipose tissue. Beige adipocytes, lacking thermogenic cues, morphologically look quite similar to regular white adipocytes, but with a markedly different response to adrenalin. White adipocytes respond to adrenergic stimuli by enhancing lipolysis, while in beige adipocytes adrenalin induces mitochondrial biogenesis too. A key step in the differentiation and function of beige adipocytes is the deacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) by SIRT1 and the consequent mitochondrial biogenesis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an upstream activator of SIRT1, therefore we set out to investigate the role of AMPK in beige adipocyte differentiation using human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) from pericardial adipose tissue. hADMSCs were differentiated to white and beige adipocytes and the differentiation medium of the white adipocytes was supplemented with 100 μM [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-Carbamoyl-5-aminoimidazol-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl dihydrogen phosphate (AICAR), a known activator of AMPK. The activation of AMPK with AICAR led to the appearance of beige-like morphological properties in differentiated white adipocytes. Namely, smaller lipid droplets appeared in AICAR-treated white adipocytes in a similar fashion as in beige cells. Moreover, in AICAR-treated white adipocytes the mitochondrial network was more fused than in white adipocytes; a fused mitochondrial system was characteristic to beige adipocytes. Despite the morphological similarities between AICAR-treated white adipocytes and beige cells, functionally AICAR-treated white adipocytes were similar to white adipocytes. We were unable to detect increases in basal or cAMP-induced oxygen consumption rate (a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis) when comparing control and AICAR-treated white adipocytes. Similarly, markers of beige adipocytes such as TBX1, UCP1, CIDEA, PRDM16 and TMEM26 remained the same when

  16. AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK Activation by AICAR in Human White Adipocytes Derived from Pericardial White Adipose Tissue Stem Cells Induces a Partial Beige-Like Phenotype.

    Omar Abdul-Rahman

    Full Text Available Beige adipocytes are special cells situated in the white adipose tissue. Beige adipocytes, lacking thermogenic cues, morphologically look quite similar to regular white adipocytes, but with a markedly different response to adrenalin. White adipocytes respond to adrenergic stimuli by enhancing lipolysis, while in beige adipocytes adrenalin induces mitochondrial biogenesis too. A key step in the differentiation and function of beige adipocytes is the deacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ by SIRT1 and the consequent mitochondrial biogenesis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is an upstream activator of SIRT1, therefore we set out to investigate the role of AMPK in beige adipocyte differentiation using human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs from pericardial adipose tissue. hADMSCs were differentiated to white and beige adipocytes and the differentiation medium of the white adipocytes was supplemented with 100 μM [(2R,3S,4R,5R-5-(4-Carbamoyl-5-aminoimidazol-1-yl-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl dihydrogen phosphate (AICAR, a known activator of AMPK. The activation of AMPK with AICAR led to the appearance of beige-like morphological properties in differentiated white adipocytes. Namely, smaller lipid droplets appeared in AICAR-treated white adipocytes in a similar fashion as in beige cells. Moreover, in AICAR-treated white adipocytes the mitochondrial network was more fused than in white adipocytes; a fused mitochondrial system was characteristic to beige adipocytes. Despite the morphological similarities between AICAR-treated white adipocytes and beige cells, functionally AICAR-treated white adipocytes were similar to white adipocytes. We were unable to detect increases in basal or cAMP-induced oxygen consumption rate (a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis when comparing control and AICAR-treated white adipocytes. Similarly, markers of beige adipocytes such as TBX1, UCP1, CIDEA, PRDM16 and TMEM26 remained

  17. Decrease in water activity due to fluid absent partial melting monitored with water content in biotite in the Western Adamello contact aureole (Italy)

    Siron, Guillaume; Baumgartner, Lukas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Vennemann, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    interpret the concentration of OH- to be influenced by water activity within the rocks, and temperature. Our results confirm that oxy-biotite is a non-negligible component, but in the case of prograde metamorphism we do not interpret this as the consequence of a Ti-oxygen exchange only, but also as the consequence of a decrease in water activity due to partial melting. Bauer, K. K., & Vennemann, T. W. (2014). Analytical methods for the measurement of hydrogen isotope composition and water content in clay minerals by TC/EA. Chemical Geology, 363(C), 229-240. Cesare, B., Satish-Kumar, M., Cruciani, G., Pocker, S., & Nodari, L. (2008). Mineral chemistry of Ti-rich biotite from pegmatite and metapelitic granulites of the Kerala Khondalite Belt (southeast India): Petrology and further insight into titanium substitutions. American Mineralogist, 93(2-3), 327-338. Floess, D., & Baumgartner, L. (2013). Formation of garnet clusters during polyphase metamorphism. Terra Nova, 25(2), 144-150. Munoz, J. L. (1984). F-OH and Cl-OH Exchange in Micas with Applications to Hydrothermal Ore Deposits. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 13, 469-493.

  18. Probiotic factors partially prevent changes to caspases 3 and 7 activation and transepithelial electrical resistance in a model of 5-fluorouracil-induced epithelial cell damage.

    Prisciandaro, Luca D; Geier, Mark S; Chua, Ann E; Butler, Ross N; Cummins, Adrian G; Sander, Guy R; Howarth, Gordon S

    2012-12-01

    The potential efficacy of a probiotic-based preventative strategy against intestinal mucositis has yet to be investigated in detail. We evaluated supernatants (SN) from Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) for their capacity to prevent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced damage to intestinal epithelial cells. A 5-day study was performed. IEC-6 cells were treated daily from days 0 to 3, with 1 mL of PBS (untreated control), de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth, tryptone soy roth (TSB), LGG SN, or EcN SN. With the exception of the untreated control cells, all groups were treated with 5-FU (5 μM) for 24 h at day 3. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was determined on days 3, 4, and 5, while activation of caspases 3 and 7 was determined on days 4 and 5 to assess apoptosis. Pretreatment with LGG SN increased TEER (p < 0.05) compared to controls at day 3. 5-FU administration reduced TEER compared to untreated cells on days 4 and 5. Pretreatment with MRS, LGG SN, TSB, and EcN SN partially prevented the decrease in TEER induced by 5-FU on day 4, while EcN SN also improved TEER compared to its TSB vehicle control. These differences were also observed at day 5, along with significant improvements in TEER in cells treated with LGG and EcN SN compared to healthy controls. 5-FU increased caspase activity on days 4 and 5 compared to controls. At day 4, cells pretreated with MRS, TSB, LGG SN, or EcN SN all displayed reduced caspase activity compared to 5-FU controls, while both SN groups had significantly lower caspase activity than their respective vehicle controls. Caspase activity in cells pretreated with MRS, LGG SN, and EcN SN was also reduced at day 5, compared to 5-FU controls. We conclude that pretreatment with selected probiotic SN could prevent or inhibit enterocyte apoptosis and loss of intestinal barrier function induced by 5-FU, potentially forming the basis of a preventative treatment modality for mucositis. PMID:22526145

  19. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox in a 200,000 m(3)/day activated sludge process in Singapore: scale-down by using laboratory fed-batch reactor.

    Yeshi, Cao; Hong, Kwok Bee; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Yi, Png Hui; Wah, Yuen Long; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya Abd

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory fed-batch reactor has been used to study under controlled conditions the performance of partial nitritation/anammox for the 200,000 m(3)/day step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore. The similarity of the concentrations of NH4, NO2, NO3, PO4, suspended chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), pH, and alkalinity (ALK) between the on-site process and laboratory reactor illustrates that the laboratory fed-batch reactor can be used to simulate the site performance. The performance of the reactor fed by primary effluent illustrated the existence of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification and apparent excessive biological phosphorus removal as observed from the site. The performance of the reactor fed by final effluent proved the presence of anammox process on site. Both the laboratory reactor and on-site process showed that higher influent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (BOD5/TN) (COD/TN) ratio increases the nitrogen removal efficiency of the process. PMID:27386982

  20. Exogenous myristic acid can be partially degraded prior to activation to form acyl-acyl carrier protein intermediates and lipid A in Vibrio harveyi.

    Shen, Z; Byers, D M

    1994-01-01

    To study the involvement of acyl carrier protein (ACP) in the metabolism of exogenous fatty acids in Vibrio harveyi, cultures were incubated in minimal medium with [9,10-3H]myristic acid, and labeled proteins were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Labeled acyl-ACP was positively identified by immunoprecipitation with anti-V. harveyi ACP serum and comigration with acyl-ACP standards and [3H]beta-alanine-labeled bands on both sodium dodecyl sulfate- and urea-polyacrylamide gels. Surprisingly, most of the acyl-ACP label corresponded to fatty acid chain lengths of less than 14 carbons: C14, C12, C10, and C8 represented 33, 40, 14, and 8% of total [3H]14:0-derived acyl-ACPs, respectively, in a dark mutant (M17) of V. harveyi which lacks myristoyl-ACP esterase activity; however, labeled 14:0-ACP was absent in the wild-type strain. 14:0- and 12:0-ACP were also the predominant species labeled in complex medium. In contrast, short-chain acyl-ACPs ( or = C8) labeled with [3H]beta-alanine fivefold, while total incorporation of [3H]14:0 was not affected, although a shift to shorter chain lengths was noted. Additional bands which comigrated with acyl-ACP on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were identified as lipopolysaccharide by acid hydrolysis and thin-layer chromatography. The levels of incorporation of [3H] 14:0 into acyl-ACP and lipopolysaccharide were 2 and 15%, respectively, of that into phospholipid by 10 min. Our results indicate that in contrast to the situation in Escherichia coli, exogenous fatty acids can be activated to acyl-ACP intermediates after partial degradation in V. harveyi and can effectively label products (i.e., lipid A) that require ACP as an acyl donor. Images PMID:8282714

  1. Optimization of chemical sulfation, structural characterization and anticoagulant activity of Agaricus bisporus fucogalactan.

    Román, Yony; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-08-01

    A fucogalactan (E) was isolated from aqueous extract of Agaricus bisporus. The monosaccharide composition, methylation, and NMR analyses showed it is constituted by a (1→6)-linked α-d-Galp main-chain, partially methylated at O-3, and partially substituted at O-2 by non-reducing end-units of α-l-Fucp or α-d-Galp. HPSEC analysis showed it had Mw of 1.28×10(4)gmol(-1). The polysaccharide was sulfated modifying reaction time, molar ratio of sulfation agent to hydroxyl group on the polysaccharide (ηClSO3H/OH ratio), and ratio of total reaction volume to weight of sample (VT/w ratio; μLmg(-1)). The degree of substitution (DS) was evaluated for all sulfated derivatives. The sulfated fucogalactan with the highest DS value (2.83) had the best anticoagulant activity on Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and Protrombin Time (PT) assays. This sulfated fucogalactan, named E100, was obtained with the optimal conditions of ηClSO3H/OH ratio of 18, VT/w ratio of 100, in 6h of reaction. The results showed that E100 produces a linear increment of APTT for concentrations of 15-45μgmL(-1), whereas PT was almost constant between 20 and 400μgmL(-1), suggesting an anticoagulant activity via inhibition of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. NMR and methylation analyses showed that α-d-Galp units of the main chain were greatly sulfated on 2-O-, 3-O-, and 4-O-positions. PMID:27112883

  2. Anticoagulant activity of a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the green seaweed Caulerpa cupressoides

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate certain molecular characteristics of a sulfated polysaccharide (SPs with anticoagulant properties, isolated from Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyta. Crude SPs were extracted by proteolytic digestion (papain, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column. The fractions obtained were analyzed for molecular mass, 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis and chemical composition. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT test was applied using normal human plasma and standard heparin (HEP (193 IU mg-1. The yield was ~ 3%, and the chromatography procedure separated the material into three different SP fractions (F I, F II and F III, eluted at the concentrations of 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 M of NaCl, respectively. Only fraction F II was active (24.62 IU mg-1, with high sulfate content (23.79% and number of molecular mass peaks. Therefore, the APTT of a fraction isolated from C. cupressoides was less potent than HEP.

  3. Heterofucans from the Brown Seaweed Canistrocarpus cervicornis with Anticoagulant and Antioxidant Activities

    Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucan is a term used to denominate a family of sulfated polysaccharides rich in sulfated L-fucose. We extracted six fucans from Canistrocarpus cervicornis by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. These heterofucans are composed mainly of fucose, glucuronic acid, galactose and sulfate. No polysaccharide was capable of prolonging prothrombin time (PT at the concentration assayed. However, all polysaccharides prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT. Four sulfated polysaccharides (CC-0.3/CC-0.5/CC-0.7/CC-1.0 doubled aPTT with only 0.1 mg/mL of plasma, only 1.25-fold less than Clexane®, a commercial low molecular weight heparin. Heterofucans exhibited total antioxidant capacity, low hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, good superoxide radical scavenging efficiency (except CC-1.0, and excellent ferrous chelating ability (except CC-0.3. These results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of C. cervicornis polysaccharides as anticoagulants and antioxidants. Further purification steps and additional studies on structural features as well as in vivo experiments are needed to test the viability of their use as therapeutic agents.

  4. Sulfation of β-chitosan and evaluation of biological activity from gladius of Sepioteuthis lessoniana.

    Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Madeswaran, Perumal; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2013-11-01

    β-Chitosan extracted from the gladius of Sepioteuthis lessoniana was sulfated with chlorosufonic acid. The structural features of sulfated chitosan were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. The elemental composition was analyzed using elemental analyzer. The molecular weight of sulfated chitosan estimated through viscometry was calculated as 12.47 × 10(4) Da. The water solubility of sulfated chitosan was found to be 81%. The sulfated chitosan was able to scavenge the DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and the inhibitory concentration (IC50) of those free radicals was found to be 4, 0.428 and 0.473 mg/ml respectively. Sulfated chitosan also showed reducing and chelating property. The IC50 value of reducing and chelating ability was found to be 0.316 and 5.64 mg/ml respectively. The anticoagulant activity was determined for human plasma with respect to activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and it was 7.13 IU and 1.26 IU, respectively. PMID:24064206

  5. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  6. Essays on partial retirement

    Kantarci, T.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The five essays in this dissertation address a range of topics in the micro-economic literature on partial retirement. The focus is on the labor market behavior of older age groups. The essays examine the economic and non-economic determinants of partial retirement behavior, the effect of partial retirement on retirement income and health, and the factors that could limit workers to participate in partial retirement. The analysis is mainly empirical and makes use of survey data on a...

  7. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... re able to get back to more high impact activities, what do you tell them about partial ... lot of data out there to support high impact activities. One of the ways that I deal ...

  8. Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate Ameliorates Bladder Fibrosis in a Rat Model of Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction by Inhibiting the TGF-β/Smad Pathway Activation.

    Xiaoxiao Jiang

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 is known to play a pivotal role in a diverse range of biological systems including modulation of fibrosis in several organs. The precise role of TGF-β/Smad signaling in the progression of bladder fibrosis secondary to partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO is yet to be conclusively. Using a rat PBOO model, we investigated TGF-β1 expression and exaimined whether sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS could inhibit TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway activation and ameliorate bladder fibrosis. Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation group (n = 16, PBOO operation without STS treatment group (n = 16 and PBOO operation with STS treatment group (n = 16. Thirty-two rats underwent the operative procedure to create PBOO and subsequently received intraperitoneal injections of STS (10 mg/kg/d; n = 16 or vehicle (n = 16 two days after the surgery. Sham surgery was conducted on 16 rats, which received intraperitoneal vehicle injection two days later. In each of the three groups, an equal number of rats were sacrificed at weeks 4 and 8 after the PBOO or sham operation. The TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway was analyzed using western blotting, immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. One-way analysis of variance was conducted to draw statistical inferences. At 4 and 8 weeks, the expression of TGF-β1 and phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 in STS-treated PBOO rats was significantly lower than in the PBOO rats not treated with STS. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, collagen I and collagen III expression at 4 and 8 weeks post PBOO was lower in STS-treated PBOO rats when compared to that in PBOO rats not treated with STS. Our findings indicate that STS ameliorates bladder fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway activation, and may prove to be a potential therapeutic measure for preventing bladder fibrosis secondary to PBOO

  9. The first report on coagulation and phospholipase A2 activities of Persian Gulf lionfish, Pterois russelli, an Iranian venomous fish.

    Memar, Bahareh; Jamili, Shahla; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang

    2016-04-01

    Pterois russelli is a venomous fish belonging to scorpionidae family. Regarding to high significance value for tracing potential therapeutic molecules and special agents from venomous marine creatures, the present study was aimed to characterization of the Persian Gulf lionfish venom. Proteolytic, phospholipase, hemolytic, coagulation, edematogenic and dermonecrotic activities were determined for extracted venom. The LD50 of P. russelli venom was determined by intravenous injection in white Balb/c mice. Phospholipase A2 activity was recorded at 20 μg of total venom. Coagulation activity on human plasma was shown by Prothrombin Time (PT) and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assays and coagulation visualized after 7 and 14 s respectively for 60 μg of crude venom. LD50 was calculated as 10.5 mg/kg. SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of major and minor protein bands between 6 and 205 kDa. Different amounts of crude venom ranged from 1.87 to 30 μg showed proteolytic activity on casein. The highest edematic activity was detected at 20 μg. Our findings showed that the edematic activity was dose dependent and persisted for 48 h after injection. The crude venom did not induce dermonecrotic activity on rabbit skin and showed no hemolytic activity on human, mouse and rabbit erythrocytes. This is the first report for phospholipase A2 and coagulation activity in venomous fish and venomous marine animals respectively. Proteolytic activity of P. russelli venom is in accordance with the other genara of scorpionidae family. According to venom activity on intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways, lionfish venom would be contained an interesting pharmaceutical agent. This study is pending to further characterization of phospholipase A2, coagulation, and protease activities and also in vivo activity on animal model of surface and internal bleeding. PMID:26853495

  10. Partial pressure analysis of plasmas

    The application of partial pressure analysis for plasma diagnostic measurements is reviewed. A comparison is made between the techniques of plasma flux analysis and partial pressure analysis for mass spectrometry of plasmas. Emphasis is given to the application of quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMS). The interface problems associated with the coupling of a QMS to a plasma device are discussed including: differential-pumping requirements, electromagnetic interferences from the plasma environment, the detection of surface-active species, ion source interactions, and calibration procedures. Example measurements are presented from process monitoring of glow discharge plasmas which are useful for cleaning and conditioning vacuum vessels

  11. Evaluation of 12-Lipoxygenase (12-LOX and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 as Prognostic Markers in Prostate Cancer

    Tomasz Gondek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In carcinoma of prostate, a causative role of platelet 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 for tumor progression has been firmly established in tumor and/or adjacent tissue. Our goal was to investigate if 12-LOX and/or PAI-1 in patient’s plasma could be used to predict outcome of the disease. The study comprised 149 patients (age 70±9 divided into two groups: a study group with carcinoma confirmed by positive biopsy of prostate (n=116 and a reference group (n=33 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. The following parameters were determined by the laboratory test in plasma or platelet-rich plasma: protein level of 12-LOX, PAI-1, thromboglobulin (TGB, prostate specific antigen (PSA, C-reactive protein (CRP, hemoglobin (HGB, and hematocrit (HCT, as well as red (RBC and white blood cells (WBC, number of platelets (PLT, international normalized ratio of blood clotting (INR, and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT. The only difference of significance was noticed in the concentration of 12-LOX in platelet rich plasma, which was lower in cancer than in BPH group. Standardization to TGB and platelet count increases the sensitivity of the test that might be used as a biomarker to assess risk for prostate cancer in periodically monitored patients.

  12. Effects of L-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films

    Liu Yun, E-mail: liuy@tgrc.org [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Yang Yun [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wu Feng [Research Centre of Blood, College of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710065 (China)

    2010-04-01

    Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with L-arginine (L-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and the measurement of clotting time including plasma recalcification time (PRT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). The data of blood coagulation index (BCI) for L-arginine modified PET films (PET-Arg) was larger than that for PET at the same blood-sample contact time. The hemolysis ratio for PET-Arg was less than that for PET and within the accepted standard for biomaterials. The PRT and APTT for PET-Arg were significantly prolonged by 189 s and 25 s, respectively, compared to those for the unmodified PET. All results suggested that the currently described modification method could be a possible candidate to create antithrombogenic PET surfaces which would be useful for further medical applications.

  13. Effects of L-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films

    Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with L-arginine (L-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and the measurement of clotting time including plasma recalcification time (PRT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). The data of blood coagulation index (BCI) for L-arginine modified PET films (PET-Arg) was larger than that for PET at the same blood-sample contact time. The hemolysis ratio for PET-Arg was less than that for PET and within the accepted standard for biomaterials. The PRT and APTT for PET-Arg were significantly prolonged by 189 s and 25 s, respectively, compared to those for the unmodified PET. All results suggested that the currently described modification method could be a possible candidate to create antithrombogenic PET surfaces which would be useful for further medical applications.

  14. Silver nanoparticles influence on the blood activation process and their release to blood plasma from synthetic polymer scaffold

    Major, R.; Lackner, J. M.; Sanak, M.; Major, B.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, blood and blood plasma interaction to silver stabilised polyelectrolytes was investigated in vitro. The designed materials are dedicated for regeneration of the cardiovascular system. Silver nanoparticles were introduced into the polyelectrolyte structure in order to reduce the risk of bacterial biofilm formation. The introduction of Ag nanoparticles occurred by deposition at high vacuum by magnetron sputtering. The analysis of blood-materials interactions were performed by using commercially available tester, Impact-R (Diamed). The assessment of silver ion nanoparticles release into the plasma consisted in determining the Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT). Unmodified surface of polyelectrolytes is a strong activator for blood elements. The introduction of silver nanoparticles resulted in a significant reduction in the probability of clotting. The extrinsic pathway of coagulation determined on the basis of the PT and the intrinsic and common pathways of coagulation measured by the APTT did not indicate the danger out of range. Microstructure was studied using TEM on thin foils prepared from the cross-section of samples subjected to biomedical treatments. The observations revealed hetero- interface between two different crystalline solids.

  15. Adsorption of tranexamic acid on hydroxyapatite: Toward the development of biomaterials with local hemostatic activity.

    Sarda, Stéphanie; Errassifi, Farid; Marsan, Olivier; Geffre, Anne; Trumel, Catherine; Drouet, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    This work proposes to combine tranexamic acid (TAX), a clinically used antifibrinolytic agent, and hydroxyapatite (HA), widely used in bone replacement, to produce a novel bioactive apatitic biomaterial with intrinsic hemostatic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate adsorptive behavior of the TAX molecule onto HA and to point out its release in near physiological conditions. No other phase was observed by X-ray diffraction or transmission electron microscopy, and no apparent change in crystal size was detected. The presence of TAX on the powders was lightly detected on Raman spectra after adsorption. The adsorption data could be fitted with a Langmuir-Freundlich equation, suggesting a strong interaction between adsorbed molecules and the formation of multilayers. The concentration of calcium and phosphate ions in solution remained low and stable during the adsorption process, thus ion exchange during the adsorption process could be ruled out. The release of TAX was fast during the first hours and was governed by a complex process that likely involved both diffusion and dissolution of HA. Preliminary aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) hemostasis tests offered promising results for the development of osteoconductive apatitic biomaterials with intrinsic hemostatic properties, whether for dental or orthopedic applications. PMID:27207032

  16. Impact of partial versus whole breast radiation therapy on fatigue, perceived stress, quality of life and natural killer cell activity in women with breast cancer

    Albuquerque Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This pilot study used a prospective longitudinal design to compare the effect of adjuvant whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT versus partial breast radiation therapy (PBRT on fatigue, perceived stress, quality of life and natural killer cell activity (NKCA in women receiving radiation after breast cancer surgery. Methods Women (N = 30 with early-stage breast cancer received either PBRT, Mammosite brachytherapy at dose of 34 Gy 10 fractions/5 days, (N = 15 or WBRT, 3-D conformal techniques at dose of 50 Gy +10 Gy Boost/30 fractions, (N = 15. Treatment was determined by the attending oncologist after discussion with the patient and the choice was based on tumor stage and clinical need. Women were assessed prior to initiation of radiation therapy and twice after completion of radiation therapy. At each assessment, blood was obtained for determination of NKCA and the following instruments were administered: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM was used to evaluate group differences in initial outcomes and change in outcomes over time. Results Fatigue (FACT-F levels, which were similar prior to radiation therapy, demonstrated a significant difference in trajectory. Women who received PBRT reported progressively lower fatigue; conversely fatigue worsened over time for women who received WBRT. No difference in perceived stress was observed between women who received PBRT or WBRT. Both groups of women reported similar levels of quality of life (FACT-G prior to initiation of radiation therapy. However, HLM analysis revealed significant group differences in the trajectory of quality of life, such that women receiving PBRT exhibited a linear increase in quality of life over time after completion of radiation therapy; whereas women receiving WBRT showed a decreasing

  17. Impact of partial versus whole breast radiation therapy on fatigue, perceived stress, quality of life and natural killer cell activity in women with breast cancer

    This pilot study used a prospective longitudinal design to compare the effect of adjuvant whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT) versus partial breast radiation therapy (PBRT) on fatigue, perceived stress, quality of life and natural killer cell activity (NKCA) in women receiving radiation after breast cancer surgery. Women (N = 30) with early-stage breast cancer received either PBRT, Mammosite brachytherapy at dose of 34 Gy 10 fractions/5 days, (N = 15) or WBRT, 3-D conformal techniques at dose of 50 Gy +10 Gy Boost/30 fractions, (N = 15). Treatment was determined by the attending oncologist after discussion with the patient and the choice was based on tumor stage and clinical need. Women were assessed prior to initiation of radiation therapy and twice after completion of radiation therapy. At each assessment, blood was obtained for determination of NKCA and the following instruments were administered: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F), and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G). Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to evaluate group differences in initial outcomes and change in outcomes over time. Fatigue (FACT-F) levels, which were similar prior to radiation therapy, demonstrated a significant difference in trajectory. Women who received PBRT reported progressively lower fatigue; conversely fatigue worsened over time for women who received WBRT. No difference in perceived stress was observed between women who received PBRT or WBRT. Both groups of women reported similar levels of quality of life (FACT-G) prior to initiation of radiation therapy. However, HLM analysis revealed significant group differences in the trajectory of quality of life, such that women receiving PBRT exhibited a linear increase in quality of life over time after completion of radiation therapy; whereas women receiving WBRT showed a decreasing trajectory. NKCA was also similar between therapy groups but additional

  18. Anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides fractions from an aqueous extract obtained from the red seaweed Halymenia floresia (Clemente C. Agardh - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i4.9143

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Heparin (HEP is known due to their side effects and the red seaweed Halymenia floresia (Hf sulfated polysaccharides (SP are heparinoids. In this study we purified the Hf-SP obtained from an aqueous extract and evaluated their anticoagulant activities. Hf-SP1 (25°C, Hf-SP2 (80°C and Hf-SP3 (80°C were sequentially isolated. Hf-SP3 had the highest sulfate content (37.45%. Hf-SP3 was fractionated by ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column using a NaCl gradient. Fractions were lyophilized and submitted to 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The anticoagulant activity was evaluated by the activated partial thromboplastin time using rabbits plasma and expressed in international units per mg of SP using standard HEP (193 IU mg-1. The chromatographic procedure separated into four different SP fractions (F I, F II, F III and F IV eluted at concentrations of 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 M of NaCl, respectively, reveling among them different marked on charge density, when compared by electrophoresis. F III had the highest anticoagulant activity (10.72 IU mg-1, suggesting that the sulfate is important in this process. In conclusion, our results suggest that sequential extractions of Hf-SP are an important biotechnological tool for identification of novel anticoagulants and studies of structural characterization are already in progress.

  19. A Pepducin Derived from the Third Intracellular Loop of FPR2 Is a Partial Agonist for Direct Activation of This Receptor in Neutrophils But a Full Agonist for Cross-Talk Triggered Reactivation of FPR2

    Gabl, Michael; Winther, Malene; Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Bylund, Johan; Forsman, Huamei; Dahlgren, Claes

    2014-01-01

    We recently described a novel receptor cross-talk mechanism in neutrophils, unique in that the signals generated by the PAF receptor (PAFR) and the ATP receptor (P2Y2R) transfer formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) from a desensitized (non-signaling) state back to an actively signaling state (Forsman H...... desensitized with the FPR2-specific pepducin display increased cellular responses to stimulation with PAF or ATP. The secondary PAF/ATP induced response was sensitive to FPR2-specific inhibitors, disclosing a receptor cross-talk mechanism underlying FPR2 reactivation. The pepducin induced an activity in naïve...... cells similar to that of a conventional FPR2 agonist, but with lower potency (partial efficacy), meaning that the pepducin is a partial agonist. The PAF- or ATP-induced reactivation was, however, much more pronounced when neutrophils had been desensitized to the pepducin as compared to cells...

  20. Partial discharges and bulk dielectric field enhancement

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Johansson, Torben

    A consequence of partial discharge activity within a gaseous void is the production of a field enhancement in the solid dielectric in the proximity of the void. This situation arises due to the charge created by the partial discharges accumulating at the void wall. The influence of the spatial...

  1. Physics of Partially Ionized Plasmas

    Krishan, Vinod

    2016-05-01

    Figures; Preface; 1. Partially ionized plasmas here and everywhere; 2. Multifluid description of partially ionized plasmas; 3. Equilibrium of partially ionized plasmas; 4. Waves in partially ionized plasmas; 5. Advanced topics in partially ionized plasmas; 6. Research problems in partially ionized plasmas; Supplementary matter; Index.

  2. In Vivo Anticoagulant and Thrombolytic Activities of a Fibrinolytic Serine Protease (Brevithrombolase) With the k-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model.

    Majumdar, Sourav; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, in vivo thrombolysis efficiency of Brevithrombolase, a nontoxic fibrinolytic enzyme purified from Brevibacillus brevis strain FF02B, was affirmed by significant inhibition of thrombus formation in the k-carrageenan-induced rat tail, in a dose-dependent manner. Brevithrombolase at a dose of 600 µg/kg showed an efficacy that was comparable to streptokinase and plasmin, in dissolving in vivo thrombus of k-carrageenan-treated rats under identical conditions. The in vivo anticoagulant property of Brevithrombolase was demonstrated by its prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time in Wistar rats. However, the Brevithrombolase-treated rats demonstrated an insignificant decrease in fibrinogen (Fg) level of plasma compared with Fg level of control group of rats corroborating in vivo as well as in vitro anticoagulant activity of Brevithrombolase is due to its hydrolytic action on thrombin. These findings unequivocally suggest that Brevithrombolase may serve a promising alternative to the commercial thrombolytic drugs. PMID:25657326

  3. Analysis of two precipitation methods on the yield, structural features and activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria cornea (Rhodophyta

    Ricardo Basto Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for natural products from seaweeds has increased worldwide; however, no description of the use of isoamly alcohol (IAA for obtaining of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs has been reported. We investigated the efficiency of two precipitation methods (M in obtaining SPs from the red seaweed Gracilaria cornea. SPs enzymatically isolated were concentrated with cetylpyridinium chloride (M I or IAA (M II and extracts were examined with regard to their yield, structural features and in vitro effects on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and standard heparin (193 IU mg-1. Yield difference reached 12.99%. Quantitative determination of sulfate was similar between the two methods (̴ 26%, but extracts revealed different pattern on charge density by agarose gel electrophoresis. Whereas both extracts revealed as agarocolloids, alternative M II was also efficient for lipids, proteins and nucleic acids according to the infrared analysis. Extracts had virtually no effect on APPT (1.95 and 2 IU mg-1 for M I and M II, respectively. The results revealed IAA as an alternative solvent for obtaining SPs from the red seaweed G. cornea, depending on the industry’ usage criterion.

  4. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... get a lot of information, both on the Internet, from other doctors, from friends, and I think ... re able to get back to more high impact activities, what do you tell them about partial ...

  5. Beginning partial differential equations

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  6. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  7. Partial motor status epilepticus

    Gilberto Rebello de Mattos; José C. Rollemberg Filho

    1992-01-01

    We report the case of a young female patient with photosensitive primary epilepsy who presented partial motor status epilepticus provoked by the act of shutting the eyes. Clinical, EEG and neuroimage data are presented and discussed.

  8. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series To use the sharing features on ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  9. Notes on partial conjugation

    Fang, Chuying; He, Xuhua

    2011-01-01

    In this notes, we will give an exposition of some results on the method of partial conjugation action. We first discuss the partial conjugation action of a parabolic subgroup of a Coxeter group. We then discuss some applications to Lusztig's $G$-stable pieces and its affine generalization. We also discuss some recent work on the $\\s$-conjugacy classes of loop groups and affine Deligne-Lusztig varieties.

  10. Multi-stage barites in partially melted UHP eclogite: implications for fluid/melt activities during deep continental subduction in the Sulu orogenic belt

    Wang, Songjie; Wang, Lu

    2015-04-01

    Barite (BaSO4) is well-known from deep-sea sedimentary environments but has received less attention to its presence in high-grade metamorphic rocks. Recently, barite in ultrahigh pressure (UHP) eclogite has drawn increasing attention from geologists, especially in the Dabie-Sulu orogen, since it is an important indicator for high-salinity fluid events, thus aiding in further understanding HP-UHP fluid / melt evolution. However, its formation time and mechanism in UHP eclogite are still controversial, with three representative viewpoints: (1) Liu et al. (2000) found barite-anhydrite-coesite inclusions in zircon and interpreted them to have formed by UHP metamorphic fluids; (2) Zeng et al. (2007) recognized isolated barite within K-feldspar (Kfs) and Quartz (Qz) surrounded by radial cracks in omphacite, and interpreted Kfs+Qz to be reaction products of potassium-rich fluid/melt and coesite, with the barite formed by prograde metamorphic fluids; (3) Gao et al. (2012) and Chen et al. (2014) found barite-bearing Multiphase Solid (MS) inclusions within garnet and omphacite and assumed that the barite formed by phengite breakdown possibly caused by eclogite partial melting during exhumation, though no direct evidence were proposed. The controversy above is mainly due to the lack of direct formation evidence and absence of a clear link with the metamorphic evolution of UHP eclogite along the subduction-exhumation path. We report detailed petrological and micro-structural analyses revealing four types of barites clearly linked with (1) the prograde, (2) earlier stage of partial melting and (3) later stage of crystallization differentiation, as well as (4) high-grade amphibolite-facies retrogression of a deeply subducted and partially melted intergranular coesite-bearing eclogite from Yangkou Bay, Sulu Orogen. Round barite inclusions (type-I) within UHP-stage garnet and omphacite are formed by internally buffered fluids from mineral dehydration during prograde metamorphism

  11. Clinical Safety of a High Dose of Phycocyanin-Enriched Aqueous Extract from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study with a Focus on Anticoagulant Activity and Platelet Activation.

    Jensen, Gitte S; Drapeau, Cassandra; Lenninger, Miki; Benson, Kathleen F

    2016-07-01

    The goal for this study was to evaluate safety regarding anticoagulant activity and platelet activation during daily consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), containing a high dose of phycocyanin. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design, 24 men and women were enrolled after informed consent, and consumed either ACE (2.3 g/day) or placebo daily for 2 weeks. The ACE dose was equivalent to ∼1 g phycocyanin per day, chosen based on the highest dose Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Consuming ACE did not alter markers for platelet activation (P-selectin expression) or serum P-selectin levels. No changes were seen for activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin clotting time, or fibrinogen activity. Serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) showed a significant reduction after 2 weeks of ACE consumption (P < .001), in contrast to placebo where no changes were seen; the difference in AST levels between the two groups was significant at 2 weeks (P < .02). Reduced levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) were also seen in the group consuming ACE (P < .08). Previous studies showed reduction of chronic pain when consuming 1 g ACE per day. The higher dose of 2.3 g/day in this study was associated with significant reduction of chronic pain at rest and when physically active (P < .05). Consumption of ACE showed safety regarding markers pertaining to anticoagulant activity and platelet activation status, in conjunction with rapid and robust relief of chronic pain. Reduction in AST and ALT suggested improvement in liver function and metabolism. PMID:27362442

  12. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  13. Partially strong WW scattering

    What if only a light Higgs boson is discovered at the CERN LHC? Conventional wisdom tells us that the scattering of longitudinal weak gauge bosons would not grow strong at high energies. However, this is generally not true. In some composite models or general two-Higgs-doublet models, the presence of a light Higgs boson does not guarantee complete unitarization of the WW scattering. After partial unitarization by the light Higgs boson, the WW scattering becomes strongly interacting until it hits one or more heavier Higgs bosons or other strong dynamics. We analyze how LHC experiments can reveal this interesting possibility of partially strong WW scattering.

  14. Improved Prefrontal Activity and Chewing Performance as Function of Wearing Denture in Partially Edentulous Elderly Individuals: Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Kamiya, Kazunobu; Narita, Noriyuki; Iwaki, Sunao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of wearing a denture on prefrontal activity during chewing performance. We specifically examined that activity in 12 elderly edentulous subjects [63.1±6.1 years old (mean ± SD)] and 12 young healthy controls (22.1±2.3 years old) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in order to evaluate the quality of prefrontal functionality during chewing performance under the conditions of wearing a denture and tooth loss, and then compared the findings with those of young healthy controls. fNIRS and electromyography were used simultaneously to detect prefrontal and masticatory muscle activities during chewing, while occlusal force and masticatory score were also examined by use of a food intake questionnaire. A significant increase in prefrontal activity was observed during chewing while wearing a denture, which was accompanied by increased masticatory muscle activity, occlusal force, and masticatory score, as compared with the tooth loss condition. Prefrontal activation during chewing while wearing a denture in the elderly subjects was not much different from that in the young controls. In contrast, tooth loss in the elderly group resulted in marked prefrontal deactivation, accompanied by decreased masticatory muscle activity, occlusal force, and masticatory score, as compared with the young controls. We concluded that intrinsic prefrontal activation during chewing with a denture may prevent prefrontal depression induced by tooth loss in elderly edentulous patients. PMID:27362255

  15. Partial nitrification and denitrification of mature landfill leachate using a pilot-scale continuous activated sludge process at low dissolved oxygen.

    Chen, Zhenguo; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, YongYuan; Mirino, Markus W; Yuan, Yanlei

    2016-10-01

    Controlling of low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (0.1-0.5mg/L), a cost-effective strategy, was applied to a pilot-scale anoxic-oxic-oxic-anoxic process for partial nitrification and denitrification of mature landfill leachate. High ammonium removal efficiency, stable nitrite accumulation rate and total nitrogen removal efficiency was higher than 95.0%, 90.0% and 66.4%, respectively, implying potential application of this process for nitrogen removal of mature landfill leachate. Efficient nitrite accumulation in the first oxic reactor depended on low DO conditions and sufficient alkalinity. However, operational limit was mainly decided by actual hydraulic retention time (AHRT) of the first oxic reactor and appeared with AHRT less than 13.9h under DO of 0.3-0.5mg/L. High-throughput sequencing analysis demonstrated significant change of bacterial diversity in the first oxic reactor after a long-term operation and dominant bacteria genus Nitrosomonas was shown to be responsible for NH4(+)-N removal and nitrite accumulation under low DO levels. PMID:27403860

  16. Synthesis and in Vitro and in Vivo Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Activities of Amidino- and Non-Amidinobenzamides

    Soo Hyun Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three amidino- and ten non-amidinobenzamides were synthesized as 3-aminobenzoic acid scaffold-based anticoagulant and antiplatelet compounds. The anticoagulant activities of thirteen synthesized compounds 1–13, and 2b and 3b as prodrugs were preliminary evaluated by screening the prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT and prothrombin time (PT in vitro. From the aPTT results obtained, two amidinobenzamides, N-(3′-amidinophenyl-3-(thiophen-2′′-ylcarbonylamino benzamide (1, 33.2 ± 0.7 s and N-(4′-amidinophenyl-3-(thiophen-2′′-ylcarbonylamino benzamide (2, 43.5 ± 0.6 s were selected to investigate the further anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities. The aPTT results of 1 (33.2 ± 0.7 s and 2 (43.5 ± 0.6 s were compared with heparin (62.5 ± 0.8 s in vitro at 30 μM. We investigated the effect of 1 and 2 on blood anticoagulant activity (ex vivo and on tail bleeding time (in vivo on mice. A tail cutting/bleeding time assay revealed that both 1 and 2 prolonged bleeding time in mice at a dose of 24.1 g/mouse and above. Compounds 1 and 2 dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization and platelet aggregation. In addition, 1 and 2 were evaluated on the inhibitory activities of thrombin and FXa as well as the generation of thrombin and FXa in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Collectively, 1 and 2 possess some antiplatelet and anticoagulant activities and offer a basis for development of a novel antithrombotic product.

  17. Partial characterization of superoxide dismutase activity in the Barber pole worm-Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus and abomasal tissue extracts

    Sadia Rashid; Malik Irshadullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the male and female haematophagous caprine worms, Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus, and their E/S products and also to analyse the effect of Haemonchus infection on the level of host SOD. Methods: The SOD activity was analysed by using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by specific enzyme staining by riboflavin-nitroblue tetrazolium method. Results: The adult females were found to have higher enzyme activity than the male worms. Appreciable amount of SOD activity was also detected in the worm culture medium and female worms secreted more SOD in comparison to the male parasites. The SOD activity was negatively correlated to the worm burden. Statistically significant decrease in SOD activity (P Conclusions:Haemonchus contortus is a key model parasite for drug and vaccine discovery. The presences of SOD activity in appreciable amount in the parasite as well as its E/S products indicate that it has a well-developed active antioxidant system to protect itself from the host immune attack. SOD could be the target for vaccine development which is the need of the hour as mass drug administration for parasite control has resulted in anthelmintic resistance across the globe and threatens the viability of sheep and goat industry in many regions of the world. The infection with Haemonchus causes a drastic reduction in SOD activity of the host tissue thus effecting its protective potential. One characteristic SOD band was found in the females which was not present in any other preparations and thus could be exploited for further studies on diagnostic/control measures.

  18. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...

  19. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression wher...

  20. Partial Remission Definition

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset of...

  1. Conservative partially hyperbolic dynamics

    Wilkinson, Amie

    2010-01-01

    We discuss recent progress in understanding the dynamical properties of partially hyperbolic diffeomorphisms that preserve volume. The main topics addressed are density of stable ergodicity and stable accessibility, center Lyapunov exponents, pathological foliations, rigidity, and the surprising interrelationships between these notions.

  2. Partial Participation Revisited.

    Ferguson, Dianne L.; Baumgart, Diane

    1991-01-01

    This article reanalyzes the principle of partial participation in integrated educational programing for students with severe or profound disabilities. The article presents four "error patterns" in how the concept has been used, some reasons why such error patterns have occurred, and strategies for avoiding these errors. (Author/JDD)

  3. Honesty in partial logic

    Hoek, W. van der; Jaspars, J.O.M.; Thijsse, E.

    1995-01-01

    We propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the notions of hones

  4. Partial characterization of superoxide dismutase activity in the Barber pole worm-Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus and abomasal tissue extracts

    Sadia; Rashid; Malik; Irshadullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in the male and female haematophagous caprine worms,Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus,and their E/S products and also to analyse the effect of Haemonchus infection on the level of host SOD.Methods:The SOD activity was analysed by using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by specific enzyme staining by riboflavin-nitroblue tetrazolium method.Results:The adult females were found to have higher enzyme activity than the male worms.Appreciable amount of SOD activity was also detected in the worm culture medium and female worms secreted more SOD in comparison to the male parasites.The SOD activity was negatively correlated to the worm burden.Statistically significant decrease in SOD activity(P<0.05) was observed in the heavily infected host tissue in comparison to the control non-infected host tissue.SOD profile of the crude extracts of both the sexes revealed polymorphism and a fast migrating activity band being characteristic of E/S products.The SOD activities were found highly sensitive to potassium cyanide indicating the Cu/Zn form of SOD.Conclusions:Haemonchus contortus is a key model parasite for drug and vaccine discovery.The presences of SOD activity in appreciable amount in the parasite as well as its E/S products indicate that it has a well-developed active antioxidant system to protect itself from the host immune attack.SOD could be the target for vaccine development which is the need of the hour as mass drug administration for parasite control has resulted in anthelmintic resistance across the globe and threatens the viability of sheep and goat industry in many regions of the world.The infection with Haemonchus causes a drastic reduction in SOD activity of the host tissue thus effecting its protective potential.One characteristic SOD band was found in the females which was not present in any other preparations and thus could

  5. Partial discharges and bulk dielectric field enhancement

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Johansson, Torben

    2000-01-01

    A consequence of partial discharge activity within a gaseous void is the production of a field enhancement in the solid dielectric in the proximity of the void. This situation arises due to the charge created by the partial discharges accumulating at the void wall. The influence of the spatial extent of this wall charge upon the maximum field strength in the solid is examined and discussed.

  6. Novel 2,7-Substituted (S)-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic Acids: Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Partial Agonists with Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibition.

    Otake, Kazuya; Azukizawa, Satoru; Takeda, Shigemitsu; Fukui, Masaki; Kawahara, Arisa; Kitao, Tatsuya; Shirahase, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    A novel series of 2,7-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives were synthesized and biologically evaluated. (S)-2-(2-Furylacryloyl)-7-[2-(2-methylindane-2-yl)-5-methyloxazol-4-yl]methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid tert-butylamine salt (13jE) was identified as a potent human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)-selective agonist (EC50=85 nM) and human protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B) inhibitor (IC50=1.0 µM). Compound 13jE partially activated PPARγ, but not PPARα or PPARδ, and antagonized farglitazar, a full PPARγ agonist. Cmax after the oral administration of 13jE at 10 mg/kg was 28.6 µg/mL (53 µM) in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Repeated administration of 13jE and rosiglitazone for 14 d at 10 mg/kg/d decreased plasma glucose and triglyceride levels significantly in male KK-A(y) mice. Rosiglitazone, but not 13jE, significantly increased the plasma volume and liver weight. In conclusion, 13jE showed stronger hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects and weaker hemodilution and hepatotoxic effects than rosiglitazone, suggesting that its safer efficacy may be due to its partial PPARγ agonism and PTP-1B inhibition. PMID:26633022

  7. Evaluation of the partial volume effect in the activity quantification in PET/CT images; Avaliacao do efeito de volume parcial na quantificacao de atividade em imagens de PET/CT

    Krempser, Alexandre R., E-mail: krempser@peb.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra. Programa de Engenharia Biomedica; Oliveira, Silvia M. Velasques de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Sergio A. de [Hospital Samaritano, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Imagens PET/CT

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of partial volume effect (PVE) in the quantification of activity in images of a PET-CT scanner and its ability to identify lesions. Recovery coefficients were calculated using a phantom containing 12 cylinders with diameters between 4 and 30 mm and a National Electrical Manufactures Association scattering phantom, both fillable with known concentrations of {sup 18}F. The images were acquired for acquisition time of 3 and 5 minutes, and cylinder to background ratio of n=8:1 and n=4:1. The recovery coefficients were calculated between 0.01 and 0.91 depending on the diameter. Significant variations were not found in function of image acquisition parameters. Errors in the activity quantification above 70% were found for cylinders with diameters smaller than 10 mm. The cylinders with diameters smaller than 8 mm were not identified in the images. The phantoms were adequate for PVE evaluation in the PET/CT images. The PVE had the greatest impact on the cylinders with diameters of 6 and 4 mm. It's necessary to use partial volume correction techniques in the images in order to increase the quantitative accuracy of the studied equipment. (author)

  8. Anti-mycobacterial screening of five Indian medicinal plants and partial purification of active extracts of Cassia sophera and Urtica dioica

    Rambir Singh; Shariq Hussain; Rajesh Verma; Poonam Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the anti-mycobacterial potential of Cassia sophera (C. sophera), Urticadioica (U. dioica), Momordica dioica, Tribulus terrestris and Coccinia indica plants against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Methods: Plant materials were extracted successively with solvents of increasing polarity. Solvent extracts were screened for anti-mycobacterial activity against fast growing, non-pathogenic mycobacterium strain, Mycobacterium semegmatis, by disk diffusion method. The active extracts were tested against MDR and clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by absolute concentration and proportion methods. The active extracts were subjected to bio-autoassay on TLC followed by silica column chromatography for isolation of potential drug leads. Results: Hexane extract of U. dioica (HEUD) and methanol extract of C. sophera (MECS) produced inhibition zone of 20 mm in disc diffusion assay and MIC of 250 and 125 μg/mL respectively in broth dilution assay against Mycobacteriumsemegmatis. Semipurified fraction F2 from MECS produced 86% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. F18 from HEUD produced 81% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. Phytochemical analysis indicated that anti-mycobacterial activity of MECS may be due to presence of alkaloids or flavonoids and that of HEUD due to terpenoids. Conclusions: C. sophera and U. dioica plant extracts exhibited promising anti-mycobacterial activity against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. This is the first report of anti-mycobacterial activity form C. sophera. This study showed possibility of purifying novel anti-mycobacterial compound(s) from C. sophera and U. dioica.

  9. STABILITY AND ACTIVITY OF THE PARTIALLY PURIFIED SPRAY-DRIED PROTEASE FROM BACILLUS SP SMIA-2 AND ITS CHARACTERIZATION AS A LAUNDRY DETERGENT ADDITIVE

    Priscila Maria Rodrigues

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes, and particularly proteases, have become an important and indispensable part of industrial processes such as laundry detergents and food products. In this study, after production by Bacillus sp SMIA-2 in the complex medium and separation of solids from the fermentation broth, protease was dried and some biochemical properties of the enzyme after rehydration was investigated for the purposes of exploiting its potential as detergent additive. Studies on the enzyme characterization revealed that the optimum temperature of protease was 70ºC. The enzyme retained about 55% of its maximum activity after 10 min incubation at 70ºC. The optimum pH of the enzyme was found to be 8.5. After incubation of the enzyme solution for 2h at 25ºC at pH 10.0, the activity was reduced to 53% of its maximum activity. Activity of the enzyme was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+. The spray-dried protease retained more than 90% activity after incubation for 30 min at 40ºC with 0.25% (w/v SDS and RENEX-95 and more than 60% when incubated with 0.25 and 0.5% TRITON x-100, H2O2 and RENEX-60. The stability of protease was good as the enzyme retained 64% of its activity after 30 minutes incubation at 40ºC in the presence of the detergent Campeiro®. The enzyme improved the washing performance of a detergent for removing stains from uniformly soiled clothes with cocoa, milk and sugar (EMPA 112.

  10. A 55,000-60,000 Mr receptor protein for urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Identification in human tumor cell lines and partial purification

    Nielsen, L S; Kellerman, G M; Behrendt, N;

    1988-01-01

    The iodinated Mr approximately equal to 15,000 amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) molecule bound specifically to the cell surface of all of seven cultured human tumor cell lines studied. Cross-linking of iodinated ATF to the cell surface using a bifun...

  11. A Maximum Likelihood Estimator of a Markov Model for Disease Activity in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis for Annually Aggregated Partial Observations

    Borg, Søren; Persson, U.; Jess, T.; Thomsen, Ole Østergaard; Ljung, T.; Riis, L.; Munkholm, P.

    2010-01-01

    Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, during 1991 to 1993. The data were aggregated over calendar years; for each year, the number of relapses and the number of surgical operations were recorded. Our aim was to estimate Markov models for disease activity in CD and UC, in terms of relapse and remission, with a...

  12. Partial transpose of permutation matrices

    Hou, Qing-Hu; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone

    2007-01-01

    The partial transpose of a block matrix M is the matrix obtained by transposing the blocks of M independently. We approach the notion of partial transpose from a combinatorial point of view. In this perspective, we solve some basic enumeration problems concerning the partial transpose of permutation matrices. More specifically, we count the number of permutations matrices which are equal to their partial transpose and the number of permutation matrices whose partial transpose is still a permu...

  13. Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography

    Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Couprie, M.-E.

    2015-01-01

    Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter. PMID:25744080

  14. Partially predictable chaos

    Wernecke, Hendrik; Gros, Claudius

    2016-01-01

    For a chaotic system pairs of initially close-by trajectories become eventually fully uncorrelated on the attracting set. This process of decorrelation is split into an initial decrease characterized by the maximal Lyapunov exponent and a subsequent diffusive process on the chaotic attractor causing the final loss of predictability. The time scales of both processes can be either of the same or of very different orders of magnitude. In the latter case the two trajectories linger within a finite but small distance (with respect to the overall size of the attractor) for exceedingly long times and therefore remain partially predictable. We introduce a 0-1 indicator for chaos capable of describing this scenario, arguing, in addition, that the chaotic closed braids found close to a period-doubling transition are generically partially predictable.

  15. Fundamental partial compositeness

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea; Vigiani, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a cu...

  16. Honesty in partial logic

    Hoek, van, E.; Jaspars, J.O.M.; Thijsse, E.

    1995-01-01

    We propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the notions of honesty and circumscription in this logic: What is the state of an agent that `only knows $phi$' and which honest $phi$ enable such circumscription? Redefining {em stable sets enables us to provide suita...

  17. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  18. A Maximum Likelihood Estimator of a Markov Model for Disease Activity in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis for Annually Aggregated Partial Observations

    Borg, Søren; Persson, U.; Jess, T.;

    2010-01-01

    cycle length of 1 month. The purpose of these models was to enable evaluation of interventions that would shorten relapses or postpone future relapses. An exact maximum likelihood estimator was developed that disaggregates the yearly observations into monthly transition probabilities between remission...... observed data and has good face validity. The disease activity model is less suitable for UC due to its transient nature through the presence of curative surgery...... Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, during 1991 to 1993. The data were aggregated over calendar years; for each year, the number of relapses and the number of surgical operations were recorded. Our aim was to estimate Markov models for disease activity in CD and UC, in terms of relapse and remission, with a...

  19. Glucose Repression of Fbp1 Transcription in Schizosaccharomyces Pombe Is Partially Regulated by Adenylate Cyclase Activation by a G Protein α Subunit Encoded by Gpa2 (Git8)

    Nocero, M.; Isshiki, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Hoffman, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, genetic studies have identified genes that are required for glucose repression of fbp1 transcription. The git2 gene, also known as cyr1, encodes adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP into the second messenger cAMP as part of many eukaryotic signal transduction pathways. The git1, git3, git5, git7, git8 and git10 genes act upstream of adenylate cyclase, presumably encoding an adenylate cyclase activation pathway. In mammalian cells, a...

  20. Single Residue Mutation in Active Site of Serine Acetyltransferase Isoform 3 from Entamoeba histolytica Assists in Partial Regaining of Feedback Inhibition by Cysteine

    Kumar, Sudhir; Mazumder, Mohit; Dharavath, Sudhaker; Gourinath, S.

    2013-01-01

    The cysteine biosynthetic pathway is essential for survival of the protist pathogen Entamoeba histolytica, and functions by producing cysteine for countering oxidative attack during infection in human hosts. Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS) are involved in cysteine biosynthesis and are present in three isoforms each. While EhSAT1 and EhSAT2 are feedback inhibited by end product cysteine, EhSAT3 is nearly insensitive to such inhibition. The active site res...

  1. Control of human carnitine palmitoyltransferase II gene transcription by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor through a partially conserved peroxisome proliferator-responsive element.

    Barrero, María J; Camarero, Nuria; Marrero, Pedro F; Haro, Diego

    2003-01-01

    The expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). To gain more insight into the control of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) gene expression, we examined the transcriptional regulation of the human CPT II gene. We show that the 5'-flanking region of this gene is transcriptionally active and binds PPARalpha in vivo in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. In addition, we characterized the peroxisome proliferator-responsive element (PPRE) in the proximal promoter of the CPT II gene, which appears to be a novel PPRE. The sequence of this PPRE contains one half-site which is a perfect consensus sequence (TGACCT) but no clearly recognizable second half-site (CAGCAC); this part of the sequence contains only one match to the consensus, which seems to be irrelevant for the binding of PPARalpha. As expected, other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily also bind to this element and repress the activation mediated by PPARalpha, thus showing that the interplay between several nuclear receptors may regulate the entry of fatty acids into the mitochondria, a crucial step in their metabolism. PMID:12408750

  2. Therapeutic heparin monitoring service in a small community hospital.

    Pawloski, S J; Kersh, P L

    1992-08-01

    Upon the request of members of the medical staff, the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee at Tawas St. Joseph Hospital began monitoring patients receiving full-dose continuous intravenous heparin therapy. Problems were noted in the usage of activated partial thromboplastin times and the resultant changes in heparin therapy. The problems identified during this quality assurance activity were addressed by a heparin protocol developed by a clinical pharmacist. The protocol includes giving patients a heparin loading dose of 50-100 units/kg actual body weight, an initial infusion rate of 15-20 units/kg/hr, and drawing the first activated partial thromboplastin time 6 hours later. After the results of the activated partial thromboplastin times are known, the protocol provides for further patient management and changes in infusion rates, if needed. A review of the heparin protocol use at 6 months after initial implementation, and 6 months after minor changes in the protocol, showed that clinical pharmacists improved heparin therapy in the patients they treated. Pharmacists used larger initial continuous infusion rates, less activated partial thromboplastin times during treatment, and patients they managed reached therapeutic activated partial thromboplastin time ranges earlier than patients treated by physicians. When voluntarily prescribed by physicians, full-dose continuous intravenous heparin therapy initiated and monitored by clinical pharmacists improved the quality of patient's anticoagulation treatment during hospitalization. PMID:10119735

  3. Partial Differential Equations Modeling and Numerical Simulation

    Glowinski, Roland

    2008-01-01

    This book is dedicated to Olivier Pironneau. For more than 250 years partial differential equations have been clearly the most important tool available to mankind in order to understand a large variety of phenomena, natural at first and then those originating from human activity and technological development. Mechanics, physics and their engineering applications were the first to benefit from the impact of partial differential equations on modeling and design, but a little less than a century ago the Schrödinger equation was the key opening the door to the application of partial differential equations to quantum chemistry, for small atomic and molecular systems at first, but then for systems of fast growing complexity. Mathematical modeling methods based on partial differential equations form an important part of contemporary science and are widely used in engineering and scientific applications. In this book several experts in this field present their latest results and discuss trends in the numerical analy...

  4. Optimization studies of carbon additives to negative active material for the purpose of extending the life of VRLA batteries in high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Boden, D.P.; Loosemore, D.V.; Spence, M.A.; Wojcinski, T.D. [Hammond Expanders Division, Hammond Group, Inc., 6544 Osborn Avenue, Hammond, IN 46320 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The negative plates of lead-acid batteries subjected to partial-state-of-charge (PSOC) operation fail because of the development of an electrically inert film of lead sulfate on their surfaces. It has been found that carbon additives to the negative active material can significantly increase their cycle life in this type of operation. In this paper we show that various types of carbon, including graphite, carbon black eliminate the surface development of lead sulfate and that, in their presence, the lead sulfate becomes homogeneously distributed throughout the active material. Examination of active material by energy dispersive spectroscopy after extensive cycling shows that lead formed during charge of lead sulfate preferentially deposits on the carbon particles that have been embedded in the active material. Electrochemical studies have been carried out on a number of types of carbon additives having a wide range of properties. These included flake, expanded and synthetic graphite, isotropically graphitized carbon, carbon black and activated carbon. We have investigated their effect on the resistivity and surface areas of the negative active material and also on such electrochemical properties as active material utilization and cycle life. Most of the carbon additives increase the utilization of the active material and impressive increases in cycle life have been obtained with over 6000 capacity turnovers having been achieved. However, at this time, we have not been able to correlate either the type or the properties of the carbon with capacity or cycle life. Further work is needed in this area. The increases that have been achieved in cycle life provide evidence that the lead-acid battery is a viable low cost option for hybrid-electric vehicle use. (author)

  5. Optimization studies of carbon additives to negative active material for the purpose of extending the life of VRLA batteries in high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Boden, D. P.; Loosemore, D. V.; Spence, M. A.; Wojcinski, T. D.

    The negative plates of lead-acid batteries subjected to partial-state-of-charge (PSOC) operation fail because of the development of an electrically inert film of lead sulfate on their surfaces. It has been found that carbon additives to the negative active material can significantly increase their cycle life in this type of operation. In this paper we show that various types of carbon, including graphite, carbon black eliminate the surface development of lead sulfate and that, in their presence, the lead sulfate becomes homogeneously distributed throughout the active material. Examination of active material by energy dispersive spectroscopy after extensive cycling shows that lead formed during charge of lead sulfate preferentially deposits on the carbon particles that have been embedded in the active material. Electrochemical studies have been carried out on a number of types of carbon additives having a wide range of properties. These included flake, expanded and synthetic graphite, isotropically graphitized carbon, carbon black and activated carbon. We have investigated their effect on the resistivity and surface areas of the negative active material and also on such electrochemical properties as active material utilization and cycle life. Most of the carbon additives increase the utilization of the active material and impressive increases in cycle life have been obtained with over 6000 capacity turnovers having been achieved. However, at this time, we have not been able to correlate either the type or the properties of the carbon with capacity or cycle life. Further work is needed in this area. The increases that have been achieved in cycle life provide evidence that the lead-acid battery is a viable low cost option for hybrid-electric vehicle use.

  6. National law of the nuclear activity of the Argentine Republic. (Sanctioned on April 2, 1997 and partially promulgated on April 23, 1997; B.O. 25-Apr-1997)

    The Argentine National State, will establish the nuclear policy and perform the functions of research, development, regulation and supervision through two organisations, the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN). The National Atomic Energy Commission will continue to function as an autonomous entity, depending from the Ministry of Culture and Education of the Nation. Among the activities under its responsibility it will have to advise the National Executive Power on nuclear policy issues, promote the training of highly-specialised human resources, scientific and technological developments, execute development programs, promote programs for technological innovation, perform the responsibility for radiation waste management, etc. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority will act as an aunotomous entity in the jurisdiction of the Presidency of the Nation and will be responsible for the functions of regulation and control of the nuclear activity in everything which is related to radiological and nuclear safety, physical protection and control of the use of nuclear materials, nuclear facilities, licensing and international safeguards and give advise to the National Executive Power. Both institutions will depend from a Board of Directors composed by six members, one of which will be the Chairman and they will be responsible for the actions to comply with the objectives and functions mentioned above. In its last chapter, the law declares as subject to the privatisation the activities of nuclear energy generation presently developed by Nucleoelectrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima (NASA), as well as the Nuyclear Fuel Cycle used for the nuclear energy generation for industry or research and the Production of Radioisotopes developed by CNEA. This law revokes the articles numbers 2, 5, 9, 11, 16 and 17 of the Decree-Law N' 22.498/56 (B.O. 28-Dec-1956)

  7. Treatment of Scrapie Pathogen 263K With Tetracycline Partially Abolishes Protease-resistant Activity in vitro and Reduces Infectivity in vivo

    YAN-JUN GUO; DE-XIN WANG; XIAO-PING DONG; JUN HAN; HAI-LAN YAO; BAO-YUN ZHANG; JIAN-MEI GAO; JIN ZHANG; XIN-LI XIAO; XIAO-FAN WANG; WEI-QIN ZHAO

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study the possible effect of tetracycline on protease-resistant activity in vitro and infectivity in vivo of a scrapie strain 263K.Methods Scrapie pathogens were incubated with tetracycline at different concentrations for various periods of time and protease-resistant PrP signals were evaluated with proteinase K-treatment and Western blots.The preparations treated with tetracycline were intracerebrally inoculated into golden hamsters and typical TSE manifestations were noted.PrPSc in brain tissues of the infected animals was detected by PrP specific Western blot assays. Results Protease-resistant PrP was significantly reduced in or removed from the preparations treated with tetracycline in a dose-dependant manner.Compared with the control group after incubated for 53.75±0.50 days,the preparations treated with 5 mmol/L and 20 mmol/L tetracycline prolonged the incubation time of 61.5±1.73 and 59.5±0.58 days (P<0.05). Conclusion Treatment of scrapie pathogen 263K with tetracycline reduces or removes its protease-resistant activity in vitro.

  8. Alteration of the timing of implantation by in vivo gene transfer: delay of implantation by suppression of nuclear factor κB activity and partial rescue by leukemia inhibitory factor

    Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is activated in the murine endometrium during implantation period [Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 51 (2004) 16]. Transient transfection of IκBα mutant (IκBαM) cDNA into the mouse uterine cavity using hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope vector suppressed uterine NF-κB activity less than half of that observed in control on days 3.5 and 4.5 p.c. IκBαM cDNA transfection led to significant delay of implantation. After IκBαM cDNA transfection, LIF mRNA expression in the uterus was significantly suppressed on days 3.5 and 4.5 p.c. Co-transfection of LIF cDNA with IκBαM cDNA in the uterus partially rescued the delay of implantation induced by suppression of NF-κB activity. Taken together, these findings indicate that NF-κB activation determines the timing of the implantation, at least in part, via control of LIF expression

  9. Isolation and partial characterization of a pectic polysaccharide from the fruit pulp of Spondias cytherea and its effect on peritoneal macrophage activation.

    Iacomini, Marcello; Serrato, Rodrigo V; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Lopes, Luciana; Buchi, Dorly F; Gorin, Phillip A J

    2005-12-01

    The total carbohydrate content of the intact pulp of Spondias cytherea was 41%. Polysaccharides were obtained via hot aqueous extraction after defatting with organic solvents. The aqueous extract was treated with excess ethanol to form a precipitate, which was then solubilized in water. The material precipitated upon acidification when HCl was removed. The resulting supernatant fraction was submitted to freeze-thawing treatment yielding a soluble fraction (sFTS). This fraction had Ara, Rha, Gal and GalA in its structure as determined by GC-MS. 13C NMR analysis showed signals assigned to alpha-L-Araf, beta-D-Galp, alpha-D-GalpA and alpha-L-Rhap units, in addition to galacturonic acid units, which were present also as methyl ester. These results suggest a type I rhamnogalacturonan with arabinogalactan branches. Cell eliciting activity in a dose-depending pattern was observed in vitro on peritoneal macrophages treated with sFTS. PMID:16239076

  10. The theory and measurement of partial discharge transients

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical approach to partial discharge transients is presented. This approach is based on the relationship between the charge induced on the measurement electrode by those created in the interelectrode volume during partial discharge activity. The primary sources for these induced charges are the charges which, as a result of partial discharge activity, are distributed within the voids of the insulation medium. These charge relationships are derived, and their application to the measured...

  11. Partial level densities

    Methods for calculating partial level densities for use in pre-equilibrium model calculations are described. The RIPL Starter File includes a Fortran code avrigeanu.for by M. Avrigeanu for using various equidistant and Fermi-gas single-particle models, including models that incorporate pairing and shell effects within closed-form treatments and a Fortran code capote-micro.for by R. Capote, which uses a microscopic theory based on a convolution of shell-model single-particle states with BCS pairing. (author)

  12. Partial differential equations

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

  13. Partial differential equations

    Friedman, Avner

    2008-01-01

    This three-part treatment of partial differential equations focuses on elliptic and evolution equations. Largely self-contained, it concludes with a series of independent topics directly related to the methods and results of the preceding sections that helps introduce readers to advanced topics for further study. Geared toward graduate and postgraduate students of mathematics, this volume also constitutes a valuable reference for mathematicians and mathematical theorists.Starting with the theory of elliptic equations and the solution of the Dirichlet problem, the text develops the theory of we

  14. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  15. Partially informed noise traders

    Aase, Knut K.; Bjuland, Terje; Øksendal, Bernt

    2012-01-01

    The single auction equilibrium of Kyle’s (1985) is studied, in which noise traders may be partially informed, or alternatively they can be manipulated. Unlike Kyle’s assumption that the quantity traded by the noise traders is independent of the asset value, we assume that the noise traders are able to correlate their trade with the true price. This has several implications for the equilibrium, one being that the informed trader’s expected profits decrease as the noise traders’ ability to corr...

  16. General classification of partially polarized partially coherent beams

    Martinez-Herrero, Rosario; Piquero, Gemma; Mejias, Pedro M.

    2003-05-01

    The behavior of the so-called generalized degree of polarization of partially coherent partially polarized beams upon free propagation is investigated. On the basis of this parameter a general classification scheme of partially polarized beams is proposed. The results are applied to certain classes of fields of special interest.

  17. Testing for compatibility of reduced activation ferritic steel with plasma on JFT-2M partial coverage of the vacuum vessel with ferritic steel

    The compatibility of reduced activation ferritic steel (F82H), which is a leading candidate material for the demo reactor (e.g. SSTR), with plasma has been investigated in the JFT-2M tokamak with 3 steps in an AMTEX (Advanced Material Tokamak EXperiment). In the first step, the reduction of fast ion losses was well demonstrated with the ferritic steel outside the vacuum vessel. In the second step, the ferritic steel was installed inside the vacuum vessel in order to perform a preliminary investigation of the effect of the ferromagnetism on plasma stability and control, and impurity release. For this purpose, ferritic steels of 7 mm thickness were installed to form 2 sets of toroidally uniform belts, which cover 20% of the vacuum vessel. No deteriorative effects were observed regarding mode locking, plasma control, and impurity desorption. The initial boron coating was applied in order to modify the surface of the ferritic steel. The impurity is remarkably reduced and high normalized-beta plasma was obtained. Thus encouraging results were obtained for the third step, where whole vacuum vessel wall will be covered with ferritic steel. (author)

  18. A pepducin derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2 is a partial agonist for direct activation of this receptor in neutrophils but a full agonist for cross-talk triggered reactivation of FPR2.

    Michael Gabl

    Full Text Available We recently described a novel receptor cross-talk mechanism in neutrophils, unique in that the signals generated by the PAF receptor (PAFR and the ATP receptor (P2Y2R transfer formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1 from a desensitized (non-signaling state back to an actively signaling state (Forsman H et al., PLoS One, 8:e60169, 2013; Önnheim K, et al., Exp Cell Res, 323∶209, 2014. In addition to the G-protein coupled FPR1, neutrophils also express the closely related receptor FPR2. In this study we used an FPR2 specific pepducin, proposed to work as an allosteric modulator at the cytosolic signaling interface, to determine whether the cross-talk pathway is utilized also by FPR2. The pepducin used contains a fatty acid linked to a peptide sequence derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2, and it activates as well as desensensitizes this receptor. We now show that neutrophils desensitized with the FPR2-specific pepducin display increased cellular responses to stimulation with PAF or ATP. The secondary PAF/ATP induced response was sensitive to FPR2-specific inhibitors, disclosing a receptor cross-talk mechanism underlying FPR2 reactivation. The pepducin induced an activity in naïve cells similar to that of a conventional FPR2 agonist, but with lower potency (partial efficacy, meaning that the pepducin is a partial agonist. The PAF- or ATP-induced reactivation was, however, much more pronounced when neutrophils had been desensitized to the pepducin as compared to cells desensitized to conventional agonists. The pepducin should thus in this respect be classified as a full agonist. In summary, we demonstrate that desensitized FPR2 can be transferred back to an actively signaling state by receptor cross-talk signals generated through PAFR and P2Y2R, and the difference in agonist potency with respect to pepducin-induced direct receptor activation and cross-talk reactivation of FPR2 puts the concept of functional selectivity in focus.

  19. Activation of Hippocampal CREB by Rolipram Partially Recovers Balance Between TNF-α and IL-10 Levels and Improves Cognitive Deficits in Diabetic Rats.

    Miao, Ya; He, Ting; Zhu, Yitong; Li, Wei; Wang, Beiyuan; Zhong, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes damages the central nervous system, inducing cognitive dysfunction and structural changes, known as diabetic encephalopathy (DE). Some research suggests that the pathogenesis of DE may involve an inflammatory imbalance in the nervous system, along with β-amyloid deposition, similar to Alzheimer's disease. Less data have been yet provided to prove that mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of diabetes on the expression of TNF-α, IL-10, and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)/phosphorylated CREB (pCREB). Moreover, we investigated whether rolipram can improve memory, suppress the inflammatory response, and improve balance of CREB/pCREB in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. We used a 4-week high-fat diet and a low dose of streptozocin (30 mg/kg) to induce diabetes with hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Cognitive impairment was induced over a period of 4 months, and rolipram treatment was concomitantly given. Cognitive impairment was evaluated with the Morris water maze test. We also assessed expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. We found that memory in rats with long-term diabetes was impaired. Treatment with rolipram increased expression of CREB and pCREB, reduced the inflammatory reaction (decreased TNF-α levels and increased IL-10 levels), and prevented cognitive impairment in these diabetic animals. This present study suggests that rolipram improves cognitive function by activating the CREB signaling pathway and alleviating neuroinflammation in type 2 diabetic rats. Rolipram may have therapeutic potential in DE. PMID:26001770

  20. Tutorial on Online Partial Evaluation

    William R. Cook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short tutorial introduction to online partial evaluation. We show how to write a simple online partial evaluator for a simple, pure, first-order, functional programming language. In particular, we show that the partial evaluator can be derived as a variation on a compositionally defined interpreter. We demonstrate the use of the resulting partial evaluator for program optimization in the context of model-driven development.

  1. Tutorial on Online Partial Evaluation

    Cook, William R.; Ralf Lämmel

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short tutorial introduction to online partial evaluation. We show how to write a simple online partial evaluator for a simple, pure, first-order, functional programming language. In particular, we show that the partial evaluator can be derived as a variation on a compositionally defined interpreter. We demonstrate the use of the resulting partial evaluator for program optimization in the context of model-driven development.

  2. Characterization of lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon and its excellent performance of extending lead-acid battery cycle life for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Tong, Pengyang; Zhao, Ruirui; Zhang, Rongbo; Yi, Fenyun; Shi, Guang; Li, Aiju; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-07-01

    In this work, lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon (Pb@C) is prepared as the additive of negative active mass (NAM), aiming to enhance the electrochemical characteristics of the lead-acid battery. The characters of the Pb@C materials and their electrochemical properties are characterized by XRD, SEM, back-scattering electron image (BESI) and electrochemical methods. The lead (Ⅱ) ions disperse well in the carbon bulk of the obtained Pb@C materials as observed, and these materials exhibit remarkable higher specific capacitance and higher hydrogen evolution over-potential compared with original carbons. Many 2 V lead-acid batteries are assembled manually in our lab, and then the batteries are disassembled after formation and high-rate-partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) cycling. Results manifest that the Pb@C additives exhibit high affinity to lead and act as a porous-skeleton in the formation process as well as under HRPSoC cycling conditions, leading to the small and fine formation of PbSO4 particles and accordingly higher active material utilization rate more than 50%, better cycling performance and charging acceptance. Besides, excellent cycle performances of these batteries have great relationship with the dazzling hydrogen evolution performance of Pb@C materials. A possible working mechanism is also proposed based on the testing data in this paper.

  3. Completeness in Partial Differential Fields

    Freitag, James

    2011-01-01

    We study completeness in partial differential varieties. We generalize many results from ordinary differential fields to the partial differential setting. In particular, we establish a valuative criterion for differential completeness and use it to give a new class of examples of complete partial differential varieties. We use methods from both differential algebra and model theory.

  4. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of...

  5. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  6. P2X4 receptor in the dorsal horn partially contributes to brain-derived neurotrophic factor oversecretion and toll-like receptor-4 receptor activation associated with bone cancer pain.

    Jin, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Li-Na; Zuo, Jian-Ling; Yang, Jian-Ping; Liu, Si-Lan

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the microglial P2X7 purinoceptor is involved in the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) following activation of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), which is associated with nociceptive behavior. In addition, this progress is evoked by the activation of the P2X4 purinoceptor (P2X4R). Although P2X4R is also localized within spinal microglia in the dorsal horn, little is known about its role in cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP), which is in some ways unique. With the present rat model of CIBP, we demonstrate a critical role of the microglial P2X4R in the enhanced nociceptive transmission, which is associated with TLR4 activation and secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TNFα in the dorsal horn. We assessed mechanical threshold and spontaneous pain of CIBP rats. Moreover, P2X4R small interfering RNA (siRNA) was administered intrathecally, and real-time PCR, Western blots, immunofluorescence histochemistry, and ELISA were used to detect the expression of P2X4R, TLR4, OX-42, phosphorylated-p38 MAPK (p-p38), BDNF, and TNFα. Compared with controls, intrathecal injection of P2X4R siRNA could prevent nociceptive behavior induced by ATP plus lipopolysaccharide and CIBP and reduce the expression of P2X4R, TLR4, p-p38, BDNF, and TNFα. In addition, the increase of BDNF protein in rat microglial cells depended on P2X4 receptor signaling, which is partially associated with TLR4 activation. The ability of microglial P2X4R to activate TLR4 in spinal cord leading to behavioral hypersensitivity and oversecretion of BDNF could provide an opportunity for the prevention and treatment of CIBP. PMID:24984884

  7. Strongly Bounded Partial Sums

    Charles Swartz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available If λ is a scalar sequence space, a series P Zj in a topological vector space Z is λ multiplier convergent in Z if the series P ∞J =1 tj Zj converges in Z for every t = {tj} ∈ λ-If λ satisfies appropriate conditions, a series in a locally convex space X which is λ multiplier convergent in the weak topology is λ multiplier convergent in the original topology ofthe space (the Orlicz-Pettis Theorem but may fail to be λ multiplier convergent in the strong topology of the space. However, we show under apprpriate conditions on the multiplier space λ that the series will have strongly bounded partial sums.

  8. Generalized Partial Volume

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their...... theoretical relation has so far been unexplored. We present the direct connection between PW and GPV for NMI in the case of rigid and non-rigid image registration. Through step-by-step derivations of PW and GPV we clarify the difference and show that GPV is algorithmically inferior to PW from a model point of...... view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  9. Elliptic partial differential equations

    Volpert, Vitaly

    If we had to formulate in one sentence what this book is about it might be "How partial differential equations can help to understand heat explosion, tumor growth or evolution of biological species". These and many other applications are described by reaction-diffusion equations. The theory of reaction-diffusion equations appeared in the first half of the last century. In the present time, it is widely used in population dynamics, chemical physics, biomedical modelling. The purpose of this book is to present the mathematical theory of reaction-diffusion equations in the context of their numerous applications. We will go from the general mathematical theory to specific equations and then to their applications. Mathematical anaylsis of reaction-diffusion equations will be based on the theory of Fredholm operators presented in the first volume. Existence, stability and bifurcations of solutions will be studied for bounded domains and in the case of travelling waves. The classical theory of reaction-diffusion equ...

  10. Fundamental partial compositeness

    Sannino, Francesco; Tesi, Andrea; Vigiani, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  11. Applied partial differential equations

    Logan, J David

    2004-01-01

    This primer on elementary partial differential equations presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs. What makes this book unique is that it is a brief treatment, yet it covers all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. Mathematical ideas are motivated from physical problems, and the exposition is presented in a concise style accessible to science and engineering students; emphasis is on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than formal theory. This second edition contains new and additional exercises, and it includes a new chapter on the applications of PDEs to biology: age structured models, pattern formation; epidemic wave fronts, and advection-diffusion processes. The student who reads through this book and solves many of t...

  12. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... or just natural wear and tear and excessive exercise, ultimately leading to arthritis. Again, this is just ... maybe what we would have appreciated with our physical exam during the office ... to more high impact activities, what do you tell them about partial knee ...

  13. Partial oxidation of 2-propanol on perovskites

    Sumathi, R.; Viswanathan, B.; Varadarajan, T.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-12-31

    Partial oxidation of 2-propanol was carried out on AB{sub 1-x}B`{sub x}O{sub 3} (A=Ba, B=Pb, Ce, Ti; B`=Bi, Sb and Cu) type perovskite oxides. Acetone was the major product observed on all the catalysts. All the catalysts underwent partial reduction during the reaction depending on the composition of the reactant, nature of the B site cation and the extent of substitution at B site. The catalytic activity has been correlated with the reducibility of the perovskite oxides determined from Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR) studies. (orig.)

  14. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine

    Roundy, David; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A; Weber, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering and mathematics. Our interviews made use of the Partial Derivative Machine (PDM), which is a mechanical system featuring four observable and controllable properties, of which any two are independent. Using the PDM, we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context in which there is not a known functional form. Through these three interviews, we found that the mathematicians exhibited a striking difference in their underst...

  15. The assessment of anticoagulant activity to predict bleeding outcome in atrial fibrillation patients receiving dabigatran etexilate.

    Chang, Yao-Ting; Hu, Yu-Feng; Liao, Jo-Nan; Chern, Chang-Ming; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Wu, Cheng-Hsueh; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Wang, Kang-Ling; Lu, Tse-Min; Chao, Tze-Fan; Lo, Li-Wei; Hsu, Li-Chi; Chung, Chih-Ping; Chang, Peter M-H; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Chiou, Chuen-Wang; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2016-06-01

    Special circumstances may require the measurement of the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran etexilate. No data currently link any given coagulation test to bleeding outcomes in patients receiving dabigatran etexilate for atrial fibrillation. Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients receiving dabigatran etexilate of 110 mg (DE110) or 150 mg (DE150) were consecutively enrolled. The hemoclot thrombin inhibitor (HTI) assay, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) measurements were correlated with bleeding events during a prospective follow-up. There were 17 bleeding events (8.2%) in 208 patients (74.7 ± 10.3 years old, 67.9% male, median follow-up: 364 days), whereas 15 patients with bleeding events used DE110. Compared with DE110, the patients receiving DE150 were younger and more often male and had lower HAS-BLED and CHA2DS2VASc scores and better renal function. Patients' HTI levels were very variable (DE110, 10-90th percentile: 20.5-223.9 ng/ml). A receiver-operator characteristic curve gave a median cutoff HTI level of 117.7 ng/ml to predict bleeding events (C-statistics: 0.65; P = 0.036), but no cutoff could be determined for prothrombin time or APTT. Based on the Kaplan-Meier analysis, a dabigatran etexilate level greater than 117.7 ng/ml was associated with a higher bleeding rate (15.4% vs. 4.9%, P = 0.01). After multivariate Cox regression analysis, HTI levels, history of stroke, and male sex were independent risk factors for bleeding events. Dabigatran etexilate-HTI levels were independently associated with bleeding in patients receiving routine clinical care. Blood sampling at multiple time points might be needed to increase reliability because of high variation of dabigatran etexilate-HTI levels. PMID:26991859

  16. Partially supervised speaker clustering.

    Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical

  17. Extraction and anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Vahl C. Agardh (Chlorophyceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.6243 Extraction and anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Vahl C. Agardh (Chlorophyceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.6243

    Norma Maria Barros Benevides

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The reportedly low standard quality of heparin (HEP for use in cardiac surgeries has led to concern in the Brazilian and international markets. Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from seaweeds have been regarded as promising substitutes for HEP. The aim of this study was to sequentially extract total SPs (TSPs from Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceae with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing 5 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA, followed by fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose, and then evaluate the anticoagulant potential of SP fractions by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and compare it to standard HEP (193 IU mg-1. The obtained fractions were chemically characterized by chemical composition and agarose gel electrophoresis. The yield was 4.61%, and three fractions of SP (F I, F II and F III eluted with 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 M of NaCl, respectively, were observed on chromatography profiles; however, differences in charge densities patterns and degree of resolution among them were revealed by electrophoresis. SPs were capable of modifying APTT only in fractions eluted with 0.75 M of NaCl, whose activities were 23.37 and 25.76 IU mg-1, respectively, and the charge density was prerequisite to activity. Therefore, C. cupressoides is a source of SPs possessing low anticoagulant potential compared to HEP.The reportedly low standard quality of heparin (HEP for use in cardiac surgeries has led to concern in the Brazilian and international markets. Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from seaweeds have been regarded as promising substitutes for HEP. The aim of this study was to sequentially extract total SPs (TSPs from Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceae with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing 5 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA, followed by fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose, and then evaluate the anticoagulant potential of SP fractions by activated

  18. Algorithms over partially ordered sets

    Baer, Robert M.; Østerby, Ole

    1969-01-01

    partially ordered sets, answer the combinatorial question of how many maximal chains might exist in a partially ordered set withn elements, and we give an algorithm for enumerating all maximal chains. We give (in § 3) algorithms which decide whether a partially ordered set is a (lower or upper) semi......-lattice, and whether a lattice has distributive, modular, and Boolean properties. Finally (in § 4) we give Algol realizations of the various algorithms....

  19. Partial Actions and Power Sets

    Jesús Ávila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a partial action (X,α with enveloping action (T,β. In this work we extend α to a partial action on the ring (P(X,Δ,∩ and find its enveloping action (E,β. Finally, we introduce the concept of partial action of finite type to investigate the relationship between (E,β and (P(T,β.

  20. Partial oxidation process

    A process is described for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H/sub 2/+CO comprising: (1) mixing an ash fusion temperature reducing agent comprising a comminuted ore having a particle size of ASTM E-11 Standard Sieve Designation in the range of about 0.1-210 microns with at least one material selected from the group consisting of a pumpable ash-containing liquid hydrocarbonaceous material and ash-containing petroleum coke. The ash from the liquid hydrocarbonaceous material or petroleum coke principally comprises the oxides of Ni, V, and Fe along with a minor amount of the oxides selected from the group consisting of Si, Al, Ca, Ti, Cr, and mixtures thereof. The weight ratio of ash fusion temperature reducing agent to ash produced in (2) is in the range of about 0.5 to 10. The comminuted ash fusion temperature reducing agent principally comprises monoclinic amphibole and/or pyroxene minerals in which the following elements are present principally as silicate compounds in weight percent (basis ore): iron in the range of about 5-55, calcium in the range of about 1-10, silicon in the range of about 4-25, magnesium in the range of about 1-10, and aluminum in the range of about 0.25-5.0; and (2) reacting the mixture from (1) at a temperature in the range of about 21000F to 27000F and a pressure in the range of about 1 to 200 atmospheres in a free-flow refractory lined partial oxidation reaction zone with a free-oxygen containing gas

  1. Low partial discharge vacuum feedthrough

    Benham, J. W.; Peck, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Relatively discharge free vacuum feedthrough uses silver-plated copper conductor jacketed by carbon filled silicon semiconductor to reduce concentrated electric fields and minimize occurrence of partial discharge.

  2. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM), we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts' interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.

  3. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  4. Partial Completion of Equational Theories

    孙永强; 林凯; 陆朝俊

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the notion of partial completion of equational theories is proposed, which is a procedure to construct a confluent term rewriting system from an equational theory without requirement of termination condition. A partial completion algorithm is presented with a brief description of its application in a program development system.

  5. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  6. Activation of coagulation system and d-dimer levels in children with acute leukemia

    Harun Wijaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background D-dimer is a molecule as result of breaking down of excessive fibrin formation from the activation of coagulation system. There is evidence of increased activation of coagulation in patients with acute leukemia which was showed by the increment of d-dimer levels. Objective To evaluate the incidence of activation of coagulation system in children with acute leukemia before receiving chemotherapy. Method This cross-sectional study was performed at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. All newly-diagnosed children with acute leukemia were included in this study, prior to their receiving any chemotherapy treatment. Blast count, prothrombin time (PTT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, and D-dimer levels were examined after the diagnosis was confirmed by morphology and immunophenotyping studies on bone marrow specimens. Results Out of 22 subjects, 13 subjects had increased D-dimer values. The median D-dimer level of this elevated group was 1,000 (range 500-14,700 ng/mL. In the acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML patients, activation of coagulation was found in 7 out of 8 subjects. The median D-dimer levels was 950 (range 100-14,700 ng/mL. In the acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL patients, 6 out of 14 subjects had increased activation of coagulation with median D-dimer level of 300 (range 100-3,800 ng/mL. Nine out of 10 subjects with blast cells on peripheral blood smear had a median D-dimer level of 1,000 (range 500-3,800 ng/mL. Both PT and APTT were found normal in all subjects. Conclusion Activation of coagulation system occurs at the time of diagnosis as shown by increased D-dimer levels. The characteristics of activation of coagulation system are different between ALL and AML subjects, as well as between subjects with positive and negative blast counts on peripheral blood smears. Despite the increased activation of coagulation, PT and APTT remain normal. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:227-31.].

  7. Partial twisting for scalar mesons

    The possibility of imposing partially twisted boundary conditions is investigated for the scalar sector of lattice QCD. According to the commonly shared belief, the presence of quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams in the intermediate state generally hinders the use of the partial twisting. Using effective field theory techniques in a finite volume, and studying the scalar sector of QCD with total isospin I=1, we however demonstrate that partial twisting can still be performed, despite the fact that annihilation diagrams are present. The reason for this are delicate cancellations, which emerge due to the graded symmetry in partially quenched QCD with valence, sea and ghost quarks. The modified Lüscher equation in case of partial twisting is given

  8. Replicating and Extending Research on the Partial Assignment Completion Effect: Is Sunk Cost Related to Partial Assignment Completion Strength?

    Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.; Taylor, Emily P.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Parkhurst, John; Nalls, Meagan L.

    2014-01-01

    After students acquire a skill, mastery often requires them to choose to engage in assigned academic activities (e.g., independent seatwork, and homework). Although students may be more likely to choose to work on partially completed assignments than on new assignments, the partial assignment completion (PAC) effect may not be very powerful. The…

  9. Partial discharge testing under direct voltage conditions

    Bever, R. S.; Westrom, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    DC partial discharge (PD) (corona) testing is performed using a multichannel analyzer for pulse storing, and data is collected during increase of voltage and at quiescent voltage levels. Thus high voltage ceramic disk capacitors were evaluated by obtaining PD data interspersed during an accelerated life test. Increased PD activity was found early in samples that later failed catastrophically. By this technique, trends of insulation behavior are revealed sensitively and nondestructively in high voltage dc components.

  10. Partial reinforcement, extinction, and placebo analgesia

    Yeung, Siu Tsin Au; Colagiuri, Ben; Lovibond, Peter F.; Colloca, Luana

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that placebo analgesia can be established via conditioning procedures. However, these studies have exclusively involved conditioning under continuous reinforcement. Thus, it is currently unknown whether placebo analgesia can be established under partial reinforcement and how durable any such effect would be. We tested this possibility using electro-cutaneous pain in healthy volunteers. Sixty undergraduates received placebo treatment (activation of a sham electrode) u...

  11. Computer copings for partial coverage.

    Denissen, H; van der Zel, J; Reisig, J; Vlaar, S; de Ruiter, W; van Waas, R

    1999-04-01

    Partial coverage posterior tooth preparations are very complex surfaces for computer surface digitization, computer design, and manufacture of ceramic copings. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether the Computer Integrated Crown Reconstruction (Cicero) system was compatible with a proposed partial coverage preparation design and capable of producing ceramic copings. Posterior teeth were prepared for partial coverage copings with deep gingival chamfers in the proximal boxes and around the functional cusps (buccal of mandibular and lingual of maxillary posterior teeth). The nonfunctional cusps (lingual of mandibular and buccal of maxillary posterior teeth) were prepared with broad bevels following the inclined occlusal plane pattern. Optical impressions were taken of stone dies by means of a fast laser-line scanning method that measured the three-dimensional geometry of the partial coverage preparation. Computers digitized the images, and designed and produced the ceramic copings. The Cicero system digitized the partial coverage preparation surfaces precisely with a minor coefficient of variance of 0.2%. The accuracy of the surface digitization, the design, and the computer aided milling showed that the system was capable of producing partial coverage copings with a mean marginal gap of 74 microns. This value was obtained before optimizing the marginal fit by means of porcelain veneering. In summary, Cicero computer technology, i.e., surface digitization, coping design, and manufacture, was compatible with the described partial coverage preparations for posterior teeth. PMID:11351490

  12. Coherent-mode decomposition of partially polarized, partially coherent sources

    Gori, Franco; Santarsiero, Massimo; Simon, Raja; Piquero, Gemma; Borghi, Riccardo; Guattari, Giorgio

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that any partially polarized, partially coherent source can be expressed in terms of a suitable superposition of transverse coherent modes with orthogonal polarization states. Such modes are determined through the solution of a system of two coupled integral equations. An example, for which the modal decomposition is obtained in closed form in terms of fully linearly polarized Hermite Gaussian modes, is given.

  13. Gene therapy for hemophilia B mediated by recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with hFIXR338A, a high catalytic activity mutation of human coagulation factor IX

    陆华中; 陈立; 王红卫; 伍志坚; 吴小兵; 王学峰; 王鸿利; 卢大儒; 邱信芳; 薛京伦

    2001-01-01

    A mutant human factor IX with arginine at 338 residual changed to alanine (hFIXR338A) by site-directed mutagenesis was introduced into AAV vectors, and a recombinant adeno-associ- ated viral vector containing hFIXR338A, prepared by rHSV/AAV hybrid helper virus system, was directly introduced to the hind leg muscle of factor IX knock out mice. The expression and the biological activity of human factor IX mutant, hFIXR338A, and the immune response against it in the treated mice were assayed and detected. The results showed that (i) the high-level expression of human factor IX mutant protein, hFIXR338A, has been detected in rAAV-hFIXR338A treated hemophilia B mice and lasted more than 15 weeks; (ii) the clotting activity of hFIXR338A in plasma is 34.2%± 5.23%, which is remarkably higher than that of (14.27% ± 3.4%) of wild type hFIX treated mice in the activated partial thromboplastin assay; (iii) immune response against factor IX R338A was absent, with no factor IX mutant protein (hFIXR338A) inhibitors development in the treated mice; and (iv) no local or systemic side-effects and toxicity associated with the gene transfer were found. It demonstrated the potential use of treating hemophilia B by recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors with mutant hFIXR338A gene, an alternative strategy for hemophilia B gene therapy to wild-type human factor IX.

  14. Decreased plasma ADAMTS-13 activity as a predictor of postoperative bleeding in cyanotic congenital heart disease

    Rosangela P.S. Soares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the preoperative plasma antigenic concentration and activity of von Willebrand factor and its main cleaving protease ADAMTS-13 in pediatric patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease undergoing surgical treatment and investigate possible correlations with postoperative bleeding. METHODS: Plasma antigenic concentrations (von Willebrand factor:Ag and ADAMTS-13:Ag were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Collagen-binding assays were developed to measure biological activities (von Willebrand factor:collagen binding and ADAMTS-13 activity. The multimeric structure of von Willebrand factor was analyzed using Western immunoblotting. Demographic, diagnostic, and general and specific laboratory data and surgery-related variables were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis for the prediction of postoperative bleeding. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled, with ages ranging from 9 months to 7.6 years (median 2.5 years. The plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor:Ag and ADAMTS-13:Ag were decreased by 65 and 82%, respectively, in the patients compared with the controls (p<0.001. An increased density of low-molecular-weight fractions of von Willebrand factor, which are suggestive of proteolytic degradation (p = 0.0081, was associated with decreased ADAMTS-13 activity, which was likely due to ADAMTS-13 consumption (71% of controls, p = 0.0029 and decreased von Willebrand factor:collagen binding (76% of controls, p = 0.0004. Significant postoperative bleeding occurred in 13 patients. The preoperative ADAMTS-13 activity of <64.6% (mean level for the group, preoperative activated partial thromboplastin time, and the need for cardiopulmonary bypass were characterized as independent risk factors for postoperative bleeding, with respective hazard ratios of 22.35 (95% CI 1.69 to 294.79, 1.096 (95% CI 1.016 to 1.183, and 37.43 (95% CI 1.79 to 782.73. CONCLUSION: Low plasma ADAMTS-13

  15. Fucans, but not fucomannoglucuronans, determine the biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina brown seaweed.

    Diego O Croci

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions obtained from L. saccharina: a L.s.-1.0 fraction mainly consisting of O-sulfated mannoglucuronofucans and b L.s.-1.25 fraction mainly composed of sulfated fucans. Both fractions inhibited leukocyte recruitment in a model of inflammation in rats, although L.s.-1.25 appeared to be more active than L.s.-1.0. Also, these fractions inhibited neutrophil adhesion to platelets under flow. Only fraction L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0, displayed anticoagulant activity as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time. Investigation of these fractions in angiogenesis settings revealed that only L.s.-1.25 strongly inhibited fetal bovine serum (FBS induced in vitro tubulogenesis. This effect correlated with a reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 levels in L.s.-1.25-treated endothelial cells. Furthermore, only parent sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina (L.s.-P and its fraction L.s.-1.25 were powerful inhibitors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF induced pathways. Consistently, the L.s.-1.25 fraction as well as L.s.-P successfully interfered with fibroblast binding to human bFGF. The incorporation of L.s.-P or L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0 into Matrigel plugs containing melanoma cells induced a significant reduction in hemoglobin content as well in the frequency of tumor-associated blood vessels. Moreover, i.p. administrations of L.s.-1.25, as well as L.s.-P, but not L.s.-1.0, resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth when inoculated into syngeneic mice

  16. Stochastic Geometric Partial Differential Equations

    Brzezniak, Z.; Goldys, B.; Ondreját, Martin

    1. Singapore : World Scientific Publishing Company, 2011 - (Zhao, H.; Truman, A.), s. 1-32 ISBN 978-981-4360-91-3. - (Interdisciplinary Mathematical Sciences. 12) R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0752 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic geometric * partial differential equations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/SI/ondrejat-stochastic geometric partial differential equations. pdf

  17. C++ Templates as Partial Evaluation

    Veldhuizen, Todd L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between C++ templates and partial evaluation. Templates were designed to support generic programming, but unintentionally provided the ability to perform compile-time computations and code generation. These features are completely accidental, and as a result their syntax is awkward. By recasting these features in terms of partial evaluation, a much simpler syntax can be achieved. C++ may be regarded as a two-level language in which types are first-class va...

  18. Introduction to partial differential equations

    Greenspan, Donald

    2000-01-01

    Designed for use in a one-semester course by seniors and beginning graduate students, this rigorous presentation explores practical methods of solving differential equations, plus the unifying theory underlying the mathematical superstructure. Topics include basic concepts, Fourier series, second-order partial differential equations, wave equation, potential equation, heat equation, approximate solution of partial differential equations, and more. Exercises appear at the ends of most chapters. 1961 edition.

  19. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.

    1987-01-02

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event.

  20. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event

  1. Monotherapy for partial epilepsy: focus on levetiracetam

    Antonio Gambardella

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Gambardella1,2, Angelo Labate1,2, Eleonora Colosimo1, Roberta Ambrosio1, Aldo Quattrone1,21Institute of Neurology, University Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy; 2Institute of Neurological Sciences, National Research Council, Piano Lago di Mangone, Cosenza, ItalyAbstract: Levetiracetam (LEV, the S-enantiomer of alpha-ethyl-2-oxo-1-pyrollidine acetamide, is a recently licensed antiepileptic drug (AED for adjunctive therapy of partial seizures. Its mechanism of action is uncertain but it exhibits a unique profile of anticonvulsant activity in models of chronic epilepsy. Five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials enrolling adult or pediatric patients with refractory partial epilepsy have demonstrated the efficacy of LEV as adjunctive therapy, with a responder rate (≥50% reduction in seizure frequency of 28%–45%. Long-term efficacy studies suggest retention rates of 60% after one year, with 13% of patients seizure-free for 6 months of the study and 8% seizure-free for 1 year. More recent studies illustrated successful conversion to monotherapy in patients with refractory epilepsy, and its effectiveness as a single agent in partial epilepsy. LEV has also efficacy in generalized epilepsies. Adverse effects of LEV, including somnolence, lethargy, and dizziness, are generally mild and their occurrence rate seems to be not significantly different from that observed in placebo groups. LEV also has no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions with other AEDs, or with commonly prescribed medications. The combination of effective antiepileptic properties with a relatively mild adverse effect profile makes LEV an attractive therapy for partial seizures.Keywords: levetiracetam, partial epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs

  2. Comparison of antithrombin activity of the polysulphate chitosan derivatives in in vivo and in vitro system.

    Drozd, N N; Sher, A I; Makarov, V A; Galbraikh, L S; Vikhoreva, G A; Gorbachiova, I N

    2001-06-01

    In order to choose the proper method for evaluating the antithrombin activity in samples of chitosan polysulphate (CP) with different polymerization degrees and sulphation degrees, we estimated the ability of direct anticoagulants to depress the coagulability of recalcified sheep blood using the third international heparin standard (A1 - in vitro system) and determined such activity on pharmacodynamic curve (A2 - in vivo system). The curve admits the kinetics of CP elimination to be nonlinear in case of intravenous injection to rabbits, as it is observed in heparin: Ct = C(o)exp(-K(e)lt), where Ct is the CP concentration at the time moment t; C(o) is the CP concentration at the injection moment; Kel is the elimination constant. Besides, it is assumed that there is a linear approximation of the anticoagulant effect on the dose, which finally makes it possible to calculate the specific activity A2: T = KTCt+T(in), where T is the time of clot formation at different time intervals after CP injection; T(in) is the time of clot formation prior to CP injection. T value was assessed in two tests: blood coagulation time (BCT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). No correlation was observed between A1 and A2. At the same time, the values of Kel and the period of semi-elimination, with the use of the biospecific cetylpyridinium chloride electrophores for the quantitative determination of CP in rabbit's blood taken at different time intervals after injection, showed a close correlation (r = .94, P < .05) between the same parameters, obtained with the help of the rectilinear pharmacodynamic plot in BCT test. Thus, experimentally, it was proven that the assumption of the CP nonlinear elimination and the CP effect-dose dependence was true, which is necessary for A2 calculation. Relatively low molecular weights (MW 61-82 kDa, polymerization degree 188-252 ) and high sulphation patterns (sulphur amounts 15.6-16.9%, sulphation degree 1.58-1.86) were slowly cleared and

  3. Hub discovery in partial correlation graphical models

    Hero, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    This paper treats the problem of screening a p-variate sample for strongly and multiply connected vertices in the partial correlation graph associated with the the partial correlation matrix of the sample. This problem, called hub screening, is important in many applications ranging from network security to computational biology to finance to social networks. In the area of network security, a node that becomes a hub of high correlation with neighboring nodes might signal anomalous activity such as a coordinated flooding attack. In the area of computational biology the set of hubs of a gene expression correlation graph can serve as potential targets for drug treatment to block a pathway or modulate host response. In the area of finance a hub might indicate a vulnerable financial instrument or sector whose collapse might have major repercussions on the market. In the area of social networks a hub of observed interactions between criminal suspects could be an influential ringleader. The techniques and theory pr...

  4. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  5. Comparison of displacement of the geometry constituted by silver clips in cavity in the different state of respiration assisted by active breathing control system in external-beam partial breast irradiation

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the displacement of the selected silver clip in the different respiratory state achieved by active breathing control (ABC) system on the displacement of the geometry constituted by all of the silver clips at the border of the cavity in external-beam partial breast irradiation (EB-PBI). Methods: Two sets of CT images in state of moderate deep inspiratory breathing hold (mDIBH), deep expiratory breathing hold (DEBH), and free breath (FB) were acquired in the same CT simulation assisted by ABC system for each of the 27 patients after breast conservative surgery. All silver clips in the cavity were delineated based on each set of CT images. Thereafter, the irregular geometry based on the silver clips as the vertices was automatically formed. Four selected clips located at the top, bottom, lateral border and medial border of the cavity were correspondingly manually registered based on automatic registration of the CT images acquired in the same or different state of respiration including mDIBH, FB, and DEBH. The displacement of center of the geometry in the direction of right-left (RL), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) separately based on automatic registration and manual registration was evaluated. The difference of the displacement was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z-test. Results: When registered between mDIBH and mDIBH, FB and FB, DEBH and DEBH, the differences of the displacement of the center of geometry were not statistically significant (H =0.00 - 1.76, P=0.184-0.954). When registered between mDIBH and DEBH,the differences were statistically significant (Z =11.31 - 23.00, P =0.000 - 0.001). There were statistically significant differences in the displacement of geometry center based on the selected silver clip between different registration forms in AP and SI directions (Z=4.76-25.54, P=0.000-0.029). Conclusions: The difference of intrafraction displacement of the geometry

  6. Partial Transposition on Bipartite System

    REN Xi-Jun; HAN Yong-Jian; WU Yu-Chun; GUO Guang-Can

    2008-01-01

    Many properties of partial transposition are unclear as yet.Here we carefully consider the number of the negative eigenvalues of ρT(ρ's partial transposition)when ρ is a two-partite state.There is strong evidence to show that the number of negative eigenvalues of ρT is N(N-1)/2 at most when ρ is a state in Hilbert space CM(×)CN.For the special case,the 2×2 system,we use this result to give a partial proof of the conjecture |ρT|T≥0.We find that this conjecture is strongly connected with the entanglement of the state corresponding to the negative eigenvalue of ρT or the negative entropy of ρ.

  7. Elements of partial differential equations

    Sneddon, Ian N

    2006-01-01

    Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

  8. Basic linear partial differential equations

    Treves, Francois

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  9. Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rasmussen, Tage

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding.......Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding....

  10. Partial domain wall partition functions

    Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.

    2012-01-01

    We consider six-vertex model configurations on an n-by-N lattice, n =< N, that satisfy a variation on domain wall boundary conditions that we define and call "partial domain wall boundary conditions". We obtain two expressions for the corresponding "partial domain wall partition function", as an (N-by-N)-determinant and as an (n-by-n)-determinant. The latter was first obtained by I Kostov. We show that the two determinants are equal, as expected from the fact that they are partition functions...

  11. On partially entanglement breaking channels

    Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Using well known duality between quantum maps and states of composite systems we introduce the notion of Schmidt number of a quantum channel. It enables one to define classes of quantum channels which partially break quantum entanglement. These classes generalize the well known class of entanglement breaking channels.

  12. Partial purification and characterization of xylanase produced by Penicillium expansum

    André Luiz de Souza Querido; Jorge Luiz Cavalcante Coelho; Elza Fernandes Araújo; Virgínia Maria Chaves-Alves

    2006-01-01

    An extracellular xylanase was found to be the major protein in the filtrate culture of Penicillium expansum when grown on 0.3 % wheat bran, which showed no xylanase multiplicity. The enzime was partial purified by.ammonium sulfate fractioning, molecular exclusion chromatography, ultrafiltration and anion exchange chromatography. The protein eluation profile showed only one form of xylanase that was partially characterized. The activity of purified xylanase was optimal at pH 5.5 and 40 ºC. The...

  13. The partial-birth stratagem.

    1998-06-01

    In Wisconsin, physicians stopped performing abortions when a Federal District Court Judge refused to issue a temporary restraining order against the state's newly enacted "partial birth" abortion ban that was couched in such vague language it actually covered all abortions. While ostensibly attempting to ban late-term "intact dilation and extraction," the language of the law did not refer to that procedure or to late terms. Instead, it prohibited all abortions in which a physician "partially vaginally delivers a living child, causes the death of the partially delivered child with the intent to kill the child and then completes the delivery of the child." The law also defined "child" as "a human being from the time of fertilization" until birth. It is clear that this abortion ban is unconstitutional under Row v. Wade, and this unconstitutionality is compounded by the fact that the law allowed no exception to protect a woman's health, which is required by Roe for abortion bans after fetal viability. Wisconsin is only one of about 28 states that have enacted similar laws, and only two have restricted the ban to postviability abortions. Many of these laws have been struck down in court, and President Clinton has continued to veto the Federal partial-birth bill. The Wisconsin Judge acknowledged that opponents of the ban will likely prevail when the case is heard, but his action in denying the temporary injunction means that many women in Wisconsin will not receive timely medical care. The partial birth strategy is really only another anti-abortion strategy. PMID:12348556

  14. Analysis and De-Noising of Partial Discharge Signals in Medium Voltage XLPE Cables

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2016-01-01

    The partial discharge (PD) measurements have been widely used in the field of insulation diagnostics. The presence of partial discharges inside the cable indicates the degradation of insulation material. This thesis deals with the development of insulation diagnostic method based on the partial discharge measurements. The useful information about the partial discharge activity and insulation defects is extracted by the experimental results. A measuring test setup was established in the hi...

  15. Cone-beam computed tomography guided study on silver clips displacement in breast cancer patients treated by three-dimensional conformal partial breast irradiation assisted by active breathing control after breast-conserving surgery

    Objective: To study the displacement of silver clips guided by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to explore the margin of clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) for breast cancer patients treated by three-dimensional conformal external-beam partial breast irradiation (EB-PBI) assisted by active breathing control (ABC) after breast-conserving surgery. Methods: All patients received CT simulated positioning assisted by ABC to get CT images based on the respiratory condition of moderate deep inspiration breath hold (mDIBH), and the images were transferred to Varian Eclipse treatment planning system. Four silver clips located at the cephal, pedal, lateral border and bottom of the cavity were delineated respectively and the cavity based on all of the clips were delineated as gross tumor volume (GTV). The treatment planning for EB-PBI was performed in Varian 23 EX linear accelerator equipped with kilovoltage(kV) CBCT image-guided system named On-Board Imager (OBI) system. Before each irradiation, kV-CBCT were carried out twice for patients on the respiratory condition of mDIBH assisted by ABC device with the same threshold as CT simulated positioning to get the CBCT images. 3D-3D automatic registration based on pixel between the CBCT image and the planning CT image was finished and the displacement on LAT, LNG and VRT directions were recorded, and then the marked clips were registered by hand movement based on the automatic registration and the shifts and directions were also recorded. A total of eight groups data of displacement of each marked clip for each patient were got from four fractions with two groups data during each fraction. Based on the registration data of the marked clips, the intrafraction and interfraction group systematic errors (Σintra vs Σinter) and group random errors (σintra vs σinter) were analysed. General group systematic error Σgeneral and general random error σgeneral were calculated based on combination of

  16. Partial spectral multipliers and partial Riesz transforms for degenerate operators

    ter Elst, A F M

    2012-01-01

    We consider degenerate differential operators $A = \\displaystyle{\\sum_{k,j=1}^d \\partial_k (a_{kj} \\partial_j)}$ on $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ with real symmetric bounded measurable coefficients. Given a function $\\chi \\in C_b^\\infty(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ (respectively, $\\Omega$ a bounded Lipschitz domain) and suppose that $(a_{kj}) \\ge \\mu > 0$ a.e.\\ on $ \\supp \\chi$ (resp., a.e.\\ on $\\Omega$). We prove a spectral multiplier type result: if $F\\colon [0, \\infty) \\to \\mathbb{C}$ is such that $\\sup_{t > 0} \\| \\varphi(.) F(t .) \\|_{C^s} d/2$ then $M_\\chi F(I+A) M_\\chi$ is weak type $(1,1)$ (resp.\\ $P_\\Omega F(I+A) P_\\Omega$ is weak type $(1,1)$). We also prove boundedness on $L^p$ for all $p \\in (1,2]$ of the partial Riesz transforms $M_\\chi \

  17. D-二聚体、抗凝血酶Ⅲ活性及常规凝血指标在产后出血所致DIC中的临床价值%The clinic value of D dimmer, anti thrombin Ⅲ activity and routine coagulation tests in disseminated intravascular coagulation caused by postpartum hemorrhage

    折瑞莲; 苏放明; 霍梅; 周莉

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨定量检测血浆D-二聚体(D dimmer,D-D),抗凝血酶Ⅲ活性(anti thrombin Ⅲ activity,AT-Ⅲ:A)及常规凝血指标在产后出血所致DIC中的临床价值.方法 根据产后出血量对37例产后出血患者进行分组:第1组22例,产后出血量500-800 ml,第2组15例,产后出血量>800ml,选同期正常分娩产妇49例(产后出血<500ml)为对照组;定量检测3组产时D-D、AT-Ⅲ:A及常规凝血指标.结果 与对照组相比,产时D-D明显升高,AT-Ⅲ:A降低于(P均<0.001);第2组的凝血酶原时间(prothrombin time,PT)、凝血时间(thrombin time,TT)、血浆活化部分凝血活酶时间(activated partial thromboplastin time,APTT)(P均<0.01)及D-D(P<0.001)升高,纤维蛋白原(fibrinogen,Fg)、血小板计数(platelet count,WPC)(P均<0.01)及AT-Ⅲ:A降低(P<0.001).与第1组相比,第2组D-D升高,Fg、BPC及AT-Ⅲ:A降低(P均<0.01).结论 AT-Ⅲ:A及D-D比常规凝血指标变化灵敏,可早期诊断产后出血所致的DIC.

  18. Timed Testing under Partial Observability

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao;

    2009-01-01

    observability of SUT using a set of predicates over the TGA state space, and specify the test purposes in Computation Tree Logic (CTL) formulas. A recently developed partially observable timed game solver is used to generate winning strategies, which are used as test cases. We propose a conformance testing...... framework, define a partial observation-based conformance relation, present the test execution algorithms, and prove the soundness and completeness of this test method (i.e., a detected error is really an error, and if the SUT violates the test purpose, then a test case can be generated to detect this......To steer model-based conformance testing of real-time systems towards certain test purposes or test coverage, many testing methods need (to be enhanced with) the assumption of full observability of the System Under Test (SUT), which means that the tester can observe precisely what state or...

  19. Partial hydatidiform mole: ultrasonographic features.

    Woo, J S; Hsu, C; Fung, L L; Ma, H K

    1983-05-01

    Four patients with partial hyatidiform mole managed at the Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, are described. The diagnosis of blighted ovum or missed abortion was made on the sonographic findings prior to suction evacuation. The dominant features in these cases consisted of a relatively large central transonic area bearing the appearance of an empty gestational sac and surrounded by a thick rim of low-level placenta-like echoes; in contrast with the case of the blighted ovum, a well-defined echogenic sac wall is absent. In another 9 patients with molar pregnancy managed during the same period, the more typical 'snow-storm' vesicular appearance was present. It was concluded that the anembryonic appearance described should alert the sonologist and clinician to the possible diagnosis of partial hydatitiform mole. The evacuated material from the uterine cavity should be examined morphologically and if possible cytogenetically. PMID:6578773

  20. Wettability of partially suspended graphene.

    Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Thomas, Vincent; Nuñez, Marc; Dujardin, Erik; Rahman, Atikur; Black, Charles T; Checco, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The dependence of the wettability of graphene on the nature of the underlying substrate remains only partially understood. Here, we systematically investigate the role of liquid-substrate interactions on the wettability of graphene by varying the area fraction of suspended graphene from 0 to 95% by means of nanotextured substrates. We find that completely suspended graphene exhibits the highest water contact angle (85° ± 5°) compared to partially suspended or supported graphene, regardless of the hydrophobicity (hydrophilicity) of the substrate. Further, 80% of the long-range water-substrate interactions are screened by the graphene monolayer, the wettability of which is primarily determined by short-range graphene-liquid interactions. By its well-defined chemical and geometrical properties, supported graphene therefore provides a model system to elucidate the relative contribution of short and long range interactions to the macroscopic contact angle. PMID:27072195

  1. Wettability of partially suspended graphene

    Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Thomas, Vincent; Nuñez, Marc; Dujardin, Erik; Rahman, Atikur; Black, Charles T.; Checco, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The dependence of the wettability of graphene on the nature of the underlying substrate remains only partially understood. Here, we systematically investigate the role of liquid-substrate interactions on the wettability of graphene by varying the area fraction of suspended graphene from 0 to 95% by means of nanotextured substrates. We find that completely suspended graphene exhibits the highest water contact angle (85° ± 5°) compared to partially suspended or supported graphene, regardless of the hydrophobicity (hydrophilicity) of the substrate. Further, 80% of the long-range water-substrate interactions are screened by the graphene monolayer, the wettability of which is primarily determined by short-range graphene-liquid interactions. By its well-defined chemical and geometrical properties, supported graphene therefore provides a model system to elucidate the relative contribution of short and long range interactions to the macroscopic contact angle. PMID:27072195

  2. Dynamics of partial differential equations

    Wayne, C Eugene

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on the dynamics of partial differential equations that deal with closely related topics but can be read independently. Wayne reviews recent results on the global dynamics of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. This system exhibits stable vortex solutions: the topic of Wayne's contribution is how solutions that start from arbitrary initial conditions evolve towards stable vortices. Weinstein considers the dynamics of localized states in nonlinear Schrodinger and Gross-Pitaevskii equations that describe many optical and quantum systems. In this contribution, Weinstein reviews recent bifurcations results of solitary waves, their linear and nonlinear stability properties, and results about radiation damping where waves lose energy through radiation.   The articles, written independently, are combined into one volume to showcase the tools of dynamical systems theory at work in explaining qualitative phenomena associated with two classes of partial differential equ...

  3. Partially linear censored quantile regression

    Neocleous, T.; Portnoy, S.

    2009-01-01

    Censored regression quantile (CRQ) methods provide a powerful and flexible approach to the analysis of censored survival data when standard linear models are felt to be appropriate. In many cases however, greater flexibility is desired to go beyond the usual multiple regression paradigm. One area of common interest is that of partially linear models: one (or more) of the explanatory covariates are assumed to act on the response through a non-linear function. Here the CRQ approach of Portnoy (...

  4. Chaos in Partial Differential Equations

    Li, Y. Charles

    2009-01-01

    This is a survey on Chaos in Partial Differential Equations. First we classify soliton equations into three categories: 1. (1+1)-dimensional soliton equations, 2. soliton lattices, 3. (1+n)-dimensional soliton equations (n greater than 1). A systematic program has been established by the author and collaborators, for proving the existence of chaos in soliton equations under perturbations. For each category, we pick a representative to present the results. Then we review some initial results o...

  5. Matching games with partial information

    Paolo Laureti Yi-Cheng Zhang

    2003-01-01

    We analyze different ways of pairing agents in a bipartite matching problem, with regard to its scaling properties and to the distribution of individual ``satisfactions''. Then we explore the role of partial information and bounded rationality in a generalized {\\it Marriage Problem}, comparing the benefits obtained by self-searching and by a matchmaker. Finally we propose a modified matching game intended to mimic the way consumers' information makes firms to enhance the quality of their prod...

  6. Supersymmetric Partially Interacting Dark Matter

    Fischler, Willy; Lorshbough, Dustin; Tangarife, Walter

    2014-01-01

    We present a model of partially interacting dark matter (PIDM) within the framework of supersymmetry with gauge mediated symmetry breaking. Dark sector atoms are produced through Affleck-Dine baryogenesis in the dark sector while avoiding the production of Q-ball relics. We discuss the astrophysical constraints relevant for this model and the possibility of dark galactic disk formation. In addition, jet emission from rotating black holes is discussed in the context of this class of models.

  7. Supervisory control with partial observations

    Komenda, Jan

    1. London: Springer, 2013 - (Seatzu, C.; Silva, M.; van Schuppen, J.), s. 65-84. (Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences. 433). ISBN 978-1-4471-4275-1 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0517 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : discrete-event systems * partial observations * observability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.springerlink.com/content/978-1-4471-4275-1/#section=1101992&page=1&locus=0

  8. Searching for partial Hadamard matrices

    Álvarez, Víctor; Frau, María-Dolores; Gudiel, Félix; Güemes, María-Belén; Martín, Elena; Osuna, Amparo

    2012-01-01

    Three algorithms looking for pretty large partial Hadamard matrices are described. Here "large" means that hopefully about a third of a Hadamard matrix (which is the best asymptotic result known so far, [dLa00]) is achieved. The first one performs some kind of local exhaustive search, and consequently is expensive from the time consuming point of view. The second one comes from the adaptation of the best genetic algorithm known so far searching for cliques in a graph, due to Singh and Gupta [SG06]. The last one consists in another heuristic search, which prioritizes the required processing time better than the final size of the partial Hadamard matrix to be obtained. In all cases, the key idea is characterizing the adjacency properties of vertices in a particular subgraph G_t of Ito's Hadamard Graph Delta (4t) [Ito85], since cliques of order m in G_t can be seen as (m+3)*4t partial Hadamard matrices.

  9. Management of partial traumatic hemipelvectomy.

    Wang, Guodong; Zhou, Dongsheng; Shen, Wun-Jer; Xin, Maoyuan; He, Jiliang; Li, Qinghu; Tan, Guoqing

    2013-11-01

    Partial traumatic hemipelvectomy is a devastating condition. Although by definition the affected limb is not totally transected from the trunk because of retained soft tissue, the reported mortality rate is actually higher than in complete traumatic hemipelvectomy. Between January 2000 and December 2011, a total of 917 patients were admitted to the authors' institution for pelvic fracture. Seven of these patients met the criteria for partial traumatic hemipelvectomy. All 7 patients had multiple associated injuries and met the criteria for Baskett class IV hypovolemic shock on arrival at the emergency department. The amount of bleeding was the greatest issue, and control of hemorrhage and rapid blood transfusion were the initial goals. Abdominal aorta balloon occlusion, laparotomy and packing, and pelvic external fixation were useful to control bleeding. Two patients died during the initial resuscitation phase. Angiography (digital subtraction or computed tomographic) was performed in 4 patients but did not provide any treatment-altering information. Limb preservation was attempted in 2 patients; both of these patients eventually required hindquarter amputation. One patient died, and the second patient survived after a difficult postoperative course. The best results were obtained in 3 patients who underwent completion of the hindquarter amputation within 24 hours of trauma. All patients became wheelchair dependent, and no patient was able to return to work. Early completion of hindquarter amputation after hemorrhaging has been controlled is recommended in patients with partial traumatic hemipelvectomy. Angiography did not prove useful in decision making. PMID:24200435

  10. Partial domain wall partition functions

    Foda, O

    2012-01-01

    We consider six-vertex model configurations on a rectangular lattice with n (N) horizontal (vertical) lines, and "partial domain wall boundary conditions" defined as 1. all 2n arrows on the left and right boundaries point inwards, 2. n_u (n_l) arrows on the upper (lower) boundary, such that n_u + n_l = N - n, also point inwards, 3. all remaining n+N arrows on the upper and lower boundaries point outwards, and 4. all spin configurations on the upper and lower boundaries are summed over. To generate (n-by-N) "partial domain wall configurations", one can start from A. (N-by-N) configurations with domain wall boundary conditions and delete n_u (n_l) upper (lower) horizontal lines, or B. (2n-by-N) configurations that represent the scalar product of an n-magnon Bethe eigenstate and an n-magnon generic state on an N-site spin-1/2 chain, and delete the n lines that represent the Bethe eigenstate. The corresponding "partial domain wall partition function" is computed in construction {A} ({B}) as an N-by-N (n-by-n) det...

  11. Partial differential equations an introduction

    Colton, David

    2004-01-01

    Intended for a college senior or first-year graduate-level course in partial differential equations, this text offers students in mathematics, engineering, and the applied sciences a solid foundation for advanced studies in mathematics. Classical topics presented in a modern context include coverage of integral equations and basic scattering theory. This complete and accessible treatment includes a variety of examples of inverse problems arising from improperly posed applications. Exercises at the ends of chapters, many with answers, offer a clear progression in developing an understanding of

  12. Entropic stability beyond partial hyperbolicity

    Buzzi, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a class of deformations of Anosov diffeomorphisms: these $C^0$-small, but $C^1$-macroscopic deformations break the topological conjugacy class but leave the high entropy dynamics unchanged. More precisely, there is a partial conjugacy between the deformation and the original Anosov system that identifies all invariant probability measures with entropy close to the maximum. We also establish expansiveness around those measures. This class of deformations contains many of the known nonhyperbolic robustly transitive diffeomorphisms. In particular, we show that it includes a class of nonpartially hyperbolic, robustly transitive diffeomorphisms described by Bonatti and Viana.

  13. Laparoscopic radical and partial cystectomy

    Challacombe Ben

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical cystectomy remains the standard treatment for muscle invasive organ confined bladder carcinoma. Laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy (LRC is an advanced laparoscopic procedure that places significant demands on the patient and the surgeon alike. It is a prolonged procedure which includes several technical steps and requires highly developed laparoscopic skills including intra-corporeal suturing. Here we review the development of the technique, the indications, complications and outcomes. We also examine the potential benefits of robotic-assisted LRC and explore the indications and technique of laparoscopic partial cystectomy.

  14. Laparoscopic Partial Hepatectomy: Animal Experiments

    Haruhiro Inoue

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available As a first step in firmly establishing laparoscopic hepatectomy, we introduce a porcine model of laparoscopic partial hepatectomy. This procedure has been successfully performed under the normal-pressure or low-pressure pneumoperitoneum condition supported by the full-thickness abdominal wall lifting technique. An ultrasonic dissector combined with electrocautery, newly developed by Olympus Optical Corporation (Japan was effectively utilized in facilitating safe and smooth incisions into the liver parenchyma. Although indications for this procedure seem to be limited only to peripheral lesions and not to central lesions, clinical application of this method may be useful for some patients in the near future.

  15. Planning with Partial Preference Models

    Nguyen, Tuan; Gerevini, Alfonso; Serina, Ivan; Srivastava, Biplav; Kambhampati, Subbarao

    2011-01-01

    Current work in planning with preferences assume that the user's preference models are completely specified and aim to search for a single solution plan. In many real-world planning scenarios, however, the user probably cannot provide any information about her desired plans, or in some cases can only express partial preferences. In such situations, the planner has to present not only one but a set of plans to the user, with the hope that some of them are similar to the plan she prefers. We first propose the usage of different measures to capture quality of plan sets that are suitable for such scenarios: domain-independent distance measures defined based on plan elements (actions, states, causal links) if no knowledge of the user's preferences is given, and the Integrated Convex Preference measure in case the user's partial preference is provided. We then investigate various heuristic approaches to find set of plans according to these measures, and present empirical results demonstrating the promise of our app...

  16. Male patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome

    Hellmann, Philip; Christiansen, Peter; Johannsen, Trine Holm;

    2012-01-01

    To describe the natural history of phenotype, growth and gonadal function in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.......To describe the natural history of phenotype, growth and gonadal function in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome....

  17. Fair Preorder for Partial Fair Kripke Structures

    徐蔚文; 陆鑫达

    2003-01-01

    This paper discussed how to handle the fairness conditions in partial Kripke structures. The partial Krip-ke structures were used for partial state spaces model checking, which is a new technique to solve problems of stateexplosion. This paper extended the partial Kripke structure with fairness conditions by defining a partial fair Krip-ke structure, and a 3-valued fair CTL(Computation-Tree Logic) semantics correspondingly. It defines a fair pre-order between partial Kripke structures that preserves fairness and is akin to fair bisimulation. In addition, a perti-nent theorem is also given, which indicates the relationship between the partial state spaces and the more completeone by illustrating the characterizations of states in the partial fair structure in terms of CTL formulae.

  18. Partial migration in fishes: causes and consequences

    Chapman, B.B.; Hulthén, K.; Brodersen, J.;

    2012-01-01

    Partial migration, where only some individuals from a population migrate, has been widely reported in a diverse range of animals. In this paper, what is known about the causes and consequences of partial migration in fishes is reviewed. Firstly, the ultimate and proximate drivers of partial...... reflection on the future opportunities in this field, and the avenues of research that are likely to be fruitful to shed light on the enduring puzzle of partial migration in fishes...

  19. The Hydra-k partial fields

    Pendavingh, R A

    2010-01-01

    In the paper "Confinement of matroid representations to subsets of partial fields" (arXiv:0806.4487) we introduced the Hydra-k partial fields to study quinary matroids with inequivalent representations. The proofs of some results on these partial fields require extensive computations. This paper contains these computations, implemented in Mathematica.

  20. Algorithms for Irrelevance-Based Partial MAPs

    Shimony, Solomon Eyal

    2013-01-01

    Irrelevance-based partial MAPs are useful constructs for domain-independent explanation using belief networks. We look at two definitions for such partial MAPs, and prove important properties that are useful in designing algorithms for computing them effectively. We make use of these properties in modifying our standard MAP best-first algorithm, so as to handle irrelevance-based partial MAPs.

  1. Partial Oblique Projection Learning for Optimal Generalization

    LIU Benyong; ZHANG Jing

    2004-01-01

    In practice,it is necessary to implement an incremental and active learning for a learning method.In terms of such implementation,this paper shows that the previously discussed S-L projection learning is inappropriate to constructing a family of projection learning,and proposes a new version called partial oblique projection (POP) learning.In POP learning,a function space is decomposed into two complementary subspaces,so that functions belonging to one of the subspaces can be completely estimated in noiseless case;while in noisy case,the dispersions are set to be the smallest.In addition,a general form of POP learning is presented and the results of a simulation are given.

  2. Partially Screened Gap in Pulsars

    Gil, Janusz; Melikidze, George

    2011-09-01

    We discuss the Partially Screened Gap (PSG) model of the pulsar inner accelerator, which implies that the temperature of the polar cap surface is almost equal to the so called critical temperature, which is defined by the strength of the magnetic field at the neutron star surface. Observations of thermal X-ray emission point out an important correlation between the hot spot area and the temperature derived from the blackbody fit. The implied magnetic field at the pole is usually much higher than the conventional dipolar values. Therefore, we believe that the surface magnetic field in radio pulsars is non-dipolar in nature. We argue that major characteristics of the pulsar radiation, including correlation between observed features of X-ray and radio emissions can be naturally explained in the framework of PSG model.

  3. Simulation of Biomass Partial Oxidation

    Tukač, V.; Hanika, Jiří; Veselý, Václav; Lederer, V.; Kovač, D.

    -: SciTePress Digital Library, 2011. s. 422-424. ISBN 978-989842578-2 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-2TP1/024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : simulation * biomass * partial oxidation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-80052593303&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=SIMULTECH&nlo=&nlr=&nls=&sid=EnnX5n86OrvyKa_2h-CvyY2%3a30&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=15&s=CONF%28SIMULTECH%29&relpos=30&relpos=10&searchTerm=CONF(SIMULTECH)

  4. A Framework for Partial Secrecy

    Cuff, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We consider theoretical limits of partial secrecy in a setting where an eavesdropper attempts to causally reconstruct an information sequence with low distortion based on an intercepted transmission and the past of the sequence. The transmitter and receiver have limited secret key at their disposal but not enough to establish perfect secrecy with a one-time pad. From another viewpoint, the eavesdropper is acting as an adversary, competing in a zero-sum repeated game against the sender and receiver of the secrecy system. In this case, the information sequence represents a sequence of actions, and the distortion function captures the payoff of the game. We give an information theoretic region expressing the tradeoff between secret key rate and max-min distortion for the eavesdropper. We also simplify this characterization to a linear program. As an example, we discuss how to optimally use secret key to hide Bernoulli-p bits from an eavesdropper so that they incur maximal Hamming distortion.

  5. Response function of spatially partial imaging systems

    We introduce the Partial Coherence Response Function for describing the behaviour of imaging systems under spatially partially illumination. It involves the impulse response of the system and the spatial coherence properties of the illumination. It is shown that this function is the image cross-spectral density for a Young's pair of pinholes attached to the object plane. Furthermore, the Partial Coherence Response Function and the Partial Coherence Transfer Function are a Fourier pair. Indeed, they can be used as a Fourier representation of partially coherent imaging. (author)

  6. Some Recent Advances in Partial Difference Equations

    Petropoulou, Eugenia N

    2010-01-01

    Lately there is an increasing interest in partial difference equations demonstrated by the enormous amount of research papers devoted to them. The initial reason for this increasing interest was the development of computers and the area of numerical analysis, where partial difference equations arise naturally when discretizing a partial differential equation. The aim of this e-book is to provide some recent advances in the field of partial difference equations. Applications of partial difference equations in numerical analysis and systems theory are also presented. This e-book will be of use t

  7. Inhomogeneous cortical synchronization and partial epileptic seizures

    Lorena Carolina Vega

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Interictal synchronization clusters have recently been described in several publications using diverse techniques, including neurophysiological recordings and fMRI, in patients suffering from epilepsy. However, little is known about the role of these hyper-synchronous areas during seizures. In this work, we report an analysis of synchronization clusters jointly with several network measures during seizure activity; we then discuss our findings in the context of prior literature. Methods: Subdural activity was recorded by electrocorticography (with sixty electrodes placed at temporal and parietal lobe locations in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy with partial seizures with and without secondary generalization. Both interictal and ictal activities (during four seizures were investigated and characterized using local synchronization and complex network methodology. The modularity, density of links, average clustering coefficient and average path lengths were calculated to obtain information about the dynamics of the global network. Functional connectivity changes during the seizures were compared with the time-evolution of highly synchronized areas.Results: Our findings reveal temporal changes in local synchronization areas during seizures and a tight relationship between the cortical locations of these areas and the patterns of their evolution over time. Seizure evolution and secondary generalization appear to be driven by two different underlying mechanisms.

  8. Individualizing goals for users of externally powered partial hand prostheses

    Lynsay Whelan, MS, OTR/L

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent advances in prosthetic technology available for individuals with partial hand loss or deficiency, research is needed to best ensure the acceptance of these devices. Additionally, this population is subjected to higher risks of overuse syndromes. With improved technological advances in prosthetic devices, clients can engage in more complex activities with less compensation. The purpose of this study was to describe the tasks identified as both difficult and important to individuals with partial hand loss. Recommendations will be provided regarding matching users’ individualized goals with considerations in prosthetic design, functional training, programming, and adaptive equipment.

  9. YOHKOH remnants: partially occulted flares in hard X-rays

    M. Tomczak

    2009-01-01

    Flares being partially occulted by the solar limb, are the best reservoir of our knowledge about hard X-ray loop-top sources. Recently, the survey of partially occulted flares observed by the RHESSI has been published (Krucker & Lin 2008). The extensive YOHKOH database still awaits such activities. This work is an attempt to fill this gap. Among from 1286 flares in the YOHKOH Hard X-ray Telescope Flare Catalogue, for which the hard X-ray images had been enclosed, we identified 98 events that ...

  10. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120°C, and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. To keep costs low, the system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A...... ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulfate reduction rate upon the addition of methane to the sample....

  11. Partial ACL rupture: an MR diagnosis?

    We sought to clarify the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) to show partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures and to allow distinction of partial from complete ACL ruptures. Eighty-eight patients were studied by arthroscopy and MR (36 with normal ACLs, 21 with partial ACL ruptures, and 31 with complete ACL ruptures). MR studies were interpreted by an experienced, blinded reader. MR examinations were also independently scored with respect to four primary and seven secondary signs, and these data were analyzed using discriminant analysis. The sensitivity of MR is lower for partial than for complete ACL ruptures. Most detected partial ACL ruptures resemble complete ruptures on MR. Secondary signs do not significantly improve detection of partial ACL ruptures, but they do help to distinguish partial from complete ACL ruptures. Displacement of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus and popliteus muscle injury are indicative of complete ACL rupture. The majority of partial ACL ruptures are shown by MR, but MR is less sensitive for partial than for complete ACL rupture. The distinction of partial from complete ACL rupture on MR examination, while problematic, is slightly improved by assessment of secondary signs. (orig.)

  12. Partial ACL rupture: an MR diagnosis?

    Yao, L. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA Center for the Health Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gentili, A. [Dept. of Radiology, UCLA-Wadsworth Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Petrus, L. [Dept. of Radiology, UCLA-Olive View Medical Center, Sylmar, CA (United States); Lee, J.K. [Dept. of Radiology, Samaritan Hospital, Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    We sought to clarify the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) to show partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures and to allow distinction of partial from complete ACL ruptures. Eighty-eight patients were studied by arthroscopy and MR (36 with normal ACLs, 21 with partial ACL ruptures, and 31 with complete ACL ruptures). MR studies were interpreted by an experienced, blinded reader. MR examinations were also independently scored with respect to four primary and seven secondary signs, and these data were analyzed using discriminant analysis. The sensitivity of MR is lower for partial than for complete ACL ruptures. Most detected partial ACL ruptures resemble complete ruptures on MR. Secondary signs do not significantly improve detection of partial ACL ruptures, but they do help to distinguish partial from complete ACL ruptures. Displacement of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus and popliteus muscle injury are indicative of complete ACL rupture. The majority of partial ACL ruptures are shown by MR, but MR is less sensitive for partial than for complete ACL rupture. The distinction of partial from complete ACL rupture on MR examination, while problematic, is slightly improved by assessment of secondary signs. (orig.)

  13. Partially Screened Polar Gap in Pulsars

    Melikidze, G.; Gil, J.

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate that the features of the partially screened polar gap define properties of both X and radio emission of pulsars. The model implies that the temperature of the polar cap surface is almost equal to the co called critical temperature which is defined by the strength of the magnetic field at the stellar surface. Parameters of observed thermal X-ray emission derived from the blackbody fit usually imply the surface of the hot spot to be much smaller than the conventional polar cap area, which can be naturally explained by assuming that the geometry and strength of the magnetic field at the stellar surface differ essentially from the pure star centered dipole field. The model assumes that the source of the pulsar activity is associated with the Partially Screened Gap (PSG) operating in the inner acceleration region above the polar cap where the electric field has a component along the magnetic field lines. Particles (electrons and positrons) are accelerated in both directions: outward and toward the stellar surface. Consequently, outstreaming particles generate the magnetospheric X-ray emission while the backstreaming particles heat the surface and provide necessary energy for the thermal emission. The model assumes that the potential drop near the stellar surface is partially screened by the positive ions. Therefore the accelerating potential drop depends on the temperature of the polar cap. If temperature increases the density of the charge also increases, which causes reduction of the potential drop and consequently reduction of heating rate. As a result the surface temperature should be stabilized near the critical value. The model described above predicts certain dependence between the hot spot area and temperature, derived from the black body fitting to the spectra of the neutron star thermal X-ray emission. The temperature should always equal to the critical temperature. On the other hand the critical temperature is defined by the strength of the

  14. Report on ISS Oxygen Production, Resupply, and Partial Pressure Management

    Schaezler, Ryan; Ghariani, Ahmed; Leonard, Daniel; Lehman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The majority of oxygen used on International Space Station (ISS) is for metabolic support and denitrogenation procedures prior to Extra-Vehicular Activities. Oxygen is supplied by various visiting vehicles such as the Progress and Shuttle in addition to oxygen production capability on both the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) and Russian Segment (RS). To maintain a habitable atmosphere the oxygen partial pressure is controlled between upper and lower bounds. The full range of the allowable oxygen partial pressure along with the increased ISS cabin volume is utilized as a buffer allowing days to pass between oxygen production or direct addition of oxygen to the atmosphere from reserves. This paper summarizes amount of oxygen supplied and produced from all of the sources and describes past experience of managing oxygen partial pressure along with the range of management options available to the ISS.

  15. On multivariate quantiles under partial ordering

    Belloni, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on generalizing quantiles from the ordering point of view. We propose the concept of {\\it partial quantiles} based on a given partial order. We establish that partial quantiles are equivariant under partial-order-preserving transformations of the data, display a concentration of measure phenomenon, generalize the concept of efficient frontier, and can measure dispersion from the partial order perspective. We also study several statistical aspects of partial quantiles. We provide estimators, associated rates of convergence, and asymptotic distributions that hold uniformly over a continuum of quantile indices. Furthermore, we provide procedures that can restore monotonicity properties that might have been disturbed by estimation error, and establish computational complexity bounds. Finally, we illustrate the concepts by discussing several theoretical examples and simulations. Empirical applications to compare intake nutrients within diets and to evaluate the performance of investment funds ar...

  16. Controlled partial teleportation of entangled states

    In this paper, we introduce the controlled partial teleportation of entangled states. By controlled partial teleportation we mean that teleportation will occur mediated by a third part and changing one of the partners of the entangled state to be teleported. We also provide a scheme for implementing controlled partial teleportation using internal degrees of freedom of trapped ions. Our scheme is insensitive to the exchange of vibrational energy with the environment.

  17. Procrastination, partial naivete, and behavioral welfare analysis

    Asheim, Geir B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper has a dual purpose. First, I present a new modeling of partial naivete, and apply this to the analysis of procrastination. The decision maker is assumed to have stationary behavior and to be partially naive in the sense of perceiving that his current preferences may persist in the future. The behavioral implications of such partial naivete differ from those of related literature. Second, I suggest a general principle for welfare analysis in multi-self settings through a new applica...

  18. Partial differential equations of mathematical physics

    Sobolev, S L

    1964-01-01

    Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics emphasizes the study of second-order partial differential equations of mathematical physics, which is deemed as the foundation of investigations into waves, heat conduction, hydrodynamics, and other physical problems. The book discusses in detail a wide spectrum of topics related to partial differential equations, such as the theories of sets and of Lebesgue integration, integral equations, Green's function, and the proof of the Fourier method. Theoretical physicists, experimental physicists, mathematicians engaged in pure and applied math

  19. Partially entangled states bridge in quantum teleportation

    Cai, Xiao-Fei; Yu, Xu-Tao; Shi, Li-Hui; Zhang, Zai-Chen

    2014-10-01

    The traditional method for information transfer in a quantum communication system using partially entangled state resource is quantum distillation or direct teleportation. In order to reduce the waiting time cost in hop-by-hop transmission and execute independently in each node, we propose a quantum bridging method with partially entangled states to teleport quantum states from source node to destination node. We also prove that the designed specific quantum bridging circuit is feasible for partially entangled states teleportation across multiple intermediate nodes. Compared to two traditional ways, our partially entanglement quantum bridging method uses simpler logic gates, has better security, and can be used in less quantum resource situation.

  20. Strains of Lactococcus lactis with a partial pyrimidine requirement show sensitivity toward aspartic acid

    Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lyders Lerche; Martinussen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    that the partial pyrimidine requirement can be explained by a low specific activity of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes. In conclusion, L. lactis LM0230 during the process of plasmid- and prophage-curing has acquired a partial pyrimidine requirement resulting in sensitivity toward aspartic acid....

  1. Theoretical Framework for Evaluating Partial Checksum Protection in Wireless Video Streaming

    Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren; Larsen, Knud J.

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of passing partially corrupted packets to the application instead of discarding them have been debated actively, since Lightweight User Data gram Protocol (UDP Lite) was introduced. UDP Lite allows partial check summing in order to omit bit errors in the non-critical part of the pack...

  2. Toll-Like Receptor 2- and 6-Mediated Stimulation by Macrophage-Activating Lipopeptide 2 Induces Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Cross Tolerance in Mice, Which Results in Protection from Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha but in Only Partial Protection from Lethal LPS Doses

    Deiters, Ursula; Gumenscheimer, Marina; Galanos, Chris; Mühlradt, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    Patients or experimental animals previously exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) become tolerant to further LPS challenge. We investigated the potential of the macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 (MALP-2) to induce in vivo cross tolerance to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and LPS. MALP-2-induced tolerance could be of practical interest, as MALP-2 proved much less pyrogenic in rabbits than LPS. Whereas LPS signals via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MALP-2 uses TLR2 and TLR6. LPS-mediated cyt...

  3. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of multitarget-directed ligands with both serotonergic subtype 4 receptor (5-HT4R) partial agonist and 5-HT6R antagonist activities, as potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Yahiaoui, Samir; Hamidouche, Katia; Ballandonne, Céline; Davis, Audrey; de Oliveira Santos, Jana Sopkova; Freret, Thomas; Boulouard, Michel; Rochais, Christophe; Dallemagne, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) activation and blockade of the 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) are known to enhance the release of numerous neurotransmitters whose depletion is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, 5-HT4R agonists seem to favor production of the neurotrophic soluble amyloid protein precursor alpha (sAPPα). Consequently, combining 5-HT4R agonist/5-HT6R antagonist activities in a single chemical compound would constitute a novel approach able to display both a symptomatic and disease-modifying effect in AD. Seventeen novel derivatives of RS67333 (1) were synthesized and evaluated as potential dual-target compounds. Among them, four agents showed nanomolar and submicromolar affinities toward 5-HT4R and 5-HT6R, respectively; one of them, 7m, was selected on the basis of its in vitro affinity (Ki5-HT4R = 5.3 nM, Ki5-HT6R = 219 nM) for further in vivo experiments, where 7m showed an antiamnesic effect in the mouse at 1 mg/kg ip. PMID:27266998

  4. Strong Turbulence in Partially Ionized Plasmas

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Pécseli, Hans

    1980-01-01

    Experimental investigations of strong turbulence in partially ionized, low-β plasmas are reported. The observed spectra are interpreted by applying Taylor's hypothesis and related to turbulent fluctuations in the ionosphere.......Experimental investigations of strong turbulence in partially ionized, low-β plasmas are reported. The observed spectra are interpreted by applying Taylor's hypothesis and related to turbulent fluctuations in the ionosphere....

  5. Partial Evaluation of the Euclidian Algorithm

    Danvy, Olivier; Goldberg, Mayer

    1997-01-01

    -like behavior. Each of them presents a challenge for partial evaluation. The Euclidian algorithm is one of them, and in this article, we make it amenable to partial evaluation. We observe that the number of iterations in the Euclidian algorithm is bounded by a number that can be computed given either of the two...

  6. Solution techniques for elementary partial differential equations

    Constanda, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating a number of enhancements, Solution Techniques for Elementary Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition presents some of the most important and widely used methods for solving partial differential equations (PDEs). The techniques covered include separation of variables, method of characteristics, eigenfunction expansion, Fourier and Laplace transformations, Green’s functions, perturbation methods, and asymptotic analysis.

  7. Partially Specified Probabilities: Decisions and Games

    Ehud Lehrer

    2012-01-01

    The paper develops a theory of decision making based on partially specified probabilities. It takes an axiomatic approach using Anscombe and Aumann's (1963) setting, and is based on the concave integral for capacities. This theory is then expanded to interactive models in order to extend Nash equilibrium by introducing the concept of partially specified equilibrium. (JEL C70, D81, D83)

  8. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for endophytic hilar tumors

    Di Pierro, G B; Tartaglia, N; Aresu, L; Polara, A; Cielo, A; Cristini, C; Grande, P; Gentile, V; Grosso, G

    2014-01-01

    To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients.......To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients....

  9. On Backward Stochstic Partial Differential Equations.

    2001-01-01

    We prove an existence and uniqueness result for a general class of backward stochastic partial differential equations. This is a type of equations which appear as adjoint equations in the maximum principle approach to optimal control of systems described by stochastic partial differential equations.

  10. Coefficient of Partial Correlation and Its Calculation

    段全才; 张保法

    1992-01-01

    This thesis offers the general concept of coefficient of partial correlation.Starting with regres-sion analysis,the paper,by using samples,infers the general formula of expressing coefficient of partial correlation by way of simple correlation coefficient.

  11. Zero ischemia laparoscopic partial thulium laser nephrectomy.

    Thomas, Arun Z

    2013-11-01

    Laser technology presents a promising alternative to achieve tumor excision and renal hemostasis with or without hilar occlusion, yet its use in partial nephrectomy has not been significantly evaluated. We prospectively evaluated the thulium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in our institution over a 1-year period.

  12. Removable partial overdentures for the irradiated patient

    Rosenberg, S.W. (New York Univ. School of Dentistry, NY (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Patients who have received radiotherapy to the head and neck area must avoid dental extractions and seek simplicity in treatment and home care follow-up. For partially edentulous patients, removable partial overdenture therapy can fulfill these goals while maintaining the high level of function and aesthetics desired by patients.11 references.

  13. Removable partial overdentures for the irradiated patient

    Patients who have received radiotherapy to the head and neck area must avoid dental extractions and seek simplicity in treatment and home care follow-up. For partially edentulous patients, removable partial overdenture therapy can fulfill these goals while maintaining the high level of function and aesthetics desired by patients.11 references

  14. Update on treatment of partial onset epilepsy: role of eslicarbazepine.

    Rauchenzauner, Markus; Luef, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Partial epilepsy comprises simple partial seizures, complex partial seizures, and secondarily generalized seizures, and covers more than 60% of patients with epilepsy. Antiepileptic drugs are generally considered to be the major therapeutic intervention for epilepsy but, despite a broad range of commonly used antiepileptic drugs, approximately 30% of adult patients and approximately 25% of children with epilepsy have inadequate seizure control. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a novel voltage-gated sodium channel-blocking agent with presumed good safety and efficacy for adjunctive treatment of patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy. ESL is a prodrug of eslicarbazepine (the active entity responsible for pharmacologic effects), and is rapidly and extensively hydrolyzed during first pass by liver esterases after oral administration. The half-life of eslicarbazepine at steady-state plasma concentrations is 20-24 hours, compatible with once-daily administration. ESL 800 mg and 1200 mg significantly reduces seizure frequency and shows a favorable safety profile in adult patients with drug-resistant partial-onset seizures, as demonstrated in previous Phase II and III trials. In children, ESL showed a clear dose-dependent decrease in seizure frequency with good tolerability. The most commonly reported adverse events associated with ESL are dizziness, somnolence, nausea, diplopia, headache, vomiting, blurred vision, vertigo, and fatigue. In conclusion, these characteristics suggest that ESL might be a valid and well tolerated treatment option for patients with drug-resistant partial-onset epilepsy. The convenience of once-daily dosing and a short, simple titration regimen would be of special interest for children, although conclusive published data are lacking to date. Hence, there is an urgent need to establish the therapeutic value of ESL in this special population in the near future. PMID:21127691

  15. On the partial/line{partial} -Lemma and Bott-Chern cohomology

    Angella, Daniele; Tomassini, Adriano

    2013-04-01

    On a compact complex manifold $X$, we prove a Fr\\"olicher-type inequality for Bott-Chern cohomology and we show that the equality holds if and only if $X$ satisfies the $\\partial\\overline{\\partial}$-Lemma.

  16. Partial Safety Factors for Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.; Christiani, E.

    1995-01-01

    section 3. First Order Reliability Methods are described in section 4, and in section 5 it is shown how partial safety factors can be introduced and calibrated. The format of a code for design and analysis of rubble mound breakwaters is discussed in section 6. The mathematical formulation of the limit...... lifetimes from 20 to 100 years and different qualities of wave data. A code of practice where safety is taken into account using partial safety factors is called a level I code. The partial safety factors are calibrated using First Order Reliability Methods (FORM, see Madsen et al. [1]) where the......On the basis of the failure modes formulated in the various subtasks calibration of partial safety factors are described in this paper. The partial safety factors can be used to design breakwaters under quite different design conditions, namely probabilities of failure from 0.01 to 0.4, design...

  17. Silymarin Accelerates Liver Regeneration after Partial Hepatectomy

    Jia-Ping Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial hepatectomy (PHx is a liver regeneration physiological response induced to maintain homeostasis. Liver regeneration evolved presumably to protect wild animals from catastrophic liver loss caused by toxins or tissue injury. Silymarin (Sm ability to stimulate liver regeneration has been an object of curiosity for many years. Silymarin has been investigated for use as an antioxidant and anticarcinogen. However, its use as a supportive treatment for liver damage is elusive. In this study, we fed silymarin (Sm, 25 mg/kg to male Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 weeks. Surgical 2/3 PHx was then conducted on the rats at 6 hrs, 24 hrs, and 72 hrs. Western blot and RT-PCR were conducted to detect the cell cycle activities and silymarin effects on hepatic regeneration. The results showed that silymarin enhanced liver regeneration by accelerating the cell cycle in PHx liver. Silymarin led to increased G1 phase (cyclin D1/pRb, S phase (cyclin E/E2F, G2 phase (cyclin B, and M phase (cyclin A protein and mRNA at 6 hrs, 24 hrs, and 72 hrs PHx. HGF, TGFα, and TGFβ1 growth factor expressions were also enhanced. We suggest that silymarin plays a crucial role in accelerated liver regeneration after PHx.

  18. Thermal inactivation kinetics of partially purified mango pectin methylesterase

    Claudio Alonso DÍAZ-CRUZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kinetic parameters of thermal inactivation of pectin methylesterase (PME in a partially purified mango enzyme extract were determined. The PME of mango partially purified by salting out showed different patterns of thermal inactivation, indicating the presence of a thermostable fraction at 70 °C and a thermolabile fraction at lower temperatures. The inactivation of the thermostable fraction exhibited a linear behavior that yielded a z-value of 9.44 °C and an activation energy (Ea of 245.6 kJ mol-1 K-1 using the Arrhenius model. The thermostable mango PME fraction represented 17% of total crude enzyme extract, which emphasizes the importance of residual enzyme activity after heat treatment.

  19. Complex partial status epilepticus associated with cyclosporin A therapy.

    Appleton, R E; Farrell, K; Teal, P.; Hashimoto, S.A.; Wong, P K

    1989-01-01

    Significant neurotoxicity including seizures, encephalopathy and coma may complicate the use of cyclosporin A (CyA). Two patients are described, receiving CyA, who presented with abnormal behaviour, stupor, focal motor activity and were shown to be in complex partial status epilepticus (CPSE). Abnormalities of behaviour and/or stupor in patients receiving CyA may be a manifestation of CPSE. Patients receiving CyA who develop an encephalopathy should have electroencephalography performed at th...

  20. Partially Nanofibrous Architecture of 3D Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Wei, Guobao; Ma, Peter X.

    2009-01-01

    An ideal tissue-engineering scaffold should provide suitable pores and appropriate pore surface to induce desired cellular activities and to guide 3D tissue regeneration. In the present work, we have developed macroporous polymer scaffolds with varying pore wall architectures from smooth (solid), microporous, partially nanofibrous, to entirely nanofibrous ones. All scaffolds are designed to have well-controlled interconnected macropores, resulting from leaching sugar sphere template. We exami...

  1. Simple connectome inference from partial correlation statistics in calcium imaging

    Sutera, Antonio; Joly, Arnaud; François-Lavet, Vincent; Qiu, Zixiao; Louppe, Gilles; Ernst, Damien; Geurts, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose a simple yet effective solution to the problem of connectome inference in calcium imaging data. The proposed algorithm consists of two steps. First, processing the raw signals to detect neural peak activities. Second, inferring the degree of association between neurons from partial correlation statistics. This paper summarises the methodology that led us to win the Connectomics Challenge, proposes a simplified version of our method, and finally compares our results wi...

  2. The theory and measurement of partial discharge transients

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    are the charges which, as a result of partial discharge activity, are distributed within the voids of the insulation medium. These charge relationships are derived, and their application to the measured transients associated with the time dependence of the induced charge is presented. The application to multiple...... electrode systems of practical interest is illustrated. A discussion of the salient features and practical aspects of the theory is included...

  3. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Zaher, F. A.; Aly, Saadia M.; El-Kinawy, O. S.

    1998-01-01

    Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase) in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium&...

  4. Partial thermodynamic properties and defective structure of oxide phases

    Partial thermodynamic properties and defective structure of oxide phases have been considered and evaluation of the properties is made, using various correlations to create a correct statisticothermodynamic model of the defective structure. The dependences OEHsub(Osub(2)) deg, ΔSsub(Osub(2)) deg and ΔSsub(Osub(2)) deg (ΔHsub(Osub(2)) deg) are presented for such oxides as VOsub(1+-x), VOsub(3/2+x), VOsub(2+-x), ZrOsub(2-x), HfOsub(2-x), WOsub(2+x), Wosub(3-x). Ways to evaluate the type of defects using the thermodynamic dependences are shown: 1) the use of thermodynamic data in the method of quasichemical equilibrium of defects; 2) the method, based on the establishment of defective structure according to linear dependence of oxygen activity on x in MOsub(s+-x) in the case of certain types of defects; 3) the method of model selection of a compound defective structure comparing the reduced dependences of partial thermodynamic functions of the phase composition with the ones, obtained experimentally. Models of complex types of defective structure during partial ordering of the defects for CeOsub(2-x) and UOsub(2+x) are analyzed. Despite the multiplicity of assumptions and insufficiency of application limits study the model of energy levels is admitted to be the most perpective statistical model to determine partial thermodynamic properties of nonstoichiometric compounds with a complex defective structure, experimental determination of which is hampered

  5. Partial Siberian snake experiment at the AGS

    A 9 degree solenoidal spin rotator or 5% partial Siberian snake was used to successfully accelerate polarized protons for the first time to 10.8 GeV kinetic energy in the Brookhaven AGS. It was found that a 5% partial snake can effectively overcome 18 imperfection resonances in this energy range. We also observed an interference between the spin flip induced by an intrinsic resonance and linear coupling due to the solenoid field of the partial snake. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  6. Partially coherent contrast-transfer-function approximation.

    Nesterets, Yakov I; Gureyev, Timur E

    2016-04-01

    The contrast-transfer-function (CTF) approximation, widely used in various phase-contrast imaging techniques, is revisited. CTF validity conditions are extended to a wide class of strongly absorbing and refracting objects, as well as to nonuniform partially coherent incident illumination. Partially coherent free-space propagators, describing amplitude and phase in-line contrast, are introduced and their properties are investigated. The present results are relevant to the design of imaging experiments with partially coherent sources, as well as to the analysis and interpretation of the corresponding images. PMID:27140752

  7. Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations

    Lui, S H

    2011-01-01

    A balanced guide to the essential techniques for solving elliptic partial differential equations Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations provides a comprehensive, self-contained treatment of the quantitative methods used to solve elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs), with a focus on the efficiency as well as the error of the presented methods. The author utilizes coverage of theoretical PDEs, along with the nu merical solution of linear systems and various examples and exercises, to supply readers with an introduction to the essential concepts in the numerical analysis

  8. Manifest Duality for Partially Massless Higher Spins

    Hinterbichler, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    In four dimensions, partially massless fields of all spins and depths possess a duality invariance akin to electric-magnetic duality. We construct metric-like gauge invariant curvature tensors for partially massless fields of all integer spins and depths, and show how the partially massless equations of motion can be recovered from first order field equations and Bianchi identities for these curvatures. This formulation displays duality in its manifestly local and covariant form, in which it acts to interchange the field equations and Bianchi identities.

  9. Partial differential equations for scientists and engineers

    Farlow, Stanley J

    1993-01-01

    Most physical phenomena, whether in the domain of fluid dynamics, electricity, magnetism, mechanics, optics, or heat flow, can be described in general by partial differential equations. Indeed, such equations are crucial to mathematical physics. Although simplifications can be made that reduce these equations to ordinary differential equations, nevertheless the complete description of physical systems resides in the general area of partial differential equations.This highly useful text shows the reader how to formulate a partial differential equation from the physical problem (constructing th

  10. Properties of networks with partially structured and partially random connectivity

    Ahmadian, Yashar; Fumarola, Francesco; Miller, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Networks studied in many disciplines, including neuroscience and mathematical biology, have connectivity that may be stochastic about some underlying mean connectivity represented by a non-normal matrix. Furthermore, the stochasticity may not be independent and identically distributed (iid) across elements of the connectivity matrix. More generally, the problem of understanding the behavior of stochastic matrices with nontrivial mean structure and correlations arises in many settings. We address this by characterizing large random N ×N matrices of the form A =M +L J R , where M ,L , and R are arbitrary deterministic matrices and J is a random matrix of zero-mean iid elements. M can be non-normal, and L and R allow correlations that have separable dependence on row and column indices. We first provide a general formula for the eigenvalue density of A . For A non-normal, the eigenvalues do not suffice to specify the dynamics induced by A , so we also provide general formulas for the transient evolution of the magnitude of activity and frequency power spectrum in an N -dimensional linear dynamical system with a coupling matrix given by A . These quantities can also be thought of as characterizing the stability and the magnitude of the linear response of a nonlinear network to small perturbations about a fixed point. We derive these formulas and work them out analytically for some examples of M ,L , and R motivated by neurobiological models. We also argue that the persistence as N →∞ of a finite number of randomly distributed outlying eigenvalues outside the support of the eigenvalue density of A , as previously observed, arises in regions of the complex plane Ω where there are nonzero singular values of L-1(z 1 -M ) R-1 (for z ∈Ω ) that vanish as N →∞ . When such singular values do not exist and L and R are equal to the identity, there is a correspondence in the normalized Frobenius norm (but not in the operator norm) between the support of the spectrum

  11. Partial Discharge Simulation for a High Voltage Transformer Winding using a Model based on Geometrical Dimensions

    Abd Rahman, M S; Hao, L.; Rapisarda, P.; Lewin, P L

    2012-01-01

    In high voltage plant, ageing processes can occur in the dielectric and insulation system which are totally unavoidable and ultimately limit the operational life of the plant. For example, these unwanted processes can cause partial discharge (PD) activity inside a transformer and the presence of this activity will lead to further ageing and degradation processes until eventually there is catastrophic failure. Therefore, partial discharge condition monitoring inside a transformer and along a t...

  12. Effects of storage time and temperature on coagulation tests and factors in fresh plasma

    Limin Feng; Ying Zhao; Hongcan Zhao; Zhexin Shao

    2014-01-01

    Coagulation tests and factors measurements have been widely applied in clinical practice. Pre-analytical conditions are very important in laboratory assessment.Here,we aim to determine the effects of storage time and temperature on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fbg), prothrombin time (PT), the international normalized ratio (INR), thrombin time (TT), factor VIII activity (FVIII:C), and factor IX activity (FIX:C) in fresh plasma. Seventy-two blood samples were teste...

  13. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... replacement. At the end, we'll try and go over some questions of some common topics that come up when talking about partial knee replacements. So, let's get to our patient. She's a 42-year- ...

  14. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... Today we're going to be discussing several topics. First, we're going to introduce our patient. ... and go over some questions of some common topics that come up when talking about partial knee ...

  15. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... Advil and anti-inflammatories, as well as some physical therapy. Continuing with other non-operative treatment modalities, she ... is the full knee replacement. Some of the benefits of a partial knee replacement include a less ...

  16. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... through Partial Knee Replacement NewYork-Presbyterian New York City, New York May 4, 2010 I've always ... out every single day. Located in New York City, New York Presbyterian is ranked among the top ...

  17. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... cementation, which, as Dr. McCauley mentioned before, basically acts as a gout to hold the components into ... training is that partial knee replacements don’t work in people with high body mass indexes or ...

  18. Partial Knee with Personalized Patient Care

    Full Text Available Oxford® Partial Knee with Signature™ Personalized Patient Care You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy ...

  19. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... is the full knee replacement. Some of the benefits of a partial knee replacement include a less ... get a lot of information, both on the Internet, from other doctors, from friends, and I think ...

  20. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... is gone through the skin and we're working our way down to the knee joint capsule ... that medial partial knee replacements don't really work. So they come in with the idea that ...

  1. Microscopic Examination of Stools After Partial Gastrectomy

    Lowry, R. B.; Tamboline, B. L.; Bogoch, A.

    1965-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the frequency with which undigested meat fibres in the stool could be found after partial gastrectomy. A sample of stool was examined in 61 patients who had undergone a partial gastrectomy and in 92 control patients. The age ranges and average ages of both groups were similar. The stools of 77 of the 92 control patients contained well-digested meat fibres, 14 showed partially digested fibres, and one patient had completely undigested meat fibres. In the postgastrectomy group, 44 of 61 patients had well-digested meat fibres and 17 showed partially digested fibres in their stools. None showed undigested fibres. The present study demonstrated that the finding of undigested meat fibres is as infrequent in postgastrectomy patients as in control patients. If undigested meat fibres are found in the stools of postgastrectomy patients, it is suggestive of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:5842594

  2. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... hospitals in America by "US News and World Report." New York Presbyterian is affiliated with two Ivy ... that we grew up on as surgeons in training is that partial knee replacements don’t work ...

  3. Hospital Outpatient PPS Partial Hospitalization Program LDS

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) Partial Hospitalization Program LDS This file contains select claim level data and is derived from 2010 claims...

  4. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... aspect of the partial knee replacement at this stage is you'll see another cut in the ... all practice components. Now how important is this stage, Dr. McCauley, during the knee replacement? Well, it's ...

  5. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... remove a little bit of excess cement that creeps out. Generally, we remove this to make sure ... come into the office who ask about different types of partial knee replacements? Are there any other ...

  6. Growing partially directed self-avoiding walks

    Privman, V.

    1985-01-01

    A partially directed self-avoiding walk model with the 'kinetic growth' weighting is solved exactly, on the square lattice and for two restricted, strip geometries. Some finite-size effects are examined.

  7. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... that medial partial knee replacements don't really work. So they come in with the idea that ... would expect, on average, those to continue to work for another 10 to 15 years. So, just ...

  8. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... about partial knee replacement due to her young age. Specifically with her symptoms, she was unable to ... them that if I had this procedure at age 42, I probably would not use it to ...

  9. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... at about one month and three-month time intervals, as you know, because I think you do ... that we grew up on as surgeons in training is that partial knee replacements don’t work ...

  10. Partial Knee with Personalized Patient Care

    Full Text Available Oxford® Partial Knee with Signature™ Personalized Patient Care You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy Policy and ...

  11. Robot Assisted Partial Nephrectomy Using Fluorescence

    Full Text Available Robot Assisted Partial Nephrectomy Using Firefly Fluorescence Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2016 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... to introduce our patient. We're going to go into the definition of arthritis. We're going ... a full knee replacement. We are going to go through a surgical video of a partial knee ...

  13. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... the arthritic knee that we see on the right where the cartilage is starting to break down ... different patient who underwent that procedure where the right opaque portion of the knee shows the partial ...

  14. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... bones grinding against each other, leading to pain, stiffness and inflammation. At times in younger patients this ... full knee replacement, what are the risks of stiffness with a partial knee replacement? Yeah, also known ...

  15. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... diagnosed based on a doctor taking a medial history, physical exam, and other modalities such as x- ... to get back to a normal way of life with the partial knee. And most of my ...

  16. Accommodating blind and partially sighted clients

    England, Gary; Gebbels, Tim; Whelan, Chantelle; Freeman, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary surgeons provide an important service to blind and partially sighted guide dog owners. By adopting basic disability awareness and visual impairment training, practices can ensure that the assistance needs of those clients are met, facilitating access to veterinary care.

  17. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... felt that the mission of helping somebody with healthcare when they're in trouble is as wonderful, ... about partial knee replacement due to her young age. Specifically with her symptoms, she was unable to ...

  18. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... to a full knee replacement, what are the risks of stiffness with a partial knee replacement? Yeah, also known as arthrofibrosis for the doctors out there, knee surgery has a very - on average a pretty high ...

  19. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... as some physical therapy. Continuing with other non-operative treatment modalities, she attempted cortisone injections, which really ... when she was out of any other non-operative treatment options, she underwent a discussion about partial ...

  20. Discovering general partial orders in event streams

    Achar, Avinash; Raajay, V; Sastry, P S

    2009-01-01

    Sequence of time-ordered events arise in a variety of applications like customer transaction databases, alarm sequences in telecommunication networks, fault logs in manufacturing plant data, web interaction logs, etc. A popular framework for temporal pattern extraction from such data is the frequent episode discovery paradigm. An episode is a set of nodes with a partial order prescribed on it, with each node associated with an event type. Efficient algorithms exist for episode discovery when the associated partial order is total(serial episode) or trivial(parallel episode). In this paper, we propose efficient algorithms for discovering frequent episodes with general partial orders. The algorithms generalize the existing apriori-based discovery algorithms for serial and parallel episodes. There is an inherent combinatorial explosion in frequent partial order mining. We point out that frequency alone is not a sufficient measure of interestingness for general episodes. We present post-processing techniques to pr...

  1. Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Gas Sensor Used in Partial Discharge Detection of GIS

    WEI Ning; DING Wei-dong; ZHU Yi dong; SU Chun-qiang; Suehiro Junya

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a realizable fabrication method to manufacture chemical gas sensors by using single- walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The sensors were tested for the monitoring of SF6 decomposition gas produced by partial discharge (PD) in GIS tank. The results showed a superior sensitivity, favorable reliability and good repro dueibitity. For further clarifying the relativity between sensor response and partial discharge activity, the discharge in GIS tank was monitored simultaneously through conventional pulse current method and a SWCNTs gas sensor, and the measurement results were put together for comparative analysis in this paper. The sensor response showed a great dependence on partial discharge characteristics. The sensor response increased nearly linearly with limits when the energy of discharge was persistently accumulated. Partial discharge power had a great influence on the response rate and the time delay. With the increase of partial discharge power, the response rate augmented almost in proportion while the time delay gradually becomes shorter with limits. The results were quite favorable to assess the partial discharge intensity and duration to some extent. Compared with pulse current method, the sensor was predominant to detect partial discharge exposed to constantly high levels of noise. It was capable of detecting partial discharge which was too weak to be detected with pulse current method. However, the sensor response didn't show much dependency on the apparent discharge of partial discharge.

  2. Orbital angular momentum of partially coherent beams

    Serna Galán, Julio; Movilla Serrano, Jesús María

    2001-01-01

    The definition of the orbital angular momentum established for coherent beams is extended to partially coherent beams, expressed in terms of two elements of the beam matrix. This extension is justified by use of the Mercer expansion of partially coherent fields. General Gauss-Schell-model fields are considered, and the relation between the twist; parameter and the orbital angular momentum is analyzed. © 2001 Optical Society of America.

  3. Metal ceramic fixed partial denture: fracture resistance

    Piloto, P. A. G.; Alves, Ana; Correia, A.; Campos, J.C. Reis; Fernandes, J.C. Sampaio; Vaz, M.A.P.; Viriato, Nuno

    2010-01-01

    Partially encased beam is a steel-concrete composite structure, made-up with a hot rolled profile and filled with concrete between flanges. Such structural element improves load-bearing capacity at elevated temperatures. Metal ceramic Fixed Partial Dentures (FPD) are suitable to increase fracture resistance presenting higher clinical longevity. This type of prosthesis is mainly used when a great number of teeth replacements are needed. The FPD under analysis is defined by a metallic infra...

  4. Propagation of Partial Discharge Pulses in Winding

    Karel Zalis

    2004-01-01

    A lot of measurements of the attenuation of partial discharge pulses on the model of winding was realized in the High Voltage Laboratory of the Czech Technical University in Prague. Current pulses from a charge calibrator were injected into different parts of winding and both the distortion of the charge and their deformations at the end terminals were observed and evaluated. It was confirmed that the apparent charge of a partial discharge, as a diagnostic parameter, is not relativel...

  5. Geometric formulation for partially massless fields

    Skvortsov, E.D. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: eugene.skvortsov@gmail.com; Vasiliev, M.A. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: vasiliev@lpi.ru

    2006-11-13

    The manifestly gauge invariant formulation for free symmetric higher-spin partially massless fields in (A)dS{sub d} is given in terms of gauge connections and linearized curvatures that take values in the irreducible representations of (o(d-1,2))o(d,1) described by two-row Young tableaux, in which the lengths of the first and second row are, respectively, associated with the spin and depth of partial masslessness.

  6. Partial discharge transients: The field theoretical approach

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1998-01-01

    Up until the mid-1980s the theory of partial discharge transients was essentially static. This situation had arisen because of the fixation with the concept of void capacitance and the use of circuit theory to address what is in essence a field problem. Pedersen rejected this approach and instead...... began to apply field theory to the problem of partial discharge transients. In the present paper, the contributions of Pedersen using the field theoretical approach will be reviewed and discussed....

  7. Optimal design for additive partially nonlinear models

    Biedermann, Stefanie; Dette, Holger; Woods, David C.

    2010-01-01

    We develop optimal design theory for additive partially nonlinear regression models, and show that D-optimal designs can be found as the products of the corresponding D-optimal designs in one dimension. For partially nonlinear models, D-optimal designs depend on the unknown nonlinear model parameters, and misspecifications of these parameters can lead to poor designs. Hence we generalise our results to parameter robust optimality criteria, namely Bayesian and standardised maximin D-optimality...

  8. Symmetry Coefficients of Semilinear Partial Differential Equations

    Freire, Igor Leite; Martins, Antonio Carlos Gilli

    2008-01-01

    We show that for any semilinear partial differential equation of order m, the infinitesimals of the independent variables depend only on the independent variables and, if m>1 and the equation is also linear in its derivatives of order m-1 of the dependent variable, then the infinitesimal of the dependent variable is at most linear on the dependent variable. Many examples of important partial differential equations in Analysis, Geometry and Mathematical - Physics are given in order to enlighte...

  9. Persistent Homology and Partial Similarity of Shapes

    Di Fabio, Barbara; Landi, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The ability to perform shape retrieval based not only on full similarity, but also partial similarity is a key property for any content-based search engine. We prove that persistence diagrams can reveal a partial similarity between two shapes by showing a common subset of points. This can be explained using the Mayer-Vietoris formulas that we develop for ordinary, relative and extended persistent homology. An experiment outlines the potential of persistence diagrams as shape descriptors in re...

  10. Free fall - A partial unique motion environment

    Graybiel, A.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions leading to the elicitation of motion sickness have been divided into two main categories: partial motion environments, in which head movements are required to elicit motion sickness, and complete motion environments, in which independent movements of the head are not required for the production of symptoms. It is postulated that, according to this categorization, free fall constitutes a partial motion environment. In support of this hypothesis evidence is reviewed from Skylab missions, experiments in parabolic flight, and ground-based studies.

  11. Activities.

    Moody, Mally

    1992-01-01

    A series of four activities are presented to enhance students' abilities to appreciate and use trigonometry as a tool in problem solving. Activities cover problems applying the law of sines, the law of cosines, and matching equivalent trigonometric expressions. A teacher's guide, worksheets, and answers are provided. (MDH)

  12. Update on treatment of partial onset epilepsy: role of eslicarbazepine

    Markus Rauchenzauner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Markus Rauchenzauner1,2, Gerhard Luef31Department of Pediatrics IV, Medical University Innsbruck, Austria; 2Neuropediatric Department, Schön Klinik Vogtareuth, Vogtareuth, Germany; 3Department of Neurology, Medical University Innsbruck, AustriaAbstract: Partial epilepsy comprises simple partial seizures, complex partial seizures, and secondarily generalized seizures, and covers more than 60% of patients with epilepsy. Antiepileptic drugs are generally considered to be the major therapeutic intervention for epilepsy but, despite a broad range of commonly used antiepileptic drugs, approximately 30% of adult patients and approximately 25% of children with epilepsy have inadequate seizure control. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL is a novel voltage-gated sodium channel-blocking agent with presumed good safety and efficacy for adjunctive treatment of patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy. ESL is a prodrug of eslicarbazepine (the active entity responsible for pharmacologic effects, and is rapidly and extensively hydrolyzed during first pass by liver esterases after oral administration. The half-life of eslicarbazepine at steady-state plasma concentrations is 20–24 hours, compatible with once-daily administration. ESL 800 mg and 1200 mg significantly reduces seizure frequency and shows a favorable safety profile in adult patients with drug-resistant partial-onset seizures, as demonstrated in previous Phase II and III trials. In children, ESL showed a clear dose-dependent decrease in seizure frequency with good tolerability. The most commonly reported adverse events associated with ESL are dizziness, somnolence, nausea, diplopia, headache, vomiting, blurred vision, vertigo, and fatigue. In conclusion, these characteristics suggest that ESL might be a valid and well tolerated treatment option for patients with drug-resistant partial-onset epilepsy. The convenience of once-daily dosing and a short, simple titration regimen would be of special

  13. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKALOPHILIC PROTEASE FROM PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

    R. Satheeskumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial purification and characterization of alkalophilic protease production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the gut of marine and coastal waters shrimp Penaeus monodon. The protease production was assayed in submerged fermentation to produce maximum protease activity (423 ± 0.09 U/ml. The enzyme was precipitated with ammonium sulphate and partially purified by ion exchange chromatography through DEAE Sephadex A-50 column. In 10th fraction showed maximum protease activity (734 ± 0.18 U/ml with increase in purification fold. The molecular weight of protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recorded as 60 kDa. The stability of protease was tested at various pH and temperature; it showed maximum protease activity at pH-9 and temperature 50ºC. Among the various surfactants tested for enzyme stability, maximum activity was retained in poly ethylene glycol. The compatibility of protease enzyme with various commercial detergents; the enzyme retained maximum protease activity in tide. The results are indicated that all these properties make the bacterial proteases are most suitable for wide industrial applications.

  14. Partial discharge patterns related to surface deterioration in voids in epoxy

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    Results are presented from an investigation of the relationship between changes in partial discharge patterns and the surface deterioration process taking place in small naturally formed spherical voids in epoxy plastic. The voids were exposed to a moderate electric stress above inception level......, where partial discharges were present for more than 1500 h. Two types of electrical tree growth were found, the bush like tree and a single channel-like tree, which led to very different partial discharge patterns. It is concluded that the formation of crystals on a void surface leads to an immediate...... and easy-to-detect increase in the partial discharge activity with subsequent severe surface deterioration (deep pit formations) in the vicinity of the crystal. However, the partial discharge signal from a specimen with a black channel-like tree structure did not give any indication of channel growth...

  15. Solving of some Problems with On-Line Mode Measurement of Partial Discharges

    Karel Zalis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems discussing the transition from off-line diagnostic methods to on-line ones. Based on the experience with commercial partial discharge measuring equipment a new digital system for the evaluation of partial discharge measurement including software and hardware facilities has been developed at the Czech Technical University in Prague. Two expert systems work in this complex evaluating system: a rule-based expert system performing an amplitude analysis of partial discharge impulses for determining the damage of the insulation system, and a neural network which is used for a phase analysis of partial discharge impulses to determine the kind of partial discharge activity. Problem of the elimination of disturbances is also discussed.

  16. Partial order similarity based on mutual information

    Tibély, Gergely; Palla, Gergely

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the ranking of candidates by different voters is an important topic in social and information science with a high relevance from the point of view of practical applications. In general, ties and pairs of incomparable candidates may occur, thus, the alternative rankings are described by partial orders. Various distance measures between partial orders have already been introduced, where zero distance is corresponding to a perfect match between a pair of partial orders, and larger values signal greater differences. Here we take a different approach and propose a similarity measure based on adjusted mutual information. In general, the similarity value of unity is corresponding to exactly matching partial orders, while a low similarity is associated to a pair of independent partial orders. The time complexity of the computation of this similarity measure is $\\mathcal{O}(\\left|{\\mathcal C}\\right|^3)$ in the worst case, and $\\mathcal{O}(\\left|{\\mathcal C}\\right|^2\\ln \\left|{\\mathcal C}\\right|)$ in the typi...

  17. Effect of partial hepatectomy on the memory ability in rats

    Zhouquan Wu; Yanjie Wan; Yanxia Wang; Yinming Zeng

    2007-01-01

    distal pedicel with 1* filament. The abdomen was closed layer by layer after complete hemostasis. The learning and memory abilities were tested after operation. The rats were exposed to Y maze exercise from the 1st or 7th day after surgery, the error numbers, the time to complete whole trials per day and active avoidance numbers were recorded to evaluate the antegrade memory ability.②Test for short-term retrograde memory: Rats in the short-term retrograde memory group were trained in Y maze as the above methods for 1 day, then partial hepatectomy was performed immediately, and the effects on short-term memory were evaluated at 24 hours postoperatively.③Test for long-term retrograde memory: Rats in the long-term retrograde memory group were trained in Y maze till reached the standard for grasping, then partial hepatectomy was performed in those reached the standard for grasping within 3 days, and the effects on long-term memory were evaluated at 48 hours postoperatively.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The error times, the time to complete whole trials per day and active avoidance times were observed every day.RESULTS: Totally 63 SD rats were used, including 6 failed in the partial hepatectomy in the partial hepatectomy group, 3 died due to over-anesthesia, and 5 in the long-term retrograde memory group grasped the tasks in Y maze till the 4th day, which were supplemented by other rats.①Impairment of anterograde memory after partial hepatectomy: The results of Y maze test in the partial hepatectomy group were not obviously different from those in the other groups on the 1st day. The error times on the 2nd and 3rd days of training in the partial hepatectomy group at 1 and 7 days after anesthesia were obviously more than those in the normal control group (F =6.08, P<0.01), and the active avoidance numbers were obviously fewer than those in the normal control group (F =10.85, P<0.05); For the rats at 1 day after anesthesia, the error times on the 3rd day of training in the

  18. Thymoquinone Modulates Blood Coagulation in Vitro via Its Effects on Inflammatory and Coagulation Pathways

    Vandhana Muralidharan-Chari; Jaehan Kim; Ahlam Abuawad; Mubeena Naeem; Huadong Cui; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-01-01

    Thymoquinone (THQ) is a major component of black seeds. Given that both THQ and black seeds exhibit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities, we hypothesized that THQ will affect cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), which is primarily triggered by tissue factor (TF) and inflammation. The effect of both black seed-extracted and purchased (“pure”) THQ on normal blood coagulation was tested with in vitro thromboelastography (TEG) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) coagulation as...

  19. Prevention of fetal loss in experimental antiphospholipid syndrome by in vivo administration of recombinant interleukin-3.

    Fishman, P; Falach-Vaknine, E; Zigelman, R; Bakimer, R; Sredni, B.; Djaldetti, M; Shoenfeld, Y

    1993-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies are strongly associated with arterial and venous thrombosis and with fetal loss. Recently an experimental model for antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) was established in our laboratory. In this model, mice are immunized passively or actively with anticardiolipin antibodies and acquire the syndrome, which is characterized by prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombocytopenia, low fecundity rate, and fetal loss. In a normal process of pregnancy, l...

  20. Transform methods for solving partial differential equations

    Duffy, Dean G

    2004-01-01

    Transform methods provide a bridge between the commonly used method of separation of variables and numerical techniques for solving linear partial differential equations. While in some ways similar to separation of variables, transform methods can be effective for a wider class of problems. Even when the inverse of the transform cannot be found analytically, numeric and asymptotic techniques now exist for their inversion, and because the problem retains some of its analytic aspect, one can gain greater physical insight than typically obtained from a purely numerical approach. Transform Methods for Solving Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition illustrates the use of Laplace, Fourier, and Hankel transforms to solve partial differential equations encountered in science and engineering. The author has expanded the second edition to provide a broader perspective on the applicability and use of transform methods and incorporated a number of significant refinements: New in the Second Edition: ·...

  1. Telecloning of qudits via partially entangled states

    Araneda, Gabriel; Cisternas, Nataly; Delgado, Aldo

    2016-05-01

    We study the process of quantum telecloning of d-dimensional pure quantum states using partially entangled pure states as quantum channel. This process efficiently mixes optimal universal symmetric cloning with quantum teleportation. It is shown that it is possible to implement universal symmetric telecloning in a probabilistic way using unambiguous state discrimination and quantum state separation schemes. It is also shown that other strategies, such as minimum error discrimination, lead to a decrease in the fidelity of the copies and that certain partially entangled pure states with maximal Schmidt rank lead to an average telecloning fidelity which is always above the optimal fidelity of measuring and preparation of quantum states. We also discuss the case of partially entangled pure states with non-maximal Schmidt rank. The results presented here are valid for arbitrary numbers of copies of a single-input qudit state of any dimension.

  2. Provably secure robust threshold partial blind signature

    CAO Zhenfu; ZHU Haojin; LU Rongxing

    2006-01-01

    Threshold digital signature and blind signature are playing important roles in cryptography as well as in practical applications such as e-cash and e-voting systems.Over the past few years, many cryptographic researchers have made considerable headway in this field. However, to our knowledge, most of existing threshold blind signature schemes are based on the discrete logarithm problem. In this paper, we propose a new robust threshold partial blind signature scheme based on improved RSA cryptosystem.This scheme is the first threshold partial blind signature scheme based on factoring, and the robustness of threshold partial blind signature is also introduced. Moreover, in practical application, the proposed scheme will be especially suitable for blind signature-based voting systems with multiple administrators and secure electronic cash systems to prevent their abuse.

  3. Telecloning of qudits via partially entangled states

    Araneda, Gabriel; Cisternas, Nataly; Delgado, Aldo

    2016-08-01

    We study the process of quantum telecloning of d-dimensional pure quantum states using partially entangled pure states as quantum channel. This process efficiently mixes optimal universal symmetric cloning with quantum teleportation. It is shown that it is possible to implement universal symmetric telecloning in a probabilistic way using unambiguous state discrimination and quantum state separation schemes. It is also shown that other strategies, such as minimum error discrimination, lead to a decrease in the fidelity of the copies and that certain partially entangled pure states with maximal Schmidt rank lead to an average telecloning fidelity which is always above the optimal fidelity of measuring and preparation of quantum states. We also discuss the case of partially entangled pure states with non-maximal Schmidt rank. The results presented here are valid for arbitrary numbers of copies of a single-input qudit state of any dimension.

  4. A novel technique for partial discharge measurement

    Full text : Partial discharges are a sensitive measure of local electrical stress and therefore the measurements is very often used as a quality check of the insulation. The inception of partial discharges gives information on the limit of the electrical strength of the insulating material before a complete discharge between the conductors takes place. Therefore the insulating material can be tested with high stress but without damaging or reducing the performance of the insulation. Also, for partial discharge measurements it should be taken into account that every stress of the insulation will have an influence on the life expectancy of the material, but a reasonable compromise between the stress during the measurement in order to get reliable results and the influence of he lifetime should be found and established in the relevant standard for the particular equipment, for example transformers, cables and so on

  5. Probabilistically Bounded Staleness for Practical Partial Quorums

    Bailis, Peter; Franklin, Michael J; Hellerstein, Joseph M; Stoica, Ion

    2012-01-01

    Data store replication results in a fundamental trade-off between operation latency and data consistency. In this paper, we examine this trade-off in the context of quorum-replicated data stores. Under partial, or non-strict quorum replication, a data store waits for responses from a subset of replicas before answering a query, without guaranteeing that read and write replica sets intersect. As deployed in practice, these configurations provide only basic eventual consistency guarantees, with no limit to the recency of data returned. However, anecdotally, partial quorums are often "good enough" for practitioners given their latency benefits. In this work, we explain why partial quorums are regularly acceptable in practice, analyzing both the staleness of data they return and the latency benefits they offer. We introduce Probabilistically Bounded Staleness (PBS) consistency, which provides expected bounds on staleness with respect to both versions and wall clock time. We derive a closed-form solution for versi...

  6. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  7. Partial level densities for nuclear data calculations

    Avrigeanu, M

    1998-01-01

    The main formalisms of partial level densities (PLD) used in preequilibrium nuclear reaction models, based on the equidistant spacing model (ESM), are considered. A collection of FORTRAN77 functions for PLD calculation by using 14 formalisms for the related partial-state densities is provided and 28 sample cases (73 versions) are described. The results are given in graphic form too. Composite (recommended) formulas, which include the optional use of various corrections, i.e. the advanced pairing and shell correction in addition to the Pauli effect, and average energy-dependent single-particle level densities for the excited particles and holes, are also given. The formalism comprises the density of particle-hole bound states, and the effects of an exact correction for the Pauli-exclusion principle are considered. Keywords: Partial nuclear level density; Nuclear level density; Single-particle level density; Equidistant-spacing model; Preequilibrium emission; Nuclear reactions

  8. Dominating Manipulations in Voting with Partial Information

    Conitzer, Vincent; Xia, Lirong

    2011-01-01

    We consider manipulation problems when the manipulator only has partial information about the votes of the nonmanipulators. Such partial information is described by an information set, which is the set of profiles of the nonmanipulators that are indistinguishable to the manipulator. Given such an information set, a dominating manipulation is a non-truthful vote that the manipulator can cast which makes the winner at least as preferable (and sometimes more preferable) as the winner when the manipulator votes truthfully. When the manipulator has full information, computing whether or not there exists a dominating manipulation is in P for many common voting rules (by known results). We show that when the manipulator has no information, there is no dominating manipulation for many common voting rules. When the manipulator's information is represented by partial orders and only a small portion of the preferences are unknown, computing a dominating manipulation is NP-hard for many common voting rules. Our results t...

  9. Robotic partial nephrectomy: current technique and outcomes.

    Wang, Liang; Lee, Benjamin R

    2013-09-01

    Over the past decade, management of the T1 renal mass has focused on nephron-sparing surgery. Robotic partial nephrectomy has played an increasing role in the technique of preserving renal function by decreasing warm ischemia time, as well as optimizing outcomes of hemorrhage and fistula. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy is designed to provide a minimally-invasive nephron-sparing surgical option utilizing reconstructive capability, decreasing intracorporeal suturing time, technical feasibility and safety. Ultimately, its benefits are resulting in its dissemination across institutions. Articulated instrumentation and three-dimensional vision facilitate resection, collecting system reconstruction and renorrhaphy, leading to decreased warm ischemia time while preserving oncological outcomes. The aim of the present review was to present our surgical sequence and technique, as well as review the current status of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. PMID:23635467

  10. Partial sum approaches to mathematical parameters of some growth models

    Korkmaz, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    Growth model is fitted by evaluating the mathematical parameters, a, b and c. In this study, the method of partial sums were used. For finding the mathematical parameters, firstly three partial sums were used, secondly four partial sums were used, thirdly five partial sums were used and finally N partial sums were used. The purpose of increasing the partial decomposition is to produce a better phase model which gives a better expected value by minimizing error sum of squares in the interval used.

  11. Helicobacter pyloriin gastric corpus of patients 20 years after partial gastric resection

    Christian Kirsch; Ahmed Madisch; Petja Piehler; Ekkehard Bayerd(o)rffer; Manfred Stolte; Stephan Miehlke

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the long-term prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) gastritis in patients after partial gastric resection due to peptic ulcer, and to compare the severity of H pylori-positive gastritis in the corpus mucosa between partial gastrectomy patients and matched controls.METHODS: Endoscopic biopsies were obtained from 57 patients after partial gastric resection for histological examination using hematoxylin/eosin and Warthin-Starry staining. Gastritis was graded according to the updated Sydney system. Severity of corpus gastritis was compared between H pylori-positive partial gastrectomy patients and H pylori-positive duodenal ulcer patients matched for age and gender.RESULTS: In partial gastrectomy patients, surgery was performed 20 years (median) prior to evaluation. In 25 patients (43.8%) H pylori was detected histologically in the gastric remnant. Gastric atrophy was more common in H pylori-positive compared to H pylori-negative partial gastrectomy patients (P<0.05). The severity of corpus gastritis was significantly lower in H pylori-positive partial gastrectomy patients compared to duodenal ulcer patients (P<0.01). There were no significant differences in the activity of gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia between the two groups.CONCLUSION: The long-term prevalence of H pylorigastritis in the gastric corpus of patients who underwent partial gastric resection due to peptic ulcer disease is comparable to the general population. The expression of H pylori gastritis in the gastric remnant does not resemble the gastric cancer phenotype.

  12. Digital generation of partially coherent vortex beams.

    Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; Yepiz, Adad; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I; Forbes, Andrew; Swartzlander, Grover A

    2016-08-01

    We present an experimental technique to generate partially coherent vortex beams with an arbitrary azimuthal index using only a spatial light modulator. Our approach is based on digitally simulating the intrinsic randomness of broadband light passing through a spiral phase plate. We illustrate the versatility of the technique by generating partially coherent beams with different coherence lengths and orbital angular momentum content, without any moving optical device. Consequently, we study its cross-correlation function in a wavefront folding interferometer. The comparison with theoretical predictions yields excellent agreement. PMID:27472596

  13. An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    constructor, the partial product, and show how to define a consistent hierarchy in the context of fully recursive types. A simple polymorphism is derived by introducing a notion of placeholder types. By extending the partial product types to include structural invariants we obtain a particularly appropriate...... notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants....

  14. Partial siamese twin as potential organ donor

    Kapoor, Rakesh; Maheshwari, Ruchir; Srivastava, Aneesh; Sharma, Raj K.

    2010-01-01

    During evaluation of a partial Siamese twin for removal of nonviable parasitic part in an 8-year-old male child, a fully functional kidney was found. The functional status of the extra kidney was found to be within acceptable limits for the purpose of transplant, which was subsequently done in a 24-year-old patient with end-stage renal disease. The recipient is healthy 19 months after the surgery. The possibility of using organs from a partial Siamese twin makes this a unique case report. PMID:20877612

  15. Mathematical physics with partial differential equations

    Kirkwood, James

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Physics with Partial Differential Equations is for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students taking a course on mathematical physics taught out of math departments. The text presents some of the most important topics and methods of mathematical physics. The premise is to study in detail the three most important partial differential equations in the field - the heat equation, the wave equation, and Laplace's equation. The most common techniques of solving such equations are developed in this book, including Green's functions, the Fourier transform

  16. Generalized solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations

    Rosinger, EE

    1987-01-01

    During the last few years, several fairly systematic nonlinear theories of generalized solutions of rather arbitrary nonlinear partial differential equations have emerged. The aim of this volume is to offer the reader a sufficiently detailed introduction to two of these recent nonlinear theories which have so far contributed most to the study of generalized solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations, bringing the reader to the level of ongoing research.The essence of the two nonlinear theories presented in this volume is the observation that much of the mathematics concernin

  17. Oral hygiene for the partially edentulous.

    Bassiouny, M A; Grant, A A

    1981-04-01

    THE EFFECTIVENESS of a proximal brush on the interdental hygiene for partially edentulous individuals was investigated. Nineteen partially edentulous adults participated in a crossover study. Three groups were instructed to use the toothbrush alone or a toothbrush combined with either toothpicks or proximal brush. The effectiveness of the cleansing devices was measured by the amount of plaque remaining on the examined surfaces. The results indicated that the cleaning efficiency of the proximal brush is greater than that of the toothpicks on the proximal surfaces of teeth adjacent to edentulous areas. On the other hand, the toothpicks were more effective on the proximal surfaces of teeth in contact. PMID:6939841

  18. Representation theory of partial relation extensions

    Assem, Ibrahim; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Dionne, Julie; Meur, Patrick Le; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Let C be a finite dimensional algebra of global dimension at most two. A partial relation extension is any trivial extension of C by a direct summand of its relation C-C-bimodule. When C is a tilted algebra, this construction provides an intermediate class of algebras between tilted and cluster tilted algebras. The text investigates the representation theory of partial relation extensions. When C is tilted, any complete slice in the Auslander-Reiten quiver of C embeds as a local slice in the ...

  19. Representation Theory of Partial Relation Extensions

    Assem, Ibrahim; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Dionne, Julie; Le Meur, Patrick; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Let C be a finite dimensional algebra of global dimension at most two. A partial relation extension is any trivial extension of C by a direct summand of its relation C − C-bimodule. When C is a tilted algebra, this construction provides an intermediate class of algebras between tilted and cluster tilted algebras. The text investigates the representation theory of partial relation extensions. When C is tilted, any complete slice in the Auslander-Reiten quiver of C embeds as a local slice in th...

  20. On the Partiality of Procreative Beneficence

    Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to criticise the well-discussed principle of Procreative Beneficence (PB) lately refined by Julian Savulescu and Guy Kahane. First, it is argued that advocates of PB leave us with an implausible justification for the moral partiality towards the child (or children) which...... reproducers decide to bring into existence as compared with all other individuals. This is implausible because the reasons given in favour of the partiality of PB, which are based on practical reason and common-sense morality, can just as well be used to guide reproducers to make choices that do not support...

  1. Advanced high frequency partial discharge measuring system

    Karady, George G.

    1994-01-01

    This report explains the Advanced Partial Discharge Measuring System in ASU's High Voltage Laboratory and presents some of the results obtained using the setup. While in operation an insulation is subjected to wide ranging temperature and voltage stresses. Hence, it is necessary to study the effect of temperature on the behavior of partial discharges in an insulation. The setup described in this report can be used to test samples at temperatures ranging from -50 C to 200 C. The aim of conducting the tests described herein is to be able to predict the behavior of an insulation under different operating conditions in addition to being able to predict the possibility of failure.

  2. The phylogeny graphs of doubly partial orders

    Park, Boram

    2011-01-01

    The competition graph of a doubly partial order is known to be an interval graph. The CCE graph and the niche graph of a doubly partial order are also known to be interval graphs if the graphs do not contain a cycle of length four and three as an induced subgraph, respectively. Phylogeny graphs are variant of competition graphs. The phylogeny graph $P(D)$ of a digraph $D$ is the (simple undirected) graph defined by $V(P(D)):=V(D)$ and $E(P(D)):=\\{xy \\mid N^+_D(x) \\cap N^+_D(y) \

  3. Relationship of partial licence to water permit

    The Oldenburg Administrative Court, with decision of May 18th, 1976 - I D 53/76 - , has partly allowed on procedural grounds a nuclear opponent's action for restoring the delaying effect of his suit against a partial licence, the application having been filed on the basis of section 5 of article 80 VwGO. The order to go ahead straight away with the contested partial licence for carrying out test operations was set aside, as in this context it is considered to be a supposition that the water permit is legally valid or immediately enforceable. Some of the grounds upon which the judgment was based are given in full. (orig./HP)

  4. Bitraces on Partial O*-Algebras

    G. O. S. Ekhaguere

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Unbounded bitraces on partial O*-algebras are considered, a class of ideals defined by them is exhibited, and several relationships between certain commutants, bicommutants, and tricommutants associated with the *-representations and *-antirepresentations determined by the bitraces are established. Moreover, a notion of a partial W*-algebra of unbounded densely defined linear maps on a Hilbert space, as a generalization of a W*-algebra, is introduced and a set of criteria for classifying such algebras by means of the type of bitraces that are defined on them is proposed.

  5. [Simple partial frontal nonconvulsive status epilepticus].

    Thomas, P; Mottin, Y

    1997-07-01

    Non convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) of frontal origin is a rare cause of mental confusion. The present case of possible frontal-onset NCSE proved to have a neuropsychological examination that was suggestive either of a disruption of attentional function or a left prefrontal dysfunction, exhibiting disturbances of immediate memory and logical programmation, perseverations and affective disinhibition. Vigilance was not impaired. This case was therefore, on a nosographic point of view, more consistent with a simple partial status epilepticus with cognitive and affective symptomatology rather than with a complex partial status epilepticus of extra-temporal origin. PMID:9684010

  6. A minicourse on stochastic partial differential equations

    Rassoul-Agha, Firas

    2009-01-01

    In May 2006, The University of Utah hosted an NSF-funded minicourse on stochastic partial differential equations. The goal of this minicourse was to introduce graduate students and recent Ph.D.s to various modern topics in stochastic PDEs, and to bring together several experts whose research is centered on the interface between Gaussian analysis, stochastic analysis, and stochastic partial differential equations. This monograph contains an up-to-date compilation of many of those lectures. Particular emphasis is paid to showcasing central ideas and displaying some of the many deep connections between the mentioned disciplines, all the time keeping a realistic pace for the student of the subject.

  7. A Primer on Partial Wave Analysis

    Peters, K

    2004-01-01

    In the 90s of the last century high statistics experiments with fully equipped 4$\\pi$ detectors have lead to a better insight in the spectrum of hadrons. In particular the finding of crypto-exotic and $J^{PC}$ exotic states tremendously improved the experimental situation in meson spectroscopy. All this was possible only with sophisticated analysis methods like the decomposition of measured phase-space distribution into partial waves and to express the partial waves in terms of complicated dynamical functions. This paper gives an introduction about the concepts and formalisms involved.

  8. Partially coherent interferometric biometry in cataract surgery

    Drexler, Wolfgang; Findl, Oliver; Menapace, Rupert; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Fercher, Adolf F.

    1999-02-01

    In an earlier study we showed that precise axial eye length measurement on cataract eyes is possible with the dual beam partial coherence interferometry technique (PCI). A high correlation with the standard ultrasound technique has been obtained. Recently, in a prospective study, partially coherent interferometry and ultrasound biometry were compared in cataract surgery using the SRK II formula based on US applanation biometry. Three months after surgery PCI was repeated and refractive outcome was determined. The use of PCI would have improved refractive outcome by about 30%.

  9. Experimental study on partial coherence source

    Zhao Xue Qing; Yuan Xiao; LiuJingRu; Wang Long Hua; Tang Ying; Huang, Kerson

    2002-01-01

    Partial coherence source is a key part in the laser system using echelon-free introduced spatial incoherence beam smoothing technique. Different kinds of partial coherence sources have been studied experimentally for improving the uniformity of laser intensity distribution. It is found that the source produced by excimer laser scattering on the surface of a teflon plate is ideal. The properties of this kind of source are studied. As a result, the uniformity of source beam intensity distribution, the beam spatial coherence and energy transfer efficiency of the source are obtained

  10. Anticoagulant activities of piperlonguminine in vitro and in vivo

    Wonhwa Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Piperlonguminine (PL, an important component of Piperlongum fruits, is known to exhibit anti-hyperlipidemic, antiplateletand anti-melanogenic activities. Here, the anticoagulantactivities of PL were examined by monitoring activatedpartial-thromboplastin-time (aPTT, prothrombin-time (PT, andthe activities of thrombin and activated factor X (FXa. Theeffects of PL on the expressions of plasminogen activatorinhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 and tissue-type plasminogen activator(t-PA were also tested in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-αactivated HUVECs. The results showed that PL prolonged aPTTand PT significantly and inhibited the activities of thrombin andFXa. PL inhibited the generation of thrombin and FXa inHUVECs. In accordance with these anticoagulant activities, PLprolonged in vivo bleeding time and inhibited TNF-α inducedPAI-1 production. Furthermore, PAI-1/t-PA ratio was significantlydecreased by PL. Collectively, our results suggest that PLpossesses antithrombotic activities and that the current studycould provide bases for the development of new anticoagulantagents. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(10: 484-489

  11. Prediction uncertainty in seasonal partial duration series

    Rasmussen, Peter Funder; Rosbjerg, Dan

    1991-01-01

    In order to obtain a good description of the exceedances in a partial duration series it is often necessary to divide the year into a number (2-4) of seasons. Hereby a stationary exceedance distribution can be maintained within each season. This type of seasonal models may, however, not be suitable...

  12. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... you can do in life. And I think we're fortunate to have a greet staff who ... of medicine. At the end of the day, we can all walk away and say, "This is ... Geller. I'm here with Dr. William McCauley. We're here to talk about partial knee replacements. ...

  13. Pragmatics of type-directed partial evaluation

    Danvy, Olivier

    1996-01-01

    effects (such as divergence). It prevents the duplication of residual computations, and more generally maintains the order of dynamic side effects in the residual program. This article describes the extension of type-directed partial evaluation to insert residual let expressions. This extension requires...

  14. New applications of partial residual methodology

    The formulation of a problem of interest in the framework of a statistical analysis starts with collecting the data, choosing a model, making certain assumptions as described in the basic paradigm by Box (1980). This stage is is called model building. Then the estimation stage is in order by pretending as if the formulation of the problem was true to obtain estimates, to make tests and inferences. In the final stage, called diagnostic checking, checking of whether there are some disagreements between the data and the model fitted is done by using diagnostic measures and diagnostic plots. It is well known that statistical methods perform best under the condition that all assumptions related to the methods are satisfied. However it is true that having the ideal case in practice is very difficult. Diagnostics are therefore becoming important so are diagnostic plots because they provide a immediate assessment. Partial residual plots that are the main interest of the present study are playing the major role among the diagnostic plots in multiple regression analysis. In statistical literature it is admitted that partial residual plots are more useful than ordinary residual plots in detecting outliers, nonconstant variance, and especially discovering curvatures. In this study we consider the partial residual methodology in statistical methods rather than multiple regression. We have shown that for the same purpose as in the multiple regression the use of partial residual plots is possible particularly in autoregressive time series models, transfer function models, linear mixed models and ridge regression. (author)

  15. Partial Evaluation of the Euclidian Algorithm

    Danvy, Olivier; Goldberg, Mayer

    1997-01-01

    Some programs are easily amenable to partial evaluation because their control flow clearly depends on one of their parameters. Specializing such programs with respect to this parameter eliminates the associated interpretive overhead. Some other programs, however, do not exhibit this interpreter-l...

  16. Partial discharges in ellipsoidal and spheroidal voids

    Crichton, George C; Karlsson, P. W.; Pedersen, Aage

    1989-01-01

    Transients associated with partial discharges in voids can be described in terms of the charges induced on the terminal electrodes of the system. The relationship between the induced charge and the properties which are usually measured is discussed. The method is illustrated by applying it to a...... spheroidal void located in a simple disk-type spacer...

  17. [Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures

    Kreulen, C.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A resin-bonded fixed partial denture is a prosthetic construction which can replace I or several teeth in an occlusal system and which comprises a pontic element which is adhesively attached to 1 or more abutment teeth. To compensate for the limited shear strength of the adhesive layer, the Jixed pa

  18. Partial Data Traces: Efficient Generation and Representation

    Mueller, F; De Supinski, B R; McKee, S A; Yoo, A

    2001-08-20

    Binary manipulation techniques are increasing in popularity. They support program transformations tailored toward certain program inputs, and these transformations have been shown to yield performance gains beyond the scope of static code optimizations without profile-directed feedback. They even deliver moderate gains in the presence of profile-guided optimizations. In addition, transformations can be performed on the entire executable, including library routines. This work focuses on program instrumentation, yet another application of binary manipulation. This paper reports preliminary results on generating partial data traces through dynamic binary rewriting. The contributions are threefold. First, a portable method for extracting precise data traces for partial executions of arbitrary applications is developed. Second, a set of hierarchical structures for compactly representing these accesses is developed. Third, an efficient online algorithm to detect regular accesses is introduced. The authors utilize dynamic binary rewriting to selectively collect partial address traces of regions within a program. This allows partial tracing of hot paths for only a short time during program execution in contrast to static rewriting techniques that lack hot path detection and also lack facilities to limit the duration of data collection. Preliminary results show reductions of three orders of a magnitude of inline instrumentation over a dual process approach involving context switching. They also report constant size representations for regular access patters in nested loops. These efforts are part of a larger project to counter the increasing gap between processor and main memory speeds by means of software optimization and hardware enhancements.

  19. Partial wave analysis using graphics processing units

    Partial wave analysis is an important tool for determining resonance properties in hadron spectroscopy. For large data samples however, the un-binned likelihood fits employed are computationally very expensive. At the Beijing Spectrometer (BES) III experiment, an increase in statistics compared to earlier experiments of up to two orders of magnitude is expected. In order to allow for a timely analysis of these datasets, additional computing power with short turnover times has to be made available. It turns out that graphics processing units (GPUs) originally developed for 3D computer games have an architecture of massively parallel single instruction multiple data floating point units that is almost ideally suited for the algorithms employed in partial wave analysis. We have implemented a framework for tensor manipulation and partial wave fits called GPUPWA. The user writes a program in pure C++ whilst the GPUPWA classes handle computations on the GPU, memory transfers, caching and other technical details. In conjunction with a recent graphics processor, the framework provides a speed-up of the partial wave fit by more than two orders of magnitude compared to legacy FORTRAN code.

  20. Partial discharges in spheroidal voids: Void orientation

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1997-01-01

    Partial discharge transients can be described in terms of the charge induced on the detecting electrode. The influence of the void parameters upon the induced charge is examined and discussed for spheroidal voids. It is shown that a quantitative interpretation of the induced charge requires a...

  1. Higher-order rewriting and partial evaluation

    Danvy, Olivier; Rose, Kristoffer H.

    1998-01-01

    transformations as meta-reductions, i.e., reductions in the internal “substitution calculus.” For partial-evaluation problems, this means that instead of having to prove on a case-by-case basis that one's “two-level functions” operate properly, one can concisely formalize them as a combinatory reduction system...

  2. Higher-Order Rewriting and Partial Evaluation

    Danvy, Olivier; Rose, Kristoffer H.

    1997-01-01

    transformations as meta-reductions, i.e., reductions in the internal “substitution calculus.” For partial-evaluation problems, this means that instead of having to prove on a case-by-case basis that one's “two-level functions” operate properly, one can concisely formalize them as a combinatory reduction system...

  3. Memorization in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    originate in the handling of sums, which uses delimited continuations. We successfully eliminate these redundancies by extending type-directed partial evaluation with memoization capabilities. The result only works for pure functional programs, but it provides an unexpected use of code generation and it...

  4. Memoization in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    originate in the handling of sums, which uses delimited continuations. We successfully eliminate these redundancies by extending type-directed partial evaluation with memoization capabilities. The result only works for pure functional programs, but it provides an unexpected use of code generation and it...

  5. Partial splenic artery embolization in cirrhotic patients

    Hadduck, Tyson A; McWilliams, Justin P.

    2014-01-01

    Splenomegaly is a common sequela of cirrhosis, and is frequently associated with decreased hematologic indices including thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Partial splenic artery embolization (PSE) has been demonstrated to effectively increase hematologic indices in cirrhotic patients with splenomegaly. This is particularly valuable amongst those cirrhotic patients who are not viable candidates for splenectomy. Although PSE was originally developed decades ago, it has recently received increase...

  6. Partial spin reversal in magnetic deflagration

    Vélez, S.; Subedi, P.; Macià, F.; Li, S.; Sarachik, M. P.; Tejada, J.; Mukherjee, S.; Christou, G.; Kent, A. D.

    2014-04-01

    The reversal of spins in a magnetic material as they relax toward equilibrium is accompanied by the release of Zeeman energy, which can lead to accelerated spin relaxation and the formation of a well-defined self-sustained propagating spin-reversal front known as magnetic deflagration. To date, studies of Mn12-acetate single crystals have focused mainly on deflagration in large longitudinal magnetic fields, and they found a fully spin-reversed final state. We report a systematic study of the effect of a transverse magnetic field on magnetic deflagration, and we demonstrate that in small longitudinal fields the final state consists of only partially reversed spins. Further, we measured the front speed as a function of applied magnetic field. The theory of magnetic deflagration, together with a modification that takes into account partial spin reversal, fits the transverse field dependence of the front speed but not its dependence on the longitudinal field. The most significant result of this study is the finding of a partially spin-reversed final state, which is evidence that the spins at the deflagration front are also only partially reversed.

  7. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... all walk away and say, "This is our team and it's a great team." Welcome to this OR Live Webcast presentation live ... that medial partial knee replacements don't really work. So they come in with the idea that ...

  8. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... replacement. One of the things I had in mind is I'm wondering, you know, one of the classic teachings that we grew up on as surgeons in training is that partial knee replacements don’t work in people with high body mass indexes or people who are overweight. What ...

  9. Oxygen partial pressure control for microgravity experiments

    Schulz, Michael; Brillo, Jürgen; Stenzel, Christian; Fritze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    A system consisting of a high-temperature yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) based oxygen ion pump and potentiometric sensor enables precise measurement and control of oxygen partial pressure, pO2, at elevated temperatures within 0.2 to 10^-20 bar.

  10. Canonical coordinates for partial differential equations

    Hunt, L. R.; Villarreal, Ramiro

    1988-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are found under which operators of the form Sigma (m, j=1) x (2) sub j + X sub O can be made constant coefficient. In addition, necessary and sufficient conditions are derived which classify those linear partial differential operators that can be moved to the Kolmogorov type.

  11. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available ... Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement NewYork-Presbyterian New York City, New York May 4, 2010 I've always felt ... carry it out every single day. Located in New York City, New York Presbyterian is ranked among ...

  12. Parameterized Algorithms for Partial Cover Problems

    Amini, Omid; Saurabh, Saket

    2008-01-01

    Covering problems are fundamental classical problems in optimization, computer science and complexity theory. Typically an input to these problems is a family of sets over a finite universe and the goal is to cover the elements of the universe with as few sets of the family as possible. The variations of covering problems include well known problems like Set Cover, Vertex Cover, Dominating Set and Facility Location to name a few. Recently there has been a lot of study on partial covering problems, a natural generalization of covering problems. Here, the goal is not to cover all the elements but to cover the specified number of elements with the minimum number of sets. In this paper we study partial covering problems in graphs in the realm of parameterized complexity. Classical (non-partial) version of all these problems have been intensively studied in planar graphs and in graphs excluding a fixed graph $H$ as a minor. However, the techniques developed for parameterized version of non-partial covering problem...

  13. ALGEBRAIC METHODS IN PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS

    Djilali Behloul

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we build a class of partial differential operators L having the following property: if u is a meromorphic function in Cn and Lu is a rational function A/q, with q homogenous, then u is also a rational function.

  14. Some Software Packages for Partial SVD Computation

    Lin, Zhouchen

    2011-01-01

    This technical report introduces some software packages for partial SVD computation, including optimized PROPACK, modified PROPACK for computing singular values above a threshold and the corresponding singular vectors, and block Lanczos with warm start (BLWS). The current version is preliminary. The details will be enriched soon.

  15. Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement

    Full Text Available Arthritic Pain Relief through Partial Knee Replacement NewYork-Presbyterian New York City, New York May 4, 2010 I've always felt ... cortisone injections, which really only provided short-lived relief. Ultimately, she underwent a knee arthroscopy procedure, where ...

  16. Partial quenching and chiral symmetry breaking

    Creutz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Partially quenched chiral perturbation theory assumes that valence quarks propagating on gauge configurations prepared with sea quarks of different masses will form a chiral condensate as the valence quark mass goes to zero. I present a counterexample involving non-degenerate sea quarks where the valence condensate does not form.

  17. A computational formalization for partial evaluation

    Hatcliff, John; Danvy, Olivier

    1996-01-01

    We formalize a partial evaluator for Eugenio Moggi's computational metalanguage. This formalization gives an evaluation-order independent view of binding-time analysis and program specialization, including a proper treatment of call unfolding. It also enables us to express the essence of `control...

  18. A computational formalization for partial evaluation

    Hatcliff, John; Danvy, Olivier

    1997-01-01

    We formalize a partial evaluator for Eugenio Moggi's computational metalanguage. This formalization gives an evaluation-order independent view of binding-time analysis and program specialization, including a proper treatment of call unfolding. It also enables us to express the essence of `control...

  19. Production and Immobilization of Partially Purified Lipase From Penicillium chrysogenum

    Shafei, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An extracellular lipase from Penicillium chrysogenum produced maximal activity 225 U/mL after four days at pH 6.5. It was partially purified 4.1 fold by ammonium sulphate precipitation (70%. The enzyme was immobilized on various carriers viz. alginate, k-carrageenan and polyacrylamide gel. The immobilization yield of enzyme immobilized in kcarrageenan and polyacrylamide gel (63.41% and 48.93% respectively was low in comparison to that immobilized with alginate (81.57%. Different concentrations of alginate were tried to study their effect on lipase production. Maximum immobilization yield was observed with 3% alginate. The optimal pH of the partially purified lipase was 7.5 and the optimum temperature was 35 °C. At 60 °C the immobilized enzyme retained 62.79% of its activity. Broader pH tolerance and higher heat stability could be achieved by this method. Immobilized lipase retained 72.09% relative activity after six hydrolysis cycles.

  20. Partial Discharge Patterns in Conducting and Non-Conducting Electrical Trees

    Dodd, S. J.; Chalashkanov, N. M.; Fothergill, J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous observations on electrical tree growth in epoxy resins has shown that different types of tree growth structure, electrically conducting and non-conducting, can occur dependent on the state, glassy or flexible, of the epoxy resin. In this current study, the partial discharge characteristics were characterized experimentally at a temperature of 20°C within two different epoxy resins systems having glass transition temperatures of 0°C and 50°C. The partial discharge activity (determined...