WorldWideScience

Sample records for activate multiple types

  1. Most Common Types of Physical Activity Self-Selected by People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Weikert, Madeline; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Balantrapu, Swathi; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    The promotion of physical activity for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) would benefit from information about the common types of physical activity self-selected by this population. This study examined the most frequent types of physical activity self-reported by a large sample of people with MS. The data were collected as part of the baseline assessment of a longitudinal investigation of physical activity in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). The participants (N = 272) were sent a battery of q...

  2. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands is a central feature of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. We used cultured bovine parathyroid cells to test for mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with this disorder. Normal plasma stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation, on the average, to the same extent as it was stimulated in a plasma-free control culture. This contrasted with the results of the tests with plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, in which parathyroid mitogenic activity increased 2400 percent over the control value (P less than 0.001). Plasma from these patients also stimulated the proliferation of bovine parathyroid cells in culture, whereas plasma from normal subjects inhibited it. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from the patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was greater than that in plasma from patients with various other disorders, including sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (with adenoma, hyperplasia, or cancer of the parathyroid), sporadic primary hypergastrinemia, sporadic pituitary tumor, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (P less than 0.05). Parathyroid mitogenic activity in the plasma of patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 persisted for up to four years after total parathyroidectomy. The plasma also had far more mitogenic activity in cultures of parathyroid cells than did optimal concentrations of known growth factors or of any parathyroid secretagogue. This mitogenic activity had an apparent molecular weight of 50,000 to 55,000. We conclude that primary hyperparathyroidism in familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may have a humoral cause

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus-like particles activate multiple types of immune cells

    The rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide makes it a high priority to develop an effective vaccine. Since live attenuated or inactivated HIV is not likely to be approved as a vaccine due to safety concerns, HIV virus like particles (VLPs) offer an attractive alternative because they are safe due to the lack of a viral genome. Although HIV VLPs have been shown to induce humoral and cellular immune responses, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which they induce such responses and to improve their immunogenicity. We generated HIV VLPs, and VLPs containing Flt3 ligand (FL), a dendritic cell growth factor, to target VLPs to dendritic cells, and investigated the roles of these VLPs in the initiation of adaptive immune responses in vitro and in vivo. We found that HIV-1 VLPs induced maturation of dendritic cells and monocyte/macrophage populations in vitro and in vivo, with enhanced expression of maturation markers and cytokines. Dendritic cells pulsed with VLPs induced activation of splenocytes resulting in increased production of cytokines. VLPs containing FL were found to increase dendritic cells and monocyte/macrophage populations in the spleen when administered to mice. Administration of VLPs induced acute activation of multiple types of cells including T and B cells as indicated by enhanced expression of the early activation marker CD69 and down-regulation of the homing receptor CD62L. VLPs containing FL were an effective form of antigen in activating immune cells via dendritic cells, and immunization with HIV VLPs containing FL resulted in enhanced T helper type 2-like immune responses

  4. An investigation into types of multiple intelligences and activities used in English classes at primary schools

    Şenbaş Filiz, Aslı

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate primary school students’ multiple intelligences according to their preferences and how the multiple intelligences differ in terms of grade level, gender, school and English classroom activities. This research was conducted in six primary schools in Çanakkale and provinces of Çanakkale with a total of 269 sixth and eighth grade students and 9 English Language teachers in spring 2008-2009 semester. There were 138 male and 131 female students. ...

  5. Elevated type I interferon-like activity in a subset of multiple sclerosis patients: molecular basis and clinical relevance

    Hundeshagen Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A subset of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS shows an increased endogenous IFN-like activity before initiation of IFN-beta treatment. The molecular basis of this phenomenon and its relevance to predict individual therapy outcomes are not yet fully understood. We studied the expression patterns of these patients, the prognostic value of an elevated IFN-like activity, and the gene regulatory effects of exogenously administered IFN-beta. Methods Microarray gene expression profiling was performed for 61 MS patients using peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained before and after 1 month of IFN-beta therapy. Expression levels of genes involved in pathways either inducing or being activated by IFN-beta were compared between patients with high (MX1high cohort and low (MX1low cohort endogenous IFN-like activity. Patients were followed for 5 years and relapses as well as progression on the expanded disability status scale (EDSS were documented. Results Before the start of therapy, 11 patients presented elevated mRNA levels of IFN-stimulated genes indicative of a relatively high endogenous IFN-like activity (MX1high. In these patients, pathogen receptors (for example, TLR7, RIG-I and IFIH1 and transcription factors were also expressed more strongly, which could be attributed to an overactivity of IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3, a complex formed by STAT1, STAT2 and IFN regulatory factor 9. After 1 month of IFN-beta therapy, the expression of many pathway genes was significantly induced in MX1low patients, but remained unaltered in MX1high patients. During follow-up, relapse rate and changes in EDSS were comparable between both patient groups, with differences seen between different types of IFN-beta drug application. Conclusions Therapeutic IFN-beta induces the transcription of several genes involved in IFN-related pathways. In a subgroup of MS patients, the expression of these genes is already increased before therapy

  6. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    R V Thakker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic islet and anterior pituitary tumors. Some patients may also develop carcinoid tumors, adrenocortical tumors, facial angiofibromas, collagenomas, and lipomas. MEN1 is an autosomal-dominant disorder, due to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1, which encodes a 610 amino acid protein, menin. Thus, the finding of MEN1 in a patient has important implications for family members because first-degree relatives have a 50% risk of developing the disease and can often be identified by MEN1 mutational analysis. Patients with MEN1 have a decreased life-expectancy and the outcomes of current treatments, which are generally similar to that for the respective tumors occurring in non-MEN1 patients, are not as successful because of multiple tumors, which may be larger, more aggressive, and resistant to treatment, and the concurrence of metastases. The prognosis for MEN1 patients might be improved by pre-symptomatic tumor detection and undertaking treatment specific for MEN1-tumors. Thus, it is recommended that MEN1 patients and their families should be cared for by multi-disciplinary teams comprising relevant specialists with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with endocrine tumors.

  7. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Luzi Ettore

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution. It occurs in approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Two different forms, sporadic and familial, have been described. The sporadic form presents with two of the three principal MEN1-related endocrine tumours (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic tumours and pituitary tumours within a single patient, while the familial form consists of a MEN1 case with at least one first degree relative showing one of the endocrine characterising tumours. Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described. The responsible gene, MEN1, maps on chromosome 11q13 and encodes a 610 aminoacid nuclear protein, menin, with no sequence homology to other known human proteins. MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene. This gene is probably involved in the regulation of several cell functions such as DNA replication and repair and transcriptional machinery. The combination of clinical and genetic investigations, together with the improving of molecular genetics knowledge of the syndrome, helps in the clinical management of patients. Treatment consists of surgery and/or drug therapy, often in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, DNA testing allows the early identification of germline mutations in asymptomatic gene carriers, to whom routine surveillance (regular biochemical and/or radiological screenings to detect the development of MEN1-associated tumours and lesions is recommended.

  8. Evaluation of Am-Li neutron spectra data for active well type neutron multiplicity measurements of uranium

    Goddard, Braden; Croft, Stephen; Lousteau, Angela; Peerani, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Safeguarding nuclear material is an important and challenging task for the international community. One particular safeguards technique commonly used for uranium assay is active neutron correlation counting. This technique involves irradiating unused uranium with (α, n) neutrons from an Am-Li source and recording the resultant neutron pulse signal which includes induced fission neutrons. Although this non-destructive technique is widely employed in safeguards applications, the neutron energy spectra from an Am-Li sources is not well known. Several measurements over the past few decades have been made to characterize this spectrum; however, little work has been done comparing the measured and theoretical spectra of various Am-Li sources to each other. This paper examines fourteen different Am-Li spectra, focusing on how these spectra affect simulated neutron multiplicity results using the code Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). Two measurement and simulation campaigns were completed using Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) detectors and uranium standards of varying enrichment. The results of this work indicate that for standard AWCC measurements, the fourteen Am-Li spectra produce similar doubles and triples count rates. The singles count rates varied by as much as 20% between the different spectra, although they are usually not used in quantitative analysis, being dominated by scattering which is highly dependent on item placement.

  9. Experiments on feedback control of multiple resistive wall modes comparing different active coil arrays and sensor types

    Experiments have been carried out on the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch device to study several important issues related to feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs). The feedback system includes a sensor coil array, a feedback controller implementing a feedback law and an active coil array. The issues include 1) effects of sideband harmonics produced by the feedback system, 2) the form of the controller and the feedback law, 3) feedback system stability, 4) selection of the sensor coil configuration and 5) effects of field errors on the feedback system. Side band harmonics are produced by the feedback system because the active saddle coil array consists of discrete coils. The presence of side bands can couple modes thus preventing simultaneous stabilisation of the coupled modes. The side band effect sets requirements for the minimum number of active coils in the array in both the poloidal and toroidal directions. Recent experiments using the intelligent shell concept with proportional-integral-derivative controller action have achieved complete simultaneous stabilisation of all RWMs modes when the requirements are satisfied. In addition to the intelligent shell concept, preliminary experiments have been performed to test the fake rotating shell concept. For this concept, the sensor coil array is shifted in phase relative to the active coil array thus a detected harmonic is induced to rotate by the active coil-produced control field. Under the condition that the phase shift is less than a quarter-wave length of the mode, mode suppression can be achieved. Feedback using a controller incorporating individual mode control has also been tested. This has enabled the first feedback experiments using a sensor array measuring the toroidal field component to be carried out. For this concept, an array consisting of localised toroidal field sensor coils is used. Mode suppression has been successfully accomplished. However pick-up of high order field error harmonics due

  10. Multiple cis-active elements in the long control region of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1).

    Harrison, S M; Gearing, K L; Kim, S. Y.; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1987-01-01

    A 1.0 kb region of the BPV-1 genome (the long control region, LCR), contains controls for transcription and the origin of replication. Transcription directed by the LCR is activated by the viral encoded E2 protein. To define the essential cis acting elements that are required to control transcription we have constructed a series of deletions throughout the LCR. We have identified three important domains in the LCR, two of which respond to E2. We have analysed the ability of small subcloned re...

  11. Experiments on feedback control of multiple resistive wall modes comparing different active coil arrays and sensor types

    Full text: Experiments have been carried out on the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch device to study several important issues related to feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs). In the first series of experiments, the effect of side band coupling due to the limited number of coils in the array was investigated. Different feedback schemes have been used in order to overcome the coupling effect such as the mode control scheme, which includes real time spatial FFT to obtain action on individual modes. The unstable RWM spectrum consists of about 16 modes with m=1 and different toroidal mode number n. In recent experiments using the intelligent shell scheme with a full PID controller action and higher feedback gains, complete stabilisation of the modes is achieved. The active array consists of 128 coils at 4 poloidal and 32 toroidal positions. The pulse length is equivalent to 10 wall times, limited by the power supply. Without feedback the discharge pulse ends prematurely after 3-4 wall times due effects associated with the RWM mode growth. With feedback stabilization, plasma rotation and tearing mode rotation is maintained throughout the pulse, thereby avoiding the locked mode phenomenon often observed in RFPs and manifested in an increased local plasma wall interaction. With feedback control the influx from the wall is maintained at a low level throughout the pulse. The first feedback experiments using a sensor array measuring the toroidal field component have been carried out. The critical gain required for suppression has been compared for the radial and toroidal field sensor cases, and found in qualitative agreement with theory. The phase shift of the control field has been varied. Optimal suppression is achieved at the predicted complex feedback gain phase. Mode rotation is induced at other complex gain phases, in agreement with modelling. Previously developed linear models have guided the feedback experiments. Open-loop experiments have been used for

  12. Adeno-associated virus type 2 infection activates caspase dependent and independent apoptosis in multiple breast cancer lines but not in normal mammary epithelial cells

    Tandon Apurva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In normal cells proliferation and apoptosis are tightly regulated, whereas in tumor cells the balance is shifted in favor of increased proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Anticancer agents mediate tumor cell death via targeting multiple pathways of programmed cell death. We have reported that the non-pathogenic, tumor suppressive Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2 induces apoptosis in Human Papillomavirus (HPV positive cervical cancer cells, but not in normal keratinocytes. In the current study, we examined the potential of AAV2 to inhibit proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 (both weakly invasive, as well as MDA-MB-231 (highly invasive human breast cancer derived cell lines. As controls, we used normal human mammary epithelial cells (nHMECs isolated from tissue biopsies of patients undergoing breast reduction surgery. Results AAV2 infected MCF-7 line underwent caspase-independent, and MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines underwent caspase-dependent apoptosis. Death of MDA-MB-468 cells was marked by caspase-9 activation, whereas death of MDA-MB-231 cells was marked by activation of both caspase-8 and caspase-9, and resembled a mixture of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Cellular demise was correlated with the ability of AAV2 to productively infect and differentially express AAV2 non-structural proteins: Rep78, Rep68 and Rep40, dependent on the cell line. Cell death in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 lines coincided with increased S phase entry, whereas the MDA-MB-468 cells increasingly entered into G2. AAV2 infection led to decreased cell viability which correlated with increased expression of proliferation markers c-Myc and Ki-67. In contrast, nHMECs that were infected with AAV2 failed to establish productive infection or undergo apoptosis. Conclusion AAV2 regulated enrichment of cell cycle check-point functions in G1/S, S and G2 phases could create a favorable environment for Rep protein expression. Inherent Rep associated

  13. Parent-child attitude congruence on type and intensity of physical activity: Testing multiple mediators of sedentary behavior in older children

    This study examined parent–child attitudes on value of specific types and intensities of physical activity, which may explain gender differences in child activity, and evaluated physical activity as a mechanism to reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors. A community sample of 681 parents and 433 ch...

  14. Type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis

    Nielsen, Nete M; Westergaard, Tine; Frisch, Morten; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Melbye, Mads; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS) contribute considerably to the burden of autoimmune diseases in young adults. Although HLA patterns of T1D and MS are considered mutually exclusive, individual and familial co-occurrence of the 2 diseases has been reported...... Multiple Sclerosis Register were used to identify patients with T1D, defined as patients in whom diabetes was diagnosed before age 20 years (N = 6078), and patients with MS (N = 11 862). First-degree relatives (N = 14,771) of patients with MS were identified from family information in the Danish Civil......, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.12; n = 56) for development of T1D. However, adjusting for familial relationship to patients with T1D reduced the excess risk to 44% (relative risk, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.88; n = 56). CONCLUSION: The present nationwide cohort study demonstrates...

  15. Operation characteristics of a multiple type MCFC

    Kuroe, S.; Kamo, T. [Hitachi Research Lab., Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Fujimura, H.; Kahara, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Multiple type structure of MCFC of which the separator of the cell is divided by four element cells has been studied. For the stable operation of this type cell, the effect of gas flow rate and temperature distribution on the cell voltage should be clear. In order to clarify these characteristics, a small sized mimic model has been made and tested. The flow rate distribution for the four element cells were varied and cell voltage and temperature distribution were measured for each cell. The decrease in cell voltage and the increase in maximum temperature became remarkable when the apparent utilization factor for one element cell became over 100%. The calculated results agreed fairly good with test results.

  16. Multiplicity among F-type Stars. II.

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.

    2015-08-01

    In continuation of our previous study we present an updated census of new companions and model atmosphere analyses for some 50 southern dwarfs, mostly in the mass range 0.90≤slant M≤slant 1.10 {M}⊙ . For the common-proper-motion companions μ Vir B, HR 2225 B, HD 67199 B, and HD 114853 B, we confirm their physical association from their radial velocities. We report the discovery of the F-type visual binary α For as a field blue straggler and confirm (ζ Ret, HR 5864) or identify (HD 67199, HR 4013, HR 8843) another five mass transfer systems or candidates. For the F stars {τ }1 Eri and 111 Tau, we present 10σ and 7σ cases for astrometric binaries by virtue of the very accurate van Leeuwen Hipparcos parallaxes. Following the work of Shaya & Olling, we suggest the F-type star ι Vir to be a wide (0.37 pc) hierarchical quadruple system. We confirm the visual binary NLTT 23781/2 as a common-proper-motion object to the very wide (0.54 pc) F star 40 Leo, but discard the G star HD 128987 as an ultra-wide (1.01 pc) physical companion to the α Lib quadruple system on account of a diverse metallicity. The improved statistics of our sample establishes the previously discovered positive correlation of stellar multiplicities with primary mass. For the F star multiplicity census in the mass range 1.10≤slant M≤slant 1.70 {M}⊙ , we find that at least a quarter consists of triple or higher level systems and at least two out of three F stars are non-single.

  17. Multiple activities of the plant pathogen type III effector proteins WtsE and AvrE require WxxxE motifs.

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Majerczak, Doris R; Nomura, Kinya; Mecey, Christy; Uribe, Francisco; He, Sheng-Yang; Mackey, David; Coplin, David L

    2009-06-01

    The broadly conserved AvrE-family of type III effectors from gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria includes important virulence factors, yet little is known about the mechanisms by which these effectors function inside plant cells to promote disease. We have identified two conserved motifs in AvrE-family effectors: a WxxxE motif and a putative C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum membrane retention/retrieval signal (ERMRS). The WxxxE and ERMRS motifs are both required for the virulence activities of WtsE and AvrE, which are major virulence factors of the corn pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and the tomato or Arabidopsis pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, respectively. The WxxxE and the predicted ERMRS motifs are also required for other biological activities of WtsE, including elicitation of the hypersensitive response in nonhost plants and suppression of defense responses in Arabidopsis. A family of type III effectors from mammalian bacterial pathogens requires WxxxE and subcellular targeting motifs for virulence functions that involve their ability to mimic activated G-proteins. The conservation of related motifs and their necessity for the function of type III effectors from plant pathogens indicates that disturbing host pathways by mimicking activated host G-proteins may be a virulence mechanism employed by plant pathogens as well. PMID:19445595

  18. Multiple Activities of the Plant Pathogen Type III Effector Proteins WtsE and AvrE1 require WxxxE Motifs

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Majerczak, Doris R.; Nomura, Kinya; Mecey, Christy; Uribe, Francisco de, (S.I.) (1613-1667); He, Sheng-Yang; Mackey, David; Coplin, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The broadly conserved AvrE-family of type III effectors from Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria includes important virulence factors, yet little is known about the mechanisms by which these effectors function inside plant cells to promote disease. We have identified two conserved motifs in AvrE-family effectors: a WxxxE motif and a putative C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum membrane retention/retrieval signal (ERMRS). The WxxxE and ERMRS motifs are both required for the virulence activiti...

  19. Efficient search of multiple types of targets.

    Wosniack, M E; Raposo, E P; Viswanathan, G M; da Luz, M G E

    2015-12-01

    Random searches often take place in fragmented landscapes. Also, in many instances like animal foraging, significant benefits to the searcher arise from visits to a large diversity of patches with a well-balanced distribution of targets found. Up to date, such aspects have been widely ignored in the usual single-objective analysis of search efficiency, in which one seeks to maximize just the number of targets found per distance traversed. Here we address the problem of determining the best strategies for the random search when these multiple-objective factors play a key role in the process. We consider a figure of merit (efficiency function), which properly "scores" the mentioned tasks. By considering random walk searchers with a power-law asymptotic Lévy distribution of step lengths, p(ℓ)∼ℓ(-μ), with 1theory of random search optimization, our findings emphasize the necessity to correctly characterize the multitude of aims in any concrete metric to compare among possible candidates to efficient strategies. In the context of animal foraging, our results might explain some empirical data pointing to stronger superdiffusion (μbehavior of different animal species, conceivably associated to multiple goals to be achieved in fragmented landscapes. PMID:26764660

  20. Efficient search of multiple types of targets

    Wosniack, M. E.; Raposo, E. P.; Viswanathan, G. M.; da Luz, M. G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Random searches often take place in fragmented landscapes. Also, in many instances like animal foraging, significant benefits to the searcher arise from visits to a large diversity of patches with a well-balanced distribution of targets found. Up to date, such aspects have been widely ignored in the usual single-objective analysis of search efficiency, in which one seeks to maximize just the number of targets found per distance traversed. Here we address the problem of determining the best strategies for the random search when these multiple-objective factors play a key role in the process. We consider a figure of merit (efficiency function), which properly "scores" the mentioned tasks. By considering random walk searchers with a power-law asymptotic Lévy distribution of step lengths, p (ℓ ) ˜ℓ-μ , with 1 animal foraging, our results might explain some empirical data pointing to stronger superdiffusion (μ behavior of different animal species, conceivably associated to multiple goals to be achieved in fragmented landscapes.

  1. Multiplicity among solar-type stars

    A search has been made for spectroscopic binaries among 135 F3-G2IV or V bright field stars. As a result of measuring 20 coude radial velocities per star, orbital elements for 25 newly discovered spectroscopic binaries have been derived. These data are combined with known orbital elements for 21 spectroscopic binaries, orbital elements for 23 visual binaries, and data for 25 common-proper-motion pairs. The observed frequencies of singles:doubles:triples:quadruples are 42:46:9:2 percent. The period distribution for the 88 periods has a single maximum, a large overlap between spectroscopic and visual pairs, and a median period of 14 years. Use of four-color and Hβ data shows no correlation between duplicity and age, or any strong decrease in duplicity rate toward lower masses. It was found to be possible to estimate rather well the number of binaries not revealed by this study. It is also possible to determine statistically the secondary masses for both the observed and undetected binaries. It is found that two-thirds of the primary stars have stellar companions. The total mass in the companions is just half of the total mass in the primaries. On the average, the multiple systems are 0.22 mag brighter than the primaries alone

  2. T helper cell type 1 (Th1), Th2 and Th17 responses to myelin basic protein and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Krakauer, Martin; Bendtzen, Klaus; Lund, Henrik; Sellebjerg, Finn; Nielsen, Claus H

    2008-01-01

    related the patient responses to disease activity, as indicated by magnetic resonance imaging. The MBP induced a dose-dependent release of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) by patient-derived MNCs. The patients' cells produced higher amounts...

  3. Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts

    Honnappa, Vijayakumar; Raveesha, K. H.; Subramanian, K. R.

    Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts Vijayakumar H Doddamani1*, Raveesha K H2 and Subramanian3 1Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 2CMR Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 3 Retd, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India Abstract Magnetic fields play an important role in the astrophysical processes occurring in solar corona. In the solar atmosphere, magnetic field interacts with the plasma, producing abundant eruptive activities. They are considered to be the main factors for coronal heating, particle acceleration and the formation of structures like prominences, flares and Coronal Mass Ejections. The magnetic field in solar atmosphere in the range of 1.1-3 Rsun is especially important as an interface between the photospheric magnetic field and the solar wind. Its structure and time dependent change affects space weather by modifying solar wind conditions, Cho (2000). Type II doublet bursts can be used for the estimation of the strength of the magnetic field at two different heights. Two type II bursts occur sometimes in sequence. By relating the speed of the type II radio burst to Alfven Mach Number, the Alfven speed of the shock wave generating type II radio burst can be calculated. Using the relation between the Alfven speed and the mean frequency of emission, the magnetic field strength can be determined at a particular height. We have used the relative bandwidth and drift rate properties of multiple type II radio bursts to derive magnetic field strengths at two different heights and also the gradient of the magnetic field in the outer corona. The magnetic field strength has been derived for different density factors. It varied from 1.2 to 2.5 gauss at a solar height of 1.4 Rsun. The empirical relation of the variation of the magnetic field with height is found to be of the form B(R) = In the present case the power law index ‘γ’ varied from -3 to -2 for variation of

  4. Capitalization of multiple intelligence types during the biology disciplines

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on a sample of children at the Lăpuş School with classes I-VIII, using the teaching/learning process of the biology disciplines. A key element in applying the theory of Multiple Intelligence in a classroom is knowing the intelligence profile of children. Differentiated teaching approach was designed based on the predominant types of intelligences. For this purpose we used various methods: questionnaire, observation of children as they are given various tasks, interview, development of projects, role play, the biographical method-personal history of child, analysis of activities' results (compositions, drawings, collages, portfolios, debates in pair-groups, and case studies. In child’s profile, (types of intelligences become qualities that we capitalize in training, designing different teaching approach depending on predominant types of intelligences. The results appeared without delay. After a school's year that we worked differently with the children, they have improved school performance and became more interested in the study of biological disciplines thus arousing their curiosity and respect towards life.

  5. Profiling Students' Multiple Source Use by Question Type

    List, Alexandra; Grossnickle, Emily M.; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate students' multiple source use in response to two different types of academic questions, one discrete and one open-ended. Participants (N = 240) responded to two questions using a library of eight digital sources, varying in source type (e.g., newspaper article) and reliability (e.g., authors' credentials).…

  6. Modified upward-type multiple effect solar distillers

    The theory of close-type upward multiple-effect solar distillers has been extended to that of open-type device. The energy and mass balances for open-type, upward multiple-effect solar distillers with air flow through the last effect unit have been derived. The production rates of distilled water for each effect under various climatic, designs, and operational conditions may be predicted by simultaneously solving the appropriate equations. Considerable improvement in productivity may be obtained if the water vapor in the last effect is carried away directly by the flowing air. (Author)

  7. Evidence of platelet activation in multiple sclerosis

    Alexander J Steven

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective A fatality in one multiple sclerosis (MS patient due to acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP and a near fatality in another stimulated our interest in platelet function abnormalities in MS. Previously, we presented evidence of platelet activation in a small cohort of treatment-naive MS patients. Methods In this report, 92 normal controls and 33 stable, untreated MS patients were studied. Platelet counts, measures of platelet activation [plasma platelet microparticles (PMP, P-selectin expression (CD62p, circulating platelet microaggragtes (PAg], as well as platelet-associated IgG/IgM, were carried out. In addition, plasma protein S activity was measured. Results Compared to controls, PMP were significantly elevated in MS (p Conclusion Platelets are significantly activated in MS patients. The mechanisms underlying this activation and its significance to MS are unknown. Additional study of platelet activation and function in MS patients is warranted.

  8. On a Multiple Hilbert-Type Integral Operator and Applications

    Qiliang Huang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the way of weight functions and the technic of real analysis, a multiple Hilbert-type integral operator with the homogeneous kernel of −λ-degree (λ∈R and its norm are considered. As for applications, two equivalent inequalities with the best constant factors, the reverses, and some particular norms are obtained.

  9. On a Multiple Hilbert-Type Integral Operator and Applications

    Huang Qiliang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the way of weight functions and the technic of real analysis, a multiple Hilbert-type integral operator with the homogeneous kernel of -degree ( and its norm are considered. As for applications, two equivalent inequalities with the best constant factors, the reverses, and some particular norms are obtained.

  10. Thyroid incidentalomas in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Lodewijk, L.; Bongers, P.J.; Kist, J.W.; Conemans, E.B.; Laat, J.M. de; Pieterman, C.R.; Horst-Schrivers, A.N. van der; Jorna, C.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Dekkers, O.M.; Herder, W.W. de; Drent, M.L.; Bisschop, P.H.; Havekes, B.; Rinkes, I.H.; Vriens, M.R.; Valk, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Currently, little is known about the prevalence of thyroid tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients and it is unclear whether tumorigenesis of these thyroid tumors is MEN1-related. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of thyroid incidentalomas in MEN1 pat

  11. Thyroid incidentalomas in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Lodewijk, Lutske; Bongers, Pim J.; Kist, Jakob W.; Conemans, Elfi B.; de Laat, Joanne M.; Pieterman, Carla R. C.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; Jorna, Ciska; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Rinkes, Inne H. M. Borel; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Currently, little is known about the prevalence of thyroid tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients and it is unclear whether tumorigenesis of these thyroid tumors is MEN1-related. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of thyroid incidentalomas in MEN1 pat

  12. No Association of Blood Type O With Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Nell, Sjoerd; Van Leeuwaarde, Rachel S.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; de Laat, Joanne M.; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Rinkes, Inne H. M. Borel; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: An association between ABO blood type and the development of cancer, in particular, pancreatic cancer, has been reported in the literature. An association between blood type O and neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients was recently suggested. Therefore,

  13. No Association of Blood Type O With Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Nell, Sjoerd; van Leeuwaarde, Rachel S; Pieterman, Carolina R C; de Laat, Joanne M; Hermus, Ad R; Dekkers, Olaf M; de Herder, Wouter W; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N; Drent, Madeleine L; Bisschop, Peter H; Havekes, Bas; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Vriens, Menno R; Valk, Gerlof D; Valk, GD

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: An association between ABO blood type and the development of cancer, in particular, pancreatic cancer, has been reported in the literature. An association between blood type O and neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients was recently suggested. Therefore,

  14. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b associated with lichen nitidus.

    Altaykan, Asli; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel; Emre, Serap; Orhan, Diclehan; Güçer, Safak; Erkin, Gül

    2007-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2B syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited endocrine disorder with rare skin manifestations. We report the case of a 19-year-old Turkish girl who presented with skin-colored flat papules scattered all over the trunk and extremities. Additionally, she had marfanoid habitus, thick lips, and multiple flesh-colored papules over the inner eyelids and oral mucosa. Histopathological examination of one of the trunk lesions was consistent with lichen nitidus. Her past medical history was significant for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Genetic testing showed a point mutation in exon 16 at codon 918 (M918T) in the RET proto-oncogene. Based on all these findings, MEN type 2B was diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge we report the first case of MEN type 2B associated with lichen nitidus. PMID:17540634

  15. Clinical case: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1

    A K Lipatenkova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1, Wermer syndrome – group o а heterogeneous inherited deseases, caused by hyperlasia or neoplasia of several endocrine glands. The phenotype of MEN1 is broad, and over 20 different combinations of endocrine and non-endocrine metabolic manifestations have been described. This case demonstrates multiple formations of endocrine organs, starting non-classical with macroprolactonoma resistant to dopamine agonists therapy, other endocrine disorders developed gradually eventually: hyperparathyreoidism and hypoglycemia caused by pancreas lesions, produced proinsulin in high levels.

  16. Observations of Hierarchical Solar-Type Multiple Star Systems

    Roberts,, Lewis C; Mason, Brian D; Hartkopf, William I; Riddle, Reed L

    2015-01-01

    Twenty multiple stellar systems with solar-type primaries were observed at high angular resolution using the PALM-3000 adaptive optics system at the 5 m Hale telescope. The goal was to complement the knowledge of hierarchical multiplicity in the solar neighborhood by confirming recent discoveries by the visible Robo-AO system with new near-infrared observations with PALM-3000. The physical status of most, but not all, of the new pairs is confirmed by photometry in the Ks band and new positional measurements. In addition, we resolved for the first time five close sub-systems: the known astrometric binary in HIP 17129AB, companions to the primaries of HIP 33555, and HIP 118213, and the companions to the secondaries in HIP 25300 and HIP 101430. We place the components on a color-magnitude diagram and discuss each multiple system individually.

  17. Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    We reviewed the literature about entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) to clarify their demographic features, localization imaging, practice, and appropriate therapeutical strategies, analyzing the current approach to entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1. Despite the fact that hyperparathyroidism is usually the first manifestation of MEN1, the penetrance of these tumors is similar. They are characterized by multiplicity of lesions, variable expression of the tumors, and propensity for malignant degeneration. Both the histological type and the size of MEN1 neuroendocrine tumors correlate with malignancy. Monitoring of pancreatic peptides and use of imaging exams allow early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment, resulting in prevention of metastatic disease and improvement of long-term survival. Surgery is often the treatment of choice for MEN1-neuroendocrine tumors. The rationale for surgical approach is to curtail malignant progression of the disease, and to cure the associated biochemical syndrome, should it be present

  18. Relating personality types with user preferences in multiple entertainment domains

    Cantador, Iván; Fernández-Tobías, Ignacio; Bellogín, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Also published online by CEUR Workshop Proceedings (CEUR-WS.org, ISSN 1613-0073)  Late-Breaking Results, Project Papers and Workshop Proceedings of the 21st Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation, and Personalization, UMAP 2013 We present a preliminary study on the relations between personality types and user preferences in multiple entertainment domains, namely movies, TV shows, music, and books. We analyze a total of 53,226 Facebook user profiles composed of both personality...

  19. Fusion of multiple sensor types in computer vision systems

    Mayo, Donald R.

    2007-01-01

    This research provides analysis of several approaches to the fusion of multiple dissimilar sensors to supplement simple color vision detection and recognition. Non-visible sensor systems can enhance computer vision systems. Our research investigates using thermal infrared (IR) sensors in combination with color data for object detection and recognition. We analyze several types of high-level and low-level sensor fusion to compare error rates with raw color and raw IR error rates in detecti...

  20. Multiple Gastric Carcinomas Associated with Potter Type III Cystic Disease

    Mimatsu, Kenji; Oida, Takatsugu; Kawasaki, Atsushi; Kano, Hisao; Kida, Kazutoshi; Fukino, Nobutada; Kuboi, Youichi; Amano, Sadao

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of multiple gastric carcinomas associated with Potter type III cystic disease of the liver, mesenterium and kidney. A 65-year-old man with chronic renal failure due to polycystic kidneys and under hemodialysis treatment 3 times a week for 2 years was admitted to our hospital because of anemia. He stated that his sister had suffered from polycystic kidney disease. Gastrointestinal fiberscopy showed two lesions in the lesser curvature in the lower portion of the stomach, and hi...

  1. Capitalization of multiple intelligence types during the biology disciplines

    Mariana DUMITRU; Stela-Gabriela JELEA

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted on a sample of children at the Lăpuş School with classes I-VIII, using the teaching/learning process of the biology disciplines. A key element in applying the theory of Multiple Intelligence in a classroom is knowing the intelligence profile of children. Differentiated teaching approach was designed based on the predominant types of intelligences. For this purpose we used various methods: questionnaire, observation of children as they are given various tasks, interview...

  2. Multiple Gastric Carcinomas Associated with Potter Type III Cystic Disease

    Kenji Mimatsu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of multiple gastric carcinomas associated with Potter type III cystic disease of the liver, mesenterium and kidney. A 65-year-old man with chronic renal failure due to polycystic kidneys and under hemodialysis treatment 3 times a week for 2 years was admitted to our hospital because of anemia. He stated that his sister had suffered from polycystic kidney disease. Gastrointestinal fiberscopy showed two lesions in the lesser curvature in the lower portion of the stomach, and histopathological analysis of the gastric tumor biopsies revealed that one of the tumors was a papillary adenocarcinoma and the other a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Helicobacter pylori infection was not detected in the stomach mucosa. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed polycystic lesions in the liver, mesenterium and both kidneys. These imaging findings and family history suggested that the patient suffered from multiple gastric carcinomas associated with Potter type III cystic disease of the liver, mesenterium and kidney. Reports on the association of malignant neoplasm with Potter type III cystic disease are extremely rare. Especially, no case of the association of gastric carcinoma with Potter type III cystic disease of the liver and kidney has been described previously. This is a first report of the association of gastric carcinoma with Potter type III cystic disease. We also review reports of other malignant neoplasms associated with polycystic disease.

  3. Activation of Necroptosis in Multiple Sclerosis

    Dimitry Ofengeim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS, a common neurodegenerative disease of the CNS, is characterized by the loss of oligodendrocytes and demyelination. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in MS, can activate necroptosis, a necrotic cell death pathway regulated by RIPK1 and RIPK3 under caspase-8-deficient conditions. Here, we demonstrate defective caspase-8 activation, as well as activation of RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL, the hallmark mediators of necroptosis, in the cortical lesions of human MS pathological samples. Furthermore, we show that MS pathological samples are characterized by an increased insoluble proteome in common with other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Parkinson’s disease (PD, and Huntington’s disease (HD. Finally, we show that necroptosis mediates oligodendrocyte degeneration induced by TNF-α and that inhibition of RIPK1 protects against oligodendrocyte cell death in two animal models of MS and in culture. Our findings demonstrate that necroptosis is involved in MS and suggest that targeting RIPK1 may represent a therapeutic strategy for MS.

  4. Heteromagnetic Microelectronics Microsystems of Active Type

    Ignatiev, Alexander A

    2010-01-01

    Heteromagnetic Microelectronics: Microsystems of Active Type, by Alexander A. Ignatiev of Saratov State University and Alexander V. Lyashenko of JSC Research Institute Tantal in Russia, offers a very detailed and specialized account of the author's research and development of heteromagnetic materials and devices. The book is based on original material from the author's programs of designing heteromagnetic microsystems. Polyvalent, multiple parameter magneto-semiconductor microsystems are described and the book reports on extensive experimental and theoretical results of research in a range of frequencies up to 1000 GHz. For the first time the direction of satisfying criteria, and burst technologies, which can make a subject of discovery, are discussed in great detail. This book is intended for post-graduate students and researchers specializing in the design and application of heteromagnetic materials and devices. Alexander A. Ignatiev is author of Magnetoelectronics of Microwaves and Extremely High Frequenci...

  5. MRI of the spinocerebellar degeneration (multiple system atrophy, Holmes type, and Menzel-Joseph type)

    Mukai, Eiichiro (National Hospital of Nagoya (Japan)); Makino, Naoki

    1991-06-01

    We have analyzed MRI in 33 patients with several forms of spinocerebellar degeneration; 17 with multiple system atrophy, 10 with Holmes type, and 6 with Menzel-Joseph type. The MRIs were obtained using a 1.5-T GEMR System. Patients with multiple system atrophy demonstrated: atrophy of the brain stem, particularly basis pontis; decreased signal intensity of the white matter of pons; atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum; atrophy and decreased signal intensity of the putamen, particularly along their lateral and posterior portions; and atrophy of the cerebrum. Patients with Holmes type showed: atrophy of the cerebellum; atrophy of the vermis more than hemispheres; and nuclei of the cerebellum with no decreased intensity on T{sub 2}-weighted sequences. Patients with Menzel-Joseph type demonstrated moderate atrophy of the brain stem and mild atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum. MRI is a useful diagnostic tool in the management of the spinocerebellar degeneration. (author).

  6. Youth experiences with multiple types of prejudice-based harassment.

    Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Eisenberg, Marla E

    2016-08-01

    Despite prejudice-based harassment's associations with serious physical and mental health risks, research examining multiple forms of harassment among children/adolescents is lacking. This study documents the prevalence of prejudice-based harassment (i.e., harassment on the basis of gender, race/ethnicity, weight or physical appearance, sexual orientation, and disability status) among a large, statewide, school-based Midwestern U.S. sample of 162,034 adolescents. Weight-/appearance-based harassment was most prevalent among both girls (25.3%) and boys (19.8%). Adolescents from certain vulnerable groups experienced higher rates of multiple types of harassment, even when controlling for other sociodemographic characteristics. Prejudice-based harassment experiences are prevalent among adolescent girls and boys. Differential rates of each type of harassment are reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic status (e.g., white female adolescents report a significantly lower rate of race-based harassment (4.8%), as compared to Native American (18.6%), mixed/other race (18.9%), Hispanic/Latina (21.5%), Asian/Pacific Islander (24.2%), or Black/African American (24.8%) female adolescents); but a pattern of cross-harassment also is evident, such that differences in prevalence of each harassment type emerge across a variety of statuses (e.g., disability-based harassment was statistically significantly higher among discordant heterosexual (12.7%), gay (13.0%), bisexual (15.3%), and unsure (15.3%) male adolescents than among heterosexual male (7.2%) adolescents). Adolescents from specific sociodemographic groups are particularly vulnerable to certain types of harassment. PMID:27310725

  7. Multiple-Active Multiple-Passive Antenna Systems and Applications

    Tsakalaki, Elpiniki

    2013-01-01

    system capable of changing its transmission parameters via passive radiators attached to tunable loads, according to the structure of the RF propagation channel. The hybrid MAMP array structure can be tractably analyzed using the active element response vector (instead of the classical steering vector......) and the active element current vector (all being functions of the variable loading). The adaptive MAMP system targets at maximizing tight MIMO ergodic and outage rate bounds, relying on partial channel knowledge when tuning to a different loading state for optimizing the rate of communication. The...... proposed adaptive MAMP system can be limited to practical dimensions whereas the passive antennas require no extra RF hardware, thus meeting the cost, space, and power constrains of the users’ mobile terminals. The simulation results show that the adaptive MAMP system, thanks to its “adaptivity”, is able...

  8. Experimental demonstration of cryocooler electronics with multiple mechanical cryocooler types

    Freeman, J. J.; Murphy, J. B.; Kirkconnell, C. S.

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments during which a particular cryocooler control electronics (CCE) was shown to successfully drive several very different cryocoolers and simulated cryocooler loads, including a space pulse tube cryocooler, long life tactical Stirling coolers, and even a simulated reverse turbo Brayton (RTB) cryocooler compressor. This CCE is an early brassboard version of a low cost, radiation hard cryocooler electronics module being developed primarily for cost-constrained, but nevertheless mission critical military and civilian spaceborne applications. This design is also applicable for tactical applications which seek to support multiple cryocooler types and/or vendors with a given CCE. The CCE provides high efficiency DC-to-AC conversion, automated cool down, and precision temperature control. The results demonstrate convincingly that this CCE design is broadly supportive of a wide range of thermodynamic-mechanical cryocooler units (TMUs) for a subsequently broad range of payloads and missions.

  9. Multiple myeloma and physical activity: a scoping review

    Smith, L; McCourt, O.; Heinrich, M.; Paton, B.; Yong, K.; Wardle, J; Fisher, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Multiple myeloma is the second most common haematological cancer. A growing body of literature is emerging that investigates the role physical activity plays in all stages of multiple myeloma (prevention and survivorship) and to date no attempt has been made to collate and understand this literature. Therefore, this scoping review aims to (1) outline what is already known about physical activity in all stages of multiple myeloma (2) map the literature on physical activity and mult...

  10. Bumblebee visual search for multiple learned target types.

    Nityananda, Vivek; Pattrick, Jonathan G

    2013-11-15

    Visual search is well studied in human psychology, but we know comparatively little about similar capacities in non-human animals. It is sometimes assumed that animal visual search is restricted to a single target at a time. In bees, for example, this limitation has been evoked to explain flower constancy, the tendency of bees to specialise on a single flower type. Few studies, however, have investigated bee visual search for multiple target types after extended learning and controlling for prior visual experience. We trained colour-naive bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) extensively in separate discrimination tasks to recognise two rewarding colours in interspersed block training sessions. We then tested them with the two colours simultaneously in the presence of distracting colours to examine whether and how quickly they were able to switch between the target colours. We found that bees switched between visual targets quickly and often. The median time taken to switch between targets was shorter than known estimates of how long traces last in bees' working memory, suggesting that their capacity to recall more than one learned target was not restricted by working memory limitations. Following our results, we propose a model of memory and learning that integrates our findings with those of previous studies investigating flower constancy. PMID:23948481

  11. Atuoradiographic detection of multiple sclerosis plaques with an ω3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine) binding site radiogland

    In Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the presence of monocyte-macrophages and microglial cells in active plaques is a constant feature. They are numerous at the border of active lesions where they constiture, with other cell types such as lymphocytes and oligodendrocytes the so-called flial wall. Monocyte-macrophages and microglial cells are thought to be directly involved in the process of demyelination. Some macrophages laden with meylin degradation products are also seen in the center of the plaqie, often located in the perivascular cuffs. In addition, astrocytic gliosis occurs in the center of the plaques. As all these cell types are richly endowed with ω3 sites, the feasibility of using ω3 site autoradiagraphy to detect the demyelination plaques in the brain of post-mortem cases of Multiple Sclerosis has been investigated. (Author). 8 refs

  12. Translocation strategies for multiple species depend on interspecific interaction type.

    Plein, Michaela; Bode, Michael; Moir, Melinda L; Vesk, Peter A

    2016-06-01

    Conservation translocations, anthropogenic movements of species to prevent their extinction, have increased substantially over the last few decades. Although multiple species are frequently moved to the same location, current translocation guidelines consider species in isolation. This practice ignores important interspecific interactions and thereby risks translocation failure. We model three different two-species systems to illustrate the inherent complexity of multispecies translocations and to assess the influence of different interaction types (consumer-resource, mutualism, and competition) on translocation strategies. We focus on how these different interaction types influence the optimal founder population sizes for successful translocations and the order in which the species are moved (simultaneous or sequential). Further, we assess the effect of interaction strength in simultaneous translocations and the time delay between translocations when moving two species sequentially. Our results show that translocation decisions need to reflect the type of interaction. While all translocations of interacting species require a minimum founder population size, which is demarked by an extinction boundary, consumer-resource translocations also have a maximum founder population limit. Above the minimum founder size, increasing the number of translocated individuals leads to a substantial increase in the extinction boundary of competitors and consumers, but not of mutualists. Competitive and consumer-resource systems benefit from sequential translocations, but the order of translocations does not change the outcomes for mutualistic interaction partners noticeably. Interspecific interactions are important processes that shape population dynamics and should therefore be incorporated into the quantitative planning of multispecies translocations. Our findings apply whenever interacting species are moved, for example, in reintroductions, conservation introductions, biological

  13. Active neutron multiplicity counting of bulk uranium

    This paper describes a new nondestructive assay technique being developed to assay bulk uranium containing kilogram quantities of 235U. The new technique uses neutron multiplicity analysis of data collected with a coincidence counter outfitted with AmLi neutron sources. We have calculated the expected neutron multiplicity count rate and assay precision for this technique and will report on its expected performance as a function of detector design characteristics, 235U sample mass, AmLi source strength, and source-to-sample coupling. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Preliminary Evidence that Self-Efficacy Predicts Physical Activity in Multiple Sclerosis

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Doerksen, Shawna; Hu, Liang; Morris, Katherine S.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) are less physically active than nondiseased people. One method for increasing physical activity levels involves the identification of factors that correlate with physical activity and that are modifiable by a well designed intervention. This study examined two types of self-efficacy as cross-sectional and…

  15. Executive Functions Underlying Multiplicative Reasoning: Problem Type Matters

    Agostino, Alba; Johnson, Janice; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which inhibition, updating, shifting, and mental-attentional capacity ("M"-capacity) contribute to children's ability to solve multiplication word problems. A total of 155 children in Grades 3-6 (8- to 13-year-olds) completed a set of multiplication word problems at two levels of difficulty: one-step and multiple-step…

  16. Morbillivirus v proteins exhibit multiple mechanisms to block type 1 and type 2 interferon signalling pathways.

    Senthil K Chinnakannan

    Full Text Available Morbilliviruses form a closely related group of pathogenic viruses which encode three non-structural proteins V, W and C in their P gene. Previous studies with rinderpest virus (RPV and measles virus (MeV have demonstrated that these non-structural proteins play a crucial role in blocking type I (IFNα/β and type II (IFNγ interferon action, and various mechanisms have been proposed for these effects. We have directly compared four important morbilliviruses, rinderpest (RPV, measles virus (MeV, peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV and canine distemper virus (CDV. These viruses and their V proteins could all block type I IFN action. However, the viruses and their V proteins had varying abilities to block type II IFN action. The ability to block type II IFN-induced gene transcription correlated with co-precipitation of STAT1 with the respective V protein, but there was no correlation between co-precipitation of either STAT1 or STAT2 and the abilities of the V proteins to block type I IFN-induced gene transcription or the creation of the antiviral state. Further study revealed that the V proteins of RPV, MeV, PPRV and CDV could all interfere with phosphorylation of the interferon-receptor-associated kinase Tyk2, and the V protein of highly virulent RPV could also block the phosphorylation of another such kinase, Jak1. Co-precipitation studies showed that morbillivirus V proteins all form a complex containing Tyk2 and Jak1. This study highlights the ability of morbillivirus V proteins to target multiple components of the IFN signalling pathways to control both type I and type II IFN action.

  17. Imaging anisotropic layering with Bayesian inversion of multiple data types

    Bodin, T.; Leiva, J.; Romanowicz, B.; Maupin, V.; Yuan, H.

    2016-07-01

    Azimuthal anisotropy is a powerful tool to reveal information about both the present structure and past evolution of the mantle. Anisotropic images of the upper mantle are usually obtained by analysing various types of seismic observables, such as surface wave dispersion curves or waveforms, SKS splitting data, or receiver functions. These different data types sample different volumes of the earth, they are sensitive to different length scales, and hence are associated with different levels of uncertainties. They are traditionally interpreted separately, and often result in incompatible models. We present a Bayesian inversion approach to jointly invert these different data types. Seismograms for SKS and P phases are directly inverted using a cross-convolution approach, thus avoiding intermediate processing steps, such as numerical deconvolution or computation of splitting parameters. Probabilistic 1-D profiles are obtained with a transdimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo scheme, in which the number of layers, as well as the presence or absence of anisotropy in each layer, are treated as unknown parameters. In this way, seismic anisotropy is only introduced if required by the data. The algorithm is used to resolve both isotropic and anisotropic layering down to a depth of 350 km beneath two seismic stations in North America in two different tectonic settings: the stable Canadian shield (station FFC) and the tectonically active southern Basin and Range Province (station TA-214A). In both cases, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is clearly visible, and marked by a change in direction of the fast axis of anisotropy. Our study confirms that azimuthal anisotropy is a powerful tool for detecting layering in the upper mantle.

  18. Imaging Anisotropic Layering with Bayesian Inversion of Multiple Data Types

    Bodin, T.; Leiva, J.; Romanowicz, B.; Maupin, V.; Yuan, H.

    2016-04-01

    Azimuthal anisotropy is a powerful tool to reveal information about both the present structure and past evolution of the mantle. Anisotropic images of the upper-mantle are usually obtained by analyzing various types of seismic observables, such as surface wave dispersion curves or waveforms, SKS splitting data, or receiver functions. These different data types sample different volumes of the earth, they are sensitive to different length-scales, and hence are associated with different levels of uncertainties. They are traditionally interpreted separately, and often result in incompatible models. We present a Bayesian inversion approach to jointly invert these different data types. Seismograms for SKS and P phases are directly inverted using a cross-convolution approach, thus avoiding intermediate processing steps such as numerical deconvolution or computation of splitting parameters. Probabilistic 1D profiles are obtained with a transdimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo scheme, in which the number of layers, as well as the presence or absence of anisotropy in each layer, are treated as unknown parameters. In this way, seismic anisotropy is only introduced if required by the data. The algorithm is used to resolve both isotropic and anisotropic layering down to a depth of 350 km beneath two seismic stations in North America in two different tectonic settings: the stable Canadian shield (station FFC), and the tectonically active southern Basin and Range Province (station TA-214A). In both cases, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is clearly visible, and marked by a change in direction of the fast axis of anisotropy. Our study confirms that azimuthal anisotropy is a powerful tool for detecting layering in the upper mantle.

  19. Biochemical, bone and renal patterns in hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Delmar M. Lourenço Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 differs in many aspects from sporadic hyperparathyroidism, which is the most frequently occurring form of hyperparathyroidism. Bone mineral density has frequently been studied in sporadic hyperparathyroidism but it has very rarely been examined in cases of hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Cortical bone mineral density in hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 cases has only recently been examined, and early, severe and frequent bone mineral losses have been documented at this site. Early bone mineral losses are highly prevalent in the trabecular bone of patients with hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. In summary, bone mineral disease in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1related hyperparathyroidism is an early, frequent and severe disturbance, occurring in both the cortical and trabecular bones. In addition, renal complications secondary to sporadic hyperparathyroidism are often studied, but very little work has been done on this issue in hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. It has been recently verified that early, frequent, and severe renal lesions occur in patients with hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, which may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In this article we review the few available studies on bone mineral and renal disturbances in the setting of hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. We performed a meta-analysis of the available data on bone mineral and renal disease in cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-related hyperparathyroidism.

  20. Surgical treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical approaches to pancreatic endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may differ greatly from those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Presurgical diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is therefore crucial to plan a proper intervention. Of note, hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be surgically treated before pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 resection, apart from insulinoma. Non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 >1 cm have a high risk of malignancy and should be treated by a pancreatic resection associated with lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of patients with gastrinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 present with tumor lesions at the duodenum, so the surgery of choice is subtotal or total pancreatoduodenectomy followed by regional lymphadenectomy. The usual surgical treatment for insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is distal pancreatectomy up to the mesenteric vein with or without spleen preservation, associated with enucleation of tumor lesions in the pancreatic head. Surgical procedures for glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and vipomas/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are similar to those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Some of these surgical strategies for pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 still remain controversial as to their proper extension and timing. Furthermore, surgical resection of single hepatic metastasis secondary to pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may be curative and even in multiple liver metastases surgical resection is possible. Hepatic trans-arterial chemo-embolization is usually associated with surgical resection. Liver transplantation may be needed for select cases. Finally, pre-surgical clinical and genetic diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and

  1. Multiple objective optimization for active sensor management

    Page, Scott F.; Dolia, Alexander N.; Harris, Chris J.; White, Neil M.

    2005-03-01

    The performance of a multi-sensor data fusion system is inherently constrained by the configuration of the given sensor suite. Intelligent or adaptive control of sensor resources has been shown to offer improved fusion performance in many applications. Common approaches to sensor management select sensor observation tasks that are optimal in terms of a measure of information. However, optimising for information alone is inherently sub-optimal as it does not take account of any other system requirements such as stealth or sensor power conservation. We discuss the issues relating to developing a suite of performance metrics for optimising multi-sensor systems and propose some candidate metrics. In addition it may not always be necessary to maximize information gain, in some cases small increases in information gain may take place at the cost of large sensor resource requirements. Additionally, the problems of sensor tasking and placement are usually treated separately, leading to a lack of coherency between sensor management frameworks. We propose a novel approach based on a high level decentralized information-theoretic sensor management architecture that unifies the processes of sensor tasking and sensor placement into a single framework. Sensors are controlled using a minimax multiple objective optimisation approach in order to address probability of target detection, sensor power consumption, and sensor survivability whilst maintaining a target estimation covariance threshold. We demonstrate the potential of the approach through simulation of a multi-sensor, target tracking scenario and compare the results with a single objective information based approach.

  2. Inflammatory Cytokines and Physical Activity in Multiple Sclerosis

    Margarida Florindo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Besides the functional benefits, physical activity triggers a hormonal pattern of immunologic responses with an anti-inflammatory effect in individuals who suffer from multiple sclerosis. Purpose. To analyze the influence of physical activity on multiple sclerosis and identify the intensity threshold which triggers the anti-inflammatory physiological mechanism. Methodology. A systematic review was made on the databases Medline, PubMed, ScienceDirect, PloS, PEDro, and Web of Scienc...

  3. Falls and Physical Activity in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis

    Sosnoff, J. J.; Sandroff, B. M.; J. H. Pula; Morrison, S. M.; R. W. Motl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the association between fall history and physical activity using an objective measure of physical activity (i.e., accelerometry) in persons with multiple sclerosis. Design. A community-based sample of 75 ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis volunteered for the investigation. Participants self-reported fall history in the last year, underwent a neurological exam to determine Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, and wore an accelerometer around the waist f...

  4. Active control of multiple resistive wall modes

    A two-dimensional array of saddle coils at Mc poloidal and Nc toroidal positions is used on the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (Brunsell P R et al 2001 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43 1457) to study active control of resistive wall modes (RWMs). Spontaneous growth of several RWMs with poloidal mode number m = 1 and different toroidal mode number n is observed experimentally, in agreement with linear MHD modelling. The measured plasma response to a controlled coil field and the plasma response computed using the linear circular cylinder MHD model are in quantitative agreement. Feedback control introduces a linear coupling of modes with toroidal mode numbers n, n' that fulfil the condition |n - n'| = Nc. Pairs of coupled unstable RWMs are present in feedback experiments with an array of Mc x Nc = 4 x 16 coils. Using intelligent shell feedback, the coupled modes are generally not controlled even though the field is suppressed at the active coils. A better suppression of coupled modes may be achieved in the case of rotating modes by using the mode control feedback scheme with individually set complex gains. In feedback with a larger array of Mc x Nc = 4 x 32 coils, the coupling effect largely disappears, and with this array, the main internal RWMs n = -11, -10, +5, +6 are all simultaneously suppressed throughout the discharge (7-8 wall times). With feedback there is a two-fold extension of the pulse length, compared to discharges without feedback

  5. Targeting multiple types of tumors using NKG2D-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) hold great potential for cancer therapy. Actively targeting IONPs to tumor cells can further increase therapeutic efficacy and decrease off-target side effects. To target tumor cells, a natural killer (NK) cell activating receptor, NKG2D, was utilized to develop pan-tumor targeting IONPs. NKG2D ligands are expressed on many tumor types and its ligands are not found on most normal tissues under steady state conditions. The data showed that mouse and human fragment crystallizable (Fc)-fusion NKG2D (Fc-NKG2D) coated IONPs (NKG2D/NPs) can target multiple NKG2D ligand positive tumor types in vitro in a dose dependent manner by magnetic cell sorting. Tumor targeting effect was robust even under a very low tumor cell to normal cell ratio and targeting efficiency correlated with NKG2D ligand expression level on tumor cells. Furthermore, the magnetic separation platform utilized to test NKG2D/NP specificity has the potential to be developed into high throughput screening strategies to identify ideal fusion proteins or antibodies for targeting IONPs. In conclusion, NKG2D/NPs can be used to target multiple tumor types and magnetic separation platform can facilitate the proof-of-concept phase of tumor targeting IONP development. (paper)

  6. Mining Emerging Patterns for Recognizing Activities of Multiple Users in Pervasive Computing

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Wang, Liang;

    2009-01-01

    sensor readings in a home environment, and propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize both single-user and multi-user activities in a unified solution. We exploit Emerging Pattern – a type of knowledge pattern that describes significant changes between classes of data – for constructing our......Understanding and recognizing human activities from sensor readings is an important task in pervasive computing. Existing work on activity recognition mainly focuses on recognizing activities for a single user in a smart home environment. However, in real life, there are often multiple inhabitants...... live in such an environment. Recognizing activities of not only a single user, but also multiple users is essential to the development of practical context-aware applications in pervasive computing. In this paper, we investigate the fundamental problem of recognizing activities for multiple users from...

  7. Falls and Physical Activity in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis

    J. J. Sosnoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the association between fall history and physical activity using an objective measure of physical activity (i.e., accelerometry in persons with multiple sclerosis. Design. A community-based sample of 75 ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis volunteered for the investigation. Participants self-reported fall history in the last year, underwent a neurological exam to determine Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score, and wore an accelerometer around the waist for 7 consecutive days to determine physical activity. Results. Overall, 37 persons (49.3% of the sample reported falling in the last year with 28 of the 37 falling more than once. Persons who fell in the last year had a significantly lower number of steps/day than nonfallers (3510 versus 4940 steps/day; P.05. Conclusions. Collectively, the findings suggest that fall history may have little impact on current physical activity levels in persons with multiple sclerosis.

  8. Falls and Physical Activity in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis

    Sosnoff, J. J.; Sandroff, B. M.; Pula, J. H.; Morrison, S. M.; Motl, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the association between fall history and physical activity using an objective measure of physical activity (i.e., accelerometry) in persons with multiple sclerosis. Design. A community-based sample of 75 ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis volunteered for the investigation. Participants self-reported fall history in the last year, underwent a neurological exam to determine Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, and wore an accelerometer around the waist for 7 consecutive days to determine physical activity. Results. Overall, 37 persons (49.3% of the sample) reported falling in the last year with 28 of the 37 falling more than once. Persons who fell in the last year had a significantly lower number of steps/day than nonfallers (3510 versus 4940 steps/day; P .05). Conclusions. Collectively, the findings suggest that fall history may have little impact on current physical activity levels in persons with multiple sclerosis. PMID:22966459

  9. In vitro RBE-LET dependence for multiple particle types

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Overgaard, Jens; Bassler, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Background. In vitro RBE values for various high LET radiation types have been determined for many different cell types. Occasionally it is criticized that RBE for a given endpoint cannot be single-value dependent on LET alone, but also on particle species, due to the different dose deposition...... profiles on microscopic scale. Hence LET is not sufficient as a predictor of RBE, and this is one of the motivations for development of radiobiological models which explicitly depend on the detailed particle energy spectrum of the applied radiation field. The aim of the present study is to summarize the...... available data in the literature regarding the dependency of RBE on LET for different particles. Method. As RBE is highly dependent on cell type and endpoint, we discriminated the RBE-LET relationship for the three investigated cell lines and at the same endpoint (10% survival in colony formation). Data...

  10. Multiple HLA Epitopes Contribute to Type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility

    Roark, Christina L.; Anderson, Kirsten M.; Simon, Lucas J.; Schuyler, Ronald P.; Aubrey, Michael T; Freed, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Disease susceptibility for type 1 diabetes is strongly associated with the inheritance of specific HLA alleles. However, conventional allele frequency analysis can miss HLA associations because many alleles are rare. In addition, disparate alleles that have similar peptide-binding sites, or shared epitopes, can be missed. To identify the HLA shared epitopes associated with diabetes, we analyzed high-resolution genotyping for class I and class II loci. The HLA epitopes most strongly associated...

  11. Cell elasticity with altered cytoskeletal architectures across multiple cell types.

    Grady, Martha E; Composto, Russell J; Eckmann, David M

    2016-08-01

    The cytoskeleton is primarily responsible for providing structural support, localization and transport of organelles, and intracellular trafficking. The structural support is supplied by actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments, which contribute to overall cell elasticity to varying degrees. We evaluate cell elasticity in five different cell types with drug-induced cytoskeletal derangements to probe how actin filaments and microtubules contribute to cell elasticity and whether it is conserved across cell type. Specifically, we measure elastic stiffness in primary chondrocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells (HUVEC), hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HUH-7), and fibrosarcoma cells (HT 1080) subjected to two cytoskeletal destabilizers: cytochalasin D and nocodazole, which disrupt actin and microtubule polymerization, respectively. Elastic stiffness is measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the disruption of the cytoskeleton is confirmed using fluorescence microscopy. The two cancer cell lines showed significantly reduced elastic moduli values (~0.5kPa) when compared to the three healthy cell lines (~2kPa). Non-cancer cells whose actin filaments were disrupted using cytochalasin D showed a decrease of 60-80% in moduli values compared to untreated cells of the same origin, whereas the nocodazole-treated cells showed no change in elasticity. Overall, we demonstrate actin filaments contribute more to elastic stiffness than microtubules but this result is cell type dependent. Cancer cells behaved differently, exhibiting increased stiffness as well as stiffness variability when subjected to nocodazole. We show that disruption of microtubule dynamics affects cancer cell elasticity, suggesting therapeutic drugs targeting microtubules be monitored for significant elastic changes. PMID:26874250

  12. Multiple strategies to activate gold nanoparticles as antibiotics

    Zhao, Yuyun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2013-08-01

    Widespread antibiotic resistance calls for new strategies. Nanotechnology provides a chance to overcome antibiotic resistance by multiple antibiotic mechanisms. This paper reviews the progress in activating gold nanoparticles with nonantibiotic or antibiotic molecules to combat bacterial resistance, analyzes the gap between experimental achievements and real clinical application, and suggests some potential directions in developing antibacterial nanodrugs.

  13. Stimulatory versus suppressive effects of GM-CSF on tumor progression in multiple cancer types

    Hong, In-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, also called CSF-2) is best known for its critical role in immune modulation and hematopoiesis. A large body of experimental evidence indicates that GM-CSF, which is frequently upregulated in multiple types of human cancers, effectively marks cancer cells with a ‘danger flag' for the immune system. In this context, most studies have focused on its function as an immunomodulator, namely its ability to stimulate dendritic cell (DC) maturation and monocyte/macrophage activity. However, recent studies have suggested that GM-CSF also promotes immune-independent tumor progression by supporting tumor microenvironments and stimulating tumor growth and metastasis. Although some studies have suggested that GM-CSF has inhibitory effects on tumor growth and metastasis, an even greater number of studies show that GM-CSF exerts stimulatory effects on tumor progression. In this review, we summarize a number of findings to provide the currently available information regarding the anticancer immune response of GM-CSG. We then discuss the potential roles of GM-CSF in the progression of multiple types of cancer to provide insights into some of the complexities of its clinical applications. PMID:27364892

  14. Complex Dynamic Scene Perception: Effects of Attentional Set on Perceiving Single and Multiple Event Types

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sulman, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments measured the efficiency of monitoring complex scenes composed of changing objects, or events. All events lasted about 4 s, but in a given block of trials, could be of a single type (single task) or of multiple types (multitask, with a total of four event types). Overall accuracy of detecting target events amid distractors was…

  15. Multiple types of motives don't multiply the motivation of West Point cadets.

    Wrzesniewski, Amy; Schwartz, Barry; Cong, Xiangyu; Kane, Michael; Omar, Audrey; Kolditz, Thomas

    2014-07-29

    Although people often assume that multiple motives for doing something will be more powerful and effective than a single motive, research suggests that different types of motives for the same action sometimes compete. More specifically, research suggests that instrumental motives, which are extrinsic to the activities at hand, can weaken internal motives, which are intrinsic to the activities at hand. We tested whether holding both instrumental and internal motives yields negative outcomes in a field context in which various motives occur naturally and long-term educational and career outcomes are at stake. We assessed the impact of the motives of over 10,000 West Point cadets over the period of a decade on whether they would become commissioned officers, extend their officer service beyond the minimum required period, and be selected for early career promotions. For each outcome, motivation internal to military service itself predicted positive outcomes; a relationship that was negatively affected when instrumental motives were also in evidence. These results suggest that holding multiple motives damages persistence and performance in educational and occupational contexts over long periods of time. PMID:24982165

  16. Multiple and changing cycles of active stars II. Results

    Oláh, K; Granzer, T; Strassmeier, K G; Lanza, A F; Järvinen, S; Korhonen, H; Baliunas, S L; Soon, W; Messina, S; Cutispoto, G

    2009-01-01

    We study the time variations of the cycles of 20 active stars based on decades-long photometric or spectroscopic observations. A method of time-frequency analysis, as discussed in a companion paper, is applied to the data. Fifteen stars definitely show multiple cycles; the records of the rest are too short to verify a timescale for a second cycle. The cycles typically show systematic changes. For three stars, we found two cycles in each of them that are not harmonics, and which vary in parallel, indicating that a common physical mechanism arising from a dynamo construct. The positive relation between the rotational and cycle periods is confirmed for the inhomogeneous set of active stars. Stellar activity cycles are generally multiple and variable.

  17. Multiple solid pilocytic astrocytomas in cerebleiium with neurofibromatosis type: A case report

    Pilocytic astrocytoma usually has a classic imaging manifestation of a solitary, cyst-like mass with a strong contrast-enhancing mural nodule. There is only one published report so far of multiple solid and cyst type pilocytic astrocytomas in the cerebellum in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patient from the United States in 2007. We report a case of pilocytic astrocytoma presenting with only solid, multiple pilocytic astrocytomas in the cerebellum in NF1 patient.

  18. Multiple solid pilocytic astrocytomas in cerebleiium with neurofibromatosis type: A case report

    Choi, Seo Young; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Pilocytic astrocytoma usually has a classic imaging manifestation of a solitary, cyst-like mass with a strong contrast-enhancing mural nodule. There is only one published report so far of multiple solid and cyst type pilocytic astrocytomas in the cerebellum in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patient from the United States in 2007. We report a case of pilocytic astrocytoma presenting with only solid, multiple pilocytic astrocytomas in the cerebellum in NF1 patient.

  19. Impulse Radio Systems with Multiple Types of Ultra-Wideband Pulses

    Gezici, Sinan; Sahinoglu, Zafer; Kobayashi, Hisashi; Poor, H. Vincent

    2005-01-01

    Spectral properties and performance of multi-pulse impulse radio ultra-wideband systems with pulse-based polarity randomization are analyzed. Instead of a single type of pulse transmitted in each frame, multiple types of pulses are considered, which is shown to reduce the effects of multiple-access interference. First, the spectral properties of a multi-pulse impulse radio system is investigated. It is shown that the power spectral density is the average of spectral contents of different puls...

  20. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Double-Dummy, Active-Controlled, and Multiple-Dose Clinical Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Mulberry Twig (Ramulus Mori, Sangzhi) Alkaloid Tablet and Acarbose in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Chen, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of mulberry twig alkaloid (SZ-A) tablet compared with acarbose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. This clinical trial enrolled 38 patients who were randomized into two groups (SZ-A: 23; acarbose: 15) and were treated for 24 weeks. Patients and clinical trial staffs were masked to treatment assignment throughout the study. The primary outcome measures were glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and 1-hour and 2-hour postprandial and fasting plasma glucose levels from baseline to the end of treatment. Analysis included all patients who completed this study. Results. By the end of this study, HbA1c level in SZ-A group was decreased from baseline significantly (P < 0.001). No significant difference was found when compared with acarbose group (P = 0.652). Similarly, 1-hour and 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose levels in SZ-A group were decreased from baseline statistically (P < 0.05), without any significant differences compared with acarbose group (P = 0.748 and 0.558, resp.). The fasting plasma glucose levels were not significantly changed in both groups. One of 23 patients in SZ-A group (4.76%) and 5 of 15 patients in acarbose group (33.33%) suffered from gastrointestinal adverse events. Conclusions. Compared with acarbose, SZ-A tablet was effective and safe in glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27547230

  1. Comparison of Cas9 activators in multiple species.

    Chavez, Alejandro; Tuttle, Marcelle; Pruitt, Benjamin W; Ewen-Campen, Ben; Chari, Raj; Ter-Ovanesyan, Dmitry; Haque, Sabina J; Cecchi, Ryan J; Kowal, Emma J K; Buchthal, Joanna; Housden, Benjamin E; Perrimon, Norbert; Collins, James J; Church, George

    2016-07-01

    Several programmable transcription factors exist based on the versatile Cas9 protein, yet their relative potency and effectiveness across various cell types and species remain unexplored. Here, we compare Cas9 activator systems and examine their ability to induce robust gene expression in several human, mouse, and fly cell lines. We also explore the potential for improved activation through the combination of the most potent activator systems, and we assess the role of cooperativity in maximizing gene expression. PMID:27214048

  2. High frequency of multiple HPV types in cervical specimens from Danish women

    Mejlhede, Nina; Bonde, Jesper; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus infection (HPV) is common and usually harmless. However, chronic cervical infection with high-risk HPV types can cause cell changes that may eventually lead to cancer. To determine the frequency of individual HPV types among mixed infections, we examined the type...... distribution among cervical specimens from more than 1000 Danish women. We also examined the HPV type distribution and the frequency of single and multiple HPV types for specimens from 113 women who underwent conization and were diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II or worse (CIN2+). Using...... microarray technology, we found that 49% of the HPV-positive patients were infected with multiple HPV types. Among the CIN2+ diagnosed women, this frequency was 41%. The most frequently found high-risk HPV type was HPV-16, which was found in 25% of the HPV-positive cervical specimens. Among the HPV positive...

  3. Multiple LREK active contours for knee meniscus ultrasound image segmentation.

    Faisal, Amir; Ng, Siew-Cheok; Goh, Siew-Li; George, John; Supriyanto, Eko; Lai, Khin W

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of knee meniscus degeneration and displacement in an ultrasound image requires simultaneous segmentation of femoral condyle, meniscus, and tibial plateau in order to determine the area and the position of the meniscus. In this paper, we present an active contour for image segmentation that uses scalable local regional information on expandable kernel (LREK). It includes using a strategy to adapt the size of a local window in order to avoid being confined locally in a homogeneous region during the segmentation process. We also provide a multiple active contours framework called multiple LREK (MLREK) to deal with multiple object segmentation without merging and overlapping between the neighboring contours in the shared boundaries of separate regions. We compare its performance to other existing active contour models and show an improvement offered by our model. We then investigate the choice of various parameters in the proposed framework in response to the segmentation outcome. Dice coefficient and Hausdorff distance measures over a set of real knee meniscus ultrasound images indicate a potential application of MLREK for assessment of knee meniscus degeneration and displacement. PMID:25910057

  4. Equid herpesvirus type 1 activates platelets.

    Tracy Stokol

    Full Text Available Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1 causes outbreaks of abortion and neurological disease in horses. One of the main causes of these clinical syndromes is thrombosis in placental and spinal cord vessels, however the mechanism for thrombus formation is unknown. Platelets form part of the thrombus and amplify and propagate thrombin generation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that EHV-1 activates platelets. We found that two EHV-1 strains, RacL11 and Ab4 at 0.5 or higher plaque forming unit/cell, activate platelets within 10 minutes, causing α-granule secretion (surface P-selectin expression and platelet microvesiculation (increased small events double positive for CD41 and Annexin V. Microvesiculation was more pronounced with the RacL11 strain. Virus-induced P-selectin expression required plasma and 1.0 mM exogenous calcium. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced in factor VII- or X-deficient human plasma. Both P-selectin expression and microvesiculation were re-established in factor VII-deficient human plasma with added purified human factor VIIa (1 nM. A glycoprotein C-deficient mutant of the Ab4 strain activated platelets as effectively as non-mutated Ab4. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced by preincubation of virus with a goat polyclonal anti-rabbit tissue factor antibody. Infectious virus could be retrieved from washed EHV-1-exposed platelets, suggesting a direct platelet-virus interaction. Our results indicate that EHV-1 activates equine platelets and that α-granule secretion is a consequence of virus-associated tissue factor triggering factor X activation and thrombin generation. Microvesiculation was only partly tissue factor and thrombin-dependent, suggesting the virus causes microvesiculation through other mechanisms, potentially through direct binding. These findings suggest that EHV-1-induced platelet activation could contribute to the thrombosis

  5. Prophylactic thyroidectomy for asymptomatic 3-year-old boy with positive multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A mutation (codon 634)

    Ješić Maja D.; Tančić-Gajić Milina; Ješić Miloš M.; Živaljević Vladan; Sajić Silvija; Vujović Svetlana; Damjanović Svetozar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) syndrome, comprising medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is most frequently caused by codon 634 activating mutations of the RET (rearranged during transfection) proto-oncogene on chromosome 10. For this codon-mutation carriers, earlier thyroidectomy (before the age of 5 years) would be advantageous in limiting the potential for the developm...

  6. On asymptotics of t-type regression estimation in multiple linear model

    CUI Hengjian

    2004-01-01

    We consider a robust estimator (t-type regression estimator) of multiple linear regression model by maximizing marginal likelihood of a scaled t-type error t-distribution.The marginal likelihood can also be applied to the de-correlated response when the withinsubject correlation can be consistently estimated from an initial estimate of the model based on the independent working assumption. This paper shows that such a t-type estimator is consistent.

  7. Morbillivirus V Proteins Exhibit Multiple Mechanisms to Block Type 1 and Type 2 Interferon Signalling Pathways

    Chinnakannan, Senthil K.; Nanda, Sambit K.; Baron, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Morbilliviruses form a closely related group of pathogenic viruses which encode three non-structural proteins V, W and C in their P gene. Previous studies with rinderpest virus (RPV) and measles virus (MeV) have demonstrated that these non-structural proteins play a crucial role in blocking type I (IFNα/β) and type II (IFNγ) interferon action, and various mechanisms have been proposed for these effects. We have directly compared four important morbilliviruses, rinderpest (RPV), measles virus ...

  8. Effects of Land Use, Physical Habitat Type, and Stream Geomorphic Type at Multiple Spatial Scales on Fish Community Diversity

    Cianfrani, C. M.; Sullivan, S. P.; Hession, W. C.; Watzin, M. C.

    2006-05-01

    Twenty-five independent stream reaches in northwestern Vermont, USA spanning a range of geomorphic conditions were surveyed to determine the effects of land use and physical habitat on fish community diversity at multiple spatial scales including watershed, local riparian, and in-stream. Watershed-scale parameters were evaluated using a geographic information system (GIS) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed modeling software. Riparian vegetation was surveyed and classified in the field. In-stream physical characteristics were assessed using rapid geomorphic and rapid habitat assessments. Detailed in-stream geomorphic surveys and habitat assessments were also completed to provide quantitative data for each site. In-stream physical habitat was classified as having either predominantly pool-riffle type or comprised of multiple channel types. Fish were sampled using a bag seine at three to four locations selected to represent major flow habitats. Three fish community diversity measures were calculated: 1) Species richness (S); Shannon-Weaver Index (H'); and Simpson's Index (1/D). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal components analysis (PCA), and multiple regression were used to assess the relative importance of and the relationships between and among land use/physical habitat type and fish community diversity. Watershed scale land use was found to be a significant predictor of fish community diversity. Further, fish community diversity was higher for all three measures in streams with multiple channel types as compared to predominantly pool-riffle streams. Our results suggest that sampling strategies for fish (and potentially other biota) that focus on homogeneous reaches may underestimate diversity. In order to address these issues, comprehensive watershed management and restoration/protection plans should include assessment at multiple scales from a geomorphological, watershed, and ecological perspective.

  9. Multiple scattering Compton camera with neutron activation for material inspection

    We designed a multiple scattering Compton camera (MSCC) based on a lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillator to detect neutron-activated prompt gamma-rays for material inspection. The system parameters such as detector thickness and inter-detector distances were optimized on the basis of figure of merit (FOM). The FOM was maximized when the inter-detector distance and detector thickness were 18 cm and 1.5 cm, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, energy spectra and spatial images were obtained to identify various substances, and the results matched well with theoretical data. The probability of multiple Compton scattering was higher than that of conventional Compton scattering at high energies (~MeV), which proved the effectiveness of MSCC to detect prompt gamma-rays. Simulations with realistic conditions showed the feasibility of using the MSCC investigate of materials in field applications

  10. Multiple, Unilateral Lisch Nodules in the Absence of Other Manifestations of Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    E. G. Adams; K. M. A. Stewart; O. A. Borges; T. Darling

    2012-01-01

    Lisch nodules associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) are usually multiple and bilateral in nature. Here, we report a 21-year-old healthy, Caucasian female who was diagnosed with multiple, unilateral Lisch nodules during routine eye examination. A thorough history and physical examination revealed no other signs of NF1. We diagnosed the rare occurrence of numerous, unilateral Lisch nodules in the absence of additional features of NF1 in our patient and provide a discussion concerning t...

  11. Multiple Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Makoto Tomatsu; Jun Isogaki; Takahiro Watanabe; Kiyoshige Yajima; Takuya Okumura; Kimihiro Yamashita; Kenji Suzuki; Akihiro Kawabe; Akira Komiyama; Seiichi Hirota

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are relatively common in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF 1) patients. Approximately 90% of GISTs associated with NF 1 are located in the small intestine, while sporadic GISTs are most commonly located in the stomach. Here we report an extremely rare case of an NF 1 patient with multiple gastric GITs (90 or more) but without multiple small intestinal tumors. A 63-year-old female patient who had a history of NF 1 underwent surgery for a gastric neuroendocrin...

  12. An integrated economic model of multiple types and uses of water

    Luckmann, Jonas; Grethe, Harald; McDonald, Scott; Orlov, Anton; Siddig, Khalid

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity is an increasing problem in many parts of the world and the management of water has become an important issue on the political economy agenda in many countries. As water is used in most economic activities and the allocation of water is often a complex problem involving different economic agents and sectors, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models have been proven useful to analyze water allocation problems, although their adaptation to include water is still relatively undeveloped. This paper provides a description of an integrated water-focused CGE model (STAGE_W) that includes multiple types and uses of water, and for the first time, the reclamation of wastewater as well as the provision of brackish groundwater as separate, independent activities with specific cost structures. The insights provided by the model are illustrated with an application to the Israeli water sector assuming that freshwater resources available to the economy are cut by 50%. We analyze how the Israeli economy copes with this shock if it reduces potable water supply compared with further investments in the desalination sector. The results demonstrate that the effects on the economy are slightly negative under both scenarios. Counter intuitively, the provision of additional potable water to the economy through desalination does not substantively reduce the negative outcomes. This is mainly due to the high costs of desalination, which are currently subsidized, with the distribution of the negative welfare effect over household groups dependent on how these subsidies are financed.

  13. Physical activity and pediatric multiple sclerosis: Developing a research agenda.

    Yeh, E Ann; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Grover, Stephanie A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Three-quarters of children with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience fatigue or depression, and progressive neurocognitive decline may be seen as early as two years after MS diagnosis. Furthermore, a higher magnetic resonance imaging disease burden is seen in pediatric-onset MS compared with adult-onset MS. To date, limited knowledge exists regarding behavioral methods for managing symptoms and disease progression in pediatric MS. To that end, this paper builds an evidence-based argument for the possible symptomatic and disease-modifying effects of exercise and physical activity in pediatric MS. This will be accomplished through: (a) a review of pediatric MS and its consequences; (b) a brief overview of physical activity and its consequences in children and adults with MS; and (c) a selective review of research on the neurological benefits of physical activity in pediatric populations. This topical review concludes with a list of 10 questions to guide future research on physical activity and pediatric MS. The objective of this paper is the provision of a research interest, focus and agenda involving pediatric MS and its lifelong management though exercise and physical activity behavior. Such an agenda is critical as the effects and maintenance of physical activity and exercise track across the lifespan, particularly when developed in the early stages of life. PMID:26447061

  14. Multiple Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Type III Effectors Inhibit flg22-Triggered Immunity.

    Popov, Georgy; Fraiture, Malou; Brunner, Frederic; Sessa, Guido

    2016-08-01

    Xanthomonas euvesicatoria is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease in pepper and tomato. X. euvesicatoria bacteria interfere with plant cellular processes by injecting effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion (T3S) system. About 35 T3S effectors have been identified in X. euvesicatoria 85-10, and a few of them were implicated in suppression of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). We used an Arabidopsis thaliana pathogen-free protoplast-based assay to identify X. euvesicatoria 85-10 effectors that interfere with PTI signaling induced by the bacterial peptide flg22. Of 33 tested effectors, 17 inhibited activation of a PTI-inducible promoter. Among them, nine effectors also interfered with activation of an abscisic acid-inducible promoter. However, effectors that inhibited flg22-induced signaling did not affect phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases acting downstream of flg22 perception. Further investigation of selected effectors revealed that XopAJ, XopE2, and XopF2 inhibited activation of a PTI-inducible promoter by the bacterial peptide elf18 in Arabidopsis protoplasts and by flg22 in tomato protoplasts. The effectors XopF2, XopE2, XopAP, XopAE, XopH, and XopAJ inhibited flg22-induced callose deposition in planta and enhanced disease symptoms caused by attenuated Pseudomonas syringae bacteria. Finally, selected effectors were found to localize to various plant subcellular compartments. These results indicate that X. euvesicatoria bacteria utilize multiple T3S effectors to suppress flg22-induced signaling acting downstream or in parallel to MAP kinase cascades and suggest they act through different molecular mechanisms. PMID:27529660

  15. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and comparison with multiple loci sequence typing

    van Cuyck Hélène

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of pneumococci was first evidenced by serotyping of their capsular polysaccharides, responsible of virulence, resolving into more than 93 serotypes. Molecular tools have been developed to track the emergence and the spread of resistant, hyper virulent or non-vaccine type clones, particularly DNA-based methods using genetic polymorphism. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis analysis (PFGE and Multiple Loci Sequence Typing (MLST are the most frequently used genotyping techniques for S. pneumoniae. MLST is based on sequence comparison of housekeeping genes clustering isolates within sequence types. The availability of genome sequence data from different S. pneumoniae strains facilitated the search for other class of genetic markers as polymorphic DNA sequences for a Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA. This study aims at confirming the relevance of MLVA of S. pneumoniae, comparing MLST and MLVA performances when discriminating subgroups of strains belonging to the same Sequence Type (ST, and defining a restricted but universal set of MLVA markers that has at least the same discriminatory power as MLST for S. pneumoniae by applying marker sets used by different authors on 331 isolates selected in UK. Results A minimum spanning tree was built including the serotypes distribution and comparing MLVA and MLST results. 220 MLVA types were determined grouped in 10 Sequence Types (ST. MLVA differentiated ST162 in two clonal complexes. A minimal set was defined: ms 25 and ms37, ms17, ms19, ms33, ms39, and ms40 including two universal markers. The selection was based on MLVA markers with a Diversity Index >0.8 and a selection of others depending of the population tested and the aim of the study. This set of 7 MLVA markers yields strain clusters similar to those obtained by MLST. Conclusions MLVA can discriminate

  16. Hot Resistance Estimation for Dry Type Transformer Using Multiple Variable Regression, Multiple Polynomial Regression and Soft Computing Techniques

    M. Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents a novel method for the determination of average winding temperature rise of transformers under its predetermined field operating conditions. Rise in the winding temperature was determined from the estimated values of winding resistance during the heat run test conducted as per IEC standard. Approach: The estimation of hot resistance was modeled using Multiple Variable Regression (MVR, Multiple Polynomial Regression (MPR and soft computing techniques such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS. The modeled hot resistance will help to find the load losses at any load situation without using complicated measurement set up in transformers. Results: These techniques were applied for the hot resistance estimation for dry type transformer by using the input variables cold resistance, ambient temperature and temperature rise. The results are compared and they show a good agreement between measured and computed values. Conclusion: According to our experiments, the proposed methods are verified using experimental results, which have been obtained from temperature rise test performed on a 55 kVA dry-type transformer.

  17. Osteoporosis in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I: A Case Report – Case Report

    Kurtuluş Kaya

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type I (MEN type-I is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary. Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common clinical expression in affected patients, present in more than 90% of cases. Osteoporosis is a frequent and early complication of primary hyperparathyroidism in MEN type I. A case with a diagnosis of MEN type-I, 39 years old, presented with humeral, femural and L4 vertebral fractures after falling is evaluated in the view of the literature in this case report. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2008;14:40-3

  18. Surgical approach in patients with hyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: total versus partial parathyroidectomy

    Francesco Tonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, primary hyperparathyroidism is the first endocrinopathy to be diagnosed in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and is also the most common one. The timing of the surgery and strategy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1/hyperparathyroidism are still under debate. The aims of surgery are to: 1 correct hypercalcemia, thus preventing persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism; 2 avoid persistent hypoparathyroidism; and 3 facilitate the surgical treatment of possible recurrences. Currently, two types of surgical approach are indicated: 1 subtotal parathyroidectomy with removal of at least 3-3 K glands; and 2 total parathyroidectomy with grafting of autologous parathyroid tissue. Transcervical thymectomy must be performed with both of these procedures. Unsuccessful surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism is more frequently observed in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 than in sporadic hyperparathyroidism. The recurrence rate is strongly influenced by: 1 the lack of a pre-operative multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 diagnosis; 2 the surgeon's experience; 3 the timing of surgery; 4 the possibility of performing intra-operative confirmation (histologic examination, rapid parathyroid hormone assay of the curative potential of the surgical procedure; and, 5 the surgical strategy. Persistent hyperparathyroidism seems to be more frequent after subtotal parathyroidectomy than after total parathyroidectomy with autologous graft of parathyroid tissue. Conversely, recurrent hyperparathyroidism has a similar frequency in the two surgical strategies. To plan further operations, it is very helpful to know all the available data about previous surgery and to undertake accurate identification of the site of recurrence.

  19. Multiple host kinases contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection.

    Bernhard Roppenser

    Full Text Available SopB is a type 3 secreted effector with phosphatase activity that Salmonella employs to manipulate host cellular processes, allowing the bacteria to establish their intracellular niche. One important function of SopB is activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt/protein kinase B in the infected host cell. Here, we examine the mechanism of Akt activation by SopB during Salmonella infection. We show that SopB-mediated Akt activation is only partially sensitive to PI3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin in HeLa cells, suggesting that Class I PI3-kinases play only a minor role in this process. However, depletion of PI(3,4 P2/PI(3-5 P3 by expression of the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase PTEN inhibits Akt activation during Salmonella invasion. Therefore, production of PI(3,4 P2/PI(3-5 P3 appears to be a necessary event for Akt activation by SopB and suggests that non-canonical kinases mediate production of these phosphoinositides during Salmonella infection. We report that Class II PI3-kinase beta isoform, IPMK and other kinases identified from a kinase screen all contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection. In addition, the kinases required for SopB-mediated activation of Akt vary depending on the type of infected host cell. Together, our data suggest that Salmonella has evolved to use a single effector, SopB, to manipulate a remarkably large repertoire of host kinases to activate Akt for the purpose of optimizing bacterial replication in its host.

  20. Active immunization therapies for Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    Schneeberger, Achim; Tierney, Lanay; Mandler, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Vaccination is increasingly being investigated as a potential treatment for synucleinopathies, a group of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and dementia with Lewy bodies associated with α-synuclein pathology. All lack a causal therapy. Development of novel, disease-altering treatment strategies is urgently needed. Vaccination has positioned itself as a prime strategy for addressing these diseases because it is broadly applicable, requires infrequent administration, and maintains low production costs for treating a large population or as a preventive measure. Current evidence points to a causal role of misfolded α-synuclein in the development and progression of synucleinopathies. In the past decade, significant progress in active immunization against α-synuclein has been shown both in preclinical animal models and in early clinical development. In this review, we describe the state-of-the-art in active immunization approaches to synucleinopathies, with a focus on advances in Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple-system atrophy (MSA). We first review preclinical animal models, highlighting their progress in translation to the clinical setting. We then discuss current clinical applications, stressing different approaches taken to address α-synuclein pathology. Finally, we address challenges, trends, and future perspectives of current vaccination programs. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:26260853

  1. CD4 T cell activation and disease activity at onset of multiple sclerosis

    Jensen, J; Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Fenst, C; Nicolaisen, M. S.; Roed, H. G.; Christensen, M; Sellebjerg, F

    We studied CD4 T cell activation in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggesting an initial attack of multiple sclerosis. The percentage of blood CD26+ CD4 T cells was increased in these patients, and correlated with magnetic resonance imaging disease activity and clinical disease...

  2. Novel multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 variations in patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism

    S Birla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT can occur either as a sporadic case or in association with syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal-dominant disease resulting from mutations in MEN1 gene encoding a 621 amino acid long tumor suppressor protein “menin.” We report here the results of MEN1 screening in 31 patients diagnosed with sporadic PHPT. Materials and Methods: Diagnosis of sporadic PHPT was made when blood urea and serum creatinine were normal, serum parathyroid hormone was high, and parathyroid enlargement could be localized on ultrasound and/or parathyroid scan. A total of 31 patients and 50 healthy volunteers were recruited for molecular analysis after taking informed consent. Results: Major symptoms at presentation were bone pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, and renal stones. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the presence of two novel intronic variations, c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A which by human splicing finder are predicted to cause potential alteration of splicing by either activating an intronic cryptic acceptor site or converting a conserved exonic splicing silencer sequence to an exonic splicing enhancer site. Apart from these, two reported polymorphisms rs144677807 and rs669976 were seen only in patients and none of the controls. Other reported polymorphisms rs2071313 and rs654440 were identified both in controls and patients. Conclusions: This is the first study of MEN1 gene screening in sporadic PHPT in India reporting on the clinical and genetic findings, wherein two novel intronic variations c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A were identified showing their possible role in disease causation.

  3. Multifrequency Oscillator-Type Active Printed Antenna Using Chaotic Colpitts Oscillator

    Bibha Kumari; Nisha Gupta

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept to realize a multifrequency Oscillator-type active printed monopole antenna. The concept of period doubling route to chaos is exploited to generate the multiple frequencies. The chaotic Colpitts oscillator is integrated with the printed monopole antenna (PMA) on the same side of the substrate to realize an Oscillator-type active antenna where the PMA acts as a load and radiator to the chaotic oscillator. By changing the bias voltage of the oscillator, the ant...

  4. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey VIII. Multiplicity properties of the O-type star population

    Sana, H.; Koter, de, A.; Mink, de, S.E.; Dunstall, P. R.; Evans, C J; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Maíz Apellániz, J; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Taylor, W.D.; N. R. Walborn; Clark, J. S.; Crowther, P. A.; Herrero, A.; Gieles, M.; Langer, N.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud is our closest view of a starburst region and is the ideal environment to investigate important questions regarding the formation, evolution and final fate of the most massive stars. Aims. We analyze the multiplicity properties of the massive O-type star population observed through multi-epoch spectroscopy in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. With 360 O-type stars, this is the largest homogeneous sample of mas...

  5. Type 2 diabetes-related variants influence the risk of developing multiple myeloma

    Ríos, Rafael; Lupiañez, Carmen Belén; Campa, Daniele;

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been suggested to be a risk factor for multiple myeloma (MM), but the relationship between the two traits is still not well understood. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether 58 genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS)-identified common variants for T2D influence...

  6. Anaesthetic Management of a Child with Neurofibromatosis Type 2 for Multiple Tumour Decompressions

    Lakshiminarasimhaiah, Geetha; Jagannatha, Aniruddha Thekkatte; Pai, Kulyadi Raghavendra; Varma, Ravi Gopal; Hegde, Alangar Satyaranjandas

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 is a genetic disorder with autosomal dominant pattern. It can manifest as intracranial, spinal, ocular and cutaneous lesions. The lesions can extend to all the systems. We present an anaesthetic management of a paediatric patient with neurofibromatosis 2 for multiple spinal and thoracic tumour decompression.

  7. Diagnosis and Management of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1)

    Dreijerink, Koen M. A.; Lips, Cees J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder, characterised by the occurrence of tumours of the parathyroid glands, the pancreatic islets, the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands and neuroendocrine carcinoid tumours. Carcinoid tumours of the thymus and pan

  8. A rare presentation of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A syndrome.

    Weledji, Elroy Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Peptic ulcer disease may be a manifestation of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. A case of an intractable complicated peptic ulcer disease secondary to hypercalcaemia from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A is presented. Hypercalcaemia should always be excluded as a cause of recurrent, or complicated peptic ulcer disease. PMID:26858832

  9. A rare presentation of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN type 2A syndrome

    Elroy Patrick Weledji

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer disease may be a manifestation of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. A case of an intractable complicated peptic ulcer disease secondary to hypercalcaemia from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A is presented. Hypercalcaemia should always be excluded as a cause of recurrent, or complicated peptic ulcer disease.

  10. Predicting and preventing the future: actively managing multiple sclerosis.

    Hutchinson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) has a highly variable clinical course but a number of demographic, clinical and MRI features can guide the clinician in the assessment of disease activity and likely disability outcome. It is also clear that the inflammatory activity in the first five years of relapsing-remitting MS results in the neurodegenerative changes seen in secondary progressive MS 10-15 years later. While conventional first-line disease modifying therapy has an effect on relapses, about one third of patients have a suboptimal response to treatment. With the advent of highly active second-line therapies with their evident marked suppression of inflammation, the clinician now has the tools to manage the course of relapsing-remitting MS more effectively. The development of treatment optimisation recommendations based on the clinical response to first-line therapies can guide the neurologist in more active management of the early course of relapsing-remitting MS, with the aim of preventing both acute inflammatory axonal injury and the neurodegenerative process which leads to secondary progressive MS.

  11. Activation of multiple chemotherapeutic prodrugs by the natural enzymolome of tumour-localised probiotic bacteria.

    Lehouritis, Panos; Stanton, Michael; McCarthy, Florence O; Jeavons, Matthieu; Tangney, Mark

    2016-01-28

    Some chemotherapeutic drugs (prodrugs) require activation by an enzyme for efficacy. We and others have demonstrated the ability of probiotic bacteria to grow specifically within solid tumours following systemic administration, and we hypothesised that the natural enzymatic activity of these tumour-localised bacteria may be suitable for activation of certain such chemotherapeutic drugs. Several wild-type probiotic bacteria; Escherichia coli Nissle, Bifidobacterium breve, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus species, were screened against a panel of popular prodrugs. All strains were capable of activating at least one prodrug. E. coli Nissle 1917 was selected for further studies because of its ability to activate numerous prodrugs and its resistance to prodrug toxicity. HPLC data confirmed biochemical transformation of prodrugs to their toxic counterparts. Further analysis demonstrated that different enzymes can complement prodrug activation, while simultaneous activation of multiple prodrugs (CB1954, 5-FC, AQ4N and Fludarabine phosphate) by E. coli was confirmed, resulting in significant efficacy improvement. Experiments in mice harbouring murine tumours validated in vitro findings, with significant reduction in tumour growth and increase in survival of mice treated with probiotic bacteria and a combination of prodrugs. These findings demonstrate the ability of probiotic bacteria, without the requirement for genetic modification, to enable high-level activation of multiple prodrugs specifically at the site of action. PMID:26655063

  12. Familial disseminated plaque type porokeratosis with multiple horns and squamous cell carcinoma involving anal skin

    Sarma Nilendu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratosis is a disorder of keratinization showing a well-defined lesion with a hyperkeratotic ridge on the border that contains the coronoid lamella. We report familial (autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance disseminated plaque type (Mibelli′s type porokeratosis in a father and son. In the father, there were multiple horns and a large squamous cell carcinoma in a large lesion over the perianal region that reached up to the squamo-columnar junction of the anal mucosa and even invaded the anal sphincteric muscles. Disseminated lesions of the Mibelli′s type, development of horns, and malignancy in this unusual location have not been previously reported.

  13. Leisure time activities of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis: a qualitative study

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Sadegh; Asgari, Ali; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Yazdani, Farzaneh; Mazdeh, Mehrdokht

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leisure time is one of the most important aspects of life, especially for people with chronic diseases. The concept and types of leisure have frequently been evaluated in different socio-cultural populations. The aim of this study was to identify the nature of leisure activities among a sample of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and classify the identified types of activities in the context of Iranian culture. Methods: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interview was applied to gather data from 34 MS patients that were selected through purposive sampling. The interviews were continued up to the point of saturation. Content analysis was used to explore experiences of the interviewees regarding their leisure activities. Results: Six categories of leisure activities were extracted for the studied patients with MS i.e.physical, social, individual, art/cultural, educational and spiritual/religious. Conclusion: The results represented the range and heterogeneity of leisure activities amongst the MS patients. Considering participation in spiritual/religious and social activities as leisure time undertaking might reflect cultural diversity in the perception and use of time for recreation. For mental health promotion purposes, paying special attention to the types of activities that people of different socio-cultural background choose for their refreshment could help health care providers in giving tailored advice for patients with MS and other chronic debilitating disease. PMID:27123437

  14. [Change of Tumor Cell Multiple Drug Resistance Inhibitory Activity of Oligomycins in Complexes with Lithium and Zinc].

    Bibikova, M V; Danilenko, A N; Katlinsky, A V; Korystova, A F; Kublik, L N; Levitman, M Kh; Shaposhnikova, V V; Korystov, Yu N

    2015-01-01

    Oligomycins and their complexes with lithium and zinc were shown to be less active vs. cyclosporin A in inhibition of transport proteins responsible for multiple drug resistance of lymphoid leukosis P388VR cells, while certain oligomycin complexes were tens or hundreds times more active than cyclosporin A by inhibition of transport proteins in another type of tumor cells, i.e. human larynx cancer Hep-2, that makes possible the use of the oligomycins complexes with lithium and zinc for inhibition of multiple drug resistance of certain tumor types. PMID:27141641

  15. Mutant p53: multiple mechanisms define biologic activity in cancer

    Michael Paul Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of p53 alterations involve missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may acquire novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we review characterized mechanisms of mutant p53 gain of function in multiple model systems. In addition, we review mutant p53 addiction as emerging evidence suggests that tumors may depend on sustained mutant p53 activity for continued growth. We also discuss the role of p53 in stromal elements and their contribution to tumor initiation and progression. Lastly, current genetic mouse models of mutant p53 are reviewed and their limitations discussed.

  16. Multiple developmental dental anomalies and hypermobility type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Yassin, Othman M; Rihani, Farouk B

    2006-01-01

    Concurrent existence of multiple developmental dental anomalies: hypodontia of permanent mandibular incisors, dentin dysplasia, transmigration, root dilaceration, ectopic eruption and delayed eruption combined with systemic abnormalities including joint hyperlaxity and skin hyperextensibility aided in diagnosis of a sporadic case of hypermobility type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in a Jordanian Arab male. In dental practice the presence of multiple developmental dental anomalies expressing simultaneous defects in different stages of tooth development should raise suspicion of possible of manifestation of an underlying systemic abnormality. PMID:16937863

  17. Multiple, Unilateral Lisch Nodules in the Absence of Other Manifestations of Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    E. G. Adams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lisch nodules associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1 are usually multiple and bilateral in nature. Here, we report a 21-year-old healthy, Caucasian female who was diagnosed with multiple, unilateral Lisch nodules during routine eye examination. A thorough history and physical examination revealed no other signs of NF1. We diagnosed the rare occurrence of numerous, unilateral Lisch nodules in the absence of additional features of NF1 in our patient and provide a discussion concerning the differential diagnosis of Lisch nodules as well as the potential genetic explanation of this finding.

  18. Activity trends in young solar-type stars

    Lehtinen, J.; Jetsu, L.; Hackman, T.; Kajatkari, P.; Henry, G. W.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We study a sample of 21 young and active solar-type stars with spectral types ranging from late F to mid K and characterize the behaviour of their activity. Methods: We apply the continuous period search (CPS) time series analysis method on Johnson B- and V-band photometry of the sample stars, collected over a period of 16 to 27 years. Using the CPS method, we estimate the surface differential rotation and determine the existence and behaviour of active longitudes and activity cycles on the stars. We supplement the time series results by calculating new log R'HK = log F'HK/σTeff4 emission indices for the stars from high resolution spectroscopy. Results: The measurements of the photometric rotation period variations reveal a positive correlation between the relative differential rotation coefficient and the rotation period as k ∝ Prot1.36, but do not reveal any dependence of the differential rotation on the effective temperature of the stars. Secondary period searches reveal activity cycles in 18 of the stars and temporary or persistent active longitudes in 11 of them. The activity cycles fall into specific activity branches when examined in the log Prot/Pcyc vs. log Ro-1, where Ro-1 = 2Ωτc, or log Prot/Pcyc vs. log R'HK diagram. We find a new split into sub-branches within this diagram, indicating multiple simultaneously present cycle modes. Active longitudes appear to be present only on the more active stars. There is a sharp break at approximately log R'HK = -4.46 separating the less active stars with long-term axisymmetric spot distributions from the more active ones with non-axisymmetric configurations. In seven out of eleven of our stars with clearly detected long-term non-axisymmetric spot activity the estimated active longitude periods are significantly shorter than the mean photometric rotation periods. This systematic trend can be interpreted either as a sign of the active longitudes being sustained from a deeper level in the stellar interior

  19. Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors in neurofi bromatosis type 1 treated with laparoscopic surgery

    Nawa,Sugato

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs have been reported to occasionally occur in patients with neurofi bromatosis type 1 (NF-1, and many cases have had multiple lesions predominantly involving the small intestine. We report herein a case of multiple GISTs associated with NF-1 from whom laparoscopic surgery was benefi cial. In a 79-year-old female admitted with anemia and melena, the abdominal computed tomography revealed a tumor arising from the small intestine. Laparoscopic surgery was performed, and another small tumor was revealed during laparoscopic observation. Extracorporeal partial and wedge resection of the small intestine were undertaken. Both lesions were diagnosed as typical GISTs of low risk. Laparoscopic surgery would be useful for examination and a minimally invasive approach to tumors of the small intestine, especially on cases with the possibility of multiple tumors.

  20. Mutation of the TERT promoter, switch to active chromatin, and monoallelic TERT expression in multiple cancers.

    Stern, Josh Lewis; Theodorescu, Dan; Vogelstein, Bert; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-11-01

    Somatic mutations in the promoter of the gene for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) are the most common noncoding mutations in cancer. They are thought to activate telomerase, contributing to proliferative immortality, but the molecular events driving TERT activation are largely unknown. We observed in multiple cancer cell lines that mutant TERT promoters exhibit the H3K4me2/3 mark of active chromatin and recruit the GABPA/B1 transcription factor, while the wild-type allele retains the H3K27me3 mark of epigenetic silencing; only the mutant promoters are transcriptionally active. These results suggest how a single-base-pair mutation can cause a dramatic epigenetic switch and monoallelic expression. PMID:26515115

  1. Barriers to Physical Activity Among Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    Brazeau, Anne-Sophie; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Strychar, Irene; Mircescu, Hortensia

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine, in an adult population with type 1 diabetes, barriers to regular physical activity using a diabetes-specific barriers measure (the Barriers to Physical Activity in Diabetes [type 1] [BAPAD1] scale) and factors associated with these barriers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—One hundred adults with type 1 diabetes answered a questionnaire assessing perceived barriers to physical activity and related factors. A1C was obtained from the medical chart of each individual. RESULTS...

  2. Dynamical Behaviors of Multiple Equilibria in Competitive Neural Networks With Discontinuous Nonmonotonic Piecewise Linear Activation Functions.

    Nie, Xiaobing; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of coexistence and dynamical behaviors of multiple equilibria for competitive neural networks. First, a general class of discontinuous nonmonotonic piecewise linear activation functions is introduced for competitive neural networks. Then based on the fixed point theorem and theory of strict diagonal dominance matrix, it is shown that under some conditions, such n -neuron competitive neural networks can have 5(n) equilibria, among which 3(n) equilibria are locally stable and the others are unstable. More importantly, it is revealed that the neural networks with the discontinuous activation functions introduced in this paper can have both more total equilibria and locally stable equilibria than the ones with other activation functions, such as the continuous Mexican-hat-type activation function and discontinuous two-level activation function. Furthermore, the 3(n) locally stable equilibria given in this paper are located in not only saturated regions, but also unsaturated regions, which is different from the existing results on multistability of neural networks with multiple level activation functions. A simulation example is provided to illustrate and validate the theoretical findings. PMID:25826814

  3. Mechanisms for multiple activity modes of VTA dopamine neurons

    Andrew eOster

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain ventral segmental area (VTA dopaminergic neurons send numerous projections to cortical and sub-cortical areas, and diffusely release dopamine (DA to their targets. DA neurons display a range of activity modes that vary in frequency and degree of burst firing. Importantly, DA neuronal bursting is associated with a significantly greater degree of DA release than an equivalent tonic activity pattern. Here, we introduce a single compartmental, conductance-based computational model for DA cell activity that captures the behavior of DA neuronal dynamics and examine the multiple factors that underlie DA firing modes: the strength of the SK conductance, the amount of drive, and GABA inhibition. Our results suggest that neurons with low SK conductance fire in a fast firing mode, are correlated with burst firing, and require higher levels of applied current before undergoing depolarization block. We go on to consider the role of GABAergic inhibition on an ensemble of dynamical classes of DA neurons and find that strong GABA inhibition suppresses burst firing. Our studies suggest differences in the distribution of the SK conductance and GABA inhibition levels may indicate subclasses of DA neurons within the VTA. We further identify, that by considering alternate potassium dynamics, the dynamics display burst patterns that terminate via depolarization block, akin to those observed in vivo in VTA DA neurons and in substantia nigra pars compacta DA cell preparations under apamin application. In addition, we consider the generation of transient burst firing events that are NMDA-initiated or elicited by a sudden decrease of GABA inhibition, that is, disinhibition.

  4. Improving the outcome of a Marek's disease challenge in multiple lines of egg type chickens.

    Fulton, J E; Arango, J; Arthur, J A; Settar, P; Kreager, K S; O'Sullivan, N P

    2013-06-01

    A challenge test following inoculation with a standard amount of a vv+ strain of the Marek's disease (MD) virus in multiple lines and multiple generations of egg type chicken and the corresponding phenotypic trend are described. This program significantly reduced mortality of progeny from selected sires for three to 11 generations in eight of the nine elite lines studied herein. In brown egg lines, a retrospective analysis of DNA indicated an association between the blood type B (major histocompatibility complex) of the sire and the MD mortality in the challenge of its progeny. As a result of the multigeneration stock amplification and crossbreeding processes used in the commercial breeding industry, improvement in survival after challenge at the elite level will translate to improved welfare for millions of birds at the commercial production level. PMID:23901770

  5. MRI findings in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts manifesting hyperactive-type delirium

    Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Furuse, Masahiro (Nakatsugawa Municipal General Hospital, Gifu (Japan)); Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira

    1994-04-01

    MRI studies were carried out on 69 patients with multiple lacunar infarcts: 32 had hyperactive-type delirium and the other 37 were non-delirious controls. Between the two groups, there were no statistically significant differences in mean age and sex distribution. In the corona radiata and basal ganglia, the number of infarcts did not differ between the two groups. However, the extent of thalamic infarcts and periventricular hyperintensity (PVH), the maximal width of the third ventricle and Evans' ratio among the delirious patients were significantly larger than those in the controls. In conclusion, thalamic lesions and diffuse advanced PVH may have an intimate correlation in the development of hyperactive-type delirium in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts. (author).

  6. [Pseudocholinesterase activity in type 1 bipolar patients].

    Ezzaher, Asma; Haj Mouhamed, Dhouha; Mechri, Anwar; Neffati, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the variation of pseudocholinesterase activity (BuChE) in bipolar patients and to explore its relation to the clinical and therapeutic characteristics of this disease. Our study included 105 patients with bipolar disorder and 100 control subjects aged 38.7 ± 12.2 and 36.4 ± 15.7 y, respectively. BuChE was determined by kinetic methods on Cobas Integra 400 plus™. Compared with controls, patients had a significantly higher pseudocholinesterase activity. Moreover, this increase was significantly associated (p = 0.001) with bipolar disorder with sensibility of 58% and specificity of 62% at threshold of 7392 IU/L. There was no significant change in pseudocholinesterase activity in relation to illness episodes and treatment, whereas the lowest values of this activity were seen in euthymic patients and those taking psychotics. Therefore, this activity is a real interest in the biological monitoring of patients as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases associated with bipolar disorder. But it would be most useful to evaluate their interest as a predictor of bipolar disorder in patients at risk. PMID:22294139

  7. Periodic Solutions for Duffing Type p-Laplacian Equation with Multiple Constant Delays

    Hong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using inequality techniques and coincidence degree theory, new results are provided concerning the existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions for the Duffing type p-Laplacian equation with multiple constant delays of the form (φp(x′(t′+Cx′(t+g0(t,x(t+∑k=1ngk(t,x(t-τk=e(t. Moreover, an example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the results in this paper.

  8. Management of multiple type Ⅱ endoleaks detected by duplex ultrasound after endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair

    GUO Da-qiao; LI Wei-miao; JIANG Jun-hao; SHI Zhen-yu; WANG Yu-qi; FU Wei-guo

    2012-01-01

    We reported a case of multiple type Ⅱ endoleaks detected by duplex ultrasound after endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair.The patient was undergoing warfarin therapy.Duplex ultrasound was applied as the sole surveillance method during follow-up and provided the concerned information for reintervention.The endoleaks were successfully repaired by coil embolization of the collaterals from the internal iliac artery feeding the fourth lumbar artery.

  9. Difficulties in localization and treatment of insulinomas in type 1 multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA).

    Winocour, P. H.; Moriarty, K J; Hales, C N; Adams, J.; Reeve, R.; WYNICK, D.; Allison, D.; Bloom, S R; Anderson, D C

    1992-01-01

    A 15 year old girl with a family history of type 1 multiple endocrine adenomatosis presented with reversible neurological disturbances, hypoglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. Initial radiology was normal, but portal venous sampling suggested an insulinoma in the tail of the pancreas which was removed with conservation of the spleen. Hypoglycaemia persisted despite high doses of diazoxide and intravenous dextrose. A second laparotomy revealed a pancreatic endocrine tumour and sub-total pancreate...

  10. Generalized Hybrid Grey Relation Method for Multiple Attribute Mixed Type Decision Making

    Kim, Gol; Jong, Yunchol; Liu, Sifeng

    2012-01-01

    The multiple attribute mixed type decision making is performed by four methods, that is, the relative approach degree of grey TOPSIS method, the relative approach degree of grey incidence, the relative membership degree of grey incidence and the grey relation relative approach degree method using the maximum entropy estimation, respectively. In these decision making methods, the grey incidence degree in four-dimensional Euclidean space is used. The final arrangement result is obtained by weig...

  11. Distribution patterns of infection with multiple types of human papillomaviruses and their association with risk factors

    Sara Soto-De Leon; Milena Camargo; Ricardo Sanchez; Marina Munoz; Antonio Perez-Prados; Antonio Purroy; Manuel Elkin Patarroyo; Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1, 810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. Principal Findings: T...

  12. Algorithmic Decision Optimization Techniques for Multiple Types of Agents with Contrasting Interests

    N D

    2009-01-01

    The related_documents.zip archive contains: 1) related papers (especially concerning Game Theory) published in Ginfo (and which are freely accessible, but not available on the web anymore) 2) source code and problem statements of several problems from the Romanian Olympiad in Informatics (where some of the problems discussed in this paper were used as tasks) International audience In this paper I present several algorithmic techniques for improving the decision process of multiple types...

  13. The relation between the types of multiple intelligences and the training departments of candidate teachers

    Sibel Gürbüzoğlu Yalmancı

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the comparison of different types of multiple intelligences according to students studying in different departments of Education Faculty. The sample of this study was composed of 191 candidate teachers still studying in Kafkas University Education Faculty in Undergraduate Programs; Class Teacher Education,  Social Science Education, Science Education and Turkish Education Programs.  In this study one of the survey methods; general survey method was used....

  14. A Case of Multiple System Atrophy-Cerebellar Type Preceded by Dementia

    Eun Hye Jang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple system atrophy (MSA is a sporadic, adult-onset disease characterized by progressive degeneration of nervous systems including cerebellar, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, and autonomic system. Although a few recent studies reported that cognitive impairments could occur in patients with MSA, prominent dementia with progressive decline is not a typical clinical manifestation of MSA. In particular, dementia with MSA-cerebellar type is very rare. We have experienced a patient with 2-year history of severe cognitive impairment, who was finally diagnosed as MSA-cerebellar type.

  15. Effect of disease duration on personality type in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy individual

    Vesal, Sahar; Dehghani, Leila; Etemadifar, Masoud; Poorazizi, Elahe; Akhavan, Sima; Mazrouei, Samaneh; Mehdizadeh, Nasim; Saraf, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis may have profound emotional consequences. The relation between psychological and physical factors could lead patients toward unforeseen disease. This study focuses on multiple sclerosis (MS) disease duration on personality type A and B in relation to individuals’ behaviors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Isfahan Alzahra hospital in 2013. Three hundred MS patients and 100 healthy individuals were determined. The distributed questionnaires related to MS patients and considering the descriptive statistics such as demographic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18) based on Chi-square test and independent T-test. Results: Disease duration varied between 1 to 38 years: 30% (1-4 years), 38% (5-10 years), 20% (10-20 years), and 12% (more than 20 years). Significant relationship was observed between disease duration and tendency to type A (higher stress). This relation was positive and significant in Relapsing Remitting MS patients; but negative correlation was seen in Secondary Progressive MS patients. These patients tended to type B (lower stress) when disease duration increased. Conclusions: Individuals with disease duration of one year and less than one year tend to type A personality, while patients with increment of disease duration have tendency to type B. PMID:27099848

  16. Evaluation of Seismic Performance and Effectiveness of Multiple Slim-Type Damper System for Seismic Response Control of Building Structures

    David Kim; Eun Hee Sung; Kwan-Soon Park; Jaegyun Park

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of a multiple slim-type damper system developed for the vibration control of earthquake excited buildings. The multiple slim-type damper (MSD) that consists of several small slim-type dampers and linkage units can control damping capacity easily by changing the number of small dampers. To evaluate the performance of the MSD, dynamic loading tests are performed with three slim-type dampers manufactured at a real s...

  17. Classifying sows' activity types from acceleration patterns

    Cornou, Cecile; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    three-dimensional axes, plus the length of the acceleration vector) are selected for each activity. Each time series is modeled using a Dynamic Linear Model with cyclic components. The classification method, based on a Multi-Process Kalman Filter (MPKF), is applied to a total of 15 times series of 120...

  18. Circulating polymerase chain reaction chips utilizing multiple-membrane activation

    Wang, Chih-Hao; Chen, Yi-Yu; Liao, Chia-Sheng; Hsieh, Tsung-Min; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Lee, Huei-Huang; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports a new micromachined, circulating, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip for nucleic acid amplification. The PCR chip is comprised of a microthermal control module and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic control module. The microthermal control modules are formed with three individual heating and temperature-sensing sections, each modulating a specific set temperature for denaturation, annealing and extension processes, respectively. Micro-pneumatic valves and multiple-membrane activations are used to form the microfluidic control module to transport sample fluids through three reaction regions. Compared with other PCR chips, the new chip is more compact in size, requires less time for heating and cooling processes, and has the capability to randomly adjust time ratios and cycle numbers depending on the PCR process. Experimental results showed that detection genes for two pathogens, Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes, 777 bps) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae, 273 bps), can be successfully amplified using the new circulating PCR chip. The minimum number of thermal cycles to amplify the DNA-based S. pyogenes for slab gel electrophoresis is 20 cycles with an initial concentration of 42.5 pg µl-1. Experimental data also revealed that a high reproducibility up to 98% could be achieved if the initial template concentration of the S. pyogenes was higher than 4 pg µl-1. The preliminary results of the current paper were presented at the 19th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE MEMS 2006), Istanbul, Turkey, 22-26 January, 2006.

  19. 3D Filament Network Segmentation with Multiple Active Contours

    Xu, Ting; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Huang, Xiaolei

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is frequently used to study two and three dimensional network structures formed by cytoskeletal polymer fibers such as actin filaments and microtubules. While these cytoskeletal structures are often dilute enough to allow imaging of individual filaments or bundles of them, quantitative analysis of these images is challenging. To facilitate quantitative, reproducible and objective analysis of the image data, we developed a semi-automated method to extract actin networks and retrieve their topology in 3D. Our method uses multiple Stretching Open Active Contours (SOACs) that are automatically initialized at image intensity ridges and then evolve along the centerlines of filaments in the network. SOACs can merge, stop at junctions, and reconfigure with others to allow smooth crossing at junctions of filaments. The proposed approach is generally applicable to images of curvilinear networks with low SNR. We demonstrate its potential by extracting the centerlines of synthetic meshwork images, actin networks in 2D TIRF Microscopy images, and 3D actin cable meshworks of live fission yeast cells imaged by spinning disk confocal microscopy.

  20. Multiple Seismic Array Observations for Tracing Deep Tremor Activity in Western Shikoku, Japan

    Takeda, T.; Matsuzawa, T.; Shiomi, K.; Obara, K.

    2011-12-01

    Deep non-volcanic tremors become very active during episodic slow-slip events in western Japan and Cascadia. The episodic tremor and slow-slip events in western Shikoku, Japan, occur at a typical interval of 6 months. Recently, it has been reported that tremor migration activity is complex and shows different migrating directions depending on time scales (Ghosh et al., 2010). Such characteristics of tremor are important to understand the mechanism of tremor and the relationship between tremor and SSEs. However it is difficult to determine the location of tremors with high accuracy because tremors show faint signals and make the identification of P/S-wave arrivals difficult. Seismic array analysis is useful to evaluate tremor activity, especially to estimate the arrival direction of seismic energy (e.g. Ueno et al., 2010, Ghosh et al., 2010), as it can distinguish multiple tremor sources occurring simultaneously. Here, we have conducted seismic array observation and analyzed seismic data during tremor activity by applying the MUSIC method to trace tremor location and its migration in western Shikoku. We have installed five seismic arrays in western Shikoku since January 2011. One of the arrays contains 30 stations with 3-component seismometers with a natural frequency of 2 Hz (Type-L array). The array aperture size is 2 km and the mean interval between stations is approximately 200 m. Each of the other arrays (Type-S array) contains 9 seismic stations with the same type of seismometers of the Type-L array, and is deployed surrounding the Type-L array. The small array aperture size is 800 m and its mean station interval is approximately 150 m. All array stations have recorded continuous waveform data at a sampling of 200Hz. In May 2011, an episodic tremor and a short-term slip event occurred for the first time during the observation period. We could retrieve the array seismic data during the whole tremor episode. The analysis of data from the type-L array confirms

  1. Estimation of the Performance of Multiple Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures for Detecting Shielded HEU

    David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson; Scott M. Watson; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-10-01

    A comprehensive modeling study has been carried out to evaluate the utility of multiple active neutron interrogation signatures for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). The modeling effort focused on varying HEU masses from 1 kg to 20 kg; varying types of shields including wood, steel, cement, polyethylene, and borated polyethylene; varying depths of the HEU in the shields, and varying engineered shields immediately surrounding the HEU including steel, tungsten, and cadmium. Neutron and gamma-ray signatures were the focus of the study and false negative detection probabilities versus measurement time were used as a performance metric. To facilitate comparisons among different approaches an automated method was developed to generate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for different sets of model variables for multiple background count rate conditions. This paper summarizes results or the analysis, including laboratory benchmark comparisons between simulations and experiments. The important impact engineered shields can play towards degrading detectability and methods for mitigating this will be discussed.

  2. Multiple Trapezium type systems in T associations. I - Ori T1, Ori T2, Ori T3, Ori T4

    Results are given of a search for multiple Trapezium type systems in T associations in Orion based on examination of the Palomar Sky Survey Charts. It is found that among the multiple stars in the investigated T associations a large percentage are in star systems of the Trapezium type

  3. Differences between spinocerebellar ataxias and multiple system atrophy-cerebellar type on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Jiing-Feng Lirng

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: A broad spectrum of diseases can manifest cerebellar ataxia. In this study, we investigated whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS may help differentiate spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA from multiple systemic atrophy- cerebellar type (MSA-C. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective study recruited 156 patients with ataxia, including spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA types 1, 2, 3, 6 and 17 (N = 94 and MSA-C (N = 62, and 44 healthy controls. Single voxel proton MRS in the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis were measured. The differences were evaluated using nonparametric statistic tests. RESULTS: When compared with healthy controls, the cerebellar and vermis NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho were lower in all patients(p<0.002. The Cho/Cr was lower in SCA2 and MSA-C (p<0.0005. The NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr were lower in MSA-C or SCA2 comparing with SCA3 or SCA6. The MRS features of SCA1 were in between (p<0.018. The cerebellar NAA/Cho was lower in SCA2 than SCA1, SCA3 or SCA6 (p<0.04. The cerebellar NAA/Cho in MSA-C was lower than SCA3 (p<0.0005. In the early stages of diseases (SARA score<10, significant lower NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho in SCA2, SCA3, SCA6 or MSA-C were observed comparing with healthy controls (p<0.017. The Cho/Cr was lower in MSA-C or SCA2 (p<0.0005. Patients with MSA-C and SCA2 had lower NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr than SCA3 or SCA6 (p<0.016. CONCLUSION: By using MRS, significantly lower NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr and NAA/Cho in the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis were found in patients with ataxia (SCAs and MSA-C. Rapid neuronal degeneration and impairment of membrane activities were observed more often in patients with MSA-C than those with SCA, even in early stages. MRS could also help distinguish between SCA2 and other subtypes of SCAs. MRS ratios may be of use as biomarkers in early stages of disease and should be further assessed in a longitudinal study.

  4. Prevalence of Diabetes Type 1 in Patients Suffered From Multiple Sclerosis

    Dayer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Because IL2RA is considered a predisposing factor in the incidence of both type I diabetes and multiple sclerosis (MS, and considering that both are autoimmune diseases, some studies suggest a correlation between type I diabetes and MS. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of type I diabetes among people with MS. Patients and Methods The study subjects comprised 100 patients with MS from the Khuzestan multiple sclerosis center at rehabilitation school of Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, whose diagnosis of MS had been confirmed by a specialist, and were not being treated with steroids. Subjects were selected from patients younger than 30 years old. After filling out an application form, 5 mL fasting venous blood and 5 mL after 2 hours were taken. The blood glucose level was measured with a kit (Zist Shimi using the enzymatic method. Results The mean age of the participants was 24.28 years. The rate of type I diabetes was equal to 4% of the total sample, while 18% of all patients had impaired fasting glucose. Conclusions Given the high level of impaired fasting glucose among patients in this study, it is likely that MS provides the basis for the incidence of glucose metabolism disorders. To prove this, further studies with larger sample sizes are required.

  5. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene polymorphism and sepsis.

    Hermans, P.W.M.; Hazelzet, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a 50-kilodalton glycoprotein of the serine protease inhibitor family. The primary role of PAI-1 in vivo is the inhibition of both tissue- and urokinase-type plasminogen activators. In addition to this function, PAI-1 acts as an acute-phase protein du

  6. Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity in human serum.

    Hashimoto,Noriaki

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity was detected in human serum. Serum was preincubated with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and trypsin to activate the enzyme prior to assay. Type IV collagen, purified from human placentas and radiolabeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride, was used as the substrate. The enzyme activity was measured at pH 7.5 and inhibited by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or heat. The assay of type IV collagen-degrading enzyme in human serum might be useful for estimating the degradation of type IV collagen.

  7. Multiple Active Volcanoes in the Northeast Lau Basin

    Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Lupton, J. E.; Walker, S. L.; Embley, R. W.; Rubin, K. H.; Buck, N.; de Ronde, C. E.; Arculus, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    The northeast Lau Basin occupies a complex geological area between the Tafua arc front, the E-W trending Tonga Trench, and the Northeast Lau Spreading Center. These boundaries create multiple zones of extension and thus provide abundant opportunities for magma to invade the crust. The 25-km-long chain of “Mata” volcanoes lies near the center of this area, separated from both the arc front and the spreading ridge. In 2008 we discovered hydrothermal venting on the largest and most southerly of these volcanoes, W and E Mata. In 2010 we visited the 7 smaller volcanoes that form a 15-km-long arcuate sweep to the north from W and E Mata (the “North Matas”). We also revisited W and E Mata. Over each volcano we conducted CTD tows to map plumes and collect water samples. Based on the CTD results, camera tows searched for seafloor sources on three volcanoes. The N Mata volcanoes, extending from Mata Taha (1) in the south to Mata Fitu (7) in the north, lie within a prominent gap in the shallow bathymetry along the southern border of the Tonga trench. Northward from E Mata the Mata volcanoes degrade from large symmetrical cones to smaller and blocky volcanic edifices. Summit depths range from 1165 m (W Mata) to 2670 m (Mata Nima (5)). The most active volcano in the chain is the erupting W Mata, with an intense plume that extended 250 m above the summit. Hydrothermal temperature anomalies (Δθ, corrected for hydrographic masking effects) reached ˜1.7°C, with light-scattering values as high as 2-5 ΔNTU. The 2010 surveys now show that 6 of the 7 N Mata volcanoes are also hydrothermally active. Along the N Matas, Δθ and ΔNTU signals ranged from robust to weak, but distinct oxidation-reduction potential (aka Eh) anomalies confirmed active venting in each case. The most concentrated plumes were found near Mata Ua (2) and Mata Fitu (7), with Δθ and ΔNTU maxima of 0.1-0.17°C and 0.3, respectively. Despite the variability in plume strength, however, ΔNTU/Δθ ratios

  8. Type C virus activation in nontransformed mouse cells by uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus

    Infection of nontransformed mouse cells with uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus (uv-HSV) resulted in the activation of an endogenous xenotropic (x-tropic) type C virus. Synthesis of type C virus persisted for only a few days, with most of the virus remaining cell associated. The levels of type C virus activated by uv-HSV varied depending on the multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) and the uv dose. At low uv doses, where cell killing occurred, little or no type C virus synthesis was observed. Maximum levels of type C virus synthesis were observed with the minimum uv dose which eliminated cell killing by HSV. Synthesis of type C virus, albeit at lower levels, was still observed at uv doses beyond those required to prevent cell killing

  9. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    Dunstall, P. R.; Dufton, P. L.; Sana, H.; Evans, C. J.; Howarth, I. D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; de Mink, S. E.; Langer, N.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Taylor, W. D.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal absorption lines for each of our targets. Objects with significant radial-velocity variations (and with an amplitude larger than 16 km s-1) are classified as spectroscopic binaries. We find an observed spectroscopic binary fraction (defined by periods of 0.1) for the B-type stars, fB(obs) = 0.25 ± 0.02, which appears constant across the field of view, except for the two older clusters (Hodge 301 and SL 639). These two clusters have significantly lower binary fractions of 0.08 ± 0.08 and 0.10 ± 0.09, respectively. Using synthetic populations and a model of our observed epochs and their potential biases, we constrain the intrinsic multiplicity properties of the dwarf and giant (i.e. relatively unevolved) B-type stars in 30 Dor. We obtain a present-day binary fraction fB(true) = 0.58 ± 0.11, with a flat period distribution. Within the uncertainties, the multiplicity properties of the B-type stars agree with those for the O stars in 30 Dor from the VFTS. Appendices A, B are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/580/A93

  10. Multiple Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    Tomatsu, Makoto; Isogaki, Jun; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yajima, Kiyoshige; Okumura, Takuya; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Kawabe, Akihiro; Komiyama, Akira; Hirota, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are relatively common in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF 1) patients. Approximately 90% of GISTs associated with NF 1 are located in the small intestine, while sporadic GISTs are most commonly located in the stomach. Here we report an extremely rare case of an NF 1 patient with multiple gastric GITs (90 or more) but without multiple small intestinal tumors. A 63-year-old female patient who had a history of NF 1 underwent surgery for a gastric neuroendocrine tumor and gastric submucosal tumor (SMT). During the operation, multiple small nodules were identified on the serosal surface of the upper stomach. SMT and multiple nodules on the serosal surface were diagnosed as GISTs consisting of spindle cells positive for KIT, CD34, and DOG-1. Both GIST and the normal gastric mucosa showed no mutations not only in the c-kit gene (exons 8, 9, 11, 13, and 17) but also in the PDGFRA gene (exons 12, 14, and 18). This patient is being followed up without the administration of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. PMID:27375917

  11. Simulating multiple merger pathways to the central kinematics of early-type galaxies

    Moody, Christopher E; Cox, Thomas J; Novak, G S; Primack, Joel R

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional integral field surveys such as ATLAS^3D are producing rich observational data sets yielding insights into galaxy formation. These new kinematic observations have highlighted the need to understand the evolutionary mechanisms leading to a spectrum of fast-rotators and slow-rotators in early-type galaxies. We address the formation of slow and fast rotators through a series of controlled, comprehensive hydrodynamical simulations sampling idealized galaxy merger scenarios constructed from model spiral galaxies. Idealized and controlled simulations of this sort complement the more 'realistic' cosmological simulations by isolating and analyzing the effects of specific parameters, as we do in this paper. We recreate minor and major binary mergers, binary merger trees with multiple progenitors, and multiple sequential mergers. Within each of these categories of formation history, we correlate progenitor gas fraction, mass ratio, orbital pericenter, orbital ellipticity, and spin with remnant kinematic ...

  12. Multiple congenital skull fractures as a presentation of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIC.

    Bar-Yosef, Omer; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Hoffman, Chen; Feldman, Zeev P; Frydman, Moshe; Kuint, Jacob

    2008-12-01

    We describe a newborn infant with multiple congenital skull fractures and intracranial hemorrhage. He also had multiple skin folds suggesting a connective tissue abnormality. Electron microscopy of the skin biopsy showed collagen abnormalities with a "hieroglyphic appearance." The analysis of the synthesis of collagen in the cultured dermal fibroblasts demonstrated an accumulation of procollagen I. Molecular analysis found a nonsense mutation Q225X in ADAMTS2 gene, which encodes procollagen I N-terminal proteinase. All these findings confirmed the diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIC (MIM 225410). Family studies suggested a founder effect in Ashkenazi Jews originating from Belarus. Prenatal diagnosis in the subsequent pregnancy reassured the parents that the fetus was an unaffected carrier. PMID:18973246

  13. Superficial Type of Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas: Detailed Comparative Study of Its Dermoscopic and Histopathological Findings

    Akiko Hirofuji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated in detail the dermoscopic and histopathological findings in a case of a superficial type of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs. These multiple lesions (occurring in the chest, neck, and back showed three different findings, respectively. Dermoscopy of the erythematous and brown-colored patch on the anterior chest showed spoke wheel areas, and the histopathological cross-section revealed vertical spoke wheel structures. In the black- and brown-colored patch at the neck, the dermatoscopy showed a maple leaf-like structure, which was in accordance with the strengthening of the histological lateral connection of the lesion. The brown-colored patch of the lateral back histologically showed irregularly enlarged spoke wheel-like areas with peripheral increased melanin pigments, which correlated with the dark black color of dermoscopic maple leaf-like areas. The vertical spoke wheel areas by dermatoscopy revealed a horizontal spoke wheel structure by histopathology.

  14. The relation between the types of multiple intelligences and the training departments of candidate teachers

    Sibel Gürbüzoğlu Yalmancı

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between the types of multiple intelligences of faculty of education students and the training departments of candidate teachers. The sample of this study was composed of 191 candidate teachers still studying in Kafkas University Education Faculty in Undergraduate Programs; class teacher education, social science education, science education and Turkish education programs. In this study one of the survey methods; general survey method was used.“Multiple Intelligences Areas Inventory for Adults” prepared by Ziya Selçuk (2003 was applied to students as data collection instrument. For the analysis of data gathered; one-way ANOVA statistics were used. As the results of the study, it is seen that there is a significant difference between the training departments of candidate teachers and their logical-mathematical, visual-spatial and interpersonal intelligence.

  15. Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Nakatsukasa,Harushige

    1986-01-01

    Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity was measured in liver homogenate obtained from 10 patients with hepatocellular carcinomas. Type IV collagen, the enzyme substrate, was extracted from human placenta with pepsin digestion, and labeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride. The homogenate was preincubated with p-aminophenylmercuric acetate to activate the latent form of the enzyme, and then the enzyme activity was measured at pH 7.5 by adding a substrate mixture. Referring to previous reports,...

  16. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    Dunstall, P R; Sana, H; Evans, C J; Howarth, I D; Simón-Díaz, S; de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Apellániz, J Maíz; Taylor, W D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal absorption lines for each of our targets. Objects with significant radial-velocity variations (and with an amplitude larger than 16 km/s) are classified as spectroscopic binaries. We find an observed spectroscopic binary fraction (defined by periods of 0.1) for the B-type stars, f_B(obs) = 0.25 +/- 0.02, which appears constant across the field of view, except for the two older clusters (Hodge 301 and SL 639). These two clusters have significantly lower fractions of 0.08 +/- 0.08 and 0.10 +/- 0.09, respectively. Using synthetic populations and a model of our observed epochs and their potential biases, we constrain the intrinsic multiplicity properties of the dwarf and giant (i.e. relatively unevolved) B-type stars ...

  17. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework th...

  18. Stimulus control of schedule-induced activity in pigeons during multiple schedules

    Buzzard, Janis H.; Hake, Don F.

    1984-01-01

    Stimulus control of schedule-induced general activity was demonstrated with pigeons using multiple schedules of response-independent food delivery. In Experiment 1, the introduction of food during a multiple variable-time 30-second variable-time 30-second schedule produced a tenfold increase in activity above the no-food baseline. Each pigeon developed stable differential activity rates during the components (correlated with red and green lights) of a multiple variable-time 30-second extincti...

  19. Multiple types of logic gates based on a single G-quadruplex DNA strand

    Guo, Yahui; Zhou, Lu; Xu, Lijun; Zhou, Xiaodong; Hu, Jiming; Pei, Renjun

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the use of a single DNA strand and G-quadruplex-specific dye NMM as a label-free switch for the construction of series of basic logic gates (YES, NOT, OR, INHIBIT, NOR, AND). The simple GT-rich sequence could be used to interact with several molecules (K+, thrombin, Hg2+, and Pb2+) to form different structures that can be distinguished by the label-free dye NMM. Our study showed that a single G-qudruplex DNA strand can function as multiple types of one-input and two-input logic gates with different combinations of input molecules.

  20. Severe hypernatremia and hyperchloremia in an elderly patient with IgG-kappa-type multiple myeloma

    Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2013-01-01

    Shinsaku Imashuku, Naoko Kudo, Kagekatsu KuboDivision of Hematology, Takasago-seibu Hospital, Takasago, JapanAbstract: A 77-year-old male was admitted to hospital after suffering a pelvic bone fracture in a road traffic accident and was incidentally found to have IgG-kappa-type multiple myeloma with hypercalcemia. The patient was also noted to be hypokalemic and had low HCO3-, with possible damage to the distal tubules in the kidneys. When the treatment was begun with bortezomib/dexamethasone...

  1. Multiple-scattering approach to the x-ray-absorption spectra of perovskite-type compounds

    Kitamura, Michihide; Muramatsu, Shinji; Sugiura, Chikara

    1988-04-01

    The metal K x-ray-absorption near-edge structure has been calculated for the first time from a multiple-scattering formalism for the perovskite-type compounds KMnF3, KFeF3, KCoF3, KNiF3, and KZnF3. The calculation includes the effects of a core hole and of Madelung corrections for crystal potentials. It is shown that the results including the lifetime-broadening effect are in good agreement with the experiment of Shulman et al.

  2. Quantifying Multiple Types of Damping Acting on Bronze-Wound Guitar Strings

    Christian, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the contributions of multiple damping types acting on guitar strings for each mode over a wide frequency range so that design variables could be identified to one day create frequency based damping in guitar strings. Structural dynamic testing was used to obtain the time-response of a vibrating string in open air and in a vacuum. From this signal, each harmonic was filtered and the decay envelope was curve-fitted with a function that was a linear summati...

  3. Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in an Iranian Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type I

    Mohebi, Nafiseh; Moghaddasi, Mehdi; Maryam, Zaribafian

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is a common hereditary neuro-cutaneous disease, with known gene mutations, that mainly involves the skin and nervous system. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an acquired inflammatory disease in which the myelin of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord is damaged. These two disease do not share any apparent pathological similarities. We herein present a 32-year-old woman with definite NF-1, who has recently been diagnosed with MS, which to the best of our knowledge...

  4. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    Dunstall, P. R.; Dufton, P. L.; Sana, H.; Evans, C J; Howarth, I. D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Mink, de, S.E.; Langer, N.; Maíz Apellániz, J; Taylor, W.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal absorption lines for each of our targets. Objects with significant radial-velocity variations (and with an amplitude larger than 16 km s-1) are classified as spectroscopic b...

  5. Multiplicação e enraizamento in vitro de amoreira-preta 'Xavante': efeito da concentração de sais, do tipo de explante e de carvão ativado no meio de cultura Blackberry 'Xavante' in vitro multiplication and rooting: salt concentrations effect, explant type, and activated coal on culture medium

    Luciane Nolasco Leitzke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, além da propagação tradicional, a micropropagação da amoreira-preta é considerada uma alternativa viável, com o intuito de obter-se plantas livres de vírus, geneticamente uniformes e em curto espaço de tempo. Objetivou-se, com este experimento, determinar o melhor tipo de explante e concentração de sais para a multiplicação in vitro e a melhor concentração de carvão ativado e de sais no meio de cultura, para o enraizamento in vitro de amoreira-preta 'Xavante'. O primeiro experimento constituiu-se de segmentos nodais caulinares com cerca de 1 cm, oriundas do cultivo in vitro, inoculadas em quatro diferentes concentrações de meio MS, suplementada com 7,5 µM de BAP, 30 g L-1 de sacarose, 100 mg L-1 de mio-inositol e 6 g L-1 de ágar, e dois tipos de explante, totalizando 8 tratamentos. O segundo experimento constituiu-se de microestacas apicais, com cerca de 1 a 1,5 cm de comprimento, e duas folhas, inoculadas em três diferentes concentrações de meio MS, acrescido de 30 g L-1 de sacarose, 100 mg L-1 de mio-inositol e 6 g L-1 de ágar e suplementado com três concentrações de carvão ativado, totalizando nove tratamentos, com delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Pode-se concluir que o T1, ou seja, explante com folhas, na concentração de 125% de sais do meio MS foi mais eficiente, induzindo maior número de folhas, gemas, brotações e comprimento das brotações e que o uso de 75% de sais sem a suplementação de carvão ativado é o mais indicado para o enraizamento in vitro de amoreira-preta 'Xavante'.Besides the traditional propagation, blackberry micropropagation has currently been considered a feasible alternative, with the purpose of obtaining plants free from virus, genetically uniform and in the short run. The objective of this experiment was to determine the best explant type and the optimum in vitro multiplication salts concentration as well as to determine the activated coal and salts optimum

  6. Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity in human serum.

    Hashimoto, Noriaki; Kobayashi,Michio; Watanabe,Akiharu; Higashi,Toshiro; Tsuji, Takao

    1988-01-01

    Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity was detected in human serum. Serum was preincubated with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and trypsin to activate the enzyme prior to assay. Type IV collagen, purified from human placentas and radiolabeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride, was used as the substrate. The enzyme activity was measured at pH 7.5 and inhibited by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or heat. The assay of type IV collagen-degrading enzyme in human serum might be useful...

  7. Laser-Bioplasma Interaction: The Blood Type Transmutation Induced by Multiple Ultrashort Wavelength Laser Beams

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of ultrashort wavelength multi laser beams with the flowing blood thin films leads to the transmutation of the blood types A, B, and AB into O type. This is a novel mechanism of importance for the transfusion medicine. Laser radiation is in resonance with the eigen-frequency modes of the antigen proteins and forces the proteins to parametrically oscillate until they get kicked out from the surface. The stripping away of antigens is done by the scanning-multiple-lasers of a high repetition rate in the blue-purple frequency domain. The guiding-lasers are in the red-green frequency domain. The laser force, (parametric interaction with the antigen eigen-oscillation), upon the antigen protein molecule must exceed its weight. The scanning laser beam is partially reflected as long as the antigen(s) is not eliminated. The process of the protein detachment can last a few minutes. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., Stefan University.

  8. Diffusion of Active Particles Subject both to Additive and Multiplicative Noises

    WANG Shao-Hua; YANG Ming; WU Da-Jin

    2011-01-01

    We consider a Langevin equation of active Brownian motion which contains a multiplicative as well as an additive noise term.We study the dependences of the effective diffusion coefficient Deff on both the additive and multiplicative noises.It is found that for fixed small additive noise intensity Deff varies non-monotonously with multiplicative noise intensity, with a minimum at a moderate value of multiplicative noise, and Deff increases monotonously, however, with the multiplicative noise intensity for relatively strong additive noise; for fixed multiplicative noise intensity Deff decreases with growing additive noise intensity until it approaches a constant.An explanation is also given of the different behavior of Deff as additive and multiplicative noises approach infinity,respectively.%@@ We consider a Langevin equation of active Brownian motion which contains a multiplicative as well as an additive noise term.We study the dependences of the effective diffusion coefficient Deff on both the additive and multiplicative noises.It is found that for fixed small additive noise intensity Deff varies non-monotonously with multiplicative noise intensity, with a minimum at a moderate value of multiplicative noise, and Deff increases monotonously, however, with the multiplicative noise intensity for relatively strong additive noise; for fixed multiplicative noise intensity Deff decreases with growing additive noise intensity until it approaches a constant.An explanation is also given of the different behavior of Deff as additive and multiplicative noises approach infinity, respectively.

  9. Physical Activity in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: a Review.

    Tully, Carrie; Aronow, Laura; Mackey, Eleanor; Streisand, Randi

    2016-09-01

    Youth with type 1 diabetes are at risk for developing cardiovascular disease, and regular physical activity is strongly recommended as one strategy for prevention, as well as for good glycemic control. Despite recommendations, families in this pediatric population face unique barriers to physical activity, including fear of hypoglycemia. Moreover, families are not routinely counseled in the specific health and psychosocial benefits of following physical activity recommendations for youth with type 1 diabetes. To bridge this gap, the recent literature regarding physical activity in children with type 1 diabetes is reviewed with particular focus on young children. A discussion of the limitations of the current body of research, and recommendations for objectively measured physical activity are provided. Specific recommendations for clinical practice are given, including provider endorsements for regular physical activity for longer than 60 minutes, at least three times a week. PMID:27475093

  10. Severe hypernatremia and hyperchloremia in an elderly patient with IgG-kappa-type multiple myeloma

    Imashuku S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shinsaku Imashuku, Naoko Kudo, Kagekatsu KuboDivision of Hematology, Takasago-seibu Hospital, Takasago, JapanAbstract: A 77-year-old male was admitted to hospital after suffering a pelvic bone fracture in a road traffic accident and was incidentally found to have IgG-kappa-type multiple myeloma with hypercalcemia. The patient was also noted to be hypokalemic and had low HCO3-, with possible damage to the distal tubules in the kidneys. When the treatment was begun with bortezomib/dexamethasone/elcatonin and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 in normal saline (equivalent to a daily sodium dose of 200 millimoles per liter [mmol/L], the patient was in a state of poor oral fluid intake. The patient developed hypernatremia and hyperchloremia, with a peak serum sodium and chloride levels of 183 mmol/L and 153 mmol/L, respectively, at the sixth day after the start of treatment. Following the switch of the intravenous infusions from normal saline to soldem 1 and soldem 3 solutions, these high-electrolyte levels gradually returned to normal over the next 7 days. Although the patient showed disturbed consciousness (Japan Coma Scale = JCS-I-3 during the period of electrolyte abnormality, he eventually fully recovered without sequelae. In this patient, we successfully managed the severe hypernatremia/hyperchloremia, caused by the combined effects of intravenous saline burden in a state of poor oral fluid intake, during the treatment for IgG-kappa type multiple myeloma.Keywords: hypernatremia, hyperchloremia, multiple myeloma, IgG-kappa, metabolic acidosis, renal tubular damage

  11. Adhesion molecules levels in blood correlate with MRI activity and clinical activity in multiple sclerosis

    Research into pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has prompted efforts to identify immunological markers associated with disease activity. Adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are associated with inflammatory mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. In this study investigates the correlation between blood level of circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in different clinical phases of patients with MS. We show that RRMS and SPMS patients in clinically active phase with Gd-enhancing lesions in CNS had higher blood levels of cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 compared these parameters levers of RRMS patients in remission stage. These results suggest that cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 is a sensitive indicator of disease activity associated with BBB inflammatory dysfunction. Elevated blood level of cICAM-1 more strongly correlated with clinical activity and BBB damage, than cVCAM-1 and that could be used as biological marker of disease activity. Circulating VCAM-1 as an early indicator of BBB disturbance, may also serve as marker of beneficial activity in relapses phase of MS course. (authors)

  12. Distribution patterns of infection with multiple types of human papillomaviruses and their association with risk factors.

    Sara Soto-De Leon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%, while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (-31.1%, or were of mestizo (-24.6% or black (-40.9% ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2-4 HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies.

  13. Distribution Patterns of Infection with Multiple Types of Human Papillomaviruses and Their Association with Risk Factors

    Soto-De Leon, Sara; Camargo, Milena; Sanchez, Ricardo; Munoz, Marina; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Purroy, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. Principal Findings The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%), while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (−31.1%), or were of mestizo (−24.6%) or black (−40.9%) ethnicity. Conclusions According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2–4 HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies. PMID:21379574

  14. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats

    Hardik Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucova Active Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic formulation with ingredients reported for anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic activity and antioxidant properties. Objective: Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental Type I diabetes was induced in 24 albino rats with intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg. Type II diabetes was induced in 18 albino rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg along with high fat diet. The rats were divided in 5 groups for Type I model and 4 groups for Type II model. Normal control group was kept common for both experimental models. Glucova Active Tablet (108 mg/kg treatment was provided for 28 days twice daily orally. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profile and liver anti-oxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione was carried out in both experimental models. Pancreas histopathology was also done. Statistical analysis were done by ′analysis of variance′ test followed by post hoc Tukey′s test, with significant level of P < 0.05.Results and Discussion: Glucova Active Tablet showed significant effect on fasting blood glucose level. It also showed significant alteration in lipid profile and antioxidant parameters. Histopathology study revealed restoration of beta cells in pancreas in Glucova Active Tablet treated group. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Glucova Active Tablet has shown promising anti-diabetic activity in Type I and Type II diabetic rats. It was also found showing good anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-oxidant property.

  15. Changing Physical Activity Behavior in Type 2 Diabetes

    Avery, L.; Flynn, D.; Wersch, A.; Sniehotta, F. F.; Trenell, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Behavioral interventions targeting “free-living” physical activity (PA) and exercise that produce long-term glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes are warranted. However, little is known about how clinical teams should support adults with type 2 diabetes to achieve and sustain a physically active lifestyle. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (published up to January 2012) to establish the effect of behavioral ...

  16. Physical Activity and Type 1 Diabetes: Time for a Rewire?

    Colberg, Sheri R; Laan, Remmert; Dassau, Eyal; Kerr, David

    2015-01-01

    While being physically active bestows many health benefits on individuals with type 1 diabetes, their overall blood glucose control is not enhanced without an effective balance of insulin dosing and food intake to maintain euglycemia before, during, and after exercise of all types. At present, a number of technological advances are already available to insulin users who desire to be physically active with optimal blood glucose control, although a number of limitations to those devices remain....

  17. The locations and types of complementary activities on Slovene highways

    Boris Jagodič

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a summary of a few chapters of the research The locations and types of complementary activities on Slovene highways. The number of complementary locations, regulations concerning construction and types of complementary locations are thoroughly discussed. Emphasis is given to the modification of criteria, which apply to the positioning of complementary activities on highways, amongst other because of characteristics of the terrain and the polycentric pattern of settlements.

  18. Aggregation activity of blood formed elements in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Boris Il'ich Kuznik; Yuriy Antonovich Vitkovskiy; Marina Yur'evna Zakharova; Natal'ya Nikolaevna Klyuchereva; Ol'ga Sergeevna Rodnina; Aleksey Vladimirovich Solpov

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To assess differences in blood formed elements aggregation activity in patients with type 1 (T1) and type 2 (T2) diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and methods. We studied blood samples from 88 patients with T1 and T2 DM. Platelet aggregation activity was assessed by means of «Biola» aggregometer; we also determined platelet-lymphocyte and leucocyte-erythrocyte adhesion intensity. Results. We show that spontaneous platelet aggregation is markedly increased in patients with T1...

  19. Response of multiple seeded cocklebur and other cocklebur types to herbicide treatment.

    Abbas, Hamed K; Johnson, Bobbie J; Pantone, Dan J; Wax, Loyd M; Hine, Ron; Shier, W Thomas

    2005-07-01

    Multiple seeded cocklebur has been found in the last decade in Texas, and described as a biotype of Xanthium strumarium L with up to 25 seeds per bur instead of the usual two. The multiple seeded bur typically produces up to nine seedlings, causing concern that it may be harder to control than normal seeded common cocklebur. The efficacies of a series of fungal and conventional commercial herbicides have been compared in the greenhouse on seedlings of multiple seeded cocklebur from Texas (MSC-TX) and normal common cockleburs from Texas (NCC-TX), Arkansas (NCC-AR), Illinois (NCC-ILL) and two from Mississippi (NCC-MS#1, NCC-MS#2). Three measures of herbicidal activity (reductions in plant height and dry weight, and mortality) were used. The fungal herbicide Alternaria helianthi (Hansf) Tubaki & Nishihara at 1 x 10(5) conidia ml(-1) + 2 g liter(-1) Silwet L-77 with an 8-h dew period was an effective herbicide with all biotypes, as were the commercial chemical herbicides chlorimuron (14.8 g ha(-1)), imazaquin (29.6 g ha(-1)), sodium hydrogen methylarsonate (MSMA; 279.1 g ha(-1)) and imazethapyr (39.5 g ha(-1)). The membrane-disrupting organic arsenical MSMA was effective with all biotypes, whereas commercial chemical herbicides which act by inhibiting branched-chain amino acid synthesis (chlorimuron, imazaquin and imazethapyr) were less effective against normal seeded common cocklebur biotypes with short stature. These studies showed that multiple seeded cocklebur was at least as susceptible to the biological agent A helianthi and to the conventional commercial herbicides studied as were normal seeded cockleburs, suggesting that existing methods should be adequate to control this novel biotype. PMID:15712354

  20. Multiple nucleic acid cleavage modes in divergent type III CRISPR systems

    Zhang, Jing; Graham, Shirley; Tello, Agnes; Liu, Huanting; White, Malcolm F.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas is an RNA-guided adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from invading nucleic acids. Type III systems (Cmr, Csm) have been shown to cleave RNA targets in vitro and some are capable of transcription-dependent DNA targeting. The crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has two divergent subtypes of the type III system (Sso-IIID and a Cmr7-containing variant of Sso-IIIB). Here, we report that both the Sso-IIID and Sso-IIIB complexes cleave cognate RNA targets with a ruler mechanism and 6 or 12 nt spacing that relates to the organization of the Cas7 backbone. This backbone-mediated cleavage activity thus appears universal for the type III systems. The Sso-IIIB complex is also known to possess a distinct ‘UA’ cleavage mode. The predominant activity observed in vitro depends on the relative molar concentration of protein and target RNA. The Sso-IIID complex can cleave plasmid DNA targets in vitro, generating linear DNA products with an activity that is dependent on both the cyclase and HD nuclease domains of the Cas10 subunit, suggesting a role for both nuclease active sites in the degradation of double-stranded DNA targets. PMID:26801642

  1. Fast-growing pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: a case report

    Waldmann Jens; Habbe Nils; Fendrich Volker; Slater Emily P; Kann Peter H; Rothmund Matthias; Langer Peter

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Predictive genetic screening and regular screening programs in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are intended to detect and treat malignant tumors at the earliest stage possible. Malignant neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors are the most frequent cause of death in these patients. However, the extent and intervals of screening in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are controversial as neuroendocrine tumors are usually slow growing. Here we repo...

  2. Tuning nanoscale viscoelasticity of polyelectrolyte complexes with multiple types of cross-links

    Ma, Tianzhu; Han, Biao; Lee, Daeyeon; Han, Lin

    Mechanical properties of hydrogels are manifestation of cross-link type and density, fixed charges and water-polymer interactions. In this study, we revealed how different types of cross-links regulate the nanoscale viscoelasticity of polyelectrolyte networks. Ionically cross-linked PAH/PAA layer-by-layer complexes were modified to include covalent cross-links using EDC. AFM-nanoindentation and force relaxation were performed at various ionic strength (0.01-1M) and pH (1.5-5.5). As-assembled networks, held only by ionic cross-links, underwent >95% relaxation, dominated by cross-link breaking and re-formation. Addition of covalent cross-links increased the instantaneous modulus by 1.6-fold and attenuated relaxation to ~80% of net neutral states (pH >=3.5), as covalent cross-links provide additional elastic components. The network remained stabilized when all ionic cross-links were dissociated at pH poroelasticity. Taken together, this study demonstrates the potential of using multiple cross-linking types to tune the viscoelastic mechanisms in polyelectrolyte complexes.

  3. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis for strain typing of Clostridium perfringens.

    Sawires, Youhanna S; Songer, J Glenn

    2005-10-01

    Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in the environment and causes diseases in man and animals, with syndromes ranging from enteritis, enterotoxemia, and sudden death to food poisoning and gas gangrene. Understanding the epidemiology of these infections and of the evolution of virulence in C. perfringens necessitate an efficient, time and cost effective strain typing method. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) has been applied to typing of other pathogens and we describe here the development of a MLVA scheme for C. perfringens. We characterized five variable tandem repeat (VNTR) loci, four of which are contained within protein encoding genes and screened 112 C. perfringens isolates to evaluate typability, reproducibility, and discriminatory power of the scheme. All the isolates were assigned a MLVA genotype and the technique has excellent reproducibility, with a numerical index of discrimination for the five VNTR loci of 0.995. Thus MLVA is an efficient tool for C. perfringens strain typing, and being PCR based makes it rapid, easy, and cost effective. In addition, it can be employed in epidemiological, ecological, and evolutionary investigations of the organism. PMID:16701582

  4. Methadone ameliorates multiple-low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in mice

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of pancreatic islets and destruction of β cells by the immune system. Opioids have been shown to modulate a number of immune functions, including T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines. The immunosuppressive effect of long-term administration of opioids has been demonstrated both in animal models and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of methadone, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, on type 1 diabetes. Administration of multiple low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) (MLDS) (40mg/kg intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days) to mice resulted in autoimmune diabetes. Mice were treated with methadone (10mg/kg/day subcutaneously) for 24days. Blood glucose, insulin and pancreatic cytokine levels were measured. Chronic methadone treatment significantly reduced hyperglycemia and incidence of diabetes, and restored pancreatic insulin secretion in the MLDS model. The protective effect of methadone can be overcome by pretreatment with naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist. Also, methadone treatment decreased the proinflammatory Th1 cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ] and increased anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Histopathological observations indicated that STZ-mediated destruction of β cells was attenuated by methadone treatment. It seems that methadone as an opioid agonist may have a protective effect against destruction of β cells and insulitis in the MLDS model of type 1 diabetes

  5. Multiple determinants of splicing repression activity in the polypyrimidine tract binding proteins, PTBP1 and PTBP2.

    Keppetipola, Niroshika M; Yeom, Kyu-Hyeon; Hernandez, Adrian L; Bui, Tessa; Sharma, Shalini; Black, Douglas L

    2016-08-01

    Most human genes generate multiple protein isoforms through alternative pre-mRNA splicing, but the mechanisms controlling alternative splicing choices by RNA binding proteins are not well understood. These proteins can have multiple paralogs expressed in different cell types and exhibiting different splicing activities on target exons. We examined the paralogous polypyrimidine tract binding proteins PTBP1 and PTBP2 to understand how PTBP1 can exhibit greater splicing repression activity on certain exons. Using both an in vivo coexpression assay and an in vitro splicing assay, we show that PTBP1 is more repressive than PTBP2 per unit protein on a target exon. Constructing chimeras of PTBP1 and 2 to determine amino acid features that contribute to their differential activity, we find that multiple segments of PTBP1 increase the repressive activity of PTBP2. Notably, when either RRM1 of PTBP2 or the linker peptide separating RRM2 and RRM3 are replaced with the equivalent PTBP1 sequences, the resulting chimeras are highly active for splicing repression. These segments are distinct from the known region of interaction for the PTBP1 cofactors Raver1 and Matrin3 in RRM2. We find that RRM2 of PTBP1 also increases the repression activity of an otherwise PTBP2 sequence, and that this is potentially explained by stronger binding by Raver1. These results indicate that multiple features over the length of the two proteins affect their ability to repress an exon. PMID:27288314

  6. IL-10 dependent suppression of type 1, type 2 and type 17 cytokines in active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Nathella Pavan Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although Type 1 cytokine responses are considered protective in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, their role as well as those of Type 2, 17 and immunoregulatory cytokines in tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBL and latent tuberculosis (LTB have not been well studied. AIM AND METHODS: To identify cytokine responses associated with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB, TB lymphadenitits and latent TB, we examined mycobacterial antigen-specific immune responses of PTB, TBL and LTB individuals. More specifically, we examined ESAT-6 and CFP-10 induced Type 1, Type 2 and Type 17 cytokine production and their regulation using multiplex ELISA. RESULTS: PTB individuals exhibited a significantly lower baseline as well as antigen-specific production of Type 1 (IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2; Type 2 (IL-4 and Type 17 (IL-17A and IL-17F cytokines in comparison to both TBL and LTB individuals. TBL individuals exhibited significantly lower antigen-specific IFNγ responses alone in comparison to LTB individuals. Although, IL-10 levels were not significantly higher, neutralization of IL-10 during antigen stimulation resulted in significantly enhanced production of IFNγ, IL-4 and IL-17A in PTB individuals, indicating that IL-10 mediates (at least partially the suppression of cytokine responses in PTB. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary TB is characterized by an IL-10 dependent antigen-specific suppression of Type 1, Type 2 and Type 17 cytokines, reflecting an important association of these cytokines in the pathogenesis of active TB.

  7. Evaluation of frequency spectrum and main oscillation modes of box type multiple cross sections spans

    Sokolov Oleg Leonidovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of mechanics the box span of trestle bridges is non-diaphragm prismatic shell of multiple cross section of average length. Though many problems of static analysis of such structures have been solved, the development of analytical methods of calculating non-diaphragm box type structures on the vibration is an urgent task. The presented method for analysis of free vibration of non-diaphragm spans of box trestle bridges of multiple cross sections is based on the variation theory of prismatic shells of average length by V.Z. Vlasov. In this method the discrete-continuum design scheme, in which the mass of the structure is reduced to its nodal lines, is used. Equations of free vibration are variation equations and represent the work of internal and external forces in the possible displacements. The possible displacements are determined by the static approximation. The order frequency equation, obtained by solving the equation system of free vibration, coincides with the number of the vertical walls of the box span. For a split design scheme span the frequency equation is algebraic, and its components are calculated in analytical formulas. The method is illustrated by free vibrations of non-diaphragm box spans with four cross sections. As a result, the solution frequency spectrum and modes of vibration were defined. The advantage of the presented method of calculation is that the components of the frequency equation are calculated in analytical formulas. This method helps to study free vibration non-diaphragm box spans of multiple cross sections depending on changes in the design parameters. Application of this method will reduce the time and improve the design quality, and also monitor the results of structures analysis prepared with the help of computer complex.

  8. MRI study of periventricular regions in multiple sclerosis and in subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy of Binswanger's type

    Periventricular regions are predominantly involved either in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) or in Subcortical Arteriosclerotic Encephalopathy (SAE) of Bingswanger's type. The presence of focal, as well as diffuse lesions in these areas is well known in both pathologies. While focal lesions are linked to plaques or lacunar softening in MS and SAE respectively, the pathogenesis of the diffuse degenerative change is still unclear, either in MS or in SAE. Previous studies have suggested that periventricular alterations may be related to an abnormal Cerebrospinal Dluid (CSF) dynamics either in MS or in SAE, and to the chronic effect of interstitial edema due to an abnormal transependymal flow. In order to further investigate these mechanisms an MRI study of periventricular regions was performed in patients afflicted by MS or SAE as well as in normal volunteers

  9. A Case Report of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type IIa Associated with Cushing Syndrome

    Sh. Borzouei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIa (MEN IIa is an autosomal dominant syn-drome characterized bypheochromocytoma ,medullary thyroid carcinoma and hyperparathy-roidism. Pheochromocytoma approximately occurs in 50% of patients with MEN IIa. This tumor has the capacity to produce ACTH ectopically and becomes manifest like Cushing syndrome,although it is very rare. Case Report: We report a 26-year-old woman patient with severe muscle weakness, skin le-sions in extremity, hypertension, new onset diabetes and in the laboratory data hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, high serum level of cortisol, metanephrine, normetanephrine, calcitonin and bilateral adrenal mass in computed tomography as the first clinical manifestations of an ACTH-secreting pheochromocytoma. Conclusion: In the patients with hypertension, new onset diabetes and hypokalemia Cushing syndrome and pheochromocytoma should always be ruled out. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:260-265

  10. VIPoma with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 identified as an atypical gene mutation.

    Fujiya, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto; Shibata, Taiga; Sobajima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old man presented with persistent diarrhoea and hypokalaemia. CT revealed 4 pancreatic tumours that appeared to be VIPomas, because the patient had an elevated plasma vasoactive intestinal polypeptide level. MRI showed a low-intensity area in the pituitary suggestive of a pituitary tumour, and a parathyroid tumour was detected by ultrasonography and 99Tc-MIBI scintigraphy. Given these results, the patient was diagnosed with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and scheduled for surgery. MEN1 is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with MEN1 mutations. Genetic testing indicated that the patient had a MEN1 gene mutation; his 2 sons had the same mutations. Most MEN1 tumours are benign, but some pancreatic and thymic tumours could become malignant. Without treatment, such tumours would result in earlier mortality. Despite its rarity, we should perform genetic testing for family members of patients with MEN1 to identify mutation carriers and improve the patients' prognosis. PMID:26564120

  11. Chromosomal instability in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Cytogenetic evaluation with DEB test.

    Tomassetti, P; Cometa, G; Del Vecchio, E; Baserga, M; Faccioli, P; Bosoni, D; Paolucci, G; Barbara, L

    1995-02-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant condition with high penetrance and variable expressivity, in which tumors or hyperplasia occur in two or more endocrine organs. Some authors have investigated chromosomal instability in MEN 1 and MEN 2; the results are controversial. Chromosome analyses were performed on lymphocytes from seven patients with MEN 1, four healthy first-degree relatives (three of whom were children), six phenotypically normal volunteers, and three patients with Fanconi's anemia. To evaluate chromosomal instability we analyzed phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocyte cultures with and without diepoxibutane. We observed an increase in the frequency of spontaneous chromosomal alterations in four patients. After the DEB test we found an increase in chromatid breakages, gaps, and exchange figures. These findings support the inclusion of the MEN 1 syndrome among the disorders with "chromosomal instability." PMID:7889502

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow in senile dementia of Alzheimer's type and multiple infarct dementia

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Xe-133 inhalation method was undertaken in 13 patients with mild or moderate senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT), 9 patients with multiple infarct demantia (MID), and 7 normal controls. Mean blood flow of the hemisphere was significantly decreased in both SDAT and MID groups than the control group. The decreased blood flow was correlated with the severity of SDAT, but not with MID. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the SDAT group was significantly decreased in moderate cases than the control group, especially in the bilateral perietal areas, although this did not differ in the mild SDAT cases and the control cases. For MID, rCBF was significantly decreased in the bilateral frontal, basal nucleus, and left lateral areas. The findings led to the conclusion that SPECT is useful in the differential diagnosis of dementia and elucidation of the pathogenesis. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Simulating multiple merger pathways to the central kinematics of early-type galaxies

    Moody, Christopher E.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Cox, Thomas J.; Novak, G. S.; Primack, Joel R.

    2014-10-01

    Two-dimensional integral field surveys such as ATLAS3D are producing rich observational data sets yielding insights into galaxy formation. These new kinematic observations have highlighted the need to understand the evolutionary mechanisms leading to a spectrum of fast rotators and slow rotators in early-type galaxies. We address the formation of slow and fast rotators through a series of controlled, comprehensive hydrodynamical simulations, sampling idealized galaxy merger scenarios constructed from model spiral galaxies. Idealized and controlled simulations of this sort complement the more `realistic' cosmological simulations by isolating and analysing the effects of specific parameters, as we do in this paper. We recreate minor and major binary mergers, binary merger trees with multiple progenitors, and multiple sequential mergers. Within each of these categories of formation history, we correlate progenitor gas fraction, mass ratio, orbital pericentre, orbital ellipticity, and spin with remnant kinematic properties. We create kinematic profiles of these 95 simulations comparable to ATLAS3D data. By constructing remnant profiles of the projected specific angular momentum (λ _R= round as the ATLAS3D galaxies. Remnants of binary merger trees are triaxial slow rotators. Sequential mergers form round slow rotators that most resemble the ATLAS3D rotators.

  14. Complex dynamics in the Leslie-Gower type of the food chain system with multiple delays

    Guo, Lei; Song, Zi-Gen; Xu, Jian

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we present a Leslie-Gower type of food chain system composed of three species, which are resource, consumer, and predator, respectively. The digestion time delays corresponding to consumer-eat-resource and predator-eat-consumer are introduced for more realistic consideration. It is called the resource digestion delay (RDD) and consumer digestion delay (CDD) for simplicity. Analyzing the corresponding characteristic equation, the stabilities of the boundary and interior equilibrium points are studied. The food chain system exhibits the species coexistence for the small values of digestion delays. Large RDD/CDD may destabilize the species coexistence and induce the system dynamic into recurrent bloom or system collapse. Further, the present of multiple delays can control species population into the stable coexistence. To investigate the effect of time delays on the recurrent bloom of species population, the Hopf bifurcation and periodic solution are investigated in detail in terms of the central manifold reduction and normal form method. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to display some complex dynamics, which include multiple periodic solution and chaos motion for the different values of system parameters. The system dynamic behavior evolves into the chaos motion by employing the period-doubling bifurcation.

  15. Multiple carcinoids in the duodenum, pancreas and stomach accompanied with type A gastritis: A case report

    Takeo Bamba; Shin-ichi Kosugi; Tatsuo Kanda; Toshihiro Tsubono; Yasuo Sakai; Nobuyuki Musha; Noriko Ishihara; Katsuyoshi Hatakeyama

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of multiple duodenal, pancreatic, and gastric carcinoids. A 67-year old woman was admitted to our hospital for treatment of a duodenal carcinoid.Laboratory tests revealed that the patient was associated with macrocytic anemia and hypergastrinemia, and type A gastritis was shown by gastrofiberscopy.During surgery, another tumor was incidentally found in the head of the pancreas. The tumors in the duodenum and pancreas were completely excised by pancreatoduodenectomy and immunohistologically diagnosed as gastrin-and serotonin-producing carcinoids,respectively. Pathological examination revealed that in addition to the grossly found carcinoids, there were subclinical carcinoids, one of which was an endocrine cell micronest, located in the stomach and duodenum.The tumors in the duodenum, pancreas, and stomach showed different characteristics from one another morphologically and immunochemically. Although no definitive evidence has been obtained, some sort of genetic anomaly may have been involved in this case,and hypergastrinemia due to duodenal gastrinoma may induce multiple gastric carcinoids.

  16. An improved early detection method of type-2 diabetes mellitus using multiple classifier system

    Zhu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The specific causes of complex diseases such as Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have not yet been identified. Nevertheless, many medical science researchers believe that complex diseases are caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Detection of such diseases becomes an issue because it is not free from false presumptions and is accompanied by unpredictable effects. Given the greatly increased amount of data gathered in medical databases, data mining has been used widely in recent years to detect and improve the diagnosis of complex diseases. However, past research showed that no single classifier can be considered optimal for all problems. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on employing multiple classifier systems to improve the accuracy of detection for complex diseases, such as T2DM. We proposed a dynamic weighted voting scheme called multiple factors weighted combination for classifiers\\' decision combination. This method considers not only the local and global accuracy but also the diversity among classifiers and localized generalization error of each classifier. We evaluated our method on two real T2DM data sets and other medical data sets. The favorable results indicated that our proposed method significantly outperforms individual classifiers and other fusion methods.

  17. Multiple mechanisms in serum factor-induced resistance of Haemophilus influenzae type b to antibody.

    Kuratana, M; Hansen, E J; Anderson, P

    1990-01-01

    Incubation of Haemophilus influenzae type b at less than or equal to 10(7) CFU/ml with serum ultrafiltrate induces a phenotypic conversion in which complement-mediated bactericidal activity by somatic antibodies decreases while killing by capsular antibody is unchanged. Conversion had been shown to occur in a capsule-deficient (b-) mutant of strain Eag (thus appearing independent of capsulation), to include an increase in lipopolysaccharide content, and to be inhibited by chloramphenicol or p...

  18. BDNF val66met Polymorphism Affects Aging of Multiple Types of Memory

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Reese, Elizabeth D.; Horn, Marci M.; Sizemore, April N.; Unni, Asha K.; Meerbrey, Michael E.; Kalich, Allan G.; Rodrigue, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The BDNF val66met polymorphism (rs6265) influences activity-dependent secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the synapse, which is crucial for learning and memory. Individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the met allele have lower BDNF secretion than val homozygotes and may be at risk for reduced declarative memory performance, but it remains unclear which types of declarative memory may be affected and how aging of memory across the lifespan is impacted by the BDNF val66met poly...

  19. Serial MRI studies using gadolinium DTPA in active multiple sclerosis

    It has been suggested that blood brain barrier (BBB) impairment is a necessary early event in the pathogenesis of the multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. To evaluate such an hypothesis in vivo would require: (1) serial imaging studies using a modality with high sensitivity for detecting plaques; (2) a contrast enhancing agent which demonstrates BBB impairment. A serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was undertaken of a group of MS patients using the contrast agent gadolinium-DTPA. As it has been suggested that T1 and T2 relaxation times are longer in acute than chronic MS lesions, these were also measured. 3 refs.; 1 figure

  20. Method of Multiple Scales and Travelling Wave Solutions for (2+1)-Dimensional KdV Type Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    Ayhan, Burcu; Özer, M. Naci; Bekir, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we applied the method of multiple scales for Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type equations and we derived nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) type equations. So we get a relation between KdV type equations and NLS type equations. In addition, exact solutions were found for KdV type equations. The ( G'} over G )-expansion methods and the ( {G'} over G, {1 over G}} )-expansion methods were proposed to establish new exact solutions for KdV type differential equations. We obtained periodic and hyperbolic function solutions for these equations. These methods are very effective for getting travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs).

  1. Angiogenic activity of sesamin through the activation of multiple signal pathways

    The natural product sesamin has been known to act as a potent antioxidant and prevent endothelial dysfunction. We here found that sesamin increased in vitro angiogenic processes, such as endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation, as well as neovascularization in an animal model. This compound elicited the activation of multiple angiogenic signal modulators, such as ERK, Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), NO production, FAK, and p38 MAPK, but not Src. The MEK inhibitor PD98059 and the PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin specifically inhibited sesamin-induced activation of the ERK and Akt/eNOS pathways. These inhibitors reduced angiogenic events, with high specificity for MEK/ERK-dependent cell proliferation and migration and PI3K/Akt-mediated tube formation. Moreover, inhibition of p38 MAPK effectively inhibited sesamin-induced cell migration. The angiogenic activity of sesamin was not associated with VEGF expression. Furthermore, this compound did not induce vascular permeability and upregulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, which are hallmarks of vascular inflammation. These results suggest that sesamin stimulates angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo through the activation of MEK/ERK-, PI3K/Akt/eNOS-, p125FAK-, and p38 MAPK-dependent pathways, without increasing vascular inflammation, and may be used for treating ischemic diseases and tissue regeneration.

  2. A novel epidermal growth factor receptor variant lacking multiple domains directly activates transcription and is overexpressed in tumors

    Piccione, EC; Lieu, TJ; Gentile, CF; Williams, TR; Connolly, AJ; Godwin, AK; Koong, AC; Wong, AJ

    2011-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is essential to multiple physiological and neoplastic processes via signaling by its tyrosine kinase domain and subsequent activation of transcription factors. EGFR overexpression and alteration, including point mutations and structural variants, contribute to oncogenesis in many tumor types. In this study, we identified an in-frame splice variant of the EGFR called mini-LEEK (mLEEK) that is more broadly expressed than the EGFR and is overexpressed ...

  3. A SURVEY OF STELLAR FAMILIES: MULTIPLICITY OF SOLAR-TYPE STARS

    We present the results of a comprehensive assessment of companions to solar-type stars. A sample of 454 stars, including the Sun, was selected from the Hipparcos catalog with π>40 mas, σπ/π < 0.05, 0.5 ≤ B - V ≤ 1.0 (∼F6-K3), and constrained by absolute magnitude and color to exclude evolved stars. These criteria are equivalent to selecting all dwarf and subdwarf stars within 25 pc with V-band flux between 0.1 and 10 times that of the Sun, giving us a physical basis for the term 'solar-type'. New observational aspects of this work include surveys for (1) very close companions with long-baseline interferometry at the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy Array, (2) close companions with speckle interferometry, and (3) wide proper-motion companions identified by blinking multi-epoch archival images. In addition, we include the results from extensive radial-velocity monitoring programs and evaluate companion information from various catalogs covering many different techniques. The results presented here include four new common proper-motion companions discovered by blinking archival images. Additionally, the spectroscopic data searched reveal five new stellar companions. Our synthesis of results from many methods and sources results in a thorough evaluation of stellar and brown dwarf companions to nearby Sun-like stars. The overall observed fractions of single, double, triple, and higher-order systems are 56% ± 2%, 33% ± 2%, 8% ± 1%, and 3% ± 1%, respectively, counting all confirmed stellar and brown dwarf companions. If all candidate, i.e., unconfirmed, companions identified are found to be real, the percentages would change to 54% ± 2%, 34% ± 2%, 9% ± 2%, and 3% ± 1%, respectively. Our completeness analysis indicates that only a few undiscovered companions remain in this well-studied sample, implying that the majority (54% ± 2%) of solar-type stars are single, in contrast to the results of prior multiplicity studies. Our sample is large

  4. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review.

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2016-06-25

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework that type 2 diabetic patients should be able to perform without considerable physical burden. This review focuses on the association between daily physical activity and T2D. Walking was the most common form of daily physical activity, with numerous studies demonstrating its beneficial effects on reducing the risk of T2D, CVD, and mortality. Walking for at least 30 min per day was shown to reduce the risk of T2D by approximately 50%. Additionally, walking was associated with a reduction in mortality. In contrast, evidence was extremely limited regarding other daily physical activities such as gardening and housework in patients with T2D. Recent studies have suggested daily physical activity, including non-exercise activity thermogenesis, to be favorably associated with metabolic risks and mortality. However, well-designed longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate its effects on overall health. PMID:27350847

  5. Sprouty genes prevent excessive FGF signalling in multiple cell types throughout development of the cerebellum

    Yu, Tian; Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Echevarria, Diego; Martinez, Salvador; Basson, M. Albert

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and regulators of the FGF signalling pathway are expressed in several cell types within the cerebellum throughout its development. Although much is known about the function of this pathway during the establishment of the cerebellar territory during early embryogenesis, the role of this pathway during later developmental stages is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the function of sprouty genes (Spry1, Spry2 and Spry4), which encode feedback antagonists of FGF signalling, during cerebellar development in the mouse. Simultaneous deletion of more than one of these genes resulted in a number of defects, including mediolateral expansion of the cerebellar vermis, reduced thickness of the granule cell layer and abnormal foliation. Analysis of cerebellar development revealed that the anterior cerebellar neuroepithelium in the early embryonic cerebellum was expanded and that granule cell proliferation during late embryogenesis and early postnatal development was reduced. We show that the granule cell proliferation deficit correlated with reduced sonic hedgehog (SHH) expression and signalling. A reduction in Fgfr1 dosage during development rescued these defects, confirming that the abnormalities are due to excess FGF signalling. Our data indicate that sprouty acts both cell autonomously in granule cell precursors and non-cell autonomously to regulate granule cell number. Taken together, our data demonstrate that FGF signalling levels have to be tightly controlled throughout cerebellar development in order to maintain the normal development of multiple cell types. PMID:21693512

  6. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey VIII. Multiplicity properties of the O-type star population

    Sana, H; de Mink, S E; Dunstall, P R; Evans, C J; Henault-Brunet, V; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Ramirez-Agudelo, O H; Taylor, W D; Walborn, N R; Clark, J S; Crowther, P A; Herrero, A; Gieles, M; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Vink, J S

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We analyze the multiplicity properties of the massive O-type star population. With 360 O-type stars, this is the largest homogeneous sample of massive stars analyzed to date. Methods. We use multi-epoch spectroscopy and variability analysis to identify spectroscopic binaries. We also use a Monte-Carlo method to correct for observational biases. Results. We observe a spectroscopic binary fraction of 0.35\\pm0.03, which corresponds to the fraction of objects displaying statistically significant radial velocity variations with an amplitude of at least 20km/s. We compute the intrinsic binary fraction to be 0.51\\pm0.04. We adopt power-laws to describe the intrinsic period and mass-ratio distributions: f_P ~ (log P)^\\pi\\ (with 0.15 7.8', i.e. approx117 pc) and among the O9.7 I/II objects are however significantly lower than expected from statistical fluctuations. Conclusions. Using simple evolutionary considerations, we estimate that over 50% of the current O star population in 30 Dor will exchange mass with ...

  7. Genomic regions associated with multiple sclerosis are active in B cells.

    Giulio Disanto

    Full Text Available More than 50 genomic regions have now been shown to influence the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS. However, the mechanisms of action, and the cell types in which these associated variants act at the molecular level remain largely unknown. This is especially true for associated regions containing no known genes. Given the evidence for a role for B cells in MS, we hypothesized that MS associated genomic regions co-localized with regions which are functionally active in B cells. We used publicly available data on 1 MS associated regions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 2 chromatin profiling in B cells as well as three additional cell types thought to be unrelated to MS (hepatocytes, fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Genomic intervals and SNPs were tested for overlap using the Genomic Hyperbrowser. We found that MS associated regions are significantly enriched in strong enhancer, active promoter and strong transcribed regions (p = 0.00005 and that this overlap is significantly higher in B cells than control cells. In addition, MS associated SNPs also land in active promoter (p = 0.00005 and enhancer regions more than expected by chance (strong enhancer p = 0.0006; weak enhancer p = 0.00005. These results confirm the important role of the immune system and specifically B cells in MS and suggest that MS risk variants exert a gene regulatory role. Previous studies assessing MS risk variants in T cells may be missing important effects in B cells. Similar analyses in other immunological cell types relevant to MS and functional studies are necessary to fully elucidate how genes contribute to MS pathogenesis.

  8. Multiple Criteria Activity Selection for Ecotourism Planning in Igneada

    Ok, Kenan

    2006-01-01

    Forests have many ecotourism attractions. Ecotourism can be defined as an opportunity to promote the values in the protected areas and to finance for related stakeholders. However, ecotourism can be classified as a possible threat to ecosystems because of ecotourism's attractions are based on fragile ecological relations. Activity selection regarding ecological, social and economic dimensions is important in forest and tourism management. Ecotourism activities were selected using a multi...

  9. Histamine modulates multiple functional activities of monocyte-derived dendritic cell subsets via histamine receptor 2.

    Simon, Tünde; Gogolák, Péter; Kis-Tóth, Katalin; Jelinek, Ivett; László, Valéria; Rajnavölgyi, Eva

    2012-02-01

    Expression of CD1a proteins in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) specifies functionally distinct subsets with different inflammatory properties. Histamine is recognized as an inflammatory mediator released by various cell types including DCs. The diverse biological effects of histamine are mediated by G-protein-coupled histamine receptors (HRs), which are able to modulate the functional activities of DC subsets. The goal of the present study was to compare the expression and activity of HRs in the CD1a(-) and CD1a(+) monocyte-derived DC subsets and to test the effects of histamine on the differentiation, activation and functional activities of these subsets. We show that H2R is present at high levels in both DC subsets, whereas H1R and H4R are expressed in a subset-specific manner. Histamine shifts DC differentiation to the development of CD1a(-) DCs and modulates DC activation through its inhibitory effect on CD1a(+) DC differentiation. Histamine-induced reduction of CD1a(+) DCs is associated with increased secretion of IL-6 and IL-10, up-regulation of a typical combination of chemokines, expression C5aR1 by the CD1a(-) DC subset and enhanced migration of both activated DC subsets supported by the production of MMP-9 and MMP-12 enzymes. All these effects were shown to be mediated in a H2R-specific manner as revealed by the specific antagonist of the receptor. As H2R is expressed at high levels in both DC subsets, we propose that it may dominate the regulation of multiple DC functions. In contrast, H1R and H4R with opposing subset-related expression may have a regulatory or fine-tuning role in histamine-induced functional activities. PMID:22232416

  10. Sudden synchrony leaps accompanied by frequency multiplications in neuronal activity

    Ido Kanter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A classical view of neural coding relies on temporal firing synchrony among functional groups of neurons; however the underlying mechanism remains an enigma. Here we experimentally demonstrate a mechanism where time-lags among neuronal spiking leap from several tens of milliseconds to nearly zero-lag synchrony. It also allows sudden leaps out of synchrony, hence forming short epochs of synchrony. Our results are based on an experimental procedure where conditioned stimulations were enforced on circuits of neurons embedded within a large-scale network of cortical cells in vitro and are corroborated by simulations of neuronal populations. The underlying biological mechanisms are the unavoidable increase of the neuronal response latency to ongoing stimulations and temporal or spatial summation required to generate evoked spikes. These sudden leaps in and out of synchrony may be accompanied by multiplications of the neuronal firing frequency, hence offering reliable information-bearing indicators which may bridge between the two principal neuronal coding paradigms.

  11. Multiple-Coincidence Active Neutron Interrogation of Fissionable Materials

    Using a beam of tagged 14.1 MeV neutrons to probe for the presence of fissionable materials, we have measured n-γ-γ coincidences from depleted uranium (DU). The multiple coincidence rate is substantially above that measured from lead, tungsten, and iron. The presence of coincidences involving delayed gammas in the DU time spectra provides a signature for fissionable materials that is distinct from non-fissionable ones. In addition, the information from the tagged neutron involved in the coincidence gives the position of the fissionable material in all three dimensions. The result is an imaging probe for fissionable materials that is more compact and that produces much less radiation than other solutions

  12. Multifrequency Oscillator-Type Active Printed Antenna Using Chaotic Colpitts Oscillator

    Bibha Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept to realize a multifrequency Oscillator-type active printed monopole antenna. The concept of period doubling route to chaos is exploited to generate the multiple frequencies. The chaotic Colpitts oscillator is integrated with the printed monopole antenna (PMA on the same side of the substrate to realize an Oscillator-type active antenna where the PMA acts as a load and radiator to the chaotic oscillator. By changing the bias voltage of the oscillator, the antenna can be made to operate at single or multiple frequencies. To test the characteristics of the antenna at single and multiple frequencies of operation, two similar prototype models of printed monopole broadband antennas are developed. One of these antennas used at transmit side is fed by the chaotic Colpitts oscillator while the other is used as the receive antenna. It is observed that the antenna receives single or multiple frequencies simultaneously for particular values of the bias voltage of the oscillator at the transmit end.

  13. Multiple splicing types of OsRIX4, an RAD21 homolog in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    DONG HaiTao; LI DeBao; GUO XiaoQin; PEI YanXi; DAI ChengEn; FANG YongQi; TU QiChao; ZHUANG JieYun; ZHAO Dong; ZHENG KangLe

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes multiple splicing types of OsRIX4, an RAD21 homolog in rice. A type of alternative splicing (AS), distinctive from all five previously known splicing types, was identified in which interior sequences of a constitutive exon could be spliced. Translation of the transcript produced with this AS type was demonstrated at the protein level. Expression of multiple transcripts was organ specific. The expression abundance of transcripts, OsRIX4-4 and OsRIX4-5, was positively correlated with fertility in rice. The splicing type identified in the present study provided the means to further understand and define different mRNA splicing types in plants and suggested that post-transcription processing of mRNA and its regulation mechanism are complex.

  14. Dynamic activity of NF-κB in multiple trauma patients and protective effects of ulinastain

    Li, Jun; Li, Neng-Ping; GU Yong-feng; Yang, Xin; LU Xiao-bing; CONG Jian-nong; Ling, Yun; TANG Jiang-an; Yuan, Xiao-yan; Wang, Hu

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the dynamic activity of NF-κB at the early stage of injury in multiple trauma patients and the protective effects of ulinastain. Methods: From January 2008 to May 2010, patients with multiple traumas admitted to our emergency department were enrolled in this study. Their age varied from 20-55 years. All enrolled patients were assigned randomly into control group (26 cases of multiple injury without ulinastain treatment), ulinastain group (25 cas...

  15. Immune activation in multiple sclerosis and interferon-beta therapy

    Krakauer, Martin

    2007-01-01

    inflammation or secondary lymphatic organs. Chemokine receptors are differentially expressed in T cells in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, indicating their role for in T-cell-recruitment to the CNS. Interferon (IFN)-beta is a first-line treatment for MS. The mechanism of action is unclear, but probably includes...... changes in lymphocyte activation, cytokine secretion, and trafficking. The aim of the studies was to shed more light on T-cell immunology in MS and IFN-beta treatment, as well as identifying putative biomarkers of treatment response and/or disease activity. In one study we identified a Th-cell subset of...

  16. Solar-Type Activity in Main-Sequence Stars

    Gershberg, Roald E

    2005-01-01

    Solar-type activity over the whole range of the electromagnetic spectrum is a phenomenon inherent in the majority of low- and moderate-mass main sequence stars. In this monograph observational results are summarized in a systematic and comprehensive fashion. The analysis of the various manifestations of such stellar activity leads to the identification of these phenomena with macroscopic non-linear processes in a magnetized plasma. Comparative study of flare stars and the Sun has become increasingly fruitful and is presently an active field of research involving stellar and solar physicists, experts in plasma physics and high-energy astrophysicists. This book will provide them with both an introduction and overview of observational results from the first optical photometry and spectroscopy, from the satellite telescopes International Ultraviolet Explorer to Hubble Space Telescope, XMM-Newton and Chandra, as well as with the present physical interpretation of solar-type activity in main sequence stars. Gershbe...

  17. Classification of types of stuttering symptoms based on brain activity.

    Jing Jiang

    Full Text Available Among the non-fluencies seen in speech, some are more typical (MT of stuttering speakers, whereas others are less typical (LT and are common to both stuttering and fluent speakers. No neuroimaging work has evaluated the neural basis for grouping these symptom types. Another long-debated issue is which type (LT, MT whole-word repetitions (WWR should be placed in. In this study, a sentence completion task was performed by twenty stuttering patients who were scanned using an event-related design. This task elicited stuttering in these patients. Each stuttered trial from each patient was sorted into the MT or LT types with WWR put aside. Pattern classification was employed to train a patient-specific single trial model to automatically classify each trial as MT or LT using the corresponding fMRI data. This model was then validated by using test data that were independent of the training data. In a subsequent analysis, the classification model, just established, was used to determine which type the WWR should be placed in. The results showed that the LT and the MT could be separated with high accuracy based on their brain activity. The brain regions that made most contribution to the separation of the types were: the left inferior frontal cortex and bilateral precuneus, both of which showed higher activity in the MT than in the LT; and the left putamen and right cerebellum which showed the opposite activity pattern. The results also showed that the brain activity for WWR was more similar to that of the LT and fluent speech than to that of the MT. These findings provide a neurological basis for separating the MT and the LT types, and support the widely-used MT/LT symptom grouping scheme. In addition, WWR play a similar role as the LT, and thus should be placed in the LT type.

  18. Multiple oncogene activation in a radiation carcinogenesis model

    There is evidence from animal systems to suggest that certain oncogenes may be activated by the direct action of the initiating carcinogen. Consistent activation by a point mutation of a single member of the ras oncogene family in different tumors produced by a single agent has been demonstrated. In contrast the c-myc and other oncogenes have been shown to be activated by a process involving chromosomal translocations, enhanced expression, and/or gene amplification. We have examined a panel of 12 late stage rat skin tumors for activation of oncogenes from the ras and myc complementation groups. These tumors were four squamous cell carcinomas, three poorly differentiated carcinomas (clear cell), one each of basal cell carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma, sarcoma, fibroma, and mixed (largely squamous) histology carcinoma. The positive tumor DNAs were from three poorly differentiated clear cell carcinomas, a sebaceous carcinoma, a squamous cell carcinoma, and a sarcoma. DNA from one of the primary transfectants was positive in a second round of transfection. The transformed phenotype of the transfectants was confirmed by anchorage independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Southern blot analysis of DNA from primary and secondary transfectants, as well as from nude mouse tumors arising after injection of transfectant cells revealed the presence of rat derived restriction fragments homologous to the K-ras oncogene against the mouse background. Similar experiments using N- and H-ras probes, revealed only the endogenous mouse fragments in transfectant DNA. 11 refs., 1 tab

  19. Solar-Type Activity: Epochs of Cycle Formation

    Katsova, M M; Livshits, M A

    2015-01-01

    The diagram of indices of coronal and chromospheric activity allowed us to reveal stars where solar-type activity appears and regular cycles are forming. Using new consideration of a relation between coronal activity and the rotation rate, together with new data on the ages of open clusters, we estimate the age of the young Sun corresponding to the epoch of formation of its cycle. The properties of the activity of this young Sun, with an age slightly older than one billion years, are briefly discussed. An analysis of available data on the long-term regular variability of late-type stars leads to the conclusion that duration of a cycle associated with solar-type activity increases with the deceleration of the stellar rotation; i.e., with age. New data on the magnetic fields of comparatively young G stars and changes in the role of the large-scale and the local magnetic fields in the formation of the activity of the young Sun are discussed. Studies in this area aim to provide observational tests aimed at identi...

  20. Multiple nucleophilic elbows leading to multiple active sites in a single module esterase from Sorangium cellulosum

    Udatha, D.B.R.K. Gupta; Madsen, Karina Marie; Panagiotou, Gianni; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic residues in carbohydrate esterase enzyme families constitute a highly conserved triad: serine, histidine and aspartic acid. This catalytic triad is generally located in a very sharp turn of the protein backbone structure, called the nucleophilic elbow and identified by the consensus...... sequence GXSXG. An esterase from Sorangium cellulosum Soce56 that contains five nucleophilic elbows was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the function of each nucleophilic elbowed site was characterized. In order to elucidate the function of each nucleophilic elbow, site directed mutagenesis was...... used to generate variants with deactivated nucleophilic elbows and the functional promiscuity was analyzed. In silico analysis together with enzymological characterization interestingly showed that each nucleophilic elbow formed a local active site with varied substrate specificities and affinities. To...

  1. The E2 transactivator of bovine papillomavirus type 1 is expressed from multiple promoters.

    Vaillancourt, P; Nottoli, T; Choe, J; Botchan, M R

    1990-01-01

    The E2 proteins of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) are a family of site-specific DNA-binding proteins which regulate viral transcription by repression and activation. Repressors E2-TR and E8/E2 are expressed from promoters P5 (P3080) and P3 (P890), respectively. Previous reports have provided evidence that the transcript for the 48-kilodalton transactivator is initiated from a promoter proximal to the open reading frame encoding this protein (P2440 or P4). Our studies extend these findin...

  2. Multiple effects of nordihydroguaiaretic acid on ionic currents in rat isolated type I carotid body cells

    Hatton, C J; Peers, C

    1997-01-01

    The effects of the lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) on the ionic currents of rat carotid body type I cells were investigated by use of whole-cell and outside-out patch clamp techniques.NDGA (5–50 μM) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of whole-cell K+ currents at all activating test potentials (holding potential −70 mV). The time-course of the inhibition was also concentration-dependent and the effects of NDGA were only reversible following brief periods of e...

  3. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE TYPES OF OUTCOMES IN NONLINEAR THRESHOLD MODELS.

    Multiple outcomes are often measured on each experimental unit in toxicology experiments. These multiple observations typically imply the existence of correlation between endpoints, and a statistical analysis that incorporates it may result in improved inference. When both disc...

  4. Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species

    Justin Kitzes; Adina Merenlender

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyz...

  5. Multiple biological activities of human recombinant interleukin 1.

    Dinarello, C A; Cannon, J. G.; Mier, J W; Bernheim, H. A.; LoPreste, G; Lynn, D L; Love, R N; Webb, A C; Auron, P. E.; Reuben, R C

    1986-01-01

    Complementary DNA coding for human monocyte interleukin 1 (IL-1), pI 7 form, was expressed in Escherichia coli. During purification, IL-1 activity on murine T cells was associated with the recombinant protein. Homogeneous human recombinant IL-1 (hrIL-1) was tested in several assays to demonstrate the immunological and inflammatory properties attributed to this molecule. hrIL-1 induced proliferative responses in a cloned murine T cell in the presence of suboptimal concentrations of mitogen, wh...

  6. Whole-Body MRI versus PET in assessment of multiple myeloma disease activity.

    Shortt, Conor P

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare FDG PET; whole-body MRI; and the reference standard, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, to determine the best imaging technique for assessment of disease activity in multiple myeloma.

  7. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. VIII. Multiplicity properties of the O-type star population

    Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dunstall, P. R.; Evans, C. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Taylor, W. D.; Walborn, N. R.; Clark, J. S.; Crowther, P. A.; Herrero, A.; Gieles, M.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud is our closest view of a starburst region and is the ideal environment to investigate important questions regarding the formation, evolution and final fate of the most massive stars. Aims: We analyze the multiplicity properties of the massive O-type star population observed through multi-epoch spectroscopy in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. With 360 O-type stars, this is the largest homogeneous sample of massive stars analyzed to date. Methods: We use multi-epoch spectroscopy and variability analysis to identify spectroscopic binaries. We also use a Monte-Carlo method to correct for observational biases. By modeling simultaneously the observed binary fraction, the distributions of the amplitudes of the radial velocity variations and the distribution of the time scales of these variations, we constrain the intrinsic current binary fraction and period and mass-ratio distributions. Results: We observe a spectroscopic binary fraction of 0.35 ± 0.03, which corresponds to the fraction of objects displaying statistically significant radial velocity variations with an amplitude of at least 20 km s-1. We compute the intrinsic binary fraction to be 0.51 ± 0.04. We adopt power-laws to describe the intrinsic period and mass-ratio distributions: f(log 10P/d) ~ (log 10P/d)π (with log 10P/d in the range 0.15-3.5) and f(q) ~ qκ with 0.1 ≤ q = M2/M1 ≤ 1.0. The power-law indexes that best reproduce the observed quantities are π = -0.45 ± 0.30 and κ = -1.0 ± 0.4. The period distribution that we obtain thus favours shorter period systems compared to an Öpik law (π = 0). The mass ratio distribution is slightly skewed towards low mass ratio systems but remains incompatible with a random sampling of a classical mass function (κ = -2.35). The binary fraction seems mostly uniform across the field of view and independent of the spectral types and luminosity classes. The binary fraction in the outer

  8. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Klaren, Rachel E; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of mee...

  9. Cherubism associated with neurofibromatosis type 1, and multiple osteolytic lesions of both femurs: A previously undescribed association of findings

    Martinez-Tello, Francisco J. [Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , Departamento de Anatomia Patologica, Madrid (Spain); Manjon-Luengo, Palmira [Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Martin-Perez, Manuel [Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , Department of Pathology, Madrid (Spain); Montes-Moreno, Santiago

    2005-12-01

    We present a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1, with the clinical, radiological and histological features of cherubism mandibular lesions, and multiple osteolytic, geographic lesions in both femurs, consistent with multiple non-ossifying fibromas. We have been unable to find a similar case in the world literature. We discuss our findings in relationship with a number of syndromes that present clinical, radiological or pathological similarities. (orig.)

  10. Study of the brain glucose metabolism in different stage of mixed-type multiple system atrophy

    Objective: To investigate the brain glucose metabolism in different stage of mixed-type multiple system atrophy (MSA). Methods: Forty-six MSA patients with cerebellar or Parkinsonian symptoms and 18 healthy controls with similar age as patients were included. According to the disease duration,the patients were divided into three groups: group 1 (≤ 12 months, n=14), group 2 (13-24 months, n=13), group 3 (≥ 25 months, n=19). All patients and controls underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging. To compare metabolic distributions between different groups, SPM 8 software and two-sample t test were used for image data analysis. When P<0.005, the result was considered statistically significant. Results: At the level of P<0.005, the hypometabolism in group 1 (all t>3.49) was identified in the frontal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, insula lobe, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus and anterior cerebellar hemisphere. The regions of hypometabolism extended to posterolateral putamen and part of posterior cerebellar hemisphere in group 2 (all t>3.21). In group 3, the whole parts of putamen and cerebellar hemisphere were involved as hypometabolism (all t>4.08). In addition to the hypometabolism regions, there were also stabled hypermetabolism regions mainly in the parietal lobe, medial temporal lobe and the thalamus in all patient groups (all t>3.27 in group 1, all t>3.02 in group 2,all t>3.30 in group 3). Conclusions: Disease duration is closely related to the FDG metabolism in the MSA patients. Frontal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus can be involved at early stage of the disease. Putaminal hypometabolism begins in its posterolateral part. Cerebellar hypometabolism occurs early at its anterior part. Besides, thalamus shows hypermetabolism in the whole duration. 18F-FDG metabolic changes of brain can reflect the development of mixed-type MSA. (authors)

  11. A novel nanoparticle formulation overcomes multiple types of membrane efflux pumps in human breast cancer cells.

    Prasad, Preethy; Cheng, Ji; Shuhendler, Adam; Rauth, Andrew M; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2012-04-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells can involve overexpression of different types of membrane drug efflux pumps and other drug resistance mechanisms. Hence, inhibition of one resistance mechanism may not be therapeutically effective. Previously we demonstrated a new polymer lipid hybrid nanoparticle (PLN) system was able to circumvent drug resistance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpressing breast cancer cells. The objectives of the present study were 2-fold: (1) to evaluate the ability of the PLN system to overcome two other membrane efflux pumps-multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1+) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP+) overexpressed on human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 VP (MRP1+) and MCF7 MX (BCRP+); and (2) to evaluate possible synergistic effects of doxorubicin (Dox)-mitomycin C (MMC) in these cell lines. These objectives were accomplished by measuring in vitro cellular uptake, intracellular trafficking, and cytotoxicity (using a clonogenic assay and median effect analysis), of Dox, MMC, or Dox-MMC co-loaded PLN. Treatment of MDR cells with PLN encapsulating single anticancer agents significantly enhanced cell kill compared to free Dox or MMC solutions. Dox-MMC co-loaded PLN were 20-30-folds more effective in killing MDR cells than free drugs. Co-encapsulated Dox-MMC was more effective in killing MDR cells than single agent-encapsulated PLN. Microscopic images showed perinuclear localization of fluorescently labelled PLN in all cell lines. These results are consistent with our previous results for P-gp overexpressing breast cancer cells suggesting the PLN system can overcome multiple types of membrane efflux pumps increasing the cytotoxicity of Dox-MMC at significantly lower doses than free drugs. PMID:25786718

  12. Integrating Multiple Space Ground Sensors to Track Volcanic Activity

    Chien, Steve; Davies, Ashley; Doubleday, Joshua; Tran, Daniel; Jones, Samuel; Kjartansson, Einar; Thorsteinsson, Hrobjartur; Vogfjord, Kristin; Guomundsson, Magnus; Thordarson, Thor; Mandl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic activity can occur with little or no warning. Increasing numbers of space borne assets can enable coordinated measurements of volcanic events to enhance both scientific study and hazard response. We describe the use of space and ground measurements to target further measurements as part of a worldwide volcano monitoring system. We utilize a number of alert systems including the MODVOLC, GOESVOLC, US Air Force Weather Advisory, and Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) alert systems. Additionally we use in-situ data from ground instrumentation at a number of volcanic sites, including Iceland.

  13. Optimal placement of multiple types of communicating sensors with availability and coverage redundancy constraints

    Vecherin, Sergey N.; Wilson, D. Keith; Pettit, Chris L.

    2010-04-01

    Determination of an optimal configuration (numbers, types, and locations) of a sensor network is an important practical problem. In most applications, complex signal propagation effects and inhomogeneous coverage preferences lead to an optimal solution that is highly irregular and nonintuitive. The general optimization problem can be strictly formulated as a binary linear programming problem. Due to the combinatorial nature of this problem, however, its strict solution requires significant computational resources (NP-complete class of complexity) and is unobtainable for large spatial grids of candidate sensor locations. For this reason, a greedy algorithm for approximate solution was recently introduced [S. N. Vecherin, D. K. Wilson, and C. L. Pettit, "Optimal sensor placement with terrain-based constraints and signal propagation effects," Unattended Ground, Sea, and Air Sensor Technologies and Applications XI, SPIE Proc. Vol. 7333, paper 73330S (2009)]. Here further extensions to the developed algorithm are presented to include such practical needs and constraints as sensor availability, coverage by multiple sensors, and wireless communication of the sensor information. Both communication and detection are considered in a probabilistic framework. Communication signal and signature propagation effects are taken into account when calculating probabilities of communication and detection. Comparison of approximate and strict solutions on reduced-size problems suggests that the approximate algorithm yields quick and good solutions, which thus justifies using that algorithm for full-size problems. Examples of three-dimensional outdoor sensor placement are provided using a terrain-based software analysis tool.

  14. Spinal tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: an MRI study of frequency, multiplicity and variety

    In neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) spinal tumours cause neurological symptoms in about 2 % of patients. Among over 1400 patients with NF1 we saw symptomatic spinal tumours in 23 (1.6 %). MRI of the entire spinal canal was obtained in 54 patients aged 5-56 years with NF1. The number, site, morphology and signal characteristics of the spinal tumours were recorded and analysed. There were 24 patients with symptoms such as sensory impairment or paralysis; 30 patients had no neurological deficits. Of the 24 symptomatic patients, 23 (96 %) had spinal tumours, while we saw spinal tumours in 12 (40 %) of the 30 patients without neurological deficits. No spinal segment was preferred in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients. Most intraspinal extramedullary tumours were primarily extradural and intraforaminal. MRI showed intramedullary tumours in 3 patients (6 %), intraspinal extramedullary tumours in 18 (33 %) and intraforaminal tumours in 31 (57 %). Only neurological deficits in patients with NF1 should prompt further diagnostic clarification. In patients with neurological symptoms there may be a multiplicity of masses in the spinal canal, which can lead to difficulties in attaching symptoms to a certain tumour. In patients who do not satisfy the NIH criteria, it can be a helpful observation that spinal tumours in NF1 are primarily intraforaminal, extending into the spinal canal, while in NF2 they are mostly intraspinal intradural tumours. (orig.)

  15. Spinal tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: an MRI study of frequency, multiplicity and variety

    Thakkar, S.D.; Mautner, V.F. [Department of Neurology, Klinikum Nord Ochsenzoll, Hamburg (Germany); Feigen, U. [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Nord Ochsenzoll, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    In neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) spinal tumours cause neurological symptoms in about 2 % of patients. Among over 1400 patients with NF1 we saw symptomatic spinal tumours in 23 (1.6 %). MRI of the entire spinal canal was obtained in 54 patients aged 5-56 years with NF1. The number, site, morphology and signal characteristics of the spinal tumours were recorded and analysed. There were 24 patients with symptoms such as sensory impairment or paralysis; 30 patients had no neurological deficits. Of the 24 symptomatic patients, 23 (96 %) had spinal tumours, while we saw spinal tumours in 12 (40 %) of the 30 patients without neurological deficits. No spinal segment was preferred in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients. Most intraspinal extramedullary tumours were primarily extradural and intraforaminal. MRI showed intramedullary tumours in 3 patients (6 %), intraspinal extramedullary tumours in 18 (33 %) and intraforaminal tumours in 31 (57 %). Only neurological deficits in patients with NF1 should prompt further diagnostic clarification. In patients with neurological symptoms there may be a multiplicity of masses in the spinal canal, which can lead to difficulties in attaching symptoms to a certain tumour. In patients who do not satisfy the NIH criteria, it can be a helpful observation that spinal tumours in NF1 are primarily intraforaminal, extending into the spinal canal, while in NF2 they are mostly intraspinal intradural tumours. (orig.)

  16. [Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasms type 2A (Sipple's syndrome). An early clinical marker].

    Chabre, O; Labat-Moleur, F; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Stoebner, P; Sobol, H; Bachelot, I

    1992-02-22

    We report the association of a cutaneous lesion with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) in three patients from a French family. These lesions are very similar to those previously described in an Italian and an American MEN 2A family and called cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. In all three families the patients presented with a pruritic and pigmented cutaneous lesion localized unilaterally on the upper back. However, in the French family the patients also complained of paroxysmal pain in the same area, in which we could elicit a touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features in the upper back is known as Notalgia Paresthetica (NP). NP is believed to represent a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal nerve rami. Unlike the two previously reported families, the histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of the skin biopsies of the French patients did not show any amyloid material. This suggests that the presence of amyloid may not be a constant feature of the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A. We consider these lesions as a form of dorsal neuropathy rather than a cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. Whatever their origin, these cutaneous lesion usually precede the appearance of the neoplastic lesions of MEN 2A. They may act as an early clinical marker that must be searched for in each subject at risk for MEN 2A. In addition, all patients presenting with NP should be screened for MEN 2A. PMID:1348355

  17. Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A: lichen amyloidosis or notalgia paresthetica?

    Chabre, O; Labat, F; Pinel, N; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Bachelot, I

    1992-01-01

    Three patients of a French family demonstrated an association of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) with a pruritic scapular skin lesion. The lesions are similar to those described as familial cutaneous lichen amyloidosis in unrelated MEN 2A and medullary thyroid carcinoma families, but histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis of skin biopsies from each patient in the French family did not show amyloid deposition. The topography of the lesion follows dermatomes C8-D3. The patients report not only pruritus but also paresthesia and hyperalgesia, and one showed touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia in the area of the lesion. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features suggests notalgia paresthetica (NP), a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal rami nerves. We thus suggest that the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A might be secondary to pathology in the neural crest-derived dorsal sensory nerves. The amyloid, when present, would be secondary to scratching. We propose that patients presenting with familial NP be suspect for MEN 2A. PMID:1362414

  18. Mutation analysis in a Chinese family with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    ZHA Bing-bing; LIANG Wang; LIU Jun; CHENG Juan; HONG Xiao-wu; LIU Jing; LI Yi-ming; MA Duan

    2010-01-01

    Background Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome which is caused by germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene MEN1. This study aimed to identify mutations in a Chinese pedigree withMEN1. Methods A large Chinese family with MEN1 was collected. All of the coded regions and their adjacent sequences of the MEN1 gene were amplified and sequenced. Results In this family, a heterozygous cytosine insertion in exon 10 (c.1546_1547insC) inducing a frame shift mutation of MEN1 was found in the proband and the other two suffering members of his family. This mutation was linked to a novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 3 (IVS3+18C>T). Conclusions The mutation in exon 10 of MEN1 gene might induce development of parathyroid hyperplasia and pituitary adenoma and cosegregate with MEN1 syndrome. The significance of the new found IVS3+18C>T of MEN1 needs a further investigation.

  19. Clinical value of tumor doubling estimations in multiple endocrine neoplasia type II.

    Jackson, C E; Talpos, G B; Block, M A; Norum, R A; Lloyd, R V; Tashjian, A H

    1984-12-01

    Experience with children with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIb has emphasized that medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in MEN IIb is more aggressive than in MEN IIa. Earlier ages of onset and apparently more rapid growth of MTC in MEN IIb suggest that these tumors have earlier ages of conversion to malignant states and/or shorter doubling times. The age at which a hyperplastic C cell becomes a malignant cell and the true doubling time cannot be estimated presently. Maximum volume-doubling times of 35 and 75 days (21 to 26 doublings) were calculated from tumor size and age at operation in five patients with MEN IIb aged 2 to 5 years. Calculations in 20 patients with MEN IIa revealed maximum doubling times of 110 to 440 days, with ages ranging from 7 to 29 years and number of doubling ranging from 18 to 38. Positive provocative calcitonin tests in two adult patients with MEN IIa after 10 to 11 years of repeated negative tests suggest a minimum doubling time of 190 to 210 days. Such experience emphasizes that negative stimulated calcitonin tests less than 11 years after operation do not provide assurance of cures for MTC in MEN IIa although negative tests after more than 5 years for MEN IIb are encouraging. Calculations of volume doublings accounting for various-sized tumors are compatible with Knudson's two-mutational-event theory on the initiation of neoplasia. PMID:6150555

  20. Efficient multiple object tracking using mutually repulsive active membranes.

    Yi Deng

    Full Text Available Studies of social and group behavior in interacting organisms require high-throughput analysis of the motion of a large number of individual subjects. Computer vision techniques offer solutions to specific tracking problems, and allow automated and efficient tracking with minimal human intervention. In this work, we adopt the open active contour model to track the trajectories of moving objects at high density. We add repulsive interactions between open contours to the original model, treat the trajectories as an extrusion in the temporal dimension, and show applications to two tracking problems. The walking behavior of Drosophila is studied at different population density and gender composition. We demonstrate that individual male flies have distinct walking signatures, and that the social interaction between flies in a mixed gender arena is gender specific. We also apply our model to studies of trajectories of gliding Myxococcus xanthus bacteria at high density. We examine the individual gliding behavioral statistics in terms of the gliding speed distribution. Using these two examples at very distinctive spatial scales, we illustrate the use of our algorithm on tracking both short rigid bodies (Drosophila and long flexible objects (Myxococcus xanthus. Our repulsive active membrane model reaches error rates better than 5 x 10(-6 per fly per second for Drosophila tracking and comparable results for Myxococcus xanthus.

  1. Activity trends in young solar-type stars

    Lehtinen, Jyri; Hackman, Thomas; Kajatkari, Perttu; Henry, Gregory W

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Continuous Period Search (CPS) time series analysis method on Johnson B and V band photometry of 21 young and active solar-type, collected over 16 to 27 years and characterize the behaviour of their activity. Using the CPS method, differential rotation could be estimated from the observed variations of the photometric rotation period. Active longitudes were retrieved by applying a non-parametric period search on the light curve minimum epochs, and activity cycles by applying a secondary period search on the modelled light curve mean and amplitude values. We supplemented the time series results by calculating new $\\log{R'_{\\rm HK}}$ emission indices for the stars from high resolution spectroscopy. The measurements of the photometric rotation period variations point to a trend of increasing differential rotation coefficients towards longer rotation periods but do not reveal any dependence from the effective temperature of the stars. The secondary period searches revealed activity cycles in 18 of th...

  2. The levels of English teachers at primary schools to employ materials and activities based on multiple intelligences theory (Malatya sample

    Nihat ŞAD

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the levels of English teachers to employ materials and activities based on multiple intelligences theory by some variables. The population comprises 176 English teachers from 80 primary schools in Malatya city center during 2006-2007. The participants are 102 English teachers from 32 primary schools chosen randomly. A scale developed by the researcher was used as the medium. The data was analyzed using frequency, percentage, t-test, ANOVA, and LSD analysis. Results showed English teachers utilize multiple-intelligences theory at moderate level and cannot devote balanced importance to intelligence types. Moreover no significant difference was observed in terms of gender, the program of graduation, and seniority, while there was a significant difference in terms of type of school in favor of private schools.

  3. Fast-growing pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: a case report

    Waldmann Jens

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Predictive genetic screening and regular screening programs in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are intended to detect and treat malignant tumors at the earliest stage possible. Malignant neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors are the most frequent cause of death in these patients. However, the extent and intervals of screening in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are controversial as neuroendocrine tumors are usually slow growing. Here we report the case of a patient who developed a fast-growing neuroendocrine carcinoma within 15 months of a laparoscopic distal pancreatic resection. Case presentation We followed a group of 45 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 by an annual screening program in the Department of Visceral, Thoracic, and Vascular Surgery at the University Hospital Marburg in cooperation with the Department of Radiology and the Division of Endocrinology. A man with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 who was diagnosed with a recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism underwent a distal pancreatic resection for a non-functional neuroendocrine tumor. In the context of our regular screening program, a large non-functional neuroendocrine tumor was diagnosed in the pancreatic head 15 months after the first pancreatic surgery. Therefore, we performed an enucleation and regional lymph node resection. At histology, the diagnosis of a neuroendocrine carcinoma with one lymph node metastasis was established. There was no evidence of recurrence 9 months after re-operation. Conclusion Fast-growing neuroendocrine tumors are rare in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. The intervals, both postoperative and in newly diagnosed pancreatic lesions, in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be reduced to 6 months to establish the early diagnosis of rapidly progressive disease in a small subset of patients.

  4. Physical activity levels and cognition in women with type 2 diabetes.

    Devore, Elizabeth E; Kang, Jae Hee; Okereke, Olivia; Grodstein, Francine

    2009-10-15

    Persons with type 2 diabetes have a high risk of late-life cognitive impairment, and physical activity might be a potential target for modifying this risk. Therefore, the authors evaluated the association between physical activity level and cognition in women with type 2 diabetes. Beginning in 1995-2000, cognitive function was assessed in 1,550 Nurses' Health Study participants aged > or =70 years with type 2 diabetes. Follow-up assessments were completed twice thereafter, at 2-year intervals. Multivariate-adjusted linear regression models were used to obtain mean differences in baseline cognitive scores and cognitive decline across tertiles of long-term physical activity. Initial results from age- and education-adjusted models indicated that greater physical activity levels were associated with better baseline cognition (for a global score averaging scores from 6 cognitive tests, P-trend = 0.02). However, results were substantially attenuated after adjustment for multiple potential confounders, largely because of physical disability indicators (global score: P-trend = 0.06); for example, the mean difference for the global score was 0.07 standard units (95% confidence interval: -0.01, 0.15) when comparing extreme tertiles. Results were similar for cognitive decline. These findings indicate little overall association between physical activity and cognition after adjustment for disability factors in older women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:19729385

  5. [Antioxidant activity of different types of red grape wines].

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Avidzba, A M; Ogay, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    This article represented the data about antioxidant activity in the red table and liqueurfaults, prepared from the types of grapes of Cabernet, Merlot and Saperavi. The antioxidant activity of faults in the conversion to TROLOX, the synthetic analog of gallic acid, was determined by voltammetric method. The determination of antioxidant activity was conducted in the young faults (through 2 month after the completion of fermentation) and through half a year the storage without the air inlet. It has been established that the value of antioxidant activity depended on the type of grapes and technology of the production of wine. It was shown that the addition of ethyl alcohol in the production of wines such as Cahors ensured an increase in the extraction of phenol connections from the skin of grapes. This lead to an increase of the antioxidant activity in the Cahors wines in the comparison with the table wine. During the storage of faults the value of antioxidant activity decreased. In the fault cahors wine it remained at the higher level. PMID:27228712

  6. Photocatalytic activity of glass ceramics containing Nasicon-type crystals

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Glass ceramics containing Nasicon-type crystals were prepared. ► The glass ceramics showed photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. ► Higher activity was observed in the MgTi4(PO4)6- and CaTi4(PO4)6-containing glass ceramics. -- Abstract: Glass ceramics were prepared by heat-treating MO–TiO2–P2O5 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) and R2O–TiO2–P2O5–SiO2 (R = Li, Na and K) glasses, and their photocatalytic activity was investigated. The crystalline phases precipitated in the glasses were only Nasicon-type crystals, MTi4(PO4)6 or RTi2(PO4)3. Decomposition experiments of both methylene blue (MB) and acetaldehyde showed that the glass ceramics exhibited effective photocatalytic activity. The activity did not depend on the radius of the M2+ or R+ ion, and higher activity was observed in the MgTi4(PO4)6 and CaTi4(PO4)6 precipitated glass ceramics.

  7. Antiurolithic activity of Origanum vulgare is mediated through multiple pathways

    Khan Aslam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Origanum vulgare Linn has traditionally been used in the treatment of urolithiasis. Therefore, we investigated the crude extract of Origanum vulgare for possible antiurolithic effect, to rationalize its medicinal use. Methods The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Origanum vulgare (Ov.Cr was studied using the in vitro and in vivo methods. In the in vitro experiments, supersaturated solution of calcium and oxalate, kidney epithelial cell lines (MDCK and urinary bladder of rabbits were used, whereas, in the in vivo studies, rat model of urolithiasis was used for the study of preventive and curative effect. Results In the in vitro experiments, Ov.Cr exhibited a concentration-dependent (0.25-4 mg/ml inhibitory effect on the slope of nucleation and aggregation and also decreased the number of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals (COM produced in calcium oxalate metastable solutions. It also showed concentration-dependent antioxidant effect against DPPH free radical and lipid peroxidation induced in rat kidney tissue homogenate. Ov.Cr reduced the cell toxicity using MTT assay and LDH release in renal epithelial cells (MDCK exposed to oxalate (0.5 mM and COM (66 μg/cm2 crystals. Ov.Cr relaxed high K+ (80 mM induced contraction in rabbit urinary bladder strips, and shifted the calcium concentration-response curves (CRCs towards right with suppression of the maximum response similar to that of verapamil, a standard calcium channel blocker. In male Wistar rats receiving lithogenic treatment comprising of 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water given for 3 weeks along with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl for the first 5 days, Ov.Cr treatment (10-30 mg/kg prevented as well as reversed toxic changes including loss of body weight, polyurea, crystalluria, oxaluria, raised serum urea and creatinine levels and crystal deposition in kidneys compared to their respective controls. Conclusion These data indicating the antiurolithic activity in Ov

  8. Eye Typing using Markov and Active Appearance Models

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Hansen, John Paulin; Nielsen, Mads;

    2002-01-01

    multi-modal interactions based on video tracking systems. Robust methods are needed to track the eyes using web cameras due to the poor image quality. A real-time tracking scheme using a mean-shift color tracker and an Active Appearance Model of the eye is proposed. It is possible from this model to......We propose a non-intrusive eye tracking system intended for the use of everyday gaze typing using web cameras. We argue that high precision in gaze tracking is not needed for on-screen typing due to natural language redundancy. This facilitates the use of low-cost video components for advanced...

  9. Multiple wavelength observations of a solar active region

    The Solar Maximum Mission Satellite, the Sacramento Peak Vacuum Tower Telescope, the Very Large Array and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope have been used to observe active region AR 2490 on two consecutive days at soft X-ray, ultraviolet, optical and radio wavelengths (2, 6, and 20 cm), with comparable angular resolution (2'' to 15'') and field of view (4' x 4'). The radio emissions at lambda = 6 cm and 20 cm show a double structure in which one component is associated with bright Hα plage, C IV and soft X-ray emission, and the other component is associated only with sunspots. No radiation at lambda = 2 cm is detected in this latter component. Coronal temperature and emission measure derived from X-ray lines indicate that the dominant radiation mechanism of the plage-associated component is due to thermal bremsstrahlung while the gyroresonance absorption coefficient must be invoked to account for the high brightness temperature (Tsub(b) approx. equal to 2 x 106 K) observed in the sunspot associated component. The high magnetic field strength needed (600 G at a level where T approx. equal to 2 x 106 K) is explained assuming a thin transition zone, in order to reach a high electron temperature close to the sunspot, where the magnetic fields are stronger. A higher temperature gradient above sunspots is also consistent with the absence of detectable C IV emission. (orig.)

  10. Multiplicative and Additive Modulation of Neuronal Tuning with Population Activity Affects Encoded Information.

    Arandia-Romero, Iñigo; Tanabe, Seiji; Drugowitsch, Jan; Kohn, Adam; Moreno-Bote, Rubén

    2016-03-16

    Numerous studies have shown that neuronal responses are modulated by stimulus properties and also by the state of the local network. However, little is known about how activity fluctuations of neuronal populations modulate the sensory tuning of cells and affect their encoded information. We found that fluctuations in ongoing and stimulus-evoked population activity in primate visual cortex modulate the tuning of neurons in a multiplicative and additive manner. While distributed on a continuum, neurons with stronger multiplicative effects tended to have less additive modulation and vice versa. The information encoded by multiplicatively modulated neurons increased with greater population activity, while that of additively modulated neurons decreased. These effects offset each other so that population activity had little effect on total information. Our results thus suggest that intrinsic activity fluctuations may act as a "traffic light" that determines which subset of neurons is most informative. PMID:26924437