Sample records for action semantic equivalences

  1. Semantic activation in action planning

    Lindemann, Oliver; Stenneken, Prisca; van Schie, Hein T.; Bekkering, Harold


    Four experiments investigated activation of semantic information in action preparation. Participants either prepared to grasp and use an object (e.g., to drink from a cup) or to lift a finger in association with the object's position following a go/no-go lexical-decision task. Word stimuli were cons

  2. On the equivalence of state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics

    Keimel, Klaus


    G. Plotkin and the author have worked out the equivalence between state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics in a domain theoretical setting for programs combining nondeterminism and probability. Works of C. Morgan and co-authors, Keimel, Rosenbusch and Streicher, already go in the same direction using only discrete state spaces. It is the aim of this paper to exhibit a general framework in which one can hope that state transformer semantics and predicate transformer sema...

  3. Semantical Equivalence of Process Functional and Imperative Programs

    Ján Kollár


    Full Text Available Source-to-source transformations play crucial role in weaving multiple aspects of computation in aspect languages. Except that expressing imperative programs in the uniform form of expressions simplifies these transformations, this form is useful from the viewpoint of recognizing different aspects of computation at any level of program structure. In this paper we present the relation between imperative language and PFL – a process functional language, which manipulate environment variables in a side-effect manner, still preserving a purely functional principle based on evaluating expressions. Using an example of an imperative structured program, we will show the semantical equivalence of process functional and imperative programs. As a result, fine grained PFL form for picking out potential join points in imperative programs is obtained.

  4. GIT-equivalence and diagonal actions

    Kotenkova, Polina Yu.


    We describe the GIT-equivalence classes of linearized ample line bundles for the diagonal actions of the linear algebraic groups $SL(V)$ and $SO(V)$ on ${\\mathbb{P}(V)^{m_1}\\times \\mathbb{P}(V^*)^{m_2}}$ and $\\mathbb{P}(V)^m$ respectively.

  5. Learning a Pose Lexicon for Semantic Action Recognition

    Zhou, Lijuan; Li, Wanqing; Ogunbona, Philip


    This paper presents a novel method for learning a pose lexicon comprising semantic poses defined by textual instructions and their associated visual poses defined by visual features. The proposed method simultaneously takes two input streams, semantic poses and visual pose candidates, and statistically learns a mapping between them to construct the lexicon. With the learned lexicon, action recognition can be cast as the problem of finding the maximum translation probability of a sequence of s...

  6. Orbit equivalence and actions of F

    Törnquist, Asger Dag


    In this paper we show that there are "E many" orbit inequivalent free actions of the free groups F, 2 ≤ n ≤ ∞ by measure preserving transformations on a standard Borel probability space. In particular, there are uncountably many such actions. © 2006, Association for Symbolic Logic....

  7. Verifying action semantics specifications in UML behavioral models

    Planas Hortal, Elena; Cabot Sagrera, Jordi; Gómez Seoane, Cristina


    MDD and MDA approaches require capturing the behavior of UML models in sufficient detail so that the models can be automatically implemented/executed in the production environment. With this purpose, Action Semantics (AS) were added to the UML specification as the fundamental unit of behavior specification. Actions are the basis for defining the fine-grained behavior of operations, activity diagrams, interaction diagrams and state machines. Unfortunately, current proposals devoted to the veri...

  8. Training Of Manual Actions Improves Language Understanding of Semantically-Related Action Sentences



    Full Text Available Conceptual knowledge accessed by language may involve the re-activation of the associated primary sensory-motor processes. Whether these embodied representations are indeed constitutive to conceptual knowledge is hotly debated, particularly since direct evidence that sensory-motor expertise can improve conceptual processing is scarce. In this study, we sought for this crucial piece of evidence, by training naive healthy subjects to perform complex manual actions and by measuring, before and after training, their performance in a semantic language task. 19 participants engaged in 3 weeks of motor training. Each participant was trained in 3 complex manual actions (e.g. origami. Before and after the training period, each subject underwent a series of manual dexterity tests and a semantic language task. The latter consisted of a sentence-picture semantic congruency judgment task, with 6 target congruent sentence-picture pairs (semantically related to the trained manual actions, 6 non-target congruent pairs (semantically unrelated, and 12 filler incongruent pairs. Manual action training induced a significant improvement in all manual dexterity tests, demonstrating the successful acquisition of sensory-motor expertise. In the semantic language task, the reaction times to both target and non-target congruent sentence-image pairs decreased after action training, indicating a more efficient conceptual-semantic processing. Noteworthy, the reaction times for target pairs decreased more than those for non-target pairs, as indicated by the 2x2 interaction. These results were confirmed when controlling for the potential bias of increased frequency of use of target lexical items during manual training. The results of the present study suggest that sensory-motor expertise gained by training of specific manual actions can lead to an improvement of cognitive-linguistic skills related to the specific conceptual-semantic domain associated to the trained actions.

  9. Markovian Testing Equivalence and Exponentially Timed Internal Actions

    Bernardo, Marco


    In the theory of testing for Markovian processes developed so far, exponentially timed internal actions are not admitted within processes. When present, these actions cannot be abstracted away, because their execution takes a nonzero amount of time and hence can be observed. On the other hand, they must be carefully taken into account, in order not to equate processes that are distinguishable from a timing viewpoint. In this paper, we recast the definition of Markovian testing equivalence in the framework of a Markovian process calculus including exponentially timed internal actions. Then, we show that the resulting behavioral equivalence is a congruence, has a sound and complete axiomatization, has a modal logic characterization, and can be decided in polynomial time.

  10. Action Algebras and Model Algebras in Denotational Semantics

    Guedes, Luiz Carlos Castro; Haeusler, Edward Hermann

    the same way as that for functional denotational types. For example, PASCAL arrays belong to the “language inherent” aspect, while the Store domain seems to belong to the “model dependent” aspect. This distinction was important because it focussed attention on optimizing the model dependent semantic domains to obtain a more efficient implementation.) The research led to a nice conclusion: The guidelines of Action Semantics induce a clear separation of the model and language inherent aspects of a language’s semantics. A good implementation of facets, particularly the model dependent ones, leads to generation of an efficient compiler. In this article we discuss the separation of the language inherent and model-inherent domains at the theoretical and conceptual level. In doing so, the authors hope to show how Professor Mosses’s influence extended beyond his technical advice to his professional and personal examples on the supervision of PhD research.

  11. Short-term action intentions overrule long-term semantic knowledge

    Elk, M. van; Schie, H.T. van; Bekkering, H.


    In the present study, we investigated whether the preparation of an unusual action with an object (e.g. bringing a cup towards the eye) could selectively overrule long-term semantic representations. In the first experiment it was found that unusual action intentions activated short-term semantic goa

  12. [Semantic and conceptual equivalence of the observable indicatorsof Nursing Home Care Quality Instrument].

    Oliveira, Wagner Ivan Fonseca de; Hernández, Pedro Jesus Saturno; Sousa, Kelienny de Meneses; Piuvezam, Grasiela; Gama, Zenewton André da Silva


    Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) for the elderly are an important health care alternative in the world, though Brazil does not yet have a valid instrument to monitor the quality of these institutions. This study sought to describe the initial stages of the cross-cultural adaptation of the Observable Indicators of Nursing Home Care Quality (OIQ) instrument used to assess the quality of care in LTCFs. Conceptual equivalence was conducted to assess the relevance and feasibility of the OIQ within the Brazilian context, using the Content Validity Index (CVI). The operational, idiomatic and semantic equivalence was then performed. This item consisted of 5 phases: (1) two translations; (2) the respective back translations; (3) formal appraisal; (4) review; and (5) application of the pre-test in three LTCFs. Significant changes were made to ensure the validity of the OIQ. The CVI instrument for the Brazilian contextwas 94.3% (viability) and 95.3% (relevance). The OIQ proved to be easy to understand and apply in the pre-test. Cross-cultural adaptation of the OIQ contributes to assessing and improving quality in Brazilian LTCFs, though the findings should be complemented by a psychometric evaluation of the instrument. PMID:27383357

  13. Actions for adoption of effective dose equivalent standards

    Regulations related with radiological protection have been revised to adopt SI units and to accept the ICRP recommendation requesting to use the effective dose equivalent for radiation exposure control. The present report mainly deals with actions to be taken in the field of radiation instrumentation to promote the adoption of effective dose equivalent standards. In the past, exposure in roentgen has been generally used as a quantity to represent the intensity of a X-ray or alpha-ray field, because it can be measured relatively easily and accurately. The introduction of the effective dose equivalent is intended to establish annual exposure limits to ensure that the possibility of death of workers in a radioactive environment and that of development of hereditary disorders in their children or grandchildren will be maintained below permissible levels. The quantity is expressed as the sum of each organ's dose equivalent multiplied by a weight that reflects risks. Presently, such weights are assigned to seven organs including the gential glands and red marrow. Fixed-type area monitors and portable survey meters are used for work environment monitoring while film badges, TLDs, dosimeters, etc., are employed for personnel monitoring. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Semantic Navigation on the Web of Data: Specification of Routes, Web Fragments and Actions

    Fionda, Valeria; Pirró, Giuseppe


    The massive semantic data sources linked in the Web of Data give new meaning to old features like navigation; introduce new challenges like semantic specification of Web fragments; and make it possible to specify actions relying on semantic data. In this paper we introduce a declarative language to face these challenges. Based on navigational features, it is designed to specify fragments of the Web of Data and actions to be performed based on these data. We implement it in a centralized fashion, and show its power and performance. Finally, we explore the same ideas in a distributed setting, showing their feasibility, potentialities and challenges.

  15. Hands typing what hands do: Action-semantic integration dynamics throughout written verb production.

    García, Adolfo M; Ibáñez, Agustín


    Processing action verbs, in general, and manual action verbs, in particular, involves activations in gross and hand-specific motor networks, respectively. While this is well established for receptive language processes, no study has explored action-semantic integration during written production. Moreover, little is known about how such crosstalk unfolds from motor planning to execution. Here we address both issues through our novel "action semantics in typing" paradigm, which allows to time keystroke operations during word typing. Specifically, we created a primed-verb-copying task involving manual action verbs, non-manual action verbs, and non-action verbs. Motor planning processes were indexed by first-letter lag (the lapse between target onset and first keystroke), whereas execution dynamics were assessed considering whole-word lag (the lapse between first and last keystroke). Each phase was differently delayed by action verbs. When these were processed for over one second, interference was strong and magnified by effector compatibility during programming, but weak and effector-blind during execution. Instead, when they were processed for less than 900ms, interference was reduced by effector compatibility during programming and it faded during execution. Finally, typing was facilitated by prime-target congruency, irrespective of the verbs' motor content. Thus, action-verb semantics seems to extend beyond its embodied foundations, involving conceptual dynamics not tapped by classical reaction-time measures. These findings are compatible with non-radical models of language embodiment and with predictions of event coding theory. PMID:26803393

  16. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects

    Kevin J.Y. Lam


    Full Text Available Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1 action features, (2 visual features, or (3 semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100 ms, 250 ms, 400 ms, and 1,000 ms to determine the relative time course of the different features . Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100 ms, 250 ms, and 1,000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1,000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1 demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2 provides new evidence for embodied theories of language.

  17. The Calcium Wave Model of the Perception-Action Cycle: Evidence from Semantic Relevance in Memory Experiments

    AlfredoPereira Jr


    We present a general model of brain function (the calcium wave model), distinguishing three processing modes in the perception-action cycle. The model provides an interpretation of the data from experiments on semantic memory conducted by the authors.

  18. Conceptual grounding of language in action and perception: a neurocomputational model of the emergence of category specificity and semantic hubs.

    Garagnani, Max; Pulvermüller, Friedemann


    Current neurobiological accounts of language and cognition offer diverging views on the questions of 'where' and 'how' semantic information is stored and processed in the human brain. Neuroimaging data showing consistent activation of different multi-modal areas during word and sentence comprehension suggest that all meanings are processed indistinctively, by a set of general semantic centres or 'hubs'. However, words belonging to specific semantic categories selectively activate modality-preferential areas; for example, action-related words spark activity in dorsal motor cortex, whereas object-related ones activate ventral visual areas. The evidence for category-specific and category-general semantic areas begs for a unifying explanation, able to integrate the emergence of both. Here, a neurobiological model offering such an explanation is described. Using a neural architecture replicating anatomical and neurophysiological features of frontal, occipital and temporal cortices, basic aspects of word learning and semantic grounding in action and perception were simulated. As the network underwent training, distributed lexico-semantic circuits spontaneously emerged. These circuits exhibited different cortical distributions that reached into dorsal-motor or ventral-visual areas, reflecting the correlated category-specific sensorimotor patterns that co-occurred during action- or object-related semantic grounding, respectively. Crucially, substantial numbers of neurons of both types of distributed circuits emerged in areas interfacing between modality-preferential regions, i.e. in multimodal connection hubs, which therefore became loci of general semantic binding. By relating neuroanatomical structure and cellular-level learning mechanisms with system-level cognitive function, this model offers a neurobiological account of category-general and category-specific semantic areas based on the different cortical distributions of the underlying semantic circuits. PMID:26660067

  19. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content.

    Petersen, Michael Kai


    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes. PMID:25849977

  20. Are judgments for action verbs and point-light human actions equivalent?

    Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Toussaint, Lucette


    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the ability to judge action words and the ability to judge human actions share common mechanisms. With this purpose in mind, we proposed both a lexical and an action decision task to twenty-four healthy participants. For both tasks, the participants had to judge whether the stimulus that was presented (a letter string or a point-light sequence) was valid or not (i.e. a word vs. a pseudo-word, an action vs. a pseudo-action). The data analysis showed that the action decision task has common characteristics with the lexical decision task. As for verbal material, judgements of pseudo-actions were slower than judgements for actions. Moreover, we demonstrated that the ability to judge an action verb was positively correlated with the ability to judge a point-light human action, whereas no significant correlation appeared between nouns and point-light judgements abilities. This dissociation supports the argument that the judgement of action words and the judgement of human actions share a common but specific basis through the involvement of motor representations. PMID:25238900

  1. Driving Cognitions Questionnaire: estudo de equivalência semântica Driving Cognitions Questionnaire: semantic equivalence study

    Marcele Regine de Carvalho


    . Semantic equivalence assessment and evaluation of the different versions were conducted and resulted in a synthesized version of the instrument. Comments made by 10 participants on the preliminary version of the questionnaire were examined. The preliminary Brazilian version of the questionnaire was developed. RESULTS: Most participants understood the cognitions as described in the Brazilian Portuguese version of the questionnaire. CONCLUSION: The use of three different translations and back translations, discussion of a preliminary synthetic version and interaction with the target population contributed to the viability of the process aimed to assess the semantic equivalence of the Brazilian final version.

  2. Action semantics: A unifying conceptual framework for the selective use of multimodal and modality-specific object knowledge

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Bekkering, Harold


    Our capacity to use tools and objects is often considered one of the hallmarks of the human species. Many objects greatly extend our bodily capabilities to act in the physical world, such as when using a hammer or a saw. In addition, humans have the remarkable capability to use objects in a flexible fashion and to combine multiple objects in complex actions. We prepare coffee, cook dinner and drive our car. In this review we propose that humans have developed declarative and procedural knowledge, i.e. action semantics that enables us to use objects in a meaningful way. A state-of-the-art review of research on object use is provided, involving behavioral, developmental, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We show that research in each of these domains is characterized by similar discussions regarding (1) the role of object affordances, (2) the relation between goals and means in object use and (3) the functional and neural organization of action semantics. We propose a novel conceptual framework of action semantics to address these issues and to integrate the previous findings. We argue that action semantics entails both multimodal object representations and modality-specific sub-systems, involving manipulation knowledge, functional knowledge and representations of the sensory and proprioceptive consequences of object use. Furthermore, we argue that action semantics are hierarchically organized and selectively activated and used depending on the action intention of the actor and the current task context. Our framework presents an integrative account of multiple findings and perspectives on object use that may guide future studies in this interdisciplinary domain.

  3. Conjugacy, orbit equivalence and classification of measure-preserving group actions

    Törnquist, Asger Dag


    . Further, we obtain that the measure-preserving almost-everywhere-free ergodic actions of such a G cannot be classified up to orbit equivalence by a reasonable assignment of countable structures as complete invariants. We also obtain a strengthening and a new proof of a non-classification result of Foreman......We prove that if G is a countable discrete group with property (T) over an infinite subgroup HG which contains an infinite Abelian subgroup or is normal, then G has continuum-many orbit-inequivalent measure-preserving almost-everywhere-free ergodic actions on a standard Borel probability space...... and Weiss for conjugacy of measure-preserving ergodic almost-everywhere-free actions of discrete countable groups. © 2008 Cambridge University Press....

  4. Equivalence considerations for orally inhaled products for local action-ISAM/IPAC-RS European Workshop report.

    Evans, Carole; Cipolla, David; Chesworth, Tim; Agurell, Eva; Ahrens, Richard; Conner, Dale; Dissanayake, Sanjeeva; Dolovich, Myrna; Doub, William; Fuglsang, Anders; García Arieta, Afredo; Golden, Michael; Hermann, Robert; Hochhaus, Günther; Holmes, Susan; Lafferty, Paul; Lyapustina, Svetlana; Nair, Parameswaran; O'Connor, Dennis; Parkins, David; Peterson, Ilse; Reisner, Colin; Sandell, Dennis; Singh, Gur Jai Pal; Weda, Marjolein; Watson, Patricia


    The purpose of this article is to document the discussions at the 2010 European Workshop on Equivalence Determinations for Orally Inhaled Drugs for Local Action, cohosted by the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine (ISAM) and the International Pharmaceutical Consortium on Regulation and Science (IPAC-RS). The article summarizes current regulatory approaches in Europe, the United States, and Canada, and presents points of consensus as well as ongoing debate in the four major areas: in vitro testing, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies, and device similarity. Specific issues in need of further research and discussion are also identified. PMID:22413806

  5. Electroporation-delivered transdermal neostigmine in rats: equivalent action to intravenous administration

    Berkó, Szilvia; Szűcs, Kálmán F; Balázs, Boglárka; Csányi, Erzsébet; Varju, Gábor; Sztojkov-Ivanov, Anita; Budai-Szűcs, Mária; Bóta, Judit; Gáspár, Róbert


    Purpose Transdermal electroporation has become one of the most promising noninvasive methods for drug administration, with greatly increased transport of macromolecules through the skin. The cecal-contracting effects of repeated transdermal electroporation delivery and intravenous administration of neostigmine were compared in anesthetized rats. Methods The cecal contractions were detected with implantable strain gauge sensors, and the plasma levels of neostigmine were followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results Both intravenously and EP-administered neostigmine (0.2–66.7 μg/kg) increased the cecal contractions in a dose-dependent manner. For both the low doses and the highest dose, the neostigmine plasma concentrations were the same after the two modes of administration, while an insignificantly higher level was observed at a dose of 20 μg/kg after intravenous administration as compared with the electroporation route. The contractile responses did not differ significantly after the two administration routes. Conclusion The results suggest that electroporation-delivered neostigmine elicits action equivalent to that observed after intravenous administration as concerning both time and intensity. Electroporation permits the delivery of even lower doses of water-soluble compounds through the skin, which is very promising for clinical practice. PMID:27274203

  6. Are Cortical Motor Maps Based on Body Parts or Coordinated Actions? Implications for Embodied Semantics

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Iacoboni, Marco


    The embodied cognition approach to the study of the mind proposes that higher order mental processes such as concept formation and language are essentially based on perceptual and motor processes. Contrary to the classical approach in cognitive science, in which concepts are viewed as amodal, arbitrary symbols, embodied semantics argues that…

  7. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content

    Petersen, Michael Kai


    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of lan...

  8. Grip Force Is Part of the Semantic Representation of Manual Action Verbs

    Frak, Victor; Nazir, Tatjana,; Goyette, Michel; Cohen, Henri; Jeannerod, Marc


    Motor actions and action verbs activate similar cortical brain regions. A functional interference can be taken as evidence that there is a parallel treatment of these two types of information and would argue for the biological grounding of language in action. A novel approach examining the relationship between language and grip force is presented. With eyes closed and arm extended, subjects listened to words relating (verbs) or not relating (nouns) to a manual action while holding a cylinder ...

  9. Semantic repository and ontology mapping

    J. Gracia; M. Trna; E. Lozano; T.T. Nguyen; A. Gómez-Pérez; C. Montaña; J. Liem


    This document discusses the core Semantic Technologies in DynaLearn: i) The semantic repository, which supports the online storage and access of qualitative reasoning models, ii) the grounding process, which establishes semantic equivalences between the concepts in the models and the concepts in a b

  10. On the Interacting Chiral Gauge Field Theory in D=6 and the Off-Shell Equivalence of Dual Born-Infeld-Like Actions

    De Castro, A S


    A canonical action describing the interaction of chiral gauge fields in D=6 Minkowski space-time is constructed. In a particular partial gauge fixing it reduces to the action found by Perry and Schwarz. The additional gauge symmetries are used to show the off-shell equivalence of the dimensional reduction to D=5 Minkowski space-time of the chiral gauge field canonical action and the Born-Infeld canonical action describing an interacting D=5 Abelian vector field. Its extension to improve the on-shell equivalence arguments of dual D-brane actions to off-shell ones is discussed.

  11. The Semantic Web Revisited

    Shadbolt, Nigel; Berners-Lee, Tim; Hall, Wendy


    The original Scientific American article on the Semantic Web appeared in 2001. It described the evolution of a Web that consisted largely of documents for humans to read to one that included data and information for computers to manipulate. The Semantic Web is a Web of actionable information--information derived from data through a semantic theory for interpreting the symbols.This simple idea, however, remains largely unrealized. Shopbots and auction bots abound on the Web, but these are esse...

  12. Well-Founded Argumentation Semantics for Extended Logic Programming

    Schweimeier, Ralf; Schroeder, Michael


    This paper defines an argumentation semantics for extended logic programming and shows its equivalence to the well-founded semantics with explicit negation. We set up a general framework in which we extensively compare this semantics to other argumentation semantics, including those of Dung, and Prakken and Sartor. We present a general dialectical proof theory for these argumentation semantics.

  13. Resumptions, Weak Bisimilarity and Big-Step Semantics for While with Interactive I/O: An Exercise in Mixed Induction-Coinduction

    Nakata, Keiko; 10.4204/EPTCS.32.5


    We look at the operational semantics of languages with interactive I/O through the glasses of constructive type theory. Following on from our earlier work on coinductive trace-based semantics for While, we define several big-step semantics for While with interactive I/O, based on resumptions and termination-sensitive weak bisimilarity. These require nesting inductive definitions in coinductive definitions, which is interesting both mathematically and from the point-of-view of implementation in a proof assistant. After first defining a basic semantics of statements in terms of resumptions with explicit internal actions (delays), we introduce a semantics in terms of delay-free resumptions that essentially removes finite sequences of delays on the fly from those resumptions that are responsive. Finally, we also look at a semantics in terms of delay-free resumptions supplemented with a silent divergence option. This semantics hinges on decisions between convergence and divergence and is only equivalent to the bas...

  14. Semantic Advertising

    Zamanzadeh, Ben; Ashish, Naveen; Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Zimmerman, John


    We present the concept of Semantic Advertising which we see as the future of online advertising. Semantic Advertising is online advertising powered by semantic technology which essentially enables us to represent and reason with concepts and the meaning of things. This paper aims to 1) Define semantic advertising, 2) Place it in the context of broader and more widely used concepts such as the Semantic Web and Semantic Search, 3) Provide a survey of work in related areas such as context matchi...

  15. Equivalência semântica da versão brasileira da Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS Semantic equivalence of the Brazilian Portuguese Version of the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS

    Michelle Nigri Levitan


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: É crescente a produção científica brasileira na adaptação de instrumentos internacionais da fobia social. A adaptação transcultural é o primeiro passo na realização de comparações entre diferentes populações e se apresenta como um método que envolve pouco custo financeiro. O presente estudo consistiu no processo de equivalência semântica da Social Avoidance and Distress Scale para sua utilização na população brasileira de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODOS: O processo envolve duas traduções e retrotraduções realizadas por avaliadores independentes, avaliação das versões com elaboração de uma versão sínteses e pré-teste comentado. RESULTADOS: Para cada item do instrumento, apresentam-se os resultados das quatro etapas. A maioria dos participantes não apresentou dificuldades na compreensão do instrumento. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização de duas versões de tradução e retrotradução, discussão sobre a versão síntese e a interlocução com a população-alvo proporciona maior segurança ao processo de equivalência semântica.INTRODUCTION: There has been a growing scientific production on the adaptation of international instruments for social phobia. The cross-cultural adaptation is the first stage on the comparisons between different populations and presents the advantage of a low financial cost. This paper consisted in the process of semantic equivalence of the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale for the Brazilian population of different sociocultural levels. METHODS: The semantic equivalence involved two translations and back-translations performed by two independent evaluators, an evaluation of the versions and the development of a synthetic version, and a commented pretest. RESULTS: The results of the four stages were showed for each item of the instrument. Most participants had no difficulties in understanding the instrument. CONCLUSION: Use of two versions of translations, critical

  16. Semantator: annotating clinical narratives with semantic web ontologies.

    Song, Dezhao; Chute, Christopher G; Tao, Cui


    To facilitate clinical research, clinical data needs to be stored in a machine processable and understandable way. Manual annotating clinical data is time consuming. Automatic approaches (e.g., Natural Language Processing systems) have been adopted to convert such data into structured formats; however, the quality of such automatically extracted data may not always be satisfying. In this paper, we propose Semantator, a semi-automatic tool for document annotation with Semantic Web ontologies. With a loaded free text document and an ontology, Semantator supports the creation/deletion of ontology instances for any document fragment, linking/disconnecting instances with the properties in the ontology, and also enables automatic annotation by connecting to the NCBO annotator and cTAKES. By representing annotations in Semantic Web standards, Semantator supports reasoning based upon the underlying semantics of the owl:disjointWith and owl:equivalentClass predicates. We present discussions based on user experiences of using Semantator. PMID:22779043

  17. Electrophysiological evidence for the action of a center-surround mechanism on semantic processing in the left hemisphere

    Diana eDeacon


    Full Text Available Physiological evidence was sought for a center-surround attentional mechanism (CSM, which has been proposed to assist in the retrieval of weakly activated items from semantic memory. The CSM operates by facilitating strongly related items in the center of the weakly activated area of semantic memory, and inhibiting less strongly related items in its surround. In this study weak activation was created by having subjects acquire the meanings of new words to a recall criterion of only 50%. Subjects who attained this approximate criterion level of performance were subsequently included in a semantic priming task, during which ERPs were recorded. Primes were newly learned rare words, and targets were either synonyms, nonsynonymously related words, or unrelated words. All stimuli were presented to the RVF/LH (right visual field/left hemisphere or the LVF/RH (left visual field/right hemisphere. Under RVF/LH stimulation the newly learned word primes produced facilitation on N400 for synonym targets, and inhibition for related targets. No differences were observed under LVF/RH stimulation. The LH thus, supports a CSM, whereby a synonym in the center of attention focused on the newly learned word is facilitated, whereas a related word in the surround is inhibited. The data are consistent with the view of this laboratory that semantic memory is subserved by a spreading activation system in the LH. Also consistent with our view, there was no evidence of spreading activation in the RH. The findings are discussed in the context of additional recent theories of semantic memory. Finally, the adult right hemisphere may require more learning than the LH in order to demonstrate evidence of meaning acquisition.

  18. Neuro-Semantics and Semantics.

    Holmes, Stewart W.


    Draws distinctions between the terms semantics (dealing with such verbal parameters as dictionaries and "laws" of logic and rhetoric), general semantics (semantics, plus the complex, dynamic, organismal properties of human beings and their physical environment), and neurosemantics (names for relations-based input from the neurosensory system, and…

  19. Equivalência semântica da versão em português do instrumento Abuse Assessment Screen para rastrear a violência contra a mulher grávida Semantic equivalence of the Portuguese version of the Abuse Assessment Screen tool used for the screening of violence against pregnant women

    Michael E Reichenheim


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Programas de investigação epidemiológica e de ação no âmbito da violência familiar estão em franca ascensão, requerendo instrumentos de aferição adaptados e vertidos para o português. O objetivo do estudo é avaliar a equivalência semântica entre o original em inglês e duas versões para o português do instrumento Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS usado no rastreamento de casos de violência contra a mulher grávida e recomendar uma versão-síntese para uso corrente. MÉTODOS: O processo de avaliação de equivalência semântica envolveu quatro etapas: tradução, retradução, apreciação formal de equivalência e crítica final através de consultas com especialista na área temática. RESULTADOS: Para cada item do instrumento apresentam-se os resultados relativos às quatro etapas. O texto cobre cada passo do processo que levou à versão final. As duas versões mostraram-se bastante semelhantes, com 14 das 15 assertivas similares, embora a segunda versão tenha se mostrado mais adequada, ainda que para alguns itens tenha sido decidido juntar as duas versões ou mesmo utilizar um item oriundo da versão um. CONCLUSÃO: É importante usar mais de uma versão no processo, em várias etapas de avaliação e de crítica, e discutir a pertinência de se acrescentar uma etapa adicional de interlocução do instrumento com membros da população-alvo.INTRODUCTION: Research programs and actions regarding family violence have been growing steadily. Therefore, there's a need to develop data collection tools. In Brazil, further problems come up since tools that have been developed elsewhere need to be adapted and translated. This study focuses on the Abuse Assessment Screening (AAS used to detect violence against pregnant women. The objective is to evaluate the semantic equivalence between the original tool in English and two Portuguese versions, and propose a synthetic version to be used in the field. METHODS: The evaluation

  20. Semantic Web

    O'Hara, Kieron; Hall, Wendy


    The Semantic Web is a vision of a web of linked data, allowing querying, integration and sharing of data from distributed sources in heterogeneous formats, using ontologies to provide an associated and explicit semantic interpretation. The article describes the series of layered formalisms and standards that underlie this vision, and chronicles their historical and ongoing development. A number of applications, scientific and otherwise, academic and commercial, are reviewed. The Semantic Web ...

  1. From autopoiesis to semantic closure.

    Stewart, J


    This article addresses the question of providing an adequate mathematical formulation for the concepts of autopoiesis and closure under efficient cause. What is required is metaphorically equivalent to reducing the act of writing to a set of mathematical equations, habitually effected by a human mathematician, within the ongoing function of the system itself. This, in turn, raises the question of the relationship between autopoiesis and semantics. The hypothesis suggested is that whereas semantics clearly requires autopoiesis, it may be also be the case that autopoiesis itself can only be materially realized in a system that is characterized by a semantic dimension. PMID:10818567

  2. 及物性理论关照下的英汉语义功能等效翻译分析研究%Analysis of the semantic function of equivalent English-Chinese translation under the theory of attention



    Hal iday的系统功能语法因注重语言和词汇在日常生活中的应用,而成为近年来国际上最具影响力的语言学流派之一,本文以其中的及物性理论为基础,研究小句中的主要过程动词,探讨英汉语义功能等效翻译的方法。通过结合China Daily和 Time中摘录的新闻语篇,具体分析各类过程类型在文本中的运用。本文的主要观点是,翻译时改变原文使用的过程类型就有可能改变其意义。翻译时应尽可能不改变原文使用的及物性过程。%Halliday's systemic functional grammar pays attention to the application of language and vocabulary in everyday life, in recent years, become one of the most influential linguistic schools in the world, in this paper, based on the properties and theory, studies the main process in the small clause verb, the semantic function of equivalent English-Chinese translation are discussed. According to excerpts in the China Daily and the Time of news discourse, specific analysis of various kinds of process types used in the text. Translation is the main point of this article, changed the original type of process is likely to change its meaning. In translation, we should as far as possible without changing the original use and physical process.

  3. On the Translation Equivalence of Literature Works



    As for translation principle,people have different opinions.The principle of equivalent translation maybe is one of the most reasonable ones in today’s translation world in my eyes.This paper focuses on the possibility and the condition to be achieved the biggest equivalence of the semantic,pragmatic and culture in order to get the conclusion that the translation equivalence is the proper principle.Besides,this paper has also discussed the pragmatic equivalence and cultural equivalence.

  4. A semi-quantitative equivalence for abstracting from fast reactions

    Galpin, Vashti; Ciocchetta, Federica; 10.4204/EPTCS.67.5


    Semantic equivalences are used in process algebra to capture the notion of similar behaviour, and this paper proposes a semi-quantitative equivalence for a stochastic process algebra developed for biological modelling. We consider abstracting away from fast reactions as suggested by the Quasi-Steady-State Assumption. We define a fast-slow bisimilarity based on this idea. We also show congruence under an appropriate condition for the cooperation operator of Bio-PEPA. The condition requires that there is no synchronisation over fast actions, and this distinguishes fast-slow bisimilarity from weak bisimilarity. We also show congruence for an operator which extends the reactions available for a species. We characterise models for which it is only necessary to consider the matching of slow transitions and we illustrate the equivalence on two models of competitive inhibition.

  5. Tradução, equivalência semântica e adaptação cultural do Marijuana Expectancy Questionnaire (MEQ Translation, semantic equivalence and cultural adaptation of Marijuana Expectancy Questionnaire (MEQ

    Rosemeri Siqueira Pedroso


    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi traduzir, adaptar culturalmente e verificar a equivalência semântica do Marijuana Expectancy Questionnaire (MEQ, o qual avalia as crenças em relação ao uso de maconha, podendo ser importante no tratamento e prognóstico dos dependentes químicos desta substância. O MEQ foi traduzido do inglês para o português, aplicado em 10 sujeitos e submetido ao brainstorming num grupo de 4 sujeitos para reprodução individual e verbal, item a item. Realizou-se o back-translation, uma versão para o idioma de origem, a partir da primeira tradução e do brainstorming. Logo após, traduziu-se novamente para o português. Todo o processo foi analisado por um comitê de juízes especialistas, os quais emitiram pareceres com as observações pertinentes. Realizou-se a análise descritiva interjuízes, verificando-se freqüências e porcentagens. Considerando-se os pareceres dos especialistas, construiu-se então a versão final do MEQ - adaptação brasileira.The objective of this study was to translate, to adapt culturally and verify the semantic equivalence of the Marijuana Expectancy Questionnaire (MEQ, which evaluates the beliefs to the marijuana’s use, which may be important in the treatment and prognostic of the chemical dependents of this substance. The MEQ was firstly translated from English to Portuguese, administered to 10 persons, and then submitted to brainstorming in a group of 4 persons for individual and verbal reproduction, item by item. Back-translation was executed based on first translation and from brainstorming to the origin language. Soon after, it was translated again into Portuguese. All the process was analyzed by a committee of specialists, which emitted a decision and the pertinent comments. The descriptive judges’ analysis was done verifying frequencies and percentages. Considering the decision of the specialists, the final version of the MEQ (Brazilian Adaptation was constructed.

  6. Semantic Desktop

    Sauermann, Leo; Kiesel, Malte; Schumacher, Kinga; Bernardi, Ansgar

    In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, wie der Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft aussehen könnte und wo das Semantic Web neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet. Dazu werden Ansätze aus dem Bereich Semantic Web, Knowledge Representation, Desktop-Anwendungen und Visualisierung vorgestellt, die es uns ermöglichen, die bestehenden Daten eines Benutzers neu zu interpretieren und zu verwenden. Dabei bringt die Kombination von Semantic Web und Desktop Computern besondere Vorteile - ein Paradigma, das unter dem Titel Semantic Desktop bekannt ist. Die beschriebenen Möglichkeiten der Applikationsintegration sind aber nicht auf den Desktop beschränkt, sondern können genauso in Web-Anwendungen Verwendung finden.

  7. Understanding semantics

    Thrane, Torben


    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types.......Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  8. Action Refinement for Real-Time Concurrent Processes with Urgency

    Guang-Ping Qin; Jin-Zhao Wu


    Action refinement for real-time concurrent processes with urgent interactions is studied, where a partial-order setting, i.e., timed bundle event structures, is used as the system model and a real-time LOTOS-like process algebra is used as the specification language. It is shown that the proposed refinement approaches have the commonly expected properties:(1) the behaviour of the refined process can be inferred compositionally from the behaviour of the original process and from the behaviour of the processes substituted for actions; (2) the timed extensions of pomset (partially ordered multiset) trace equivalence and history preserving bisimulation equivalence are both congruences under the refinement; (3) the syntactic and semantic refinements coincide up to the aforementioned equivalence relations with respect to a cpo-based denotational semantics.

  9. Semantic Annotation: The Mainstay of Semantic Web

    Slimani, Thabet


    Given that semantic Web realization is based on the critical mass of metadata accessibility and the representation of data with formal knowledge, it needs to generate metadata that is specific, easy to understand and well-defined. However, semantic annotation of the web documents is the successful way to make the Semantic Web vision a reality. This paper introduces the Semantic Web and its vision (stack layers) with regard to some concept definitions that helps the understanding of semantic a...

  10. Operational Semantics for Lazy Evaluation

    Mahmoud A. AbouGhaly


    Full Text Available An operational semantics for lazy evaluation of a calculus without higher order functions was defined. Although it optimizes many aspects of implementation, e.g. there is a sharing in the recursive computation, there is no α conversion, the heap is automatically reclaimed, and an attempt to evaluate an argument is done at most once. It is still suitable for reasoning about program behavior and proofs of program correctness; this is primarily due to the definition via inferences and axioms which allows for proofs by induction on the height of the proof tree. We also proved the correctness of this operational semantics by showing that it is equivalent with respect to the values calculated to the operational semantics of LAZY-PCF+SHAR due to S. Purushothaman Iyer and Jill Seaman.

  11. Semantic Web

    Anna Lamandini


    The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication) within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013). As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant i...

  12. Jigsaw Semantics

    Paul J. E. Dekker


    Full Text Available In the last decade the enterprise of formal semantics has been under attack from several philosophical and linguistic perspectives, and it has certainly suffered from its own scattered state, which hosts quite a variety of paradigms which may seem to be incompatible. It will not do to try and answer the arguments of the critics, because the arguments are often well-taken. The negative conclusions, however, I believe are not. The only adequate reply seems to be a constructive one, which puts several pieces of formal semantics, in particular dynamic semantics, together again. In this paper I will try and sketch an overview of tasks, techniques, and results, which serves to at least suggest that it is possible to develop a coherent overall picture of undeniably important and structural phenomena in the interpretation of natural language. The idea is that the concept of meanings as truth conditions after all provides an excellent start for an integrated study of the meaning and use of natural language, and that an extended notion of goal directed pragmatics naturally complements this picture. None of the results reported here are really new, but we think it is important to re-collect them.ReferencesAsher, Nicholas & Lascarides, Alex. 1998. ‘Questions in Dialogue’. Linguistics and Philosophy 23: 237–309., Emma. 2007. ‘Minimalism versus contextualism in semantics’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds. ‘Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism’, pp. 339–359. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernest. 1997. ‘On an Alleged Connection between Indirect Quotation and Semantic Theory’. Mind and Language 12: pp. 278–296.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernie. 2005. Insensitive Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell., Paul. 2002. ‘Meaning and Use of Indefinite Expressions’. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11: pp. 141–194

  13. Semantic web mining

    Stumme, Gerd; Hotho, Andreas; Berendt, Bettina


    Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two fast-developing research areas Semantic Web and Web Mining. This survey analyzes the convergence of trends from both areas: an increasing number of researchers is working on improving the results of Web Mining by exploiting semantic structures in the Web, and they make use of Web Mining techniques for building the Semantic Web. Last but not least, these techniques can be used for mining the Semantic Web itself. The Semantic Web is t...

  14. Geospatial semantic web

    Zhang, Chuanrong; Li, Weidong


    This book covers key issues related to Geospatial Semantic Web, including geospatial web services for spatial data interoperability; geospatial ontology for semantic interoperability; ontology creation, sharing, and integration; querying knowledge and information from heterogeneous data source; interfaces for Geospatial Semantic Web, VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) and Geospatial Semantic Web; challenges of Geospatial Semantic Web; and development of Geospatial Semantic Web applications. This book also describes state-of-the-art technologies that attempt to solve these problems such

  15. On the Lexicographical Description of Equivalent Open Class Expressions*

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand


    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The contribution proceeds from the assumption that linguistic equivalence is already determined, and therefore only deals with questions of the lexicographical description of equiva-lent open class expressions in completely condensed dictionary articles in bilingual printed dic-tionaries, with the purpose of establishing a notion of lexicographical equivalence. Firstly, the most important differences between non-condensed, partially condensed and completely condensed dictionary articles are explained. In completely condensed dictionary articles, which are not natural language texts, addressing relationships are present. These relationships have a vital role in the lexicographical description of equivalent open class expressions. They are, therefore, explained in more detail. A further assumption for the development of a notion of lexicographical equivalence is the notion of semantic-pragmatic equivalence, which is therefore introduced briefly. Next, there is a stepwise development, by means of examples, of what one can understand by the notion of lexi-cographical equivalence. The developed notion of lexicographical equivalence can on the one hand form the point of departure for the lexicographical textualisation of semantic-pragmatic equiva-lence, and on the other hand it takes into consideration that the linguistic equivalence relationship has to be inferred first by the user-in-action by means of complex results of lexicographical textu-alisation. The developed notion of lexicographical equivalence presents a firm foundation for the optimisation of the presentation of lexicographical equivalence.


    Abstrakt: Zur lexikographischen Beschreibung nennlexikalischer äquiva-lenter Wortschatzeinheiten. Der Beitrag setzt voraus, dass die sprachliche Äquivalenz bereits ermittelt


    Moskvin, V.P.


    Full Text Available There is represented the general classification of semantic transfers. As the research has shown, transfers can be systematized based on four parameters: 1 the type of associations lying on their basis: similarity, contiguity and contrast, the associations by similarity and contrast being regarded as the basis for taxonomic transfers (from genus to species, from species to genus, from species to species, etc.; 2 the functional parameter: functionally relevant and irrelevant; 3 the sphere of action: transfer applies both to lexical and grammatical semantics; 4 the degree of ex-pressiveness: thus, the metonymic associations are more predictable than the metaphoric ones.

  17. Semantic Web

    Hall, Wendy; O'Hara, Kieron


    The Semantic Web is a proposed extension to the World Wide Web (WWW) that aims to provide a common framework for sharing and reusing data across applications. The most common interfaces to the World Wide Web present it as a Web of Documents, linked in various ways including hyperlinks. But from the data point of view, each document is a black box – the data are not given independently of their representation in the document. This reduces its power, and also (as most information needs to be ex...

  18. A logical foundation for the semantic Web

    SHI Zhongzhi; DONG Mingkai; JIANG Yuncheng; ZHANG Haijun


    The current research progresses and problems of the semantic Web are analyzed in this paper, and the insufficiency of using description logic to act as logical foundation for the semantic Web is analyzed too. According to the characteristics and requirement of the semantic Web, a kind of new dynamic description logic (DDL) framework is presented. The representation and reasoning of static knowledge and dynamic knowledge are integrated in this framework. Especially, a kind of action description method is proposed, and according to description logic theory, the action semantics is described, so DDL is a kind of formal logical framework which can process static knowledge and dynamic knowledge. The DDL has clear and formally defined semantics. It provides decidable reasoning services, and it can support effective representation and reasoning of the static knowledge, dynamic process and running mechanism (realization and subsumption relation of action). Therefore, the DDL provides reasonable logic foundation for the semantic Web, and overcomes the insufficiency of using description logic to act as logical foundation for the semantic Web.

  19. Somatotopic Semantic Priming and Prediction in the Motor System.

    Grisoni, Luigi; Dreyer, Felix R; Pulvermüller, Friedemann


    The recognition of action-related sounds and words activates motor regions, reflecting the semantic grounding of these symbols in action information; in addition, motor cortex exerts causal influences on sound perception and language comprehension. However, proponents of classic symbolic theories still dispute the role of modality-preferential systems such as the motor cortex in the semantic processing of meaningful stimuli. To clarify whether the motor system carries semantic processes, we investigated neurophysiological indexes of semantic relationships between action-related sounds and words. Event-related potentials revealed that action-related words produced significantly larger stimulus-evoked (Mismatch Negativity-like) and predictive brain responses (Readiness Potentials) when presented in body-part-incongruent sound contexts (e.g., "kiss" in footstep sound context; "kick" in whistle context) than in body-part-congruent contexts, a pattern reminiscent of neurophysiological correlates of semantic priming. Cortical generators of the semantic relatedness effect were localized in areas traditionally associated with semantic memory, including left inferior frontal cortex and temporal pole, and, crucially, in motor areas, where body-part congruency of action sound-word relationships was indexed by a somatotopic pattern of activation. As our results show neurophysiological manifestations of action-semantic priming in the motor cortex, they prove semantic processing in the motor system and thus in a modality-preferential system of the human brain. PMID:26908635

  20. Semantic preview benefit in English: Individual differences in the extraction and use of parafoveal semantic information.

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally


    Although there is robust evidence that skilled readers of English extract and use orthographic and phonological information from the parafovea to facilitate word identification, semantic preview benefits have been elusive. We sought to establish whether individual differences in the extraction and/or use of parafoveal semantic information could account for this discrepancy. Ninety-nine adult readers who were assessed on measures of reading and spelling ability read sentences while their eye movements were recorded. The gaze-contingent boundary paradigm was used to manipulate the availability of relevant semantic and orthographic information in the parafovea. On average, readers showed a benefit from previews high in semantic feature overlap with the target. However, reading and spelling ability yielded opposite effects on semantic preview benefit. High reading ability was associated with a semantic preview benefit that was equivalent to an identical preview on first-pass reading. High spelling ability was associated with a reduced semantic preview benefit despite an overall higher rate of skipping. These results suggest that differences in the magnitude of semantic preview benefits in English reflect constraints on extracting semantic information from the parafovea and competition between the orthographic features of the preview and the target. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595070

  1. Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion

    Cheng Wen-Huang


    Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

  2. Semantic Network Based Mechanisms for Knowledge Acquistion

    Dariusz Ceglarek


    Full Text Available This a rticle summarizes research work started with the SeiPro2S (Semantically Enhanced Intellectual Property Protection System system designed to protect resources fro m the unauthorized use of intel lectual property. The system implements semantic network as a s tructure of knowledge repre sentation and a new idea of semantic compression. As the author proved that semantic compression is viable concept for English, he decided to focus on potential applications. An alg orithm is presented that employ ing semantic net work WiSENet for knowledge acquisition with flexible rules that yield high precision results. Developed algorithm is implemented as a Finite State Automaton with advanced methods for triggering desired actions. Detailed discussion is given with description of devised algorithm, u s age examples and results of experi ments.

  3. Semantic Web

    Anna Lamandini


    Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

  4. Equivalent Equilibria.

    Kandori, Michihiro


    This paper provides a way to formulate a general equilibrium model with both infinite time horizon and continuous uncertainty by, and provides a si mple proof of the equiva-lence of equilibria in complete markets, inc omplete markets with sequential trading, and incomplete markets with one-shot trades in single consumer economies. The proof is general in the sense that it does not assume time-homogeneous structure nor smo othness of preferences. The result guarantees that one can avoi...

  5. Programming the semantic web

    Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie


    With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

  6. Between designer drugs and afterburners: A Lexicographic-Semantic Study of Equivalence Tussen designer drugs (ontwerpersdwelms en afterburners (naverbranders: 'n leksikografies-semantiese studie van ekwivalensie.

    Arleta Adamska-Sałaciak


    Full Text Available

    The lexicons of natural languages are not isomorphic. Reasons for the anisomorphism can be sought on three interrelated planes: language structure, extralinguistic reality, and conceptualisation. Simply put, the relevant differences may reside in the language, the world, the mind, or any combination of these. As a result, what goes under the name of lexicographic equivalence is a rather heterogeneous category. Growing awareness of this fact has resulted over the years in the creation of several tentative typologies of equivalence, one of which is presented below, together with a brief discussion of some strategies for dealing with imperfect equivalence.

    The remaining part of the article comprises a detailed analysis of a single problem encountered while preparing a new edition of a bilingual dictionary for Polish learners of English. The task at hand involved choosing a viable counterpart for a (Polish semantic neologism from among a few (English equivalence candidates. In the discussion, reference is made both to the metalexicographic categories introduced earlier and to such concepts developed by lexical (especially cognitive semantics which may prove helpful in capturing the meaning differences between the source-language item and its competing target-language renditions.

    This micro-scale dissection of a single specimen demonstrates that we are still some way from being able to classify, let alone deal with, all the instances of imperfect interlingual correspondence that come our way. Persisting in the efforts to advance our understanding of the complex issues covered by the blanket term lexicographic equivalence thus seems crucial for improving the treatment of meaning in bilingual dictionaries.

    Die leksikons van natuurlike tale is nie isomorf nie. Redes vir die gebrek aan isomorfie kom op drie onderling verwante vlakke voor: taalstruktuur, die

  7. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott


    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th. PMID:21388570

  8. Semantic remote patient monitoring system.

    Shojanoori, Reza; Juric, Radmila


    We propose an automated and personalized remote patient monitoring (RPM) system, which is applied to care homes and is dependent on the manipulation of semantics describing situations during patient monitoring in ontological models. Decision making in RPM is based on reasoning performed upon ontologies, which secures the delivery of appropriate e-health services in care homes. Our working experiment shows an example of preventive e-healthcare, but it can be extended to any situation that requires either urgent action from healthcare professionals or a simple recommendation during RPM. We use Semantic Web technology and OWL/SWRL-enabled ontologies to illustrate the proposal and feasibility of implementing this RPM system as a software solution in pervasive healthcare. It will be of interest to healthcare professionals, who can directly shape and populate the proposed ontological model, and software engineers, who would consider using OWL/SWRL when creating e-health services in general. PMID:23363406

  9. Deregulated semantic cognition contributes to object-use deficits in Alzheimer's disease: A comparison with semantic aphasia and semantic dementia.

    Corbett, Faye; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Burns, Alistair; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A


    Executive control is impaired from the early stages of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and this produces deregulated semantic cognition (Corbett, Jefferies, Burns, & Lambon Ralph, ; Perry, Watson, & Hodges, ). While control deficits should affect semantic retrieval across all modalities, previous studies have typically focused on verbal semantic tasks. Even when non-verbal semantic tasks have been used, these have typically employed simple picture-matching tasks, which may be influenced by abnormalities in covert naming. Therefore, in the present study, we examined 10 patients with AD on a battery of object-use tasks, in order to advance our understanding of the origins of non-verbal semantic deficits in this population. The AD patients' deficits were contrasted with previously published performance on the same tasks within two additional groups of patients, displaying either semantic degradation (semantic dementia) or deregulation of semantic retrieval (semantic aphasia; Corbett, Jefferies, Ehsan, & Lambon Ralph, ). While overall accuracy was comparable to the scores in both other groups, the AD patients' object-use impairment most closely resembled that observed in SA; they exhibited poorer performance on comprehension tasks that placed strong demands on executive control. A similar pattern was observed in the expressive domain: the AD and SA groups were relatively good at straightforward object use compared to executively demanding, mechanical puzzles. Error types also differed: while all patients omitted essential actions, the SA and AD groups' demonstrations also featured unrelated intrusions. An association between AD patients' object use and their scores on standard executive measures suggested that control deficits contributed to their non-verbal semantic deficits. Moreover, in a task specifically designed to manipulate executive demand, patients with AD (and SA) exhibited difficulty in thinking flexibly about the non-canonical uses of everyday objects, especially

  10. Differential Equations as Actions

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.


    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...... actions shall terminate. It is shown that the proposed differential action has a semantics which corresponds to a discrete approximation when the discrete step size goes to zero. The extension gives action systems the power to model real-time clocks and continuous evolutions within hybrid systems....

  11. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web

    Ashish, Naveen


    The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

  12. On semantics and applications of guarded recursion

    Bizjak, Aleš


    In this dissertation we study applications and semantics of guarded recursion, which is a method for ensuring that self-referential descriptions of objects define a unique object. The first two chapters are devoted to applications. We use guarded recursion, first in the form of explicit step-indexing...... the third chapter we study a simply typed calculus with additional "later" and "constant" modalities and a guarded fixed-point combinator. These are used for encoding and working with guarded recursive and coinductive types in a modular way. We develop a normalising operational semantics, provide an...... adequate denotational model and a logic for reasoning about program equivalence. In the last three chapters we study syntax and semantics of a dependent type theory with a family of later modalities indexed by the set of clocks, and clock quantifiers. In the fourth and fifth chapters we provide two model...

  13. Semantics of sub-probabilistic programs

    Yixing CHEN; Hengyang WU


    The aim of this paper is to extend the probabil-istic choice in probabilistic programs to sub-probabilistic choice, i.e., of the form (p)P (q) Q where p + q ≤ 1. It means that program P is executed with probability p and program Q is executed with probability q. Then, start-ing from an initial state, the execution of a sub-probabil-istic program results in a sub-probability distribution. This paper presents two equivalent semantics for a sub-probabilistic while-programming language. One of these interprets programs as sub-probabilistic distributions on state spaces via denotational semantics. The other inter-prets programs as bounded expectation transformers via wp-semantics. This paper proposes an axiomatic systems for total logic, and proves its soundness and completeness in a classical pattern on the structure of programs.

  14. Towards semantic web mining

    Berendt, Bettina; Hotho, Andreas; Stumme, Gerd


    Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two fast-developing research areas Semantic Web and Web Mining. The idea is to improve, on the one hand, the results of Web Mining by exploiting the new semantic structures in the Web; and to make use of Web Mining, on overview of where the two areas meet today, and sketches ways of how a closer integration could be profitable.

  15. Applying Semantic Web Services

    Galizia, Stefania; Gugliotta, Alessio; Pedrinaci, Carlos; Domingue, John


    The use of Semantic Web Services (SWS) for increasing agility and adaptability in process execution is currently investigated in many settings. The common underlying idea is the dynamic selection, composition and mediation - on the basis of available SWS descriptions - of the most adequate Web resource (services and data) to accomplish a specific process activity. In this paper we describe IRS-III, a framework for creating and executing semantic Web services, which takes a semantic broker bas...

  16. Benchmarking Semantic Web technology

    García-Castro, Raúl


    Semantic Web technologies need to interchange ontologies for further use. Due to the heterogeneity in the knowledge representation formalisms of the different existing technologies, interoperability is a problem in the SemanticWeb and the limits of the interoperability of current technologies are yet unknown. A massive improvement of the interoperability of current SemanticWeb technologies, or of any other characteristic of these technologies, requires continuous evaluations that should be de...

  17. Characterizing semantic web services

    Moyano, Marcelo; Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Estévez, Elsa Clara


    Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which data contained in the web documents are machine-understandable. On the other hand, Web Services provide a new model of the web in which sites exchange dynamic information on demand. Combination of both introduces a new concept named Semantic Web Services in which semantic information is added to the different activities involved in Web Services, such as discovering, publication, composition, etc. In this paper, we analyze several propos...

  18. Semantic web for dummies

    Pollock, Jeffrey T


    Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

  19. Semantic Role Labeling

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen


    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  20. Semantic prosody and judgment.

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert


    Some words tend to co-occur exclusively with a positive or negative context in natural language use, even though such valence patterns are not dictated by definitions or are part of the words' core meaning. These words contain semantic prosody, a subtle valenced meaning derived from co-occurrence in language. As language and thought are heavily intertwined, we hypothesized that semantic prosody can affect evaluative inferences about related ambiguous concepts. Participants inferred that an ambiguous medical outcome was more negative when it was caused, a verb with negative semantic prosody, than when it was produced, a synonymous verb with no semantic prosody (Studies 1a, 1b). Participants completed sentence fragments in a manner consistent with semantic prosody (Study 2), and semantic prosody affected various other judgments in line with evaluative inferences (estimates of an event's likelihood in Study 3). Finally, semantic prosody elicited both positive and negative evaluations of outcomes across a large set of semantically prosodic verbs (Study 4). Thus, semantic prosody can exert a strong influence on evaluative judgment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243765

  1. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    Sugumaran, Vijayan


    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  2. Bootstrapping Object Coreferencing on the Semantic Web

    Wei Hu; Yu-Zhong Qu; Xing-Zhi Sun


    An object on the Semantic Web is likely to be denoted with several URIs by different parties.Object coreferencing is a process to identify "equivalent" URIs of objects for achieving a better Data Web.In this paper,we propose a bootstrapping approach for object coreferencing on the Semantic Web.For an object URI,we firstly establish a kernel that consists of semantically equivalent URIs from the same-as,(inverse) functional properties and (max-)cardinalities,and then extend the kernel with respect to the textual descriptions (e.g.,labels and local names) of URIs.We also propose a trustworthiness-based method to rank the coreferent URIs in the kernel as well as a similarity-based method for ranking the URIs in the extension of the kernel.We implement the proposed approach,called ObjectCoref,on a large-scale dataset that contains 76 million URIs collected by the Falcons search engine until 2008.The evaluation on precision,relative recall and response time demonstrates the feasibility of our approach.Additionally,we apply the proposed approach to investigate the popularity of the URI alias phenomenon on the current Semantic Web.


    Cristina, Chifane


    Full Text Available This paper aims at highlighting the fact that “equivalence” represents a concept worth revisiting and detailing upon when tackling the translation process of economic texts both from English into Romanian and from Romanian into English. Far from being exhaustive, our analysis will focus upon the problems arising from the lack of equivalence at the word level. Consequently, relevant examples from the economic field will be provided to account for the following types of non-equivalence at word level: culturespecific concepts; the source language concept is not lexicalised in the target language; the source language word is semantically complex; differences in physical and interpersonal perspective; differences in expressive meaning; differences in form; differences in frequency and purpose of using specific forms and the use of loan words in the source text. Likewise, we shall illustrate a number of translation strategies necessary to deal with the afore-mentioned cases of non-equivalence: translation by a more general word (superordinate; translation by a more neutral/less expressive word; translation by cultural substitution; translation using a loan word or loan word plus explanation; translation by paraphrase using a related word; translation by paraphrase using unrelated words; translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  4. Equivalence of the blockage of ureter and the action of the urethane in 99mTc-DMSA biodistribution in rats

    The indication of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) for biological control of 99mTc-DMSA is the experiment in rats with ureter occlusion. Urethane has a vessel constriction action in the urinary system and keeps the eliminatory mechanism functioning through glomerular filtration. The objective of this work is to show that the use of urethane in animals without blockage of ureteres has total credibility, even if the expressed value of the renal retention does not correspond to 40% injected dose (I.D.) related in the literature. The experiments were performed in 2 groups of 12 rats each, the first using urethane and the second, urethane and blockage of ureter. Four lots of DMSA were labeled with 10 mCi/3 mL of 99mTc solution, and 300 μCi/0.1 mL was injected intravenously in each animal. After one hour, they were sacrificed and kidneys, bladder, liver, spleen and carcass were taken out for determination of the retained radiation in function of the injected dose. The USP establishes two parameters for the metabolism of 99mTc-DMSA: renal retention equal or higher than 40% and kidneys/liver plus spleen relation equal or higher than 6. In animals whose ureteres were obstructed, it was clearly observed that the urine was not transferred from kidneys to bladder 0.05 ± 0.35% I.D., while the first group presented 0.50 ± 6.50 % I.D. The kidneys/liver plus spleen relation were above 6 for both. Considering the deviation, all results were in the USP limit of acceptability, and for routine evaluation, urethane can be used without surgical intervention. (author)

  5. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    Danvy, Olivier


    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal sem...

  6. The Semantic Web as a Semantic Soup

    Cox, Simon; Alani, Harith; Glaser, Hugh; Harris, Stephen


    The Semantic Web is currently best known for adding metadata to web pages to allow computers to 'understand' what they contain. This idea has been applied to people by the Friend of a Friend project which builds up a network of who people know through their descriptions placed on web pages in RDF. It is here proposed to use RDF to describe a person and to have their RDF document follow them around the Internet. The proposed technique, dubbed Semantic Cookies, will be implemented by storing a ...

  7. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods


    ... 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). Two of the new equivalent methods for PM are automated monitoring... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Office of Research and Development; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

  8. 77 FR 32632 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods


    ... of 40 CFR Part 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326- 54341). The new equivalent method for... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that...

  9. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods


    ... 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The new equivalent methods are automated... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of three new...

  10. Switches and Jumps in Hybrid Action Systems

    Rönnkö, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.


    An action system framework is a predicate transformer based method for modelling and analysing distributed and reactive systems. The actions are statements in Dijkstra's guarded command language, and their semantics is given by predicate transformers. We extend conventional action systems with a...... {\\em differential action} consisting of a differential equation and an evolution guard. The semantics is given by a weakest liberal precondition transformer, because it is not always desirable that differential actions terminate. It is shown that the proposed differential action has a semantics which...

  11. The Founded Semantics and Constraint Semantics of Logic Rules

    Liu, Yanhong A.; Stoller, Scott D.


    This paper describes a simple new semantics for logic rules, the founded semantics, and its straightforward extension to another simple new semantics, the constraint semantics. The new semantics support unrestricted negation, as well as unrestricted existential and universal quantifications. They are uniquely expressive and intuitive by allowing assumptions about the predicates and rules to be specified explicitly, are completely declarative and easy to understand, and relate cleanly to prior...

  12. Semdrops: A Social Semantic Tagging Approach for Emerging Semantic Data

    Torres, Diego; Diaz, Alicia; Skaf-Molli, Hala; Molli, Pascal


    Abstract--This paper proposes a collective intelligence strategy for emerging semantic data. It presents a combination of social web practices with semantic web technologies to enrich existing web resources with semantic data. The paper introduces a social semantic tagging approach called Semdrops. Semdrops defines a conceptual model which is an extension of the Gruber's tag model where the tag concept is extended to semantic tag. Semdrops is implemented as a Firefox add-on tool that turns the...

  13. ELN in the semantic era

    Frey, Jeremy G.


    The importance of semantics in human-computer and computer-computer communications Capturing the laboratory processes and data in a semantically rich form at source. Implementing semantics - The use of the semantic web & grid The importance of context in the use of ELNs Publication and dissemination - Using the information obtained with ELNs

  14. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    Kim, Su


    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  15. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    Kaplan, I L


    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  16. Semantic Models of Sentences with Verbs of Motion in Standard Language and in Scientific Language Used in Biology

    Vita Banionytė


    Full Text Available The semantic models of sentences with verbs of motion in German standard language and in scientific language used in biology are analyzed in the article. In its theoretic part it is affirmed that the article is based on the semantic theory of the sentence. This theory, in its turn, is grounded on the correlation of semantic predicative classes and semantic roles. The combination of semantic predicative classes and semantic roles is expressed by the main semantic formula – proposition. In its practical part the differences between the semantic models of standard and scientific language used in biology are explained. While modelling sentences with verbs of motion, two groups of semantic models of sentences are singled out: that of action (Handlung and process (Vorgang. The analysis shows that the semantic models of sentences with semantic action predicatives dominate in the text of standard language while the semantic models of sentences with semantic process predicatives dominate in the texts of scientific language used in biology. The differences how the doer and direction are expressed in standard and in scientific language are clearly seen and the semantic cases (Agens, Patiens, Direktiv1 help to determine that. It is observed that in scientific texts of high level of specialization (biology science in contrast to popular scientific literature models of sentences with moving verbs are usually seldom found. They are substituted by denominative constructions. In conclusions it is shown that this analysis can be important in methodics, especially planning material for teaching professional-scientific language.

  17. The Roles of Semantic Sense and Form-Meaning Connection in Translation Priming

    Luo, Xueying; Cheung, Him; Bel, David; Li, Li; Chen, Lin; Mo, Lei


    This study examines semantic sense and form-meaning connection across the bilingual's languages as factors behind translation priming asymmetry, which refers to semantic priming between translation equivalents with L1 (first language) primes and L2 (second language) targets, but the lack of it in the reverse direction. In Experiment 1, many-sense…

  18. UML 2 Semantics and Applications

    Lano, Kevin


    A coherent and integrated account of the leading UML 2 semantics work and the practical applications of UML semantics development With contributions from leading experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to UML and goes on to offer in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: The role of semantics Considerations and rationale for a UML system model Definition of the UML system model UML descriptive semantics Axiomatic semantics of UML class diagrams The object constraint language Axiomatic semantics of state machines A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction des

  19. Reactive Kripke semantics

    Gabbay, Dov M


    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  20. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    García-Castro, R


    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  1. Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge


    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post conference proceedings of the first edition of the Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge, SemWebEval 2014, co-located with the 11th Extended Semantic Web conference, held in Anissaras, Crete, Greece, in May 2014. This book includes the descriptions of all methods and tools that competed at SemWebEval 2014, together with a detailed description of the tasks, evaluation procedures and datasets. The contributions are grouped in three areas: semantic publishing (sempub), concept-level sentiment analysis (ssa), and linked-data enabled recommender systems (recsys).


    Аna Makišová


    Full Text Available The paper analyzed primary prepositions od, do and z in Slovak and their equivalents in Ser-bian. These prepositions are used with the genitive case. In both languages prepositions od and do are formally the same. The Slovak preposition do expresses contact, while the Serbian preposition do marks a position. The preposition do in both languages marks a temporal boundary, a point of the end of motion, a position, a movement towards the interior, a manner, an aim, a purpose, an approximate boundary. In the Serbian language the equivalent prepositions are do, u, na, za.The preposition od is a position preposition in both languages and is used to express a point of the beginning of an action, the time of the beginning of an action, a cause, a motive, an aim, a purpose. These meanings are expressed with prepositions od, od-do, od-po in Serbian. The preposition z expresses a place, a point of origin, a time when something begins, an origin, a motive, a cause, a matter, a material something is made of. The Serbian semantic equivalents of the Slovak preposition z are iz, s, sa, od. The paper also lists interference that occurs when these prepositions are used.

  3. Organizational Semantic Web based Portals

    necula, sabina-cristiana


    This paper tries to treat organizational semantic web based portals. The first part of the paper focuses on concepts regarding semantic web based portals. After discussing some concepts we treat the basic functionalities that a semantic web based portal must have and we finish by presenting these functionalities by actual examples. We present semantic web based portals after studying the necessary implementations from literature and practice. We develop some examples that use semantic web bas...


    Vidya S. Dandagi; Dr. Nandini Sidna


    Semantic Web is a system that allows machines to understand complex human requests. Depending on the meaning semantic web replies. Semantics is the learning of the meanings of linguistic appearance. It is the main branch of contemporary linguistics. Semantics is meaning of words, text or a phrase and relations between them. RDF provides essential support to the Semantic Web. To represent distributed information RDF is created. Applications can use RDF created and process it in an adaptive man...

  5. Belief Semantics of Authorization Logic

    Hirsch, Andrew K.; Clarkson, Michael R.


    Authorization logics have been used in the theory of computer security to reason about access control decisions. In this work, a formal belief semantics for authorization logics is given. The belief semantics is proved to subsume a standard Kripke semantics. The belief semantics yields a direct representation of principals' beliefs, without resorting to the technical machinery used in Kripke semantics. A proof system is given for the logic; that system is proved sound with respect to the beli...

  6. Basic semantics of product sounds

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Egmond , R. van


    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two experiments, we determined eight factors that underlie the semantic associations of product sounds (attention, roughness, smoothness, temporal constancy, (un)familiarity, unpleasantness, machinery, a...

  7. LAIR: A Language for Automated Semantics-Aware Text Sanitization based on Frame Semantics

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Houen, Søren; Simonsen, Jakob Grue


    We present \\lair{}: A domain-specific language that enables users to specify actions to be taken upon meeting specific semantic frames in a text, in particular to rephrase and redact the textual content. While \\lair{} presupposes superficial knowledge of frames and frame semantics, it requires on...... automated redaction of web pages for subjectively undesirable content; initial experiments suggest that using a small language based on semantic recognition of undesirable terms can be highly useful as a supplement to traditional methods of text sanitization.......We present \\lair{}: A domain-specific language that enables users to specify actions to be taken upon meeting specific semantic frames in a text, in particular to rephrase and redact the textual content. While \\lair{} presupposes superficial knowledge of frames and frame semantics, it requires only...... limited prior programming experience. It neither contain scripting or I/O primitives, nor does it contain general loop constructions and is not Turing-complete. We have implemented a \\lair{} compiler and integrated it in a pipeline for automated redaction of web pages. We detail our experience with...

  8. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.


    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  9. Reasoning about Unreliable Actions

    White, Graham


    We analyse the philosopher Davidson's semantics of actions, using a strongly typed logic with contexts given by sets of partial equations between the outcomes of actions. This provides a perspicuous and elegant treatment of reasoning about action, analogous to Reiter's work on artificial intelligence. We define a sequent calculus for this logic, prove cut elimination, and give a semantics based on fibrations over partial cartesian categories: we give a structure theory for such fibrations. The existence of lax comma objects is necessary for the proof of cut elimination, and we give conditions on the domain fibration of a partial cartesian category for such comma objects to exist.

  10. Versão brasileira do Instrumento de Avaliação da Dor em Paciente Não Comunicativo (NOPPAIN: equivalência conceitual, de itens e semântica Brazilian version of the Non-communicative Patient's Pain Assessment Instrument (NOPPAIN: conceptual, item, and semantic equivalence

    Raquel Soares De Araujo


    Full Text Available A mensuração da dor em pessoas com déficit cognitivo grave, inábeis em comunicar verbalmente o que estão sentindo, tem sido um desafio. O Instrumento para Avaliação da Dor em Paciente Não Comunicativo (NOPPAIN é um instrumento que propõe a mensuração da dor por meio do julgamento de comportamentos observados, que expressam tal experiência. A inexistência de instrumentos desse tipo em nossa cultura levou ao desenvolvimento deste estudo, que teve como objetivo: adaptar culturalmente o NOPPAIN para o idioma português brasileiro. Trata-se de estudo metodológico, realizado com base no referencial de Guillemin et al. Foram percorridos quatro passos: tradução para o português brasileiro, obtenção de uma versão de consenso, retradução e avaliação das versões traduzidas e retraduzidas por um comitê de especialistas. Nesta abordagem inicial, o NOPPAIN-Br apresentou equivalência semântica com o original e está disponível no idioma português brasileiro para validação complementar.The evaluation and measurement of pain in individuals with dementia and unable to communicate verbally has been a challenging experience. The Non-communicative Patient's Pain Assessment Instrument (NOPPAIN is an instrument that evaluates this phenomenon by observing behaviors that express pain. Considering the lack of instruments for this purpose in Brazil, the current study was designed to translate the NOPPAIN instrument into Brazilian Portuguese and culturally adapt it to the Brazilian reality. This was a methodological study, with Guillemin et al. as the theoretical reference. The study included four steps: translation; obtaining a consensus version; back-translation; and evaluation of the translation and back-translation by an expert panel. In this initial approach, the NOPPAIN-Br showed semantic equivalence to the original instrument and is now available in Brazilian Portuguese for further validation.

  11. Element Level Semantic Matching

    Giunchiglia, Fausto; Yatskevich, Mikalai


    We think of Match as an operator which takes two graph-like structures and produces a mapping between semantically related nodes. The matching process is essentially divided into two steps: element level and structure level. Element level matchers consider only labels of nodes, while structure level matchers start from this information to consider the full graph. In this paper we present various element level semantic matchers, and discuss their implementation within the S-Match system. The m...

  12. The Semantic Web Languages

    Giunchiglia, Fausto; Farazi, Feroz; Tanca, Letizia; Virgilio, Roberto


    The Semantic Web is basically an extension of the Web and of the Web-enabling database and Internet technology, and, as a consequence, the Semantic Web methodologies, representation mechanisms and logics strongly rely on those developed in databases. This is the motivation for many attempts to, more or less loosely, merge the two worlds like, for instance, the various proposals to use relational technology for storing web data or the use of ontologies for data integration. This article comes ...

  13. Semantically Interoperable XML Data

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel


    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In t...

  14. Semantics on Translation



    Semantics is the study of the meanings of words and sentences. While word is the most basic unit in every language and the understanding of the word meaning is the most important problem in translation. Therefore, the analysis of semantics just provides a very direct approach to doing translation. In this paper, I’d like to focus on the three kinds of word meaning in transla- tion, the ambiguities caused by the word meaning and how to deal with such ambiguities.

  15. Semantic Representation of Synaesthesia

    Meier, Beat


    Synaesthesia has multifaceted consequences for both subjective experience and cognitive performance. Here, I broach the issue of how synaesthesia is represented in semantic memory. I hypothesize that, for example, in grapheme colour synaesthesia, colour is represented as an additional feature in the semantic network that enables the formation of associations that are not present in non-synaesthetes. Thus, synaesthesia provokes richer memory representations which enable learning opportunities ...

  16. Motor Equivalence in Speech Production

    Perrier, Pascal; Fuchs, Susanne


    International audience The first section provides a description of the concepts of “motor equivalence” and “degrees of freedom”. It is illustrated with a few examples of motor tasks in general and of speech production tasks in particular. In the second section, the methodology used to investigate experimentally motor equivalence phenomena in speech production is presented. It is mainly based on paradigms that perturb the perception-action loop during on-going speech, either by limiting the...

  17. Politico-economic equivalence

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk


    Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime and a...... state are equivalent to another such pair if both pairs give rise to the same allocation in politico-economic equilibrium. The equivalence conditions help to identify factors that render institutional change non-neutral and to construct politico-economic equilibria in new policy regimes. We exemplify...

  18. Foundations of semantic web technologies

    Hitzler, Pascal; Rudolph, Sebastian


    The Quest for Semantics Building Models Calculating with Knowledge Exchanging Information Semanic Web Technologies RESOURCE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (RDF)Simple Ontologies in RDF and RDF SchemaIntroduction to RDF Syntax for RDF Advanced Features Simple Ontologies in RDF Schema Encoding of Special Data Structures An ExampleRDF Formal Semantics Why Semantics? Model-Theoretic Semantics for RDF(S) Syntactic Reasoning with Deduction Rules The Semantic Limits of RDF(S)WEB ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE (OWL) Ontologies in OWL OWL Syntax and Intuitive Semantics OWL Species The Forthcoming OWL 2 StandardOWL Formal Sem

  19. Personal semantics: Is it distinct from episodic and semantic memory? An electrophysiological study of memory for autobiographical facts and repeated events in honor of Shlomo Bentin.

    Renoult, Louis; Tanguay, Annick; Beaudry, Myriam; Tavakoli, Paniz; Rabipour, Sheida; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; Davidson, Patrick S R


    Declarative memory is thought to consist of two independent systems: episodic and semantic. Episodic memory represents personal and contextually unique events, while semantic memory represents culturally-shared, acontextual factual knowledge. Personal semantics refers to aspects of declarative memory that appear to fall somewhere in between the extremes of episodic and semantic. Examples include autobiographical knowledge and memories of repeated personal events. These two aspects of personal semantics have been studied little and rarely compared to both semantic and episodic memory. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of 27 healthy participants while they verified the veracity of sentences probing four types of questions: general (i.e., semantic) facts, autobiographical facts, repeated events, and unique (i.e., episodic) events. Behavioral results showed equivalent reaction times in all 4 conditions. True sentences were verified faster than false sentences, except for unique events for which no significant difference was observed. Electrophysiological results showed that the N400 (which is classically associated with retrieval from semantic memory) was maximal for general facts and the LPC (which is classically associated with retrieval from episodic memory) was maximal for unique events. For both ERP components, the two personal semantic conditions (i.e., autobiographical facts and repeated events) systematically differed from semantic memory. In addition, N400 amplitudes also differentiated autobiographical facts from unique events. Autobiographical facts and repeated events did not differ significantly from each other but their corresponding scalp distributions differed from those associated with general facts. Our results suggest that the neural correlates of personal semantics can be distinguished from those of semantic and episodic memory, and may provide clues as to how unique events are transformed to semantic memory. PMID:26277459

  20. Small-step and big-step semantics for call-by-need

    Nakata, Keiko


    We present natural semantics for acyclic as well as cyclic call-by-need lambda calculi, which are proved equivalent to the reduction semantics given by Ariola and Felleisen. The natural semantics are big-step and use global heaps, where evaluation is suspended and memorized. The reduction semantics are small-step and evaluation is suspended and memorized locally in let-bindings. Thus two styles of formalization describe the call-by-need strategy from different angles. The natural semantics for the acyclic calculus is revised from the previous presentation by Maraist et al. and its adequacy is ascribed to its correspondence with the reduction semantics, which has been proved equivalent to call-by-name by Ariola and Felleisen. The natural semantics for the cyclic calculus is inspired by that of Launchbury and Sestoft and we state its adequacy using a denotational semantics in the style of Launchbury; adequacy of the reduction semantics for the cyclic calculus is in turn ascribed to its correspondence with the n...

  1. Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities

    Syeda Farha Shazmeen, Etyala Ramyasree


    Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the Worl...

  2. Semantic web technology to support learning about the semantic web

    Dzbor, Martin; Motta, Enrico


    This paper describes ASPL, an Advanced Semantic Platform for Learning, designed using the Magpie framework with an aim to support students learning about the Semantic Web research area. We describe the evolution of ASPL and illustrate how we used the results from a formal evaluation of the initial system to re-design the user functionalities. The second version of ASPL semantically interprets the results provided by a non-semantic web mining tool and uses them to support various forms of sema...

  3. The Semantic SPASE

    Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.


    The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide

  4. Semantic Changes of Gerund

    Zofija Babickienė


    Full Text Available In this article, semantic models of gerund in the Lithuanian language are being investigated. Their productivity and the reasons of their change in the Lithuanian language are identified. The tendency to use gerund semantic structure in noun constructions is typical not only in Greek or Latin languages but also in English, Russian, etc. Regular polysemy is regarded as semantic derivation, i. e. shifting from main meanings to derivative ones. The object of this investigation is the usage patterns of gerunds which bear both the meaning of a verb and a noun. The examples for the present study have been gathered from the language of different Lithuanian dialects as well as from the Dictionary of the Lithuanian language (different volumes, etc. The research results reveal that semantic changes of object and result are the most productive, whereas mood or time semantic model proved to be not so productive. The productivity of regular models depends on the fact that there are suffix derivatives which have the meaning of a result. The research shows that scientific style and language of different dialects are rich in the use of gerund.

  5. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Ni, W.-T.


    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  6. Equivalence in Translation



    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  7. Cognitive semantic networks: emotional verbs throw a tantrum but don't bite

    Petersen, Michael Kai; Hansen, Lars Kai


    leg, hand and face related but also emotional action verbs activate premotor systems in the brain. Hypothesizing that the force and spatial parameters which define action based language might also be reflected in the latent semantics of words, we select motor and emotion related verbs and apply latent...... semantic analysis, multidimensional scaling, hierarchical clustering and network graph analysis to quantify their interaction and identify parameters of force and spatial differentiation which we propose cognitively relate emotions to sensorimotor action schemas....

  8. Implicit learning of semantic preferences

    Paciorek, Albertyna


    The research presented in this PhD dissertation examines the phenomenon of semantic implicit learning, using semantic preferences of novel verbs as a test case. Implicit learning refers to the phenomenon of learning without intending to learn or awareness that one is learning at all. Semantic preference (or selectional preference ? as preferred in computational linguistics) is the tendency of a word to co-occur with words sharing similar semantic features. For example, ?drink? is typically fo...

  9. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M


    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  10. Pragmatic Equivalence in Different Translations of The Merchant of Venice



    Pragmatic equivalence, meaning to transfer the implied meaning of the source text to the target text, usually involves the receiver to whom the translation is directed. Two notions are crucial in translation to achieve pragmatic equivalence:context and optimal relevance. In light of these two element, the author in this paper conducts a case study by using Shakespeare’s play The Merchant of Venice and two Chinese versions from Zhu Shenghao and Sun Dayu as data, by comparing these two versions to explore how pragmatic equivalence in translation can be achieve at lexical, semantic and cultural levels.

  11. On the Semantics of Purpose Requirements in Privacy Policies

    Tschantz, Michael Carl; Wing, Jeannette M


    Privacy policies often place requirements on the purposes for which a governed entity may use personal information. For example, regulations, such as HIPAA, require that hospital employees use medical information for only certain purposes, such as treatment. Thus, using formal or automated methods for enforcing privacy policies requires a semantics of purpose requirements to determine whether an action is for a purpose or not. We provide such a semantics using a formalism based on planning. We model planning using a modified version of Markov Decision Processes, which exclude redundant actions for a formal definition of redundant. We use the model to formalize when a sequence of actions is only for or not for a purpose. This semantics enables us to provide an algorithm for automating auditing, and to describe formally and compare rigorously previous enforcement methods.

  12. Semantic Search of Web Services

    Hao, Ke


    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  13. Evolution of semantic systems

    Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan


    Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

  14. Enterprise semantic Web

    Gutiérrez Alba, David


    This document is a journey through Semantic Web principles and Microsoft SharePoint in order to come to understand some advantages and disadvantages of theirs, and how Semantic Web principles can be blended into an enterprise solution like Microsoft SharePoint. Aquest document és un viatge a través dels principis de la web semàntica i Microsoft SharePoint amb la finalitat d'arribar a entendre alguns dels seus avantatges i desavantatges, i com els principis de la web semàntica es poden barr...

  15. The Sigma-Semantics: A Comprehensive Semantics for Functional Programs

    Chitil, Olaf


    A comprehensive semantics for functional programs is presented, which generalizes the well-known call-by-value and call-by-name semantics. By permitting a separate choice between call-by value and call-by-name for every argument position of every function and parameterizing the semantics by this choice we abstract from the parameter-passing mechanism. Thus common and distinguishing features of all instances of the sigma-semantics, especially call-by-value and call-by-name semantics, are highl...

  16. Constructing a semantic predication gold standard from the biomedical literature

    Kilicoglu Halil


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semantic relations increasingly underpin biomedical text mining and knowledge discovery applications. The success of such practical applications crucially depends on the quality of extracted relations, which can be assessed against a gold standard reference. Most such references in biomedical text mining focus on narrow subdomains and adopt different semantic representations, rendering them difficult to use for benchmarking independently developed relation extraction systems. In this article, we present a multi-phase gold standard annotation study, in which we annotated 500 sentences randomly selected from MEDLINE abstracts on a wide range of biomedical topics with 1371 semantic predications. The UMLS Metathesaurus served as the main source for conceptual information and the UMLS Semantic Network for relational information. We measured interannotator agreement and analyzed the annotations closely to identify some of the challenges in annotating biomedical text with relations based on an ontology or a terminology. Results We obtain fair to moderate interannotator agreement in the practice phase (0.378-0.475. With improved guidelines and additional semantic equivalence criteria, the agreement increases by 12% (0.415 to 0.536 in the main annotation phase. In addition, we find that agreement increases to 0.688 when the agreement calculation is limited to those predications that are based only on the explicitly provided UMLS concepts and relations. Conclusions While interannotator agreement in the practice phase confirms that conceptual annotation is a challenging task, the increasing agreement in the main annotation phase points out that an acceptable level of agreement can be achieved in multiple iterations, by setting stricter guidelines and establishing semantic equivalence criteria. Mapping text to ontological concepts emerges as the main challenge in conceptual annotation. Annotating predications involving biomolecular

  17. Context effects in embodied lexical-semantic processing

    Wessel O Van Dam


    Full Text Available The embodied view of language comprehension proposes that the meaning of words is grounded in perception and action rather than represented in abstract amodal symbols. Support for embodied theories of language processing comes from behavioural studies showing that understanding a sentence about an action can modulate congruent and incongruent physical responses, suggesting motor involvement during comprehension of sentences referring to bodily movement. Additionally, several neuroimaging studies have provided evidence that comprehending single words denoting manipulable objects elicits specific responses in the neural motor system. An interesting question that remains is whether action semantic knowledge is directly activated as motor simulations in the brain, or rather modulated by the semantic context in which action words are encountered. In the current paper we investigated the nature of conceptual representations using a go/no-go lexical decision task. Specifically, target words were either presented in a semantic context that emphasized dominant action features (features related to the functional use of an object or non-dominant action features. The response latencies in a lexical decision task reveal that participants were faster to respond to words denoting objects for which the functional use was congruent with the prepared movement. This facilitation effect, however, was only apparent when the semantic context emphasized corresponding motor properties. These findings suggest that motor involvement during comprehension of sentences is not automatic. Rather, the results suggest that conceptual processing is a context-dependent process that incorporates motor-related knowledge in a flexible manner.

  18. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Andrea Ballatore


    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  19. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Dumais, Susan T.


    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  20. Universal Semantics in Translation

    Wang, Zhenying


    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  1. Characterization of revenue equivalence

    Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Uetz, Marc


    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds for any (possibly in¯nite) outcome space and many of the known results about revenue equivalence are immediate consequences.

  2. Characterization of Revenue Equivalence

    Heydenreich, B.; Müller, R.J.; Uetz, M.J.; R. Vohra


    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called \\emph{revenue equivalence}. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds for any (possibly infinite) outcome space and many of the known results are immediate consequences. Moreover, revenue equivalence can be identified in cases where existing theor...

  3. Integrating Ontology into Semantic File Systems

    Ngo, Ba-Hung; Bac, Christian; SILBER-CHAUSSUMIER, Frédérique


    Semantic file systems enhance standard file systems with the ability of file searching based on file semantics. In this paper, we propose to integrate the support for ontologies into a file system to build efficient semantic file systems whose file semantics can be shared between users, applications and semantic file systems themselves. We call it ontology-based file system. We identify three existing types of file semantics: property-based, content-based and context-based semantics and adopt...

  4. Characterization of revenue equivalence

    Heydenreich, B.; Müller, R.; Uetz, M.J.; Vohra, R.


    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. We give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds f

  5. Characterization of revenue equivalence

    Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Uetz, Marc; Vohra, Rakesh


    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called \\emph{revenue equivalence}. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The cha

  6. Challenges in Bridging Social Semantics and Formal Semantics on the Web

    Gandon, Fabien; Buffa, Michel; Cabrio, Elena; Corby, Olivier; Faron-Zucker, Catherine; Giboin, Alain; Le Thanh, Nhan; Mirbel, Isabelle; Sander, Peter; Tettamanzi, Andrea G. B.; Villata, Serena


    International audience This paper describes several results of Wimmics, a research lab which names stands for: web-instrumented man-machine interactions, communities, and semantics. The approaches introduced here rely on graph-oriented knowledge representation, reasoning and operationalization to model and support actors, actions and interactions in web-based epistemic communities. The re-search results are applied to support and foster interactions in online communities and manage their r...

  7. How neurons make meaning: brain mechanisms for embodied and abstract-symbolic semantics.

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann


    How brain structures and neuronal circuits mechanistically underpin symbolic meaning has recently been elucidated by neuroimaging, neuropsychological, and neurocomputational research. Modality-specific 'embodied' mechanisms anchored in sensorimotor systems appear to be relevant, as are 'disembodied' mechanisms in multimodal areas. In this paper, four semantic mechanisms are proposed and spelt out at the level of neuronal circuits: referential semantics, which establishes links between symbols and the objects and actions they are used to speak about; combinatorial semantics, which enables the learning of symbolic meaning from context; emotional-affective semantics, which establishes links between signs and internal states of the body; and abstraction mechanisms for generalizing over a range of instances of semantic meaning. Referential, combinatorial, emotional-affective, and abstract semantics are complementary mechanisms, each necessary for processing meaning in mind and brain. PMID:23932069

  8. From Data to Semantic Information

    Luciano Floridi


    Full Text Available Abstract: There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

  9. Equivalences of twisted K3 surfaces

    Huybrechts, Daniel; Stellari, Paolo


    We prove that two derived equivalent twisted K3 surfaces have isomorphic periods. The converse is shown for K3 surfaces with large Picard number. It is also shown that all possible twisted derived equivalences between arbitrary twisted K3 surfaces form a subgroup of the group of all orthogonal transformations of the cohomology of a K3 surface. The passage from twisted derived equivalences to an action on the cohomology is made possible by twisted Chern characters that will be introduced for a...

  10. A Fully Abstract Symbolic Semantics for Psi-Calculi

    Johansson, Magnus; Parrow, Joachim; 10.4204/EPTCS.18.2


    We present a symbolic transition system and bisimulation equivalence for psi-calculi, and show that it is fully abstract with respect to bisimulation congruence in the non-symbolic semantics. A psi-calculus is an extension of the pi-calculus with nominal data types for data structures and for logical assertions representing facts about data. These can be transmitted between processes and their names can be statically scoped using the standard pi-calculus mechanism to allow for scope migrations. Psi-calculi can be more general than other proposed extensions of the pi-calculus such as the applied pi-calculus, the spi-calculus, the fusion calculus, or the concurrent constraint pi-calculus. Symbolic semantics are necessary for an efficient implementation of the calculus in automated tools exploring state spaces, and the full abstraction property means the semantics of a process does not change from the original.

  11. Semantic Vector Machines

    Vincent, Etter


    We first present our work in machine translation, during which we used aligned sentences to train a neural network to embed n-grams of different languages into an $d$-dimensional space, such that n-grams that are the translation of each other are close with respect to some metric. Good n-grams to n-grams translation results were achieved, but full sentences translation is still problematic. We realized that learning semantics of sentences and documents was the key for solving a lot of natural language processing problems, and thus moved to the second part of our work: sentence compression. We introduce a flexible neural network architecture for learning embeddings of words and sentences that extract their semantics, propose an efficient implementation in the Torch framework and present embedding results comparable to the ones obtained with classical neural language models, while being more powerful.

  12. Where Are the Semantics in the Semantic Web?

    Uschold, Michael


    The most widely accepted defining feature of the semantic web is machine-usable content. By this definition, the semantic web is already manifest in shopping agents that automatically access and use web content to find the lowest air fares or book prices. However, where are the semantics? Most people regard the semantic web as a vision, not a reality -- so shopping agents should not "count." To use web content, machines need to know what to do when they encounter it, which, in turn, requires ...

  13. Semantic Web Services Fundamentals

    Heymans, Stijn; Hoffmann, Joerg; Marconi, Annapaola; Phlipps, Joshua; Weber, Ingo


    The research area of Semantic Web Services investigates the annotation of services, typically in a SOA, with a precise mathematical meaning in a formal ontology. These annotations allow a higher degree of automation. The last decade has seen a wide proliferation of such approaches, proposing different ontology languages, and paradigms for employing these in practice. The next chapter gives an overview of these approaches. In the present chapter, we provide an understanding of the fundamental ...

  14. Metaphor and Lexical Semantics

    Michael Glanzberg


    ABSTRACT: This paper shows that several sorts of expressions cannot be interpreted metaphorically, including determiners, tenses, etc. Generally, functional categories cannot be interpreted metaphorically, while lexical categories can. This reveals a semantic property of functional categories, and it shows that metaphor can be used as a probe for investigating them. It also reveals an important linguistic constraint on metaphor. The paper argues this constraint applies to the interface betwee...

  15. Insensitive Enough Semantics

    Richard Vallée


    Full Text Available According to some philosophers, sentences like (1 “It is raining” and (2 “John is ready” are context sensitive sentences even if they do not contain indexicals or demonstratives. That view initiated a context sensitivity frenzy. Cappelen and Lepore (2005 summarize the frenzy by the slogan “Every sentence is context sensitive” (Insensitive Semantics, p. 6, note 5. They suggest a view they call Minimalism according to which the truth conditions of utterances of sentences like (1/(2 are exactly what Convention T gives you. I will distinguish different propositions, and refocus semantics on sentences. As distinct from what the protagonists in the ongoing debate think, I argue that the content or truth conditions of utterances of both context sensitive sentences and sentences like (1/(2 are not interesting from a semantic point of view, and that the problem sentences like (1/(2 raises is not about context sensitivity or context insensitivity of sentences, but relevance of the content of utterances.

  16. Rethinking actions: implementation and association.

    Quandt, Lorna C; Chatterjee, Anjan


    Action processing allows us to move through and interact with the world, as well as understand the movements performed by other people. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the semantics of actions as differentiated from the semantics of objects. However, as the understanding of action semantics has evolved, it is evident that the existing literature conflates two senses of the word 'action'-one that stems from studies of tool use and the other from event representation. In this paper, we suggest that this issue can be clarified by closely examining differences in how the human parietal and temporal cortices of the brain process action-related stimuli. By contrasting the posterior parietal cortex to the posterolateral temporal cortex, we characterize two complementary action systems in the human brain, each with its own specialization of function. We suggest that these two systems be referred to as the parietal Action Implementation System, and the posterolateral temporal Action Association System. While the frontoparietal system is concerned primarily with how we perform actions, and simulate others' actions, the temporal action system is more involved with processing actions from a third-person, conceptual standpoint. Recent work in cognitive neuroscience of perception and language, as well as the neuroanatomical organization of these brain regions support this distinction. We will discuss the implications of this work for cognition-, language-, and neuroscience-based action research. PMID:26352170

  17. Hierarchical Semantic Model of Geovideo

    XIE Xiao


    Full Text Available The public security incidents were getting increasingly challenging with regard to their new features, including multi-scale mobility, multistage dynamic evolution, as well as spatiotemporal concurrency and uncertainty in the complex urban environment. However, the existing video models, which were used/designed for independent archive or local analysis of surveillance video, have seriously inhibited emergency response to the urgent requirements.Aiming at the explicit representation of change mechanism in video, the paper proposed a novel hierarchical geovideo semantic model using UML. This model was characterized by the hierarchical representation of both data structure and semantics based on the change-oriented three domains (feature domain, process domain and event domain instead of overall semantic description of video streaming; combining both geographical semantics and video content semantics, in support of global semantic association between multiple geovideo data. The public security incidents by video surveillance are inspected as an example to illustrate the validity of this model.


    Vidya S. Dandagi


    Full Text Available Semantic Web is a system that allows machines to understand complex human requests. Depending on the meaning semantic web replies. Semantics is the learning of the meanings of linguistic appearance. It is the main branch of contemporary linguistics. Semantics is meaning of words, text or a phrase and relations between them. RDF provides essential support to the Semantic Web. To represent distributed information RDF is created. Applications can use RDF created and process it in an adaptive manner. Knowledge representation is done using RDF standards and it is machine understandable. This paper describes the creation of a semantic web using RDF, and retrieval of accurate results using SparQL query language.

  19. A System-Level Semantics

    Ghica, Dan R.; Tzevelekos, Nikos


    Game semantics is a trace-like denotational semantics for programming languages where the notion of legal observable behaviour of a term is defined combinatorially, by means of rules of a game between the term (the "Proponent") and its context (the "Opponent"). In general, the richer the computational features a language has, the less constrained the rules of the semantic game. In this paper we consider the consequences of taking this relaxation of rules to the limit, by granting the Opponent...

  20. Towards an Emergent Semantic Web

    Portmann, Edy


    In his in uential article about the evolution of the Web, Berners-Lee [1] envisions a Semantic Web in which humans and computers alike are capable of understanding and processing information. This vision is yet to materialize. The main obstacle for the Semantic Web vision is that in today's Web meaning is rooted most often not in formal semantics, but in natural language and, in the sense of semiology, emerges not before interpretation and processing. Yet, an automated form of interpretation ...

  1. Archaeology and the Semantic Web

    Isaksen, Leif


    This thesis explores the application of Semantic Web technologies to the discipline of Archaeology. Part One (Chapters 1-3) offers a discussion of historical developments in this field. It begins with a general comparison of the supposed benefits of semantic technologies and notes that they partially align with the needs of archaeologists. This is followed by a literature review which identifies two different perspectives on the Semantic Web: Mixed-Source Knowledge Representation (MSKR), whic...

  2. Improving Semantic Web Service Discovery

    J. Javier Samper; F. Javier Adell; Leo van den Berg; J. José Martinez


    Semantic Web Services (SWS) propose to extend the traditional Web Services technologies on the way to consolidate ontologies and semantics. This makes it possible to select, integrate and invocate services dynamically. In this way, services are able to dynamically adapt themselves to changes without human intervention. The main purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm for matching SWS. The algorithm uses the description of the service capabilities to match the semantic values. The tra...

  3. Semantic Shift in Plant Names



    The aim of the present work is to identify and list English plant names coined by semantic shift, namely by metaphor, metonymy or synecdoche, and to carry out a detailed categorisation of individual semantic categories based on different tendencies within them and interpretation of the results. The theoretical part of my work focuses on different approaches to semantic shift and its categories. It is followed by the practical part which deals individually with metaphor, metonymy and synecdoch...

  4. Semantic multimedia analysis and processing

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Mylonas, Phivos


    Broad in scope, Semantic Multimedia Analysis and Processing provides a complete reference of techniques, algorithms, and solutions for the design and the implementation of contemporary multimedia systems. Offering a balanced, global look at the latest advances in semantic indexing, retrieval, analysis, and processing of multimedia, the book features the contributions of renowned researchers from around the world. Its contents are based on four fundamental thematic pillars: 1) information and content retrieval, 2) semantic knowledge exploitation paradigms, 3) multimedia personalization, and 4)

  5. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Smith, C.L.


    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  6. A Timed Semantics for SDL

    Mørk, Simon; Godskesen, Jens Christian; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Sharp, Robin

    An alternative formal semantics for describing the temporal aspects for the ITU-T specification language SDL is proposed, based on the interval temporal logic Duration Calculus (DC). It is shown how DC can be used to give an SDL semantics with a precise treatment oftemporal phenomena. The semantics...... allows true concurrency. We show how it can be used to address issues such as the verification oftemporal properties, process scheduling, and the nature of viewed (shared) variables....

  7. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Volodymyr Shyrokov


    System semantics of explanatory dictionariesSome semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hype...

  8. Comparative study of the impacts of hydroelectric power plants with impacts avoided by a Virtual Plants Equivalents (VPEs) through of energy efficiency actions; Estudo comparativo dos impactos das usinas hidreletricas com os impactos evitados por uma usina virtual equivalente atraves das acoes de eficiencia energetica

    Silva, Roberto Perillo Barbosa da; Barros, Regiane Silva de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], emails:, Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. Engenharia Agricola], email:


    This article presents a comparative study of the impacts caused by Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPPs) in relation to the impacts avoided through actions that promotes energy efficiency called Virtual Plants Equivalents (VPEs). To do so, it was considering the recent results presented by the National Program for Electric Energy Conservation (PROCEL) to the year 2008, which shows that the program actions' in this period resulted in a Virtual Plant Equivalent of 1049 MW. It was performed a survey of the values of wetland and families displaced by the construction of hydropower plants and, later, it was compared these data with the values found in the literature and, finally, it was established that the actions of energy efficiency are important instruments to avoid (or at least postpone) the social and environmental impacts directly and indirectly that affects the whole society. Thus, it is suggested that there is a stimulus in relation to energy efficiency actions, what is observed nowadays in Brazil is that these actions are negligible before the potential that exists at industrial, commercial and residential sectors. (author)

  9. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Volodymyr Shyrokov


    Full Text Available System semantics of explanatory dictionariesSome semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hypercycles formalism. The connection between the hypercyle properties of the lexicographical system semantics and Goedel’s incompleteness theorem is discussed.

  10. Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries

    Rajab Abd al-Hamed


    An article about the semantic web, it begins with defining the semantic web and its importance, then talks about the ontology relations, then the role of the semantic web in digital libraries, and its features which will serve digital libraries.

  11. The syntax and semantics of tense-aspect stem participles in early Ṛgvedic Sanskrit

    Lowe, John J; Willi, Andreas; Tucker, Elizabeth


    In this thesis I investigate the syntax and semantics of tense-aspect stem participles in the Ṛgveda, focusing primarily on the data from the earlier books II–VII and IX, seeking to establish a comprehensive and coherent analysis of this category within the linguistic system of Ṛgvedic Sanskrit. In recent literature tense-aspect stem participles are usually treated as semantically equivalent to finite verbs wherever possible, but contradictorily where they differ from finite verbs their adjec...

  12. The functional neuroanatomy of actions

    Watson, Christine E.; Chatterjee, Anjan


    Our current understanding of the neural basis of semantic memory is informed primarily by studies of concrete objects. However, conceptual knowledge encompasses many other, albeit less concrete, domains. This article reviews evidence from neuroimaging and patient studies that speaks to the neural basis of action concepts and the words that refer to them. These data highlight 2 important principles governing the neural instantiation of semantic knowledge. First, the organization of conceptual ...

  13. GOOSE: semantic search on internet connected sensors

    Schutte, Klamer; Bomhof, Freek; Burghouts, Gertjan; van Diggelen, Jurriaan; Hiemstra, Peter; van't Hof, Jaap; Kraaij, Wessel; Pasman, Huib; Smith, Arthur; Versloot, Corne; de Wit, Joost


    More and more sensors are getting Internet connected. Examples are cameras on cell phones, CCTV cameras for traffic control as well as dedicated security and defense sensor systems. Due to the steadily increasing data volume, human exploitation of all this sensor data is impossible for effective mission execution. Smart access to all sensor data acts as enabler for questions such as "Is there a person behind this building" or "Alert me when a vehicle approaches". The GOOSE concept has the ambition to provide the capability to search semantically for any relevant information within "all" (including imaging) sensor streams in the entire Internet of sensors. This is similar to the capability provided by presently available Internet search engines which enable the retrieval of information on "all" web pages on the Internet. In line with current Internet search engines any indexing services shall be utilized cross-domain. The two main challenge for GOOSE is the Semantic Gap and Scalability. The GOOSE architecture consists of five elements: (1) an online extraction of primitives on each sensor stream; (2) an indexing and search mechanism for these primitives; (3) a ontology based semantic matching module; (4) a top-down hypothesis verification mechanism and (5) a controlling man-machine interface. This paper reports on the initial GOOSE demonstrator, which consists of the MES multimedia analysis platform and the CORTEX action recognition module. It also provides an outlook into future GOOSE development.

  14. Is semantic preview benefit due to relatedness or plausibility?

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally


    There is increasing evidence that skilled readers of English benefit from processing a parafoveal preview of a semantically related word. However, in previous investigations of semantic preview benefit using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm the semantic relatedness between the preview and target has been confounded with the plausibility of the preview word in the sentence. In the present study, preview relatedness and plausibility were independently manipulated in neutral sentences read by a large sample of skilled adult readers. Participants were assessed on measures of reading and spelling ability to identify possible sources of individual differences in preview effects. The results showed that readers benefited from a preview of a plausible word, regardless of the semantic relatedness of the preview and the target. However, there was limited evidence of a semantic relatedness benefit when the plausibility of the preview was controlled. The plausibility preview benefit was strongest for low proficiency readers, suggesting that poorer readers were more likely to program a forward saccade based on information extracted from the preview. High proficiency readers showed equivalent disruption from all nonidentical previews suggesting that they were more likely to suffer interference from the orthographic mismatch between preview and target. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26752734

  15. Fully Abstract Game Semantics for Actors

    Wang, Yong


    Along the way paved by the recent concurrent game semantics for process algebra CCS and $\\pi$-calculus, based on the basic characteristics of the actor computational model and the very reductive semantics for actors, we establish a fully abstract concurrent game semantics for actors by borrowing the algebraic structure from CCS. This semantics can both be seen as an innocent presheaf semantics, and a concurrent game semantics.

  16. Non-semantic contributions to "semantic" redundancy gain.

    Shepherdson, Peter; Miller, Jeff


    Recently, two groups of researchers have reported redundancy gains (enhanced performance with multiple, redundant targets) in tasks requiring semantic categorization. Here we report two experiments aimed at determining whether the gains found by one of these groups resulted from some form of semantic coactivation. We asked undergraduate psychology students to complete choice RT tasks requiring the semantic categorization of visually presented words, and compared performance with redundant targets from the same semantic category to performance with redundant targets from different semantic categories. If the redundancy gains resulted from the combination of information at a semantic level, they should have been greater in the former than the latter situation. However, our results showed no significant differences in redundancy gain (for latency and accuracy) between same-category and different-category conditions, despite gains appearing in both conditions. Thus, we suggest that redundancy gain in the semantic categorization task may result entirely from statistical facilitation or combination of information at non-semantic levels. PMID:26339718

  17. An Improved Technique for Ranking Semantic Associations

    S Narayana


    Full Text Available The primary focus of the search techniques in the first generation of the Web is accessing relevant documents from the Web. Though it satisfies user requirements, but it is insufficient as the user sometimes wishes to access actionable information involving complex relationships between two given entities. Finding such complex relationships (also known as semantic associations is especially useful in applications such as National Security, Pharmacy, Business Intelligence etc. Therefore the next frontier is discovering relevant semantic associations between two entities present in large semantic metadata repositories. Given two entities, there exist a huge number of semantic associations between two entities. Hence ranking of these associations is required in order to find more relevant associations. For this Aleman Meza et al. proposed a method involving six metrics viz. context, subsumption, rarity, popularity, association length and trust. To compute the overall rank of the associations this method computes context, subsumption, rarity and popularity values for each component of the association and for all the associations. However it is obvious that, many components appears repeatedly in many associations therefore it is not necessary to compute context, subsumption, rarity, popularity, and trust values of the components every time for each association rather the previously computed values may be used while computing the overall rank of the associations. This paper proposes a method to reuse the previously computed values using a hash data structure thus reduce the execution time. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, experiments were conducted on SWETO ontology. Results show that the proposed method is more efficient than the other existing methods.

  18. Developing Semantic Business Model for VO Construction on Semantic Grid

    CHU Wang; QIAN Depei


    This paper combines semantic web technology with business modeling and yields semantic business model that is semantically described in terms of roles and relationships. The semantic business model can be used to discover grid services by means of automation tools. The gap between business goals and grid services is bridged by role relationships and compositions of them, so that the virtual organization evolution is supported effectively. Semantic business model can support virtual organization validation at design stage rather than at run-time stage. The designers can animate their business model and make initial assessment of what interactions should occur between roles and in which order. The users can verify whether the grid service compositions satisfy business goals.

  19. Equivalências conceitual, semântica e instrumental: análises preliminares da versão em português (Brasil da Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS Equivalencias conceptual, semántica e instrumental: análisis preliminares de la versión en portugués (Brasil de la Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS Conceptual, semantic, and instrumental equivalences: preliminary analysis of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS

    Norman Hearst


    cualidades psicométricas iniciales. Necesita, asimismo, análisis de validez interna y externa, y de reproductibilidad.This study aimed to describe the translation into Brazilian Portuguese and the analysis of conceptual, semantic, and instrumental equivalences and assessment of internal consistency of the Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS. The study included the steps of (1 translation; (2 synthesis of translation; (3 back-translation; (4 review by experts - judges - analysis of the semantic and instrumental equivalences; (5 pre-test - assessment of verbal understanding of the instrument by specialists and male students; (6 analysis of the internal consistency by Cronbach's α coefficient. The MBDS was translated and adapted into Brazilian Portuguese maintaining its original 25 items, showed good verbal comprehension, and had an internal consistency coefficient of 0.92. The scale was translated and adapted with satisfactory results, thus confirming its initial psychometric qualities. The instrument requires further analysis of internal and external validity, and reproducibility.

  20. Indistinguishability and semantic security for quantum encryption scheme

    Xiang, Chong; Yang, Li


    We investigate the definition of security for encryption scheme in quantum context. We systematically define the indistinguishability and semantic security for quantum public-key and private-key encryption schemes, and for computational security, physical security and information-theoretic security. Based on our definition, we present a necessary and sufficient condition that leads to information-theoretic indistinguishability for quantum encryption scheme. The equivalence between the indisti...

  1. Semantics and the crowd

    Mark GREAVES


    One of the principal scientific challenges that drives my group is to understand the character of formal knowledge on the Web.By formal knowledge,I mean information that is represented on the Web in something other than natural language text—typically,as machine-readable Web data with a formal syntax and a specific,intended semantics.The Web provides a major counterpoint to our traditional artificial intelligence (AI) based accounts of formal knowledge.Most symbolic AI systems are designed to address sophisticated logical inference over coherent conceptual knowledge,and thus the underlying research is focused on characterizing formal properties such as entailment relations,time/space complexity of inference,monotonicity,and expressiveness.In contrast,the Semantic Web allows us to explore formal knowledge in a very different context,where data representations exist in a constantly changing,large-scale,highly distributed network of looselyconnected publishers and consumers,and are governed by a Web-derived set of social practices for discovery,trust,reliability,and use.We are particularly interested in understanding how large-scale Semantic Web data behaves over longer time periods:the way by which its producers and consumers shift their requirements over time;how uniform resource identifiers (URIs) are used to dynamically link knowledge together;and the overall lifecycle of Web data from publication,to use,integration with other knowledge,evolution,and eventual deprecation.We believe that understanding formal knowledge in this Web context is the key to bringing existing AI insights and knowledge bases to the level of scale and utility of the current hypertext Web.

  2. Universal semantic communication

    Juba, Brendan


    Is meaningful communication possible between two intelligent parties who share no common language or background? In this work, a theoretical framework is proposed in which it is possible to address when and to what extent such semantic communication is possible: such problems can be rigorously addressed by explicitly focusing on the goals of the communication. Under this framework, it is possible to show that for many goals, communication without any common language or background is possible using universal protocols. This work should be accessible to anyone with an undergraduate-level knowled

  3. Semantic and Process Interoperability

    Félix Oscar Fernández Peña


    Full Text Available Knowledge management systems support education at different levels of the education. This is very important for the process in which the higher education of Cuba is involved. Structural transformations of teaching are focused on supporting the foundation of the information society in the country. This paper describes technical aspects of the designing of a model for the integration of multiple knowledgemanagement tools supporting teaching. The proposal is based on the definition of an ontology for the explicit formal description of the semantic of motivations of students and teachers in the learning process. Its target is to facilitate knowledge spreading.

  4. The emerging semantic web

    Cruz, Isabel; Decker, Stefan; Euzenat, Jérôme; McGuinness, Deborah


    The World Wide Web has been the main source of an important shift in the way people get information and order services. However, the current Web is aimed at people only. The Semantic Web is a Web defined and linked in a way that it can be used by machines not just for display purposes, but also for automation, integration and reuse of data across various applications. Facilities and technologies to put machine understandable data on the Web are rapidly becoming a high priority for many commun...

  5. Mappings for the Semantic Web

    Gómez-Pérez, A.; Ramos, JA


    Mappings usually relate two similar knowledge aware resources. Mapping examples abound in thesauri, databases, and ontologies. Additionally, mapping systems can relate two different knowledge resources, such as databases and ontologies. All these mappings are operationally different and are sometimes named differently— for example, correspondences, semantic bridges, transformations, semantic relations, functions, conversions, and domain-method relations

  6. Hypertext in the Semantic Web

    Miles-Board, Timothy; Kampa, Simon; Carr, Les; Hall, Wendy


    The Semantic Web extends the current state of the Web with well-defined meaning. We advocate the use of ontological hypertext as an application of the Semantic Web to provide a principled and structured approach to navigating the resources on the Web. This paper demonstrates how we have applied this concept to two real-world scenarios.

  7. Equivalent and Alternative Forms for BF Gravity with Immirzi Parameter

    Merced Montesinos; Mercedes Velázquez


    A detailed analysis of the BF formulation for general relativity given by Capovilla, Montesinos, Prieto, and Rojas is performed. The action principle of this formulation is written in an equivalent form by doing a transformation of the fields of which the action depends functionally on. The transformed action principle involves two BF terms and the two Lorentz invariants that appear in the original action principle generically. As an application of this formalism, the action principle used by...

  8. On U-equivalence spaces

    Omidi Farshad; Molaei MohammadReza


    In this paper induced U-equivalence spaces are introduced and discussed. Also the notion of U- equivalently open subsets of a U-equivalence space and U-equivalently open functions are studied. Finally, equivalently uniformisable topological spaces are considered.

  9. Disorders of semantic memory.

    McCarthy, R A; Warrington, E K


    It is now established that selective disorders of semantic memory may arise after focal cerebral lesions. Debate and dissension remain on three principal issues: category specificity, the status of modality-dependent knowledge, and the stability and sufficiency of stored information. Theories of category specificity have focused on the frequently reported dissociation between living things and man-made objects. However, other dimensions need theoretical integration. Impairments can be both finer-grain and broader in range. A second variable of importance is stimulus modality. Reciprocal interactive dissociations between vision and language and between animals and objects will be described. These indicate that the derivation of semantic information is constrained by input modality: we appear to have evolved separable databases for the visual and the verbal world. Thirdly, an orthogonal distinction has been drawn between degradation disorders, where representations are insufficient for comprehension, and access deficits, in which representations have become unstable. These issues may have their parallel in the acquisition of knowledge by the developing child. PMID:7886158

  10. Action Theory Contraction and Minimal Change

    Varzinczak, Ivan José


    This work is about changing action domain descriptions in dynamic logic. We here revisit the semantics of action theory contraction, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of distance between models. We then define syntactical contraction operators and establish their correctness w.r.t. our semantics. Finally we show that our operators satisfy the PDL-counterpart of the standard postulates for theory change adopted in the literature.

  11. "Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.


    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

  12. Últimamente: functional and semantic shift

    Mònica Vidal Díez


    Full Text Available The twenty-second edition of DRAE notes that últimamente has two adverbial type meanings, i. e. one adverbial meaning of manner - por ultimo - and another adverbial meaning of time that links with hace poco tiempo, recientemente. However, the time value does not appear in the dictionary until 1985, when, initially, the following formulation is used: hace poco, en el tiempo que acaba de transcurrir. This value, clearly the central or prototypical in modern Peninsular Spanish, contrasts, however, with the earlier functions assumed by this particle. Thus últimamente was equivalent to finalmente, por último término and therefore was used to insert either the closing segment of a multiple event chain arranged according to chronological criteria, or to indicate a sequence of elements in discourse without temporal marking. This research focuses on analyzing the changes in the particle últimamente until it acquired its current temporal function, i.e. recientemente, de un tiempo a esta parte. For the study we set up and analyzed a corpus formed ad hoc with samples taken from the CORDE and CREA (RAE, examining (i the potential connection between diachronic uses of últimamente and the tense of the sentence in which it appears, (ii its use as a discourse sequencing marker and (iii the semantic shift of these functions towards the contemporary meaning i.e. recientemente, de un tiempo a esta parte. The analysis provided shows the time at which the particle reaches the innovative semantic function and the semantic process of substitution or reduction of the original meaning.

  13. Enhancing Web Search with Semantic Identification of User Preferences

    Naglaa Fathy


    Full Text Available Personalized web search is able to satisfy individuals information needs by modeling long-term and short-term user interests based on user actions, browsed documents or past queries and incorporate these in the search process. In this paper, we propose a personalized search approach which models the user search preferences in an ontological user profile and semantically compares this model against user current query context to re-rank search results. Our user profile is based on the predefined ontology Open Directory Project (ODP so that after a user's search, relevant web pages are classified into topics in the ontology using semantic and cosine similarity measures. Moreover, interest scores are assigned to topics based on the users ongoing behavior. Our experiments show that re-ranking based on the semantic evidence of the updated user profile efficiently satisfies user information needs with the most relevant results being brought on to the top of the returned results.

  14. Correspondences. Equivalence relations

    We comment on sections paragraph 3 'Correspondences' and paragraph 6 'Equivalence Relations' in chapter II of 'Elements de mathematique' by N. Bourbaki in order to simplify their comprehension. Paragraph 3 exposes the ideas of a graph, correspondence and map or of function, and their composition laws. We draw attention to the following points: 1) Adopting the convention of writting from left to right, the composition law for two correspondences (A,F,B), (U,G,V) of graphs F, G is written in full generality (A,F,B)o(U,G,V) = (A,FoG,V). It is not therefore assumed that the co-domain B of the first correspondence is identical to the domain U of the second (EII.13 D.7), (1970). 2) The axiom of choice consists of creating the Hilbert terms from the only relations admitting a graph. 3) The statement of the existence theorem of a function h such that f = goh, where f and g are two given maps having the same domain (of definition), is completed if h is more precisely an injection. Paragraph 6 considers the generalisation of equality: First, by 'the equivalence relation associated with a map f of a set E identical to (x is a member of the set E and y is a member of the set E and x:f = y:f). Consequently, every relation R(x,y) which is equivalent to this is an equivalence relation in E (symmetrical, transitive, reflexive); then R admits a graph included in E x E, etc. Secondly, by means of the Hilbert term of a relation R submitted to the equivalence. In this last case, if R(x,y) is separately collectivizing in x and y, theta(x) is not the class of objects equivalent to x for R (EII.47.9), (1970). The interest of bringing together these two subjects, apart from this logical order, resides also in the fact that the theorem mentioned in 3) can be expressed by means of the equivalence relations associated with the functions f and g. The solutions of the examples proposed reveal their simplicity

  15. Exploring the role of the posterior middle temporal gyrus in semantic cognition: Integration of anterior temporal lobe with executive processes.

    Davey, James; Thompson, Hannah E; Hallam, Glyn; Karapanagiotidis, Theodoros; Murphy, Charlotte; De Caso, Irene; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Bernhardt, Boris C; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth


    Making sense of the world around us depends upon selectively retrieving information relevant to our current goal or context. However, it is unclear whether selective semantic retrieval relies exclusively on general control mechanisms recruited in demanding non-semantic tasks, or instead on systems specialised for the control of meaning. One hypothesis is that the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) is important in the controlled retrieval of semantic (not non-semantic) information; however this view remains controversial since a parallel literature links this site to event and relational semantics. In a functional neuroimaging study, we demonstrated that an area of pMTG implicated in semantic control by a recent meta-analysis was activated in a conjunction of (i) semantic association over size judgements and (ii) action over colour feature matching. Under these circumstances the same region showed functional coupling with the inferior frontal gyrus - another crucial site for semantic control. Structural and functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that this site is at the nexus of networks recruited in automatic semantic processing (the default mode network) and executively demanding tasks (the multiple-demand network). Moreover, in both task and task-free contexts, pMTG exhibited functional properties that were more similar to ventral parts of inferior frontal cortex, implicated in controlled semantic retrieval, than more dorsal inferior frontal sulcus, implicated in domain-general control. Finally, the pMTG region was functionally correlated at rest with other regions implicated in control-demanding semantic tasks, including inferior frontal gyrus and intraparietal sulcus. We suggest that pMTG may play a crucial role within a large-scale network that allows the integration of automatic retrieval in the default mode network with executively-demanding goal-oriented cognition, and that this could support our ability to understand actions and non

  16. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James


    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert. PMID:16185937

  17. Using semantic memory to boost 'episodic' recall in a case of developmental amnesia.

    Brandt, Karen R; Gardiner, John M; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan D; Mishkin, Mortimer


    We report two experiments that investigated factors that might boost 'episodic' recall for Jon, a developmental amnesic whose episodic memory is gravely impaired but whose semantic memory seems relatively normal. Experiment 1 showed that Jon's recall improved following a semantic study task compared with a non-semantic study task, as well as following four repeated study trials compared with only one. Experiment 2 additionally revealed that Jon's recall improved after acting compared with reading action phrases at study, but only if the phrases were well integrated semantically. The results provide some support for the hypothesis that Jon's 'episodic' recall depends on the extent to which he is able to retrieve events using semantic memory. PMID:16791103

  18. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T


    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. PMID:25909582

  19. Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities

    Syeda Farha Shazmeen


    Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the World Wide Web by machine process able information which supports the user in his tasks, and also helps the users to get the exact search result .In this paper; we discuss the interplay of the Semantic Web with Web Mining, list out the benefits. Challenges, opportunities of the Semantic web are discussed.

  20. Semantic Search Engine: A Survey

    Anusree.ramachandran; R Sujatha


    The semantic search engines have some advantages on the web search engines from the users view. In this fast life everybody need the answer for their queries very fast .In this scenario semantic searching engines will be helpful. It deals with the actual meaning of the queries. The tremendous growth in the volume of data or the information lead the traditional search engines to get the answers syntactically correct but large in amount. That might be the reason to get into the semantic search ...

  1. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.


    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  2. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis


    In principle termination analysis is easy: find a well-founded ordering and prove that calls decrease with respect to the ordering. We show how to embed termination information into a polymorphic type system for an eager higher-order functional language allowing multiple-argument functions and...... algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one...

  3. Formal Component-Based Semantics

    Madlener, Ken; van Eekelen, Marko; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.2


    One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

  4. Semantic acquisition games harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    Šimko, Jakub


    A comprehensive and extensive review of state-of-the-art in semantics acquisition game (SAG) design A set of design patterns for SAG designers A set of case studies (real SAG projects) demonstrating the use of SAG design patterns

  5. An Action Environment

    van den Brand, Mark; Iversen, Jørgen; Mosses, Peter David


    previous descriptions without change. This paper introduces a new formalism, ASDF, which has been designed specifically for giving reusable action semantic descriptions of individual language constructs. An initial case study in the use of ASDF has already provided reusable descriptions of all the basic...... constructs underlying Core ML. The paper also describes the Action Environment, a new environment supporting use and validation of ASDF descriptions. The Action Environment has been implemented on top of the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment, exploiting recent advances in techniques for integration of different...

  6. Adaptive semantics visualization

    Nazemi, Kawa


    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  7. Communication of Semantic Properties

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per


    The selection of materials and planning for production play a key role for the design of physical products. Product function, appearance and expression are influenced by the chosen materials and how they are shaped. However these properties are not carried by the material itself, but by the...... processes. This working paper argues for the need for a commonly accepted terminology used to communicate semantic product properties. Designers and others involved in design processes are dependent of a sharp and clear verbal communication. Search facilities in computer programs for product and material...... specific way that the materials are used in the product. Selection of materials is therefore often done by looking at similar products. The product as well as its constitutive materials possesses a number of technical properties like strength, stiffness and hardness. Furthermore the product possesses a...

  8. Automatic Discovery of Word Semantic Relations

    Dias, Gael; Moraliyski, Rumen; Cordeiro, Joao; Doucet, Antoine; Ahonen-Myka, Helena


    In this paper, we propose an unsupervised methodology to automatically discover pairs of semantically related words by highlighting their local environment and evaluating their semantic similarity in local and global semantic spaces. This proposal di®ers from previous research as it tries to take the best of two different methodologies i.e. semantic space models and information extraction models. It can be applied to extract close semantic relations, it limits the search space and...

  9. Search Relevance based on the Semantic Web

    Bicer, Veli


    In this thesis, we explore the challenge of search relevance in the context of semantic search. Specifically, the notion of semantic relevance can be distinguished from the other types of relevance in Information Retrieval (IR) in terms of employing an underlying semantic model. We propose the emerging Semantic Web data on the Web which is represented in RDF graph structures as an important candidate to become such a semantic model in a search process.

  10. Model Design of Semantic Website Construction

    Yu Guo; Jie Liu


    Semantic web is an extension of the current World Wide Web. This paper proposes a new model of constructing semantic website, and takes the construction of semantic website in the field of tourism in Africa as an example, and describes an approach to build the semantic website. It is a common approach and can be applied to the construction of other semantic websites. First, analyze user’s requirements, and then build domain ontology based on them requirements, design interactive interfa...

  11. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Violetta Koseska


    Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corporaIn view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form t...

  12. About Certain Semantic Annotation in Parallel Corpora

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa


    About Certain Semantic Annotation in Parallel CorporaThe semantic notation analyzed in this works is contained in the second stream of semantic theories presented here – in the direct approach semantics. We used this stream in our work on the Bulgarian-Polish Contrastive Grammar. Our semantic notation distinguishes quantificational meanings of names and predicates, and indicates aspectual and temporal meanings of verbs. It relies on logical scope-based quantification and on the contemporary t...

  13. Semantic Session Analysis for Web Usage Mining

    ZHANG Hui; SONG Hantao; XU Xiaomei


    A semantic session analysis method partitioning Web usage logs is presented. Semantic Web usage log preparation model enhances usage logs with semantic. The Markov chain model based on ontology semantic measurement is used to identifying which active session a request should belong to. The competitive method is applied to determine the end of the sessions.Compared with other algorithms, more successful sessions are additionally detected by semantic outlier analysis.

  14. Semantic Web Services in Corporate Memories

    Lo, Moussa; Gandon, Fabien


    We present our experiment in integrating semantic web services in the existing corporate semantic web server architecture we use to implement corporate memories. We rely on a semantic web search engine, to provide a semantic registry and automatically discover and invoke corporate applications wrapped into semantically annotated web services. Using rules we also demonstrate how to compose the web services with queries on the knowledge stored in the corporate memory to automatically populate t...

  15. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  16. The UMLS® Semantic Network and the Semantic Web

    Kashyap, Vipul


    The Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS®) , an extensive source of biomedical knowledge developed and maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) is being currently used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. The Semantic Network, a component of the UMLS is a structured description of core biomedical knowledge consisting of well defined semantic types and relationships between them. We investigate the expressiveness of DAML+OIL, a markup language proposed for ontologies ...

  17. A Real Semantic Web for Mathematics Deserves a Real Semantics

    Corbineau, P.H.J.M.; Geuvers, J.H.; Kaliszyk, C.S.; McKinna, J.H.; Wiedijk, F.


    Mathematical documents, and their instrumentation by computers, have rich structure at the layers of presentation, metadata and semantics, as objects in a system for formal mathematical logic. Semantic Web tools [2] support the first two of these, with little, if any, contribution to the third, while Proof Assistants [17] instrument the third layer, typically with bespoke approaches to the first two. Our position is that a web of mathematical documents, definitions and proofs should be given ...

  18. Atom interferometry and the Einstein equivalence principle

    Wolf, Peter; Bordé, Christian J; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Clande


    The computation of the phase shift in a symmetric atom interferometer in the presence of a gravitational field is reviewed. The difference of action-phase integrals between the two paths of the interferometer is zero for any Lagrangian which is at most quadratic in position and velocity. We emphasize that in a large class of theories of gravity the atom interferometer permits a test of the weak version of the equivalence principle (or universality of free fall) by comparing the acceleration of atoms with that of ordinary bodies, but is insensitive to that aspect of the equivalence principle known as the gravitational redshift or universality of clock rates.

  19. Deep Fusion of Multiple Semantic Cues for Complex Event Recognition.

    Zhang, Xishan; Zhang, Hanwang; Zhang, Yongdong; Yang, Yang; Wang, Meng; Luan, Huanbo; Li, Jintao; Chua, Tat-Seng


    We present a deep learning strategy to fuse multiple semantic cues for complex event recognition. In particular, we tackle the recognition task by answering how to jointly analyze human actions (who is doing what), objects (what), and scenes (where). First, each type of semantic features (e.g., human action trajectories) is fed into a corresponding multi-layer feature abstraction pathway, followed by a fusion layer connecting all the different pathways. Second, the correlations of how the semantic cues interacting with each other are learned in an unsupervised cross-modality autoencoder fashion. Finally, by fine-tuning a large-margin objective deployed on this deep architecture, we are able to answer the question on how the semantic cues of who, what, and where compose a complex event. As compared with the traditional feature fusion methods (e.g., various early or late strategies), our method jointly learns the essential higher level features that are most effective for fusion and recognition. We perform extensive experiments on two real-world complex event video benchmarks, MED'11 and CCV, and demonstrate that our method outperforms the best published results by 21% and 11%, respectively, on an event recognition task. PMID:26780785

  20. Graph-based Operational Semantics of a Lazy Functional Languages

    Rose, Kristoffer Høgsbro


    Presents Graph Operational Semantics (GOS): a semantic specification formalism based on structural operational semantics and term graph rewriting. Demonstrates the method by specifying the dynamic ...

  1. Equivalence Relations of -Algebra Extensions

    Changguo Wei


    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  2. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei


    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  3. Principle Based Semantics for HPSG

    Frank, A I


    The paper presents a constraint based semantic formalism for HPSG. The advantages of the formlism are shown with respect to a grammar for a fragment of German that deals with (i) quantifier scope ambiguities triggered by scrambling and/or movement and (ii) ambiguities that arise from the collective/distributive distinction of plural NPs. The syntax-semantics interface directly implements syntactic conditions on quantifier scoping and distributivity. The construction of semantic representations is guided by general principles governing the interaction between syntax and semantics. Each of these principles acts as a constraint to narrow down the set of possible interpretations of a sentence. Meanings of ambiguous sentences are represented by single partial representations (so-called U(nderspecified) D(iscourse) R(epresentation) S(tructure)s) to which further constraints can be added monotonically to gain more information about the content of a sentence. There is no need to build up a large number of alternative...

  4. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  5. Russian nominal semantics and morphology

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens

    The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which are...... also rooted in the lexical-semantic classification of Russian nouns. The presentation focuses on semantics, both lexical and grammatical, and not least the connection between these two levels of content. The principal theoretical impact is the insight that grammar and lexis should not be seen as a...... random collection of subsystems, but as a comprehensive structure of interconnected oppositions, repeating the same semantic distinctions at different levels and in different lexical and grammatical classes. The book is of interest to students of Russian and linguists with some command, stronger or...

  6. Improving Semantic Web Service Discovery

    J. Javier Samper


    Full Text Available Semantic Web Services (SWS propose to extend the traditional Web Services technologies on the way to consolidate ontologies and semantics. This makes it possible to select, integrate and invocate services dynamically. In this way, services are able to dynamically adapt themselves to changes without human intervention. The main purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm for matching SWS. The algorithm uses the description of the service capabilities to match the semantic values. The traditional matching has been improved using ontologies which constitute a step further in the matching algorithms. To implement the algorithm, an agent FIPA compliant architecture has been designed and developed. The results obtained are positive. The semantic web services framework developed in combination with the use of the matchmaking algorithm, which allows finding services based on their similarities.

  7. Equivalence in the Vietnamese Translation of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet

    Van Nhan Luong


    Equivalence has been the central concern in Translation Studies and always challenges the translator’s abilities. Equivalence is also the factor determining the closeness of target text (TT) to the source text (ST). By applying the theories suggested by Vinay and Darbelnet, Nida and Taber, Catford, Baker, House and Pym, as well as the qualitative method to describe the semantic features of the ST and the TT, this study has investigated and compared the Shakespeare’s English and the Vietnamese...

  8. The Dynamics Of English Terminological Compound Lexemes And Their Serbian Equivalents

    Dimković-Telebaković Gordana


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the conceptual dynamicity of English compound lexemes and their Serbian equivalents as reflected in compound lexemes in traffic engineering. The morphological structure and semantics of compound lexemes are considered, as well as strategies for translating English metaphorical compound lexemes into Serbian. The analysis reveals that Serbian cannot cope with the dynamic nature of traffic engineering terminology in English, and that Anglicisms, synonyms of different polysemous terms and vague conceptual determinations are characteristic of Serbian terminological equivalents

  9. Collaborative Semantic Structuring of Folksonomies

    Limpens, Freddy; Gandon, Fabien; Buffa, Michel


    The advent of tagging and folksonomies for organizing shared resources on the social Web brought promising opportunities to help communities of users capture their knowledge. However, the lack of semantics, or the spelling variations between tags lowers the potentials for browsing and exploring these data. To overcome these limitations, we propose exploiting the interactions between the users and the systems to validate or correct semantic analysis automatically applied to the tags. This proc...

  10. Semantically enriching folksonomies with FLOR

    Angeletou, Sofia; Sabou, Marta; Motta, Enrico


    While the increasing popularity of folksonomies has lead to a vast quantity of tagged data, resource retrieval in these systems is limited by them being agnostic to the meaning (i.e., semantics) of tags. Our goal is to automatically enrich folksonomy tags (and implicitly the related resources) with formal semantics by associating them to relevant concepts defined in online ontologies. We introduce FLOR, a mechanism for automatic folksonomy enrichment by combining knowledge from WordNet and on...

  11. Cooperative Question Answering Semantic Web

    Melo, Dora; Rodrigues, Irene Pimenta; Nogueira, Vitor


    In this paper we propose a Cooperative Question Answering System that takes as input queries expressed in natural language and is able to return a cooperative answer obtained from resources in the Semantic Web, more specifically DBpedia represented in OWL/RDF as knowledge base and WordNet to build similar questions. Our system resorts to ontologies not only for reasoning but also to find answers and is independent of prior knowledge of the semantic resources by the user. The natural language ...

  12. Semantic Description of Web Services

    Thabet Slimani


    The tasks of semantic web service (discovery, selection, composition, and execution) are supposed to enable seamless interoperation between systems, whereby human intervention is kept at a minimum. In the field of Web service description research, the exploitation of descriptions of services through semantics is a better support for the life-cycle of Web services. The large number of developed ontologies, languages of representations, and integrated frameworks supporting the discovery, compos...

  13. Benchmarking in the Semantic Web

    García-Castro, Raúl; Gómez-Pérez, A.


    The Semantic Web technology needs to be thoroughly evaluated for providing objective results and obtaining massive improvement in its quality; thus, the transfer of this technology from research to industry will speed up. This chapter presents software benchmarking, a process that aims to improve the Semantic Web technology and to find the best practices. The chapter also describes a specific software benchmarking methodology and shows how this methodology has been used to benchmark the inter...

  14. Backward semantic inhibition in toddlers

    Chow, J.; Aimola Davies, AM; Fuentes, LJ; Plunkett, KR


    Attention-switching is a crucial ability required in our everyday life, from toddlerhood to adulthood. In adults, shifting attention from one word (e.g., dog) to another (e.g., sea) results in backward semantic inhibition, i.e., the inhibition of the initial word (dog). This study examines whether attention-switching is accompanied by backward semantic inhibition in toddlers using the preferential looking paradigm. The findings demonstrate that a backward inhibitory mechanism operates during ...

  15. Semantic Ambiguity and Perceived Ambiguity

    Poesio, Massimo


    I explore some of the issues that arise when trying to establish a connection between the underspecification hypothesis pursued in the NLP literature and work on ambiguity in semantics and in the psychological literature. A theory of underspecification is developed `from the first principles', i.e., starting from a definition of what it means for a sentence to be semantically ambiguous and from what we know about the way humans deal with ambiguity. An underspecified language is specified as t...

  16. Image Semantic Analysis and Understanding

    Shi, Zhongzhi


    Image understanding is widely used in many areas like satellite imaging, robotic technologies, sensory networks, medical and biomedical imaging, intelligent transportation systems, etc. But it is difficult by traditional image processing. Recently semantic analysis has become an active research topic aimed at resolving the gap between low level image features and high level semantics which is a promoting approach in image understanding. This talk highlights the sophisticated methodologies of ...

  17. NASA and The Semantic Web

    Ashish, Naveen


    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  18. The SemanticWeb Languages

    Giunchiglia, Fausto; Farazi, Feroz; Tanca, Letizia; De Virgilio, Roberto


    The SemanticWeb is basically an extension of the Web and of the Webenabling database and Internet technology, and, as a consequence, the Semantic Web methodologies, representation mechanisms and logics strongly rely on those developed in databases. This is the motivation for many attempts to, more or less loosely, merge the two worlds like, for instance, the various proposals to use relational technology for storing web data or the use of ontologies for data integration. This article comes se...

  19. Quality measurement of semantic standards

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; Hillegersberg, van, R.


    Quality of semantic standards is unadressed in current research while there is an explicit need from standard developers. The business importance is evident since quality of standards will have impact on its diffusion and achieved interoperability in practice. An instrument to measure the quality of semantic standards is designed to contribute to the knowledge domain, standards developers and might ultimo lead to improved interoperability. This instrument is iteratively designed with multiple...

  20. A System-Level Semantics

    Ghica, Dan R


    Game semantics is a trace-like denotational semantics for programming languages where the notion of legal observable behaviour of a term is defined combinatorially, by means of rules of a game between the term (the "Proponent") and its context (the "Opponent"). In general, the richer the computational features a language has, the less constrained the rules of the semantic game. In this paper we consider the consequences of taking this relaxation of rules to the limit, by granting the Opponent omnipotence, that is, permission to play any move without combinatorial restrictions. However, we impose an epistemic restriction by not granting Opponent omniscience, so that Proponent can have undisclosed secret moves. We introduce a basic C-like programming language and we define such a semantic model for it. We argue that the resulting semantics is an appealingly simple combination of operational and game semantics and we show how certain traces explain system-level attacks, i.e. plausible attacks that are realizable...

  1. Object-oriented semantics of English in natural language understanding system

    Ostapov, Yuriy


    A new approach to the problem of natural language understanding is proposed. The knowledge domain under consideration is the social behavior of people. English sentences are translated into set of predicates of a semantic database, which describe persons, occupations, organizations, projects, actions, events, messages, machines, things, animals, location and time of actions, relations between objects, thoughts, cause-and-effect relations, abstract objects. There is a knowledge base containing the description of semantics of objects (functions and structure), actions (motives and causes), and operations.

  2. Beat-Event Detection in Action Movie Franchises

    Potapov, Danila; Douze, Matthijs; Revaud, Jerome; Harchaoui, Zaid; Schmid, Cordelia


    While important advances were recently made towards temporally localizing and recognizing specific human actions or activities in videos, efficient detection and classification of long video chunks belonging to semantically defined categories such as "pursuit" or "romance" remains challenging.We introduce a new dataset, Action Movie Franchises, consisting of a collection of Hollywood action movie franchises. We define 11 non-exclusive semantic categories - called beat-categories - that are br...

  3. Adaptação transcultural da versão em português da Conflict Tactics Scales Form R (CTS-1, usada para aferir violência no casal: equivalências semântica e de mensuração Cross-cultural adaptation of the Portuguese version of the Conflict Tactics Scales Form R (CTS-1 used to assess marital violence: semantic and measurement equivalence

    Maria Helena Hasselmann


    Full Text Available Este artigo focaliza a adaptação transcultural da versão em português do instrumento Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS-1. A equivalência semântica foi avaliada no que diz respeito ao significado referencial dos termos/palavras e a acepção geral de cada item. A equivalência de mensuração entre a versão em português e o instrumento original foi apreciada por meio das propriedades psicométricas, tais como, sua confiabilidade teste-reteste, sua validade de constructo, sua consistência interna e sua estrutura de fatores. Para os diferentes relacionamentos, as concordâncias das mensurações sobre agressão física oscilaram entre moderada e substancial. Os a de Cronbach apresentaram-se elevados para as escalas de agressão física e verbal, e baixos para escala de argumentação. Da mesma forma que no instrumento original, a análise de fatores da versão da CTS-1 identificou três dimensões que representam as escalas de argumentação, de agressão verbal, de agressão física e mais uma subescala de agressão física grave. Ainda que algumas discrepâncias tenham sido notadas, como um todo os resultados sugerem uma adequação do processo de adaptação transcultural da versão da CTS-1 para a língua portuguesa, endossando seu uso na população brasileira.This paper focuses on the cross-cultural adaptation of the Portuguese version of the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS-1. Semantic equivalence was evaluated with regard to the referential meaning of words and the general connotative meaning of each item. Measurement equivalence between the Portuguese version and the original instrument was assessed by means of the version's psychometric properties, namely, intra-observer reliability, construct validity, internal consistency, and factor structure. For the different relationships, measurement agreement for physical aggression was moderate to substantial. Cronbach's a's were high for the physical and verbal aggression scales and low for the

  4. 77 FR 22282 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series


    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Determination of equivalent price... products price series in the Dairy Products Sales report released by the Agricultural Marketing...

  5. Quantum Mechanics from an Equivalence Principle

    Faraggi, A E; Faraggi, Alon E.; Matone, Marco


    We show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action $\\S_0$ satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Möbius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schrödinger equation in any dimension.

  6. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S0 satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension

  7. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Matone, M. [Univ. of Padova (Italy)


    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S{sub 0} satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension.

  8. Process-oriented semantic web search

    Tran, DT


    The book is composed of two main parts. The first part is a general study of Semantic Web Search. The second part specifically focuses on the use of semantics throughout the search process, compiling a big picture of Process-oriented Semantic Web Search from different pieces of work that target specific aspects of the process.In particular, this book provides a rigorous account of the concepts and technologies proposed for searching resources and semantic data on the Semantic Web. To collate the various approaches and to better understand what the notion of Semantic Web Search entails, this bo

  9. System Model Semantics of Class Diagrams

    Cengarle, Maria Victoria; Grönninger, Hans; Rumpe, Bernhard


    Defining semantics for UML is a difficult task. Disagreements in the meaning of UML constructs as well as the size of UML are major obstacles. In this report, we describe our approach to define the semantics for UML. Semantics is defined denotationally as a mapping into our semantics domain called the system model [4, 5, 6]. We demonstrate our approach by defining the semantics for a comprehensive version of class diagrams. The semantics definition is detailed for UML/P class diagrams, a vari...

  10. Scandinavian Semantics and the Human Body

    Levisen, Carsten


    empirical evidence from the Evolution of Semantic Systems (EoSS) project. This combination of empirical and interpretative tools helps to integrate evidence from semantics and semiotics, pinning out in great detail the intricacies of the meanings of particular body words. The paper concludes that body words...... in closely related languages can differ substantially in their semantics. In related languages, where shared lexical form does not always mean shared semantics, ethnolinguistic studies in semantic change and shifts in polysemy patterns can help to reveal and explain the roots of semantic diversity....

  11. A Semantic Matchmaker for Ranking Web Services

    Bin Xu; Po Zhang; Juan-Zi Li; Wen-Jun Yang


    This paper is concerned with the matchmaker for ranking web services by using semantics. So far several methods of semantic matchmaker have been proposed. Most of them, however, focus on classifying the services into predefined categories rather than providing a ranking result. In this paper, a new method of semantic matchmaker is proposed for ranking web services. It is proposed to use the semantic distance for estimating the matching degree between a service and a user request. Four types of semantic distances are defined and four algorithms are implemented respectively to calculate them. Experimental results show that the proposed semantic matchmaker significantly outperforms the keywordbased baseline method.

  12. Service composition for the semantic web

    Medjahed, Brahim


    Service Composition for the Semantic Web presents an in-depth analysis of aspects related to semantic-enabled Web service modeling and composition. It also covers challenges and solutions to composing Web services on the semantic Web, and proposing a semantic framework for organizing and describing Web services. Service Composition for the Semantic Web describes composability and matching models to check whether semantic Web services can be combined together to avoid unexpected failures at run time, and a set of algorithms that automatically generate detailed descriptions of composite services

  13. Assessment of Pharmaceutical Equivalence: Difference Test or Equivalence Test?

    Lourenço, Felipe R.; Pinto, Terezinha J. A.


    Pharmaceutical equivalence is an important step towards the confirmation of similarity and interchangeability among pharmaceutical products, particularly regarding those that will not be tested for bioequivalence. The aim of this paper is to compare traditional difference testing to two one-side equivalence tests in the assessment of pharmaceutical equivalence, by means of equivalence studies between similar, generic and reference products of acyclovir cream, atropine sulfate injection, merop...

  14. Quantification and Negation in Event Semantics

    Lucas Champollion


    and Meaning’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6042, 203–212. Berlin, Germany: Springer.Carlson, Gregory N. 1977. Reference to Kinds in English. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.Carlson, Gregory N. 1984. ‘Thematic roles and their role in semantic interpretation’. Linguistics 22: 259–279., Lucas. 2010. Parts of a whole: Distributivity as a bridge between aspect and measurement. Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.Champollion, Lucas, Tauberer, Josh & Romero, Maribel. 2007. ‘The Penn Lambda Calculator: Pedagogical software for natural language semantics’. In Tracy Holloway King & Emily Bender (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Grammar Engineering Across Frameworks(GEAF 2007 Workshop’, Stanford, CA: CSLI Online Publications.Condoravdi, Cleo. 2002. ‘Punctual until as a scalar NPI’. In Sharon Inkelas & Kristin Hanson (eds. ‘The nature of the word’, 631–654. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Csirmaz, Aniko. 2006. ‘Aspect, Negation and Quantifiers’. In Liliane Haegeman, Joan Maling, James McCloskey & Katalin E. Kiss (eds. ‘Event Structure And The Left Periphery’, Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, vol. 68, 225–253. SpringerNetherlands.Davidson, Donald. 1967. ‘The logical form of action sentences’. In Nicholas Rescher (ed. ‘The logic of decision and action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Swart, Henriëtte. 1996. ‘Meaning and use of not . . . until’. Journal of Semantics 13: 221–263. Swart, Henriëtte & Molendijk, Arie. 1999. ‘Negation and the temporal structure of narrative discourse’. Journal of Semantics 16: 1–42., David R. 1979. Word meaning and Montague grammar. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reidel.Eckardt, Regine. 2010. ‘A Logic for Easy Linking Semantics’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de

  15. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    Freeman, Rebecca D. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)


    by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  16. Semantics of Distinguishing Criteria: from Subjective to Intersubjective

    Martin Takac, Jan Sefranek


    Full Text Available In this article we are aiming to build cognitive semantics over a first person perspective. Our goal is to specify meanings connected to cognitive agents, rooted in their experience and separable from language, covering a wide spectrum of cognitions ranging from living organisms (animals, pre-verbal children and adult humans to artificial agents and that the cognitive semantics covers a broad, continuous, spectrum of meanings.As regards the used method, the first person perspective enables a kind of grounding of meanings in cognitions. An ability of cognitive agents to distinguish is a starting point of our approach, distinguishing criteria and schemata are the basic semantic constructs.The resulting construction is based on a projection of the environment into a cluster of current percepts and a similarity function on percepts. Situation schemata, more sophisticated similarity functions, event schemata and distinguishing criteria are built over that basis. Inference rules and action rules are components of our semantics.An interesting property of the proposed semantics is that it makes possible coexistence of subjective and intersubjective meanings. Subjective (first person perspective meanings are primary, and we have shown the way from them to collectively accepted (third person perspective meanings via observable behaviour and feedback about success/failure of actions. An abductive reasoning is an important tool on that way. A construct of an instrument, which represents a measure for using intersubjective meanings, is introduced. The instrument serves as a tool for an inclusion of sophisticated meanings, e.g. of scientific constructs, into our framework.

  17. Pressure equivalents in industrial gas pipelines

    Metel' kov, V.P.


    Pressure equivalence is a mathematical concept used to explain action and load parameters for pipelines. These two parameters are congruent to pressures encountered in pipelines. The research examined pressure equivalence in 820 by 8 millimeter pipelines in the Samotlor region and took into account the influence of support jams during first and second category jamming. It was determined that the absolute dimensions to pressure pulsations were significantly larger than plus or minus ten percent from (Prab) and even exceeded (Prab) in certain instances. The ratios at which (Prab) can be exceeded vary with relation to the jam supports and the maximum variations stem from yield in the metal pipelines themselves. The above concepts can be used to study the effects of pressure equivalence upon loads and pressures of Samotlor field pipelines and to select appropriate pipeline planning and construction methods. The conclusions drawn are valid for industrial surface pipelines used at below limit pressures. Annular and daily temperature variations in the outside air are considered with regard to their effect upon the pressure equivalence within the lower sections of the pipeline. Deviations here have been noted to exceed (formula). It was observed that in the case of underground pipelines, operated at below limit pressures, pressure equivalence occured in the upper section of the pipeline.

  18. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  19. Web Feature Service Semantic Mediation

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.; Percivall, G. S.


    Scientists from different organizations and disciplines need to work together to find the solutions to complex problems. Multi-disciplinary science typically involves users with specialized tools and their own preferred view of the data including unique characteristics of the user's information model and symbology. Even though organizations use web services to expose data, there are still semantic inconsistencies that need to be solved. Recent activities within the OGC Interoperability Program (IP) have helped advance semantic mediation solutions when using OGC services to help solve complex problems. The OGC standards development process is influenced by the feedback of activities within the Interoperability Program, which conducts international interoperability initiatives such as Testbeds, Pilot Projects, Interoperability Experiments, and Interoperability Support Services. These activities are designed to encourage rapid development, testing, validation, demonstration and adoption of open, consensus based standards and best practices. Two recent Testbeds, the OGC Web Services Phase 8 and Phase 9, have advanced the use of semantic mediation approaches to increase semantic interoperability among geospatial communities. The Cross-Community Interoperability (CCI) thread within these two testbeds, advanced semantic mediation approaches for data discovery, access and use of heterogeneous data models and heterogeneous metadata models. This presentation will provide an overview of the interoperability program, the CCI Thread and will explain the methodology to mediate heterogeneous GML Application Profiles served via WFS, including discovery of services via a catalog standard interface and mediating symbology applicable to each application profile.

  20. Equivalent Linkages of Compressor Mechanisms

    Bukac, Hubert


    Frequently, the dynamics of a compressor’s mechanism can be simplified and better understood by analyzing compressor’s equivalent linkage. Although the equivalent linkage of a reciprocating piston compressor is well known, the equivalent linkages of other types of compressors are not. For example, it is not well understood that the equivalent linkage of a rolling piston compressor is also the same slider-crank mechanism as the one of a reciprocating piston compressor. The difference between r...

  1. Semantic Services for Wikipedia

    Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

    Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

  2. An Efficient Inductive Unsupervised Semantic Tagger

    Lua, K T


    We report our development of a simple but fast and efficient inductive unsupervised semantic tagger for Chinese words. A POS hand-tagged corpus of 348,000 words is used. The corpus is being tagged in two steps. First, possible semantic tags are selected from a semantic dictionary(Tong Yi Ci Ci Lin), the POS and the conditional probability of semantic from POS, i.e., P(S|P). The final semantic tag is then assigned by considering the semantic tags before and after the current word and the semantic-word conditional probability P(S|W) derived from the first step. Semantic bigram probabilities P(S|S) are used in the second step. Final manual checking shows that this simple but efficient algorithm has a hit rate of 91%. The tagger tags 142 words per second, using a 120 MHz Pentium running FOXPRO. It runs about 2.3 times faster than a Viterbi tagger.

  3. Modeling Computations in a Semantic Network

    Rodriguez, Marko A


    Semantic network research has seen a resurgence from its early history in the cognitive sciences with the inception of the Semantic Web initiative. The Semantic Web effort has brought forth an array of technologies that support the encoding, storage, and querying of the semantic network data structure at the world stage. Currently, the popular conception of the Semantic Web is that of a data modeling medium where real and conceptual entities are related in semantically meaningful ways. However, new models have emerged that explicitly encode procedural information within the semantic network substrate. With these new technologies, the Semantic Web has evolved from a data modeling medium to a computational medium. This article provides a classification of existing computational modeling efforts and the requirements of supporting technologies that will aid in the further growth of this burgeoning domain.

  4. Formal Language Decomposition into Semantic Primes

    Johannes FÄHNDRICH


    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for semantic decomposition. For that we surveys languages used to enrich contextual information with semantic descriptions. Such descriptions can be e.g. applied to enable reasoning when collecting vast amounts of information. In particular, we focus on the elements of the languages that make up their semantic. To do so, we compare the expressiveness of the well-known languages OWL, PDDL and MOF with a theory from linguistic called the Natural Semantic Metalanguage. We then analyze how the semantic of the language is build up and describe how semantic decomposition based on the semantic primes can be used for a so called mental lexicon. This mental lexicon can be used to reason upon semantic service description in the research domain of service match making.

  5. Adaptive Learning Management System Using Semantic Web Technologies

    M.Farida Begam


    Full Text Available Ontologies and semantic web services are the basics of next generation semantic web. This upcomingtechnologies are useful in many fields such as bioinformatics, businesscollaboration, Data integration andetc. E-learning is also the field in which semantic web technologies can be used to provide dynamism inlearning methodologies. E-learningincludes set of tasks which may beinstructionaldesign, contentdevelopment, authoring,delivery,assessment,feedback and etc.thatcan be sequenced and composed asworkflow.Web based Learning Management Systems should concentrate on how to satisfy the e-learnersrequirements. In this paper we have suggested the theoretical framework ALMS-Adaptive Learningmanagement System which focuses on three aspects 1 Extracting the knowledge from the use's interaction,behaviour and actions and translate them into semantics which are represented as Ontologies2 Find theLearner style from the knowledge base and 3deriving and composing the workflow depending upon thelearner style. The intelligent agents areusedin each module of the framework to perform reasoning andfinallythepersonalized workflow forthe e-learnerhas been recommended

  6. Agency and the semantic web

    Walton, Christopher


    This text looks at the construction of the Semantic Web, which will enable computers to automatically and independently consume Web-based information. With numerous programming examples, it is ideal for undergraduates and graduates in mathematics, computer science and logic and researchers interested in Multi-Agent Systems and the Semantic Web. - ;This highly topical text considers the construction of the next generation of the Web, called the Semantic Web. This will enable computers to automatically consume Web-based information, overcoming the human-centric focus of the Web as it stands at present, and expediting the construction of a whole new class of knowledge-based applications that will intelligently utilise Web content. The text is structured into three main sections on knowledge representation techniques, reasoning with multi-agent systems, and knowledge services. For each of these topics, the text provides an overview of the state-of-the-art techniques and the popular standards that have been define...

  7. A Semantic Web Blackboard System

    McKenzie, Craig; Preece, Alun; Gray, Peter

    In this paper, we propose a Blackboard Architecture as a means for coordinating hybrid reasoning over the Semantic Web. We describe the components of traditional blackboard systems (Knowledge Sources, Blackboard, Controller) and then explain how we have enhanced these by incorporating some of the principles of the Semantic Web to pro- duce our Semantic Web Blackboard. Much of the framework is already in place to facilitate our research: the communication protocol (HTTP); the data representation medium (RDF); a rich expressive description language (OWL); and a method of writing rules (SWRL). We further enhance this by adding our own constraint based formalism (CIF/SWRL) into the mix. We provide an example walk-though of our test-bed system, the AKTive Workgroup Builder and Blackboard(AWB+B), illustrating the interaction and cooperation of the Knowledge Sources and providing some context as to how the solution is achieved. We conclude with the strengths and weaknesses of the architecture.

  8. Are Some Semantic Changes Predictable?

    Schousboe, Steen


      Historical linguistics is traditionally concerned with phonology and syntax. With the exception of grammaticalization - the development of auxiliary verbs, the syntactic rather than localistic use of prepositions, etc. - semantic change has usually not been described as a result of regular deve...... developments, but only as specific meaning changes in individual words. This paper will suggest some regularities in semantic change, regularities which, like sound laws, have predictive power and can be tested against recorded languages.......  Historical linguistics is traditionally concerned with phonology and syntax. With the exception of grammaticalization - the development of auxiliary verbs, the syntactic rather than localistic use of prepositions, etc. - semantic change has usually not been described as a result of regular...

  9. Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*

    Ronald Moe


    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.


    Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die

  10. Proceedings Seventh Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics

    Aceto, Luca; 10.4204/EPTCS.32


    Structural operational semantics (SOS) is a technique for defining operational semantics for programming and specification languages. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, SOS has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs and in proving compiler correctness. Recently it has been applied in emerging areas such as probabilistic systems and systems biology.

  11. Concept Search: Semantics Enabled Information Retrieval

    Giunchiglia, Fausto; Kharkevich, Uladzimir; Zaihrayeu, Ilya


    In this paper we present a novel approach, called Concept Search, which extends syntactic search, i.e., search based on the computation of string similarity between words, with semantic search, i.e., search based on the computation of semantic relations between concepts. The key idea of Concept Search is to operate on complex concepts and to maximally exploit the semantic information available, reducing to syntactic search only when necessary, i.e., when no semantic information is available. ...

  12. Towards the Semantic Web Expert System

    Verhodubs, O; Grundspeņķis, J


    The paper presents a conception of the Semantic Web Expert System which is the logical continuation of the expert system development. The Semantic Web Expert System emerges as the result of evolution of expert system concept and it means expert system moving toward the Web and using new Semantic Web technologies. The proposed conception of the Semantic Web Expert System promises to have new useful features that distinguish it from other types of expert systems

  13. The semantic web: research and applications

    Gómez Pérez, Asunción; Euzenat, Jérôme


    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second European Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2005, heldin Heraklion, Crete, Greece in May/June 2005. The 48 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 148 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on semantic Web services, languages, ontologies, reasoning and querying, search and information retrieval, user and communities, natural language for the semantic Web, annotation tools, and semantic W...

  14. SomeRDFS in the Semantic Web

    Adjiman, Philippe; Goasdoué, François; Rousset, Marie-Christine


    The Semantic Web envisions a world-wide distributed architecture where computational resources will easily inter-operate to coordinate complex tasks such as query answering. Semantic marking up of web resources using ontologies is expected to provide the necessary glue for making this vision work. Using ontology languages, (communities of) users will build their own ontologies in order to describe their own data. Adding semantic mappings between those ontologies, in order to semantically rela...


    Anil Sharma


    Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide W...

  16. Comparison and Evaluation of Semantic Search Engines

    Raheleh Dorri


    In this study, we evaluate the performance of five semantic search engines that are available on the web, using 45 criteria, in the form of a researcher-made checklist. Criteria provided in the checklist included both common and semantic features. Common criteria or features are those applicable to all search engines and semantic ones are those only applicable to semantic search engines. Findings show that the selected search engines do not have suitable performance and expected efficiency. D...

  17. A generalized notion of semantic independence

    Fränzle, Martin; Stengel, Bernhard von; Wittmüss, Arne


    For programs represented semantically as relations, a concept of semantic independence is defined that is more general than previously stated notions. It allows for shared input variables and irrelevant interference due to nondeterminism.......For programs represented semantically as relations, a concept of semantic independence is defined that is more general than previously stated notions. It allows for shared input variables and irrelevant interference due to nondeterminism....


    Karan Singh*, Anil kumar, Arun Kumar Yadav


    The combination of the two fast evolving scientific research areas “Semantic Web” and “Web Mining” are well-known as “Semantic Web Mining” in computer science. These two areas cover way for the mining of related and meaningful information from the web, by this means giving growth to the term “Semantic Web Mining”. The “Semantic Web” makes mining easy and “Web Mining” can construct new structure of Web. Web Mining applies ...

  19. Toward a semantics for an agent communications language based on speech-acts

    Smith, I.A.; Cohen, P.R.


    Systems based on distributed agent architectures require an agent communications language having a clearly defined semantics. This paper demonstrates that a semantics for an agent communications language can be founded on the premise that agents are building, maintaining, and disbanding teams through their performance of communicative acts. This view requires that definitions of basic communicative acts, such as requesting, be recast in terms of the formation of a joint intention - a mental state that has been suggested underlies team behavior. To illustrate these points, a semantics is developed for a number of communication actions that can form and dissolve teams. It is then demonstrated how much of the structure of popular finite-state dialogue models, such as Winograd and Flores` basic conversation for action, follows as a consequence of the logical relationships that are created by the redefined communicative actions.

  20. Applying Semantic Reasoning in Image Retrieval

    Boer, M.H.T. de; Daniele, L.M.; Brandt, P.; Sappelli, M.


    Abstract—With the growth of open sensor networks, multiple applications in different domains make use of a large amount of sensor data, resulting in an emerging need to search semantically over heterogeneous datasets. In semantic search, an important challenge consists of bridging the semantic gap b

  1. Experiences from semantic web service tutorials

    Stollberg, Michael; Moran, Matthew; Cabral, Liliana; NORTON, Barry; Domingue, John


    We have given around 20 tutorials on Semantic Web Services in international events during the last two years. This position paper presents our experiences and depicts central aspects relevant for education, dissemination and exploitation of Semantic Web and Semantic Web service technologies in academia and industry.

  2. Web to Semantic Web & Role of Ontology

    Ahmed, Zeeshan


    In this research paper we are briefly presenting current major web problems and introducing semantic web technologies with the claim of solving existing web's problems. Furthermore we are describing Ontology as the main building block of semantic web and focusing on its contributions to semantic web progress and current limitations.

  3. Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries

    Rajab Abd al-Hamed


    Full Text Available An article about the semantic web, it begins with defining the semantic web and its importance, then talks about the ontology relations, then the role of the semantic web in digital libraries, and its features which will serve digital libraries.

  4. Studying of Semantic Similarity Methods in Ontology

    Vahideh Reshadat


    Full Text Available Humans are able to easily judge if a pair of concepts are related in some way. Understanding of how humans are able to perform this task is not easy. Semantic similarity denotes computing the similarity between concepts, having the same meaning or related information, which are not necessarily lexically similar. Semantic similarity between concepts plays an important role in Semantic Web, knowledge sharing, Web mining, semantic sense understanding and text summarization. This also is an important problem in Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval Researches. These techniques are becoming important components of most of the Information Retrieval (IR, Information Extraction (IE and other intelligent knowledge based systems. Therefore it has received considerable attention in the literature. Ontology has a good hierarchical structure of concepts. In the ontology, semantic information can be realized through the semantic relationship of concepts. Ontology-based semantic similarity techniques can estimate the semantic similarity between two hierarchically expressed concepts in a given ontology or taxonomy. Semantic similarity is usually computed by mapping concepts to ontology and by examining their relationships in it. The most popular semantic similarity methods are implemented and evaluated using WordNet and MeSH. Several algorithmic approaches for computing semantic similarity have been proposed. This paper discusses the various approaches used for identifying semantically similar concepts in ontology.

  5. Semantics as Based on Inference

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2006 - (van Benthem, J.; Heinzmann, G.; Rebuschi, M.; Visser, H.), s. 25-36. (Logic, Epistemology , and the Unity of Science. 3). ISBN 1-4020-5011-9. [Philosophical Insights into Logic and Mathematics: The History and Outcome of Alternative Semantics and Syntax. Nancy (FR), 30.09.2002-04.10.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA0009001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : formal semantics * inferentialism * logical calculi Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. Linguistic Extraction for Semantic Annotation

    Dědek, J.; Vojtáš, Peter

    Berlin: Springer, 2008 - (Badica, C.; Mangioni, G.; Carchiolo, V.; Burdescu, D.), s. 85-94. (Studies in Computational Intelligence. 162). ISBN 978-3-540-85256-8. [IDC 2008. International Symposium on Intelligent and Distributed Computing /2./. Catania (IT), 18.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517; GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : semantic information extraction * linguistics * semantic computing * aggregation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  7. Semantic Presupposition in Advertisement Language



    Presupposition is. a very important linguistic concept that originates from philosophy. It is often considered as a kind of pragmatic inference. In linguistics it can be classified as semantic presupposition and Pragmatic presupposition. This article will deals with semantic presupposition. Besides the most important characteristics constancy under negation, presupposition boasts some other characteristics, namely unidirectionality, subjectiveness and latency, which exactly fulfill the demands of advertising. Because presupposition, used in advertising, can not possible risk caused by ostentation or direct assertion. On this account, presupposition is adopted into advertising as a pragmatic strategy.

  8. Using multi-categorization semantic analysis and personalization for semantic search

    Ma, Yinglong; Shi, Moyi


    Semantic search technology has received more attention in the last years. Compared with the keyword based search, semantic search is used to excavate the latent semantics information and help users find the information items that they want indeed. In this paper, we present a novel approach for semantic search which combines Multi-Categorization Semantic Analysis with personalization technology. The MCSA approach can classify documents into multiple categories, which is distinct from the exist...

  9. Evaluating semantic relations by exploring ontologies on the Semantic Web

    Sabou, Marta; Fernandez, Miriam; Motta, Enrico


    We investigate the problem of evaluating the correctness of a semantic relation and propose two methods which explore the increasing number of online ontologies as a source of evidence for predicting correctness. We obtain encouraging results, with some of our measures reaching average precision values of 75%.

  10. Equivalent and Alternative Forms for BF Gravity with Immirzi Parameter

    Montesinos, Merced; 10.3842/SIGMA.2011.103


    A detailed analysis of the BF formulation for general relativity given by Capovilla, Montesinos, Prieto, and Rojas is performed. The action principle of this formulation is written in an equivalent form by doing a transformation of the fields of which the action depends functionally on. The transformed action principle involves two BF terms and the two Lorentz invariants that appear in the original action principle generically. As an application of this formalism, the action principle used by Engle, Pereira, and Rovelli in their spin foam model for gravity is recovered and the coupling of the cosmological constant in such a formulation is obtained.

  11. Equivalent and Alternative Forms for BF Gravity with Immirzi Parameter

    Merced Montesinos


    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the BF formulation for general relativity given by Capovilla, Montesinos, Prieto, and Rojas is performed. The action principle of this formulation is written in an equivalent form by doing a transformation of the fields of which the action depends functionally on. The transformed action principle involves two BF terms and the two Lorentz invariants that appear in the original action principle generically. As an application of this formalism, the action principle used by Engle, Pereira, and Rovelli in their spin foam model for gravity is recovered and the coupling of the cosmological constant in such a formulation is obtained.

  12. Distinct Effects of Lexical and Semantic Competition during Picture Naming in Younger Adults, Older Adults, and People with Aphasia.

    Britt, Allison E; Ferrara, Casey; Mirman, Daniel


    Producing a word requires selecting among a set of similar alternatives. When many semantically related items become activated, the difficulty of the selection process is increased. Experiment 1 tested naming of items with either multiple synonymous labels ("Alternate Names," e.g., gift/present) or closely semantically related but non-equivalent responses ("Near Semantic Neighbors," e.g., jam/jelly). Picture naming was fastest and most accurate for pictures with only one label ("High Name Agreement"), slower and less accurate in the Alternate Names condition, and slowest and least accurate in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition. These results suggest that selection mechanisms in picture naming operate at two distinct levels of processing: selecting between similar but non-equivalent names requires two selection processes (semantic and lexical), whereas selecting among equivalent names only requires one selection at the lexical level. Experiment 2 examined how these selection mechanisms are affected by normal aging and found that older adults had significantly more difficulty in the Near Semantic Neighbors condition, but not in the Alternate Names condition. This suggests that aging affects semantic processing and selection more strongly than it affects lexical selection. Experiment 3 examined the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in these selection processes by testing individuals with aphasia secondary to stroke lesions that either affected the LIFG or spared it. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between condition and lesion group: the presence of LIFG damage was not associated with substantively worse naming performance for pictures with multiple acceptable labels. These results are not consistent with a simple view of LIFG as the locus of lexical selection and suggest a more nuanced view of the neural basis of lexical and semantic selection. PMID:27458393

  13. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

    Barbara H. Partee


    Psychology’, 183–216. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Chomsky, N. 1975. ‘Questions of form and interpretation’. In R. Austerlitz (ed. ‘The Scope of American Linguistics’, 159–196. Lisse: Peter de Ridder Press.Church, A. 1940. ‘A formulation of the simple theory of types’. Journal of Symbolic Logic 5: 56–68., A. 1951. ‘A formulation of the logic of sense and denotation’. In P. Henle, H. Kallen & S. Langer (eds. ‘Structure, Method, and Meaning: Essays in Honor of H.M. Sheffer’, 3–24. New York: Liberal Arts Press.Cocchiarella, N. 1997. ‘Formally-oriented work in the philosophy of language’. In J.V. Canfield (ed. ‘Philosophy of Meaning, Knowledge and Value in the 20th Century’, 39–75. London; New York: Routledge.Cresswell, M. J. 1978. ‘Semantic competence’. In F. Guenthner & M. Guenthner-Reutter (eds. ‘Meaning and Translation: Philosophical and Linguistic Approaches’, 9–43. London: Duckworth.Davidson, D. 1964. ‘Theories of meaning and learnable languages’. In ‘Proceedings of the 1964 International Congress for Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science’, Jerusalem: North-Holland.Davidson, D. 1967. ‘The logical form of action sentences’. In N. Rescher (ed. ‘The Logic of Decision and Action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press.Davidson, D. 1970. ‘Semantics for natural languages’. In B. Visentini (ed. ‘Linguaggi nella Societa e nella Tecnica’, Milan: Edizioni di Comunita.Dowty, D. 1978a. A Guide to Montague’s PTQ. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Linguistics Club.Dowty, D. 1978b. ‘Governed transformations as lexical rules in a Montague Grammar’. Linguistic Inquiry 9: 393–426.Dowty, D., Wall, R. E. & Peters, S. Jr. 1981. Introduction to Montague Semantics. Dordrecht: Reidel.Feferman, A. Burdman & Feferman, S. 2004. Alfred Tarski: Life and Logic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Fodor, J. 1961. ‘Projection and paraphrase in

  14. All in action

    Annila, Arto


    The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which nature in its entirety and every detail is pictured in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiples of the most elementary action which corresponds to the Planck's constant. Elements of space are closed actions, known as fermions, whereas elements of time are open actions, known as bosons. The actions span energy landscape, the Universe which evolves irreversibly according to the 2nd law of thermodynamics by diminishing density differences in least time. During the step-by-step evolution densely-curled actions unfold by opening up and expelling one or multiple elementary actions to their surrounding sparser space. The manifold's varieties process from one symmetry group to another until the equivalence to their dual, i.e., the surrounding density has been attained. The scale-free physical portrayal of nature does not recognize any fundamental difference between fundamental particles and fundamental force...


    Ye Zhigang; Zou Huijun; Zhang Qing; Tian Yongli


    The presentation method of the mechanical motion scheme must support the whole process of conceptual design.To meet the requirement,a semantic network method is selected to represent process level,action level,mechanism level and relationships among them.Computer aided motion cycle chart exploration can be realized by the representation and revision of time coordination of mechanism actions and their effect on the design scheme.The uncertain reasoning technology based on semantic network is applied in the mechanism types selection of the needle driving mechanism of industrial sewing mechanism,and the application indicated it is correct,useful and advance.

  16. Why scalar-tensor equivalent theories are not physically equivalent?

    Sk., Nayem


    Whether Jordan's and Einstein's frame descriptions of F(R) theory of gravity are physically equivalent, is a long standing debate. However, none questioned on true mathematical equivalence, since classical field equations may be translated from one frame to the other following a transformation relation. Nevertheless, true mathematical equivalence is only established, if all the mathematical results derived from one frame may be translated to the other. Here we show that, neither Noether equations, nor quantum equations may be translated from one frame to the other. The reason being the momenta can't be translated. This appears to be the cause for dynamical in-equivalence.

  17. Strategies as sheaves and interactive equivalences for CCS

    Hirschowitz, Tom


    Seeking a general framework for reasoning about and comparing programming languages, we derive a new view of Milner's CCS. We construct a category E of 'plays', and a subcategory V of 'views'. We argue that presheaves on V adequately represent 'innocent' strategies, in the sense of game semantics. We equip innocent strategies with a simple notion of interaction. We then prove decomposition results for innocent strategies, and, restricting to presheaves of finite ordinals, prove that innocent strategies are a final coalgebra for a polynomial functor derived from the game. This leads to a translation of CCS with recursive equations. Finally, we propose a notion of 'interactive equivalence' for innocent strategies, which is close in spirit to Beffara's interpretation of testing equivalences in concurrency theory. In this framework, we consider analogues of fair testing and must testing. We show that must testing is strictly finer in our model than in CCS, since it avoids what we call 'spatial unfairness'. Still,...

  18. Multimedia Semantics Metadata, Analysis and Interaction

    Troncy, Raphael; Schenk, Simon


    In this book, the authors present the latest research results in the multimedia and semantic web communities, bridging the "Semantic Gap" This book explains, collects and reports on the latest research results that aim at narrowing the so-called multimedia "Semantic Gap": the large disparity between descriptions of multimedia content that can be computed automatically, and the richness and subjectivity of semantics in user queries and human interpretations of audiovisual media. Addressing the grand challenge posed by the "Semantic Gap" requires a multi-disciplinary approach (computer science,

  19. Equivalence in the Vietnamese Translation of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet

    Van Nhan Luong


    Full Text Available Equivalence has been the central concern in Translation Studies and always challenges the translator’s abilities. Equivalence is also the factor determining the closeness of target text (TT to the source text (ST. By applying the theories suggested by Vinay and Darbelnet, Nida and Taber, Catford, Baker, House and Pym, as well as the qualitative method to describe the semantic features of the ST and the TT, this study has investigated and compared the Shakespeare’s English and the Vietnamese translation of Romeo and Juliet by Dang The Binh to find out the levels of equivalence in regards to semantic features. It has been found that both objective and subjective factors, in which language differences, culture and the translator’s ability are the keys affecting the orientation of choosing equivalents of the translator. It is, therefore, no unique type of equivalence in the Vietnamese translation, but the mixture of dynamic equivalence and formal equivalence. As a result, the translation is partly covert and also partly overt.

  20. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia


    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  1. Semantics as Based on Inference

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2006 - (van Benthem, J.; Heinzmann, G.; Rebuschi, M.; Visser, H.), s. 25-36. (Logic, Epistemology , and the Unity of Science. 3). ISBN 1-4020-5011-9 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA0009001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : formal semantics * inferentialism * logical calculi Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  2. Quality measurement of semantic standards

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; Hillegersberg, J. van


    Quality of semantic standards is unadressed in current research while there is an explicit need from standard developers. The business importance is evident since quality of standards will have impact on its diffusion and achieved interoperability in practice. An instrument to measure the quality of

  3. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold


    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  4. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas;


    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrat...

  5. Towards semantic software engineering environments

    Falbo, R.A.; Guizzardi, G; Natali, A.; Bertollo, G.; Ruy, F.; Mian, P; Tortora, G; Chang, S.-K.


    Software tools processing partially common set of data should share an understanding of what these data mean. Since ontologies have been used to express formally a shared understanding of information, we argue that they are a way towards Semantic SEEs. In this paper we discuss an ontology-based approach to tool integration and present ODE, an ontology-based SEE.

  6. The Semantic Web in Education

    Ohler, Jason


    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  7. Continuous Semantics for Termination Proofs

    Berger, Ulrich


    We prove a general strong normalization theorem for higher type rewrite systems based on Tait's strong computability predicates and a strictly continuous domain-theoretic semantics. The theorem applies to extensions of Goedel's system $T$, but also to various forms of bar recursion for which termination was hitherto unknown.

  8. Semantic Fission through Dialect Fusion.

    Linn, Michael D.

    The linguistic atlas projects have provided much information on the regional distribution of pronunciation, vocabulary, and syntax and have given important evidence for a greater understanding of problems involved in semantic change, particularly in pointing out transition areas where dialects become fused. In a study supplementary to that…

  9. Semantic Relationships between Contextual Synonyms

    Zeng, Xian-mo


    Contextual synonym is a linguistic phenomenon often applied but rarely discussed. This paper is to discuss the semantic relationships between contextual synonyms and the requirements under which words can be used as contextual synonyms between each other. The three basic relationships are embedment, intersection and non-coherence. The requirements…

  10. Mining integrated semantic networks for drug repositioning opportunities.

    Mullen, Joseph; Cockell, Simon J; Tipney, Hannah; Woollard, Peter M; Wipat, Anil


    Current research and development approaches to drug discovery have become less fruitful and more costly. One alternative paradigm is that of drug repositioning. Many marketed examples of repositioned drugs have been identified through serendipitous or rational observations, highlighting the need for more systematic methodologies to tackle the problem. Systems level approaches have the potential to enable the development of novel methods to understand the action of therapeutic compounds, but requires an integrative approach to biological data. Integrated networks can facilitate systems level analyses by combining multiple sources of evidence to provide a rich description of drugs, their targets and their interactions. Classically, such networks can be mined manually where a skilled person is able to identify portions of the graph (semantic subgraphs) that are indicative of relationships between drugs and highlight possible repositioning opportunities. However, this approach is not scalable. Automated approaches are required to systematically mine integrated networks for these subgraphs and bring them to the attention of the user. We introduce a formal framework for the definition of integrated networks and their associated semantic subgraphs for drug interaction analysis and describe DReSMin, an algorithm for mining semantically-rich networks for occurrences of a given semantic subgraph. This algorithm allows instances of complex semantic subgraphs that contain data about putative drug repositioning opportunities to be identified in a computationally tractable fashion, scaling close to linearly with network data. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by mining an integrated drug interaction network built from 11 sources. This work identified and ranked 9,643,061 putative drug-target interactions, showing a strong correlation between highly scored associations and those supported by literature. We discuss the 20 top ranked associations in more detail, of which

  11. Semantic Similarity Calculation of Chinese Word

    Liqiang Pan


    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a two layers computing method to calculate semantic similarity of Chinese word. Firstly, using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA subject model to generate subject spatial domain. Then mapping word into topic space and forming topic distribution which is used to calculate semantic similarity of word(the first layer computing. Finally, using semantic dictionary "HowNet" to deeply excavate semantic similarity of word (the second layer computing. This method not only overcomes the problem that it’s not specific enough merely using LDA to calculate semantic similarity of word, but also solves the problems such as new words (haven’t been added in dictionary and without considering specific context when calculating semantic similarity based on semantic dictionary "HowNet". By experimental comparison, this thesis proves feasibility,availability and advantages of the calculation method.

  12. Integrated Semantic Similarity Model Based on Ontology

    LIU Ya-Jun; ZHAO Yun


    To solve the problem of the inadequacy of semantic processing in the intelligent question answering system, an integrated semantic similarity model which calculates the semantic similarity using the geometric distance and information content is presented in this paper.With the help of interrelationship between concepts, the information content of concepts and the strength of the edges in the ontology network, we can calculate the semantic similarity between two concepts and provide information for the further calculation of the semantic similarity between user's question and answers in knowlegdge base.The results of the experiments on the prototype have shown that the semantic problem in natural language processing can also be solved with the help of the knowledge and the abundant semantic information in ontology.More than 90% accuracy with less than 50 ms average searching time in the intelligent question answering prototype system based on ontology has been reached.The result is very satisfied.

  13. Learning Dependency-Based Compositional Semantics

    Liang, Percy; Klein, Dan


    Suppose we want to build a system that answers a natural language question by representing its semantics as a logical form and computing the answer given a structured database of facts. The core part of such a system is the semantic parser that maps questions to logical forms. Semantic parsers are typically trained from examples of questions annotated with their target logical forms, but this type of annotation is expensive. Our goal is to learn a semantic parser from question-answer pairs instead, where the logical form is modeled as a latent variable. Motivated by this challenging learning problem, we develop a new semantic formalism, dependency-based compositional semantics (DCS), which has favorable linguistic, statistical, and computational properties. We define a log-linear distribution over DCS logical forms and estimate the parameters using a simple procedure that alternates between beam search and numerical optimization. On two standard semantic parsing benchmarks, our system outperforms all existing...

  14. On equivalence and bioequivalence testing

    Ocaña, Jordi; Sánchez, M. Pilar; Sánchez, Álex; Carrasco, Josep Lluís


    Equivalence testing is the natural approach to many statistical problems. First, its main application, bioequivalence testing, is reviewed. The basic concepts of bioequivalence testing (2×2 crossover designs, TOST, interval inclusion principle, etc.) and its problems (TOST biased character, the carryover problem, etc.) are considered. Next, equivalence testing is discussed more generally. Some applications and methods are reviewed and the relation of equivalence testing and distance-based...

  15. Freedom and enforcement in action a study in formal action theory

    Czelakowski, Janusz


    Action theory is the object of growing attention in a variety of scientific disciplines, and this is the first volume to offer a synthetic view of the range of approaches possible in the topic. The volume focuses on the nexus of formal action theory with a startlingly diverse set of subjects, which range from logic, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and automata theory to jurisprudence, deontology, and economics. It covers semantic, mathematical and logical aspects of action, showing how the problem of action breaks the boundaries of traditional branches of logic located in syntactics and semantics and now lies on lies on the borderline between logical pragmatics and praxeology.   The chapters here focus on specialized tasks in formal action theory, beginning with a thorough description and formalization of the language of action, and moving through material on the differing models of action theory to focus on probabilistic models, the relations of formal action theory to deontic logic, and its key appl...

  16. Equivalence of open/closed strings

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang


    In this paper, we prove that the open and closed strings are $O(D,D)$ equivalent. The equivalence requires an AdS geometry near the boundaries. The $O(D,D)$ invariance is introduced into the Polyakov action by the Tseytlin's action. Traditionally, there exist disconnected open-open or closed-closed configurations in the solution space of the Tseytlin's action. The open-closed configuration is ruled out by the mixed terms of the dual fields. We show that, under some very general guidances, the dual fields are consistently decoupled if and only if the near horizon geometry is $AdS_5$. We then have open-closed and closed-open configurations in different limits of the distances of the $D3$-brane pairs. Inherited from the definition of the theory, these four configurations are of course related to each other by $O(D,D)$ transformations. We therefore conclude that both the open/closed relation and open/closed duality can be derived from $O(D,D)$ symmetries. By analyzing the couplings of the configurations, the low ...

  17. Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence

    Wellek, Stefan


    Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the

  18. The complex interplay between semantics and grammar in impression formation.

    Shreves, Wyley B; Hart, William; Adams, John M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Eno, Cassie A


    We sought to bridge findings showing that (a) describing a person's behavior with the perfective verb aspect (did), compared to the imperfective aspect (was doing), increases processing of semantic knowledge unrelated to the target's action such as stereotypes and (b) an increased recognition of stereotypical thoughts often promotes a judgment correction for the stereotypes. We hypothesized an interplay between grammar (verb conjugation) and semantic information (gender) in impression-formation. Participants read a resume, attributed to a male or female, for a traditionally masculine job. When the resume was written in the imperfective, people rated a male (vs. female) more positively. When the resume was in the perfective, this pattern reversed. Only these latter effects of gender were influenced by cognitive load. Further, people more quickly indicated the applicant's gender in the perfective condition, suggesting an enhanced focus on gender during processing. PMID:24950389

  19. On equivalence of thinning fluids used for hydraulic fracturing

    Linkov, Alexander


    The paper aims to answer the question: if and how non-Newtonian fluids may be compared in their mechanical action when used for hydraulic fracturing? By employing the modified formulation of the PKN problem we obtain its simple analytical solutions in the cases of perfectly plastic and Newtonian fluids. Since the results for shear thinning fluids are intermediate between those for these cases, the obtained equation for the fracture length suggests a criterion of the equivalence of various shear thinning fluids for the problem of hydraulic fractures. We assume fluids equivalent in their hydrofracturing action, when at a reference time they produce fractures of the same length. The equation for the fracture length translates the equivalence in terms of the hydraulic fracture length and treatment time into the equivalence in terms of the properties of a fracturing fluid (behavior and consistency indices). Analysis shows that the influence of the consistency and behavior indices on the fracture length, particle v...

  20. The SemSearchXplorer - exploring semantic search results with semantic visualizations

    Ullmann, Thomas Daniel; Uren, Victoria; Nikolov, Andriy


    SemSearchXplorer is a toolkit for the exploration of semantic data. The goal is to lower user barriers to access information in semantic data repositories. Therefore SemSearchXplorer supports the user in three respects: (1) it supports querying of the semantic data with a keyword based approach, so the users do not need to learn a semantic query language, (2) it helps users find relevant results both by using semantic enriched information about the results and semantic filter options to narro...

  1. Equivalência semântica e avaliação da consistência interna da versão em português do Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3 Semantic equivalence and internal consistency of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3

    Ana Carolina Soares Amaral


    Portuguese, with evidence of clear understanding and internal consistency. However, it is still necessary to assess its measurement equivalence, external validity, and reproducibility.

  2. Children use statistics and semantics in the retreat from overgeneralization.

    Blything, Ryan P; Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V M


    How do children learn to restrict their productivity and avoid ungrammatical utterances? The present study addresses this question by examining why some verbs are used with un- prefixation (e.g., unwrap) and others are not (e.g., *unsqueeze). Experiment 1 used a priming methodology to examine children's (3-4; 5-6) grammatical restrictions on verbal un- prefixation. To elicit production of un-prefixed verbs, test trials were preceded by a prime sentence, which described reversal actions with grammatical un- prefixed verbs (e.g., Marge folded her arms and then she unfolded them). Children then completed target sentences by describing cartoon reversal actions corresponding to (potentially) un- prefixed verbs. The younger age-group's production probability of verbs in un- form was negatively related to the frequency of the target verb in bare form (e.g., squeez/e/ed/es/ing), while the production probability of verbs in un- form for both age groups was negatively predicted by the frequency of synonyms to a verb's un- form (e.g., release/*unsqueeze). In Experiment 2, the same children rated the grammaticality of all verbs in un- form. The older age-group's grammaticality judgments were (a) positively predicted by the extent to which each verb was semantically consistent with a semantic "cryptotype" of meanings - where "cryptotype" refers to a covert category of overlapping, probabilistic meanings that are difficult to access - hypothesised to be shared by verbs which take un-, and (b) negatively predicted by the frequency of synonyms to a verb's un- form. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that children as young as 4;0 employ pre-emption and entrenchment to restrict generalizations, and that use of a semantic cryptotype to guide judgments of overgeneralizations is also evident by age 6;0. Thus, even early developmental accounts of children's restriction of productivity must encompass a mechanism in which a verb's semantic and statistical properties interact

  3. Children use statistics and semantics in the retreat from overgeneralization.

    Ryan P Blything

    Full Text Available How do children learn to restrict their productivity and avoid ungrammatical utterances? The present study addresses this question by examining why some verbs are used with un- prefixation (e.g., unwrap and others are not (e.g., *unsqueeze. Experiment 1 used a priming methodology to examine children's (3-4; 5-6 grammatical restrictions on verbal un- prefixation. To elicit production of un-prefixed verbs, test trials were preceded by a prime sentence, which described reversal actions with grammatical un- prefixed verbs (e.g., Marge folded her arms and then she unfolded them. Children then completed target sentences by describing cartoon reversal actions corresponding to (potentially un- prefixed verbs. The younger age-group's production probability of verbs in un- form was negatively related to the frequency of the target verb in bare form (e.g., squeez/e/ed/es/ing, while the production probability of verbs in un- form for both age groups was negatively predicted by the frequency of synonyms to a verb's un- form (e.g., release/*unsqueeze. In Experiment 2, the same children rated the grammaticality of all verbs in un- form. The older age-group's grammaticality judgments were (a positively predicted by the extent to which each verb was semantically consistent with a semantic "cryptotype" of meanings - where "cryptotype" refers to a covert category of overlapping, probabilistic meanings that are difficult to access - hypothesised to be shared by verbs which take un-, and (b negatively predicted by the frequency of synonyms to a verb's un- form. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that children as young as 4;0 employ pre-emption and entrenchment to restrict generalizations, and that use of a semantic cryptotype to guide judgments of overgeneralizations is also evident by age 6;0. Thus, even early developmental accounts of children's restriction of productivity must encompass a mechanism in which a verb's semantic and statistical properties

  4. Mediating Semantic Web Service Access using the Semantic Firewall

    Jacyno, M.; Payne, T. R.; Watkins, E R; Taylor, S. J.; Surridge, M.


    As the technical infrastructure to support Grid environments matures, attention should focus on providing dynamic access to services, whilst ensuring such access is appropriately monitored and secured. Access policies may be dynamic, whereby intra-organisational workflows define local knowledge that could be used to establish appropriate credentials necessary to access the desired service. We describe a typical Grid-based scenario that requires local semantic workflows that establish the appr...

  5. Solving semantic ambiguity to improve semantic web based ontology matching

    Gracia, Jorge; Lopez, Vanessa; D'Aquin, Mathieu; Sabou, Marta; Motta, Enrico; Mena, Eduardo


    A new paradigm in Semantic Web research focuses on the development of a new generation of knowledge-based problem solvers, which can exploit the massive amounts of formally specified information available on the Web, to produce novel intelligent functionalities. An important example of this paradigm can be found in the area of Ontology Matching, where new algorithms, which derive mappings from an exploration of multiple and heterogeneous online ontologies, have been proposed. While these algo...

  6. An overview of semantic compression

    Schmalz, Mark S.


    We live in such perceptually rich natural and manmade environments that detection and recognition of objects is mediated cerebrally by attentional filtering, in order to separate objects of interest from background clutter. In computer models of the human visual system, attentional filtering is often restricted to early processing, where areas of interest (AOIs) are delineated around anomalies of interest, then the pixels within each AOI's subtense are isolated for later processing. In contrast, the human visual system concurrently detects many targets at multiple levels (e.g., retinal center-surround filters, ganglion layer feature detectors, post-retinal spatial filtering, and cortical detection / filtering of features and objects, to name but a few processes). Intracranial attentional filtering appears to play multiple roles, including clutter filtration at all levels of processing - thus, we process individual retinal cell responses, early filtering response, and so forth, on up to the filtering of objects at high levels of semantic complexity. Computationally, image compression techniques have progressed from emphasizing pixels, to considering regions of pixels as foci of computational interest. In more recent research, object-based compression has been investigated with varying rate-distortion performance and computational efficiency. Codecs have been developed for a wide variety of applications, although the majority of compression and decompression transforms continue to concentrate on region- and pixel-based processing, in part because of computational convenience. It is interesting to note that a growing body of research has emphasized the detection and representation of small features in relationship to their surrounding environment, which has occasionally been called semantic compression. In this paper, we overview different types of semantic compression approaches, with particular interest in high-level compression algorithms. Various algorithms and

  7. Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing

    Brunner, Herwig; Kersen, Silke; Weimer, Michaela; Mertsching, Heike


    The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal in...

  8. Reflections on Equivalence in Translation



    The comparison of texts in different languages inevitably involves a theory of equivalence.To shed as much as possible light on theories and writings that have dealt with the notion of equivalence,this essay attempts to present a few in-depth reflections

  9. Matching of equivalent field regions

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.


    In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting s...

  10. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Violetta Koseska


    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corporaIn view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  11. Unitary equivalence of quantum walks

    Highlights: • We have found unitary equivalent classes in coined quantum walks. • A single parameter family of coin operators is sufficient to realize all simple one-dimensional quantum walks. • Electric quantum walks are unitarily equivalent to time dependent quantum walks. - Abstract: A simple coined quantum walk in one dimension can be characterized by a SU(2) operator with three parameters which represents the coin toss. However, different such coin toss operators lead to equivalent dynamics of the quantum walker. In this manuscript we present the unitary equivalence classes of quantum walks and show that all the nonequivalent quantum walks can be distinguished by a single parameter. Moreover, we argue that the electric quantum walks are equivalent to quantum walks with time dependent coin toss operator

  12. Semantic Distance Coefficient for Semantic Field of Tatar Culture Specific Concepts “Family and Human Being Environment” and Their Lacunas in English

    Gulnara M. Nurtdinova


    The importance of the issue is caused by the demand to translate literature and periodicals from Tatar into English. While translating we can have difficulties with the lexemes that do not have equivalents in English or their meaning differ in some nuances so such lexemes can be bottlenecks of cross-cultural communication. The aim of the article is to research the semantic group of Tatar culture specific concepts of the topic “Family and Human being environment” that do not have equivalents i...

  13. Semantic Interpretation of Phraseological Units in Ukrainian-Polish Electronic Phraseological Dictionary

    Roman Tymoshuk


    Full Text Available Semantic Interpretation of Phraseological Units in Ukrainian-Polish Electronic Phraseological DictionaryWhen compiling bi- and multilingual phraseological lexicons it is necessary to address such theoretical issues as the formulation linguistically grounded principles of selection of phraseological units and their translation, semantic interpretation based on differentiation of pictures of the world of the linguistic systems, comprehensive combination of elements of the structure and presentation of various linguistic ambiguities, rational form of dictionary entries and building of user-friendly interface in electronic dictionary systems, etc. The article addresses the principles of Ukrainian-Polish electronic phraseological dictionary, which is one of the first attempts of complex and systematic presentation of Ukrainian and Polish phraseology. The main attention is paid to the lexicographic representation of phraseological units, their semantic characterization and selection problem idiomatic equivalents.

  14. Realization of Semantic Atom Blog

    Patel, Dhiren R


    Web blog is used as a collaborative platform to publish and share information. The information accumulated in the blog intrinsically contains the knowledge. The knowledge shared by the community of people has intangible value proposition. The blog is viewed as a multimedia information resource available on the Internet. In a blog, information in the form of text, image, audio and video builds up exponentially. The multimedia information contained in an Atom blog does not have the capability, which is required by the software processes so that Atom blog content can be accessed, processed and reused over the Internet. This shortcoming is addressed by exploring OWL knowledge modeling, semantic annotation and semantic categorization techniques in an Atom blog sphere. By adopting these techniques, futuristic Atom blogs can be created and deployed over the Internet.

  15. A Survey of Semantic Segmentation

    Thoma, Martin


    This survey gives an overview over different techniques used for pixel-level semantic segmentation. Metrics and datasets for the evaluation of segmentation algorithms and traditional approaches for segmentation such as unsupervised methods, Decision Forests and SVMs are described and pointers to the relevant papers are given. Recently published approaches with convolutional neural networks are mentioned and typical problematic situations for segmentation algorithms are examined. A taxonomy of...

  16. ISBD and the Semantic Web

    Mirna Willer; Gordon Dunsire; Boris Bosancic


    The possibilities of integration between ISBD and the semantic web have been examined through the work of the IFLA Study Groups, created with the task to investigate the possibilities for representing ISBD in web technologies and services. One of the main study groups is represented by the ISBD/XML Study Group, formed in 2008.The paper describes the activities developing a representation of International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) in Resource Description Framework (RDF): the re...

  17. Automatically constructing the semantic web

    Becerra, Victor Manuel; Brown, Matthew; Nasuto, Slawomir


    The storage and processing capacity realised by computing has lead to an explosion of data retention. We now reach the point of information overload and must begin to use computers to process more complex information. In particular, the proposition of the Semantic Web has given structure to this problem, but has yet realised practically. The largest of its problems is that of ontology construction; without a suitable automatic method most will have to be encoded by hand. In this paper we disc...

  18. Towards Accessible Semantic Web Applications

    Moreno, Lourdes; Martínez, Paloma; Contreras, Jesús; Benjamins, Richard


    The importance for Web applications to reach all kind of potential users and customers is being stressed by companies and public sectors. The standardization initiative for Web applications, WAI and the Universal Design framework establish useful rules for building accessible applications for any kind of disabled and non-disabled users. The proliferation of Semantic Web technologies and formal ontologies offer a technological opportunity for establishing automatic and advanced methods for ...

  19. Semantic Web for Program Administration

    Qurban A. Memon; Shakeel Khoja


    Typically, administrative systems involving information in an academic environment are disjoint, spread across various departments and support independent queries. The objectives in this work include investigation on integrating these independent systems to provide support to intelligent queries run on the integrated platform. A framework is proposed that enriches data in the legacy systems to provide a value-added semantic layer where annotation, query and reasoning can be carried out to sup...

  20. Social and semantic web integration


    The purpose of the following thesis is to present the key concepts of Social and Semantic Web, to examine the possibilities of their integration and to develop and implement on the basis of good practice a concrete example of an application that combines the advantages of both areas. The thematic area of social web, its basic forms and examples of popular web applications are presented more thoroughly. These applications offer a range of technologies for content syndication, networking, mu...

  1. Semantic Transformation of Web Services

    Bell, D; de Cesare, S; Lycett, M


    Web services have become the predominant paradigm for the development of distributed software systems. Web services provide the means to modularize software in a way that functionality can be described, discovered and deployed in a platform independent manner over a network (e.g., intranets, extranets and the Internet). The representation of web services by current industrial practice is predominantly syntactic in nature lacking the fundamental semantic underpinnings required to fulfill the g...

  2. Building a pragmatic Semantic Web

    Alani, Harith; Hall, Wendy; O'Hara, Kieron; Shadbolt, Nigel; Chandler, Peter; Szomszor, Martin


    One of the great benefits that Semantic Web (SW) technology offers is facilitating large scale integration and sharing of distributed data sources. Transferring this technology from the lab environment and into the real world requires careful planning to make sure the technology continues to offer a cost effective and practical service. This paper describes our approach for promoting SW technology to industrial and government organisations. We describe two SW applications, one involving sever...

  3. WEASEL: Vodafone Corporate Semantic Web

    Valverde, Juan José; Buil-Aranda, C.; Gómez-Pérez, José Manuel


    The 2006 Gartner emerging technology curve highlights the relevance of the Corporate Semantic Web as one of the most promising IT areas in the next five years. The work presented herein describes WEASEL, an initiative funded by Vodafone to apply and evaluate such technology in the context of a large multinational company. This scenario comprises a number of heterogeneous web sites containing unstructured and related, but physically decoupled, information which needs common models that provide...

  4. Ontologies for the semantic web

    Vallés, María Clara; Fillottrani, Pablo Rubén


    The Semantic Web attempts to reach a state in the future where everything on the Web will no longer be only machine-readable, but also machine-understandable. An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization. A conceptualization is an abstract, simplified view of the world that we wish to represent for some purpose. Every knowledge base, knowledge-based system, or knowledge-level agent is committed to some conceptualization, explicitly or implicitly. By defining shared and comm...

  5. Roget's Thesaurus and Semantic Similarity

    Jarmasz, Mario; Szpakowicz, Stan


    We have implemented a system that measures semantic similarity using a computerized 1987 Roget's Thesaurus, and evaluated it by performing a few typical tests. We compare the results of these tests with those produced by WordNet-based similarity measures. One of the benchmarks is Miller and Charles' list of 30 noun pairs to which human judges had assigned similarity measures. We correlate these measures with those computed by several NLP systems. The 30 pairs can be traced back to Rubenstein ...

  6. Semantic understanding of Image content

    D D Dhobale; B.S.Patil; S. B. PATIL; V R Ghorpade


    Large amounts of spatial data are becoming available today due to the rapid development of remote sensing techniques. Several retrieval systems are proposed to retrieve necessary, interested and effective information such as key- word based image retrieval and content based image retrieval. However, the results of these approaches are generally unsatisfactory, unpredictable and do not match human perception due to the well gap between visual features and semantic concepts. In this paper, we p...

  7. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics

    Punčochář, Vít


    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 323-355. ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  8. From Speech Acts to Semantics

    Mackenzie Jim


    Full Text Available Frege introduced the notion of pragmatic force as what distinguishes statements from questions. This distinction was elaborated by Wittgenstein in his later works, and systematised as an account of different kinds of speech acts in formal dialogue theory by Hamblin. It lies at the heart of the inferential semantics more recently developed by Brandom. The present paper attempts to sketch some of the relations between these developments.

  9. Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business

    Juha Puustjarvi


    Full Text Available E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. XML is merely a standard notation for markup languages, which provides a means for structuring documents. Therefore the XML-based e-business software is developed by hard-coding. Hard-coding is proven to be a valuable and powerful way for exchanging structured and persistent business documents. However, if we use hard-coding in the case of non-persistent documents and non-static environments we will encounter problems in deploying new document types as it requires a long lasting standardization process. Replacing existing hard-coded ebusiness systems by open systems that support semantic interoperability, and which are easily extensible, is the topic of this article. We first consider XML-based technologies and standards developed for B2B interoperation. Then, we consider electronic auctions, which represent a form of e-business. In particular, we represent how semantic interoperability can be achieved in electronic auctions.

  10. Discovery and Selection of Semantic Web Services

    Wang, Xia


    For advanced web search engines to be able not only to search for semantically related information dispersed over different web pages, but also for semantic services providing certain functionalities, discovering semantic services is the key issue. Addressing four problems of current solution, this book presents the following contributions. A novel service model independent of semantic service description models is proposed, which clearly defines all elements necessary for service discovery and selection. It takes service selection as its gist and improves efficiency. Corresponding selection algorithms and their implementation as components of the extended Semantically Enabled Service-oriented Architecture in the Web Service Modeling Environment are detailed. Many applications of semantic web services, e.g. discovery, composition and mediation, can benefit from a general approach for building application ontologies. With application ontologies thus built, services are discovered in the same way as with single...

  11. Semantic WEB Services Using Clustering Approach

    Jayeeta Majumder,


    Full Text Available Semantic Web Services, like conventional web services, are the server end of a client–server system for machine-to-machine interaction via the World Wide Web. Semantic services are a component of the semantic web because they use markup which makes data machine-readable in a detailed and sophisticated way (as compared with human-readable HTML which is usually not easily "understood" by computer programs. Semantic similarity measures are specific types of Semantic measures: mathematical tools used to estimate the strength of the semantic relationship between units of language, concepts or instances, through a numerical description obtained according to the comparison of information formally or implicitly supporting their meaning or describing their nature.

  12. Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics

    O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko; Pafilisa, E.;


    To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (, a free service that takes a more practical approach......: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content.......g., Wikipedia entries). The popularity of Reflect demonstrates the use and feasibility of letting end-users decide how and when to add semantic annotations. Ultimately, ‘semantics is in the eye of the end-user’, hence we believe end-user approaches such as Reflect will become increasingly important in semantic...

  13. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services

    Town Christopher D; Avraham Shulamit; May Greg D; Schiltz Gary S; Gessler Damian DG; Grant David; Nelson Rex T


    Abstract Background SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap") is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. Results There are currently over 2400 resources published in SSWAP. Approximately two dozen ...

  14. RDF Analytics: Lenses over Semantic Graphs

    Colazzo, Dario; Goasdoué, François; Manolescu, Ioana; Roatis, Alexandra


    The development of Semantic Web (RDF) brings new requirements for data analytics tools and methods, going beyond querying to semantics-rich analytics through warehouse-style tools. In this work, we fully redesign, from the bottom up, core data analytics concepts and tools in the context of RDF data, leading to the first complete formal framework for warehouse-style RDF analytics. Notably, we define i) analytical schemas tailored to heterogeneous, semantics-rich RDF graph, ii) analytical queri...

  15. Metadata for semantic and social applications


    Metadata is a key aspect of our evolving infrastructure for information management, social computing, and scientific collaboration. DC-2008 will focus on metadata challenges, solutions, and innovation in initiatives and activities underlying semantic and social applications. Metadata is part of the fabric of social computing, which includes the use of wikis, blogs, and tagging for collaboration and participation. Metadata also underlies the development of semantic applications, and the Semant...

  16. Folksonomies, the Semantic Web, and Movie Recommendation

    Szomszor, Martin; Cattuto, Ciro; Alani, Harith; O'Hara, Kieron; Baldassarri, Andrea; Loreto, Vittorio; Vito D. P. Servedio


    While the Semantic Web has evolved to support the meaningful exchange of heterogeneous data through shared and controlled conceptualisations, Web 2.0 has demonstrated that large-scale community tagging sites can enrich the semantic web with readily accessible and valuable knowledge. In this paper, we investigate the integration of a movies folksonomy with a semantic knowledge base about user-movie rentals. The folksonomy is used to enrich the knowledge base with descriptions and categorisatio...

  17. Statistical semantic processing using Markov logic

    Meza-Ruiz, Ivan Vladimir


    Markov Logic (ML) is a novel approach to Natural Language Processing tasks [Richardson and Domingos, 2006; Riedel, 2008]. It is a Statistical Relational Learning language based on First Order Logic (FOL) and Markov Networks (MN). It allows one to treat a task as structured classification. In this work, we investigate ML for the semantic processing tasks of Spoken Language Understanding (SLU) and Semantic Role Labelling (SRL). Both tasks consist of identifying a semantic represe...

  18. Building and Managing Personalized Semantic Portals

    Sah, Melike; Hall, Wendy


    This paper presents a semantic portal, SEMPort, which provides better user support with personalized views, semantic navigation, ontology-based search and three different kinds of semantic hyperlinks. Distributed content editing and provision is supplied for the maintenance of the contents in real-time. As a case study, SEMPort is tested on the Course Modules Web Page (CMWP) of the School of Electronics and Computer Science (ECS).

  19. Trust Strategies for the Semantic Web

    O'Hara, Kieron; Alani, Harith; Kalfoglou, Yannis; Shadbolt, Nigel


    Everyone agrees on the importance of enabling trust on the SemanticWeb to ensure more efficient agent interaction. Current research on trust seems to focus on developing computational models, semantic representations, inference techniques, etc. However, little attention has been given to the plausible trust strategies or tactics that an agent can follow when interacting with other agents on the Semantic Web. In this paper we identify five most common strategies of trust and discuss their envi...

  20. Multimedia Annotations on the Semantic Web

    Stamou, G.; Ossenbruggen, J.R.; Pan, J; Schreiber, A.T.


    Multimedia in all forms (images, video, graphics, music, speech) is exploding on the Web. The content needs to be annotated and indexed to enable effective search and retrieval. However, recent standards and best practices for multimedia metadata don't provide semantically rich descriptions of multimedia content. On the other hand, the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C's) Semantic Web effort has been making great progress in advancing techniques for annotating semantics of Web resources. To br...

  1. Semantic Web Requirements through Web Mining Techniques

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Keyvanpour, Mohammad Reza


    In recent years, Semantic web has become a topic of active research in several fields of computer science and has applied in a wide range of domains such as bioinformatics, life sciences, and knowledge management. The two fast-developing research areas semantic web and web mining can complement each other and their different techniques can be used jointly or separately to solve the issues in both areas. In addition, since shifting from current web to semantic web mainly depends on the enhance...

  2. An Algebraic Specification of the Semantic Web

    Ksystra, Katerina; Stefaneas, Petros; Frangos, Panayiotis


    We present a formal specification of the Semantic Web, as an extension of the World Wide Web using the well known algebraic specification language CafeOBJ. Our approach allows the description of the key elements of the Semantic Web technologies, in order to give a better understanding of the system, without getting involved with their implementation details that might not yet be standardized. This specification is part of our work in progress concerning the modeling the Social Semantic Web.

  3. Semantic Web Enabled Composition of Web Services

    Medjahed, Brahim


    In this dissertation, we present a novel approach for the automatic composition of Web services on the envisioned Semantic Web. Automatic service composition requires dealing with three major research thrusts: semantic description of Web services, composability of participant services, and generation of composite service descriptions. %This dissertation deals with the aforementioned research issues. We first propose an ontology-based framework for organizing and describing semantic Web servic...

  4. Two Congruent Semantics for Prolog with CUT



    The development of a formal semantics for a given programming language can proceed in several stages,At each stage we give an alternative semantic definition of the language,and each definition embodies successively more and more implementation details.Then we formulate and prove at each stage the congruence conditions between successive definitions in the sequence.This paper presents two formal semantics for Prolog with “cut” and shows the congruence condition between them.

  5. Semantic confidence measurement for spoken dialog systems

    Sarıkaya, Ruhi; Sarikaya, Ruhi; Yuqing, Gao; Picheny, Michael; ERDOĞAN, Hakan; Erdogan, Hakan


    This paper proposes two methods to incorporate semantic information into word and concept level confidence measurement. The first method uses tag and extension probabilities obtained from a statistical classer and parser. The second method uses a maximum entropy based semantic structured language model to assign probabilities to each word. Incorporation of semantic features into a lattice posterior probability based confidence measure provides significant improvements compared to posterior pr...

  6. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    Ashish, Naveen; Industrial Experiences


    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building systems based on Semantic-Web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic-Web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing (IT) endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific inf...

  7. A Deep Architecture for Semantic Parsing

    Grefenstette, Edward; Blunsom, Phil; De Freitas, Nando; Hermann, Karl Moritz


    Many successful approaches to semantic parsing build on top of the syntactic analysis of text, and make use of distributional representations or statistical models to match parses to ontology-specific queries. This paper presents a novel deep learning architecture which provides a semantic parsing system through the union of two neural models of language semantics. It allows for the generation of ontology-specific queries from natural language statements and questions without the need for par...

  8. A multimodal restaurant finder for semantic web

    He, Yulan; Quan, Thanh Tho; Hui, Siu Cheung


    Multimodal dialogue systems provide multiple modalities in the form of speech, mouse clicking, drawing or touch that can enhance human-computer interaction. However, one of the drawbacks of the existing multimodal systems is that they are highly domain-specific and they do not allow information to be shared across different providers. In this paper, we propose a semantic multimodal system, called Semantic Restaurant Finder, for the Semantic Web in which the restaurant information in different ...

  9. Enhancing semantic web services with inheritance

    Ferndriger, S; Bernstein, A; Dong, J S; Feng, Y.; Li, Y. F.; HUNTER, J


    Currently proposed Semantic Web Services technologies allow the creation of ontology-based semantic annotations of Web services so that software agents are able to discover, invoke, compose and monitor these services with a high degree of automation. The OWL Services (OWL-S) ontology is an upper ontology in OWL language, providing essential vocabularies to semantically describe Web services. Currently OWL-S services can only be developed independently; if one service is unavailable then findi...

  10. Agile elicitation of semantic goals by wiki

    LAMBERT, David; Galizia, Stefania; Domingue, John


    Formal goal and service descriptions are the shibboleth of the semantic web services approach, yet the people responsible for creating them are neither machines nor logicians, and rarely even knowledge engineers: the people who need and specify functionality are not those who provide it, and both may be distinct from the semantic annotators. The gap between users' informal conceptualisations of problems and formal descriptions is one which must be effectively bridged for semantic web services...

  11. Semantic systems in closely related languages

    Majid, A.; Jordan, F; Dunn, M.


    In each semantic domain studied to date, there is considerable variation in how meanings are expressed across languages. But are some semantic domains more likely to show variation than others? Is the domain of space more or less variable in its expression than other semantic domains, such as containers, body parts, or colours? According to many linguists, the meanings expressed in grammaticised expressions, such as (spatial) adpositions, are more likely to be similar across languages than me...

  12. Semantic Plagiarism Detection System Using Ontology Mapping

    Manjula Shenoy K


    Full Text Available Plagiarism detection can play an important role in detecting stealing of original ideas in papers, journals and internet web sites. Checking these manually is simply impossible nowadays due to existence of large digital repository. Ontology is a way of describing documents semantics. Ontology mapping can resolve semantic heterogeneity in documents. Our paper proposes an automatic system for semantic plagiarism detection based on ontology mapping.

  13. Exploiting Social Semantics for Multilingual Information Retrieval

    Sorg, Philipp


    In this thesis we consider how user-generated content that is assembled by different popular Web portals can be exploited for Multilingual Information Retrieval. We define the knowledge that can be derived from such portals as Social Semantics. We present to approaches, Cross-lingual Explicit Semantic Analysis and Discriminative Retrieval Models, that are able to support multilingual retrieval models by integrating Social Semantics derived from Wikipedia and Yahoo! Answers.

  14. Proceedings Sixth Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics

    Klin, Bartek; Sobociński, Paweł


    This volume contains the proceedings of SOS 2009, the Sixth Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics held on the 31st of August 2009 in Bologna, Italy as a affiliated workshop of CONCUR 2009, the 20th International Conference on Concurrency Theory. Structural operational semantics (SOS) is a technique for defining operational semantics for programming and specification languages. The workshop is forum for researchers, students and practitioners interested in new developments and direction...

  15. Superstring field theory equivalence: Ramond sector

    Kroyter, Michael


    We extend the classical equivalence between the cubic and the non-polynomial open superstring field theories to the Ramond sector. To that end we find mappings between the string fields (NS and Ramond, including Chan-Paton factors and the various GSO sectors) of the two theories that send solutions to solutions in a way that respects the gauge symmetries in both sides and keeps the action of the solutions invariant. The perturbative spectrum around equivalent solutions is also isomorphic. We show that the gauge symmetry of the Ramond sector of the modified cubic theory suffers from collisions of picture changing operators. Our mapping works at the level of the linearized gauge transformation, which is well-defined. Nonetheless, the familiar form of the cubic theory is inconsistent and should be modified. Hence, at this level, our equivalence is only formal, since it relates a consistent theory to an inconsistent one. At the non-polynomial theory the Ramond sector is described using two constrained string fiel...

  16. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.


    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  17. SemTrust: A Semantic Reputation System in P2P-Based Semantic Web

    WANG Wei; ZENG Guosun; YUAN Lulai


    A reputation mechanism is introduced in P2P-based Semantic Web to solve the problem of lacking trust. It enables Semantic Web to utilize reputation information based on semantic similarity of peers in the network. This approach is evaluated in a simulation of a content sharing system and the experiments show that the system with reputation mechanism outperforms the system without it.

  18. Semantic Jira - Semantic Expert Finder in the Bug Tracking Tool Jira

    Heyn, Velten; Paschke, Adrian


    The semantic expert recommender extension for the Jira bug tracking system semantically searches for similar tickets in Jira and recommends experts and links to existing organizational (Wiki) knowledge for each ticket. This helps to avoid redundant work and supports the search and collaboration with experts in the project management and maintenance phase based on semantically enriched tickets in Jira.

  19. Pascal Semantics by a Combination of Denotational Semantics and High-level Petri Nets

    Jensen, Kurt; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    This paper describes the formal semantics of a subset of PASCAL, by means of a semantic model based on a combination of denotational semantics and high-level Petri nets. It is our intention that the paper can be used as part of the written material for an introductory course in computer science....

  20. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded semantic w...

  1. From Outermost Reduction Semantics to Abstract Machine

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    Reduction semantics is a popular format for small-step operational semantics of deterministic programming languages with computational effects. Each reduction semantics gives rise to a reduction-based normalization function where the reduction sequence is enumerated. Refocusing is a practical way...... subpart of a redex. In this article, we consider such an outermost reduction semantics with backward-overlapping rules, and we investigate how to apply refocusing to still obtain a reduction-free normalization function in the form of an abstract machine....

  2. Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques

    K.Ganapathi Babu; A.Komali; V.Mythry; A.S.K.Ratnam


    The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which informatio...

  3. SomeWhere in the Semantic Web

    Adjiman, Philippe; Chatalic, Philippe; Goasdoué, François; Rousset, Marie-Christine; Simon, Laurent


    In this paper, we describe the SomeWhere semantic peer-to-peer data management system that promotes a "small is beautiful" vision of the Semantic Web based on simple personalized ontologies (e.g., taxonomies of classes) but which are distributed at a large scale. In this vision of the Semantic Web, no user imposes to others his own ontology. Logical mappings between ontologies make possible the creation of a web of people in which personalized semantic marking up of data cohabits nicely with ...

  4. Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems

    Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle


    Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

  5. A logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines

    Simmons, Robert J.; Zerny, Ian


    manipulate semantic specifications encoded in a logical framework instead of manipulating functional programs. Natural semantics and abstract machines are instances of substructural operational semantics. As a byproduct, using a substructural logical framework, we bring concurrent and stateful models into...

  6. Fuzzification of Web Objects: A Semantic Web Mining Approach

    Tasawar Hussain


    Full Text Available Web Mining is becoming essential to support the web administrators and web users in multi-ways such as information retrieval; website performance management; web personalization; web marketing and website designing. Due to uncontrolled exponential growth in web data, knowledge base retrieval has become a very challenging task. The one viable solution to the problem is the merging of conventional web mining with semantic web technologies. This merging process will be more beneficial to web users by reducing the search space and by providing information that is more relevant. Key web objects play significant role in this process. The extraction of key web objects from a website is a challenging task. In this paper, we have proposed a framework, which extracts the key web objects from web log file and apply a semantic web to mine actionable intelligence. This proposed framework can be applied to non-semantic web for the extraction of key web objects. We also have defined an objective function to calculate key web object from users perspective. We named this function as key web object function. KWO function helps to fuzzify the extracted key web objects into three categories as Most Interested, Interested, and Least Interested. Fuzzification of web objects helps us to accommodate the uncertainty among the web objects of being user attractive. We also have validated the proposed scheme with the help of a case study.

  7. Interoperable cross-domain semantic and geospatial framework for automatic change detection

    Kuo, Chiao-Ling; Hong, Jung-Hong


    With the increasingly diverse types of geospatial data established over the last few decades, semantic interoperability in integrated applications has attracted much interest in the field of Geographic Information System (GIS). This paper proposes a new strategy and framework to process cross-domain geodata at the semantic level. This framework leverages the semantic equivalence of concepts between domains through bridge ontology and facilitates the integrated use of different domain data, which has been long considered as an essential superiority of GIS, but is impeded by the lack of understanding about the semantics implicitly hidden in the data. We choose the task of change detection to demonstrate how the introduction of ontology concept can effectively make the integration possible. We analyze the common properties of geodata and change detection factors, then construct rules and summarize possible change scenario for making final decisions. The use of topographic map data to detect changes in land use shows promising success, as far as the improvement of efficiency and level of automation is concerned. We believe the ontology-oriented approach will enable a new way for data integration across different domains from the perspective of semantic interoperability, and even open a new dimensionality for the future GIS.

  8. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    Zheng Zhang; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.


    Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commerc...

  9. Egalitarian Equivalence under Asymmetric Information

    Geoffroy de Clippel; David Pérez-Castrillo and David Wettstein


    We propose a definition of egalitarian equivalence that extends Pazner and Schmeidler's (1978) concept to environments with incomplete information. If every feasible allocation rule can be implemented by an incentive compatible mechanism (as, for instance, in the case of non-exclusive information), then interim egalitarian equivalence and interim incentive efficiency remain compatible, as they were under complete information. When incentive constraints are more restrictive, on the other hand,...

  10. Egalitarian equivalence under asymmetric information

    DE CLIPPEL, Geoffroy; Pérez-Castrillo, David; WETTSTEIN, David


    We propose a definition of egalitarian equivalence that extends Pazner and Schmeidler's (1978) concept to environments with incomplete information. If every feasible allocation rule can be implemented by an incentive compatible mechanism (as, for instance, in the case of non-exclusive information), then interim egalitarian equivalence and interim incentive efficiency remain compatible, as they were under complete information. When incentive constraints are more restrictive, on the other hand,...

  11. Equivalence translation of phraseological synonyms.

    Yashchuk, Olena


    This article is devoted to phraseological English synonyms, interchangeability and translation equivalence. This paper examines the state of the phenomenon of synonymy in phraseology at present, classifies phraseological units and phraseological synonyms in particular, common translation techniques of idiomatic synonyms, according to different levels of equivalence. The scientific relevance of the work is a synthesis of the linguistic nature of phraseological synonyms, as well as organizing m...


    Nasim Khozoie


    Full Text Available Information technology have changed information media by networking and internet .using technology inhealth as same as another part improve efficieincy and effectivness. currently the medical document isReality-based medicine, so that is the most important ,richest and the most realistic source of medical andhealth information.Health information management systems that require systems to the storage, retrieval,storage and elimination of health records (by law, and adjust to the rules of professional. these processare difficult and time consumig for human. In the meantime semantic HIM seem best solution.KEYWORDS

  13. Rallian "equivalent" cylinders reconsidered: comparisons with literal compartments.

    Goldfinger, M D


    In Rall's "equivalent" cylinder morphological-to-electrical transformation, neuronal arborizations are reduced to single unbranched core-conductors. The conventional assumption that such an "equivalent" reconstructs the electrical properties of the fibers it represents was tested directly; electrical properties and responses of "equivalent" cylinders were compared with those of their literal branch constituents for fibers with a single symmetrical bifurcation. The numerical solution methods were validated independently by their accurate reconstruction of the responses of an analog circuit configured with compartmental architecture to solve the cable equation for passive fibers with a symmetrical bifurcation. In passive fibers, "equivalent" cylinders misestimated the spatial distribution of voltage amplitudes and steady-state input resistance, partly due to the lack of axial current bifurcation. In active fibers with a single propagating action potential, the spatial distributions of point-to-point conduction velocity values (measured in meters/second) for a literal branch point differed significantly from those of their "equivalent" cylinders. "Equivalent" cylinders also underestimated the diameter-dependent delay in propagation through the branch point and branches, due to the larger "equivalent" diameter. Corrections to the "equivalent" cylinder did not reconcile differences between "equivalent" and literal models. However, "equivalent" and literal branch fibers had the same (a) steady-state resistance "looking into" an isolated symmetrical branch point and (b) geometry-independent point-to-point propagation velocity when measured in space constants per millisecond except within +/-1 space constant from the geometrical inhomogeneity. In summary, Rall's "equivalent" cylinders did not accurately reconstruct all passive or active electrophysiological properties and responses of their literal compartments. For the modeling of individual neurons, the requirement of

  14. Semiotics and semantic: tools for an effective appropriation of information, communication and health technologies

    Duteil-Mougel, Carine; Geslin-Beyaert, Anne; Billonnet, Laurent; Pignier, Nicole; Tsala-Effa, Didier; Dumas, Jean-Michel


    International audience Abstract: As Cultural Objects, ICTs belong to the human sphere. This surround is driven by polysemiotics performances (involving many signs systems) which praxeological semantics permits to interpret. The term of Praxeology (or theory of human action) is used so far as it concerns to link principally technical objects to social practices in which they appears. The meaning of these objects is then studied in relation with the actions to which they are associated. In t...

  15. Neural dynamics of object noun, action verb and action noun production in picture naming.

    Fargier, Raphaël; Laganaro, Marina


    The verb/noun dissociation has often involved the semantic/grammatical confound. We conducted two event-related potentials (ERPs) studies with the aim of minimizing this confound. In Experiment 1 participants named pictures depicting actions, with verbs or nouns and pictures depicting objects with nouns. In Experiment 2, participants named objects (nouns) or actions (verbs/nouns) from the same set of action pictures. Compatible with lexical-semantic processes, semantic category modulated waveform amplitudes and topographic patterns between 250 and 380 ms after picture-onset in Experiment 1. No such effects were observed in Experiment 2. No effects were found for grammatical class in both experiments suggesting that grammatical information is not mandatorily activated during lexical-semantic processes. Given the absence of dissociation when same pictures were used the results are described as feed-forward effects from visual to semantic processing, indicating differential neural networks for lexical selection of action and object words from their corresponding visual referents. PMID:26433472

  16. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    Danvy, Olivier


    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fuse...

  17. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    Danvy, Olivier


    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fuse...

  18. An Action Compiler Targeting Standard ML

    Iversen, Jørgen


    We present an action compiler that can be used in connection with an action semantics based compiler generator. Our action compiler produces code with faster execution times than code produced by other action compilers, and for some non-trivial test examples it is only a factor two slower than th...... the code produced by the Gnu C Compiler. Targeting Standard ML makes the description of the code generation simple and easy to implement. The action compiler has been tested on a description of the Core of Standard ML and a subset of C....

  19. Integrating dynamic resources in corporate semantic web: an approach to enterprise application integration using semantic web services

    Lo, Moussa; Gandon, Fabien


    We present our experiment in integrating semantic web services in the existing semantic web server architecture used by the ACACIA team to implement corporate memories. We rely on CORESE, a semantic web search engine, to provide web applications based on the semantic web services it can identify. Thus, CORESE is used as a semantic UDDI registry and allows us to automatically discover and invoke corporate applications wrapped into semantically annotated web services. Using rules and an extensi...

  20. Reduced Poisson actions

    刘张炬; 杨奇林


    A sufficient and necessary condition is given for the action of the quotient of a Poisson-Lie group G on the quotient of a Poisson G-space P to be a Poisson action, where both the Poisson structures on the quotient group and the quotient manifold are induced by Dirac structures. The left invariant Dirac structure and the left invariant tensor descriptions of Poisson homogeneous spaces are proved to be equivalent.

  1. Data-driven semantic analysis for multilingual WSD and lexical selection in translation

    Apidianaki, Marianna


    A common way of describing the senses of ambiguous words in multilingual Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) is by reference to their translation equivalents in another language. The theoretical soundness of the senses induced in this way can, however, be doubted. This type of cross-lingual sense identification has implications for multilingual WSD and MT evaluation as well. In this article, we first present some arguments in favour of a more thorough analysis of the semantic information that ...

  2. Using tissue equivalent proportional counters to determine dose equivalent

    Tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) have been used in the laboratory for over 30 years to determine neutron dose in mixed radiation fields, but they are seldom used by operational health physicists. But a number of TEPC-based instruments are being developed in Europe and in the United States. The purpose of this paper is: to introduce operational health physicists to tissue equivalent proportional counters, to examine some of the algorithms used to convert data from TEPCs into dose equivalent, to examine how TEPC measurements meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11 (DOE 1988) and 10CFR20, and to examine some of the TEPC-based instruments that are available. Many operational health physicists are not familiar with the concept of microdosimetry and the specialized terms that are used in analyzing the data from TEPCs, so a brief discussion is included. At present, quality factors are defined in terms of linear energy transfer, but TEPCs measure lineal energy

  3. Semantic search meets the Web

    Fernández Sánchez, Miriam; López, Vanessa; Sabou, Marta; Uren, Victoria S.; Vallet Weadon, David Jordi; Motta, Enrico; Castells, Pablo


    Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. M. Fernández, V. López, M. Sabou, V. S. Uren, D. Vallet, E. Motta, and P. Castells, "Semantic search meets the Web", 2008 IE...

  4. The Algebra of Lexical Semantics

    Kornai, András

    The current generative theory of the lexicon relies primarily on tools from formal language theory and mathematical logic. Here we describe how a different formal apparatus, taken from algebra and automata theory, resolves many of the known problems with the generative lexicon. We develop a finite state theory of word meaning based on machines in the sense of Eilenberg [11], a formalism capable of describing discrepancies between syntactic type (lexical category) and semantic type (number of arguments). This mechanism is compared both to the standard linguistic approaches and to the formalisms developed in AI/KR.

  5. Latent semantics as cognitive components

    Petersen, Michael Kai; Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai


    and independence. In music as well as language the patterns we come across become part of our mental workspace when the bottom-up sensory input raises above the background noise of core affect, and top-down trigger distinct feelings reflecting a shift of our attention. And as both low-level semantics and our...... emotional responses can be encoded in words, we propose a simplified cognitive approach to model how we perceive media. Representing song lyrics in a vector space of reduced dimensionality using LSA, we combine bottom-up defined term distances with affective adjectives, that top-down constrain the latent...

  6. Semantics of (Resilient) X10

    Crafa, Silvia; Cunningham, David; Saraswat, Vijay; Shinnar, Avraham; Tardieu, Olivier


    We present a formal small-step structural operational semantics for a large fragment of X10, unifying past work. The fragment covers multiple places, mutable objects on the heap, sequencing, \\code{try/catch}, \\code{async}, \\code{finish}, and \\code{at} constructs. This model accurately captures the behavior of a large class of concurrent, multi-place X10 programs. Further, we introduce a formal model of resilience in X10. During execution of an X10 program, a place may fail for many reasons. R...

  7. Semantic Integration in the IFF

    Kent, Robert E


    The IEEE P1600.1 Standard Upper Ontology (SUO) project aims to specify an upper ontology that will provide a structure and a set of general concepts upon which domain ontologies could be constructed. The Information Flow Framework (IFF), which is being developed under the auspices of the SUO Working Group, represents the structural aspect of the SUO. The IFF is based on category theory. Semantic integration of object-level ontologies in the IFF is represented with its fusion construction. The IFF maintains ontologies using powerful composition primitives, which includes the fusion construction.


    Karim Nazari Bagha


    Semantics is the study of meaning. Seen by Breal, in the late 19th century, as an emerging science opposed to phonetics as a science of sounds: similarly, for Bloomfield in the 1930, it was a field covering both grammar, as one account of meaningful forms, and the lexicon. Also seen more narrowly, in a traditional lasting into the 1960s, as the study of meaning in the lexicon alone, including changes in word meaning. Later, in accounts in which the study of distributions was divorced from tha...

  9. The semantic aftermath of distraction by deviant sounds: Crosstalk interference is mediated by the predictability of semantic congruency.

    Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Kefauver, Miriam


    Rare changes in a stream of otherwise repeated task-irrelevant sounds break through selective attention and disrupt performance in an unrelated visual task. This deviance distraction effect emerges because deviant sounds violate the cognitive system's predictions. In this study we sought to examine whether predictability also mediate the so-called semantic effect whereby behavioral performance suffers from the clash between the involuntary semantic evaluation of irrelevant sounds and the voluntary processing of visual targets (e.g., when participants must categorize a right visual arrow following the presentation of the deviant sound "left"). By manipulating the conditional probabilities of the congruent and incongruent deviant sounds in a left/right arrow categorization task, we elicited implicit predictions about the upcoming target and related response. We observed a linear increase of the semantic effect with the proportion of congruent deviant trials (i.e., as deviant sounds increasingly predicted congruent targets). We conclude that deviant sounds affect response times based on a combination of crosstalk interference and two types of prediction violations: stimulus violations (violations of predictions regarding the identity of upcoming irrelevant sounds) and semantic violations (violations of predictions regarding the target afforded by deviant sounds). We report a three-parameter model that captures all key features of the observed RTs. Overall, our results fit with the view that the brain builds forward models of the environment in order to optimize cognitive processing and that control of one's attention and actions is called upon when predictions are violated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25641044

  10. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois


    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  11. Word Meaning And Sentence Relation In Semantic



    Through the semantic learning,we know that lexical semantic is the study of word meaning,any utterance consists of lexical meanings of the separate words with structural meanings.In this paper,I will introduce some of words meaning first and then analysis the sentence relation,in order to understand them well.

  12. Content, Conflict, Control: Semantics and Subversion

    Lee, John


    Lee, J. 2011. Content, Conflict, Control: Semantics and Subversion. In Trausan-Matu, S. (ed). First International K-Teams Workshop on Semantics and Collaborative Technologies for the Web. Politehnica University of Bucharest, June 2011, pp.5-11. ISBN 978-606-515-268-7.

  13. Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification

    Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, Ken


    This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically...

  14. Measuring Individual Emotional Reactions and Semantic Spaces

    Lukavský, Jiří

    Praha : EFPA/UPA, 2007 - (Polišenská, V.; Šolc, M.; Kotrlová, J.). s. 163 ISBN 978-80-7064-017-3. [European Congress of Psychology /10./. 03.07.2007-06.07.2007, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : semantic proximity * Word Association Test * Semantic Selection Test Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  15. The surplus value of semantic annotations

    M. Marx


    We compare the costs of semantic annotation of textual documents to its benefits for information processing tasks. Semantic annotation can improve the performance of retrieval tasks and facilitates an improved search experience through faceted search, focused retrieval, better document summaries, an

  16. Neuronal Activation for Semantically Reversible Sentences

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Price, Cathy J.


    Semantically reversible sentences are prone to misinterpretation and take longer for typically developing children and adults to comprehend; they are also particularly problematic for those with language difficulties such as aphasia or Specific Language Impairment. In our study, we used fMRI to compare the processing of semantically reversible and…

  17. Enabling Semantic Technology Empowered Smart Spaces

    Jussi Kiljander


    Full Text Available It has been proposed that Semantic Web technologies would be key enablers in achieving context-aware computing in our everyday environments. In our vision of semantic technology empowered smart spaces, the whole interaction model is based on the sharing of semantic data via common blackboards. This approach allows smart space applications to take full advantage of semantic technologies. Because of its novelty, there is, however, a lack of solutions and methods for developing semantic smart space applications according to this vision. In this paper, we present solutions to the most relevant challenges we have faced when developing context-aware computing in smart spaces. In particular the paper describes (1 methods for utilizing semantic technologies with resource restricted-devices, (2 a solution for identifying real world objects in semantic technology empowered smart spaces, (3 a method for users to modify the behavior of context-aware smart space applications, and (4 an approach for content sharing between autonomous smart space agents. The proposed solutions include ontologies, system models, and guidelines for building smart spaces with the M3 semantic information sharing platform. To validate and demonstrate the approaches in practice, we have implemented various prototype smart space applications and tools.

  18. Quality model for semantic IS standards

    Folmer, E.J.A.


    Semantic IS (Information Systems) standards are essential for achieving interoperability between organizations. However a recent survey suggests that not the full benefits of standards are achieved, due to the quality issues. This paper presents a quality model for semantic IS standards, that should

  19. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni


    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  20. Multilingual Lexical Semantic Resources for Ontology Translation

    Declerck, T.; A. GÓMEZ-PÉREZ; Vela, O.; Gantner, Z.; Manzano-Macho, D.


    We describe the integration of some multilingual language resources in ontological descriptions, with the purpose of providing ontologies, which are normally using concept labels in just one (natural) language, with multilingual facility in their design and use in the context of Semantic Web applications, supporting both the semantic annotation of textual documents with multilingual ontology labels and ontology extraction from multilingual text sources.

  1. Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise

    Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike


    An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

  2. Petri Nets and Semantics of System Descriptions

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten


    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: Languages based on nets. The problem of time in nets. Nets and related models. Nets and formal semantics. Parallel program...

  3. Adding Recursive Constructs to Bialgebraic Semantics

    Klin, Bartek

    This paper aims at fitting a general class of recursive equations into the framework of ‘well-behaved' structural operational semantics, formalized as bialgebraic semantics by Turi and Plotkin. Rather than interpreting recursive constructs by means of operational rules, separate recursive equatio...

  4. Semantic maps voor vogelnamen in Brabantse dialecten

    Zwarts, J.


    In this paper the semantic map methodology from typology is used to explore lexical variation. Building on Swanenberg’s (2000) study of bird’s names in southern Dutch dialects, I construct semantic maps for thrushes, larks, tits, sparrows and swallows. In this way the patterns of variation that we f

  5. Recommendations based on semantically enriched museum collections

    Wang, Y.; Stash, N.; Aroyo, L.; Gorgels, P.; Rutledge, L.; Schreiber, G.


    This article presents the CHIP demonstrator1 for providing personalized access to digital museum collections. It consists of three main components: Art Recommender, Tour Wizard, and Mobile Tour Guide. Based on the semantically enriched Rijksmuseum Amsterdam2 collection, we show how Semantic Web tech

  6. Gesture and the Nature of Semantic Phonology

    Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.


    Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…

  7. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam


    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  8. The Semantic Web and Educational Technology

    Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.


    The "Semantic Web" is an idea proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the "World Wide Web." The topic has been generating a great deal of interest and enthusiasm, and there is a rapidly growing body of literature dealing with it. This article attempts to explain how the Semantic Web would work, and explores short-term and long-term…

  9. The Semantic Web in Teacher Education

    Czerkawski, Betül Özkan


    The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

  10. Morita Equivalence for Factorisable Semigroups

    Yu Qun CHEN; K. P. SHUM


    Recall that the semigroups S and R are said to be strongly Morita equivalent if there exists a unitary Morita context (S,R,S PR,RQs, <, []) with < and [] surjective. For a factorisable semigroup S, we denote s = {(s1, s2) ∈ S× S | ss1 =ss2,s ∈ S}, S' = S/s and US-FAct= {sM ∈S- Act|SM = M and SHoms(S, M) ≌ M}. We show that, for factorisable semigroups S and R, the categories US-FAct and UR-FAct are equivalent if and only if the semigroups S' and R' are strongly Morita equivalent. Some conditions for a factorisable semigroup to be strongly Morita equivalent to a sandwich semigroup, local units semigroup, monoid and group separately are also given. Moreover, we show that a semigroup S is completely simple if and only if S is strongly Morita equivalent to a group and for any index set I, S SHoms(S,Ⅱi∈ S)→Ⅱi∈S, s t·f→(st)f is an S-isomorphism.


    Kristina Olegovna SELEZNEVA


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the seme analysis of the Russian lexeme «учитель» and its equivalents in English and Spanish. The English equivalents are: teacher, educator, schoolteacher, schoolmaster, schoolmistress, school-man, tutor, in Spanish maestro, maestra, maestro de escuela, maestra de escuela, seño, señorita, magíster. The author used the contrastive analysis technique in examining the vocabulary which includes analysis of lexicographical data, component analysis, compilation and description of contrastive pairs. The component analysis in considering lexical units gives an opportunity to show national features of semantics of lexical units. 

  12. SASL: A Semantic Annotation System for Literature

    Yuan, Pingpeng; Wang, Guoyin; Zhang, Qin; Jin, Hai

    Due to ambiguity, search engines for scientific literatures may not return right search results. One efficient solution to the problems is to automatically annotate literatures and attach the semantic information to them. Generally, semantic annotation requires identifying entities before attaching semantic information to them. However, due to abbreviation and other reasons, it is very difficult to identify entities correctly. The paper presents a Semantic Annotation System for Literature (SASL), which utilizes Wikipedia as knowledge base to annotate literatures. SASL mainly attaches semantic to terminology, academic institutions, conferences, and journals etc. Many of them are usually abbreviations, which induces ambiguity. Here, SASL uses regular expressions to extract the mapping between full name of entities and their abbreviation. Since full names of several entities may map to a single abbreviation, SASL introduces Hidden Markov Model to implement name disambiguation. Finally, the paper presents the experimental results, which confirm SASL a good performance.

  13. An Analysis of Semantic Aware Crossover

    Uy, Nguyen Quang; Hoai, Nguyen Xuan; O'Neill, Michael; McKay, Bob; Galván-López, Edgar

    It is well-known that the crossover operator plays an important role in Genetic Programming (GP). In Standard Crossover (SC), semantics are not used to guide the selection of the crossover points, which are generated randomly. This lack of semantic information is the main cause of destructive effects from SC (e.g., children having lower fitness than their parents). Recently, we proposed a new semantic based crossover known GP called Semantic Aware Crossover (SAC) [25]. We show that SAC outperforms SC in solving a class of real-value symbolic regression problems. We clarify the effect of SAC on GP search in increasing the semantic diversity of the population, thus helping to reduce the destructive effects of crossover in GP.

  14. Scandinavian Semantics and the Human Body

    Levisen, Carsten


    demonstrated that Scandinavian and English systems differ significantly in some aspects of the way in which the construe the human body with words. The study ventures an innovative combination of methods, pairing the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach to linguistic and conceptual analysis with......This paper presents an ethnolinguistic analysis of how the space between the head and the body is construed in Scandinavian semantic systems vis-a-vis the semantic system of English. With an extensive case study of neck-related meanings in Danish, and with cross-Scandinavian reference, it is...... empirical evidence from the Evolution of Semantic Systems (EoSS) project. This combination of empirical and interpretative tools helps to integrate evidence from semantics and semiotics, pinning out in great detail the intricacies of the meanings of particular body words. The paper concludes that body words...

  15. Distributional Measures of Semantic Distance: A Survey

    Mohammad, Saif M


    The ability to mimic human notions of semantic distance has widespread applications. Some measures rely only on raw text (distributional measures) and some rely on knowledge sources such as WordNet. Although extensive studies have been performed to compare WordNet-based measures with human judgment, the use of distributional measures as proxies to estimate semantic distance has received little attention. Even though they have traditionally performed poorly when compared to WordNet-based measures, they lay claim to certain uniquely attractive features, such as their applicability in resource-poor languages and their ability to mimic both semantic similarity and semantic relatedness. Therefore, this paper presents a detailed study of distributional measures. Particular attention is paid to flesh out the strengths and limitations of both WordNet-based and distributional measures, and how distributional measures of distance can be brought more in line with human notions of semantic distance. We conclude with a br...

  16. Distinguished Algebraic Semantics for t-norm Based Fuzzy Logics: Methods and Algebraic Equivalencies

    Cintula, Petr; Esteva, F.; Gispert, J.; Godo, L.; Montagna, F.; Noguera, C.


    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2009), s. 53-81. ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Grant ostatní: MULOG(ES) TIN2007-68005-C04; Spanish Ministry of Education and Science(ES) MTM2004-03101; D.U.R.S.I of Generalitat de Catalunya(ES) 2005SGR; Departament d'Educació i Universitats of the Generalitat de Catalunya(ES) 2006-BP-A-10043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : algebraic logic * embedding properties * left-continuous t-norms * mathematical fuzzy logic * residuated lattices * standard completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2009

  17. Sievert, gray and dose equivalent.

    Pfalzner, P M


    The concepts of physical quantity and physical units of measurement are presented. The relations between quantities, the names and symbols for SI (International System) base units, derived units and special names of SI units are illustrated. From the definition of the radiation quantity dose equivalent, the SI unit for this quantity is shown to be dimensionally identical with the joule per kilogram. The sievert (Sv) is the special (restricted) name for the SI unit of the quantity dose equivalent, with 1 Sv = 1 J/kg. PMID:6668293

  18. Affine varieties with equivalent cylinders

    Yu, JT; Shpilrain, V


    A well-known cancellation problem asks when, for two algebraic varieties $V_1, V_2 \\subseteq {\\bf C}^n$, the isomorphism of the cylinders $V_1 \\times {\\bf C}$ and $V_2 \\times {\\bf C}$ implies the isomorphism of $V_1$ and $V_2$. In this paper, we address a related problem: when the equivalence (under an automorphism of ${\\bf C}^{n+1}$) of two cylinders $V_1 \\times {\\bf C}$ and $V_2 \\times {\\bf C}$ implies the equivalence of their bases $V_1$ and $V_2$ under an automorphism of ${\\bf C}^n$? We c...

  19. Synobins: An Intermediate Level towards Annotation and Semantic Retrieval

    Sethi Ishwar K


    Full Text Available To reason about the meaning of an image, useful information should be provided with that image; however, images often contain little to no textual information about the objects they are depicting, which is the precise reason why there is a need for CBIR systems that exploit only the correlations present in the raw pixel data. In this paper, we proposed a new type of image feature, which consists of patterns of colors and intensities that capture the latent associations among images and primitive features in such a way that the noise and redundancy are eliminated. We introduced the synobin, a new term for content-based image retrieval literature, which is the equivalent of a synonym word from text retrieval, to name the bin that is synonymous with other bins of a color feature, in the sense that they are similarly used across the image database. In a formal definition, a group of synobins is given by the most important bins participating in forming of a useful pattern, that is, the bins having the highest coefficients in the linear combination defining that pattern. Incorporating our feature model into a CBIR system moves the research in image retrieval beyond simple matching of images based on their primitive features and creates a ground for learning image semantics from visual content. A system developed using our proposed feature model will have the capability of learning associations not only between semantic concepts and images, but also between semantic concepts and patterns. We evaluated the performance of our system based on the retrieval accuracy and on the perceptual similarity order among retrieved images. When compared to standard image retrieval methods, our preliminary results show that even if the feature space was reduced to only 3%–5% of the initial space, the accuracy and perceptual similarity for our system remain the same or better depending on the category of images.


    龚洪泉; 张敬周; 钱乐秋; 任洪敏


    近年来,Semantic Web逐渐成为WWW领域的研究热点以及智能化网络服务和应用开发中的关键技术之一.归纳了Semantic Web技术的研究背景和主要发展历史.在分析了典型的Semantic Web概念后,给出了Semantic Web的定义.通过讨论Semantic Web构想的层次框架模型,指出了各个层次扮演的角色,并着重分析了Semantic Web的重要研究领域,指出了它们在Semantic Web构架中的核心作用.通过分析Semantic Web的应用领域和相关开发工具以及面临的问题和挑战,指明了Semantic Web研究和实践的方向.作为总结,给出了Semantic Web领域下一步的研究趋势.

  1. Fine-grained semantic categorization across the abstract and concrete domains.

    Marta Ghio

    Full Text Available A consolidated approach to the study of the mental representation of word meanings has consisted in contrasting different domains of knowledge, broadly reflecting the abstract-concrete dichotomy. More fine-grained semantic distinctions have emerged in neuropsychological and cognitive neuroscience work, reflecting semantic category specificity, but almost exclusively within the concrete domain. Theoretical advances, particularly within the area of embodied cognition, have more recently put forward the idea that distributed neural representations tied to the kinds of experience maintained with the concepts' referents might distinguish conceptual meanings with a high degree of specificity, including those within the abstract domain. Here we report the results of two psycholinguistic rating studies incorporating such theoretical advances with two main objectives: first, to provide empirical evidence of fine-grained distinctions within both the abstract and the concrete semantic domains with respect to relevant psycholinguistic dimensions; second, to develop a carefully controlled linguistic stimulus set that may be used for auditory as well as visual neuroimaging studies focusing on the parametrization of the semantic space beyond the abstract-concrete dichotomy. Ninety-six participants rated a set of 210 sentences across pre-selected concrete (mouth, hand, or leg action-related and abstract (mental state-, emotion-, mathematics-related categories, with respect either to different semantic domain-related scales (rating study 1, or to concreteness, familiarity, and context availability (rating study 2. Inferential statistics and correspondence analyses highlighted distinguishing semantic and psycholinguistic traits for each of the pre-selected categories, indicating that a simple abstract-concrete dichotomy is not sufficient to account for the entire semantic variability within either domains.

  2. Morita equivalence and spectral triples on noncommutative orbifolds

    Harju, Antti J.


    Let G be a finite group. Noncommutative geometry of unital G-algebras is studied. A geometric structure is determined by a spectral triple on the crossed product algebra associated with the group action. This structure is to be viewed as a representative of a noncommutative orbifold. Based on a study of classical orbifold groupoids, a Morita equivalence for the crossed product spectral triples is developed. Noncommutative orbifolds are Morita equivalence classes of the crossed product spectral triples. As a special case of this Morita theory one can study freeness of the G-action on the noncommutative level. In the case of a free action, the crossed product formalism reduced to the usual spectral triple formalism on the algebra of G-invariant functions.

  3. Morita "equivalences" of equivariant torus spectral triples

    Venselaar, Jan Jitse


    In general, Morita equivalence of spectral triples need not be a symmetric relation. In this paper, we show that Morita equivalence of spectral triples is an equivalence relation for equivariant torus spectral triples.

  4. Dynamic Wavelet and Equivalent Models

    Boaghe, O.M.; Billings, S A


    The representation of nonlinear dynamic wavelet models in the form of an equivalent global model which is valid over the operating range of the system is investigated. The results are used to analyse and interpret the nonlinear wavelet models using non-linear frequency response functions.

  5. Comments on field equivalence principles

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen


    It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept but...

  6. Klein factors and Fermi-Bose Equivalence

    Lee, Taejin


    Generalizing the kink operator of the Heisenberg spin 1/2 model, we construct a set of Klein factors explicitly such that $(1+1)$ dimensional fermion theories with arbitrary number of species are mapped onto the corresponding boson theories with the same number of species and vice versa. The actions for the resultant theories do not possess any nontrivial Klein factor. With this set of Klein factors, we are also able to map the simple boundary states such as the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary states, of the fermion (boson) theory onto those of the boson (fermion) theory. Applications of the Fermi-Bose equivalence with the constructed Klein factors to well-known $(1+1)$ dimensional theories have been discussed.

  7. Klein factors and Fermi-Bose equivalence

    Lee, Taejin


    Generalizing the kink operator of the Heisenberg spin 1/2 model, we construct a set of Klein factors explicitly such that (1+1)-dimensional fermion theories with an arbitrary number of species are mapped onto the corresponding boson theories with the same number of species and vice versa. The actions for the resultant theories do not possess a nontrivial Klein factor. With this set of Klein factors, we are also able to map the simple boundary states, such as the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary states, of the fermion (boson) theory onto those of the boson (fermion) theory. Applications of the Fermi-Bose equivalence with the constructed Klein factors to well-known (1+1)-dimensional theories have been discussed.

  8. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob


    We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped non-imperative calculus of objects.  This abstract machine mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i.e., big-step operational semantics) specified...

  9. A Rewriting Logic Semantics Approach to Modular Program Analysis

    Hills, M.A.; Rosu, G.; Lynch, C.


    The K framework, based on rewriting logic semantics, provides a powerful logic for defining the semantics of programming languages. While most work in this area has focused on defining an evaluation semantics for a language, it is also possible to define an abstract semantics that can be used for pr

  10. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob


    We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects. What is special about this semantic artifact (i.e., man-made construct) is that is mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i...

  11. A Framework of Semantic Information Representation in Distributed Environments


    An information representation framework is designed to overcome the problem of semantic heterogeneity in distributed environments in this paper. Emphasis is placed on establishing an XML-oriented semantic data model and the mapping between XML data based on a global ontology semantic view. The framework is implemented in Web Service, which enhances information process efficiency, accuracy and the semantic interoperability as well.

  12. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.


    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  13. A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine



    Full Text Available The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are playing a crucial role in enhancing traditional web search, as it is working to create machine readable data. but it will not replace traditional search engine. In this paper we made a brief survey on various promising features of some of the best semantic search engines developed so far and we have discussed the various approaches to semantic search. We have summarized the techniques, advantages of some important semantic web search engines that are developed so far.The most prominent part is that how the semantic search engines differ from the traditional searches and their results are shown by giving a sample query as input

  14. Modeling Consensus Semantics in Social Tagging Systems

    Bin Zhang; Yin Zhang; Ke-Ning Gao


    In social tagging systems,people can annotate arbitrary tags to online data to categorize and index them.However,the lack of the "a priori" set of words makes it difficult for people to reach consensus about the semantics of tags and how to categorize data.Ontologies based approaches can help reaching such consensus,but they are still facing problems such as inability of model ambiguous and new concepts properly.For tags that are used very few times,since they can only be used in very specific contexts,their semantics are very clear and detailed.Although people have no consensus on these tags,it is still possible to leverage these detailed semantics to model the other tags.In this paper we introduce a random walk and spreading activation like model to represent the semantics of tags using semantics of unpopular tags.By comparing the proposed model to the classic Latent Semantic Analysis approach in a concept clustering task,we show that the proposed model can properly capture the semantics of tags.

  15. Demonic semantics: using monotypes and residuals

    F. Tchier


    Full Text Available Relations and relational operators can be used to define the semantics of programming languages. The operations ∨ and ∘ serve to give angelic semantics by defining a program to go right when there is a possibility to go right. On the other hand, the demonic operations ⊔ and □ do the opposite: if there is a possibility to go wrong, a program whose semantics is given by these operators will go wrong; it is the demonic semantics. This type of semantics is known at least since Dijkstra's introduction of the language of guarded commands. Recently, there has been a growing interest in demonic relational semantics of sequential programs. Usually, a construct is given an ad hoc semantic definition based on an intuitive understanding of its behavior. In this note, we show how the notion of relational flow diagram (essentially a matrix whose entries are relations on the set of states of the program, introduced by Schmidt, can be used to give a single demonic definition for a wide range of programming constructs. This research had originally been carried out by J. Desharnais and F. Tchier (1996 in the same framework of the binary homogeneous relations. We show that all the results can be generalized by using the monotypes and the residuals introduced by Desharnais et al. (2000.

  16. Lexically Allusive Content of Semantic Frames (Based on the Works of John Fowles

    Aleksandra Aleksandrovna Akatova


    Full Text Available The semantic frame is a cognitive model, some mental structure that unites the world map and the thesaurus of a person, the hierarchy of meanings and values of the linguistic model of the world. Conceptual-cognitive content of a semantic frame includes three constituents: the reader, the author, and culture. The postmodernistic metatext, a vivid example of which is the metatext of John Fowles, is made of lexical-semantic frames, filled with allusions, general cultural precedent phenomena, cross-references, leitmotif lexemes. The frames of "freedom" and "game" exemplify integrated leitmotif of enclosed space, sea, theater, meta-theatre, god, god's imitations, magician (wizard, and fool. The application of a semantic frames method for the analysis of lexical-allusive elements in the works of John Fowles (The Aristos, The Magus, The Ebony Tower, Daniel Martin, French Lieutenant's Woman, A Maggot, Wormholes allowed to identify the net of allusive inclusions and arrange them into lexical-semantic frames, which helped to decode linguocultural metatext of the society and the individual (author. The interpretation of linguistic and cultural items in the text has lead to distinguishing the dominant frame of the metatext, that is "freedom". It is stated that creativity is freedom in action, responsibility is the condition for complete freedom, the path from the Fool to the Magician is the way from blindness of the stereotypes in the society to the intrinsic vision of internal freedom and unifying meaning of existence.

  17. Varieties of semantic 'access' deficit in Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia.

    Thompson, Hannah E; Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Jefferies, Elizabeth


    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke's aphasia, associated with poor auditory-verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic 'access' deficit, as opposed to the 'storage' deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of 'access' impairment-related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke's aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke's aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington's paradigmatic assessment of semantic 'access' deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic 'blocking' effects). Patients with Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability-one that mapped onto classical 'syndromes' and one that did not-predicted aspects of the semantic 'access' deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke's aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially 'beneficial' effects of stimulus repetition: cases with

  18. Semantically aided interpretation and querying of Jefferson Project data using the SemantEco framework

    Patton, E. W.; Pinheiro, P.; McGuinness, D. L.


    We will describe the benefits we realized using semantic technologies to address the often challenging and resource intensive task of ontology alignment in service of data integration. Ontology alignment became relatively simple as we reused our existing semantic data integration framework, SemantEco. We work in the context of the Jefferson Project (JP), an effort to monitor and predict the health of Lake George in NY by deploying a large-scale sensor network in the lake, and analyzing the high-resolution sensor data. SemantEco is an open-source framework for building semantically-aware applications to assist users, particularly non-experts, in exploration and interpretation of integrated scientific data. SemantEco applications are composed of a set of modules that incorporate new datasets, extend the semantic capabilities of the system to integrate and reason about data, and provide facets for extending or controlling semantic queries. Whereas earlier SemantEco work focused on integration of water, air, and species data from government sources, we focus on redeploying it to provide a provenance-aware, semantic query and interpretation interface for JP's sensor data. By employing a minor alignment between SemantEco's ontology and the Human-Aware Sensor Network Ontology used to model the JP's sensor deployments, we were able to bring SemantEco's capabilities to bear on the JP sensor data and metadata. This alignment enabled SemantEco to perform the following tasks: (1) select JP datasets related to water quality; (2) understand how the JP's notion of water quality relates to water quality concepts in previous work; and (3) reuse existing SemantEco interactive data facets, e.g. maps and time series visualizations, and modules, e.g. the regulation module that interprets water quality data through the lens of various federal and state regulations. Semantic technologies, both as the engine driving SemantEco and the means of modeling the JP data, enabled us to rapidly

  19. DB Category: Denotational Semantics for View-based Database Mappings

    Majkic, Zoran


    We present a categorical denotational semantics for a database mapping, based on views, in the most general framework of a database integration/exchange. Developed database category DB, for databases (objects) and view-based mappings (morphisms) between them, is different from Set category: the morphisms (based on a set of complex query computations) are not functions, while the objects are database instances (sets of relations). The logic based schema mappings between databases, usually written in a highly expressive logical language (ex. LAV, GAV, GLAV mappings, or tuple generating dependency) may be functorially translated into this "computation" category DB. A new approach is adopted, based on the behavioral point of view for databases, and behavioral equivalences for databases and their mappings are established. By introduction of view-based observations for databases, which are computations without side-effects, we define a fundamental (Universal algebra) monad with a power-view endofunctor T. The resul...

  20. A generic action for strings

    We show that the action for the ordinary string recently proposed by Marnelius is equivalent to the Nambu-Goto action, not by elimination of the Lagrange multiplier but by means of its field equation, but better based on the constraints algebra. We show, furthermore, that the zero tension limit coincides with the null string. (author). 4 refs

  1. Exploiting Document Level Semantics in Document Clustering

    Muhammad Rafi


    Full Text Available Document clustering is an unsupervised machine learning method that separates a large subject heterogeneous collection (Corpus into smaller, more manageable, subject homogeneous collections (clusters. Traditional method of document clustering works around extracting textual features like: terms, sequences, and phrases from documents. These features are independent of each other and do not cater meaning behind these word in the clustering process. In order to perform semantic viable clustering, we believe that the problem of document clustering has two main components: (1 to represent the document in such a form that it inherently captures semantics of the text. This may also help to reduce dimensionality of the document and (2 to define a similarity measure based on the lexical, syntactic and semantic features such that it assigns higher numerical values to document pairs which have higher syntactic and semantic relationship. In this paper, we propose a representation of document by extracting three different types of features from a given document. These are lexical , syntactic and semantic features. A meta-descriptor for each document is proposed using these three features: first lexical, then syntactic and in the last semantic. A document to document similarity matrix is produced where each entry of this matrix contains a three value vector for each lexical , syntactic and semantic . The main contributions from this research are (i A document level descriptor using three different features for text like: lexical, syntactic and semantics. (ii we propose a similarity function using these three, and (iii we define a new candidate clustering algorithm using three component of similarity measure to guide the clustering process in a direction that produce more semantic rich clusters. We performed an extensive series of experiments on standard text mining data sets with external clustering evaluations like: FMeasure and Purity, and have obtained

  2. The Semantic eScience Framework

    McGuinness, Deborah; Fox, Peter; Hendler, James


    The goal of this effort is to design and implement a configurable and extensible semantic eScience framework (SESF). Configuration requires research into accommodating different levels of semantic expressivity and user requirements from use cases. Extensibility is being achieved in a modular approach to the semantic encodings (i.e. ontologies) performed in community settings, i.e. an ontology framework into which specific applications all the way up to communities can extend the semantics for their needs.We report on how we are accommodating the rapid advances in semantic technologies and tools and the sustainable software path for the future (certain) technical advances. In addition to a generalization of the current data science interface, we will present plans for an upper-level interface suitable for use by clearinghouses, and/or educational portals, digital libraries, and other disciplines.SESF builds upon previous work in the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory. The VSTO utilizes leading edge knowledge representation, query and reasoning techniques to support knowledge-enhanced search, data access, integration, and manipulation. It encodes term meanings and their inter-relationships in ontologies anduses these ontologies and associated inference engines to semantically enable the data services. The Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project implemented data integration capabilities among three sub-disciplines; solar radiation, volcanic outgassing and atmospheric structure using extensions to existingmodular ontolgies and used the VSTO data framework, while adding smart faceted search and semantic data registrationtools. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) has added explanation provenance capabilities to an observational data ingest pipeline for images of the Sun providing a set of tools to answer diverseend user questions such as ``Why does this image look bad?.

  3. Semantic Conflicts Reconciliation as a Viable Solution for Semantic Heterogeneity Problems

    Walaa S. Ismail


    Full Text Available Achieving semantic interoperability is a current challenge in the field of data integration in order to bridge semantic conflicts occurring when the participating sources and receivers use different or implicit data assumptions. Providing a framework that automatically detects and resolves semantic conflicts is considered as a daunting task for many reasons, it should preserve the local autonomy of the integrated sources, as well as provides a standard query language for accessing the integrated data on a global basis. Many existing traditional and ontology-based approaches have tried to achieve semantic interoperability, but they have certain drawbacks that make them inappropriate for integrating data from a large number of participating sources. We propose semantic conflicts reconciliation (SCR framework, it is ontology-based system in which all data semantics explicitly described in the knowledge representation phase and automatically taken into account through the interpretation mediation service phase, so conflicts detected and resolved automatically at the query time

  4. Semantics in Image and Video Retrieval Systems


    Multimedia document annotation is used in traditional multimedia database systems. However, without the help of human beings, it is very difficult to extract the semantic content of multimedia automatically. On the other hand, it is a tedious job to annotate multimedia documents in large databases one by one manually. This paper first introduces a method to construct a semantic network on top of a multimedia database. Second, a useful and efficient annotation strategy is presented based on the framework to obtain an accurate and rapid annotation of any multimedia databases. Third, two methods of joint similarity measures for semantic and low-level features are evaluated.

  5. A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine

    G.Sudeepthi; G. Anuradha; M.Surendra Prasad Babu


    The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are pla...

  6. Semantic Web Services and Its Approaches

    Tauqeer Ahmad Usmani,


    Full Text Available OWL-S, IRS, WSMF are the prominent field that are the major part for Semantic Web Services. IRS-III is the first WSMO Compliant and implemented structure to support Semantic Web Services.IRS-III is the extension of previous version of IRS-II and supporting WSMO ontology within the IRS-III Server, browser and API.IRS-III provides support for the OWL-S service descriptions by importing the description to IRS-III. This paper describes about different approaches of Semantic WebServices.

  7. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Gary Michael Oppenheim


    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  8. Semantic matchmaking with nonmonotonic description logics

    Grimm, S


    Semantic web has grown into a mature field of research. Its methods find innovative applications on and off the World Wide Web. Its underlying technologies have significant impact on adjacent fields of research and on industrial applications. This new book series reports on the state-of-the-art in foundations, methods, and applications of semantic web and its underlying technologies. It is a central forum for the communication of recent developments and comprises research monographs, textbooks and edited volumes on all topics related to the semantic web. In this first volume several non-monoto

  9. Video semantic content analysis based on ontology

    Bai, Liang; Lao, Songyang; Jones, Gareth J.F.; Smeaton, Alan F.


    The rapid increase in the available amount of video data is creating a growing demand for efficient methods for understanding and managing it at the semantic level. New multimedia standards, such as MPEG-4 and MPEG-7, provide the basic functionalities in order to manipulate and transmit objects and metadata. But importantly, most of the content of video data at a semantic level is out of the scope of the standards. In this paper, a video semantic content analysis framework based on ontology i...

  10. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web

    Yu, Liyang


    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years, and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components, and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  11. A developer's guide to the semantic web

    Yu, Liyang


    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  12. Change management for semantic web services

    Liu, Xumin; Bouguettaya, Athman


    Change Management for Semantic Web Services provides a thorough analysis of change management in the lifecycle of services for databases and workflows, including changes that occur at the individual service level or at the aggregate composed service level. This book describes taxonomy of changes that are expected in semantic service oriented environments. The process of change management consists of detecting, propagating, and reacting to changes. Change Management for Semantic Web Services is one of the first books that discuss the development of a theoretical foundation for managing changes

  13. A Modular Rewriting Semantics for CML

    Chalub, Fabricio; Braga, Christiano de Oliveira

    This paper presents a modular rewriting semantics (MRS) specification for Reppy's Concurrent ML (CML), based on Peter Mosses' modular structural operational semantics specification for CML. A modular rewriting semantics specification for a programming language is a rewrite theory in rewriting logic...... written using techniques that support the modular development of the specification in the precise sense that every module extension is conservative. We show that the MRS of CML can be used to interpret CML programs using the rewrite engine of the Maude system, a high-performance implementation of...

  14. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    Ashish, Naveen


    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

  15. Petri nets semantics ofπ-calculus

    Zhenhua YU; Yuanli CAI; Haiping XU


    As π-calculus based on the interleaving semantics cannot depict the true concurrency and has few supporting tools,it is translated into Petri nets.π-calculus is divided into basic elements,sequence,concurrency,choice and recursive modules.These modules are translated into Petri nets to construct a complicated system.Petri nets semantics for π-calculus visualize system structure as well as system behaviors.The structural analysis techniques allow direct qualitative analysis of the system properties on the structure of the nets.Finally,Petri nets semantics for π-calculus are illustrated by applying them to mobile telephone systems.

  16. Semantics of color in chromatism

    Serov, Nikolai V.


    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of >: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for >, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  17. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Hirschowitz, André; 10.4204/EPTCS.77.5


    We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax). Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the \\lambda-calculus with explicit substitution.

  18. Verb Semantics and Lexical Selection

    Wu, Z; Wu, Zhibiao; Palmer, Martha


    This paper will focus on the semantic representation of verbs in computer systems and its impact on lexical selection problems in machine translation (MT). Two groups of English and Chinese verbs are examined to show that lexical selection must be based on interpretation of the sentence as well as selection restrictions placed on the verb arguments. A novel representation scheme is suggested, and is compared to representations with selection restrictions used in transfer-based MT. We see our approach as closely aligned with knowledge-based MT approaches (KBMT), and as a separate component that could be incorporated into existing systems. Examples and experimental results will show that, using this scheme, inexact matches can achieve correct lexical selection.

  19. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    André Hirschowitz


    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  20. Combinatorial algebra syntax and semantics

    Sapir, Mark V


    Combinatorial Algebra: Syntax and Semantics provides a comprehensive account of many areas of combinatorial algebra. It contains self-contained proofs of  more than 20 fundamental results, both classical and modern. This includes Golod–Shafarevich and Olshanskii's solutions of Burnside problems, Shirshov's solution of Kurosh's problem for PI rings, Belov's solution of Specht's problem for varieties of rings, Grigorchuk's solution of Milnor's problem, Bass–Guivarc'h theorem about the growth of nilpotent groups, Kleiman's solution of Hanna Neumann's problem for varieties of groups, Adian's solution of von Neumann-Day's problem, Trahtman's solution of the road coloring problem of Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss. The book emphasize several ``universal" tools, such as trees, subshifts, uniformly recurrent words, diagrams and automata.   With over 350 exercises at various levels of difficulty and with hints for the more difficult problems, this book can be used as a textbook, and aims to reach a wide and diversified...

  1. All in Action

    Arto Annila


    Full Text Available The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which Nature in its entirety and every detail is described in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiple of the most elementary actions which relates to Planck’s constant. Elements of space are closed actions, known as fermions, whereas elements of time are open actions, known as bosons. The actions span an energy landscape, the Universe, which evolves irreversibly according to the 2nd law of thermodynamics by diminishing energy density differences in least time. During evolution densely-curled actions unfold step-by-step when opening up and expelling one or multiple elementary actions to their surrounding sparser space. The energy landscape will process from one symmetry group to another until the equivalence to its dual, i.e., the surrounding density has been attained. The scale-free physical portrayal of nature in terms of actions does not recognize any fundamental difference between fundamental particles and fundamental forces. Instead a plethora of particles and a diaspora of forces are perceived merely as diverse manifestations of a natural selection for various mechanisms and ways to decrease free energy in the least time.

  2. Attention trees and semantic paths

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura


    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  3. Measuring Semantic Similarity between Words Using Web Documents

    Sheetal. A. Takale; Sushma S. Nandgaonkar


    Semantic similarity measures play an important role inthe extraction of semantic relations. Semantic similarity measuresare widely used in Natural Language Processing (NLP) andInformation Retrieval (IR). The work proposed here uses webbasedmetrics to compute the semantic similarity between words orterms and also compares with the state-of-the-art. For a computerto decide the semantic similarity, it should understand thesemantics of the words. Computer being a syntactic machine, it cannot unde...

  4. Combining knowledge discovery, ontologies, annotations, and semantic wikis

    Astudillo, Hernan; Codocedo, Victor; Canals, Gérôme; Torres, Diego; Diaz, Alicia; Napoli, Amedeo; Gomes, Alan,; Pimentel, Maria-Graça


    Semantic Wikis provide an original and operational infrastructure for efficiently combining semantic technologies and collaborative design activities. This text presents: a running example and its context (organization of the collections in a museum); concepts of wikis as a tool to allow computer supported cooperative work (cscw); concepts of semantic technologies and knowledge representation; concepts and examples of semantic wikis; anatomy of a semantic wiki (reasoning tools, storage, query...

  5. Semantic Web Portal in University Research Community Framework

    Rahmat Hidayat; Yazrina Yahya; Shahrul Azman Mohd Noah; Mohd Zakree Ahmad; Abdul Razak Hamdan


    One way overcome the weakness of semantic web to make it more user friendly is by displaying, browsing and semantically query data. In this research, we propose Semantic Web Research Community Portal at Faculty of Information Science and Technology – Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (FTSM RC) as the lightest platform of Semantic Web. This platform assists the users in managing the content and making visualization of relevant semantic data by applying meaningful periodically research. In such a ...

  6. The usability of semantic search tools: a review

    Uren, Victoria; Lei, Yuangui; Lopez, Vanessa; Liu, Haiming; Motta, Enrico; Giordanino, Marina


    The goal of semantic search is to improve on traditional search methods by exploiting the semantic metadata. In this paper, we argue that supporting iterative and exploratory search modes is important to the usability of all search systems. We also identify the types of semantic queries the users need to make, the issues concerning the search environment and the problems that are intrinsic to semantic search in particular. We then review the four modes of user interaction in existing semantic...

  7. Varieties of semantic ‘access’ deficit in Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia

    Thompson, Holly E.; Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth


    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke’s aphasia, associated with poor auditory–verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic ‘acces...

  8. Semantic Web Languages and Semantic Web Services as Application Areas for Answer Set Programming

    Polleres, Axel


    In the Semantic Web and Semantic Web Services areas there are still unclear issues concerning an appropriate language. Answer Set Programming and ASP engines can be particularly interesting for Ontological Reasoning, especially in the light of ongoing discussions of non-Monotonic extensions for Ontology Languages. Previously, the main concern of discussions was around OWL and Description Logics. Recently many extensions and suggestions for Rule Languages and Semantic Web Languages pop up, par...

  9. Semantic Integration Workshop at the Second International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC-2003)

    Doan, AnHai; Halevy, Alon Y.; Noy, Natalya F


    In numerous distributed environments, including today's World Wide Web, enterprise data management systems, large science projects, and the emerging semantic web, applications will inevitably use the information described by multiple ontologies and schemas. We organized the Workshop on Semantic Integration at the Second International Semantic Web Conference to bring together different communities working on the issues of enabling integration among different resources. The workshop generated a...

  10. Semantics for programming languages with Coq encodings : First part: natural semantics

    Bertot, Yves


    This course is devised as an introduction to different techniques used in studying programming language semantics. It is inspired from the first chapters of a book written in 1993 by Glynn Winskel, The formal semantics of programming languages, an introduction and published by MIT Press in the series Foundations of Computing. We will present the following aspects: 1. Natural semantics: presenting program execution as a logical system, 2. Proofs by induction: applications to programming langua...

  11. Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries: From Libraries to Social Semantic Digital Libraries (SSDL), Over Semantic Digital Libraries (SDL)

    Alotaibi, Sara


    Digital libraries have been an important source of information throughout the history of mankind. It has been present in our societies in different forms. Notably, traditional libraries have found their on the desktops of internet users. They have taken the shape of semantic digital libraries, which are accessible at any time, and accordingly provide a more meaningful search. This paper further discusses social semantic digital libraries that also incorporate the social and collaborative aspect.

  12. Equivalent Imperfections In Arched Structures

    Dallemule Marian


    Full Text Available There are currently three design methods to verify the in-plane buckling of an arched structure: substitute member method, the method of equivalent imperfection with recommendations for arched bridges, and the equivalent unique global and local initial imperfection method (EUGLI, which uses the critical elastic buckling mode as an imperfection. The latter method is included in the EN 1993-1-1 cl. 5.3.2 (11 since 2002; however, to this day it is neither utilized in the design practice nor is it incorporated in ordinary structural analysis software. The main purpose of this article is to show the application of the proposed methods in a step-by-step manner to the numerical example considered and to compare these design methods for various arched structures. Verification of the in-plane buckling of an arch is explained in detail.

  13. Semantic Search in Wiki using HTML5 Microdata for Semantic Annotation

    P Pabitha


    Full Text Available Wiki, the collaborative web authoring system makes Web a huge collection of information, as the Wiki pages are authored by anybody all over the world. These Wiki pages, if annotated semantically, will serve as a universal pool of intellectual resources that can be read by machines too. This paper presents an analytical study and implementation of making the Wiki pages semantic by using HTML5 semantic elements and annotating with microdata. And using the semantics the search module is enhanced to provide accurate results.

  14. Equivalent circuit analysis of sled

    A direct application of equivalent circuit concepts leads to: (1) confirmation of Perry Wilson's SLED (SLAC Linac Energy Doubler) equation; (2) an equation that applies to a SLED device with input and output waveguides of different characteristic impedances; and (3) an equation that results if we demand that no power be lost by reflection from SLED. If the incident voltage is tailored as prescribed by this equation, the cavity voltage tracks the incident voltage and the reflected voltage is zero

  15. Relative exchangeability with equivalence relations

    Crane, Harry; Towsner, Henry


    We describe an Aldous--Hoover-type characterization of random relational structures that are exchangeable relative to a fixed structure which may have various equivalence relations. Our main theorem gives the common generalization of the results on relative exchangeability due to Ackerman \\cite{Ackerman2015} and Crane and Towsner \\cite{CraneTowsner2015} and hierarchical exchangeability results due to Austin and Panchenko \\cite{AustinPanchenko2014}.

  16. The Source Equivalence Acceleration Method

    Highlights: • We present a new acceleration method, the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method. • SEAM forms an equivalent coarse group problem for any spatial method. • Equivalence is also formed across different spatial methods and angular quadratures. • Testing is conducted using OpenMOC and performance is compared with CMFD. • Results show that SEAM is preferable for very expensive transport calculations. - Abstract: Fine-group whole-core reactor analysis remains one of the long sought goals of the reactor physics community. Such a detailed analysis is typically too computationally expensive to be realized on anything except the largest of supercomputers. Recondensation using the Discrete Generalized Multigroup (DGM) method, though, offers a relatively cheap alternative to solving the fine group transport problem. DGM, however, suffered from inconsistencies when applied to high-order spatial methods. While an exact spatial recondensation method was developed and provided full spatial consistency with the fine group problem, this approach substantially increased memory requirements for realistic problems. The method described in this paper, called the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method (SEAM), forms a coarse-group problem which preserves the fine-group problem even when using higher order spatial methods. SEAM allows recondensation to converge to the fine-group solution with minimal memory requirements and little additional overhead. This method also provides for consistency when using different spatial methods and angular quadratures between the coarse group and fine group problems. SEAM was implemented in OpenMOC, a 2D MOC code developed at MIT, and its performance tested against Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration on the C5G7 benchmark problem and on a 361 group version of the problem. For extremely expensive transport calculations, SEAM was able to outperform CMFD, resulting in speed-ups of 20–45 relative to the normal power

  17. Software analysis in the semantic web

    Taylor, Joshua; Hall, Robert T.


    Many approaches in software analysis, particularly dynamic malware analyis, benefit greatly from the use of linked data and other Semantic Web technology. In this paper, we describe AIS, Inc.'s Semantic Extractor (SemEx) component from the Malware Analysis and Attribution through Genetic Information (MAAGI) effort, funded under DARPA's Cyber Genome program. The SemEx generates OWL-based semantic models of high and low level behaviors in malware samples from system call traces generated by AIS's introspective hypervisor, IntroVirtTM. Within MAAGI, these semantic models were used by modules that cluster malware samples by functionality, and construct "genealogical" malware lineages. Herein, we describe the design, implementation, and use of the SemEx, as well as the C2DB, an OWL ontology used for representing software behavior and cyber-environments.

  18. Semantic web services advancement through evaluation

    Blake, Brian; König-Ries, Birgitta; Küster, Ulrich


    Including a useful overview of the latest research on implemented SWS technologies, this volume details a variety of current semantic service approaches and provides valuable material that will enhance future SWS evaluation methodologies and techniques.

  19. A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs

    Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B


    Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

  20. Semantic-Discovery of Construction Project Files

    PAN Jiayi; Chimay J. Anumba


    The dynamics of a construction project generates a huge amount of information for processing.Most project information is recorded in digital files and managed in a decentralized way. Current document management tools do not consider the semantic relationships between files and then cannot discover files based on their content or ensure information consistency across various information repositories. This paper presents a semantic-discovery method for accessing project information across repositories. By adopting semantic web technologies, including extensible markup language (XML), ontology, and logic rules, the se-mantic-discovery tool can access project files by their properties and relations. The method has been ap-plied to searching for files using documents from a real project. The results show that the semantic content of a file can be used to ensure that only related files are retrieved.