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Sample records for action potential propagation

  1. Propagation of Action Potentials: An Active Participation Exercise.

    Felsten, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Describes an active participation exercise that demonstrates the propagation of action potentials (the ability to transmit information through the neural network, dependent upon chemical interactions in the brain). Students assume the structure and function of the network by lining up around the room and communicating through hand signals and…

  2. Pressure wave model for action potential propagation in excitable cells

    Rvachev, M M

    2003-01-01

    Speed of propagation of small-amplitude pressure waves through the cytoplasmic interior of myelinated and unmyelinated axons of different diameters is theoretically estimated and is found to generally agree with the action potential (AP) conduction velocities. This remarkable coincidence allows to surmise a model in which AP spread along axon is propelled not by straggling ionic currents as in the widely accepted local circuit theory, but by mechanoactivation of the membrane ion channels by a traveling pressure pulse. Hydraulic pulses propagating in the viscous axoplasm are calculated to decay over ~1 mm distances, and it is further hypothesized that it is the role of influxing during the AP calcium ions to activate membrane skeletal protein network attached to the membrane cytoplasmic side for a brief radial contraction amplifying the pressure pulse and preventing its decay. The model correctly predicts that the AP conduction velocity should vary as the one-half power of axon diameter for large unmyelinated ...

  3. Modelling Action Potential Generation and Propagation in Fibroblastic Cells

    Torres, J. J.; Cornelisse, L. N.; Harks, E. G. A.; Theuvenet, A. P. R.; Ypey, D. L.

    2003-04-01

    Using a standard Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) formalism, we present a mathematical model for action potential (AP) generation and intercellular AP propagation in quiescent (serum-deprived) normal rat kidney (NRK) fibroblasts [1], based on the recent experimental identification of the ion channels involved [2]. The principal ion channels described are those of an inwardly rectifying K+ conductance (GKIR), an L-type calcium conductance (GCaL), an intracellular calcium activated Cl- conductance (GCl(Ca)), a residual leak conductance Gleak, and gap junctional channels between the cells (Ggj). The role of each one of these components in the particular shape of the AP wave-form has been analyzed and compared with experimental observations. In addition, we have studied the role of subcellular processes like intracellular calcium dynamics and calcium buffering in AP generation. AP propagation between cells was reconstructed in a hexagonal model of cells coupled by Ggj with physiological conductance values. The model revealed an excitability mechanism of quiescent NRK cells with a particular role of intracellular calcium dynamics. It allows further explorations of the mechanism of signal generation and transmission in NRK cell cultures and its dependence on growth conditions.

  4. A model for thermal exchange in axons during action potential propagation.

    Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Gallot, Guilhem

    2008-01-01

    International audience Several experiments have shown that during propagation of the action potential in axons, thermal energy is locally exchanged. In this paper, we use a simple model based on statistical physics to show that an important part of this exchange comes from the physics of the effusion. We evaluate, during the action potential propagation, the variation of internal energy and of the energy associated with the chemical potential of the effusion of water and ions to extract th...

  5. RXP-E: a connexin43-binding peptide that prevents action potential propagation block

    Lewandowski, Rebecca; Procida, Kristina; Vaidyanathan, Ravi;

    2008-01-01

    . Separately, RXP-E was concatenated to a cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP) for cytoplasmic translocation (CTP-RXP-E). The effect of RXP-E on action potential propagation was assessed by high-resolution optical mapping in monolayers of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, containing approximately 20% of...... randomly distributed myofibroblasts. In contrast to control experiments, when heptanol (2 mmol/L) was added to the superfusate of monolayers loaded with CTP-RXP-E, action potential propagation was maintained, albeit at a slower velocity. Similarly, intracellular acidification (pH(i) 6.2) caused a loss of...... action potential propagation in control monolayers; however, propagation was maintained in CTP-RXP-E-treated cells, although at a slower rate. Patch-clamp experiments revealed that RXP-E did not prevent heptanol-induced block of sodium currents, nor did it alter voltage dependence or amplitude of Kir2...

  6. Radial propagation of muscle action potential along the tubular system examined by potential-sensitive dyes

    Nakajima, S.; Gilai, A.

    1980-01-01

    Isolated single (Xenopus) muscle fibers were stained with a non-permeant potential-probing dye, merocyanine rhodanine (WW375) or merocyanine oxazolone (NK2367). When the fiber was massively stimulated, an absorption change (wave a), which seemed to reflect the action potential, occurred. Simultaneous recording of optical changes and intracellular action potentials revealed that the time-course of wave a was slower than the action potential: the peak of wave a was attained at 1 ms, and the pea...

  7. On modelling of physical effects accompanying the propagation of action potentials in nerve fibres

    Engelbrecht, Jüri; Tamm, Kert; Laasmaa, Martin; Vendelin, Marko

    2016-01-01

    The recent theoretical and experimental studies have revealed many details of signal propagation in nervous systems. In this paper an attempt is made to unify various mathematical models which describe the signal propagation in nerve fibres. The analysis of existing single models permits to select the leading physiological effects. As a result, a more general mathematical model is described based on the coupling of action potentials with mechanical waves in a nerve fibre. The crucial issue is how to model coupling effects which are strongly linked to the ion currents through biomembranes.

  8. Depth-Resolved Measurement of Transient Structural Changes during Action Potential Propagation

    Akkin, T.; Joo, C.; Boer

    2007-01-01

    We report noncontact optical measurement of fast transient structural changes in the crustacean nerve during action potential propagation without the need for exogenous chemicals or reflection coatings. The technique, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, provides real-time cross-sectional images of the nerve with micron-scale resolution to select a specific region for functional assessment and interferometric phase sensitivity for subnanometer-scale motion detection. Noncontact optic...

  9. Experimental determination of compound action potential direction and propagation velocity from multi-electrode nerve cuffs.

    Rieger, R; Taylor, J; Comi, E; Donaldson, N; Russold, M; Mahony, C M O; McLaughlin, J A; McAdams, E; Demosthenous, A; Jarvis, J C

    2004-07-01

    Information extracted from whole-nerve electroneurograms, recorded using electrode cuffs, can provide signals to neuroprostheses. However, the amount of information that can be extracted from a single tripole is limited. This communication demonstrates how previously unavailable information about the direction of action potential propagation and velocity can be obtained using a multi-electrode cuff and that the arrangement acts as a velocity-selective filter. Results from in vitro experiments on frog nerves are presented. PMID:15234689

  10. Biophysical foundations for the study of the electrical excitability and action potential propagation in myocardium

    The electric current flow in the heterogeneous and anysotropic volume conductor of the myocardium is studied. The equations of bidomain theory are derived using an approach framed in the theory of averaged fields, introducing microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic spatial scales. However, the procedure, compatible with the histological and the anatomical details of the organ, is different from the multiple scale asymptotic expansions usually applied in homogeneization problems. A probabilistic approach framed in large numbers theorems is used to derive the equation for membrane ionic current from the stochastic activity of the channels at the microscopic level. An operational procedure suitable to define a sharp bidomain boundary from the fuzzy distribution of structural details and physical properties at the histological level is given. The problem of threshold is studied. The sizes and shapes of critical masses of cardiac cells that must be depolarized above threshold in order to produce a propagated action potential are determined by an approximate analytical procedure. The concept of family of threshold patterns for the emergence of action potentials in the heart is introduced. This concept is applied to discuss the conditions of emergence of ectopic focus. Analytical formulae are derived, for the time constant and the rheobase for electrical stimulation of the myocardium. These formulae are in good agreement with known experimental results. New experiments that could be done to confirm or reject them are suggested

  11. Back-propagation of physiological action potential output in dendrites of slender-tufted L5A pyramidal neurons

    Grewe, Benjamin F.; Audrey Bonnan; Andreas Frick

    2010-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons of layer 5A are a major neocortical output type and clearly distinguished from layer 5B pyramidal neurons with respect to morphology, in vivo firing patterns, and connectivity; yet knowledge of their dendritic properties is scant. We used a combination of whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging techniques in vitro to explore the specific dendritic signalling role of physiological action potential patterns recorded in vivo in layer 5A pyramidal neurons of the whisker-related &...

  12. Remote Monitoring of the Heart Condition of Athletes by Measuring the Cardiac Action Potential Propagation Time Using a Wireless Sensor Network

    Amang Sudarsono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly performing athletes are susceptible to cardiac damage of several kinds which may be irreversible. The monitoring of heart rate and ECG waveforms from such subjects by wireless sensor networks has been reported in health and sports care documents. However, a more decisive parameter for instant to instant changes would be the time of Cardiac Action Potential Propagation. This time, which can be between 15-20 ms would shoot suddenly in acute stress in highly performing athletes for short durations. Repeated incidents of such rising values will tend to cause irreversible damage to the heart. We developed the technique of measuring this time and reporting it through a wireless sensor network to monitoring station.

  13. The propagation potential. An axonal response with implications for scalp-recorded EEG.

    Rudell, A P; Fox, S E

    1991-01-01

    An electrophysiological response of axons, referred to as the "propagation potential," was investigated. The propagation potential is a sustained voltage that lasts as long as an action potential propagates between two widely spaced electrodes. The sign of the potential depends on the direction of action potential propagation. The electrode towards which the action potential is propagating is positive with respect to the electrode from which it is receding. For normal frog sciatic nerves the ...

  14. Propagator for finite range potentials

    The Schroedinger equation in integral form is applied to the one-dimensional scattering problem in the case of a general finite range, nonsingular potential. A simple expression for the Laplace transform of the transmission propagator is obtained in terms of the associated Fredholm determinant, by means of matrix methods; the particular form of the kernel and the peculiar aspects of the transmission problem play an important role. The application to an array of delta potentials is shown

  15. Light-triggered action potentials in plants

    Kazimierz Trębacz

    2014-01-01

    Special attention is paid in this paper to the criteria of the light-triggered action potential, namely the all-or-none law, propagation, the occurrence of refractory periods. Such action potentials have been recorded in Acetabularia mediterranea, Asplenium trichomanes, Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Eremosphaera viridis and Concephalum conicum. In Acetabularia, action potentials are generated after sudden cessation of light stimuli of sufficient intensity. The depolarization phase of the action pot...

  16. Effective action approach to wave propagation in scalar QED plasmas

    Shi, Yuan; Qin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    A relativistic quantum field theory with nontrivial background fields is developed and applied to study waves in plasmas. The effective action of the electromagnetic 4-potential is calculated ab initio from the standard action of scalar QED using path integrals. The resultant effective action is gauge invariant and contains nonlocal interactions, from which gauge bosons acquire masses without breaking the local gauge symmetry. To demonstrate how the general theory can be applied, we study a cold unmagnetized plasma and a cold uniformly magnetized plasma. Using these two examples, we show that all linear waves well-known in classical plasma physics can be recovered from relativistic quantum results when taking the classical limit. In the opposite limit, classical wave dispersion relations are modified substantially. In unmagnetized plasmas, longitudinal waves propagate with nonzero group velocities even when plasmas are cold. In magnetized plasmas, anharmonically spaced Bernstein waves persist even when plasma...

  17. Propagator for the double delta potential

    The propagator for the double delta potential is calculated starting from the integral form of the Schroedinger equation. A compact expression of its Laplace transform is found, that can be explicitly inverted in some limiting cases

  18. Perfect Actions with Chemical Potential

    Bietenholz, W

    1998-01-01

    We show how to include a chemical potential \\mu in perfect lattice actions. It turns out that the standard procedure of multiplying the quark fields \\Psi, an example, the case of free fermions with chemical potential is worked out explicitly. Even after truncation, cut-off effects in the pressure and the baryon density are small. Using a (quasi-)perfect action, numerical QCD simulations for non-zero chemical potential become more powerful, because coarse lattices are sufficient for extracting continuum physics.

  19. Cardiac gap junctions and action potential propagation

    Veen, Antonius Adrianus Bartholomeus van

    2002-01-01

    Described are the results, obtained from experiments on transfected cells to those on intact heart and new data are provided on connexin phosphorylation, expression and distribution. Transfected cells, regarded as the lowest level of complexity, are a very useful and reliable tool to study the effec

  20. Action Principle for Potential Flows

    Frønsdal, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The restriction of hydrodynamics to non-viscous, potential (gradient, irrotational) flows is a theory both simple and elegant; a favorite topic of introductory textbooks. It is known that this theory (under the stated limitations) can be formulated as an action principle. It finds its principle application to adiabatic systems and cannot account for viscosity or dissipation. However, it can be generalized to include non-potential flows, as this paper shows. The new theory is a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian hydrodynamics, with an extension to thermodynamics. It describes adiabatic phenomena but does not account for viscosity or dissipation. Nevertheless, it is an approach within which quasi-static processes can be described. In the adiabatic context it appears to be an improvement of the Navier-Stokes equation, the principal advantage being a natural concept of energy in the form of a first integral of the motion, conserved by virtue of the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  1. Improved Lattice Actions with Chemical Potential

    Bietenholz, W

    1998-01-01

    We give a prescription how to include a chemical potential \\mu into a general lattice action. This inclusion does not cause any lattice artifacts. Hence its application to an improved - or even perfect - action at \\mu =0 yields an improved resp. perfect action at arbitrary \\mu. For short-ranged improved actions, a good scaling behavior holds over a wide region, and the upper bound for the baryon density - which is known for the standard lattice actions - can be exceeded.

  2. Abstract Action Potential Models for Toxin Recognition

    Peterson, James; Khan, Taufiquar

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a robust methodology using mathematical pattern recognition schemes to detect and classify events in action potentials for recognizing toxins in biological cells. We focus on event detection in action potential via abstraction of information content into a low dimensional feature vector within the constrained computational environment of a biosensor. We use generated families of action potentials from a classic Hodgkin–Huxley model to verify our methodology and build...

  3. Propagator for finite range potentials: The case of reflection

    Following a previous study on the transmission propagator for a finite range potential, the problem of reflection is considered. It is found that the Laplace transform of the reflection propagator can be expressed in terms of the usual Fredholm determinant Δ and of a new similar determinant Γ, containing the peculiar characteristics of reflection. As an example, an array of delta potentials is considered. Moreover, a possible application to the calculation of quantum traversal time is shown

  4. Action potentials of curved nerves in finite limbs.

    Xiao, S; McGill, K C; Hentz, V R

    1995-06-01

    Previous simulations of volume-conducted nerve-fiber action-potentials have modeled the limb as semi-infinite or circularly cylindrical, and the fibers as straight lines parallel to the limb surface. The geometry of actual nerves and limbs, however, can be considerably more complicated. This paper presents a general method for computing the potentials of fibers with arbitrary paths in arbitrary finite limbs. It involves computing the propagating point-source response (PPSR), which is the potential arising from a single point source (dipole or tripole) travelling along the fiber. The PPSR can be applied to fibers of different conduction velocities by simple dilation or compression. The method is illustrated for oblique and spiralling nerve fibers. Potentials from oblique fibers are shown to be different for orthodromic and antidromic propagation. Such results show that the straight-line models are not always adequate for nerves with anatomical amounts of curvature. PMID:7790016

  5. Numerical investigation of action potential transmission in plants

    Mariusz Pietruszka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In context of a fairly concise review of recent literature and well established experimental results we reconsider the problem of action potential propagating steadily down the plant cell(s. Having adopted slightly modified Hodgkin-Huxley set of differential equations for the action potential we carried out the numerical investigation of these equations in the course of time. We argue that the Hodgkin-Huxley-Katz model for the nerve impulse can be used to describe the phenomena which take place in plants - this point of view seems to be plausible since the mechanisms involving active ionic transport across membranes from the mathematical point of view are similar. Besides, we compare in a qualitative way our theoretical outcomes with typical experimental results for the action potentials which arise as the reaction of plants to electrical, mechanical and light stimuli. Moreover, we point out the relevance of the sequence of events during the pulse with the appropriate ionic fluxes.

  6. Chemical Potential Dependence of Dressed-Quark Propagator

    ZONG Hong-Shi; HOU Feng-Yao; SUN Wei-Min; WU Xiao-Hua

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the low chemical potential dependence of the dressed quark propagator from an effective quark-quark interaction model is developed. Of particular interest here is to give a generalrecipe to find without arbitrariness the solution representing the "Wigner" phase at non-zero chemical potential for the purpose of studying QCD phase structure.

  7. Chemical Potential Dependence of Dressed-Quark Propagator

    ZONGHong-Shi; HOUFeng-Yao; SUNWei-Min; WUXiao-Hua

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the low chemical potential dependence of the dressed quark propagator from an effective quark-quark interaction model is developed.Of particular interest here is to give a general recipe to find without arbitrariness the solution representing the “Wigner”phase at non-zero chemical potential for the purpose of studying QCD phase structure.

  8. Quark propagators at finite temperature with the clover action

    Hamada, M; Nakamura, A; Saitô, T; Yahiro, M; Hamada, Masatoshi; Kouno, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Atsushi; Saito, Takuya; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2006-01-01

    We study properties of the finite temperature quark propagator by using the SU(3) quenched lattice simulation in the Landau gauge and report numerical results of the standard Wilson quark case as well as the improved clover one. The mass function in the deconfinement phase is different from that of the confinement phase, especially at low momentum regions.

  9. Propagation of local decohering action in distributed quantum systems

    We study propagation of the decohering influence caused by a local measurement performed on a distributed quantum system. As an example, the gas of bosons forming a Bose-Einstein condensate is considered. We demonstrate that the local decohering perturbation exerted on the measured region propagates over the system in the form of a decoherence wave, whose dynamics is governed by elementary excitations of the system. We argue that the post-measurement evolution of the system (determined by elementary excitations) is of importance for transfer of decoherence, while the initial collapse of the wave function has negligible impact on the regions that are not directly affected by the measurement. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  10. Screening action potentials: The power of light

    Lars eKaestner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Action potentials reflect the concerted activity of all electrogenic constituents in the plasma membrane during the excitation of a cell. Therefore, the action potential is an integrated readout and a promising parameter to detect electrophysiological failures or modifications thereof in diagnosis as well as in drug screens. Cellular action potentials can be recorded by optical approaches. To fulfill the pre-requirements to scale up for e.g. pharmacological screens the following preparatory work has to be provided: (i model cells under investigation need to represent target cells in the best possible manner; (ii optical sensors that can be either small molecule dyes or genetically encoded potential probes need to provide a reliable readout with minimal interaction with the naive behavior of the cells and (iii devices need to be capable to stimulate the cells, read out the signals with the appropriate speed as well as provide the capacity for a sufficient throughput. Here we discuss several scenarios for all three categories in the field of cardiac physiology and pharmacology and provide a perspective to use the power of light in screening cardiac action potentials.

  11. Introducing the Action Potential to Psychology Students

    Simon-Dack, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    For this simple active learning technique for teaching, students are assigned "roles" and act out the process of the action potential (AP), including the firing threshold, ion-specific channels for ions to enter and leave the cell, diffusion, and the refractory period. Pre-post test results indicated that students demonstrated increased…

  12. expression, physiological actions and therapeutic potential

    Steckelings, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II mediates its action via 2 receptor subtypes: the AT1- and AT2-receptor. The existence of more than one receptor for angiotensin II has been discovered not earlier than 1989. This "Habilitationsschrift" is based on six publications which represent mosaic stones within the growing picture of AT2-receptor expression, regulation of expression, physiological and patho-physiological function as well as potential therapeutic use. The first part is dealing with tissue specific ex...

  13. Heavy-Quarkonium Potential from Lattice Gluon Propagator

    Serenone, W. M.; Cucchieri, A.; Mendes, T.

    2016-04-01

    The study of heavy quarks is of great interest for the search of physics beyond the Standard Model and the understanding of nonperturbative aspects of QCD. One of the early attempts to study these systems was the potential model approach. The Cornell potential is perhaps the most successful of these potentials. However, the use of perturbation theory in its building process implies that it is unable to model confinement without the ad-hoc addition of a linear term. In this paper, we modify the Cornell potential by using a (nonperturbative) lattice gluon propagator. This approach allowed us to verify that the use of perturbation theory washes away confinement. We were able to use this modified potential in the Schrödinger equation to obtain numerically the spectrum of heavy quarkonia (charmonium and bottomonium). We use the Cornell-potential spectrum as a benchmark of our potential. The result shows that our potential was able to describe better the spin-average of the experimental states than the Cornell potential. We also computed interquark distances for the quarkonia states.

  14. From COST 238 To COST 296: Four European COST Actions On Ionospheric Physics And Radio Propagation

    Zolesi, B.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Cander, L. R.; Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, U.K

    2008-01-01

    COST (Co-operation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) is an important instrument supporting co-operation among scientists and researchers across Europe now joining 35 member countries. Scientific projects in the COST framework are called COST Actions and have the objectives embodied in their respective Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). The main objectives of the COST Actions within the European ionospheric and radio propagation community have been: to study the influence of u...

  15. Efficient simulation of wave-packet dynamics on multiple coupled potential surfaces with split potential propagation

    Aharonovich, Igal

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple method to expedite simulation of quantum wave-packet dynamics by more than a factor of $2$ with the Strang split-operator propagation. Dynamics of quantum wave-packets are often evaluated using the the \\emph{Strang} split-step propagation, where the kinetic part of the Hamiltonian $\\hat{T}$ and the potential part $\\hat{V}$ are piecewise integrated according to $e^{- i \\hat{H} \\delta t} \\approx e^{- i \\hat{V} \\delta t/2} e^{- i \\hat{T}\\delta t} e^{- i \\hat{V} \\delta t/2}$, which is accurate to second order in the propagation time $\\delta t$. In molecular quantum dynamics, the potential propagation occurs over multiple coupled potential surfaces and requires matrix exponentiation for each position in space and time which is computationally demanding. Our method employs further splitting of the potential matrix $\\hat{V}$ into a diagonal space dependent part $\\hat{V}_{D}(R)$ and an off-diagonal time-dependent coupling-field $\\hat{V}_{OD}(t)$, which then requires only a single matrix exponentia...

  16. Dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus in vivo.

    Fabián Muñoz

    Full Text Available Understanding the neural mechanisms of action potential generation is critical to establish the way neural circuits generate and coordinate activity. Accordingly, we investigated the dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN using in vivo intracellular recordings in cats in order to preserve anatomically-intact axo-dendritic distributions and naturally-occurring spatiotemporal patterns of synaptic activity in this structure that regulates the thalamic relay to neocortex. We found a wide operational range of voltage thresholds for action potentials, mostly due to intrinsic voltage-gated conductances and not synaptic activity driven by network oscillations. Varying levels of synchronous synaptic inputs produced fast rates of membrane potential depolarization preceding the action potential onset that were associated with lower thresholds and increased excitability, consistent with TRN neurons performing as coincidence detectors. On the other hand the presence of action potentials preceding any given spike was associated with more depolarized thresholds. The phase-plane trajectory of the action potential showed somato-dendritic propagation, but no obvious axon initial segment component, prominent in other neuronal classes and allegedly responsible for the high onset speed. Overall, our results suggest that TRN neurons could flexibly integrate synaptic inputs to discharge action potentials over wide voltage ranges, and perform as coincidence detectors and temporal integrators, supported by a dynamic action potential threshold.

  17. The Potential of Deweyan-Inspired Action Research

    Stark, Jody L.

    2014-01-01

    In its broadest sense, pragmatism could be said to be the philosophical orientation of all action research. Action research is characterized by research, action, and participation grounded in democratic principles and guided by the aim of social improvement. Furthermore, action research is an active process of inquiry that does not admit separation between action and reflection or theory and practice. This paper considers the potential of action research informed specifically by Deweyan pragm...

  18. Action potential broadening in a presynaptic channelopathy

    Begum, Rahima; Bakiri, Yamina; Volynski, Kirill E.; Kullmann, Dimitri M.

    2016-07-01

    Brain development and interictal function are unaffected in many paroxysmal neurological channelopathies, possibly explained by homoeostatic plasticity of synaptic transmission. Episodic ataxia type 1 is caused by missense mutations of the potassium channel Kv1.1, which is abundantly expressed in the terminals of cerebellar basket cells. Presynaptic action potentials of small inhibitory terminals have not been characterized, and it is not known whether developmental plasticity compensates for the effects of Kv1.1 dysfunction. Here we use visually targeted patch-clamp recordings from basket cell terminals of mice harbouring an ataxia-associated mutation and their wild-type littermates. Presynaptic spikes are followed by a pronounced afterdepolarization, and are broadened by pharmacological blockade of Kv1.1 or by a dominant ataxia-associated mutation. Somatic recordings fail to detect such changes. Spike broadening leads to increased Ca2+ influx and GABA release, and decreased spontaneous Purkinje cell firing. We find no evidence for developmental compensation for inherited Kv1.1 dysfunction.

  19. Teachers in Action Research: Assumptions and Potentials

    Li, Yuen-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Research literature has long indicated that action research may stimulate practitioners themselves to actively evaluate the quality of their practice. This study is designed to report the use of action research for the development of early years professional practice by analyzing the pre-project and the post-project video-filmed teaching events.…

  20. Action potential initiation in the hodgkin-huxley model.

    Colwell, Lucy J; Brenner, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper of B. Naundorf et al. described an intriguing negative correlation between variability of the onset potential at which an action potential occurs (the onset span) and the rapidity of action potential initiation (the onset rapidity). This correlation was demonstrated in numerical simulations of the Hodgkin-Huxley model. Due to this antagonism, it is argued that Hodgkin-Huxley-type models are unable to explain action potential initiation observed in cortical neurons in vivo or in...

  1. Spectral action, Weyl anomaly and the Higgs-Dilaton potential

    Andrianov, A.A.(V.A. Fock Department of Theoretical Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, 1 ul. Ulyanovskaya, St. Petersburg, 198504, Russia); Kurkov, M.A.; Lizzi, Fedele

    2011-01-01

    We show how the bosonic spectral action emerges from the fermionic action by the renormalization group flow in the presence of a dilaton and the Weyl anomaly. The induced action comes out to be basically the Chamseddine-Connes spectral action introduced in the context of noncommutative geometry. The entire spectral action describes gauge and Higgs fields coupled with gravity. We then consider the effective potential and show, that it has the desired features of a broken and an unbroken phase,...

  2. A Potential Approach of Internet Worm Propagation Based on P2P

    YAO Yu; LUO Xingrui; GAO Fuxiang; YU Ge

    2006-01-01

    Various kinds of active worms have been plunging into the network flows, which make the Internet security problem more serious. Our research on a potential propagation approach of active worms, P2P-based propagation approach, is given in this paper. To measure the propagating performance of our approach, the SEI (Susceptible-Exposed- Infected) propagation model is presented. It proves that with the idea of pure P2P architecture, worms can be hidden in the early stage of propagation, and then infect most of the hosts in a shorter period. By comparing our SEI propagation model with the Simple Epidemic Model, we observe that the size of a worm is a significant parameter which can affect the propagating performance. When the size of the worm becomes large, our approach can still show an excellent propagating performance.

  3. Action potentials reliably invade axonal arbors of rat neocortical neurons

    Cox, Charles L.; Denk, Winfried; Tank, David W.; Svoboda, Karel

    2000-01-01

    Neocortical pyramidal neurons have extensive axonal arborizations that make thousands of synapses. Action potentials can invade these arbors and cause calcium influx that is required for neurotransmitter release and excitation of postsynaptic targets. Thus, the regulation of action potential invasion in axonal branches might shape the spread of excitation in cortical neural networks. To measure the reliability and extent of action potential invasion into axonal arbors, we have used two-photon...

  4. Real-time imaging of action potentials in nerves using changes in birefringence.

    Badreddine, Ali H; Jordan, Tomas; Bigio, Irving J

    2016-05-01

    Polarized light can be used to measure the electrical activity associated with action potential propagation in nerves, as manifested in simultaneous dynamic changes in their intrinsic optical birefringence. These signals may serve as a tool for minimally invasive neuroimaging in various types of neuroscience research, including the study of neuronal activation patterns with high spatiotemporal resolution. A fast linear photodiode array was used to image propagating action potentials in an excised portion of the lobster walking leg nerve. We show that the crossed-polarized signal (XPS) can be reliably imaged over a ≥2 cm span in our custom nerve chamber, by averaging multiple-stimulation signals, and also in single-scan real-time "movies". This demonstration paves the way toward utilizing changes in the optical birefringence to image more complex neuronal activity in nerve fibers and other organized neuronal tissue. PMID:27231635

  5. Ventricular filling slows epicardial conduction and increases action potential duration in an optical mapping study of the isolated rabbit heart

    Sung, Derrick; Mills, Robert W.; Schettler, Jan; Narayan, Sanjiv M.; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; McCullough, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanical stimulation can induce electrophysiologic changes in cardiac myocytes, but how mechanoelectric feedback in the intact heart affects action potential propagation remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in action potential propagation and repolarization with increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 0 to 30 mmHg were investigated using optical mapping in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. With respect to 0 mmHg, epicardial strain at 30 mmHg in the anterior left ventricle averaged 0.040 +/- 0.004 in the muscle fiber direction and 0.032 +/- 0.006 in the cross-fiber direction. An increase in ventricular loading increased average epicardial activation time by 25%+/- 3% (P action potential duration at 20% repolarization (APD20) but did at 80% repolarization (APD80), from 179 +/- 7 msec to 207 +/- 5 msec (P action potential duration by a load-dependent mechanism that may not involve stretch-activated channels.

  6. Action Potential Energy Efficiency Varies Among Neuron Types in Vertebrates and Invertebrates

    Biswa Sengupta; Martin Stemmler; Simon B Laughlin; Niven, Jeremy E.

    2010-01-01

    The initiation and propagation of action potentials (APs) places high demands on the energetic resources of neural tissue. Each AP forces ATP-driven ion pumps to work harder to restore the ionic concentration gradients, thus consuming more energy. Here, we ask whether the ionic currents underlying the AP can be predicted theoretically from the principle of minimum energy consumption. A long-held supposition that APs are energetically wasteful, based on theoretical analysis of the squid giant ...

  7. Initiation and blocking of the action potential in the axon in a weak ultrasonic field

    Shneider, M N

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that the longitudinal standing ultrasonic wave of low intensity leads to the lateral drift and to redistribution of the transmembrane ion channels in the initial segment of the myelinated axon of a neuron. The analysis is based on the Hodgkin - Huxley model of an axon. Redistribution of the density of transmembrane sodium channels, caused by ultrasound, may reduce the threshold of the action potential, up to its spontaneous initiation. At significant redistribution of sodium channels in membrane, the zones of rarefaction of the transmembrane channels density are formed blocking the propagation of the action potential. After switching the ultrasound off, the unperturbed uniform distribution of transmembrane channels in the axon recovers due to lateral diffusion. The blocking effect of the action potential can be used in anesthesia.

  8. Phase lagging model of brain response to external stimuli - modeling of single action potential

    Seetharaman, Karthik; Kulish, Vladimir V

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we detail a phase lagging model of brain response to external stimuli. The model is derived using the basic laws of physics like conservation of energy law. This model eliminates the paradox of instantaneous propagation of the action potential in the brain. The solution of this model is then presented. The model is further applied in the case of a single neuron and is verified by simulating a single action potential. The results of this modeling are useful not only for the fundamental understanding of single action potential generation, but also they can be applied in case of neuronal interactions where the results can be verified against the real EEG signal.

  9. Critical Utopian Action Research: The Potential of Action Research in the Democratization of Society

    Nielsen, Birger Steen; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated.......The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated....

  10. Exact propagator for an electron in a quadratic saddle-point potential and a magnetic field

    Yang Tao; Zhai Zhi-Yuan; Pan Xiao-Yin

    2011-01-01

    We study the propagator for an electron moving in a two-dimensional(2D)quadratic saddle-point potential, in the presence of a perpendicular uniform magnetic field. A closed-form expression for the propagator is derived using the Feynmann path integrals.

  11. Chemical Potential Dependence of the Dressed—Quark Propagator from an Effective Quark—Quark Interaction

    ZONGHong-Shi; PINGJia-Lun; 等

    2002-01-01

    We exhibit a method for obtaining the low chemical potential dependence of the dressed quark propagator from the dressed-quark propagator,which provides a means of determining the behavior of the chiral and deconfinement order parameters.A comparison with the results of previous researches is given.

  12. [Individualised medicine - potentials and need for action].

    Hüsing, Bärbel

    2010-01-01

    Individualised medicine aims to classify seemingly homogenous patient groups into smaller clinically relevant subgroups (stratification) in order to be able to treat them differently, thus contributing to the improvement of health care services, to the prevention of inappropriate treatments and to the reduction of adverse effects. This article summarises a report to the Office of Technology Assessment at the German Bundestag and points out the need for action for transferring individualised medicine from research to clinical application: significant incentives are required in order to prove the clinical validity of newly identified biomarkers of complex diseases. Sustainable business models for the joint development of new applications by research institutions, biotechnology companies, pharmaceuticals and medical devices companies are required. Instruments for transferring knowledge from bench to bedside (translational research) and the existing regulatory framework should be further developed in order to strike an appropriate balance between incentives for accelerating the transfer of innovative technology to the health care sector while, at the same time, ensuring patient safety, high quality and clinical utility. PMID:21147435

  13. Angle-action estimation in a general axisymmetric potential

    Sanders, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The usefulness of angle-action variables in galaxy dynamics is well known, but their use is limited due to the difficulty of their calculation in realistic galaxy potentials. Here we present a method for estimating angle-action variables in a realistic Milky Way axisymmetric potential by locally fitting a St\\"ackel potential over the region an orbit probes. The quality of the method is assessed by comparison with other known methods for estimating angle-action variables of a range of disc and...

  14. Propagation of fluctuations in interaction networks governed by the law of mass action

    Maslov, Sergei; Ispolatov, Iaroslav

    2007-01-01

    Using an example of physical interactions between proteins, we study how perturbations propagate in interconnected networks whose equilibrium state is governed by the law of mass action. We introduce a comprehensive matrix formalism which predicts the response of this equilibrium to small changes in total concentrations of individual molecules, and explain it using a heuristic analogy to a current flow in a network of resistors. Our main conclusion is that on average changes in free concentrations exponentially decay with the distance from the source of perturbation. We then study how this decay is influenced by such factors as the topology of a network, binding strength, and correlations between concentrations of neighboring nodes. An exact analytic expression for the decay constant is obtained for the case of uniform interactions on the Bethe lattice. Our general findings are illustrated using a real biological network of protein-protein interactions in baker's yeast with experimentally determined protein c...

  15. Intracellular recording of action potentials by nanopillar electroporation

    Xie, Chong; Lin, Ziliang; Hanson, Lindsey; Cui, Yi; Cui, Bianxiao

    2012-03-01

    Action potentials have a central role in the nervous system and in many cellular processes, notably those involving ion channels. The accurate measurement of action potentials requires efficient coupling between the cell membrane and the measuring electrodes. Intracellular recording methods such as patch clamping involve measuring the voltage or current across the cell membrane by accessing the cell interior with an electrode, allowing both the amplitude and shape of the action potentials to be recorded faithfully with high signal-to-noise ratios. However, the invasive nature of intracellular methods usually limits the recording time to a few hours, and their complexity makes it difficult to simultaneously record more than a few cells. Extracellular recording methods, such as multielectrode arrays and multitransistor arrays, are non-invasive and allow long-term and multiplexed measurements. However, extracellular recording sacrifices the one-to-one correspondence between the cells and electrodes, and also suffers from significantly reduced signal strength and quality. Extracellular techniques are not, therefore, able to record action potentials with the accuracy needed to explore the properties of ion channels. As a result, the pharmacological screening of ion-channel drugs is usually performed by low-throughput intracellular recording methods. The use of nanowire transistors, nanotube-coupled transistors and micro gold-spine and related electrodes can significantly improve the signal strength of recorded action potentials. Here, we show that vertical nanopillar electrodes can record both the extracellular and intracellular action potentials of cultured cardiomyocytes over a long period of time with excellent signal strength and quality. Moreover, it is possible to repeatedly switch between extracellular and intracellular recording by nanoscale electroporation and resealing processes. Furthermore, vertical nanopillar electrodes can detect subtle changes in action

  16. Compound sensory action potential in normal and pathological human nerves

    Krarup, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The compound sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is the result of phase summation and cancellation of single fiber potentials (SFAPs) with amplitudes that depend on fiber diameter, and the amplitude and shape of the SNAP is determined by the distribution of fiber diameters. Conduction velocitie...

  17. Membrane, action, and oscillatory potentials in simulated protocells

    Syren, R. M.; Fox, S. W.; Przybylski, A. T.; Stratten, W. P.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical membrane potentials, oscillations, and action potentials are observed in proteinoid microspheres impaled with (3 M KCl) microelectrodes. Although effects are of greater magnitude when the vesicles contain glycerol and natural or synthetic lecithin, the results in the purely synthetic thermal protein structures are substantial, attaining 20 mV amplitude in some cases. The results add the property of electrical potential to the other known properties of proteinoid microspheres, in their role as models for protocells.

  18. Theophylline-induced potentiation of the antinociceptive action of baclofen.

    Sawynok, J

    1983-01-01

    1--Theophylline (35, 50 mg/kg) potentiated the antinociceptive action of intraperitoneally administered baclofen in the tail flick and hot plate tests. Potentiation was most marked when the pretreatment time was 1 h, but some potentiation was still apparent following a 2 h pretreatment. 2--Theophylline alone (50 mg/kg) produced only slight alterations in reaction latency in the two tests. 3--When baclofen was applied directly into the spinal subarachnoid space, a 1 h pretreatment with theophy...

  19. Membrane, action, and oscillatory potentials in simulated protocells

    Przybylski, Aleksander T.; Stratten, Wilford P.; Syren, Robert M.; Fox, Sidney W.

    1982-12-01

    Electrical membrane potentials, oscillations, and action potentials are observed in proteinoid microspheres impaled with (3 M KCl) microelectrodes. Although effects are of greater magnitude when the vesicles contain glycerol and natural or synthetic lecithin, the results in the purely synthetic thermal protein structures are substantial, attaining 20 mV amplitude in some cases. The results add the property of electrical potential to the other known properties of proteinoid microspheres, in their role as models for protocells.

  20. Chemical Potential Dependence of the Dressed-Quark Propagator from an Effective Quark-Quark Interaction

    ZONG Hong-Shi; PING Jia-Lun; SUN Wei-Min; CHANG Chao-Hsi; WANG Fan

    2002-01-01

    We exhibit a method for obtaining the low chemical potential dependence of the dressed quark propagatorfrom an effective quark-quark interaction model. Within this approach we explore the chemical potential dependenceof the dressed-quark propagator, which provides a means of determining the behavior of the chiral and deconfinementorder parameters. A comparison with the results of previous researches is given.

  1. Far-field potentials recorded from action potentials and from a tripole in a hemicylindrical volume.

    Jewett, D L; Deupree, D L

    1989-05-01

    There is growing evidence in support of the hypothesis that far-field potentials are recorded when action potentials encounter discontinuities in the surrounding volume. The present study found further support for this hypothesis using two methods of experimentation. The first method recorded potentials when the action potential from an isolated bullfrog sciatic nerve in a hemicylindrical volume (i) encountered a change in the shape of the surrounding volume, (ii) crossed a boundary between 2 volumes of differing resistivities, (iii) reached a bend in the nerve, or (iv) reached the functional end of the nerve. In the second method, potentials were recorded when an electrical tripole, constructed in a way to produce the electrical equivalent of an action potential, encountered the same discontinuities as well as when it was configured to simulate a curved nerve. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that dipole components of an action potential predominant in far-field recordings. PMID:2469568

  2. Action prediction based on anticipatory brain potentials during simulated driving

    Khaliliardali, Zahra; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Gheorghe, Lucian Andrei; Millán, José del R.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The ability of an automobile to infer the driver’s upcoming actions directly from neural signals could enrich the interaction of the car with its driver. Intelligent vehicles fitted with an on-board brain-computer interface able to decode the driver’s intentions can use this information to improve the driving experience. In this study we investigate the neural signatures of anticipation of specific actions, namely braking and accelerating. Approach. We investigated anticipatory slow cortical potentials in electroencephalogram recorded from 18 healthy participants in a driving simulator using a variant of the contingent negative variation (CNV) paradigm with Go and No-go conditions: count-down numbers followed by ‘Start’/‘Stop’ cue. We report decoding performance before the action onset using a quadratic discriminant analysis classifier based on temporal features. Main results. (i) Despite the visual and driving related cognitive distractions, we show the presence of anticipatory event related potentials locked to the stimuli onset similar to the widely reported CNV signal (with an average peak value of -8 μV at electrode Cz). (ii) We demonstrate the discrimination between cases requiring to perform an action upon imperative subsequent stimulus (Go condition, e.g. a ‘Red’ traffic light) versus events that do not require such action (No-go condition; e.g. a ‘Yellow’ light); with an average single trial classification performance of 0.83 ± 0.13 for braking and 0.79 ± 0.12 for accelerating (area under the curve). (iii) We show that the centro-medial anticipatory potentials are observed as early as 320 ± 200 ms before the action with a detection rate of 0.77 ± 0.12 in offline analysis. Significance. We show for the first time the feasibility of predicting the driver’s intention through decoding anticipatory related potentials during simulated car driving with high recognition rates.

  3. Compound muscle action potentials in newborn infants with spina bifida.

    Geerdink, N.; Pasman, J.W.; Rotteveel, J.J.; Roeleveld, N.; Mullaart, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and neurological impairment in newborn infants with spina bifida. Thirty-one newborn infants (17 males, 14 females, mean gestational age 39 wks [SD 2]; mean birthweight 3336 g [SD 496]) with s

  4. Sodium and potassium conductance changes during a membrane action potential.

    Bezanilla, F; Rojas, E; Taylor, R E

    1970-12-01

    1. A method for turning a membrane potential control system on and off in less than 10 musec is described. This method was used to record membrane currents in perfused giant axons from Dosidicus gigas and Loligo forbesi after turning on the voltage clamp system at various times during the course of a membrane action potential.2. The membrane current measured just after the capacity charging transient was found to have an almost linear relation to the controlled membrane potential.3. The total membrane conductance taken from these current-voltage curves was found to have a time course during the action potential similar to that found by Cole & Curtis (1939).4. The instantaneous current voltage curves were linear enough to make it possible to obtain a good estimate of the individual sodium and potassium channel conductances, either algebraically or by clamping to the sodium, or potassium, reversal potentials. Good general agreement was obtained with the predictions of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations.5. We consider these results to constitute the first direct experimental demonstration of the conductance changes to sodium and potassium during the course of an action potential. PMID:5505231

  5. Action potential initiation in the hodgkin-huxley model.

    Lucy J Colwell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent paper of B. Naundorf et al. described an intriguing negative correlation between variability of the onset potential at which an action potential occurs (the onset span and the rapidity of action potential initiation (the onset rapidity. This correlation was demonstrated in numerical simulations of the Hodgkin-Huxley model. Due to this antagonism, it is argued that Hodgkin-Huxley-type models are unable to explain action potential initiation observed in cortical neurons in vivo or in vitro. Here we apply a method from theoretical physics to derive an analytical characterization of this problem. We analytically compute the probability distribution of onset potentials and analytically derive the inverse relationship between onset span and onset rapidity. We find that the relationship between onset span and onset rapidity depends on the level of synaptic background activity. Hence we are able to elucidate the regions of parameter space for which the Hodgkin-Huxley model is able to accurately describe the behavior of this system.

  6. Mean field propagation of infinite dimensional Wigner measures with a singular two-body interaction potential

    AMMARI, Zied; Nier, Francis

    2015-01-01

    49 pages International audience We consider the quantum dynamics of many bosons systems in the mean field limit with a singular pair-interaction potential, including the attractive or repulsive Coulombic case in three dimensions. By using a measure transportation technique, we show that Wigner measures propagate along the nonlinear Hartree flow. Such property was previously proved only for bounded potentials in our previous works with a slightly different strategy.

  7. Mean field propagation of infinite dimensional Wigner measures with a singular two-body interaction potential

    Ammari, Zied

    2011-01-01

    We consider the quantum dynamics of many bosons systems in the mean field limit with a singular pair-interaction potential, including the attractive or repulsive Coulombic case in three dimensions. By using a measure transportation technique, we show that Wigner measures propagate along the nonlinear Hartree flow. Such property was previously proved only for bounded potentials in our previous works with a slightly different strategy.

  8. Click- and chirp-evoked human compound action potentials

    Chertoff, Mark; Lichtenhan, Jeffery; Willis, Marie

    2010-01-01

    In the experiments reported here, the amplitude and the latency of human compound action potentials (CAPs) evoked from a chirp stimulus are compared to those evoked from a traditional click stimulus. The chirp stimulus was created with a frequency sweep to compensate for basilar membrane traveling wave delay using the O-Chirp equations from Fobel and Dau [(2004). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 2213–2222] derived from otoacoustic emission data. Human cochlear traveling wave delay estimates were obta...

  9. Highly asymmetric magnetic domain wall propagation due to coupling to a periodic pinning potential

    Novak, R. L.; Metaxas, P. J.; Jamet, J. P.; Weil, R.; Ferre, J.; Mougin, A.; Rohart, S.; Stamps, R; Zermatten, P.J.; Gaudin, G.; Baltz, V.; Rodmacq, B.

    2015-01-01

    Magneto-optical microscopy and magnetometry have been used to study 19 magnetization reversal in an ultrathin magnetically soft [Pt/Co]2 ferromagnetic film 20 coupled to an array of magnetically harder [Co/Pt]4 nanodots via a predominantly 21 dipolar interaction across a 3 nm Pt spacer. This interaction generates a spatially 22 periodic pinning potential for domain walls propagating through the continuous 23 magnetic film. When reversing the applied field with respect to the st...

  10. Dependence of the propagation of ultra-heavy cosmic ray nuclei on first ionization potential

    Over 2000 Ultra Heavy (Z≥ 65) cosmic ray ions with energies over 3 GeV/n have been recorded in the UHCRE, of which a total of 205 have already been located, measured and positively identified as Ultra Heavy (UH) ions by our group. The histogram of UH elemental abundances in the Earth's neighbourhood is obtained and the UH cosmic ray source abundances may be determined by means of an appropriate propagation model. This model describes the travel of UH ions from their sources to near the Earth, through the interstellar medium (ISM). In our case, a dynamical Leaky Box (DLB) model has been used for propagation studies. Due to the nature of the transport equations corresponding to this model, it is necessary to assume given source abundances, perform the transport calculation to near the Earth, and to compare the result with the experimental measurements. A 'trial and error' procedure is applied until the source abundances giving the best agreement between the calculated and measured abundances near the Earth are found. Among all variables on which the transport equation depend, this work focuses on the effect of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) on the propagation process. Although a better agreement between propagated and measured abundances is found when a correction for the effect of FIP is used for lighter cosmic ray nuclei, it has been found that the UHCRE experimental results are better reproduced when no FIP correction is assumed. (author)

  11. Causal Wave Propagation for Relativistic Massive Particles: Physical Asymptotics in Action

    Berry, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Wavepackets representing relativistic quantum particles injected into a half-space, from a source that is switched on at a definite time, are represented by superpositions of plane waves that must include negative frequencies. Propagation is causal: it is a consequence of analyticity that at time t no part of the wave has travelled farther than…

  12. Numerical simulation of antiarrhythmic drugs effects on cardiac action potential

    Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    Brno : Brno University of Technology, 2006 - (Burša, J.; Fuis, V.), s. 170-171 ISBN 80-214-3232-2. [ Human Biomechanics 2006. Hrotovice (CZ), 13.11.2006-16.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/1073; GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : human cardiovascular system * cardiac action potential * antiarrhytmmic drugs-cell channel interaction Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  13. Anharmonic propagation of two-dimensional beams carrying orbital angular momentum in a harmonic potential.

    Zhang, Yiqi; Liu, Xing; Belić, Milivoj R; Zhong, Weiping; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-08-15

    We analytically and numerically investigate an anharmonic propagation of two-dimensional beams in a harmonic potential. We pick noncentrosymmetric beams of common interest that carry orbital angular momentum. The examples studied include superposed Bessel-Gauss (BG), Laguerre-Gauss (LG), and circular Airy (CA) beams. For the BG beams, periodic inversion, phase transition, and rotation with periodic angular velocity are demonstrated during propagation. For the LG and CA beams, periodic inversion and variable rotation are still there but not the phase transition. On the whole, the "center of mass" and the orbital angular momentum of a beam exhibit harmonic motion, but the motion of the beam intensity distribution in detail is subject to external and internal torques and forces, causing it to be anharmonic. Our results are applicable to other superpositions of finite circularly asymmetric beams. PMID:26274660

  14. Flexible graphene transistors for recording cell action potentials

    Blaschke, Benno M.; Lottner, Martin; Drieschner, Simon; Bonaccini Calia, Andrea; Stoiber, Karolina; Rousseau, Lionel; Lissourges, Gaëlle; Garrido, Jose A.

    2016-06-01

    Graphene solution-gated field-effect transistors (SGFETs) are a promising platform for the recording of cell action potentials due to the intrinsic high signal amplification of graphene transistors. In addition, graphene technology fulfills important key requirements for in-vivo applications, such as biocompability, mechanical flexibility, as well as ease of high density integration. In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication of flexible arrays of graphene SGFETs on polyimide, a biocompatible polymeric substrate. We investigate the transistor’s transconductance and intrinsic electronic noise which are key parameters for the device sensitivity, confirming that the obtained values are comparable to those of rigid graphene SGFETs. Furthermore, we show that the devices do not degrade during repeated bending and the transconductance, governed by the electronic properties of graphene, is unaffected by bending. After cell culture, we demonstrate the recording of cell action potentials from cardiomyocyte-like cells with a high signal-to-noise ratio that is higher or comparable to competing state of the art technologies. Our results highlight the great capabilities of flexible graphene SGFETs in bioelectronics, providing a solid foundation for in-vivo experiments and, eventually, for graphene-based neuroprosthetics.

  15. Metabolic syndrome potentiates the cardiac action potential-prolonging action of drugs: a possible 'anti-proarrhythmic' role for amlodipine.

    Caillier, Bertrand; Pilote, Sylvie; Patoine, Dany; Levac, Xavier; Couture, Christian; Daleau, Pascal; Simard, Chantale; Drolet, Benoit

    2012-03-01

    Type II diabetes was shown to prolong the QT interval on the ECG and to promote cardiac arrhythmias. This is not so clear for metabolic syndrome, a precursor state of type II diabetes. The objectives of the present study were to generate a guinea pig model of metabolic syndrome by long-term exposure to diabetogenic diets, and to evaluate the monophasic action potential duration (MAPD)-modulating effects of drugs in these animals. Male Hartley guinea pigs were fed with either the control, the High Fat High Sucrose (HFHS) or the High Fat High Fructose (HFHF) diet for 150 days. Evolution of weight, blood cholesterol, triglycerides, urea and glucose tolerance were regularly monitored. Histopathological evolution was also evaluated in target organs such as pancreas, heart, liver and kidneys. Ex vivo experiments using the Langendorff retroperfusion technique, isolated hearts from guinea pigs either fed with the control, the HFHS or the HFHF diet were exposed to dofetilide 20 nM (D), chromanol 293B 10 μM (C) and amlodipine 100 nM (A) in different drug combinations and monophasic action potential duration was measured at 90% repolarization (MAPD₉₀). Our data show that it is possible to generate a guinea pig model of metabolic syndrome by chronic exposure to diabetogenic diets. Minor histopathological abnormalities were observed, mainly in the pancreas and the liver. Metabolic syndrome potentiates the MAPD-prolonging actions of I(Kr)-blocking (dofetilide) and I(Ks)-blocking (chromanol 293B) drugs, an effect that is reversible upon administration of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine. PMID:22154802

  16. Optical magnetic detection of single-neuron action potentials using quantum defects in diamond

    Barry, J F; Schloss, J M; Glenn, D R; Song, Y; Lukin, M D; Park, H; Walsworth, R L

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge for neuroscience is noninvasive, label-free sensing of action potential (AP) dynamics in whole organisms with single-neuron resolution. Here, we present a new approach to this problem: using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) quantum defects in diamond to measure the time-dependent magnetic fields produced by single-neuron APs. Our technique has a unique combination of features: (i) it is noninvasive, as the light that probes the NV sensors stays within the biocompatible diamond chip and does not enter the organism, enabling activity monitoring over extended periods; (ii) it is label-free and should be widely applicable to most organisms; (iii) it provides high spatial and temporal resolution, allowing precise measurement of the AP waveforms and conduction velocities of individual neurons; (iv) it directly determines AP propagation direction through the inherent sensitivity of NVs to the associated AP magnetic field vector; (v) it is applicable to neurons located within optically opaque tissue or whole org...

  17. The Potential of Deweyan-Inspired Action Research

    Stark, Jody L.

    2014-01-01

    In its broadest sense, pragmatism could be said to be the philosophical orientation of all action research. Action research is characterized by research, action, and participation grounded in democratic principles and guided by the aim of social improvement. Furthermore, action research is an active process of inquiry that does not admit…

  18. Self-propagative replication of Aβ oligomers suggests potential transmissibility in Alzheimer disease.

    Amit Kumar

    Full Text Available The aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ peptide and its deposition in parts of the brain form the central processes in the etiology of Alzheimer disease (AD. The low-molecular weight oligomers of Aβ aggregates (2 to 30 mers are known to be the primary neurotoxic agents whose mechanisms of cellular toxicity and synaptic dysfunction have received substantial attention in the recent years. However, how these toxic agents proliferate and induce widespread amyloid deposition throughout the brain, and what mechanism is involved in the amplification and propagation of toxic oligomer species, are far from clear. Emerging evidence based on transgenic mice models indicates a transmissible nature of Aβ aggregates and implicates a prion-like mechanism of oligomer propagation, which manifests as the dissemination and proliferation of Aβ toxicity. Despite accumulating evidence in support of a transmissible nature of Aβ aggregates, a clear, molecular-level understanding of this intriguing mechanism is lacking. Recently, we reported the characterization of unique replicating oligomers of Aβ42 (12-24 mers in vitro called Large Fatty Acid-derived Oligomers (LFAOs (Kumar et al., 2012, J. Biol. Chem. In the current report, we establish that LFAOs possess physiological activity by activating NF-κB in human neuroblastoma cells, and determine the experimental parameters that control the efficiency of LFAO replication by self-propagation. These findings constitute the first detailed report on monomer - oligomer lateral propagation reactions that may constitute potential mechanism governing transmissibility among Aβ oligomers. These data support the previous reports on transmissible mechanisms observed in transgenic animal models.

  19. Compound sensory action potential in normal and pathological human nerves

    Krarup, Christian

    2004-01-01

    at different conduction distances are determined by summation of SFAPs of varying fiber diameters, and differ in this respect, also, from the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) for which conduction velocities are determined by the very fastest fibers in the nerve. The effect and extent of temporal...... dispersion over increasing conduction distance is greater for the SNAP than CMAP, and demonstration of conduction block is therefore difficult. In addition, the effect of temporal dispersion on amplitude and shape is strongly dependent on the number of conducting fibers and their distribution, and...... in different polyneuropathies. In this review, different factors that characterize sensory fibers and set the SNAP apart from the CMAP are discussed to emphasize the supplementary and complementary information that can be obtained from sensory conduction studies. Sensory conduction studies require particular...

  20. Map-based model of the cardiac action potential

    A simple computationally efficient model which is capable of replicating the basic features of cardiac cell action potential is proposed. The model is a four-dimensional map and demonstrates good correspondence with real cardiac cells. Various regimes of cardiac activity, which can be reproduced by the proposed model, are shown. Bifurcation mechanisms of these regimes transitions are explained using phase space analysis. The dynamics of 1D and 2D lattices of coupled maps which model the behavior of electrically connected cells is discussed in the context of synchronization theory. -- Highlights: → Recent experimental-data based models are complicated for analysis and simulation. → The simplified map-based model of the cardiac cell is constructed. → The model is capable for replication of different types of cardiac activity. → The spatio-temporal dynamics of ensembles of coupled maps are investigated. → Received data are analyzed in context of biophysical processes in the myocardium.

  1. Scalar potentials, propagators and global symmetries in AdS/CFT

    Bajc, Borut

    2013-01-01

    We study the transition of a scalar field in a fixed $AdS_{d+1}$ background between an extremum and a minimum of a potential. We first prove that two conditions must be met for the solution to exist. First, the potential involved cannot be generic, i.e. a fine-tuning of their parameters is mandatory. Second, at least in some region its second derivative must have a negative upper limit which depends only on the dimensionality $d$. We then calculate the boundary propagator for small momenta in two different ways: first in a WKB approximation, and second with the usual matching method, generalizing the known calculation to arbitrary order. Finally, we study a system with spontaneously broken non-Abelian global symmetry, and show in the holographic language why the Goldstone modes appear.

  2. Accurate Ionization Potentials and Electron Affinities of Acceptor Molecules IV: Electron-Propagator Methods.

    Dolgounitcheva, O; Díaz-Tinoco, Manuel; Zakrzewski, V G; Richard, Ryan M; Marom, Noa; Sherrill, C David; Ortiz, J V

    2016-02-01

    Comparison of ab initio electron-propagator predictions of vertical ionization potentials and electron affinities of organic, acceptor molecules with benchmark calculations based on the basis set-extrapolated, coupled cluster single, double, and perturbative triple substitution method has enabled identification of self-energy approximations with mean, unsigned errors between 0.1 and 0.2 eV. Among the self-energy approximations that neglect off-diagonal elements in the canonical, Hartree-Fock orbital basis, the P3 method for electron affinities, and the P3+ method for ionization potentials provide the best combination of accuracy and computational efficiency. For approximations that consider the full self-energy matrix, the NR2 methods offer the best performance. The P3+ and NR2 methods successfully identify the correct symmetry label of the lowest cationic state in two cases, naphthalenedione and benzoquinone, where some other methods fail. PMID:26730459

  3. Three-dimensional noncommutative Yukawa theory: Induced effective action and propagating modes

    Bufalo, R

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the analysis of noncommutative Yukawa theory, encompassing neutral and charged scalar fields. We approach the analysis by considering carefully the derivation of the respective effective actions. Hence, based on the obtained results, we compute the one-loop contributions to the neutral and charged scalar field self-energy, as well as to the Chern-Simons polarization tensor. In order to properly define the behaviour of the quantum fields, the known UV/IR mixing due to radiative corrections is analysed in the one-loop physical dispersion relation of the scalar and gauge fields.

  4. Quantitative assessment of the distributions of membrane conductances involved in action potential backpropagation along basal dendrites.

    Acker, Corey D; Antic, Srdjan D

    2009-03-01

    Basal dendrites of prefrontal cortical neurons receive strong synaptic drive from recurrent excitatory synaptic inputs. Synaptic integration within basal dendrites is therefore likely to play an important role in cortical information processing. Both synaptic integration and synaptic plasticity depend crucially on dendritic membrane excitability and the backpropagation of action potentials. We carried out multisite voltage-sensitive dye imaging of membrane potential transients from thin basal branches of prefrontal cortical pyramidal neurons before and after application of channel blockers. We found that backpropagating action potentials (bAPs) are predominantly controlled by voltage-gated sodium and A-type potassium channels. In contrast, pharmacologically blocking the delayed rectifier potassium, voltage-gated calcium, or I(h) conductance had little effect on dendritic AP propagation. Optically recorded bAP waveforms were quantified and multicompartmental modeling was used to link the observed behavior with the underlying biophysical properties. The best-fit model included a nonuniform sodium channel distribution with decreasing conductance with distance from the soma, together with a nonuniform (increasing) A-type potassium conductance. AP amplitudes decline with distance in this model, but to a lesser extent than previously thought. We used this model to explore the mechanisms underlying two sets of published data involving high-frequency trains of APs and the local generation of sodium spikelets. We also explored the conditions under which I(A) down-regulation would produce branch strength potentiation in the proposed model. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis that a fraction of basal branches may have different membrane properties compared with sister branches in the same dendritic tree. PMID:19118105

  5. Short latency compound action potentials from mammalian gravity receptor organs

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    Gravity receptor function was characterized in four mammalian species using far-field vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs). VsEPs are compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve and central relays that are elicited by linear acceleration ramps applied to the cranium. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, and gerbils were studied. In all species, response onset occurred within 1.5 ms of the stimulus onset. Responses persisted during intense (116 dBSPL) wide-band (50 to 50 inverted question mark omitted inverted question mark000 Hz) forward masking, whereas auditory responses to intense clicks (112 dBpeSPL) were eliminated under the same conditions. VsEPs remained after cochlear extirpation but were eliminated following bilateral labyrinthectomy. Responses included a series of positive and negative peaks that occurred within 8 ms of stimulus onset (range of means at +6 dBre: 1.0 g/ms: P1=908 to 1062 micros, N1=1342 to 1475 micros, P2=1632 to 1952 micros, N2=2038 to 2387 micros). Mean response amplitudes at +6 dBre: 1.0 g/ms ranged from 0.14 to 0.99 microV. VsEP input/output functions revealed latency slopes that varied across peaks and species ranging from -19 to -51 micros/dB. Amplitude-intensity slopes also varied ranging from 0.04 to 0.08 microV/dB for rats and mice. Latency values were comparable to those of birds although amplitudes were substantially smaller in mammals. VsEP threshold values were considerably higher in mammals compared to birds and ranged from -8.1 to -10.5 dBre 1.0 g/ms across species. These results support the hypothesis that mammalian gravity receptors are less sensitive to dynamic stimuli than are those of birds.

  6. Pharmacological actions of statins: potential utility in COPD

    T. E. Eaton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterised by minimally reversible airflow limitation and features of systemic inflammation. Current therapies for COPD have been shown to reduce symptoms and infective exacerbations and to improve quality of life. However, these drugs have little effect on the natural history of the disease (progressive decline in lung function and exercise tolerance and do not improve mortality. The anti-inflammatory effects of statins on both pulmonary and systemic inflammation through inhibition of guanosine triphosphatase and nuclear factor-B mediated activation of inflammatory and matrix remodelling pathways could have substantial benefits in patients with COPD due to the following. 1 Inhibition of cytokine production (tumour necrosis factor-, interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 and neutrophil infiltration into the lung; 2 inhibition of the fibrotic activity in the lung leading to small airways fibrosis and irreversible airflow limitation; 3 antioxidant and anti-inflammatory (IL-6 mediated effects on skeletal muscle; 4 reduced inflammatory response to pulmonary infection; and 5 inhibition of the development (or reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a precursor event to lung cancer. This review examines the pleiotropic pharmacological action of statins which inhibit key inflammatory and remodelling pathways in COPD and concludes that statins have considerable potential as adjunct therapy in COPD.

  7. Pharmacological actions of statins: potential utility in COPD.

    Young, R P; Hopkins, R; Eaton, T E

    2009-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by minimally reversible airflow limitation and features of systemic inflammation. Current therapies for COPD have been shown to reduce symptoms and infective exacerbations and to improve quality of life. However, these drugs have little effect on the natural history of the disease (progressive decline in lung function and exercise tolerance) and do not improve mortality. The anti-inflammatory effects of statins on both pulmonary and systemic inflammation through inhibition of guanosine triphosphatase and nuclear factor-κB mediated activation of inflammatory and matrix remodelling pathways could have substantial benefits in patients with COPD due to the following. 1) Inhibition of cytokine production (tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8) and neutrophil infiltration into the lung; 2) inhibition of the fibrotic activity in the lung leading to small airways fibrosis and irreversible airflow limitation; 3) antioxidant and anti-inflammatory (IL-6 mediated) effects on skeletal muscle; 4) reduced inflammatory response to pulmonary infection; and 5) inhibition of the development (or reversal) of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a precursor event to lung cancer. This review examines the pleiotropic pharmacological action of statins which inhibit key inflammatory and remodelling pathways in COPD and concludes that statins have considerable potential as adjunct therapy in COPD. PMID:20956147

  8. A stochastic mechanism for signal propagation in the brain: Force of rapid random fluctuations in membrane potentials of individual neurons.

    Hong, Dawei; Man, Shushuang; Martin, Joseph V

    2016-01-21

    There are two functionally important factors in signal propagation in a brain structural network: the very first synaptic delay-a time delay about 1ms-from the moment when signals originate to the moment when observation on the signal propagation can begin; and rapid random fluctuations in membrane potentials of every individual neuron in the network at a timescale of microseconds. We provide a stochastic analysis of signal propagation in a general setting. The analysis shows that the two factors together result in a stochastic mechanism for the signal propagation as described below. A brain structural network is not a rigid circuit rather a very flexible framework that guides signals to propagate but does not guarantee success of the signal propagation. In such a framework, with the very first synaptic delay, rapid random fluctuations in every individual neuron in the network cause an "alter-and-concentrate effect" that almost surely forces signals to successfully propagate. By the stochastic mechanism we provide analytic evidence for the existence of a force behind signal propagation in a brain structural network caused by rapid random fluctuations in every individual neuron in the network at a timescale of microseconds with a time delay of 1ms. PMID:26555846

  9. Study on propagation characteristics of temporal soliton in Scarff II PT-symmetric potential based on intensity moments

    Deng, Yangbao; Deng, Shuguang; Tan, Chao; Xiong, Cuixiu; Zhang, Guangfu; Tian, Ye

    2016-05-01

    When a temporal soliton propagates in the inhomogeneous nonlinear medium with Scarff II parity-time (PT)-symmetric potential, we investigate the propagation characteristics of a temporal soliton based on intensity moments. Under the condition of Scarff II PT-symmetric potential, the propagation characteristics of a temporal soliton are affected by the dispersion coefficient, nonlinear coefficient and chirp. After a detailed analysis of the intensity evolution and the second-order intensity moment parameter, we find that the intensity and pulse width (PW) of a chirped-free temporal soliton are invariant during nonlinear propagation when the dispersion coefficients are the constant, exponential decreasing function and periodic modulated function, respectively. The intensity and PW of a chirped temporal soliton vary periodically when the dispersion coefficient is a periodic modulated function. So the chirp has no effect on propagation behavior of a temporal soliton. When the dispersion coefficients are the constant or exponential decreasing function, the intensity of a chirped temporal soliton is gradually increased, while the PW of a chirped temporal soliton is gradually decreased. Thus the temporal soliton is compressed and the chirp has a great effect on the propagation behavior of a temporal soliton. The results will be helpful to manipulation of nonlinear propagation of the laser pulses.

  10. Potential role of curcumin and taurine combination therapy on human myeloid leukemic cells propagated in vitro.

    El-Houseini, Motawa E; Refaei, Mohammed Osman; Amin, Ahmed Ibrahim; Abol-Ftouh, Mahmoud A

    2013-10-01

    Curcumin and taurine are natural products that have been used in this study evaluating their therapeutic effect on myeloid leukemic cells propagated in vitro. Sixty patients with myeloid leukemia and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. All patient groups were admitted to the Medical Oncology Department of the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. There were statistically significant differences between treated leukemic cells compared to normal mononuclear leukocytes in cell density, interferon-γ and immunophenotypic profile, mainly CD4+, CD8 + and CD25+. This work highlights the possibility of using curcumin and taurine as a potential useful therapy in the management of patients suffering from chronic and acute myeloid leukemias. PMID:23418874

  11. Training Process Reduction Based On Potential Weights Linear Analysis To Accelarate Back Propagation Network

    Asadi, Roya; Sulaiman, Nasir

    2009-01-01

    Learning is the important property of Back Propagation Network (BPN) and finding the suitable weights and thresholds during training in order to improve training time as well as achieve high accuracy. Currently, data pre-processing such as dimension reduction input values and pre-training are the contributing factors in developing efficient techniques for reducing training time with high accuracy and initialization of the weights is the important issue which is random and creates paradox, and leads to low accuracy with high training time. One good data preprocessing technique for accelerating BPN classification is dimension reduction technique but it has problem of missing data. In this paper, we study current pre-training techniques and new preprocessing technique called Potential Weight Linear Analysis (PWLA) which combines normalization, dimension reduction input values and pre-training. In PWLA, the first data preprocessing is performed for generating normalized input values and then applying them by pre-...

  12. An integral formulation for wave propagation on weakly non-uniform potential flows

    Mancini, Simone; Sinayoko, Samuel; Gabard, Gwenael; Tournour, Michel

    2015-01-01

    An integral formulation for acoustic radiation in moving flows is presented. It is based on a potential formulation for acoustic radiation on weakly non-uniform subsonic mean flows. This work is motivated by the absence of suitable kernels for wave propagation on non-uniform flow. The integral solution is formulated using a Green's function obtained by combining the Taylor and Lorentz transformations. Although most conventional approaches based on either transform solve the Helmholtz problem in a transformed domain, the current Green's function and associated integral equation are derived in the physical space. A dimensional error analysis is developed to identify the limitations of the current formulation. Numerical applications are performed to assess the accuracy of the integral solution. It is tested as a means of extrapolating a numerical solution available on the outer boundary of a domain to the far field, and as a means of solving scattering problems by rigid surfaces in non-uniform flows. The results...

  13. Highly asymmetric magnetic domain wall propagation due to coupling to a periodic pinning potential

    Novak, R. L.; Metaxas, P. J.; Jamet, J.-P.; Weil, R.; Ferré, J.; Mougin, A.; Rohart, S.; Stamps, R. L.; Zermatten, P.-J.; Gaudin, G.; Baltz, V.; Rodmacq, B.

    2015-06-01

    Magneto-optical microscopy and magnetometry have been used to study magnetization reversal in an ultrathin magnetically soft (Pt/Co)2 ferromagnetic film coupled to an array of magnetically harder (Co/Pt)4 nanodots via a predominantly dipolar interaction across a 3 nm Pt spacer. This interaction generates a spatially periodic pinning potential for domain walls propagating through the continuous magnetic film. When reversing the applied field with respect to the static nanodot array magnetization orientation, strong asymmetries in the wall velocity and switching fields are observed. Asymmetric switching fields mean that hysteresis of the film is characterized by a large bias field of dipolar origin which is linked to the wall velocity asymmetry. This latter asymmetry, though large at low fields, vanishes at high fields where the domains become round and compact. A field-polarity-controlled transition from dendritic to compact faceted domain structures is also seen at intermediate fields and a model is proposed to interpret the transition.

  14. Dynamics of the inward rectifier K+ current during the action potential of guinea pig ventricular myocytes.

    Ibarra, J; Morley, G E; Delmar, M

    1991-01-01

    The potassium selective, inward rectifier current (IK1) is known to be responsible for maintaining the resting membrane potential of quiescent ventricular myocytes. However, the contribution of this current to the different phases of the cardiac action potential has not been adequately established. In the present study, we have used the action potential clamp (APC) technique to characterize the dynamic changes of a cesium-sensitive (i.e., Ik1) current which occur during the action potential. ...

  15. Acute nerve compression and the compound muscle action potential

    Baylor Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Detecting acute nerve compression using neurophysiologic studies is an important part of the practice of clinical intra-operative neurophysiology. The goal of this paper was to study the changes in the compound muscle action potential (CMAP during acute mechanical compression. This is the type of injury most likely to occur during surgery. Thus, understanding the changes in the CMAP during this type of injury will be useful in the detection and prevention using intra-operative neurophysiologic monitoring. The model involved compression of the hamster sciatic nerve over a region of 1.3 mm with pressures up to 2000 mmHg for times on the order of 3 minutes. In this model CMAP amplitude dropped to 50% of its baseline value when a pressure of roughly 1000 mmHg is applied while, at the same time, nerve conduction velocities decline by only 5%. The ability to detect statistically significant changes in the CMAP at low force levels using other descriptors of the CMAP including duration, latency variation, etc alone or in conjunction with amplitude and velocity measures was investigated. However, these other parameters did not allow for earlier detection of significant changes. This study focused on a model in which nerve injury on a short time scale is purely mechanical in origin. It demonstrated that a pure compression injury produced large changes in CMAP amplitude prior to large changes in conduction velocity. On the other hand, ischemic and stretch injuries are associated with larger changes in conduction velocity for a given value of CMAP amplitude reduction.

  16. Increased Event-Related Potentials and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-Activity Associated with Intentional Actions

    Karch, Susanne; Loy, Fabian; Krause, Daniela; Schwarz, Sandra; Kiesewetter, Jan; Segmiller, Felix; Chrobok, Agnieszka I.; Keeser, Daniel; Pogarell, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Internally guided actions are defined as being purposeful, self-generated and offering choices between alternatives. Intentional actions are essential to reach individual goals. In previous empirical studies, internally guided actions were predominantly related to functional responses in frontal and parietal areas. The aim of the present study was to distinguish event-related potentials and oscillatory responses of intentional actions and externally guided actions. In addition, we ...

  17. Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis Effective Potential for Quark Propagator in Real-Time Thermal Field Theory and Landau Gauge

    2005-01-01

    We complete the derivation of the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective potential for quark propagator at finite temperature and finite quark chemical potential in the real-time formalism of thermal field theory and in Landau gauge. In the approximation that the function A(p2) in inverse quark propagator is replaced by unity, by means of the running gauge coupling and the quark mass function invariant under the renormalization group in zero temperature Quantum Chromadynamics (QCD), we obtain a calculable expression for the thermal effective potential, which will be a useful means to research chiral phase transition in QCD in the real-time formalism.

  18. The membrane actions of estrogens can potentiate their lordosis behavior-facilitating genomic actions

    Kow, Lee-Ming; Pfaff, Donald W.

    2004-01-01

    The membrane actions of estrogens can facilitate their genomic actions. To determine whether this facilitation bears on CNS mechanisms for estrogen-dependent behaviors, ovariectomized rats were subjected to a two-pulse treatment of estrogen directly in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus. Two days later, each rat was given progesterone and then tested for lordosis behavior, the induction of which requires the genomic actions of estrogen. When estrogen was given in both pulses (15 min to 2 h...

  19. Optophysiological approach to resolve neuronal action potentials with high spatial and temporal resolution in cultured neurons

    Stephane ePages

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell to cell communication in the central nervous system is encoded into transient and local membrane potential changes (ΔVm. Deciphering the rules that govern synaptic transmission and plasticity entails to be able to perform Vm recordings throughout the entire neuronal arborization. Classical electrophysiology is, in most cases, not able to do so within small and fragile neuronal subcompartments. Thus, optical techniques based on the use of fluorescent voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs have been developed. However, reporting spontaneous or small ΔVm from neuronal ramifications has been challenging, in part due to the limited sensitivity and phototoxicity of VSD-based optical measurements. Here we demonstrate the use of water soluble VSD, ANNINE-6plus, with laser scanning microscopy to optically record ΔVm in cultured neurons. We show that the sensitivity (> 10 % of fluorescence change for 100 mV depolarization and time response (submillisecond of the dye allows the robust detection of action potentials (APs even without averaging, allowing the measurement of spontaneous neuronal firing patterns. In addition, we show that back-propagating APs can be recorded, along distinct dendritic sites and within dendritic spines. Importantly, our approach does not induce any detectable phototoxic effect on cultured neurons. This optophysiological approach provides a simple, minimally invasive and versatile optical method to measure electrical activity in cultured neurons with high temporal (ms resolution and high spatial (µm resolution.

  20. Circadian- and Light-Dependent Regulation of Resting Membrane Potential and Spontaneous Action Potential Firing of Drosophila Circadian Pacemaker Neurons

    Sheeba, Vasu; Gu, Huaiyu; Sharma, Vijay K.; O'Dowd, Diane K.; Holmes, Todd C.

    2007-01-01

    The ventral lateral neurons (LNvs) of adult Drosophila brain express oscillating clock proteins and regulate circadian behavior. Whole cell current-clamp recordings of large LNvs in freshly dissected Drosophila whole brain preparations reveal two spontaneous activity patterns that correlate with two underlying patterns of oscillating membrane potential: tonic and burst firing of sodium-dependent action potentials. Resting membrane potential and spontaneous action potential firing are rapidly ...

  1. Scaling of the quark-antiquark potential and improved actions in SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    The scaling behaviour of the quark-antiquark potential is investigated by a high statistics Monte Carlo calculation in SU(2) lattice gauge theory. Besides the standard one-plaquette action we also use Symanzik's tree-level improved action and Wilson's block-spin improved action. No significant differences between Symanzik's action and the standard action have been observed. For small β Wilson's action scales differently. The string tension value chi extracted from the data corresponds to Λsub(latt) = (0.018 +- 0.001) √chi for the one-plaquette action. (orig.)

  2. Understanding the Electrical Behavior of the Action Potential in Terms of Elementary Electrical Sources

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A concept of major importance in human electrophysiology studies is the process by which activation of an excitable cell results in a rapid rise and fall of the electrical membrane potential, the so-called action potential. Hodgkin and Huxley proposed a model to explain the ionic mechanisms underlying the formation of action potentials. However,…

  3. Potential of in vitro mutation breeding for the improvement of vegetatively propagated crop plants

    Significant progress has been realized in a number of technologies (e.g., protoplast cultures), collectively referred to as plant cell and tissue culture, within the last decade. In vitro culture technologies offer great potentials for the improvement of crop plants, both sexually and asexually propagated; however, to realize these potentials plant regeneration from selected cells must be achieved for the species of interest. Where whole plants have been regenerated from selected cells, the mutant trait was expressed in some but not in all cases, and the inheritance patterns included maternal, recessive, semi-dominant and dominant (epigenetic events have also been reported). Improved cultivars of sugarcane have been developed from in vitro culture selections. In vitro mutation breeding can be done using an array of physical and chemical mutagens that has been found to be effective in the treatment of seeds, pollen, vegetative plant parts and growing plants. Selection at the cell level for a range of mutant traits has been demonstrated; however, innovative selection schemes will have to be developed to select for agriculturally important traits such as date of maturity, resistance to lodging, height etc. An interdisciplinary team approach involving the combined use of in vitro culture technology, mutagenesis, and plant breeding/genetics offers the greatest probability for success in crop improvement. (author)

  4. Ontogeny of vestibular compound action potentials in the domestic chicken

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    2000-01-01

    Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were measured from the surface of the scalp in 148 chickens (Gallus domesticus). Ages ranged from incubation day 18 (E18) to 22 days posthatch (P22). Responses were elicited using linear acceleration cranial pulses. Response thresholds decreased at an average rate of -0.45 dB/day. The decrease was best fit by an exponential model with half-maturity time constant of 5.1 days and asymptote of approximately -25.9 dB re:1.0 g/ms. Mean threshold approached within 3 dB of the asymptote by ages P6-P9. Similarly, response latencies decreased exponentially to within 3% of mature values at ages beyond P9. The half-maturity time constant for peripheral response peak latencies P1, N1, and P2 was comparable to thresholds and ranged from approximately 4.6 to 6.2 days, whereas central peaks (N2, P3, and N3) ranged from 2.9 to 3.4 days. Latency-intensity slopes for P1, N1, and P2 tended to decrease with age, reaching mature values within approximately 100 hours of hatching. Amplitudes increased as a function of age with average growth rates for response peaks ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 microV/day. There was no obvious asymptote to the growth of amplitudes over the ages studied. Amplitude-intensity slopes also increased modestly with age. The results show that gravity receptors are responsive to transient cranial stimuli as early as E19 in the chicken embryo. The functional response of gravity receptors continues to develop for many days after all major morphological structures are in place. Distinct maturational processes can be identified in central and peripheral neural relays. Functional improvements during maturation may result from refinements in the receptor epithelia, improvements in central and peripheral synaptic transmission, increased neural myelination, as well as changes in the mechanical coupling between the cranium and receptor organ.

  5. 3D FEM-BEM coupled resolution for acoustic waves propagation in potential flow

    BALIN, Nolwenn; SYLVAND, Guillaume; Casenave, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    International audience In order to reduce the environmental impact of aircrafts, it is necessary to accurately simulate the acoustics waves propagation in complex environment. A classical method used to compute the noise propagation on large distances is the Boundary Element Method. However this method restricts the flow to a uniform one. To improve the level of modeling, we present here a coupling between Finite Element (FEM) and Boundary Element Methods (BEM) to solve the acoustic propag...

  6. Mathematical Distinction in Action Potential between Primo-Vessels and Smooth Muscle

    Seong-Jin Cho; Sang-Hun Lee; Wenji Zhang; Sae-Bhom Lee; Kwang-Ho Choi; Sun-Mi Choi; Yeon-Hee Ryu

    2012-01-01

    We studied the action potential of Primo-vessels in rats to determine the electrophysiological characteristics of these structures. We introduced a mathematical analysis method, a normalized Fourier transform that displays the sine and cosine components separately, to compare the action potentials of Primo-vessels with those for the smooth muscle. We found that Primo-vessels generated two types of action potential pulses that differed from those of smooth muscle: (1) Type I pulse had rapid de...

  7. Distribution of Action Potential Duration and T-wave Morphology: a Simulation Study

    Ryzhii, Elena; Ryzhii, Maxim; Wei, Daming

    2009-01-01

    The results of a simulation study of the action potential duration (APD) distribution and T-wave morphology taking into account the midmyocardial cells (M-cells) concept are described. To investigate the effect of M-cells we present a computer model in which ion channel action potential formulations are incorporated into three-dimensional whole heart model. We implemented inhomogeneous continuous action potential duration distribution based on different distributions of maximal slow delayed r...

  8. A Rabbit Ventricular Action Potential Model Replicating Cardiac Dynamics at Rapid Heart Rates

    Mahajan, Aman; Shiferaw, Yohannes; Sato, Daisuke; Baher, Ali; Olcese, Riccardo; Xie, Lai-Hua; Yang, Ming-Jim; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Restrepo, Juan G.; Karma, Alain; Garfinkel, Alan; Qu, Zhilin; Weiss, James N.

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of the cardiac action potential has proven to be a powerful tool for illuminating various aspects of cardiac function, including cardiac arrhythmias. However, no currently available detailed action potential model accurately reproduces the dynamics of the cardiac action potential and intracellular calcium (Cai) cycling at rapid heart rates relevant to ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. The aim of this study was to develop such a model. Using an existing rabbit ven...

  9. Dynamics of signal propagation and collision in axons

    Follmann, Rosangela; Rosa, Epaminondas; Stein, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Long-range communication in the nervous system is usually carried out with the propagation of action potentials along the axon of nerve cells. While typically thought of as being unidirectional, it is not uncommon for axonal propagation of action potentials to happen in both directions. This is the case because action potentials can be initiated at multiple "ectopic" positions along the axon. Two ectopic action potentials generated at distinct sites, and traveling toward each other, will collide. As neuronal information is encoded in the frequency of action potentials, action potential collision and annihilation may affect the way in which neuronal information is received, processed, and transmitted. We investigate action potential propagation and collision using an axonal multicompartment model based on the Hodgkin-Huxley equations. We characterize propagation speed, refractory period, excitability, and action potential collision for slow (type I) and fast (type II) axons. In addition, our studies include experimental measurements of action potential propagation in axons of two biological systems. Both computational and experimental results unequivocally indicate that colliding action potentials do not pass each other; they are reciprocally annihilated.

  10. On the excitation of action potentials by protons and its potential implications for cholinergic transmission

    Fillafer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    One of the most conserved mechanisms for transmission of a nerve pulse across a synapse relies on acetylcholine. Ever since the Nobel-prize winning works of Dale and Loewi, it has been assumed that acetylcholine - subsequent to its action on a postsynaptic cell - is split into inactive by-products by acetylcholinesterase. Herein, this widespread assumption is falsified. Excitable cells (Chara australis internodes), which had previously been unresponsive to acetylcholine, became acetylcholine-sensitive in presence of acetylcholinesterase. The latter was evidenced by a striking difference in cell membrane depolarisation upon exposure to 10 mM intact acetylcholine (deltaV=-2plus/minus5 mV) and its hydrolysate respectively (deltaV=81plus/minus19 mV) for 60 sec. This pronounced depolarization, which also triggered action potentials, was clearly attributed to one of the hydrolysis products: acetic acid (deltaV=87plus/minus9 mV at pH 4.0; choline ineffective in range 1-10 mM). In agreement with our findings, numerou...

  11. Action potential energy efficiency varies among neuron types in vertebrates and invertebrates.

    Sengupta, Biswa; Stemmler, Martin; Laughlin, Simon B; Niven, Jeremy E

    2010-01-01

    The initiation and propagation of action potentials (APs) places high demands on the energetic resources of neural tissue. Each AP forces ATP-driven ion pumps to work harder to restore the ionic concentration gradients, thus consuming more energy. Here, we ask whether the ionic currents underlying the AP can be predicted theoretically from the principle of minimum energy consumption. A long-held supposition that APs are energetically wasteful, based on theoretical analysis of the squid giant axon AP, has recently been overturned by studies that measured the currents contributing to the AP in several mammalian neurons. In the single compartment models studied here, AP energy consumption varies greatly among vertebrate and invertebrate neurons, with several mammalian neuron models using close to the capacitive minimum of energy needed. Strikingly, energy consumption can increase by more than ten-fold simply by changing the overlap of the Na(+) and K(+) currents during the AP without changing the APs shape. As a consequence, the height and width of the AP are poor predictors of energy consumption. In the Hodgkin-Huxley model of the squid axon, optimizing the kinetics or number of Na(+) and K(+) channels can whittle down the number of ATP molecules needed for each AP by a factor of four. In contrast to the squid AP, the temporal profile of the currents underlying APs of some mammalian neurons are nearly perfectly matched to the optimized properties of ionic conductances so as to minimize the ATP cost. PMID:20617202

  12. Action potential energy efficiency varies among neuron types in vertebrates and invertebrates.

    Biswa Sengupta

    Full Text Available The initiation and propagation of action potentials (APs places high demands on the energetic resources of neural tissue. Each AP forces ATP-driven ion pumps to work harder to restore the ionic concentration gradients, thus consuming more energy. Here, we ask whether the ionic currents underlying the AP can be predicted theoretically from the principle of minimum energy consumption. A long-held supposition that APs are energetically wasteful, based on theoretical analysis of the squid giant axon AP, has recently been overturned by studies that measured the currents contributing to the AP in several mammalian neurons. In the single compartment models studied here, AP energy consumption varies greatly among vertebrate and invertebrate neurons, with several mammalian neuron models using close to the capacitive minimum of energy needed. Strikingly, energy consumption can increase by more than ten-fold simply by changing the overlap of the Na(+ and K(+ currents during the AP without changing the APs shape. As a consequence, the height and width of the AP are poor predictors of energy consumption. In the Hodgkin-Huxley model of the squid axon, optimizing the kinetics or number of Na(+ and K(+ channels can whittle down the number of ATP molecules needed for each AP by a factor of four. In contrast to the squid AP, the temporal profile of the currents underlying APs of some mammalian neurons are nearly perfectly matched to the optimized properties of ionic conductances so as to minimize the ATP cost.

  13. The Potential in General Linear Electrodynamics: Causal Structure, Propagators and Quantization

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    An axiomatic approach to electrodynamics reveals that Maxwell electrodynamics is just one instance of a variety of theories for which the name electrodynamics is justified. They all have in common that their fundamental input are Maxwell's equations $\\textrm{d} F = 0$ (or $F = \\textrm{d} A$) and $\\textrm{d} H = J$ and a constitutive law $H = \\# F$ which relates the field strength two-form $F$ and the excitation two-form $H$. A local and linear constitutive law defines what is called general linear electrodynamics whose best known application are the effective description of electrodynamics inside media including, e.g., birefringence. We will analyze the classical theory of the electromagnetic potential $A$ before we use methods familiar from mathematical quantum field theory in curved spacetimes to quantize it in a locally covariant way. Our analysis of the classical theory contains the derivation of retarded and advanced propagators, the analysis of the causal structure on the basis of the constitutive law (...

  14. Potential involvement of serotonergic signaling in ketamine's antidepressant actions

    du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Müller, Heidi Kaastrup; Elfving, Betina;

    2016-01-01

    A single i.v. infusion of ketamine, classified as an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, may alleviate depressive symptoms within hours of administration in treatment resistant depressed patients, and the antidepressant effect may last for several weeks. These unique therapeutic...... properties have prompted researchers to explore the mechanisms mediating the antidepressant effects of ketamine, but despite many efforts, no consensus on its antidepressant mechanism of action has been reached. Recent preclinical reports have associated the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5......-HT) with the antidepressant-like action of ketamine. Here, we review the current evidence for a serotonergic role in ketamine's antidepressant effects. The pharmacological profile of ketamine may include equipotent activity on several non-NMDA targets, and the current hypotheses for the mechanisms...

  15. Propagation of uncertainties for an evaluation of the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone tsunamigenic potential

    Antoshchenkova, Ekaterina; Imbert, David; Richet, Yann; Bardet, Lise; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent; Gailler, Audrey; Hébert, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to assess evaluation the tsunamigenic potential of the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone (AGFZ). This work is part of the French project TANDEM (Tsunamis in the Atlantic and English ChaNnel: Definition of the Effects through numerical Modeling; www-tandem.cea.fr), special attention is paid to French Atlantic coasts. Structurally, the AGFZ region is complex and not well understood. However, a lot of its faults produce earthquakes with significant vertical slip, of a type that can result in tsunami. We use the major tsunami event of the AGFZ on purpose to have a regional estimation of the tsunamigenic potential of this zone. The major reported event for this zone is the 1755 Lisbon event. There are large uncertainties concerning source location and focal mechanism of this earthquake. Hence, simple deterministic approach is not sufficient to cover on the one side the whole AGFZ with its geological complexity and on the other side the lack of information concerning the 1755 Lisbon tsunami. A parametric modeling environment Promethée (promethee.irsn.org/doku.php) was coupled to tsunami simulation software based on shallow water equations with the aim of propagation of uncertainties. Such a statistic point of view allows us to work with multiple hypotheses simultaneously. In our work we introduce the seismic source parameters in a form of distributions, thus giving a data base of thousands of tsunami scenarios and tsunami wave height distributions. Exploring our tsunami scenarios data base we present preliminary results for France. Tsunami wave heights (within one standard deviation of the mean) can be about 0.5 m - 1 m for the Atlantic coast and approaching 0.3 m for the English Channel.

  16. Characteristics of action potentials and their underlying outward currents in rat taste receptor cells.

    Chen, Y; Sun, X D; Herness, S

    1996-02-01

    1. Taste receptor cells produce action potentials as a result of transduction mechanisms that occur when these cells are stimulated with tastants. These action potentials are thought to be key signaling events in relaying information to the central nervous system. We explored the ionic basis of action potentials from dissociated posterior rat taste cells using the patch-clamp recording technique in both voltage-clamp and current-clamp modes. 2. Action potentials were evoked by intracellular injection of depolarizing current pulses from a holding potential of -80 mV. The threshold potential for firing of action potentials was approximately -35 mV; the input resistance of these cells averaged 6.9 G omega. With long depolarizing pulses, two or three action potentials could be elicited with successive attenuation of the spike height. Afterhyperpolarizations were observed often. 3. Both sodium and calcium currents contribute to depolarizing phases of the action potential. Action potentials were blocked completely in the presence of the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin. Calcium contributions could be visualized as prolonged calcium plateaus when repolarizing potassium currents were blocked and barium was used as a charge carrier. 4. Outward currents were composed of sustained delayed rectifier current, transient potassium current, and calcium-activated potassium current. Transient and sustained potassium currents activated close to -30 mV and increased monotonically with further depolarization. Up to half the outward current inactivated with decay constants on the order of seconds. Sustained and transient currents displayed steep voltage dependence in conductance and inactivation curves. Half inactivation occurred at -20 +/- 3.1 mV (mean +/- SE) with a decrease of 11.2 +/- 0.5 mV per e-fold. Half maximal conductance occurred at 3.6 +/- 1.8 mV and increased 12.2 +/- 0.6 mV per e-fold. Calcium-activated potassium current was evidenced by application of apamin and the

  17. Analysis of toxin induced changes in action potential shape for drug development

    Akanda, Nesar; Molnar, Peter; Stancescu, Maria; Hickman, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The generation of an action potential is a complex process in excitable cells which involves the temporal opening and closing of several voltage-dependent ion channels in the cell membrane. The shape of an action potential can carry information concerning the state of the involved ion channels and their relationship to cellular processes. Alteration of these ion channels by the administration of toxins, drugs, and biochemicals can change the action potential’s shape in a specific way which ca...

  18. Multiple modes of action potential initiation and propagation in mitral cell primary dendrite

    Chen, Wei R; Shen, Gongyu Y; Shepherd, Gordon M;

    2002-01-01

    The mitral cell primary dendrite plays an important role in transmitting distal olfactory nerve input from olfactory glomerulus to the soma-axon initial segment. To understand how dendritic active properties are involved in this transmission, we have combined dual soma and dendritic patch recordi...

  19. Fish oil curtails the human action potential dome in a heterogeneous manner: Implication for arrhythmogenesis

    A.O. Verkerk; H.M. den Ruijter; N. de Jonge; R. Coronel

    2009-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-PUFAs) from fish oil modulate various ion channels, including the L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)). As a result, fish oil shortens the cardiac action potential and may cause a loss of the dome of the action potential (AP). Under conditions of increased pre

  20. Triangulation of the monophasic action potential causes flattening of the electrocardiographic T-wave

    Bhuiyan, Tanveer Ahmed; Graff, Claus; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard;

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that triangulation on the cardiac action potential manifests as a broadened, more flat and notched T-wave on the ECG but to what extent such morphology characteristics are indicative of triangulation is more unclear. In this paper, we have analyzed the morphological changes of...... the action potential under the effect of the IKr blocker sertindole and associated these changes to concurrent changes in the morphology of electrocardiographic T-waves in dogs. We show that, under the effect of sertindole, the peak changes in the morphology of action potentials occur at time points...... similar to those observed for the peak changes in T-wave morphology on the ECG. We further show that the association between action potential shape and ECG shape is dose-dependent and most prominent at the time corresponding to phase 3 of the action potential. © 2012 CCAL....

  1. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    Jessica Aschemann-Witzel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert interviews on factors causing consumer-related food waste in households and supply chains. Results show that consumers’ motivation to avoid food waste, their management skills of food provisioning and food handling and their trade-offs between priorities have an extensive influence on their food waste behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions more in-depth. Experiments and interventions in particular can contribute to a shift from analysis to solutions.

  2. Time-Dependent Action in φ~6 Potential

    Hatem Widyan; Mashhoor Al-Wardat

    2012-01-01

    The false vacuum decay in field theory from a coherently oscillating initial state is studied for φ6 potential. An oscillating bubble solution is obtained. The instantaneous bubble nucleation rate is calculated.

  3. Theoretical Study on the Propagation of Acoustic Phonon Modes in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Different Potential Models

    Propagation of a heat pulse in (10,0) zig-zag carbon nanotubes, modeled by the Brenner-II and Tersoff bond-order potentials, respectively, is investigated using a molecular dynamics simulation. The longitudinal acoustic mode, twisting phonon mode, and second sound waves are observed in the simulation. The time variations of speed and intensity of the above three phonon modes are in good agreement with the previous works based on the Brenner-I potential. Higher speed and weaker peak intensity are observed in the simulation of the Tersoff potential. The inherent over-binding of radicals and the non-local effects in Tersoff's covalent-bonding formula may play an important role in the heat pulse propagating simulation. (condensed matter: electronicstructure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Alteration of neural action potential patterns by axonal stimulation: the importance of stimulus location

    Crago, Patrick E.; Makowski, Nathaniel S.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Stimulation of peripheral nerves is often superimposed on ongoing motor and sensory activity in the same axons, without a quantitative model of the net action potential train at the axon endpoint. Approach. We develop a model of action potential patterns elicited by superimposing constant frequency axonal stimulation on the action potentials arriving from a physiologically activated neural source. The model includes interactions due to collision block, resetting of the neural impulse generator, and the refractory period of the axon at the point of stimulation. Main results. Both the mean endpoint firing rate and the probability distribution of the action potential firing periods depend strongly on the relative firing rates of the two sources and the intersite conduction time between them. When the stimulus rate exceeds the neural rate, neural action potentials do not reach the endpoint and the rate of endpoint action potentials is the same as the stimulus rate, regardless of the intersite conduction time. However, when the stimulus rate is less than the neural rate, and the intersite conduction time is short, the two rates partially sum. Increases in stimulus rate produce non-monotonic increases in endpoint rate and continuously increasing block of neurally generated action potentials. Rate summation is reduced and more neural action potentials are blocked as the intersite conduction time increases. At long intersite conduction times, the endpoint rate simplifies to being the maximum of either the neural or the stimulus rate. Significance. This study highlights the potential of increasing the endpoint action potential rate and preserving neural information transmission by low rate stimulation with short intersite conduction times. Intersite conduction times can be decreased with proximal stimulation sites for muscles and distal stimulation sites for sensory endings. The model provides a basis for optimizing experiments and designing neuroprosthetic

  5. Linear transport of domain walls confined to propagating 1-D potential wells

    Negotia, M.; Hodges, M. P. P.; Bryan, M. T.; Fry, P. W.; Im, M.-Y.; Fischer, P.; Allwood, D. A.; Hayward, T. J.

    2013-10-01

    We present a method of controllably propagating domain walls (DWs) in magnetic nanowires over extended linear distances by confining them to geometrically defined energy minima. Using simple models, magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy and magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements, we show that the technique allows DWs to be moved at arbitrary, user-defined velocities and be positioned with micrometer precision. Our approach is expected to be of utility in applications where the precise transport and positioning of DWs take precedent over the absolute speed of propagation, for example, where the fields produced by DWs are used to trap and transport magnetized particles.

  6. Action potentials in retinal ganglion cells are initiated at the site of maximal curvature of the extracellular potential

    Eickenscheidt, Max; Zeck, Günther

    2014-06-01

    Objective. The initiation of an action potential by extracellular stimulation occurs after local depolarization of the neuronal membrane above threshold. Although the technique shows remarkable clinical success, the site of action and the relevant stimulation parameters are not completely understood. Approach. Here we identify the site of action potential initiation in rabbit retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) interfaced to an array of extracellular capacitive stimulation electrodes. We determine which feature of the extracellular potential governs action potential initiation by simultaneous stimulation and recording RGCs interfaced in epiretinal configuration. Stimulation electrodes were combined to areas of different size and were presented at different positions with respect to the RGC. Main results. Based on stimulation by electrodes beneath the RGC soma and simultaneous sub-millisecond latency measurement we infer axonal initiation at the site of maximal curvature of the extracellular potential. Stimulation by electrodes at different positions along the axon reveals a nearly constant threshold current density except for a narrow region close to the cell soma. These findings are explained by the concept of the activating function modified to consider a region of lower excitability close to the cell soma. Significance. We present a framework how to estimate the site of action potential initiation and the stimulus required to cross threshold in neurons tightly interfaced to capacitive stimulation electrodes. Our results underscore the necessity of rigorous electrical characterization of the stimulation electrodes and of the interfaced neural tissue.

  7. Action Research’s Potential to Foster Institutional Change for Urban Water Management

    Dimitrios Zikos; Andreas Thiel

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the potential of action research to meet the challenges entailed in institutional design for urban water management. Our overall aim is to briefly present action research and discuss its methodological merits with regard to the challenges posed by the different conceptual bases for extrapolating the effects of institutional design on institutional change. Thus, our aim is to explore how Action Research meets the challenge of scoping the field in an open fashion for determi...

  8. Neuronal oscillations enhance stimulus discrimination by ensuring action potential precision

    Schaefer, Andreas T; Angelo, Kamilla; Spors, Hartwig;

    2006-01-01

    Although oscillations in membrane potential are a prominent feature of sensory, motor, and cognitive function, their precise role in signal processing remains elusive. Here we show, using a combination of in vivo, in vitro, and theoretical approaches, that both synaptically and intrinsically......--permitted accurate discernment of up to 1,000 different stimuli. At low oscillation frequencies, stimulus discrimination showed a clear phase dependence whereby inputs arriving during the trough and the early rising phase of an oscillation cycle were most robustly discriminated. Thus, by ensuring AP precision...

  9. More evidence for a refined Gribov-Zwanziger action based on an effective potential approach

    Vandersickel, N.; Dudal, D.; Sorella, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this proceeding is twofold. Firstly, we shall make the refining of the Gribov-Zwanziger action more complete by taking into account more condensates than considered so far. Secondly, we shall provide more evidence for the refined Gribov-Zwanziger action based on an effective potential approach.

  10. Synaptically evoked dendritic action potentials in rat neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    Schwindt, P C; Crill, W E

    1998-05-01

    In a previous study iontophoresis of glutamate on the apical dendrite of layer 5 pyramidal neurons from rat neocortex was used to identify sites at which dendritic depolarization evoked small, prolonged Ca2+ spikes and/or low-threshold Na+ spikes recorded by an intracellular microelectrode in the soma. These spikes were identified as originating in the dendrite. Here we evoke similar dendritic responses by electrical stimulation of presynaptic elements near the tip of the iontophoretic electrode with the use of a second extracellular electrode. In 9 of 12 recorded cells, electrically evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) above a minimum size triggered all-or-none postsynaptic responses similar to those evoked by dendritic glutamate iontophoresis at the same site. Both the synaptically evoked and the iontophoretically evoked depolarizations were abolished reversibly by blockade of glutamate receptors. In all recorded cells, the combination of iontophoresis and an EPSP, each of which was subthreshold for the dendritic spike when given alone, evoked a dendritic spike similar to that evoked by a sufficiently large iontophoresis. In one cell tested, dendritic spikes could be evoked by the summation of two independent subthreshold EPSPs evoked by stimulation at two different locations. We conclude that the dendritic spikes are not unique to the use of glutamate iontophoresis because similar spikes can be evoked by EPSPs. We discuss the implications of these results for synaptic integration and for the interpretation of recorded synaptic potentials. PMID:9582218

  11. Distinct electrophysiological potentials for intention in action and prior intention for action

    Vinding, Mikkel Christoffer; Jensen, Mads; Overgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The role of conscious intention in relation to motoric movements has become a major topic of investigation in neuroscience. Traditionally, reports of conscious intention have been compared to various features of the readiness-potential (RP) – an electrophysiological signal that appears before...... electrophysiological “intention potential” above the mid-frontal areas at the time participants formed a distal intention. This potential was only found when the distal intention was self-paced and not when the intention was formed in response to an external cue....

  12. Action potential detection by non-linear microscopy

    Sacconi, Leonardo; Lotti, Jacopo; O'Connor, Rodney P.; Mapelli, Jonathan; Gandolfi, Daniela; D'Angelo, Egidio; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2009-02-01

    In this work, we combined the advantages of second-harmonic generation (SHG) with a random access (RA) excitation scheme to realize a new microscope (RA-SHG) capable of optically recording fast membrane potential events occurring in a wide-field configuration. The RA-SHG microscope in combination with a bulk staining method with FM4-64 was used to simultaneously record electrical activity from clusters of Purkinje cells (PCs) in acute cerebellar slices. Spontaneous electrical activity was also monitored simultaneously in pairs of neurons, where APs were recorded in a single trial without averaging. These results show the strength of this technique to describe the temporal dynamics of neuronal assemblies.

  13. Control of Secretion by Encodes of Action Potentials in Neuronal Cells

    Kailai Duan; Zhuan Zhou

    2003-01-01

    @@ Action potentials (APs) are principle physiological stimuli of neurotransmitter secretion or synaptic transmis sion. Most studies on stimulus-secretion-coupling have been performed under voltage clamp using artificial electric stimulations.

  14. Applications of velocity potential function to acoustic duct propagation and radiation from inlets using finite element theory

    Baumeister, K. J.; Majjigi, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    A finite element velocity potential program has been developed to study acoustic wave propagation in complex geometries. For irrotational flows, relatively low sound frequencies, and plane wave input, the finite element solutions show significant effects of inlet curvature and flow gradients on the attenuation of a given acoustic liner in a realistic variable area turbofan inlet. In addition, as shown in the paper, the velocity potential approach can not be used to estimate the effects of rotational flow on acoustic propagation since the potential acoustic disturbances propagate at the speed of the media in sheared flow. Approaches are discussed that are being considered for extending the finite element solution to include the far field as well as the internal portion of the duct. A new matrix partitioning approach is presented that can be incorporated in previously developed programs to allow the finite element calculation to be marched into the far field. The partitioning approach provides a large reduction in computer storage and running times.

  15. Dynamics of Action Potential Initiation in the GABAergic Thalamic Reticular Nucleus In Vivo

    Fabián Muñoz; Pablo Fuentealba

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the neural mechanisms of action potential generation is critical to establish the way neural circuits generate and coordinate activity. Accordingly, we investigated the dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) using in vivo intracellular recordings in cats in order to preserve anatomically-intact axo-dendritic distributions and naturally-occurring spatiotemporal patterns of synaptic activity in this structure that regulates the th...

  16. Cortical Action Potential Backpropagation Explains Spike Threshold Variability and Rapid-Onset Kinetics

    Yu, Yuguo; Shu, Yousheng; McCormick, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Neocortical action potential responses in vivo are characterized by considerable threshold variability, and thus timing and rate variability, even under seemingly identical conditions. This finding suggests that cortical ensembles are required for accurate sensorimotor integration and processing. Intracellularly, trial-to-trial variability results not only from variation in synaptic activities, but also in the transformation of these into patterns of action potentials. Through simultaneous ax...

  17. NeuroGrid: recording action potentials from the surface of the brain

    Khodagholy, Dion; Gelinas, Jennifer N.; Thesen, Thomas; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Malliaras, George G.; Buzsáki, György

    2014-01-01

    Recording from neural networks at the resolution of action potentials is critical for understanding how information is processed in the brain. Here, we address this challenge by developing an organic material-based, ultra-conformable, biocompatible and scalable neural interface array (the ‘NeuroGrid’) that can record both LFP and action potentials from superficial cortical neurons without penetrating the brain surface. Spikes with features of interneurons and pyramidal cells were simultaneous...

  18. Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordica charantia: a review.

    Grover, J K; Yadav, S P

    2004-07-01

    Since ancient times, plants and herbal preparations have been used as medicine. Research carried out in last few decades has certified several such claims of use of several plants of traditional medicine. Popularity of Momordica charantia (MC) in various systems of traditional medicine for several ailments (antidiabetic, abortifacient, anthelmintic, contraceptive, dysmenorrhea, eczema, emmenagogue, antimalarial, galactagogue, gout, jaundice, abdominal pain, kidney (stone), laxative, leprosy, leucorrhea, piles, pneumonia, psoriasis, purgative, rheumatism, fever and scabies) focused the investigator's attention on this plant. Over 100 studies using modern techniques have authenticated its use in diabetes and its complications (nephropathy, cataract, insulin resistance), as antibacterial as well as antiviral agent (including HIV infection), as anthelmintic and abortifacient. Traditionally it has also been used in treating peptic ulcers, interestingly in a recent experimental studies have exhibited its potential against Helicobacter pylori. Most importantly, the studies have shown its efficacy in various cancers (lymphoid leukemia, lymphoma, choriocarcinoma, melanoma, breast cancer, skin tumor, prostatic cancer, squamous carcinoma of tongue and larynx, human bladder carcinomas and Hodgkin's disease). There are few reports available on clinical use of MC in diabetes and cancer patients that have shown promising results. PMID:15182917

  19. Detection of Variability of the Motor Unit Action Potential Shape by Means of the Firing Patterns

    Krarup, Christian; Nikolic, Mile; Dahl, Kristian;

    1997-01-01

    The motor unit action potential is a summation of the potentials of the individual muscle fibers from the same motor unit.By using a newly developed automatic EMG decomposition system, variability of the firing patterns of the muscle fibers are analyzed.......The motor unit action potential is a summation of the potentials of the individual muscle fibers from the same motor unit.By using a newly developed automatic EMG decomposition system, variability of the firing patterns of the muscle fibers are analyzed....

  20. Excitation kinetics of quantum dot induced by damped propagation of dopant: Role of confinement potential and magnetic field

    Pal, Suvajit [Department of Chemistry, Hetampur Raj High School, Hetampur, Birbhum 731124, West Bengal (India); Ghosh, Manas, E-mail: pcmg77@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Section, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, Birbhum 731 235, West Bengal (India)

    2013-09-23

    Highlights: • The excitation kinetics of doped quantum dot has been investigated. • The dopant propagation is damped. • Confinement sources couple with damping. • The coupling influences the excitation kinetics. - Abstract: We investigate the excitation kinetics of a repulsive impurity doped quantum dot as the dopant is propagating. The study assumes importance because of its intimate connection with impurity drift in nanodevices. The problem has been made more realistic by considering the dopant propagation to be damped. For simplicity, we have considered an inherently linear motion of the dopant with a Gaussian potential. The damping strength and the dot confinement sources of electric and magnetic origin have been found to fabricate the said kinetics in a delicate way. The present study sheds light on how the individual or combined variation of different confinement sources could design the excitation kinetics in presence of damping. However, in the overdamped region, we find attainment of stabilization in the excitation rate. The present investigation is believed to provide some useful perceptions in the phenomenon of damping that has potential importance in nanoelectronic applications.

  1. Non-linear propagation of laser beam and focusing due to self-action in optical fiber: Non-paraxial approach

    R K Khanna; R C Chouhan

    2003-10-01

    A somewhat more general analysis for solving spatial propagation characteristics of intense Gaussian beam is presented and applied to the laser beam propagation in step-index profile as well as parabolic profile dielectric fibers with Kerr non-linearity. Considering self-action due to saturating and non-saturating non-linearity in the refractive index, a general theory has been developed without any kind of power series expansion for the dielectric constant as is usually done in other theories that make use of paraxial approximation. Result of the steady state self-focusing analysis indicates that the Kerr non-linearity acts as a perturbation on the radial inhomogeneity due to fiber geometry. Analysis indicates that the paraxial rays and peripheral rays focus at different points, indicating aberration effect. Calculated critical power matches with the experimentally reported result.

  2. 76 FR 21938 - Potential Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Runway 13 Extension and Associated Actions for...

    2011-04-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Potential Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Runway 13 Extension and... Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of availability of a final EA and FONSI/ROD for the evaluation of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed Runway...

  3. 7 CFR 1945.19 - Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions.

    2010-01-01

    ... assessment of agricultural production losses resulting from a potential natural disaster. These councils are...) Actions to be taken. Immediately after the occurrence of a potential natural disaster: (1) When physical... Administrator will decide whether a natural disaster has occurred. If it has, the Administrator will make...

  4. Fluorescence excitation and propagation through brain phantom gelatins: measurements and potential applications

    Allison, S. W.; Gillies, G. T.

    2010-08-01

    We have investigated the utility of 0.6% agarose gels as surrogate materials for brain tissues in optical propagation studies for possible diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Centimeter-scale layers of the gel exhibited a Beer's law attenuation factor, δ, of ≈0.2 mm-1 for incident illumination via a pulsed LED (100 Hz) at 405 nm. This result was different by only about a factor of 3 from the effective penetration depth at similar wavelengths through in vitro samples of the gray (cortical) matter of human brain, as measured by others. Then, films of the thermographic phosphors La2O2S:Eu, Mg4FGeO6:Mn, YAG:Cr and variants of the latter were formed on aluminum substrates and the fluorescence of these samples was stimulated and observed through layers of the gel up to 4 cm thick. In all cases, the fluorescence was easily excited and distinguishable above the background. The results demonstrate that this gel might serve as an inexpensive and robust test bed for exploratory studies of neurological modalities involving propagation of optical signals within brain tissues.

  5. Perturbation analysis of spontaneous action potential initiation by stochastic ion channels

    Keener, James P.

    2011-07-01

    A stochastic interpretation of spontaneous action potential initiation is developed for the Morris-Lecar equations. Initiation of a spontaneous action potential can be interpreted as the escape from one of the wells of a double well potential, and we develop an asymptotic approximation of the mean exit time using a recently developed quasistationary perturbation method. Using the fact that the activating ionic channel\\'s random openings and closings are fast relative to other processes, we derive an accurate estimate for the mean time to fire an action potential (MFT), which is valid for a below-threshold applied current. Previous studies have found that for above-threshold applied current, where there is only a single stable fixed point, a diffusion approximation can be used. We also explore why different diffusion approximation techniques fail to estimate the MFT. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  6. Study of the gluon propagator in the large-N_f limit at finite temperature and chemical potential for weak and strong couplings

    Blaizot, J P; Rebhan, Anton K; Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Ipp, Andreas; Rebhan, Anton

    2006-01-01

    At finite temperature and chemical potential, the leading-order (hard-thermal-loop) contributions to the gauge-boson propagator lead to momentum-dependent thermal masses for propagating quasiparticles as well as dynamical screening and Landau damping effects. We compare the hard-thermal-loop propagator with the complete large-N_f gluon propagator, for which the usually subleading contributions, such as a finite width of quasiparticles, can be studied at nonperturbatively large effective coupling. We also study quantitatively the effect of Friedel oscillations in low-temperature electrostatic screening.

  7. Initiation and propagation laws of the glass cracks in specimens subjected to normal loading under the action of symmetric wedges

    WAN Zhen-ping; LIU Ya-jun; TANG Yong; YE Bang-yan

    2006-01-01

    With more and more applications of glass in advanced fields of science,the demand for glass machining precision has increased greatly.More and more attention is being paid to glass cutting because precise glass parts with various shapes can be obtained at high efficiency and low cost.To improve the machining precision of part surfaces and to facilitate tool design and cutting parameter selection,the initiation and propagation laws of glass cracks in specimens subjected to normal loading by symmetric wedges were investigated.Research results show that initiation and propagation laws are the same with interior symmetric wedge angles of 30°-120°,while the laws are different with interior symmetric wedge angles equal to or more than ≥150°.The relationship between medial crack length and normal loading was also investigated when specimens were indented by symmetrical wedges with interior angles of 30° -120°.

  8. DBI potential, DBI inflation action and general Lagrangian relative to phantom, K-essence and quintessence

    We derive a Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) potential and DBI inflation action by rescaling the metric. The determinant of the induced metric naturally includes the kinetic energy and the potential energy. In particular, the potential energy and kinetic energy can convert into each other in any order, which is in agreement with the limit of classical physics. This is quite different from the usual DBI action. We show that the Taylor expansion of the DBI action can be reduced into the form in the non-linear classical physics. These investigations are the support for the statement that the results of string theory are consistent with quantum mechanics and classical physics. We deduce the Phantom, K-essence, Quintessence and Generalized Klein-Gordon Equation from the DBI model

  9. Modeling and simulation of ion channels and action potentials in taste receptor cells

    2009-01-01

    Based on patch clamp data on the ionic currents of rat taste receptor cells, a mathematical model of mammalian taste receptor cells was constructed to simulate the action potentials of taste receptor cells and their corresponding ionic components, including voltage-gated Na+ currents and outward delayed rectifier K+ currents. Our simulations reproduced the action potentials of taste receptor cells in response to electrical stimuli or sour tastants. The kinetics of ion channels and their roles in action potentials of taste receptor cells were also analyzed. Our prototype model of single taste receptor cell and simulation results presented in this paper provide the basis for the further study of taste information processing in the gustatory system.

  10. Modeling and simulation of ion channels and action potentials in taste receptor cells

    CHEN PeiHua; LIU Xiaodong; ZHANG Wei; ZHOU Jun; WANG Ping; YANG Wei; LUO JianHong

    2009-01-01

    Based on patch clamp data on the ionic currents of rat taste receptor cells,a mathematical model of mammalian taste receptor cells was constructed to simulate the action potentials of taste receptor cells and their corresponding ionic components,including voltage-gated Na~+ currents and outward delayed rectifier K~+ currents.Our simulations reproduced the action potentials of taste receptor cells in response to electrical stimuli or sour tastants.The kinetics of ion channels and their roles in action potentials of taste receptor cells were also analyzed.Our prototype model of single taste receptor cell and simulation results presented in this paper provide the basis for the further study of taste information processing in the gustatory system.

  11. Optical magnetic detection of single-neuron action potentials using NV-diamond

    Turner, Matthew; Barry, John; Schloss, Jennifer; Glenn, David; Walsworth, Ron

    2016-05-01

    A key challenge for neuroscience is noninvasive, label-free sensing of action potential dynamics in whole organisms with single-neuron resolution. Here, we report a new approach to this problem: using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond to measure the time-dependent magnetic fields produced by single-neuron action potentials. We demonstrate our method using excised single neurons from two invertebrate species, marine worm and squid; and then by single-neuron action potential magnetic sensing exterior to whole, live, opaque marine worms for extended periods with no adverse effect. The results lay the groundwork for real-time, noninvasive 3D magnetic mapping of functional mammalian neuronal networks.

  12. A phantom axon setup for validating models of action potential recordings.

    Rossel, Olivier; Soulier, Fabien; Bernard, Serge; Guiraud, David; Cathébras, Guy

    2016-08-01

    Electrode designs and strategies for electroneurogram recordings are often tested first by computer simulations and then by animal models, but they are rarely implanted for long-term evaluation in humans. The models show that the amplitude of the potential at the surface of an axon is higher in front of the nodes of Ranvier than at the internodes; however, this has not been investigated through in vivo measurements. An original experimental method is presented to emulate a single fiber action potential in an infinite conductive volume, allowing the potential of an axon to be recorded at both the nodes of Ranvier and the internodes, for a wide range of electrode-to-fiber radial distances. The paper particularly investigates the differences in the action potential amplitude along the longitudinal axis of an axon. At a short radial distance, the action potential amplitude measured in front of a node of Ranvier is two times larger than in the middle of two nodes. Moreover, farther from the phantom axon, the measured action potential amplitude is almost constant along the longitudinal axis. The results of this new method confirm the computer simulations, with a correlation of 97.6 %. PMID:27016364

  13. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  14. Differential effects of thioridazine enantiomers on action potential duration in rabbit papillary muscle

    Jensen, Ask Schou; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Sevcencu, Cristian;

    2015-01-01

    (+)-thioridazine. In this study we for the first time investigate the cardiotoxicity of the isolated thioridazine enantiomers and show their effects on ventricular repolarization. The effects of (+)-thioridazine, (-)-thioridazine, and racemate on the rabbit ventricular action potential duration (APD) were...... investigated in a randomized controlled blinded experiment. Action potentials were measured in papillary muscles isolated from 21 female rabbits, and the drug effect on 90% APD in comparison with control (DeltaDelta-APD90) was evaluated. Increasing concentrations of (+)-thioridazine and the racemate caused...

  15. Wogonin potentiates the antitumor action of etoposide and ameliorates its adverse effects.

    Enomoto, Riyo; Koshiba, Chika; Suzuki, Chie; Lee, Eibai

    2011-05-01

    Wogonin, a flavone in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis, reduced etoposide-induced apoptotic cell death in normal cells, such as bone marrow cells and thymocytes. On the other hand, wogonin potentiated the proapoptotic or cytotoxic action of etoposide in tumor cells, such as Jurkat, HL-60, A549, and NCI-H226. These contradictory actions of wogonin on apoptosis are distinguished by normal or cancer cell types. Wogonin had no effect on apoptosis induced by other anticancer agents in the tumor cells. Thus, the potentiation effect of wogonin was observed only in etoposide-induced apoptosis in tumor cells. In a functional assay for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), wogonin suppressed excretion of calcein, a substrate for P-gp, in these tumor cells. Moreover, wogonin decreased the excretion of radiolabeled etoposide and accordingly increased intracellular content of this agent in the cells. P-gp inhibitors showed a similar potentiation effect on etoposide-induced apoptosis in these tumor cells. Thus, wogonin is likely to potentiate the anticancer action of etoposide due to P-gp inhibition and accumulation of this agent. These findings suggest that wogonin may be a useful chemotherapeutic adjuvant to potentiate the pharmacological action of etoposide and ameliorate its adverse effects. PMID:20658136

  16. Investigating a Potential Auxin-Related Mode of Hormetic/Inhibitory Action of the Phytotoxin Parthenin.

    Belz, Regina G

    2016-01-01

    Parthenin is a metabolite of Parthenium hysterophorus and is believed to contribute to the weed's invasiveness via allelopathy. Despite the potential of parthenin to suppress competitors, low doses stimulate plant growth. This biphasic action was hypothesized to be auxin-like and, therefore, an auxin-related mode of parthenin action was investigated using two approaches: joint action experiments with Lactuca sativa, and dose-response experiments with auxin/antiauxin-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. The joint action approach comprised binary mixtures of subinhibitory doses of the auxin 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA) mixed with parthenin or one of three reference compounds [indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (PCIB)]. The reference compounds significantly interacted with IAA at all doses, but parthenin interacted only at low doses indicating that parthenin hormesis may be auxin-related, in contrast to its inhibitory action. The genetic approach investigated the response of four auxin/antiauxin-resistant mutants and a wildtype to parthenin or two reference compounds (IAA, PCIB). The responses of mutant plants to the reference compounds confirmed previous reports, but differed from the responses observed for parthenin. Parthenin stimulated and inhibited all mutants independent of resistance. This provided no indication for an auxin-related action of parthenin. Therefore, the hypothesis of an auxin-related inhibitory action of parthenin was rejected in two independent experimental approaches, while the hypothesis of an auxin-related stimulatory effect could not be rejected. PMID:26686984

  17. Scalable Propagation of Continuous Actions in Peer-to-Peer-based Massively Multiuser Virtual Environments: The Continuous Events Approach

    Heger, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer-based Massively Multiuser Virtual Environments (P2P-MMVEs) provide a shared virtual environment for up to several thousand simultaneous users based on a peer-to-peer network. Users interact in the virtual environment by controlling virtual representations of themselves, so-called avatars. Their computers communicate with each other via a wide area network such as the Internet to provide the shared virtual environment. A crucial challenge for P2P-MMVEs is propagating state changes...

  18. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi, E-mail: kumamote@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •TRPA1 agonists inhibited compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves. •This inhibition was not mediated by TRPA1 channels. •This efficacy was comparable to those of lidocaine and cocaine. •We found for the first time an ability of TRPA1 agonists to inhibit nerve conduction. -- Abstract: Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC{sub 50} values of 1.2 and 1.5 mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-α-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC{sub 50} = 0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other.

  19. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    Highlights: •TRPA1 agonists inhibited compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves. •This inhibition was not mediated by TRPA1 channels. •This efficacy was comparable to those of lidocaine and cocaine. •We found for the first time an ability of TRPA1 agonists to inhibit nerve conduction. -- Abstract: Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC50 values of 1.2 and 1.5 mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-α-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC50 = 0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other

  20. A dual potassium channel activator improves repolarization reserve and normalizes ventricular action potentials

    Calloe, Kirstine; Di Diego, José M; Hansen, Rie Schultz;

    2016-01-01

    cultured canine cardiac myocytes and determined whether a dual K(+) current activator can normalize K(+) currents and restore action potential (AP) configuration. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ventricular myocytes were isolated and cultured for up to 48h. Current and voltage clamp recordings were made using patch...... of EADs. Our results suggest a potential benefit of K(+) current activators under conditions of reduced repolarization reserve including heart failure....

  1. Quantitative analysis of single muscle fibre action potentials recorded at known distances

    Albers, B.A.; Put, J.H.M.; Wallinga, W.; Wirtz, P.

    1989-01-01

    In vivo records of single fibre action potentials (SFAPs) have always been obtained at unknown distance from the active muscle fibre. A new experimental method has been developed enabling the derivation of the recording distance in animal experiments. A single fibre is stimulated with an intracellu

  2. ACTION OF PROGESTERONE ON THE DEPOLARIZATION OF THE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL IN TOAD OOCYTES INDUCED BY LEUCINE

    WANGYu-Feng

    1989-01-01

    The depolarization of the membrane potential in toad oocytes induced by leucine was found in our previous experiment. In this paper, a possible action or progesterone in the process was further investigated. After oocytes had been incubated for 16 to 24 hours with

  3. Preservation of cardiac function by prolonged action potentials in mice deficient of KChIP2

    Grubb, Søren Jahn; Aistrup, Gary L; Koivumäki, Jussi T;

    2015-01-01

    Inherited ion channelopathies and electrical remodeling in heart disease alter the cardiac action potential with important consequences for excitation-contraction coupling. Potassium channel-interacting protein 2 (KChIP2) is reduced in heart failure and interacts under physiological conditions with...

  4. Youth Participatory Action Research and Educational Transformation: The Potential of Intertextuality as a Methodological Tool

    Bertrand, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Melanie Bertrand explores the potential of using the concept of intertextuality--which captures the way snippets of written or spoken text from one source become incorporated into other sources--in the study and practice of youth participatory action research (YPAR). Though this collective and youth-centered form of research…

  5. Effect of ethanol on action potential in ventricular cardiomyocytes: experimental and computational approach

    Pásek, Michal; Bébarová, M.; Christé, G.; Šimurdová, M.; Šimurda, J.

    London: The Physiological Society, 2014. 208P. [Physiology 2014. 30.06.2014-02.07.2014, London] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT14301-3/2013 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : rat ventricular cardiomyocyte * action potential * ethanol * rat ventricular cell model Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  6. Effects of benactyzine on action potentials and contractile force of guinea pig papillary muscles

    2000-01-01

    Aim:To explore the effects of benactyzine (BEN) on the action potential and contractile force in guinea pig papillary muscles.Methods:Conventional microelectrode technique was used to record the fast action potentials (FAP) and slow action potentials (SAP) of guinea pig papillary muscles.Results:Benactyzine 5,10,50 μmol·L-1 suppressed the maximal upstroke velocity (vmax) of FAP and contractile force (Fc) concentration-dependently while prolonged the action potential duration at 50%,90% repolarization (APD50,APD90) and effective refractory period (ERP) of FAP.The suppression on the vmax was frequency-dependent.Benactyzine 5,10,50μmol·L-1 lengthened the APD50,APD90 of SAP induced by isoprenaline or histamine when perfused with KCl 22 mmol·L-1 Tyrode's solution.The vmax of the SAP was not decreased by benactyzine 5,10 μmol·L-1 but by 50 μmol·L-1.The effects on the SAP were antagonized by elevation of the extracellular calcium from 2.0 to 5.6 mmol·L-1.The effects of benactyzine on SAP elicited by tetrodotoxin resembled that by isoprenaline or histamine except the more pronounced suppression on vmax and action potential amplitude (APA).The persistent rapid spontaneous activity and triggered tachyarrhythmia induced by ouabain were also abolished immediately by benactyzine 5 μmol·L-1.Conclusion:Benactyzine can inhibit Na+,K+,Ca2+ transmembrane movement and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in the myocardium,and this may be the electrophysiological basis of its effects against experimental arrhythmias.

  7. Axonal sodium channel distribution shapes the depolarized action potential threshold of dentate granule neurons.

    Kress, Geraldine J; Dowling, Margaret J; Eisenman, Lawrence N; Mennerick, Steven

    2010-04-01

    Intrinsic excitability is a key feature dictating neuronal response to synaptic input. Here we investigate the recent observation that dentate granule neurons exhibit a more depolarized voltage threshold for action potential initiation than CA3 pyramidal neurons. We find no evidence that tonic GABA currents, leak or voltage-gated potassium conductances, or the expression of sodium channel isoform differences can explain this depolarized threshold. Axonal initial segment voltage-gated sodium channels, which are dominated by the Na(V)1.6 isoform in both cell types, distribute more proximally and exhibit lower overall density in granule neurons than in CA3 neurons. To test possible contributions of sodium channel distributions to voltage threshold and to test whether morphological differences participate, we performed simulations of dentate granule neurons and of CA3 pyramidal neurons. These simulations revealed that cell morphology and sodium channel distribution combine to yield the characteristic granule neuron action potential upswing and voltage threshold. Proximal axon sodium channel distribution strongly contributes to the higher voltage threshold of dentate granule neurons for two reasons. First, action potential initiation closer to the somatodendritic current sink causes the threshold of the initiating axon compartment to rise. Second, the proximity of the action potential initiation site to the recording site causes somatic recordings to more faithfully reflect the depolarized threshold of the axon than in cells like CA3 neurons, with distally initiating action potentials. Our results suggest that the proximal location of axon sodium channels in dentate granule neurons contributes to the intrinsic excitability differences between DG and CA3 neurons and may participate in the low-pass filtering function of dentate granule neurons. PMID:19603521

  8. The DBI action, higher-derivative supergravity, and flattening inflaton potentials

    Bielleman, Sjoerd; Ibáñez, Luis E.; Pedro, Francisco G.; Valenzuela, Irene; Wieck, Clemens

    2016-05-01

    In string theory compactifications it is common to find an effective Lagrangian for the scalar fields with a non-canonical kinetic term. We study the effective action of the scalar position moduli of Type II D p-branes. In many instances the kinetic terms are in fact modified by a term proportional to the scalar potential itself. This can be linked to the appearance of higher-dimensional supersymmetric operators correcting the Kähler potential. We identify the supersymmetric dimension-eight operators describing the α' corrections captured by the D-brane Dirac-Born-Infeld action. Our analysis then allows an embedding of the D-brane moduli effective action into an {N}=1 supergravity formulation. The effects of the potential-dependent kinetic terms may be very important if one of the scalars is the inflaton, since they lead to a flattening of the scalar potential. We analyze this flattening effect in detail and compute its impact on the CMB observables for single-field inflation with monomial potentials.

  9. Acute NMDA receptor antagonism disrupts synchronization of action potential firing in rat prefrontal cortex.

    Leonardo A Molina

    Full Text Available Antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR have psychotomimetic effects in humans and are used to model schizophrenia in animals. We used high-density electrophysiological recordings to assess the effects of acute systemic injection of an NMDAR antagonist (MK-801 on ensemble neural processing in the medial prefrontal cortex of freely moving rats. Although MK-801 increased neuron firing rates and the amplitude of gamma-frequency oscillations in field potentials, the synchronization of action potential firing decreased and spike trains became more Poisson-like. This disorganization of action potential firing following MK-801 administration is consistent with changes in simulated cortical networks as the functional connections among pyramidal neurons become less clustered. Such loss of functional heterogeneity of the cortical microcircuit may disrupt information processing dependent on spike timing or the activation of discrete cortical neural ensembles, and thereby contribute to hallucinations and other features of psychosis induced by NMDAR antagonists.

  10. Voltage-gated sodium channel expression and action potential generation in differentiated NG108-15 cells

    Liu Jinxu; Tu Huiyin; Zhang Dongze; Zheng Hong; Li Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The generation of action potential is required for stimulus-evoked neurotransmitter release in most neurons. Although various voltage-gated ion channels are involved in action potential production, the initiation of the action potential is mainly mediated by voltage-gated Na+ channels. In the present study, differentiation-induced changes of mRNA and protein expression of Na+ channels, Na+ currents, and cell membrane excitability were investigated in NG108-15 cells. Result...

  11. Simulation and calculation of the contribution of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels to action potentials

    Liao Liping; Lin Xianguang; Hu Jielin; Wu Xin; Yang Xiaofei; Wang Wei; Li Chenhong

    2016-01-01

    The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel, which mediates the influx of cations, has an important role in action potential generation. In this article, we describe the contribution of the HCN channel to action potential generation. We simulated several common ion channels in neuron membranes based on data from rat dorsal root ganglion cells and modeled the action potential. The ion channel models employed in this paper were based...

  12. Slowly moving matter-wave gap soliton propagation in weak random nonlinear potential

    Zhang Ming-Rui; Zhang Yong-Liang; Jiang Xun-Ya; Zi Jian

    2008-01-01

    We systematically investigate the motion of slowly moving matter-wave gap solitons in a nonlinear potential, produced by the weak random spatial variation of the atomic scattering length. With the weak randomness, we construct an effective-particle theory to study the motion of gap solitons. Based on the effective-particle theory, the effect of the randomness on gap solitous is obtained, and the motion of gap solitons is finally solved. Moreover, the analytic results for the general behaviours of gap soliton motion, such as the ensemble-average speed and the reflection probability depending on the weak randomness are obtained. We find that with the increase of the random strength the ensemble-average speed of gap solitons decreases slowly where the reduction is proportional to the variance of the weak randomness, and the reflection probability becomes larger. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  13. The DBI Action, Higher-derivative Supergravity, and Flattening Inflaton Potentials

    Bielleman, Sjoerd; Pedro, Francisco G; Valenzuela, Irene; Wieck, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    In string theory compactifications it is common to find an effective Lagrangian for the scalar fields with a non-canonical kinetic term. We study the effective action of the scalar position moduli of Type II D$p$-branes. In many instances the kinetic terms are in fact modified by a term proportional to the scalar potential itself. This can be linked to the appearance of higher-dimensional supersymmetric operators correcting the K\\"ahler potential. We identify the supersymmetric dimension-eight operators describing the $\\alpha'$ corrections captured by the D-brane Dirac-Born-Infeld action. Our analysis then allows an embedding of the D-brane moduli effective action into an $\\mathcal N = 1$ supergravity formulation. The effects of the potential-dependent kinetic terms may be very important if one of the scalars is the inflaton, since they lead to a flattening of the scalar potential. We analyze this flattening effect in detail and compute its impact on the CMB observables for single-field inflation with monomia...

  14. Potentiators of Defective ΔF508-CFTR Gating that Do Not Interfere with Corrector Action.

    Phuan, Puay-Wah; Veit, Guido; Tan, Joseph A; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Lukacs, Gergely L; Verkman, A S

    2015-10-01

    Combination drug therapies under development for cystic fibrosis caused by the ∆F508 mutation in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) include a "corrector" to improve its cellular processing and a "potentiator" to improve its chloride channel function. Recently, it was reported that the approved potentiator N-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide (Ivacaftor) reduces ∆F508-CFTR cellular stability and the efficacy of investigational correctors, including 3-(6-[([1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropyl]carbonyl) amino]-3-methyl-2-pyridinyl)-benzoic acid and 1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-(1-[(2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl]-6-fluoro-2-(2-hydroxy-1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-indol-5-yl), which might contribute to the modest reported efficacy of combination therapy in clinical trials. Here, we report the identification and characterization of potentiators that do not interfere with ∆F508-CFTR stability or corrector action. High-throughput screening and structure-activity analysis identified several classes of potentiators that do not impair corrector action, including tetrahydrobenzothiophenes, thiooxoaminothiazoles, and pyrazole-pyrrole-isoxazoles. The most potent compounds have an EC(50) for ∆F508-CFTR potentiation down to 18 nM and do not reduce corrector efficacy in heterologous ∆F508-CFTR-expressing cells or primary cultures of ∆F508/∆F508 human bronchial epithelia. The ΔF508-CFTR potentiators also activated wild-type and G551D CFTR, albeit weakly. The efficacy of combination therapy for cystic fibrosis caused by the ∆F508 mutation may be improved by replacement of Ivacaftor with a potentiator that does not interfere with corrector action. PMID:26245207

  15. Spatial and frequency domain ring source models for the single muscle fiber action potential

    Henneberg, Kaj-åge; R., Plonsey

    1994-01-01

    In the paper, single-fibre models for the extracellular action potential are developed that will allow the potential to the evaluated at an arbitrary field point in the extracellular space. Fourier-domain models are restricted in that they evaluate potentials at equidistant points along a line...... parallel to the fibre axis. Consequently, they cannot easily evaluate the potential at the boundary nodes of a boundary-element electrode model. The Fourier-domain models employ axial-symmetric ring source models, and thereby provide higher accuracy that the line source model, where the source is lumped...... examples including anisotropy show that the spatial models require extreme care in the integration procedure owing to the singularity in the weighting functions. With adequate sampling, the spatial models can evaluate extracellular potentials with high accuracy....

  16. Application of Emergency Action Levels from Potential Release at Research Reactor HANARO

    Execution of the protective action promptly is possible that Emergency Action Levels (EALs) must be established for a radiological release from nuclear facility. The EALs for electric power reactor are already developed and applied to recognize an emergency situation rapidly. Recently the IAEA published the safety report including the EALs for research reactor. This paper describes the EALs to apply for a potential release pathway at the research reactor HANARO. The results of table 1 and 2 will be higher than actual because the weather condition in real situation is difference. However, the EALs applying the potential stack release, ground release and site can be useful for research reactor HANARO making the emergency declaration. The EALs at the site boundary of the table 3 can be applied to protect the off-site public

  17. Application of Emergency Action Levels from Potential Release at Research Reactor HANARO

    Kim, Jongsoo; Lee, Goan Yub; Lee, Hae Choi; Kim, Bong Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Execution of the protective action promptly is possible that Emergency Action Levels (EALs) must be established for a radiological release from nuclear facility. The EALs for electric power reactor are already developed and applied to recognize an emergency situation rapidly. Recently the IAEA published the safety report including the EALs for research reactor. This paper describes the EALs to apply for a potential release pathway at the research reactor HANARO. The results of table 1 and 2 will be higher than actual because the weather condition in real situation is difference. However, the EALs applying the potential stack release, ground release and site can be useful for research reactor HANARO making the emergency declaration. The EALs at the site boundary of the table 3 can be applied to protect the off-site public.

  18. Correlation of compound action potential and electromyography with facial muscle tension

    Goodnight, J W; Dulguerov, Pavel; Berke, G S; Lesavoy, M; Hoffman, L. F.

    1995-01-01

    Functional electric stimulation is a new method for dynamic rehabilitation of paralyzed muscles. The output of such prosthetic devices needs to be modulated by some index of the muscle movement. In facial paralysis a measure of the muscle contractions of the normal contralateral side seems to be an appropriate input. In the rabbit, we simultaneously measured the compound action potential of the buccal branch of the facial nerve, the electromyogram of the zygomaticus major muscle, and the musc...

  19. Bimodal action of menthol on the transient receptor potential channel TRPA1

    Karashima, Yuji; Damann, Nils; Prenen, Jean; Talavera Pérez, Karel; Segal Stanciu, Andrei; Voets, Thomas; Nilius, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    TRPA1 is a calcium-permeable nonselective cation transient receptor potential (TRP) channel that functions as an excitatory ionotropic receptor in nociceptive neurons. TRPA1 is robustly activated by pungent substances in mustard oil, cinnamon, and garlic and mediates the inflammatory actions of environmental irritants and proalgesic agents. Here, we demonstrate a bimodal sensitivity of TRPA1 to menthol, a widely used cooling agent and known activator of the related cold receptor TRPM8. In who...

  20. Variability of Action Potentials Within and Among Cardiac Cell Clusters Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Renjun Zhu; Millrod, Michal A.; Zambidis, Elias T.; Leslie Tung

    2016-01-01

    Electrophysiological variability in cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent stem cells continues to be an impediment for their scientific and translational applications. We studied the variability of action potentials (APs) recorded from clusters of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) using high-resolution optical mapping. Over 23,000 APs were analyzed through four parameters: APD30, APD80, triangulation and fractional repolarization. Although measures were taken to re...

  1. Action Potential Morphology Influences Intracellular Calcium Handling Stability and the Occurrence of Alternans

    Jordan, Peter N; Christini, David J

    2005-01-01

    Instability in the intracellular Ca2+ handling system leading to Ca2+ alternans is hypothesized to be an underlying cause of electrical alternans. The highly coupled nature of membrane voltage and Ca2+ regulation suggests that there should be reciprocal effects of membrane voltage on the stability of the Ca2+ handling system. We investigated such effects using a mathematical model of the cardiac intracellular Ca2+ handling system. We found that the morphology of the action potential has a sig...

  2. Relation of recurrent laryngeal nerve compound action potential to laryngeal biomechanics

    Nasri, S.; Dulguerov, Pavel; Damrose, E J; Ye, M.; Kreiman, J; Berke, G S

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the compound action potential (CAP) of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and to correlate this electrophysiologic signal to laryngeal biomechanics and phonatory function. Four adult mongrel canines were anesthetized. The RLN was isolated and stimulated, and recording electrodes were applied. The electromyographic (EMG) electrode was placed in the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. The RLN CAP and the EMG of the TA muscle were recorded and compared to the stim...

  3. Human sensory nerve compound action potential amplitude: variation with sex and finger circumference.

    Bolton, C F; Carter, K M

    1980-01-01

    The amplitude of human, antidromic, sensory compound action potentials (CAP) recorded from median and ulnar digital nerves is greater in females than males. This sex difference is probably due entirely to females having digits of smaller circumference, resulting in digital nerves being closer to the recording ring electrode enclosing the digit. The negative linear correlation between CAP amplitude and circumference holds true for persons of the same sex.

  4. Axonal sodium channel distribution shapes the depolarized action potential threshold of dentate granule neurons

    Kress, Geraldine J.; Dowling, Margaret; Eisenman, Lawrence N.; Mennerick, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsic excitability is a key feature dictating neuronal response to synaptic input. Here we investigate the recent observation that dentate granule neurons exhibit a more depolarized voltage threshold for action potential initiation than CA3 pyramidal neurons. We find no evidence that tonic GABA currents, leak or voltage-gated potassium conductances, or the expression of sodium channel isoform differences can explain this depolarized threshold. Axonal initial segment voltage-gated sodium c...

  5. Variety of the Wave Change in Compound Muscle Action Potential in an Animal Model

    ITO, ZENYA; Imagama, Shiro; Ando, Kei; Muramoto, Akio; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Tsushima, Mikito; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Animal study. Purpose To review the present warning point criteria of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and investigate new criteria for spinal surgery safety using an animal model. Overview of Literature Little is known about correlation palesis and amplitude of spinal cord monitoring. Methods After laminectomy of the tenth thoracic spinal lamina, 2-140 g force was delivered to the spinal cord with a tension gage to create a bilateral contusion injury. The study morpho...

  6. Effect of ethanol on action potential and ionic membrane currents in rat ventricular myocytes

    Bébarová, M.; Matejovič, P.; Pásek, Michal; Ohlídalová, D.; Jansová, D.; Šimurdová, M.; Šimurda, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 4 (2010), s. 301-314. ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : action potential * ethanol * rat ventricular myocyte Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.138, year: 2010 http:// apps .isiknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=UA&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=15&SID=Y1pmpi@7k2HPEc8ehEE&page=1&doc=1&colname=WOS

  7. Comparative investigations of manual action representations: evidence that chimpanzees represent the costs of potential future actions involving tools

    Frey, Scott H.; POVINELLI, DANIEL J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to adjust one's ongoing actions in the anticipation of forthcoming task demands is considered as strong evidence for the existence of internal action representations. Studies of action selection in tool use reveal that the behaviours that we choose in the present moment differ depending on what we intend to do next. Further, they point to a specialized role for mechanisms within the human cerebellum and dominant left cerebral hemisphere in representing the likely sensory costs of ...

  8. Formation mechanism of propagated sensation along the meridians, as verified by cortical somatosensory-evoked potential topographic maps

    Jinsen Xu; Xiaohua Pan; Shuxia Zheng; Xianglong Hu; Zheyan Sa

    2011-01-01

    The peripheral driver stimulating theory states that as a driver passes along a certain meridian during acupuncture; the driver provokes nerve sense devices along the meridian, resulting in the nerve impulse entering the central nervous system. Accordingly, volunteers have reported propagated sensations along the meridians (PSM). The present study was designed to utilize a cortical somatosensory-evoked potential (CSEP) topographic map for determining whether stimulation expansion occurs in somatosensory area I when sensation was provoked in individuals with obvious PSM. The sensation was blocked by mechanical compression, and the sensation was imitated in individuals without PSM. Results revealed a red, high-potential signal in the representative area of the lower limbs in individuals with obvious PSM symptoms when the Gall Bladder Meridian (GBM) sensation passed to the head and face. This representative area was near the middle line of the CSEP topographic map, and a red, high-potential signal, which jumps over the representative area of the upper limbs, also appeared in the representative face area, which was at the external region of the CSEP topographic map. However, in individuals exhibiting no PSM, only a red high-potential signal appeared in the representative lower limb area. When Hegu (LI 4) was stimulated in individuals without PSM, an obvious evoked response appeared only in the representative upper limb area. However, when Hegu was stimulated in individuals exhibiting PSM, the response area was larger in the representative upper limb area and extended to the representative face area. When Guangming (GB 37) was stimulated in PSM individuals, the face representation response disappeared and was confined to a foot representation of the somatosensory area I when PSM was blocked by mechanical pressure. Results suggested that mechanical compression blocked PSM, and corresponding changes were exhibited in the CSEP topographic map. These results provide

  9. Action Research’s Potential to Foster Institutional Change for Urban Water Management

    Dimitrios Zikos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the potential of action research to meet the challenges entailed in institutional design for urban water management. Our overall aim is to briefly present action research and discuss its methodological merits with regard to the challenges posed by the different conceptual bases for extrapolating the effects of institutional design on institutional change. Thus, our aim is to explore how Action Research meets the challenge of scoping the field in an open fashion for determining the appropriate mechanisms of institutional change and supporting the emerging of new water institutions. To accomplish this aim, we select the Water Framework Directive (WFD as an illustrative driving force requiring changes in water management practices and implying the need for the emergence of new institutions. We employ a case of urban water management in the Volos Metropolitan Area, part of the Thessaly region in Greece, where a Pilot River Basin Plan was implemented. By applying action research and being involved in a long process of interaction between stakeholders, we examine the emergence of new institutions dealing with urban water management under the general principles of the major driving force for change: the WFD.

  10. Population of Computational Rabbit-Specific Ventricular Action Potential Models for Investigating Sources of Variability in Cellular Repolarisation

    Philip Gemmell; Kevin Burrage; Blanca Rodriguez; T Alexander Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Variability is observed at all levels of cardiac electrophysiology. Yet, the underlying causes and importance of this variability are generally unknown, and difficult to investigate with current experimental techniques. The aim of the present study was to generate populations of computational ventricular action potential models that reproduce experimentally observed intercellular variability of repolarisation (represented by action potential duration) and to identify its potential causes. A s...

  11. Effects of Potassium Currents upon Action Potential of Cardiac Cells Exposed to External Electric fields

    An-Ying Zhang; Xiao-Feng Pang

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to high-voltage electric fields would influence the electro cardiogram both in experimental animate and human beings. The effects of the external electric fields upon action potential of cardiac cells are studied in this paper based on the dynamical model, LR91. Fourth order Runger-Kuta is used to analyze the change of potassium ion channels exposed to external electric fields in detail. Results indicate that external electric fields could influence the current of potassium ion by adding an induced component voltage on membrane. This phenomenon might be one of the reasons of heart rate anomaly under the high-voltage electric fields.

  12. Ranolazine inhibits shear sensitivity of endogenous Na+ current and spontaneous action potentials in HL-1 cells

    Strege, Peter; Beyder, Arthur; Bernard, Cheryl; Crespo-Diaz, Ruben; Behfar, Atta; Terzic, Andre; Ackerman, Michael; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2012-01-01

    NaV1.5 is a mechanosensitive voltage-gated Na+ channel encoded by the gene SCN5A, expressed in cardiac myocytes and required for phase 0 of the cardiac action potential (AP). In the cardiomyocyte, ranolazine inhibits depolarizing Na+ current and delayed rectifier (IKr) currents. Recently, ranolazine was also shown to be an inhibitor of NaV1.5 mechanosensitivity. Stretch also accelerates the firing frequency of the SA node, and fluid shear stress increases the beating rate of cultured cardiomy...

  13. Effects of terpineol on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

    M.R. Moreira; G.M.P. Cruz; Lopes, M S; A.A.C. Albuquerque; J.H. Leal-Cardoso

    2001-01-01

    Terpineol, a volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity, is widely used in the perfumery industry. It is an important chemical constituent of the essential oil of many plants with widespread applications in folk medicine and in aromatherapy. The effects of terpineol on the compound action potential (CAP) of rat sciatic nerve were studied. Terpineol induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 100 µM, terpineol had no demonstrable effect. At 300 µM terpineol, peak-to-peak amplitude and con...

  14. The optimal distance between two electrode tips during recording of compound nerve action potentials in the rat median nerve

    Yongping Li; Jie Lao; Xin Zhao; Dong Tian; Yi Zhu; Xiaochun Wei

    2014-01-01

    The distance between the two electrode tips can greatly inlfuence the parameters used for record-ing compound nerve action potentials. To investigate the optimal parameters for these recordings in the rat median nerve, we dissociated the nerve using different methods and compound nerve action potentials were orthodromically or antidromically recorded with different electrode spac-ings. Compound nerve action potentials could be consistently recorded using a method in which the middle part of the median nerve was intact, with both ends dissociated from the surrounding fascia and a ground wire inserted into the muscle close to the intact part. When the distance be-tween two stimulating electrode tips was increased, the threshold and supramaximal stimulating intensity of compound nerve action potentials were gradually decreased, but the amplitude was not changed signiifcantly. When the distance between two recording electrode tips was increased, the amplitude was gradually increased, but the threshold and supramaximal stimulating intensity exhibited no signiifcant change. Different distances between recording and stimulating sites did not produce signiifcant effects on the aforementioned parameters. A distance of 5 mm between recording and stimulating electrodes and a distance of 10 mm between recording and stimulating sites were found to be optimal for compound nerve action potential recording in the rat median nerve. In addition, the orthodromic compound action potential, with a biphasic waveform that was more stable and displayed less interference (however also required a higher threshold and higher supramaximal stimulus), was found to be superior to the antidromic compound action potential.

  15. Characterization of action potential-triggered [Ca2+]i transients in single smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig ileum

    Kohda, M.; Komori, S.; Unno, T; Ohashi, H

    1997-01-01

    To characterize increases in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) associated with discharge of action potentials, membrane potential and [Ca2+]i were simultaneously recorded from single smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig ileum by use of a combination of nystatin-perforated patch clamp and fura-2 fluorimetry techniques.A single action potential in response to a depolarizing current pulse elicited a transient rise in [Ca2+]i. When the duration of the current pulse was prolonged, action po...

  16. Analytical solution for Klein-Gordon equation and action function of the solution for Dirac equation in counter-propagating laser waves

    Hu, Huayu

    2015-01-01

    Nonperturbative calculation of QED processes participated by a strong electromagnetic field, especially provided by strong laser facilities at present and in the near future, generally resorts to the Furry picture with the usage of analytical solutions of the particle dynamical equation, such as the Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac equation. However only for limited field configurations such as a plane-wave field could the equations be solved analytically. Studies have shown significant interests in QED processes in a strong field composed of two counter-propagating laser waves, but the exact solutions in such a field is out of reach. In this paper, inspired by the observation of the structure of the solutions in a plane-wave field, we develop a new method and obtain the analytical solution for the Klein-Gordon equation and equivalently the action function of the solution for the Dirac equation in this field, under a largest dynamical parameter condition that there exists an inertial frame in which the particl...

  17. Action of hallucinogens on raphe-evoked dorsal root potentials (DRPs) in the cat.

    Larson, A A; Anderson, E G

    1986-02-01

    The dorsal root potential (DRP) evoked by stimulation of the inferior central nucleus (ICN) of the cat is affected by administration of a variety of hallucinogenic agents. It has been previously shown that a single low dose of LSD is unique in that it potentiates this DRP, while injections of 5-methoxy-N,N- dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT), ketamine or phencyclidine (PCP) inhibit its production. Tolerance develops to the facilitatory effect of low doses of LSD on the DRP, but not to the inhibitory action of 5-MeODMT. Repeated injections of ketamine every 30 minutes also fail to produce tachyphylaxis to the inhibitory effect of this dissociative anesthetic. The raphe-evoked DRP is a long latency potential that is inhibited by a wide variety of putative serotonin antagonists and has therefore been traditionally thought to be mediated by serotonin. However, in light of the inability of either tryptophan or fluoxetine to potentiate this DRP, and the resistance of this DRP to blockade by parachlorophenylalanine, reserpine or intrathecally administered 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, it appears that this potential may in fact be mediated, at least in part, by a non-serotonergic transmitter. PMID:3952125

  18. The characteristics of action potential and nonselective cation current of cardiomyocytes in rabbit superior vena cava

    WANG Pan; YANG XinChun; LIU XiuLan; BAO RongFeng; LIU TaiFeng

    2008-01-01

    As s special focus in initiating and maintaining atrial fibrillation (AF), cardiomyocytes in superior vena cavs (SVC) have distinctive electrophysiological characters. In this study, we found that comparing with the right atrial (RA) cardiomyoctyes, the SVC cardiomyoctyes had longer APD90 at the different basic cycle lengths; the conduction block could be observed on both RA and SVC cardiomyoctyes. A few of SVC cardiomyoctyes showed slow response action potentials with automatic activity and some others showed early afterdepolarization (EAD) spontaneously. Further more, we found that there are nonselective cation current (INs) in both SVC and RA cardiomyocytes. The peak density of INs in SVC cardiomyocytes was smaller than that in RA cardiomyocytes. Removal of extracellular divalent cation and glucose could increase INs in SVC cardiomyocytes. The agonist or the antagonist of INs may increase or decrease APD. To sum up, some SVC cardiomyocytes possess the ability of spontaneous activity; the difference of transmembrane action potentials between SVC and RA cardiomyocytes is partly because of the different density of INs between them; the agonist or the antagonist of INs can increase or decrease APD leading to the enhancement or reduction of EAD genesis in SVC cardiomyocytes. INs in rabbit myocytes is fairly similar to TRPC3 current in electrophysiological property, which might play an important role in the mechanisms of AF.

  19. The Belem Framework for Action: Harnessing the Power and Potential of Adult Learning and Education for a Viable Future

    Adult Learning, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.

  20. Regulation of action potential waveforms by axonal GABAA receptors in cortical pyramidal neurons.

    Yang Xia

    Full Text Available GABAA receptors distributed in somatodendritic compartments play critical roles in regulating neuronal activities, including spike timing and firing pattern; however, the properties and functions of GABAA receptors at the axon are still poorly understood. By recording from the cut end (bleb of the main axon trunk of layer -5 pyramidal neurons in prefrontal cortical slices, we found that currents evoked by GABA iontophoresis could be blocked by picrotoxin, indicating the expression of GABAA receptors in axons. Stationary noise analysis revealed that single-channel properties of axonal GABAA receptors were similar to those of somatic receptors. Perforated patch recording with gramicidin revealed that the reversal potential of the GABA response was more negative than the resting membrane potential at the axon trunk, suggesting that GABA may hyperpolarize the axonal membrane potential. Further experiments demonstrated that the activation of axonal GABAA receptors regulated the amplitude and duration of action potentials (APs and decreased the AP-induced Ca2+ transients at the axon. Together, our results indicate that the waveform of axonal APs and the downstream Ca2+ signals are modulated by axonal GABAA receptors.

  1. Action potential-simulated weak electric fields can directly initiate myelination

    Lei Liu; Shifu Zhao; Haiming Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myelination is a process whereby glial cells identify, adhere, wrap and enclose axons to form a spiral myelin sheath.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of action potential-simulated weak electric fields on myelination in the central nervous system.DESIGN AND SETTING: This single-sample observation study was performed at the 324 Hospital of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Two 5 μm carbon fibers were provided by the Institute of Neuroscience, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. One Sprague Dawley rat, aged 1 day, was used.METHODS: Cerebral cortex was harvested from the rat to prepare a suspension [(1-2)×105/mL] containing neurons and glial cells. To simulate the axon, carbon fibers were placed at the bottom of the neuron-glial cell coculture dish, and were electrified with a single phase square wave current, 1×10-2, 1×10-3, 1×10-4, and 1×10-5 seconds, 1 Hz, 40 mV, and 10 μA, 30 minutes each, once aday for 10 consecutive days to simulate weak negative electric fields during action potential conduction.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Glial cell growth and wrapping of carbon fibers were observed by phase contrast microscopy and immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: On culture day 7, cell groups were found to adhere to negative carbon fibers in the 1×10-3 seconds square wave group. Cell membrane-like substances grew out of cell groups, wrapped the carbon fibers, and stretched to the ends of carbon fibers. Only some small and round cells close to negative carbon fibers were found on culture day 12. In the 1×10-4 and 1×10-3 seconds square wave groups, the negative carbon fibers were wrapped by oligodendrocytes or their progenitor cells.CONCLUSION: The local negative electric field which is generated by action potentials at 1×(10-4-10-3)seconds, 40 mV can directly initiate and participate in myelination in the central nervous system.

  2. Intracellular recordings of action potentials by an extracellular nanoscale field-effect transistor

    Duan, Xiaojie; Gao, Ruixuan; Xie, Ping; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Qing, Quan; Choe, Hwan Sung; Tian, Bozhi; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Lieber, Charles M.

    2012-03-01

    The ability to make electrical measurements inside cells has led to many important advances in electrophysiology. The patch clamp technique, in which a glass micropipette filled with electrolyte is inserted into a cell, offers both high signal-to-noise ratio and temporal resolution. Ideally, the micropipette should be as small as possible to increase the spatial resolution and reduce the invasiveness of the measurement, but the overall performance of the technique depends on the impedance of the interface between the micropipette and the cell interior, which limits how small the micropipette can be. Techniques that involve inserting metal or carbon microelectrodes into cells are subject to similar constraints. Field-effect transistors (FETs) can also record electric potentials inside cells, and because their performance does not depend on impedance, they can be made much smaller than micropipettes and microelectrodes. Moreover, FET arrays are better suited for multiplexed measurements. Previously, we have demonstrated FET-based intracellular recording with kinked nanowire structures, but the kink configuration and device design places limits on the probe size and the potential for multiplexing. Here, we report a new approach in which a SiO2 nanotube is synthetically integrated on top of a nanoscale FET. This nanotube penetrates the cell membrane, bringing the cell cytosol into contact with the FET, which is then able to record the intracellular transmembrane potential. Simulations show that the bandwidth of this branched intracellular nanotube FET (BIT-FET) is high enough for it to record fast action potentials even when the nanotube diameter is decreased to 3 nm, a length scale well below that accessible with other methods. Studies of cardiomyocyte cells demonstrate that when phospholipid-modified BIT-FETs are brought close to cells, the nanotubes can spontaneously penetrate the cell membrane to allow the full-amplitude intracellular action potential to be

  3. Cancer Driver Log (CanDL): Catalog of Potentially Actionable Cancer Mutations.

    Damodaran, Senthilkumar; Miya, Jharna; Kautto, Esko; Zhu, Eliot; Samorodnitsky, Eric; Datta, Jharna; Reeser, Julie W; Roychowdhury, Sameek

    2015-09-01

    Massively parallel sequencing technologies have enabled characterization of genomic alterations across multiple tumor types. Efforts have focused on identifying driver mutations because they represent potential targets for therapy. However, because of the presence of driver and passenger mutations, it is often challenging to assign the clinical relevance of specific mutations observed in patients. Currently, there are multiple databases and tools that provide in silico assessment for potential drivers; however, there is no comprehensive resource for mutations with functional characterization. Therefore, we created an expert-curated database of potentially actionable driver mutations for molecular pathologists to facilitate annotation of cancer genomic testing. We reviewed scientific literature to identify variants that have been functionally characterized in vitro or in vivo as driver mutations. We obtained the chromosome location and all possible nucleotide positions for each amino acid change and uploaded them to the Cancer Driver Log (CanDL) database with associated literature reference indicating functional driver evidence. In addition to a simple interface, the database allows users to download all or selected genes as a comma-separated values file for incorporation into their own analysis pipeline. Furthermore, the database includes a mechanism for third-party contributions to support updates for novel driver mutations. Overall, this freely available database will facilitate rapid annotation of cancer genomic testing in molecular pathology laboratories for mutations. PMID:26320871

  4. Electrophysiological Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) Measuring Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP) in Mouse Hindlimb Muscles.

    Arnold, W David; Sheth, Kajri A; Wier, Christopher G; Kissel, John T; Burghes, Arthur H; Kolb, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and motor unit number estimation (MUNE) are electrophysiological techniques that can be used to monitor the functional status of a motor unit pool in vivo. These measures can provide insight into the normal development and degeneration of the neuromuscular system. These measures have clear translational potential because they are routinely applied in diagnostic and clinical human studies. We present electrophysiological techniques similar to those employed in humans to allow recordings of mouse sciatic nerve function. The CMAP response represents the electrophysiological output from a muscle or group of muscles following supramaximal stimulation of a peripheral nerve. MUNE is an electrophysiological technique that is based on modifications of the CMAP response. MUNE is a calculated value that represents the estimated number of motor neurons or axons (motor control input) supplying the muscle or group of muscles being tested. We present methods for recording CMAP responses from the proximal leg muscles using surface recording electrodes following the stimulation of the sciatic nerve in mice. An incremental MUNE technique is described using submaximal stimuli to determine the average single motor unit potential (SMUP) size. MUNE is calculated by dividing the CMAP amplitude (peak-to-peak) by the SMUP amplitude (peak-to-peak). These electrophysiological techniques allow repeated measures in both neonatal and adult mice in such a manner that facilitates rapid analysis and data collection while reducing the number of animals required for experimental testing. Furthermore, these measures are similar to those recorded in human studies allowing more direct comparisons. PMID:26436455

  5. Anthropomorphizing the Mouse Cardiac Action Potential via a Novel Dynamic Clamp Method

    Ahrens-Nicklas, Rebecca C.; Christini, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Interspecies differences can limit the translational value of excitable cells isolated from model organisms. It can be difficult to extrapolate from a drug- or mutation-induced phenotype in mice to human pathophysiology because mouse and human cardiac electrodynamics differ greatly. We present a hybrid computational-experimental technique, the cell-type transforming clamp, which is designed to overcome such differences by using a calculated compensatory current to convert the macroscopic electrical behavior of an isolated cell into that of a different cell type. We demonstrate the technique's utility by evaluating drug arrhythmogenicity in murine cardiomyocytes that are transformed to behave like human myocytes. Whereas we use the cell-type transforming clamp in this work to convert between mouse and human electrodynamics, the technique could be adapted to convert between the action potential morphologies of any two cell types of interest. PMID:19917221

  6. Effect of sampling frequency on the measurement of phase-locked action potentials.

    Go eAshida

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phase-locked spikes in various types of neurons encode temporal information. To quantify the degree of phase-locking, the metric called vector strength (VS has been most widely used. Since VS is derived from spike timing information, error in measurement of spike occurrence should result in errors in VS calculation. In electrophysiological experiments, the timing of an action potential is detected with finite temporal precision, which is determined by the sampling frequency. In order to evaluate the effects of the sampling frequency on the measurement of VS, we derive theoretical upper and lower bounds of VS from spikes collected with finite sampling rates. We next estimate errors in VS assuming random sampling effects, and show that our theoretical calculation agrees with data from electrophysiological recordings in vivo. Our results provide a practical guide for choosing the appropriate sampling frequency in measuring VS.

  7. BK channels regulate spontaneous action potential rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Jack Kent

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian ( approximately 24 hr rhythms are generated by the central pacemaker localized to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. Although the basis for intrinsic rhythmicity is generally understood to rely on transcription factors encoded by "clock genes", less is known about the daily regulation of SCN neuronal activity patterns that communicate a circadian time signal to downstream behaviors and physiological systems. Action potentials in the SCN are necessary for the circadian timing of behavior, and individual SCN neurons modulate their spontaneous firing rate (SFR over the daily cycle, suggesting that the circadian patterning of neuronal activity is necessary for normal behavioral rhythm expression. The BK K(+ channel plays an important role in suppressing spontaneous firing at night in SCN neurons. Deletion of the Kcnma1 gene, encoding the BK channel, causes degradation of circadian behavioral and physiological rhythms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis that loss of robust behavioral rhythmicity in Kcnma1(-/- mice is due to the disruption of SFR rhythms in the SCN, we used multi-electrode arrays to record extracellular action potentials from acute wild-type (WT and Kcnma1(-/- slices. Patterns of activity in the SCN were tracked simultaneously for up to 3 days, and the phase, period, and synchronization of SFR rhythms were examined. Loss of BK channels increased arrhythmicity but also altered the amplitude and period of rhythmic activity. Unexpectedly, Kcnma1(-/- SCNs showed increased variability in the timing of the daily SFR peak. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that BK channels regulate multiple aspects of the circadian patterning of neuronal activity in the SCN. In addition, these data illustrate the characteristics of a disrupted SCN rhythm downstream of clock gene-mediated timekeeping and its relationship to behavioral rhythms.

  8. Any ℓ-state solutions of the Feynman propagator for the q-deformed Woods-Saxon potential in arbitrary dimensions

    Using the space-time transformations, approximate analytical solutions of the D- dimensional propagator in the presence of q-deformed Woods-Saxon potential are obtained. The analytical expression of the energy eigenvalues is given for various quantum numbers and the corresponding normalized eigenfunctions are obtained in terms of hypergeometric function. Our results are compared with those given by The Nikivorov-Uvarov method

  9. Lanczos wave packet propagation on coupled potential energy surfaces: the three body predissociation of rotating D3 and H3 32A′(2sa1′)

    A three-dimensional wave packet method, based on Lanczos tridiagonalization of the Hamiltonian, is introduced and applied to the three-particle predissociation of rotating D3 and H3 3 2A′ (2sa1′). The time-dependent propagation calculations on the (diabatic) ground state potential energy surfaces include the non-adiabatic transition from the excited initial state. Results for the eight lowest vibrational levels are presented as Dalitz plots and compared to momentum correlation measurements. (paper)

  10. Modulation of hERG potassium channel gating normalizes action potential duration prolonged by dysfunctional KCNQ1 potassium channel

    Zhang, Hongkang; Zou, Beiyan; Yu, Haibo; Moretti, Alessandra; Wang, Xiaoying; Yan, Wei; Babcock, Joseph J.; Bellin, Milena; McManus, Owen B.; Tomaselli, Gordon; Nan, Fajun; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Li, Min

    2012-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetic disease characterized by a prolonged QT interval in an electrocardiogram (ECG), leading to higher risk of sudden cardiac death. Among the 12 identified genes causal to heritable LQTS, ∼90% of affected individuals harbor mutations in either KCNQ1 or human ether-a-go-go related genes (hERG), which encode two repolarizing potassium currents known as IKs and IKr. The ability to quantitatively assess contributions of different current components is therefore important for investigating disease phenotypes and testing effectiveness of pharmacological modulation. Here we report a quantitative analysis by simulating cardiac action potentials of cultured human cardiomyocytes to match the experimental waveforms of both healthy control and LQT syndrome type 1 (LQT1) action potentials. The quantitative evaluation suggests that elevation of IKr by reducing voltage sensitivity of inactivation, not via slowing of deactivation, could more effectively restore normal QT duration if IKs is reduced. Using a unique specific chemical activator for IKr that has a primary effect of causing a right shift of V1/2 for inactivation, we then examined the duration changes of autonomous action potentials from differentiated human cardiomyocytes. Indeed, this activator causes dose-dependent shortening of the action potential durations and is able to normalize action potentials of cells of patients with LQT1. In contrast, an IKr chemical activator of primary effects in slowing channel deactivation was not effective in modulating action potential durations. Our studies provide both the theoretical basis and experimental support for compensatory normalization of action potential duration by a pharmacological agent. PMID:22745159

  11. Use of electrochemical potential noise to detect initiation and propagation of stress corrosion cracks in a 17-4 PH steel

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G. [UAEM, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Salinas-Bravo, V.M.; Garcia-Ochoa, E. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco (Mexico). Dept. de Fisicoquimica Aplicada; Diaz-Sanchez, A. [Inst. Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Toluca (Mexico). Dept. de Materiales

    1997-09-01

    Corrosion potential transients were associated with nucleation and propagation of stress corrosion cracks in a 17-4 precipitation-hardenable (PH) martensitic stainless steel (SS) during slow strain rate tests (SSRT) at 90 C in deaerated sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions, Test solutions included 20 wt% NaCl at pH 3 and 7, similar to normal and faulted steam turbine environments, respectively. Time series were analyzed using the fast Fourier transform method. At the beginning of straining, the consistent noise behavior was perturbed with small potential transients, probably associated with rupture of the surface oxide layer. After yielding, these transients increased in intensity. At maximum load, the transients were still higher in intensity and frequency. These potential transients were related to crack nucleation and propagation. When the steel did not fail by stress corrosion cracking (SCC), such transients were found only at the beginning of the test. The power spectra showed some differences in all cases in roll-off slope and voltage magnitude, but these were not reliable tools to monitor the initiation and propagation of stress corrosion cracks.

  12. Calcium Transients Closely Reflect Prolonged Action Potentials in iPSC Models of Inherited Cardiac Arrhythmia

    C. Ian Spencer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-QT syndrome mutations can cause syncope and sudden death by prolonging the cardiac action potential (AP. Ion channels affected by mutations are various, and the influences of cellular calcium cycling on LQTS cardiac events are unknown. To better understand LQTS arrhythmias, we performed current-clamp and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i measurements on cardiomyocytes differentiated from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-CM. In myocytes carrying an LQT2 mutation (HERG-A422T, APs and [Ca2+]i transients were prolonged in parallel. APs were abbreviated by nifedipine exposure and further lengthened upon releasing intracellularly stored Ca2+. Validating this model, control iPS-CM treated with HERG-blocking drugs recapitulated the LQT2 phenotype. In LQT3 iPS-CM, expressing NaV1.5-N406K, APs and [Ca2+]i transients were markedly prolonged. AP prolongation was sensitive to tetrodotoxin and to inhibiting Na+-Ca2+ exchange. These results suggest that LQTS mutations act partly on cytosolic Ca2+ cycling, potentially providing a basis for functionally targeted interventions regardless of the specific mutation site.

  13. Variability of Action Potentials Within and Among Cardiac Cell Clusters Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Zhu, Renjun; Millrod, Michal A; Zambidis, Elias T; Tung, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Electrophysiological variability in cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent stem cells continues to be an impediment for their scientific and translational applications. We studied the variability of action potentials (APs) recorded from clusters of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) using high-resolution optical mapping. Over 23,000 APs were analyzed through four parameters: APD30, APD80, triangulation and fractional repolarization. Although measures were taken to reduce variability due to cell culture conditions and rate-dependency of APs, we still observed significant variability in APs among and within the clusters. However, similar APs were found in spatial locations with close proximity, and in some clusters formed distinct regions having different AP characteristics that were reflected as separate peaks in the AP parameter distributions, suggesting multiple electrophysiological phenotypes. Using a recently developed automated method to group cells based on their entire AP shape, we identified distinct regions of different phenotypes within single clusters and common phenotypes across different clusters when separating APs into 2 or 3 subpopulations. The systematic analysis of the heterogeneity and potential phenotypes of large populations of hESC-CMs can be used to evaluate strategies to improve the quality of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for use in diagnostic and therapeutic applications and in drug screening. PMID:26729331

  14. Optimisation of Ionic Models to Fit Tissue Action Potentials: Application to 3D Atrial Modelling

    Amr Al Abed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D model of atrial electrical activity has been developed with spatially heterogeneous electrophysiological properties. The atrial geometry, reconstructed from the male Visible Human dataset, included gross anatomical features such as the central and peripheral sinoatrial node (SAN, intra-atrial connections, pulmonary veins, inferior and superior vena cava, and the coronary sinus. Membrane potentials of myocytes from spontaneously active or electrically paced in vitro rabbit cardiac tissue preparations were recorded using intracellular glass microelectrodes. Action potentials of central and peripheral SAN, right and left atrial, and pulmonary vein myocytes were each fitted using a generic ionic model having three phenomenological ionic current components: one time-dependent inward, one time-dependent outward, and one leakage current. To bridge the gap between the single-cell ionic models and the gross electrical behaviour of the 3D whole-atrial model, a simplified 2D tissue disc with heterogeneous regions was optimised to arrive at parameters for each cell type under electrotonic load. Parameters were then incorporated into the 3D atrial model, which as a result exhibited a spontaneously active SAN able to rhythmically excite the atria. The tissue-based optimisation of ionic models and the modelling process outlined are generic and applicable to image-based computer reconstruction and simulation of excitable tissue.

  15. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels contribute to action potential repolarization in human atria

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Poulet, Claire; Diness, Jonas Goldin;

    2014-01-01

    (+) currents by ∼15% and prolonged action potential duration (APD), but no effect was observed in myocytes from AF patients. In trabeculae muscle strips from right atrial appendages of SR patients, both compounds increased APD and effective refractory period, and depolarized the resting membrane potential...

  16. Potential involvement of serotonergic signaling in ketamine's antidepressant actions: A critical review.

    du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Müller, Heidi Kaastrup; Elfving, Betina; Dale, Elena; Wegener, Gregers; Sanchez, Connie

    2016-11-01

    A single i.v. infusion of ketamine, classified as an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, may alleviate depressive symptoms within hours of administration in treatment resistant depressed patients, and the antidepressant effect may last for several weeks. These unique therapeutic properties have prompted researchers to explore the mechanisms mediating the antidepressant effects of ketamine, but despite many efforts, no consensus on its antidepressant mechanism of action has been reached. Recent preclinical reports have associated the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) with the antidepressant-like action of ketamine. Here, we review the current evidence for a serotonergic role in ketamine's antidepressant effects. The pharmacological profile of ketamine may include equipotent activity on several non-NMDA targets, and the current hypotheses for the mechanisms responsible for ketamine's antidepressant activity do not appear to preclude the possibility that non-glutamate neurotransmitters are involved in the antidepressant effects. At multiple levels, the serotonergic and glutamatergic systems interact, and such crosstalk could support the notion that changes in serotonergic neurotransmission may impact ketamine's antidepressant potential. In line with these prospects, ketamine may increase 5-HT levels in the prefrontal cortex of rats, plausibly via hippocampal NMDA receptor inhibition and activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. In addition, a number of preclinical studies suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine may depend on endogenous activation of 5-HT receptors. Recent imaging and behavioral data predominantly support a role for 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors, but the full range of 5-HT receptors has currently not been systematically investigated in this context. Furthermore, the nature of any 5-HT dependent mechanism in ketamine's antidepressant effect is currently not

  17. CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF LARGE AMPLITUDE ACTION POTENTIAL OF THE SUFFERED FACIAL MUSCLES IN INTRATEMPORAL FACIAL NERVE PARALYSIS

    1999-01-01

    Ojective. To testify the phenomenon that large amplitude action potential appears at the early stage of facial paralysis, and to search for the mechanism through clinical and experimental studies. Patients(animals) and methods. The action potentials of the orbicular ocular and oral muscles were recorded in 34 normal persons by electromyogram instruments. The normal range of amplitude percentage was found out according to he normal distribution. One hundred patients with facial paralysis were also studied. The action potentials of facial muscles were recorded in 17 guinea pigs before and after the facial nerve was compressed and the facial nerve was examined under electromicroscope before and after the compression.Results. The amplitude percentage of the suffered ide to the healthy side was more than 153 percent in 6 of the 100 patients. Lare amplitude action potential ocured in 35 per cent guinea pigs which were performed the experiment of facial nrve compression. Electromicroscopic examination revealed separation of the lammae of the facial nerve's myelin sheath in the guinea pigs which exhibited large amplitude action potential.Conclusion. The facial nerve exhibited a temporary over-exciability at the early stage of facial nerve injury in some patients and guinea pigs. If the injury waslimited in the myelin sheath, te prognosis was relatively good.

  18. CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF LARGE AMPLITUDE ACTION POTENTIAL OF THE SUFFERED FACIAL MUSCLES IN INTRATEMPORAL FACIAL NERVE PARALYSIS

    任重; 惠莲

    1999-01-01

    Objctive. To testify the phenomenon that large amplitude action potential appears at the early stage oil facial paralysis, and to search for the mechanism through clinical and experimental studies. Patients(aninmls) and methods. The action potentials of the orbicular ocular and oral museles were recorded in 34 normal persons by electromyogram instrtiments. The normal range of amplitude percentage was found out according to the normal distribution, One hundred patients with facial paralysis were also studied. The action potentials of facial muscles were recorded ia 17 guinea pigs before and after the facial nerve was comp~ and the facial nerve was examined under electromicroscope before and after the compression.Results. The amplitude percentage of the suffered side to the healthy side was more than 153 percent in 6 of the 100 patients. Large amplitude action potential occured in 35 per cent guinea pigs which were performed the experiment of facial nerve compression. Electromicroscopic examination revealed separation of the lammae of the facial nerve's myelin sheath in the guinea pigs which exhibited large amplitude action potential Conclusion. The facial nerve exhibited a temporary over-excitability at the early stage of facial nerve injury in scane patients and guinea pigs. If the injury was limited in the myelin sheath, the prognods was relatively good.

  19. Surface electrocardiogram and action potential in mice lacking urea transporter UT-B

    2009-01-01

    UT-B is a urea transporter protein expressed in the kidney and in many non-renal tissues including erythrocytes, brain, heart, bladder and the testis. The objective of this study was to determine the phenotype of UT-B deletion in the heart. UT-B expression in the heart was studied in wild-type mice vs UT-B null mice by utilizing RT-PCR and Western blot. A surface electrocardiogram (ECG) recording (lead II) was measured in wild-type mice and UT-B null mice at the ages of 6, 16 and 52 weeks. For the action potential recording, the ventricular myocytes of 16 w mice were isolated and recorded by floating microelectrode method. The sodium current was recorded by the patch clamp technique. RT-PCR and Western blot showed the UT-B expression in the heart of wild-type mice. No UT-B transcript and protein was found in UT-B null mice. The ECG recording showed that the P-R interval was significantly prolonged in UT-B null mice ((43.5 ± 4.2), (45.5 ± 6.9) and (43.8 ± 7.6) ms at ages of 6, 16 and 52 weeks) vs wild-type mice ((38.6 ± 2.9), (38.7 ± 5.6) and (38.2 ± 7.3) ms, P<0.05). The atrial ventricular heart block type II and III only appeared in the aging UT-B null mice (52 w old). The amplitude of action potential and Vmax decreased significantly in UT-B null mice ((92.17 ± 10.56) and (101.89 ± 9.54) mV/s) vs those in wild-type mice (vs (110.51 ± 10.38) and (109.53 ± 10.64) mV/s, P<0.05). The action potential duration at 50% and 90% (APD50 and APD90) was significantly prolonged in UT-B null mice ((123.83 ± 11.17) and (195.43 ± 16.41) ms) vs that in wild-type mice ((108.27 ± 10.85) and (171.00 ± 15.53) ms, P<0.05). The maximal sodium current decreased significantly in UT-B null mice (-8.80 ± 0.92) nA vs that in wild-type mice ((-5.98 ± 1.07) nA, P<0.05). These results provide the first evidence that UT-B deletion causes progressive heart block in mice.

  20. Surface electrocardiogram and action potential in mice lacking urea transporter UT-B

    MENG Yan; ZHAO ChunYan; ZHANG XueXin; ZHAO HuaShan; GUO LiRong; Lü Bin; ZHAO XueJian; YANG BaoXue

    2009-01-01

    UT-B is a urea transporter protein expressed in the kidney and in many non-renal tissues including erythrocytes, brain, heart, bladder and the testis. The objective of this study was to determine the phenotype of UT-B deletion in the heart. UT-B expression in the heart was studied in wild-type mice vs UT-B null mice by utilizing RT-PCR and Western blot. A surface electrocardiogram (ECG) recording (lead Ⅱ) was measured in wild-type mice and UT-B null mice at the ages of 6, 16 and 52 weeks. For the action potential recording, the ventricular myocytes of 16 w mice were isolated and recorded by float-ing microelectrode method. The sodium current was recorded by the patch clamp technique. RT-PCR and Western blot showed the UT-B expression in the heart of wild-type mice. No UT-B transcript and protein was found in UT-B null mice. The ECG recording showed that the P-R interval was significantly prolonged in UT-B null mice ((43.5±4.2), (45.5±6.9) and (43.8±7.6) ms at ages of 6, 16 and 52 weeks) vs wild-type mice ((38.6±2.9), (38.7±5.6) and (38.2±7.3) ms, P<0.05). The atrial ventricular heart block type Ⅱ and Ⅲ only appeared in the aging UT-B null mice (52 w old). The amplitude of action potential and Vmax decreased significantly in UT-B null mice ((92.17±10.56) and (101.89±9.54) mV/s) vs those in wild-type mice (vs (110.51±10.38) and (109.53±10.64) mV/s, P<0.05). The action potential duration at 50% and 90% (APD50 and APD90) was significantly prolonged in UT-B null mice ((123.83±11.17) and (195.43±16.41) ms) vs that in wild-type mice ((108.27±10.85) and (171.00±15.53) ms, P<0.05). The maximal sodium current decreased significantly in UT-B null mice (-8.80±0.92) nA vs that in wild-type mice ((-5.98±1.07) nA, P<0.05). These results provide the first evidence that UT-B deletion causes progressive heart block in mice.

  1. Penetration of action potentials during collision in the medial giant axon of the earthworm

    Gonzalez-Perez, A; Mosgaard, L D; Stauning, M T; Nissen, S; Heimburg, T

    2014-01-01

    The collisions of two simultaneously generated impulses in the medial giant axon of earthworms propagating in orthodromic and antidromic direction were investigated. The experiments have been performed in the extracted ventral cord of Lumbricus terrestris by using external stimulation and recording. The collision of two nerve impulses of orthodromic and antidromic propagation didn't result in the annihilation of the two signals contrary to the common notion that is based on the existence of a refractory period in the well-known Hodgkin-Huxley theory. However, the results are in agreement with the electromechanical soliton theory for nerve pulse propagation as suggested by Heimburg and Jackson (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 9790 (2005)).

  2. Expectation Propagation

    Raymond, Jack; Manoel, Andre; Opper, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Variational inference is a powerful concept that underlies many iterative approximation algorithms; expectation propagation, mean-field methods and belief propagations were all central themes at the school that can be perceived from this unifying framework. The lectures of Manfred Opper introduce the archetypal example of Expectation Propagation, before establishing the connection with the other approximation methods. Corrections by expansion about the expectation propagation are then explain...

  3. The Venus Flytrap Dionaea muscipula Counts Prey-Induced Action Potentials to Induce Sodium Uptake

    Böhm, Jennifer; Scherzer, Sönke; Krol, Elzbieta; Kreuzer, Ines; von Meyer, Katharina; Lorey, Christian; Mueller, Thomas D.; Shabala, Lana; Monte, Isabel; Solano, Roberto; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A.S.; Rennenberg, Heinz; Shabala, Sergey; Neher, Erwin; Hedrich, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Summary Carnivorous plants, such as the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), depend on an animal diet when grown in nutrient-poor soils. When an insect visits the trap and tilts the mechanosensors on the inner surface, action potentials (APs) are fired. After a moving object elicits two APs, the trap snaps shut, encaging the victim. Panicking preys repeatedly touch the trigger hairs over the subsequent hours, leading to a hermetically closed trap, which via the gland-based endocrine system is flooded by a prey-decomposing acidic enzyme cocktail. Here, we asked the question as to how many times trigger hairs have to be stimulated (e.g., now many APs are required) for the flytrap to recognize an encaged object as potential food, thus making it worthwhile activating the glands. By applying a series of trigger-hair stimulations, we found that the touch hormone jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway is activated after the second stimulus, while more than three APs are required to trigger an expression of genes encoding prey-degrading hydrolases, and that this expression is proportional to the number of mechanical stimulations. A decomposing animal contains a sodium load, and we have found that these sodium ions enter the capture organ via glands. We identified a flytrap sodium channel DmHKT1 as responsible for this sodium acquisition, with the number of transcripts expressed being dependent on the number of mechano-electric stimulations. Hence, the number of APs a victim triggers while trying to break out of the trap identifies the moving prey as a struggling Na+-rich animal and nutrition for the plant. Video Abstract PMID:26804557

  4. MCH and apomorphine in combination enhance action potential firing of nucleus accumbens shell neurons in vitro

    F Woodward Hopf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MCH and dopamine receptor systems have been shown to modulate a number of behaviors related to reward processing, addiction, and neuropsychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and depression. In addition, MCH and dopamine receptors can interact in a positive manner, for example in the expression of cocaine self-administration. A recent report (Chung et al., 2011a showed that the DA1/DA2 dopamine receptor activator apomorphine suppresses pre-pulse inhibition, a preclinical model for some aspects of schizophrenia. Importantly, MCH can enhance the effects of lower doses of apomorphine, suggesting that co-modulation of dopamine and MCH receptors might alleviate some symptoms of schizophrenia with a lower dose of dopamine receptor modulator and thus fewer potential side effects. Here, we investigated whether MCH and apomorphine could enhance action potential firing in vitro in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAshell, a region which has previously been shown to mediate some behavioral effects of MCH. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we found that MCH, which has no effect on firing on its own, was able to increase NAshell firing when combined with a subthreshold dose of apomorphine. Further, this MCH/apomorphine increase in firing was prevented by an antagonist of either a DA1 or a DA2 receptor, suggesting that apomorphine acts through both receptor types to enhance NAshell firing. The MCH/apomorphine-mediated firing increase was also prevented by an MCH receptor antagonist or a PKA inhibitor. Taken together, our results suggest that MCH can interact with lower doses of apomorphine to enhance NAshell firing, and thus that MCH and apomorphine might interact in vivo within the NAshell to suppress pre-pulse inhibition.

  5. The Venus Flytrap Dionaea muscipula Counts Prey-Induced Action Potentials to Induce Sodium Uptake.

    Böhm, Jennifer; Scherzer, Sönke; Krol, Elzbieta; Kreuzer, Ines; von Meyer, Katharina; Lorey, Christian; Mueller, Thomas D; Shabala, Lana; Monte, Isabel; Solano, Roberto; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Rennenberg, Heinz; Shabala, Sergey; Neher, Erwin; Hedrich, Rainer

    2016-02-01

    Carnivorous plants, such as the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), depend on an animal diet when grown in nutrient-poor soils. When an insect visits the trap and tilts the mechanosensors on the inner surface, action potentials (APs) are fired. After a moving object elicits two APs, the trap snaps shut, encaging the victim. Panicking preys repeatedly touch the trigger hairs over the subsequent hours, leading to a hermetically closed trap, which via the gland-based endocrine system is flooded by a prey-decomposing acidic enzyme cocktail. Here, we asked the question as to how many times trigger hairs have to be stimulated (e.g., now many APs are required) for the flytrap to recognize an encaged object as potential food, thus making it worthwhile activating the glands. By applying a series of trigger-hair stimulations, we found that the touch hormone jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway is activated after the second stimulus, while more than three APs are required to trigger an expression of genes encoding prey-degrading hydrolases, and that this expression is proportional to the number of mechanical stimulations. A decomposing animal contains a sodium load, and we have found that these sodium ions enter the capture organ via glands. We identified a flytrap sodium channel DmHKT1 as responsible for this sodium acquisition, with the number of transcripts expressed being dependent on the number of mechano-electric stimulations. Hence, the number of APs a victim triggers while trying to break out of the trap identifies the moving prey as a struggling Na(+)-rich animal and nutrition for the plant. PMID:26804557

  6. Burst analysis tool for developing neuronal networks exhibiting highly varying action potential dynamics

    Fikret Emre eKapucu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a firing statistics based neuronal network burst detection algorithm for neuronal networks exhibiting highly variable action potential dynamics. Electrical activity of neuronal networks is generally analyzed by the occurrences of spikes and bursts both in time and space. Commonly accepted analysis tools employ burst detection algorithms based on predefined criteria. However, maturing neuronal networks, such as those originating from human embryonic stem cells (hESC, exhibit highly variable network structure and time-varying dynamics. To explore the developing burst/spike activities of such networks, we propose a burst detection algorithm which utilizes the firing statistics based on interspike interval (ISI histograms. Moreover, the algorithm calculates interspike interval thresholds for burst spikes as well as for pre-burst spikes and burst tails by evaluating the cumulative moving average and skewness of the ISI histogram. Because of the adaptive nature of the proposed algorithm, its analysis power is not limited by the type of neuronal cell network at hand. We demonstrate the functionality of our algorithm with two different types of microelectrode array (MEA data recorded from spontaneously active hESC-derived neuronal cell networks. The same data was also analyzed by two commonly employed burst detection algorithms and the differences in burst detection results are illustrated. The results demonstrate that our method is both adaptive to the firing statistics of the network and yields successful burst detection from the data. In conclusion, the proposed method is a potential tool for analyzing of hESC-derived neuronal cell networks and thus can be utilized in studies aiming to understand the development and functioning of human neuronal networks and as an analysis tool for in vitro drug screening and neurotoxicity assays.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of potential events affecting the double-shell tank system and fallback actions

    Knutson, B.J.

    1996-09-27

    Sensitivity analyses were performed for fall-back positions (i.e., management actions) to accommodate potential off-normal and programmatic change events overlaid on the waste volume projections and their uncertainties. These sensitivity analyses allowed determining and ranking tank system high-risk parameters and fall- back positions that will accommodate the respective impacts. This quantification of tank system impacts shows periods where tank capacity is sensitive to certain variables that must be carefully managed and/or evaluated. Identifying these sensitive variables and quantifying their impact will allow decision makers to prepare fall-back positions and focus available resources on the highest impact parameters where technical data are needed to reduce waste projection uncertainties. For noncomplexed waste, the period of capacity vulnerability occurs during the years of single-shell tank (SST) retrieval (after approximately 2009) due to the sensitivity to several variables. Ranked by importance these variables include the pretreatment rate and 200-East SST solids transfer volume. For complexed waste, the period of capacity vulnerability occurs during the period after approximately 2005 due to the sensitivity to several variables. Ranked by importance these variables include the pretreatment rate. 200-East SST solids transfer volume. complexed waste reduction factor using evaporation, and 200-west saltwell liquid porosity.

  8. The transformative potential of action research and ICT in the Second Language (L2 classroom

    Farren Margaret

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the transformative potential of action research and information and communications technology (ICT in the second language (L2 classroom. Two enquiries from teacher-researchers are detailed in the article. Their engagement in a collaborative professional development Masters programme was pivotal in designing and implementing ICT creatively in their classroom. Gee (2008 advocates the use of the preferred media of our classroom students in order to address their learning. Prensky (2001 urges us to feel the fear and do it anyway with our digital native classes. A post-primary teacher and a primary teacher show us how they felt the fear, did it and transformed aspects of their own teaching in the process. The Masters programme required the teachers to engage with innovative practices, informed by their own values, and integrate technologies that were new to them into their repertoire of classroom strategies. Peer validation meetings with colleagues enabled meaningful insights to emerge from the research. The teachers improve and transform their second language (L2 practice in collaboration and validation with others.

  9. Effects of terpineol on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

    M.R. Moreira

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Terpineol, a volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity, is widely used in the perfumery industry. It is an important chemical constituent of the essential oil of many plants with widespread applications in folk medicine and in aromatherapy. The effects of terpineol on the compound action potential (CAP of rat sciatic nerve were studied. Terpineol induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 100 µM, terpineol had no demonstrable effect. At 300 µM terpineol, peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity of CAP were significantly reduced at the end of 180-min exposure of the nerve to the drug, from 3.28 ± 0.22 mV and 33.5 ± 7.05 m/s, respectively, to 1.91 ± 0.51 mV and 26.2 ± 4.55 m/s. At 600 µM, terpineol significantly reduced peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity from 2.97 ± 0.55 mV and 32.8 ± 3.91 m/s to 0.24 ± 0.23 mV and 2.72 ± 2.72 m/s, respectively (N = 5. All these effects developed slowly and were reversible upon 180-min washout.

  10. Modeling the action-potential-sensitive nonlinear-optical response of myelinated nerve fibers and short-term memory

    Shneider, M. N.; Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2011-11-01

    The Goldman-Albus treatment of the action-potential dynamics is combined with a phenomenological description of molecular hyperpolarizabilities into a closed-form model of the action-potential-sensitive second-harmonic response of myelinated nerve fibers with nodes of Ranvier. This response is shown to be sensitive to nerve demyelination, thus enabling an optical diagnosis of various demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The model is applied to examine the nonlinear-optical response of a three-neuron reverberating circuit—the basic element of short-term memory.

  11. Toxicity, sublethal effects, and potential modes of action of select fungicides on freshwater fish and invertebrates

    Elskus, Adria A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of agricultural and urban use of fungicides and widespread detection of these pesticides in surface waters, relatively few data are available on the effects of fungicides on fish and invertebrates in the aquatic environment. Nine fungicides are reviewed in this report: azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, fludioxonil, myclobutanil, fenarimol, pyraclostrobin, pyrimethanil, and zoxamide. These fungicides were identified as emerging chemicals of concern because of their high or increasing global use rates, detection frequency in surface waters, or likely persistence in the environment. A review of the literature revealed significant sublethal effects of fungicides on fish, aquatic invertebrates, and ecosystems, including zooplankton and fish reproduction, fish immune function, zooplankton community composition, metabolic enzymes, and ecosystem processes, such as leaf decomposition in streams, among other biological effects. Some of these effects can occur at fungicide concentrations well below single-species acute lethality values (48- or 96-hour concentration that effects a response in 50 percent of the organisms, that is, effective concentration killing 50 percent of the organisms in 48 or 96 hours) and chronic sublethal values (for example, 21-day no observed adverse effects concentration), indicating that single-species toxicity values may dramatically underestimate the toxic potency of some fungicides. Fungicide modes of toxic action in fungi can sometimes reflect the biochemical and (or) physiological effects of fungicides observed in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, far more studies are needed to explore the potential to predict effects in nontarget organisms based on specific fungicide modes of toxic action. Fungicides can also have additive and (or) synergistic effects when used with other fungicides and insecticides, highlighting the need to study pesticide mixtures that occur in surface waters. For fungicides that partition to

  12. Potential contribution of exosomes to the prion-like propagation of lesions in Alzheimer’s disease

    Valerie eVingtdeux

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of prion diseases, the concept that a transmissible pathogen could be a protein has emerged. As such, this transmissible protein agent can transfer its pathological mis-folded shape to the same but normally folded protein thus leading to the propagation of a disease. This idea is now extrapolate to several neurological diseases associated with protein mis-folding and aggregation, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a slowly developing dementing disease characterized by the coexistence of two types of lesions: the parenchymal amyloid deposits and the intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT. Amyloid deposits are composed of amyloid-beta peptides that derive from sequential cleavages of its precursor named amyloid protein precursor. Neurofibrillary tangle is characterized by intraneuronal aggregation of abnormally modified microtubule-associated Tau proteins. A synergistic relationship between the two lesions may trigger the progression of the disease. Thus, starting in the medial temporal lobe and slowly progressing through temporal, frontal, parietal and occipital cortex, the progression of NFT is well correlated with clinical expression of the disease. However, little is known about the mechanism driving the spatiotemporal propagation of these lesions ultimately leading to the disease. A growing number of studies suggest a prion-like diffusion of amyloid deposits and NFT. In the present chapter, we will develop the current hypotheses regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms driving the development and spreading of Alzheimer disease lesions from the window of multivesicular bodies and exosomes.

  13. Amphetamine elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine via an action potential-dependent mechanism that is modulated by endocannabinoids.

    Covey, Dan P; Bunner, Kendra D; Schuweiler, Douglas R; Cheer, Joseph F; Garris, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    The reinforcing effects of abused drugs are mediated by their ability to elevate nucleus accumbens dopamine. Amphetamine (AMPH) was historically thought to increase dopamine by an action potential-independent, non-exocytotic type of release called efflux, involving reversal of dopamine transporter function and driven by vesicular dopamine depletion. Growing evidence suggests that AMPH also acts by an action potential-dependent mechanism. Indeed, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that AMPH activates dopamine transients, reward-related phasic signals generated by burst firing of dopamine neurons and dependent on intact vesicular dopamine. Not established for AMPH but indicating a shared mechanism, endocannabinoids facilitate this activation of dopamine transients by broad classes of abused drugs. Here, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry coupled to pharmacological manipulations in awake rats, we investigated the action potential and endocannabinoid dependence of AMPH-induced elevations in nucleus accumbens dopamine. AMPH increased the frequency, amplitude and duration of transients, which were observed riding on top of slower dopamine increases. Surprisingly, silencing dopamine neuron firing abolished all AMPH-induced dopamine elevations, identifying an action potential-dependent origin. Blocking cannabinoid type 1 receptors prevented AMPH from increasing transient frequency, similar to reported effects on other abused drugs, but not from increasing transient duration and inhibiting dopamine uptake. Thus, AMPH elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine by eliciting transients via cannabinoid type 1 receptors and promoting the summation of temporally coincident transients, made more numerous, larger and wider by AMPH. Collectively, these findings are inconsistent with AMPH eliciting action potential-independent dopamine efflux and vesicular dopamine depletion, and support endocannabinoids facilitating phasic dopamine signalling as a common action in drug reinforcement

  14. Facilitating Youth to Take Sustainability Actions: The Potential of Peer Education

    de Vreede, Catherine; Warner, Alan; Pitter, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Peer education is an understudied yet valuable strategy for sustainability educators in shifting youth to take action for sustainability. This case study conceptualizes the change process in facilitating youth to take sustainability actions, and explores the benefits, dynamics, and challenges of peer education as a strategy in facilitating change.…

  15. Effect of temperature on isoprenaline- and barium-induced slow action potentials in guinea-pig ventricular strips.

    Manzini, S; Parlani, M; Martucci, E; Maggi, C A; Meli, A

    1986-01-01

    The effect of variation in temperature (37-32 and 27 degrees C) on electrical and mechanical activity of depolarized and isoprenaline- or barium-reactivated guinea pig ventricular strips was studied. Lowering the temperature brings a marked prolongation of isoprenaline-induced slow action potentials. In addition the maximal rate of depolarization was strongly reduced at lower temperatures. These effects were observed at an extracellular Ca2+ concentration of either 0.9 or 2.5 mM. The accompanying mechanical activities was significantly increased by reduction in temperature. Barium-induced slow action potentials were similarly affected by temperature variations. These observations suggest that hypothermia exert a sort of calcium antagonistic action probably coupled to a reduction of repolarizing outward potassium currents. PMID:2430855

  16. Effect of knockout of α2δ-1 on action potentials in mouse sensory neurons.

    Margas, Wojciech; Ferron, Laurent; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Schwartz, Arnold; Dolphin, Annette C

    2016-08-01

    Gene deletion of the voltage-gated calcium channel auxiliary subunit α2δ-1 has been shown previously to have a cardiovascular phenotype, and a reduction in mechano- and cold sensitivity, coupled with delayed development of neuropathic allodynia. We have also previously shown that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron calcium channel currents were significantly reduced in α2δ-1 knockout mice. To extend our findings in these sensory neurons, we have examined here the properties of action potentials (APs) in DRG neurons from α2δ-1 knockout mice in comparison to their wild-type (WT) littermates, in order to dissect how the calcium channels that are affected by α2δ-1 knockout are involved in setting the duration of individual APs and their firing frequency. Our main findings are that there is reduced Ca(2+) entry on single AP stimulation, particularly in the axon proximal segment, reduced AP duration and reduced firing frequency to a 400 ms stimulation in α2δ-1 knockout neurons, consistent with the expected role of voltage-gated calcium channels in these events. Furthermore, lower intracellular Ca(2+) buffering also resulted in reduced AP duration, and a lower frequency of AP firing in WT neurons, mimicking the effect of α2δ-1 knockout. By contrast, we did not obtain any consistent evidence for the involvement of Ca(2+)-activation of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) and small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels in these events. In conclusion, the reduced Ca(2+) elevation as a result of single AP stimulation is likely to result from the reduced duration of the AP in α2δ-1 knockout sensory neurons.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377724

  17. Natural cures for type 1 diabetes: a review of phytochemicals, biological actions, and clinical potential.

    Chang, C L T; Chen, Yi-Ching; Chen, Hui-Ming; Yang, Ning-Sun; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are the third largest category of illness in the industrialized world, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Among them, type 1 diabetes, also named autoimmune diabetes, afflicts 10 million people worldwide. This disease is caused by autoimmunity-mediated destruction of pancreatic β-cells, leading to insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia and complications. Currently, there is no cure for type 1 diabetes. Insulin injection is the only medication; however, it accompanies serious medical complications. Current strategies to cure type 1 diabetes include immunotherapy, replacement therapy, and combination therapy. Despite recent advances in anti-diabetic strategies, no strategy is clinically successful. How to cure type 1 diabetes without undesirable side effects still remains a formidable challenge in drug research and development. Plants provide an extraordinary source of natural medicines for different diseases. Moreover, secondary metabolites of plant origin serve as an invaluable chemical library for drug discovery and current medicinal chemistry in the pharmaceutical industry. Over the past 25 years, 50% of prescription drugs have been developed from natural products and their derivatives. In this article, we review more than 20 plant compounds and extracts reported in the literature to prevent and treat type-1 diabetes. Emphasis is placed on their chemistry and biology in terms of regulation of immune cells and pancreatic β-cells. We summarize recent progress in understanding the biological actions, mechanisms and therapeutic potential of the compounds and extracts of plant origin in type 1 diabetes. New views on phytocompound-based strategies for prevention and treatment of type 1 diabetes are also discussed. PMID:23210779

  18. Effects of estragole on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

    J.H. Leal-Cardoso

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Estragole, a relatively nontoxic terpenoid ether, is an important constituent of many essential oils with widespread applications in folk medicine and aromatherapy and known to have potent local anesthetic activity. We investigated the effects of estragole on the compound action potential (CAP of the rat sciatic nerve. The experiments were carried out on sciatic nerves dissected from Wistar rats. Nerves, mounted in a moist chamber, were stimulated at a frequency of 0.2 Hz, with electric pulses of 50-100-µs duration at 10-20 V, and evoked CAP were monitored on an oscilloscope and recorded on a computer. CAP control parameters were: peak-to-peak amplitude (PPA, 9.9 ± 0.55 mV (N = 15, conduction velocity, 92.2 ± 4.36 m/s (N = 15, chronaxy, 45.6 ± 3.74 µs (N = 5, and rheobase, 3.9 ± 0.78 V (N = 5. Estragole induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 0.6 mM, estragole had no demonstrable effect. At 2.0 and 6.0 mM estragole, PPA was significantly reduced at the end of 180-min exposure of the nerve to the drug to 85.6 ± 3.96 and 13.04 ± 1.80% of control, respectively. At 4.0 mM, estragole significantly altered PPA, conduction velocity, chronaxy, and rheobase (P <= 0.05, ANOVA; N = 5 to 49.3 ± 6.21 and 77.7 ± 3.84, 125.9 ± 10.43 and 116.7 ± 4.59%, of control, respectively. All of these effects developed slowly and were reversible upon a 300-min wash-out. The data show that estragole dose-dependently blocks nerve excitability.

  19. Contribution of auditory nerve fibers to compound action potential of the auditory nerve.

    Bourien, Jérôme; Tang, Yong; Batrel, Charlène; Huet, Antoine; Lenoir, Marc; Ladrech, Sabine; Desmadryl, Gilles; Nouvian, Régis; Puel, Jean-Luc; Wang, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Sound-evoked compound action potential (CAP), which captures the synchronous activation of the auditory nerve fibers (ANFs), is commonly used to probe deafness in experimental and clinical settings. All ANFs are believed to contribute to CAP threshold and amplitude: low sound pressure levels activate the high-spontaneous rate (SR) fibers, and increasing levels gradually recruit medium- and then low-SR fibers. In this study, we quantitatively analyze the contribution of the ANFs to CAP 6 days after 30-min infusion of ouabain into the round window niche. Anatomic examination showed a progressive ablation of ANFs following increasing concentration of ouabain. CAP amplitude and threshold plotted against loss of ANFs revealed three ANF pools: 1) a highly ouabain-sensitive pool, which does not participate in either CAP threshold or amplitude, 2) a less sensitive pool, which only encoded CAP amplitude, and 3) a ouabain-resistant pool, required for CAP threshold and amplitude. Remarkably, distribution of the three pools was similar to the SR-based ANF distribution (low-, medium-, and high-SR fibers), suggesting that the low-SR fiber loss leaves the CAP unaffected. Single-unit recordings from the auditory nerve confirmed this hypothesis and further showed that it is due to the delayed and broad first spike latency distribution of low-SR fibers. In addition to unraveling the neural mechanisms that encode CAP, our computational simulation of an assembly of guinea pig ANFs generalizes and extends our experimental findings to different species of mammals. Altogether, our data demonstrate that substantial ANF loss can coexist with normal hearing threshold and even unchanged CAP amplitude. PMID:24848461

  20. Impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP drop within 24 hours after cochlear implantation.

    Joshua Kuang-Chao Chen

    Full Text Available Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24 hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (≈ 2.5 cm and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24 hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24 hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24 hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001. There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes

  1. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete – Potential Monitoring and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy during Corrosion Initiation and Propagation

    Küter, Andre; Mason, Thomas O.; Geiker, Mette Rica;

    2005-01-01

    investigation on the effect of the steel quality and the steel surface properties on initiation and propagation of chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion. Besides untreated (as received) carbon rebars and stainless rebars, selected surface treatments and galvanization were investigated. The surface treatments...... included grit blasting, electrochemical and hydrochloric acid cleaning (HCl) as well as weathering. The results indicate that the investigated treatments of the carbon steel surface have no major effect on the initiation period, which was approximately 20 days under the actual conditions. The galvanized...... rebar appears to be protected throughout the experimental period to date (200 days), whereas active corrosion of the stainless steel appeared to be initiated after 100 days exposure....

  2. Flattening of the electrocardiographic T-wave is a sign of proarrhythmic risk and a reflection of action potential triangulation

    Bhuiyan, Tanveer Ahmed; Graff, Claus; Kanters, J.K.;

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced triangulation of the cardiac action potential is associated with increased risk of arrhythmic events. It has been suggested that triangulation causes a flattening of the electrocardiographic T-wave but the relationship between triangulation, T-wave flattening and onset of arrhythmia...

  3. Serotonin spillover onto the axon initial segment of motoneurons induces central fatigue by inhibiting action potential initiation

    Cotel, Florence; Exley, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie;

    2013-01-01

    --as during motor exercise--activated 5-HT1A receptors that decreased motoneuronal excitability. Electrophysiological tests combined with pharmacology showed that focal activation of 5-HT1A receptors at the axon initial segment (AIS), but not on other motoneuronal compartments, inhibited the action potential...

  4. Synthesis of a dendritic estrogen cluster: A potential tool for studies of nuclear versus extranuclear pathways of estrogen actions

    Jian Chen; Hu Zheng; Yan Song; Yu Feng Liang; Qing Rong Qi

    2012-01-01

    A novel estrogen dendrimer has been synthesized through a combination of divergent and convergent approaches in 9 practical steps and in good yields.It was characterized and confirmed by elemental analysis,FT-IR,MS,1H NMR,13C NMR.The dendrimer contains 16 estrone units and is potentially a useful tool for the studies of estrogen actions.

  5. Assessing the Potential Impact of a Nationwide Class-Based Affirmative Action System

    Xiang, Alice; Rubin, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the possible consequences of a change in law school admissions in the United States from an affirmative action system based on race to one based on socioeconomic class. Using data from the 1991-1996 Law School Admission Council Bar Passage Study, students were reassigned attendance by simulation to law school tiers by transferring the affirmative action advantage for black students to students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The hypothetical academic outcomes for the students w...

  6. Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control

    Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Soberón, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt protein families are a diverse group of proteins with activity against insects of different orders - Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and also against other invertebrates such as nematodes. Their primary action is to lyse midgut epithelial cells by inserting into the target membrane and forming pores. Among this group of proteins, members of the 3-Domain Cry family are used worldwide for insect control, and their mode of action has been characterized in some...

  7. Antibacterial free fatty acids : activities, mechanisms of action and biotechnological potential

    Desbois, Andrew Paul; Smith, Valerie Jane

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the diverse and potent biological activities of free fatty acids (FFAs) is the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The antibacterial properties of FFAs are used by many organisms to defend against parasitic or pathogenic bacteria. Whilst their antibacterial mode of action is still poorly understood, the prime target of FFA action is the cell membrane, where FFAs disrupt the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Besides interfering with cellular energy ...

  8. Effects of nerve growth factor on the action potential duration and repolarizing currents in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction

    Yun-Feng Lan; Yang Li; Jian-Cheng Zhang; Jin-Lao Gao; Xue-Ping Wang; Zhou Fang; Yi-Cheng Fu; Mei-Yan Chen; Min Lin; Qiao Xue

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the action potential and potassium currents of non-infarcted myocardium in the myocardial infarcted rabbit model. Methods Rabbits with occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery were prepared and allowed to recover for eight weeks (healed myocardial infarction, HMI). During ligation surgery of the left coronary artery, a polyethylene tube was placed near the left stellate ganglion in the subcutis of the neck for the purpose of administering NGF 400 U/d for eight weeks (HMI + NGF group). Cardiomyocytes were isolated from regions of the non-infarcted left ventricular wall and the action potentials and ion currents in these cells were recorded using whole-cell patch clamps. Results Compared with HMI and control cardiomyocytes, significant prolongation of APD50 or APD90 (Action potential duration (APD) measured at 50% and 90% of repolarization) in HMI + NGF cardiomyocytes was found. The results showed that the 4-aminopyridine sensitive transient outward potassium current (Ito), the rapidly activated omponent of delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr), the slowly activated component of delayed rectifier potassium current (IKs), and the L-type calcium current (ICaL) were significantly altered in NGF + HMI cardiomyocytes compared with HMI and control cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that NGF treatment significantly prolongs APD in HMI cardiomyocytes and that a decrease in outward potassium currents and an increase of inward Ca2+ current are likely the underlying mechanism of action.

  9. Governance issues, potentials and failures of participative collective action in the Kafue Flats, Zambia

    Harry Nixon Chabwela

    2010-09-01

    2004 for creating by-laws based on initiatives of local staff of the Department of Fisheries, local interest groups and researchers. A broad local debate on how to manage the fisheries in a sustainable way and develop locally based by-laws for joint management of fisheries gives good potential for success and appears promising for the future of fisheries in Kafue Flats. Despite many difficulties it is an example of local collective action in order to scale up governance of common-pool resources.

  10. Numerical analysis of wave generation and propagation in a focused surface acoustic wave device for potential microfluidics applications.

    Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S; Bhethanabotla, Venkat R

    2009-03-01

    We develop a 3-D finite element model of a focused surface acoustic wave (F-SAW) device based on LiNbO(3) to analyze the wave generation and propagation characteristics for devices operating at MHz frequencies with varying applied input voltages. We compare the F-SAW device to a conventional SAW device with similar substrate dimensions and transducer finger periodicity. SAW devices with concentrically shaped focused interdigital transducer fingers (F-IDTs) are found to excite waves with high intensity and high beam-width compression ratio, confined to a small localized area. F-SAW devices are more sensitive to amplitude variations at regions close to the focal point than conventional SAW devices having uniform IDT configuration. We compute F-SAW induced streaming forces and velocity fields by applying a successive approximation technique to the Navier-Stokes equation (Nyborg's theory). The maximum streaming force obtained at the focal point varies as the square of the applied input voltage. Computed streaming velocities at the focal point in F-SAW devices are at least an order of magnitude higher than those in conventional SAW devices. Simulated frequency response indicates higher insertion losses in F-SAW devices than in conventional devices, reflecting their greater utility as actuators than as sensors. Our simulation findings suggest that F-SAW devices can be utilized effectively for actuation in microfluidic applications involving diffusion limited transport processes. PMID:19411221

  11. Preparing Social Justice Oriented Teachers: The Potential Role of Action Research in the PDS

    Dodman, Stephanie L.; Lai, Kerri; Campet, Melissa; Cavallero-Lotocki, Renee; Hopkins, Aaron; Onidi, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Deliberate investigation into practice is an essential of the National Association for Professional Development Schools' defining elements of a Professional Development School (PDS). This article reports on the pilot efforts of one PDS as it initiated deliberate investigation through action research with a small group of teacher candidates.…

  12. Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control.

    Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario

    2007-03-15

    Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal (Cry) and Cytolitic (Cyt) protein families are a diverse group of proteins with activity against insects of different orders--Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and also against other invertebrates such as nematodes. Their primary action is to lyse midgut epithelial cells by inserting into the target membrane and forming pores. Among this group of proteins, members of the 3-Domain Cry family are used worldwide for insect control, and their mode of action has been characterized in some detail. Phylogenetic analyses established that the diversity of the 3-Domain Cry family evolved by the independent evolution of the three domains and by swapping of domain III among toxins. Like other pore-forming toxins (PFT) that affect mammals, Cry toxins interact with specific receptors located on the host cell surface and are activated by host proteases following receptor binding resulting in the formation of a pre-pore oligomeric structure that is insertion competent. In contrast, Cyt toxins directly interact with membrane lipids and insert into the membrane. Recent evidence suggests that Cyt synergize or overcome resistance to mosquitocidal-Cry proteins by functioning as a Cry-membrane bound receptor. In this review we summarize recent findings on the mode of action of Cry and Cyt toxins, and compare them to the mode of action of other bacterial PFT. Also, we discuss their use in the control of agricultural insect pests and insect vectors of human diseases. PMID:17198720

  13. The Potential of General Classroom Observation: Turkish EFL Teachers' Perceptions, Sentiments, and Readiness for Action

    Merç, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine Turkish EFL teachers' attitudes towards classroom observation. 204 teachers from different school settings responded to an online questionnaire. Data were analyzed according to three types of attitudes towards classroom observation: perceptions, sentiments, and readiness for action. The findings revealed…

  14. Doubts about actions and flanker incongruity-related potentials and performance

    Tops, Mattie; Wijers, Albertus A.

    2012-01-01

    The brain networks that are involved in flanker incongruity and error processing are also consistently implicated in mental disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) that feature increased "Doubts about Actions" (DaA) scores. In the present study we investigated whether DaA scores, simil

  15. Potentiating action of propofol at GABAA receptors of retinal bipolar cells

    Yue, Lan; Xie, An; Bruzik, Karol S;

    2011-01-01

    specific retinal neurons. The authors investigated the action of propofol on GABA-elicited membrane current responses of retinal bipolar cells, which have both GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors. Methods. Single, enzymatically dissociated bipolar cells obtained from rat retina were treated with propofol...

  16. Neural Networks for Template Matching: Application to Real-Time Classification of the Action Potentials of Real Neurons

    Wong, Yiu-fai; Banik, Jashojiban; Bower, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Much experimental study of real neural networks relies on the proper classification of extracellulary sampled neural signals (i .e. action potentials) recorded from the brains of experimental animals. In most neurophysiology laboratories this classification task is simplified by limiting investigations to single, electrically well-isolated neurons recorded one at a time. However, for those interested in sampling the activities of many single neurons simultaneously, waveform cla...

  17. Amplitude of sensory nerve action potential in early stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy:an analysis of 500 cases

    Yunqian Zhang; Jintao Li; Tingjuan Wang; Jianlin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Afifl-iated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control sub-jects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were signiifcantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. More-over, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The ampli-tude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, as-ymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  18. Potential pathways of pesticide action on erectile function-a contributory factor in male infertility

    RP Kaur; V Gupta; AF Christopher; P Bansal

    2015-01-01

    One of the important objectives of this manuscript is to focus on the place of erectile dysfunction as an important factor for infertility. The review is about correlating the indiscriminate use of pesticides and to find out and highlight the evidences for mechanism of action of these pesticides for erectile dysfunction and find out the most used and most dangerous pesticide from erectile dysfunction point of view. The review suggests that erectile dysfunction is having a significant place as a causal factor for infertility. Study infers that pesticides are having multiple mechanisms of action through which these cause erectile dysfunction. It also reflects that acetamiprid is having most devastating effect causing erectile dysfunction as it acts through multiple inhibitory pathways. The review successfully highlights the indiscriminate regional use of pesticides.

  19. Evaluation of the potential carcinogenic action of radiocalcium internal irradiation in Swiss albino mice

    The carcinogenic action of 45Ca on inducing hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) in Swiss albino mice has been statistically evaluated. HCC proved to be radiation-induced and not due to spontaneous origin. Also, the higher incidence of male hepatocarcinogenesis due to internal irradiation has been found to be significant. The precise possible mechanism regarding the higher male susceptibility to liver cancer has been discussed in the light of available literature. (author)

  20. Reading Humboldt through the theory of communicative action: the democratic potential of symbolic interaction

    McLuskie, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Wilhelm von Humboldt's studies of language during the nineteenth century anticipated twentieth-century symbolic interactionism, suggesting a two-century intellectual history stressing the communicating subject as an intersubjective actor. Jürgen Habermas's theory of communicative action, well known for its inclusion of George Herbert Mead's symbolic interactionism, appeals in the same breath to von Humboldt's work, thus inviting a critical re-appropriation of Mead beyond the social-psychologi...

  1. Reading Humboldt through the theory of communicative action: the democratic potential of symbolic interaction:

    McLuskie, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Wilhelm von Humboldt's studies of language during the nineteenth century anticipated twentieth-century symbolic interactionism, suggesting a two-century intellectual history stressing the communicating subject as an intersubjective actor. Jürgen Habermas's theory of communicative action, well known for its inclusion of George Herbert Mead's symbolic interactionism, appeals in the same breath to von Humboldt's work, thus inviting a critical re-appropriation of Mead beyond the social-psychologi...

  2. Carnosine: can understanding its actions on energy metabolism and protein homeostasis inform its therapeutic potential?

    Hipkiss, Alan R; Cartwright, Stephanie P.; Bromley, Clare; Gross, Stephane R.; Bill, Roslyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) has contrasting but beneficial effects on cellular activity. It delays cellular senescence and rejuvenates cultured senescent mammalian cells. However, it also inhibits the growth of cultured tumour cells. Based on studies in several organisms, we speculate that carnosine exerts these apparently opposing actions by affecting energy metabolism and/or protein homeostasis (proteostasis). Specific effects on energy metabolism include the dipeptide’s ...

  3. Photoelectron circular dichroism in the multiphoton ionization by short laser pulses. I. Propagation of single-active-electron wave packets in chiral pseudo-potentials

    A theoretical method to study the angle-resolved multiphoton ionization of polyatomic molecules is developed. It is based on the time-dependent formulation of the Single Center (TDSC) method and consists in the propagation of single-active-electron wave packets in the effective molecular potentials in the presence of intense laser pulses. For this purpose, the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for one electron, moving in a molecular field and interacting with an arbitrary laser pulse, is solved in spherical coordinates by an efficient numerical approach. As a test, the method is applied to the one- and two-photon ionizations of a model methane-like chiral system by circularly polarized short intense high-frequency laser pulses. Thereby, we analyze the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the momentum distribution. The considered model application illustrates the capability of the TDSC method to study multiphoton PECD in fixed-in-space and randomly oriented chiral molecules

  4. Quasi-In vivo Heart Electrocardiogram Measurement of ST Period Using Convolution of Cell Network Extracellular Field Potential Propagation in Lined-Up Cardiomyocyte Cell-Network Circuit

    Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Fumimasa; Yasuda, Kenji

    2011-07-01

    A model for the quasi-in vivo heart electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement of the ST period has been developed. As the part of ECG data at the ST period is the convolution of the extracellular field potentials (FPs) of cardiomyocytes in a ventricle, we have fabricated a lined-up cardiomyocyte cell-network on a lined-up microelectrode array and a circular microelectrode in an agarose microchamber, and measured the convoluted FPs. When the ventricular tachyarrhythmias of beating occurred in the cardiomyocyte network, the convoluted FP profile showed similar arrhythmia ECG-like profiles, indicating the convoluted FPs of the in vitro cell network include both the depolarization data and the propagation manner of beating in the heart.

  5. Conservation laws of wave action and potential enstrophy for Rossby waves in a stratified atmosphere

    Straus, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of wave energy, enstrophy, and wave motion for atmospheric Rossby waves in a variable mean flow are discussed from a theoretical and pedagogic standpoint. In the absence of mean flow gradients, the wave energy density satisfies a local conservation law, with the appropriate flow velocity being the group velocity. In the presence of mean flow variations, wave energy is not conserved, but wave action is, provided the mean flow is independent of longitude. Wave enstrophy is conserved for arbitrary variations of the mean flow. Connections with Eliassen-Palm flux are also discussed.

  6. Waveform Similarity Analysis: A Simple Template Comparing Approach for Detecting and Quantifying Noisy Evoked Compound Action Potentials.

    Jason Robert Potas

    Full Text Available Experimental electrophysiological assessment of evoked responses from regenerating nerves is challenging due to the typical complex response of events dispersed over various latencies and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Our objective was to automate the detection of compound action potential events and derive their latencies and magnitudes using a simple cross-correlation template comparison approach. For this, we developed an algorithm called Waveform Similarity Analysis. To test the algorithm, challenging signals were generated in vivo by stimulating sural and sciatic nerves, whilst recording evoked potentials at the sciatic nerve and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, in animals recovering from sciatic nerve transection. Our template for the algorithm was generated based on responses evoked from the intact side. We also simulated noisy signals and examined the output of the Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm with imperfect templates. Signals were detected and quantified using Waveform Similarity Analysis, which was compared to event detection, latency and magnitude measurements of the same signals performed by a trained observer, a process we called Trained Eye Analysis. The Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm could successfully detect and quantify simple or complex responses from nerve and muscle compound action potentials of intact or regenerated nerves. Incorrectly specifying the template outperformed Trained Eye Analysis for predicting signal amplitude, but produced consistent latency errors for the simulated signals examined. Compared to the trained eye, Waveform Similarity Analysis is automatic, objective, does not rely on the observer to identify and/or measure peaks, and can detect small clustered events even when signal-to-noise ratio is poor. Waveform Similarity Analysis provides a simple, reliable and convenient approach to quantify latencies and magnitudes of complex waveforms and therefore serves as a useful tool for

  7. Adaptation decision-making in the Nordic Countries: assessing the potential for joint action

    Juhola, Sirkku; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Davis, Marion;

    2014-01-01

    the issue. This paper explores the potential for Nordic cooperation on adaptation; specifically, for the development of a regional adaptation strategy. In particular, it addresses two questions (1) What is the current state of adaptation in the Nordic countries? and (2) What are the potential benefits...... and weaknesses of a Nordic strategy for adaptation? In order to answer these two questions, this paper examines reviews the current national adaptation policies of each Nordic country and discusses the challenges facing a Nordic strategy and finally assesses the potential for common Nordic adaptation...

  8. A model of the magnetic fields created by single motor unit compound action potentials in skeletal muscle.

    Parker, K K; Wikswo, J P

    1997-10-01

    We have developed a computationally simple model for calculating the magnetic-field strength at a point due to a single motor unit compound action potential (SMUCAP). The motor unit is defined only in terms of its anatomical features, and the SMUCAP is approximated using the tripole model. The distributed current density J is calculated within the volume defined by the motor unit. The law of Biot and Savart can then be cast in a form necessitating that J be integrated only over the region containing current sources or conductivity boundaries. The magnetic-field strength is defined as the summation of the contributions to the field made by every muscle fiber in the motor unit. Applying this model to SMUCAP measurements obtained using a high-resolution SUper Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer may yield information regarding the distribution of action currents (AC's) and the anatomical properties of single motor units within a muscle bundle. PMID:9311164

  9. Opposing actions of chronic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinoid antagonists on hippocampal long-term potentiation

    Hoffman, Alexander F; Oz, Murat; Yang, Ruiqin; Lichtman, Aron H.; Carl R Lupica

    2007-01-01

    Memory deficits produced by marijuana arise partly via interaction of the psychoactive component, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), with cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus. Although cannabinoids acutely reduce glutamate release and block hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a potential substrate for learning and memory, the consequences of prolonged exposure to Δ9-THC for hippocampal function are poorly understood. Rats were injected with Δ9-THC (10 mg/kg, i.p., q.d.) for 1, 3, or ...

  10. Characterising action potential in virtual game worlds applied with the mind module

    Eladhari, Mirjam Palosaari

    2009-01-01

    Because games set in persistent virtual game worlds (VGWs) have massive numbers of players, these games need methods of characterisation for playable characters (PCs) that differ from the methods used in traditional narrative media. VGWs have a number of particularly interesting qualities. Firstly, VGWs are places where players interact with and create elements carrying narrative potential. Secondly, players add goals, motives and driving forces to the narrative potential of a VGW, which some...

  11. Computational modeling of voltage-gated Ca channels inhibition: identification of different effects on uterine and cardiac action potentials

    Wing Chiu eTong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The uterus and heart share the important physiological feature whereby contractile activation of the muscle tissue is regulated by the generation of periodic, spontaneous electrical action potentials (APs. Preterm birth arising from premature uterine contractions is a major complication of pregnancy and there remains a need to pursue avenues of research that facilitate the use of drugs, tocolytics, to limit these inappropriate contractions without deleterious actions on cardiac electrical excitation. A novel approach is to make use of mathematical models of uterine and cardiac APs, which incorporate many ionic currents contributing to the AP forms, and test the cell-specific responses to interventions. We have used three such models – of uterine smooth muscle cells (USMC, cardiac sinoatrial node cells (SAN and ventricular cells – to investigate the relative effects of reducing two important voltage-gated Ca currents – the L-type (ICaL and T-type (ICaT Ca currents. Reduction of ICaL (10% alone, or ICaT (40% alone, blunted USMC APs with little effect on ventricular APs and only mild effects on SAN activity. Larger reductions in either current further attenuated the USMC APs but with also greater effects on SAN APs. Encouragingly, a combination of ICaL and ICaT reduction did blunt USMC APs as intended with little detriment to APs of either cardiac cell type. Subsequent overlapping maps of ICaL and ICaT inhibition profiles from each model revealed a range of combined reductions of ICaL and ICaT over which an appreciable diminution of USMC APs could be achieved with no deleterious action on cardiac SAN or ventricular APs. This novel approach illustrates the potential for computational biology to inform us of possible uterine and cardiac cell-specific mechanisms. Incorporating such computational approaches in future studies directed at designing new, or repurposing existing, tocolytics will be beneficial for establishing a desired uterine

  12. Potential mechanisms of action of lithium in bipolar disorder. Current understanding.

    Malhi, Gin S; Tanious, Michelle; Das, Pritha; Coulston, Carissa M; Berk, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Lithium has been used for over half a century for the treatment of bipolar disorder as the archetypal mood stabilizer, and has a wealth of empirical evidence supporting its efficacy in this role. Despite this, the specific mechanisms by which lithium exerts its mood-stabilizing effects are not well understood. Given the inherently complex nature of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, this paper aims to capture what is known about the actions of lithium ranging from macroscopic changes in mood, cognition and brain structure, to its effects at the microscopic level on neurotransmission and intracellular and molecular pathways. A comprehensive literature search of databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO was conducted using relevant keywords and the findings from the literature were then reviewed and synthesized. Numerous studies report that lithium is effective in the treatment of acute mania and for the long-term maintenance of mood and prophylaxis; in comparison, evidence for its efficacy in depression is modest. However, lithium possesses unique anti-suicidal properties that set it apart from other agents. With respect to cognition, studies suggest that lithium may reduce cognitive decline in patients; however, these findings require further investigation using both neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging probes. Interestingly, lithium appears to preserve or increase the volume of brain structures involved in emotional regulation such as the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala, possibly reflecting its neuroprotective effects. At a neuronal level, lithium reduces excitatory (dopamine and glutamate) but increases inhibitory (GABA) neurotransmission; however, these broad effects are underpinned by complex neurotransmitter systems that strive to achieve homeostasis by way of compensatory changes. For example, at an intracellular and molecular level, lithium targets second-messenger systems that further modulate neurotransmission. For

  13. Cardiovascular Actions and Therapeutic Potential of Tetramethylpyrazine (Active Component Isolated from Rhizoma Chuanxiong): Roles and Mechanisms

    Guo, Ming; Liu, Yue; Shi, Dazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), a pharmacologically active component isolated from the rhizome of the Chinese herb Rhizoma Chuanxiong (Chuanxiong), has been clinically used in China and Southeast Asian countries for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) for about fifty years. The pharmacological effects of TMP on the cardiovascular system have attracted great interest. Emerging experimental studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that TMP prevents atherosclerosis as well as ischemia-reperfusion injury. The cardioprotective effects of TMP are mainly related to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, or calcium-homeostasis effects. This review focuses on the roles and mechanisms of action of TMP in the cardiovascular system and provides a novel perspective on TMP's clinical use. PMID:27314011

  14. Assessing potential targets of calcium action in light-modulated gravitropism

    Roux, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    Light, through the mediation of the pigment phytochrome, modulates the gravitropic response of the shoots and roots of many plants. The transduction of both light and gravity stimuli appears to involve Ca(2+)-regulated steps, one or more of which may represent points of intersection between the two transduction chains. To be confident that Ca2+ plays a critical role in stimulus-response coupling for gravitropism, it will be important to identify specific targets of Ca2+ action whose function can be clearly linked to the regulation of growth. Calcium typically exerts its influence on cell metabolism through binding to and activating key regulatory proteins. The three best characterized of these proteins in plants are the calmodulins, calcium-dependent protein kinases, and annexins. In this review we summarize what is known about the structure and function of these proteins and speculate on how their activation by Ca2+ could influence the differential growth response of gravitropism.

  15. Metal-organic frameworks: mechanisms of antibacterial action and potential applications.

    Wyszogrodzka, Gabriela; Marszałek, Bartosz; Gil, Barbara; Dorożyński, Przemysław

    2016-06-01

    The growing resistance of pathogens to conventional antibiotics has become a public health problem and raises the need to seek new effective solutions. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous, hybrid materials comprising metal ions linked by organic binding ligands. The possibility of using a variety of chemical building components in MOFs enables the formation of structures with desired properties. They can act as a reservoir of metal ions, providing their gradual release and resulting in a sustained antibacterial action analogous to that proposed for metal/metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) but different to that of antibiotics. These features make MOFs promising candidates for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, as illustrated by examples discussed in this review. PMID:27091434

  16. HMGB1 Inhibition During Zymosan-Induced Inflammation: The Potential Therapeutic Action of Riboflavin.

    Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Pocheć, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis, also known as systemic inflammatory response syndrome, is a life-threatening condition caused by a pathogenic agent and leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. One of the factors responsible for the excessive intensification of the inflammatory response in the course of inflammation is high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1). HMG-1 is a nuclear protein which, after being released to the intercellular space, has a highly pro-inflammatory effect and acts as a late mediator of lethal damage. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the anti-inflammatory action of riboflavin is accompanied by inhibition of HMGB1 release during peritoneal inflammation and zymosan stimulation of macrophages. Peritonitis was induced in male BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice via intraperitoneal injection of zymosan (40 mg/kg). RAW 264.7 macrophages were activated with zymosan (250 µg/ml). Riboflavin (mice, 50 mg/kg; RAW 264.7, 25 µg/ml) was administered 30 min before zymosan, simultaneously with, or 2, 4, 6 h after zymosan. Additionally, mRNA expression of HMGB1 and its intracellular and serum levels were evaluated. The research showed that riboflavin significantly reduces both the expression and the release of HMGB1; however, the effect of riboflavin was time-dependent. The greatest efficacy was found when riboflavin was given 30 min prior to zymosan, and also 2 and 4 h (C57BL/6J; RAW 264.7) or 4 and 6 h (BALB/c) after zymosan. Research showed that riboflavin influences the level of HMGB1 released in the course of inflammation; however, further study is necessary to determine its mechanisms of action. PMID:26445809

  17. Bursting regimes in a reaction-diffusion system with action potential-dependent equilibrium.

    Stephen R Meier

    Full Text Available The equilibrium Nernst potential plays a critical role in neural cell dynamics. A common approximation used in studying electrical dynamics of excitable cells is that the ionic concentrations inside and outside the cell membranes act as charge reservoirs and remain effectively constant during excitation events. Research into brain electrical activity suggests that relaxing this assumption may provide a better understanding of normal and pathophysiological functioning of the brain. In this paper we explore time-dependent ionic concentrations by allowing the ion-specific Nernst potentials to vary with developing transmembrane potential. As a specific implementation, we incorporate the potential-dependent Nernst shift into a one-dimensional Morris-Lecar reaction-diffusion model. Our main findings result from a region in parameter space where self-sustaining oscillations occur without external forcing. Studying the system close to the bifurcation boundary, we explore the vulnerability of the system with respect to external stimulations which disrupt these oscillations and send the system to a stable equilibrium. We also present results for an extended, one-dimensional cable of excitable tissue tuned to this parameter regime and stimulated, giving rise to complex spatiotemporal pattern formation. Potential applications to the emergence of neuronal bursting in similar two-variable systems and to pathophysiological seizure-like activity are discussed.

  18. Novel experimental results in human cardiac electrophysiology: measurement of the Purkinje fibre action potential from the undiseased human heart.

    Nagy, Norbert; Szél, Tamás; Jost, Norbert; Tóth, András; Gy Papp, Julius; Varró, András

    2015-09-01

    Data obtained from canine cardiac electrophysiology studies are often extrapolated to the human heart. However, it has been previously demonstrated that because of the lower density of its K(+) currents, the human ventricular action potential has a less extensive repolarization reserve. Since the relevance of canine data to the human heart has not yet been fully clarified, the aim of the present study was to determine for the first time the action potentials of undiseased human Purkinje fibres (PFs) and to compare them directly with those of dog PFs. All measurements were performed at 37 °C using the conventional microelectrode technique. At a stimulation rate of 1 Hz, the plateau potential of human PFs is more positive (8.0 ± 1.8 vs 8.6 ± 3.4 mV, n = 7), while the amplitude of the spike is less pronounced. The maximal rate of depolarization is significantly lower in human PKs than in canine PFs (406.7 ± 62 vs 643 ± 36 V/s, respectively, n = 7). We assume that the appreciable difference in the protein expression profiles of the 2 species may underlie these important disparities. Therefore, caution is advised when canine PF data are extrapolated to humans, and further experiments are required to investigate the characteristics of human PF repolarization and its possible role in arrhythmogenesis. PMID:26320996

  19. Potentiation of bradykinin action on smooth muscle by a scorpion venom extract.

    Araujo, R L; Gomez, M V

    1976-08-01

    Gel filtration of the water extract of the venom of the scorpion T. serrulatus showed four peaks; the first peak (P1) is devoid of toxic activity but increases the bradykinin-induced contraction of isolated rat uterus and guinea-pig ileum. The stepwise fractionation of the pooled P1 peak was performed in a DEAE-cellulose column and the bradykinin potentiating activity was found in the second protein peak. Finger-printing of this material showed that the bradykinin potentiating material migrates to the anode, giving two spots when submitted to chromatography, the activity being found in the spot that presents the greatest Rf. The potentiator is destroyed by heating at 97 degrees C, is not dialysable and is destroyed by incubation with pronase. Some of these properties differentiate it from the BPF's from snake venoms. PMID:976731

  20. EFFECTS OF DESENSITIZATION AND REBOUND TO ADENOSINE ON ACTION POTENTIAL AND CONTRACTILITY IN ATRIAL CELLS IN GUINEA-PIGS

    张凤杰; 臧伟进; 于晓江; 胡浩; 张春虹; 孙强; 吕军

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of desensitization and rebound to adenosine(Ado) on action potential duration(APD) and contractility in guinea-pig atrial cells. Methods Electrical activity was recorded using standard intracellular microelectrode technique and contractility was recorded using. We studied the effects of adenosine on the action potential and desensitization of contractility and rebound of contractility. Results The results showed that action potential duration were shortened by 1,10,100μmol*L-1Ado, the ratio of shortened APD was (9.58±1.40)%,(13.80±2.26)%,(24.80±3.19)%, respectively. 1μmol*L-1Ado had no desensitization (P>0.05), but the time of desensitization of 10μmol*L-1 Ado and 100μmol*L-1 Ado was 1 minute(P<0.05) and 5 minutes(P<0.05), respectively. The desensitization of contractility of 10*!μmol*L-1 Ado was obvious in atrial cells, the decrease of contractility of 10*!μmol*L-1 Ado was obvious in atrial cells, the decrease of contractility was changed from (31.4±16.04)%(2 minutes) to (50.60±15.87)% (4 minutes), compared with control. After washing out Ado, contractility was shown to rebound, the ratio of increase of contractility by 1,10,100μmol*L-1 Ado was (12.38±7.50)%,(19.00±8.14)% and (27.60±13.44)%, respectively. Conclusion Ado can abbreviate APD in atrial cells. The desensitization of Ado on APD is characterized by concentration-dependent and time-dependent in atrial cells, and the desensitization of contractility of Ado is obvious and contractility was shown to rebound after washing out Ado.

  1. Action potential generation in the small intestine of W mutant mice that lack interstitial cells of Cajal

    Malysz, J; Thuneberg, L; Mikkelsen, Hanne Birte; Huizinga, J D

    , K+ channel blockade evoked the typical spikelike action potentials. Electron microscopy identified few methylene blue-positive cells in the W/Wv small intestine associated with Auerbach's plexus as individual ICC. Numbers of resident macrophage-like cells (MLC) and fibroblast-like cells (FLC) were...... significantly changed. Neither FLC nor MLC were part of a network nor did they form specialized junctions with neighboring cells as ICC do. Hence no cell type had replaced ICC at their normal morphological position associated with Auerbach's plexus. ICC were present in W/Wv mice at the deep muscular plexus in...

  2. Potential need for re-definition of the highest priority recovery action in the Krsko SAG-1

    Replacement of old SG (Steam Generators) [7] and the characteristic of new ones throws the question of proper accident management strategy, which leans on philosophy that repair and recovery actions have first priority. In the current NPP Krsko SAMGs (Severe Accident Management Guidelines), water supply to the SG has priority over re-injection water into the core. NPP Krsko reconsidered the highest priority of SAG-1 (inject water to the SG), against the WOG (Westinghouse Owners Group) generic approach (inject water into the core) and potential revision of Severe Accident Phenomenology Evaluations using MAAP (Modular accident Analysis Program) 4.0.5 code. (author)

  3. Motor unit action potential topography and its use in motor unit number estimation.

    Blok, J.H.; Dijk, J.P. van; Zwarts, M.J.; Stegeman, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    High-density multichannel electromyography (EMG) recordings add spatial information to the temporal information content of the surface EMG (sEMG) signal. This study explores the potential value of such multichannel information at a single motor unit level, in particular for the improvement of motor

  4. Ameliorating treatment-refractory depression with intranasal ketamine: potential NMDA receptor actions in the pain circuitry representing mental anguish.

    Opler, Lewis A; Opler, Mark G A; Arnsten, Amy F T

    2016-02-01

    This article reviews the antidepressant actions of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartame glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, and offers a potential neural mechanism for intranasal ketamine's ultra-rapid actions based on the key role of NMDAR in the nonhuman primate prefrontal cortex (PFC). Although intravenous ketamine infusions can lift mood within hours, the current review describes how intranasal ketamine administration can have ultra-rapid antidepressant effects, beginning within minutes (5-40 minutes) and lasting hours, but with repeated treatments needed for sustained antidepressant actions. Research in rodents suggests that increased synaptogenesis in PFC may contribute to the prolonged benefit of ketamine administration, beginning hours after administration. However, these data cannot explain the relief that occurs within minutes of intranasal ketamine delivery. We hypothesize that the ultra-rapid effects of intranasal administration in humans may be due to ketamine blocking the NMDAR circuits that generate the emotional representations of pain (eg, Brodmann Areas 24 and 25, insular cortex), cortical areas that can be overactive in depression and which sit above the nasal epithelium. In contrast, NMDAR blockade in the dorsolateral PFC following systemic administration of ketamine may contribute to cognitive deficits. This novel view may help to explain how intravenous ketamine can treat the symptoms of depression yet worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:25619798

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of fluoxetine: A new potential pharmacological action for a classic antidepressant drug?

    Di Rosso, María Emilia; Palumbo, María Laura; Genaro, Ana María

    2016-07-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are frequently used antidepressants. In particular, fluoxetine is usually chosen for the treatment of the symptoms of depression, obsessive-compulsive, panic attack and bulimia nervosa. Antidepressant therapy has been associated with immune dysfunction. However, there is contradictory evidence about the effect of fluoxetine on the immune system. Experimental findings indicate that lymphocytes express the serotonin transporter. Moreover it has been shown that fluoxetine is able to modulate the immune function through a serotonin-dependent pathway and through a novel independent mechanism. In addition, several studies have shown that fluoxetine can alter tumor cell viability. Thus, it was recently demonstrated in vivo that chronic fluoxetine treatment inhibits tumor growth by increasing antitumor T-cell activity. Here we briefly review some of the literature referring to how fluoxetine is able to modify, for better or worse, the functionality of the immune system. These results of our analysis point to the relevance of the novel pharmacological action of this drug as an immunomodulator helping to treat several pathologies in which immune deficiency and/or deregulation is present. PMID:26644208

  6. Bursting Regimes in a Reaction-Diffusion System with Action Potential-Dependent Equilibrium

    Meier, Stephen R.; Lancaster, Jarrett L.; Starobin, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium Nernst potential plays a critical role in neural cell dynamics. A common approximation used in studying electrical dynamics of excitable cells is that the ionic concentrations inside and outside the cell membranes act as charge reservoirs and remain effectively constant during excitation events. Research into brain electrical activity suggests that relaxing this assumption may provide a better understanding of normal and pathophysiological functioning of the brain. In this pap...

  7. Molecular actions and therapeutic potential of lithium in preclinical and clinical studies of CNS disorders

    Chiu, Chi-Tso; Chuang, De-Maw

    2010-01-01

    Lithium has been used clinically to treat bipolar disorder for over half a century, and remains a fundamental pharmacological therapy for patients with this illness. Although lithium’s therapeutic mechanisms are not fully understood, substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that it has neuroprotective/neurotrophic properties against various insults, and considerable clinical potential for the treatment of several neurodegenerative conditions. Evidence from pharmacological and gene m...

  8. HDL-replacement therapy: mechanism of action, types of agents and potential clinical indications

    Remaley, Alan T.; Amar, Marcelo; Sviridov, Dmitri

    2008-01-01

    HDL-replacement therapy is a promising new treatment strategy involving the acute administration of HDL to rapidly stabilize patients at imminent risk for developing a myocardial infarction, such as those with acute coronary syndrome. This review will first focus on the anti-atherogenic mechanisms for HDL, such as the stimulation of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway, and then discuss the other potential beneficial biological effects of HDL on atherosclerosis. The various types of HDL-...

  9. Effects of imidapril on heterogeneity of action potential and calcium current of ventriclar myocytes in infarcted rabbits

    YangLI; QiaoXUE; JieMA; Cun-taiZHANG; PingQIU; LinWANG; WeiGAO; ReiCHENG; Zai-yinLU; Shi-wenWANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of chronic treatment with imidapril on the electrophysiologic heterogeneous change of the noninfarcted myocardium of rabbits after myocardial infarction and the mechanism of its antiarrhythmic efficacy. METHODS: Rabbits with left coronary artery ligation were prepared and allowed to recover for 8 weeks. Myocytes were isolated from subendocardial, midmyocardial, and subepicardial regions of the noninfarcted left ventricular wall. Action potentials and calcium current were recorded using whole-cell patch clamp technique. RESULTS: The action potential duration of repolarization 90 % (APD90) was more prolonged in midmyocardium rather than in subepicardium and subendocardium with healed myocardial infarction. The transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) was increased in the three ventricular regions. The amplitude of/Ca-L was enhanced but its density was decreased in noninfarcted ventricular myocytes due to increased cell membrane capacitance. The increased differences of calcium currents among subepicardium, midmyocardium, and subendocardium were also discovered. Normalization of heterogeneous changes in repolarization after treatment with imidapril was observed and decrease of TDR in noninfarcted area was measured. Early after depolarization (EAD) events of noninfarcted midmyocardium were markedly decreased by imidapril. CONCLUSION: Imidapril reduced the electrophysiologic heterogeneities in noninfarcted area in rabbits after myocardial infarction. This ability of imidapril may contribute to its antiarrhythmic efficacy.

  10. Effects of imidapril on heterogeneity of action potential and calcium current of ventriclar myocytes in infarcted rabbits

    Yang LI; Shi-wen WANG; Qiao XUE; Jie MA; Cun-tai ZHANG; Ping QIU; Lin WANG; Wei GAO; Rei CHENG; Zai-ying LU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of chronic treatment with imidapril on the electrophysiologic heterogeneous change of the noninfarcted myocardium of rabbits after myocardial infarction and the mechanism of its antiarrhythmic efficacy. METHODS: Rabbits with left coronary artery ligation were prepared and allowed to recover for 8 weeks.Myocytes were isolated from subendocardial, midmyocardial, and subepicardial regions of the noninfarcted left ventricular wall. Action potentials and calcium current were recorded using whole-cell patch clamp technique.RESULTS: The action potential duration of repolarization 90 % (APD90)was more prolonged in midmyocardium rather than in subepicardium and subendocardium with healed myocardial infarction. The transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) was increased in the three ventricular regions. The amplitude of ICa-L was enhanced but its density was decreased in noninfarcted ventricular myocytes due to increased cell membrane capacitance. The increased differences of calcium currents among subepicardium, midmyocardium, and subendocardium were also discovered. Normalization of heterogeneous changes in repolarization after treatment with imidapril was observed and decrease of TDR in noninfarcted area was measvred. Early after depolarization (EAD) events of noninfarcted midmyocardium were markedly decreased by imidapril. CONCLUSION: Imidapril reduced the electrophysiologic heterogeneities in noninfarcted area in rabbits after myocardial infarction. This ability of imidapril may contribute to its antiarrhythmic efficacy.

  11. The characteristics of action potential and nonselec-tive cation current of cardiomyocytes in rabbit superior vena cava

    2008-01-01

    As a special focus in initiating and maintaining atrial fibrillation (AF), cardiomyocytes in superior vena cava (SVC) have distinctive electrophysiological characters. In this study, we found that comparing with the right atrial (RA) cardiomyoctyes, the SVC cardiomyoctyes had longer APD90 at the different basic cycle lengths; the conduction block could be observed on both RA and SVC cardiomyoctyes. A few of SVC cardiomyoctyes showed slow response action potentials with automatic activity and some others showed early afterdepolarization (EAD) spontaneously. Further more, we found that there are nonselective cation current (INs) in both SVC and RA cardiomyocytes. The peak density of INs in SVC cardiomyocytes was smaller than that in RA cardiomyocytes. Removal of extracellular divalent cation and glucose could increase INs in SVC cardiomyocytes. The agonist or the antagonist of INs may in-crease or decrease APD. To sum up, some SVC cardiomyocytes possess the ability of spontaneous activity; the difference of transmembrane action potentials between SVC and RA cardiomyocytes is partly because of the different density of INs between them; the agonist or the antagonist of INs can in-crease or decrease APD leading to the enhancement or reduction of EAD genesis in SVC cardiomyo-cytes. INs in rabbit myocytes is fairly similar to TRPC3 current in electrophysiological property, which might play an important role in the mechanisms of AF.

  12. Sensitivity of Rabbit Ventricular Action Potential and Ca2+ Dynamics to Small Variations in Membrane Currents and Ion Diffusion Coefficients

    Yuan Hung Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how small variations in ionic currents and Ca2+ and Na+ diffusion coefficients impact action potential and Ca2+ dynamics in rabbit ventricular myocytes. We applied sensitivity analysis to quantify the sensitivity of Shannon et al. model (Biophys. J., 2004 to 5%–10% changes in currents conductance, channels distribution, and ion diffusion in rabbit ventricular cells. We found that action potential duration and Ca2+ peaks are highly sensitive to 10% increase in L-type Ca2+ current; moderately influenced by 10% increase in Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, Na+-K+ pump, rapid delayed and slow transient outward K+ currents, and Cl− background current; insensitive to 10% increases in all other ionic currents and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ fluxes. Cell electrical activity is strongly affected by 5% shift of L-type Ca2+ channels and Na+-Ca2+ exchanger in between junctional and submembrane spaces while Ca2+-activated Cl−-channel redistribution has the modest effect. Small changes in submembrane and cytosolic diffusion coefficients for Ca2+, but not in Na+ transfer, may alter notably myocyte contraction. Our studies highlight the need for more precise measurements and further extending and testing of the Shannon et al. model. Our results demonstrate usefulness of sensitivity analysis to identify specific knowledge gaps and controversies related to ventricular cell electrophysiology and Ca2+ signaling.

  13. Effects of rapid and slow potassium repolarization currents and calcium dynamics on hysteresis in restitution of action potential duration.

    Wu, Runze; Patwardhan, Abhijit

    2007-04-01

    We used a mathematical model to investigate effects of repolarizing currents I(kr) and I(ks), calcium (Ca) current I(CaL), and Ca dynamics in network sarcoplasmic reticulum and junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (JSR) on hysteresis in restitution of action potential duration. Enhanced I(kr) increased slope of restitution, hysteresis loop thickness, and delay between peaks of diastolic intervals and action potential duration. Increase in I(ks) decreased loop thickness and peak delay. Decrease in I(CaL) had effects similar to increasing I(kr), except slope of restitution decreased markedly. Uptake of Ca into the network sarcoplasmic reticulum had less effect on hysteresis than transfer of Ca into JSR. Faster transfer of Ca into JSR markedly decreased loop thickness and peak delay. Our results provide insight into mechanisms responsible for this newly identified property of restitution. Such information will be valuable in studies where modification of hysteresis is used to investigate its role in arrhythmogenesis. PMID:16895773

  14. Whey protein potentiates the intestinotrophic action of glucagon-like peptide-2 in parenterally fed rats

    Liu, Xiaowen; Murali, Sangita G; Holst, Jens J;

    2009-01-01

    protein component, casein, soy, or whey protein, potentiates the intestinal growth response to GLP-2 in rats with PN-induced mucosal hypoplasia. Rats received PN and continuous intravenous infusion of GLP-2 (100 microg/kg/day) for 7 days. Six EN groups received PN+GLP-2 for days 1-3 and partial PN+GLP-2...... plus EN for days 4-7. EN was provided by ad libitum intake of a semielemental liquid diet with different protein sources: casein, hydrolyzed soy, whey protein concentrate (WPC), and hydrolyzed WPC+casein. Controls received PN+GLP-2 alone. EN induced significantly greater jejunal sucrase activity and...... whey protein, and not casein or soy, potentiated the ability of GLP-2 to reverse PN-induced mucosal hypoplasia and further increase ileal villus height, crypt depth, and mucosa cellularity compared with PN+GLP-2 alone, P < 0.05. The ability of whey protein to induce greater mucosal surface area was...

  15. Adjuvant potential of resiquimod with inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine and its mechanism of action in chicken.

    Sachan, Swati; Ramakrishnan, Saravanan; Annamalai, Arunsaravanakumar; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Malik, Hina; Saravanan, B C; Jain, Lata; Saxena, Meeta; Kumar, Ajay; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2015-08-26

    Resiquimod (R-848), an imidazoquinoline compound, is a potent synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 agonist. Although the solitary adjuvant potential of R-848 is well established in mammals, such reports are not available in avian species hitherto. Hence, the adjuvant potential of R-848 was tested in SPF chicken in this study. Two week old chicks were divided into four groups (10 birds/group) viz., control (A), inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine prepared from velogenic strain (B), commercial oil adjuvanted inactivated NDV vaccine prepared from lentogenic strain (C) and inactivated NDV vaccine prepared from velogenic strain with R-848 (D). Booster was given two weeks post primary vaccination. Humoral immune response was assessed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and ELISA while the cellular immune response was quantified by lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) and flow cytometry post-vaccination. Entire experiment was repeated twice to check the reproducibility. Highest HI titre was observed in group D at post booster weeks 1 and 2 that corresponds to mean log2 HI titre of 6.4 ± 0.16 and 6.8 ± 0.13, respectively. The response was significantly higher than that of group B or C (Pstimulation index (P ≤ 0.01) as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in flow cytometry (P<0.05) were significantly high and maximum in group D. Group D conferred complete protection against virulent NDV challenge, while it was only 80% in group B and C. To understand the effects of R-848, the kinetics of immune response genes in spleen were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR after R-848 administration (50 μg/bird, i.m. route). Resiquimod significantly up-regulated the expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, iNOS and MHC-II genes (P<0.01). In conclusion, the study demonstrated the adjuvant potential of R-848 when co-administered with inactivated NDV vaccine in SPF chicken which is likely due to the up-regulation of immune response genes. PMID:26192354

  16. Potential food applications of biobased materials. An EU- concerted action project

    Haugaard, V.K.; Udsen, A.M.; Mortensen, G.;

    2001-01-01

    films and coatings to food but novel commercial applications of these are scarce. Based on information currently available on the properties of biobased packaging materials the study identified products in the fresh meat, dairy, ready meal, beverage, fruit and vegetable, snack, frozen food and dry food......The objective of the study was to ascertain the state of the art with regard to the applicability of biobased packaging materials to foods and to identify potential food applications for biobased materials. The study revealed relatively few examples of biobased materials used as primary, secondary...... or tertiary packaging materials for foods. This is due to the fact that published investigations on the use of biobased materials are still scarce, and results obtained remain unpublished because of commercial pressures. The scientific literature contains numerous reports on applications of edible...

  17. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV as a potential target for selective prodrug activation and chemotherapeutic action in cancers.

    Dahan, Arik; Wolk, Omri; Yang, Peihua; Mittal, Sachin; Wu, Zhiqian; Landowski, Christopher P; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs is often offset by severe side effects attributable to poor selectivity and toxicity to normal cells. Recently, the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) was considered as a potential target for the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting chemotherapeutic drugs to DPPIV as a strategy to enhance their specificity. The expression profile of DPPIV was obtained for seven cancer cell lines using DNA microarray data from the DTP database, and was validated by RT-PCR. A prodrug was then synthesized by linking the cytotoxic drug melphalan to a proline-glycine dipeptide moiety, followed by hydrolysis studies in the seven cell lines with a standard substrate, as well as the glycyl-prolyl-melphalan (GP-Mel). Lastly, cell proliferation studies were carried out to demonstrate enzyme-dependent activation of the candidate prodrug. The relative RT-PCR expression levels of DPPIV in the cancer cell lines exhibited linear correlation with U95Av2 Affymetrix data (r(2) = 0.94), and with specific activity of a standard substrate, glycine-proline-p-nitroanilide (r(2) = 0.96). The significantly higher antiproliferative activity of GP-Mel in Caco-2 cells (GI₅₀ = 261 μM) compared to that in SK-MEL-5 cells (GI₅₀ = 807 μM) was consistent with the 9-fold higher specific activity of the prodrug in Caco-2 cells (5.14 pmol/min/μg protein) compared to SK-MEL-5 cells (0.68 pmol/min/μg protein) and with DPPIV expression levels in these cells. Our results demonstrate the great potential to exploit DPPIV as a prodrug activating enzyme for efficient chemotherapeutic drug targeting. PMID:25365774

  18. Initial state propagators

    Collins, Hael

    2013-01-01

    It is possible to define a general initial state for a quantum field by introducing a contribution to the action defined at an initial-time boundary. The propagator for this theory is composed of two parts, one associated with the free propagation of fields and another produced by the operators of this initial action. The derivation of this propagator is shown for the case of a translationally and rotationally invariant initial state. In addition to being able to treat more general states, these techniques can also be applied to effective field theories that start from an initial time. The eigenstates of a theory with interacting heavy and light fields are different from the eigenstates of the theory in the limit where the interactions vanish. Therefore, a product of states of the noninteracting heavy and light theories will usually contain excitations of the heavier state once the interactions are included. Such excitations appear as nonlocal effects in the effective theory, which are suppressed by powers of...

  19. Photoelectron circular dichroism in the multiphoton ionization by short laser pulses. I. Propagation of single-active-electron wave packets in chiral pseudo-potentials.

    Artemyev, Anton N; Müller, Anne D; Hochstuhl, David; Demekhin, Philipp V

    2015-06-28

    A theoretical method to study the angle-resolved multiphoton ionization of polyatomic molecules is developed. It is based on the time-dependent formulation of the Single Center (TDSC) method and consists in the propagation of single-active-electron wave packets in the effective molecular potentials in the presence of intense laser pulses. For this purpose, the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for one electron, moving in a molecular field and interacting with an arbitrary laser pulse, is solved in spherical coordinates by an efficient numerical approach. As a test, the method is applied to the one- and two-photon ionizations of a model methane-like chiral system by circularly polarized short intense high-frequency laser pulses. Thereby, we analyze the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the momentum distribution. The considered model application illustrates the capability of the TDSC method to study multiphoton PECD in fixed-in-space and randomly oriented chiral molecules. PMID:26133408

  20. Potassium conductances mediate bidirectional state-dependent modulation of action potential evoked dendritic calcium signals in dentate gyrus granule cells

    János Brunner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Backpropagating action potentials (bAPs and local calcium signals that they trigger are fundamental for dendritic functions. Here we addressed the question what extent the changes of local dendritic membrane properties can contribute to the shaping of the coupling between dendritic action potentials and the local calcium responses. Using a combination of in vitro electrophysiological and confocal imaging techniques we found that activation of dendritic GIRK channels via mGlu2 or GABAB receptors enhanced the bAP¬-triggered calcium signals in the dendrites of dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs. The enhancement of calcium signals was significant only in those dendritic regions, where these receptors are predominantly expressed. Similarly to GIRK channel activation, somatic hyperpolarization by DC current injection (from -64 mV to -77 mV, significantly increased bAP-associated calcium signals in the proximal dendrites. The hyperpolarization was associated with a decrease in the input resistance due to the rectification of the membrane potential of GCs. The effect of hyperpolarization on the calcium signals was maintained when T-type calcium currents were blocked but it decreased when GIRK channels were inhibited. Simultaneous dual somato-dendritic recordings from GCs showed that somatic hyperpolarization accelerated the repolarization phase of dendritic bAP in the proximal region whereas the rising phase and peak amplitude was not affected. We hypothesize that the larger driving force for calcium ions during the faster repolarization can contribute to the increasing in calcium signals. Employment of previously recorded dendritic bAP waveforms from hyperpolarized membrane potential as voltage command evoked larger calcium currents in nucleated patches compared to bAP waveform from the same recording at depolarized membrane potential. Furthermore, addition of native, high-voltage activated, inactivating potassium conductance by somatic dynamic clamp

  1. Vegetative propagation of jojoba

    Low, C.B.; Hackett, W.P.

    1981-03-01

    Development of jojoba as an economically viable crop requires improved methods of propagation and culture. Rooting experiments were performed on cutting material collected from wild jojoba plants. A striking seasonal fluctuation in rooting potential was found. Jojoba plants can be successfully propagated from stem cuttings made during spring, summer, and, to some extent, fall. Variability among jojoba plants may also play a role in rooting potential, although it is not as important as season. In general, the use of auxin (4,000 ppm indolebutyric acid) on jojoba cuttings during periods of high rooting potential promotes adventitious root formation, but during periods of low rooting potential it has no effect or is even slightly inhibitory. In the greenhouse, cutting-grown plants apparently reproductively matured sooner than those grown from seed. If this observation holds true for plants transplanted into the field, earlier fruit production by cutting--grown plants would mean earlier return of initial planting and maintenance costs.

  2. Methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves potentiates the contractile action of acetylcholine on isolated rabbit jejunum

    Tavershima Dzenda; Joseph Olusegun Ayo; Alexander Babatunde Adelaiye; Ambrose Osemattah Adaudi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the modulating role of methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contraction of isolated rabbit jejunum. Methods: Rabbit jejunum segment was removed and placed in an organ bath containing Tyrode’s solution, and its contractions were recorded isometrically. Results: ACh (2.0 × 10-10 g/mL) and the extract (2.0 × 10-4 g/mL) individually increased the frequency of contraction (mean ± SEM) of the isolated smooth muscle tissue by 47.6% ± 9.5%and 77.8% ± 66.5%, respectively. When ACh and the extract were combined, the frequency of contraction of the tissue was increased by 222.2% ± 25.9%, representing a 366.7% increase (P < 0.001) over the effect of ACh alone. Similarly, ACh (2.0 × 10-9 g/mL) and the extract individually increased significantly (P < 0.001) the amplitude of contraction of the tissue by 685.7% ± 61.1% and 455.2% ± 38.1%, respectively. When ACh and the extract were combined, the amplitude of contraction of the tissue rose by 1263.8% ± 69.0%, representing 84.3% increase over the effect of ACh alone. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves potentiates the contractile effect of ACh on intestinal smooth muscle, supporting the traditional claim that the plant is purgative.

  3. Control of Postharvest Bacterial Soft Rot by Gamma Irradiation and its Potential Modes of Action.

    Jeong, Rae-Dong; Chu, Eun-Hee; Park, Duck Hwan; Park, Hae-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity against a postharvest bacterial pathogen, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc). Gamma irradiation in a bacteria cell suspension resulted in a dramatic reduction of the viable counts as well as an increase in the amounts of DNA and protein released from the cells. Gamma irradiation showed complete inactivation of Ecc, especially at a dose of 0.6 kGy. In addition, scanning electron microscopy of irradiated cells revealed severe damage on the surface of most bacterial cells. Along with the morphological changes of cells by gamma irradiation, it also affected the membrane integrity in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanisms by which the gamma irradiation decreased the bacterial soft rot can be directly associated with the disruption of the cell membrane of the bacterial pathogen, along with DNA fragmentation, results in dose-dependent cell inactivation. These findings suggest that gamma irradiation has potential as an antibacterial approach to reduce the severity of the soft rot of paprika. PMID:27147935

  4. Anthocyanins in obesity-associated thrombogenesis: a review of the potential mechanism of action.

    Thompson, Kiara; Pederick, Wayne; Santhakumar, Abishek Bommannan

    2016-05-18

    Platelet dysfunction, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia are important contributors to pro-thrombotic progression particularly in obese and hyper-cholesterolemic populations. Becoming an increasingly widespread endemic, obesity causes a dysfunction in the metabolic system by initiating endothelial dysfunction; increasing free radical production; lipid peroxidation; platelet hyperactivity and aggregation; thereby accelerating thrombogenesis. In the event of increased free radical generation under pro-thrombotic conditions, antioxidants act as scavengers in reducing physiological oxidative stress; free radical-mediated thrombosis and hemostatic function. Anthocyanin, a subclass of the polyphenol family flavonoids has been shown to exhibit anti-dyslipidemic and anti-thrombotic properties by virtue of its antioxidant activity. Current anti-platelet/coagulant therapeutics target specific receptor pathways to relieve the extent of dysfunction and plaque acceleration in pro-thrombotic individuals. Though effective, they have been associated with high bleeding risk and increased response variability. The following review focuses on the potential role of natural dietary anthocyanins in targeting simultaneous mechanistic pathways in alleviating platelet activation, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress-associated thrombus acceleration in obese pro-thrombotic populations. PMID:27043127

  5. Control of Postharvest Bacterial Soft Rot by Gamma Irradiation and its Potential Modes of Action

    Jeong, Rae-Dong; Chu, Eun-Hee; Park, Duck Hwan; Park, Hae-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity against a postharvest bacterial pathogen, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc). Gamma irradiation in a bacteria cell suspension resulted in a dramatic reduction of the viable counts as well as an increase in the amounts of DNA and protein released from the cells. Gamma irradiation showed complete inactivation of Ecc, especially at a dose of 0.6 kGy. In addition, scanning electron microscopy of irradiated cells revealed severe damage on the surface of most bacterial cells. Along with the morphological changes of cells by gamma irradiation, it also affected the membrane integrity in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanisms by which the gamma irradiation decreased the bacterial soft rot can be directly associated with the disruption of the cell membrane of the bacterial pathogen, along with DNA fragmentation, results in dose-dependent cell inactivation. These findings suggest that gamma irradiation has potential as an antibacterial approach to reduce the severity of the soft rot of paprika. PMID:27147935

  6. Antimicrobial activity and biologic potential of silver-substituted calcium phosphate constructs produced with self-propagating high-temperature synthesis.

    Vollmer, N L; Spear, J R; Ayers, R A

    2016-06-01

    There is significant demand for synthetic bone substitute materials that can decrease the incidence of implant-based bacterial infections. The intent of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and biologic potential of calcium phosphate (CaP) constructs substituted with silver (Ag) that were produced via self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). SHS is a combustion synthesis technique that has successfully generated porous CaP bioceramics intended for use in bone repair. SHS reactions are highly versatile; dopants can be added to the reactant powders to alter product chemistry and morphology. In this research, Ag powder was added to the reactants generating porous CaP constructs containing 0.5, 1, or 2 wt% Ag. Antibacterial performance of the constructs was assessed against Escherichia coli, a representative model for Gram-negative bacteria. Liquid solutions (1 μg/mL) of CaP-Ag particles to phosphate buffered saline were incubated with 10(5) cells/mL. After 24 h, 10 μL of solution were spread on an LB agar plate and cultured for 24 h at 37 °C. Samples cultured with CaP-Ag showed complete bacterial inhibition while the controls (E. coli only and CaP without Ag) exhibited significant colony formation. The effects of Ag concentration on cytotoxicity and biocompatibility were tested in vitro. At 7 days, osteoblasts uniformly enveloped the CaP-Ag particles and displayed a healthy flattened morphology suggesting the concentrations of Ag incorporated into constructs were not cytotoxic. CaP-Ag constructs produced via SHS represent a source of synthetic bone substitute materials that could potentially inhibit, or reduce the incidence of post-operative bacterial infections. PMID:27094319

  7. Space-time transformation approach to the damped harmonic oscillator with and without an inverse quadratic potential

    We present a space-time transformation which changes a quadratic action into a free-particle action.This transformation is used to derive the propagator beyond caustics for a quadratic Lagrangian from the propagator for a free particle. The propagator is in turn derived by the Feynman path integral method. Also, the wavefunction for the damped harmonic oscillator is obtained using an inverse quadratic potential

  8. Space-time transformation approach to the damped harmonic oscillator with and without an inverse quadratic potential

    Um, C I; Yeon, K H

    2000-01-01

    We present a space-time transformation which changes a quadratic action into a free-particle action.This transformation is used to derive the propagator beyond caustics for a quadratic Lagrangian from the propagator for a free particle. The propagator is in turn derived by the Feynman path integral method. Also, the wavefunction for the damped harmonic oscillator is obtained using an inverse quadratic potential.

  9. Exploring potential mechanisms of action of natalizumab in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Cadavid, Diego; Steiner, Deborah; Villar, Luisa Maria; Reynolds, Richard; Mikol, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common and chronic central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease and a leading cause of permanent disability. Patients most often present with a relapsing-remitting disease course, typically progressing over time to a phase of relentless advancement in secondary progressive MS (SPMS), for which approved disease-modifying therapies are limited. In this review, we summarize the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development of SPMS and the rationale and clinical potential for natalizumab, which is currently approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS, to exert beneficial effects in reducing disease progression unrelated to relapses in SPMS. In both forms of MS, active brain-tissue injury is associated with inflammation; but in SPMS, the inflammatory response occurs at least partly behind the blood-brain barrier and is followed by a cascade of events, including persistent microglial activation that may lead to chronic demyelination and neurodegeneration associated with irreversible disability. In patients with relapsing forms of MS, natalizumab therapy is known to significantly reduce intrathecal inflammatory responses which results in reductions in brain lesions and brain atrophy as well as beneficial effects on clinical measures, such as reduced frequency and severity of relapse and reduced accumulation of disability. Natalizumab treatment also reduces levels of cerebrospinal fluid chemokines and other biomarkers of intrathecal inflammation, axonal damage and demyelination, and has demonstrated the ability to reduce innate immune activation and intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in patients with MS. The efficacy of natalizumab therapy in SPMS is currently being investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PMID:26788129

  10. Microelectrode array recordings of cardiac action potentials as a high throughput method to evaluate pesticide toxicity.

    Natarajan, A; Molnar, P; Sieverdes, K; Jamshidi, A; Hickman, J J

    2006-04-01

    The threat of environmental pollution, biological warfare agent dissemination and new diseases in recent decades has increased research into cell-based biosensors. The creation of this class of sensors could specifically aid the detection of toxic chemicals and their effects in the environment, such as pyrethroid pesticides. Pyrethroids are synthetic pesticides that have been used increasingly over the last decade to replace other pesticides like DDT. In this study we used a high-throughput method to detect pyrethroids by using multielectrode extracellular recordings from cardiac cells. The data from this cell-electrode hybrid system was compared to published results obtained with patch-clamp electrophysiology and also used as an alternative method to further understand pyrethroid effects. Our biosensor consisted of a confluent monolayer of cardiac myocytes cultured on microelectrode arrays (MEA) composed of 60 substrate-integrated electrodes. Spontaneous activity of these beating cells produced extracellular field potentials in the range of 100 microV to nearly 1200 microV with a beating frequency of 0.5-4 Hz. All of the tested pyrethroids; alpha-Cypermethrin, Tetramethrin and Tefluthrin, produced similar changes in the electrophysiological properties of the cardiac myocytes, namely reduced beating frequency and amplitude. The sensitivity of our toxin detection method was comparable to earlier patch-clamp studies, which indicates that, in specific applications, high-throughput extracellular methods can replace single-cell studies. Moreover, the similar effect of all three pyrethroids on the measured parameters suggests, that not only detection of the toxins but, their classification might also be possible with this method. Overall our results support the idea that whole cell biosensors might be viable alternatives when compared to current toxin detection methods. PMID:16198528

  11. Potential Causes of Significant Inventory Differences at Bulk Handling Facilities and the Importance of Inventory Difference Action Levels

    Accountancy for nuclear material can be split into two categories. Firstly, where possible, accountancy should be in terms of items that can be transferred as discrete packages and their contents fixed at the time of their creation. All items must remain accounted for at all times, and a single missing item is considered significant. Secondly, where nuclear material is unconstrained, for example in a reprocessing plant where it can change form, there is an uncertainty that relates to the amount of material present in any location. Cumulatively, these uncertainties can be summed and provide a context for any estimate of material in a process. Any apparent loss or gain between what has been physically measured within a facility during its physical inventory take and what is reported within its nuclear material accounts is known as an inventory difference. The cumulative measurement uncertainties can be used to set an action level for the inventory difference so that if an inventory difference is observed outside of such action levels, the difference is classified as significant and an investigation to find the root cause(s) is required. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential causes of significant inventory differences and to provide a framework within which an inventory difference investigation can be carried out.

  12. Hierarchical Affinity Propagation

    Givoni, Inmar; Frey, Brendan J

    2012-01-01

    Affinity propagation is an exemplar-based clustering algorithm that finds a set of data-points that best exemplify the data, and associates each datapoint with one exemplar. We extend affinity propagation in a principled way to solve the hierarchical clustering problem, which arises in a variety of domains including biology, sensor networks and decision making in operational research. We derive an inference algorithm that operates by propagating information up and down the hierarchy, and is efficient despite the high-order potentials required for the graphical model formulation. We demonstrate that our method outperforms greedy techniques that cluster one layer at a time. We show that on an artificial dataset designed to mimic the HIV-strain mutation dynamics, our method outperforms related methods. For real HIV sequences, where the ground truth is not available, we show our method achieves better results, in terms of the underlying objective function, and show the results correspond meaningfully to geographi...

  13. Resveratrol exhibits a strong cytotoxic activity in cultured cells and has an antiviral action against polyomavirus: potential clinical use

    Galati Gaspare

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resveratrol is a non flavonoid polyphenol compound present in many plants and fruits and, at especially high concentrations, in the grape berries of Vitis vinifera. This compound has a strong bioactivity and its cytoprotective action has been demonstrated, however at high concentrations the drug exhibits also an effective anti-proliferative action. We recently showed its ability to abolish the effects of oxidative stress in cultured cells. In this work we assayed the bioactivity of resveratrol as antiproliferative and antiviral drug in cultured fibroblasts. Studies by other Authors showed that this natural compound inhibits the proliferation of different viruses such as herpes simplex, varicella-zoster and influenza A. The results presented here show an evident toxic activity of the drug at high concentrations, on the other hand at sub-cytotoxic concentrations, resveratrol can effectively inhibit the synthesis of polyomavirus DNA. A possible interpretation is that, due to the damage caused by resveratrol to the plasma membrane, the transfer of the virus from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus, may be hindered thus inhibiting the production of viral DNA. Methods The mouse fibroblast line 3T6 and the human tumor line HL60 were used throughout the work. Cell viability and vital cell count were assessed respectively, by the MTT assay and Trypan Blue staining. Cytotoxic properties and evaluation of viral DNA production by agarose gel electrophoresis were performed according to standard protocols. Results Our results show a clear dose dependent both cytotoxic and antiviral effect of resveratrol respectively at high and low concentrations. The cytotoxic action is exerted towards a stabilized cell-line (3T6 as well as a tumor-line (HL60. Furthermore the antiviral action is evident after the phase of virion entry, therefore data suggest that the drug acts during the synthesis of the viral progeny DNA. Conclusion Resveratrol is

  14. Effect of mental challenge induced by movie clips on action potential duration in normal human subjects independent of heart rate

    Child, Nicholas; Hanson, Ben; Bishop, Martin; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Bostock, Julian; Western, David; Cooklin, Michael; O’Neil, Mark; Wright, Matthew; Razavi, Reza; Gill, Jaswinder; Taggart, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental stress and emotion have long been associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in animal models and humans. The effect of mental challenge on ventricular action potential duration (APD) in conscious healthy humans has not been reported. Methods and Results Activation recovery intervals (ARI) measured from unipolar electrograms as a surrogate for APD (n=19) were recorded from right and left ventricular endocardium during steady state pacing while subjects watched an emotionally charged film clip. To assess the possible modulating role of altered respiration on APD, the subjects then repeated the same breathing pattern they had during the stress, but without the movie clip. Haemodynamic parameters (mean, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, and rate of pressure increase) and respiration rate increased during the stressful part of the film clip (p=0.001). APD decreased during the stressful parts of the film clip, eg for global RV ARI at end of film clip 193.8ms (SD 14) vs 198.0ms (SD13) during the matched breathing control (end film LV 199.8ms (SD16) vs control 201.6ms (SD15), p=0.004. Respiration rate increased during the stressful part of the film clip (by 2 breaths/minute), and was well matched in the respective control period without any haemodynamic or ARI changes. Conclusions Our results document for the first time direct recordings of the effect of a mental challenge protocol on ventricular action potential duration in conscious humans. The effect of mental challenge on APD was not secondary to emotionally-induced altered respiration or heart rate. PMID:24833641

  15. The effects of propofol on local field potential spectra, action potential firing rate, and their temporal relationship in humans and felines

    Sara Hanrahan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Propofol is an intravenous sedative hypnotic, which, acting as a GABAA agonist, results in neocortical inhibition. While propofol has been well studied at the molecular and clinical level, less is known about the effects of propofol at the level of individual neurons and local neocortical networks. We used Utah Electrode Arrays (UEAs to investigate the effects of propofol anesthesia on action potentials (APs and local field potentials (LFPs. UEAs were implanted into the neocortex of two humans and three felines. The two human patients and one feline received propofol by bolus injection, while the other two felines received target-controlled infusions. We examined the changes in LFP power spectra and AP firing at different levels of anesthesia. Increased propofol concentration correlated with decreased high-frequency power in LFP spectra and decreased AP firing rates, and the generation of large amplitude spike-like LFP activity; however, the temporal relationship between APs and LFPs remained relatively consistent at all levels of propofol. The probability that an AP would fire at this local minimum of the LFP increased with propofol administration. The propofol-induced suppression of neocortical network activity allowed LFPs to be dominated by low-frequency spike-like activity, and correlated with sedation and unconsciousness. As the low-frequency spike-like activity increased and the AP-LFP relationship became more predictable firing rate encoding capacity is impaired. This suggests a mechanism for decreased information processing in the neocortex that accounts for propofol-induced unconsciousness.

  16. Superfield tadpole method for SUSY effective potential

    Superfield formulation of S. Weinberg's tadpole method to compute effective potential in supersymmetric theories is illustrated by considering the general renormalizable action involving only chiral scalar superfields. unconstrained superfield potentials are introduced to simplify the 'effective' superfield propagator which is derived in a compact form. (Author)

  17. Beam propagation

    The main part of this thesis consists of 15 published papers, in which the numerical Beam Propagating Method (BPM) is investigated, verified and used in a number of applications. In the introduction a derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is presented to connect the beginning of the soliton papers with Maxwell's equations including a nonlinear polarization. This thesis focuses on the wide use of the BPM for numerical simulations of propagating light and particle beams through different types of structures such as waveguides, fibers, tapers, Y-junctions, laser arrays and crystalline solids. We verify the BPM in the above listed problems against other numerical methods for example the Finite-element Method, perturbation methods and Runge-Kutta integration. Further, the BPM is shown to be a simple and effective way to numerically set up the Green's function in matrix form for periodic structures. The Green's function matrix can then be diagonalized with matrix methods yielding the eigensolutions of the structure. The BPM inherent transverse periodicity can be untied, if desired, by for example including an absorptive refractive index at the computational window edges. The interaction of two first-order soliton pulses is strongly dependent on the phase relationship between the individual solitons. When optical phase shift keying is used in coherent one-carrier wavelength communication, the fiber attenuation will suppress or delay the nonlinear instability. (orig.)

  18. Rift propagation

    Parmentier, E. M.; Schubert, G.

    1989-01-01

    A model for rift propagation which treats the rift as a crack in an elastic plate which is filled from beneath by upwelling viscous asthenosphere as it lengthens and opens. Growth of the crack is driven by either remotely applied forces or the pressure of buoyant asthenosphere in the crack and is resisted by viscous stresses associated with filling the crack. The model predicts a time for a rift to form which depends primarily on the driving stress and asthenosphere viscosity. For a driving stress on the order of 10 MPa, as expected from the topography of rifted swells, the development of rifts over times of a few Myr requires an asthenosphere viscosity of 10 to the 16th Pa s (10 to the 17th poise). This viscosity, which is several orders of magnitude less than values determined by postglacial rebound and at least one order of magnitude less than that inferred for spreading center propagation, may reflect a high temperature or large amount of partial melting in the mantle beneath a rifted swell.

  19. Relativistic conformal symmetry of neural field propagation in the brain

    Romero, Juan M; Aguilar, Berenice; Tirradentro, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we address a neural field equation that characterizes spatio-temporal propagation of a neural population pulse. Due that the human brain is a complex system whose constituents interaction give rise to fundamental states of consciousness and behavior, it is crucial to gain insight into its functioning even at relativistic scales. To this end, we study the action of the relativistic conformal group on the accounted neural field propagation equation. In particular, we obtain an exact solution for the field propagation equation when the space-time is 3 or 4 dimensional. Furthermore, in the 4 dimensional case and the large distance limit, it is shown that the neural population pulse becomes a Yukawa potential.

  20. Effect of microbial action on the corrosion potential of austenitic alloy containers for high-level nuclear waste

    The safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) entails the ability to ensure the integrity of waste containers for prolonged time periods. It is generally accepted that under certain conditions, microbial action may change local benign environments to those in which localized corrosion can be actively promoted. The use of repassivation potential (Erp) in relation to the value of the corrosion potential (Ecorr) has been proposed as a means of assessing the propensity of a metallic material to localized corrosion. Microbial activity is known to influence Ecorr however, the precise mechanism is unresolved. Shewanella putrefaciens, a bacteria with many of the characteristics of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), are being grown under controlled conditions on 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces to understand the relationship between Ecorr and metabolic activity. It has been observed that the growth of the bacteria under aerobic conditions, without the production of metabolic sulfide, leads to only minor variation in Ecorr. These changes possibly correlate to the periods of active bacterial growth

  1. Effect of microbial action on the corrosion potential of austenitic alloy containers for high-level nuclear waste

    Angell, P.; Dunn, D.S.; Cragnolino, G.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1996-08-01

    The safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) entails the ability to ensure the integrity of waste containers for prolonged time periods. It is generally accepted that under certain conditions, microbial action may change local benign environments to those in which localized corrosion can be actively promoted. The use of repassivation potential (E{sub rp}) in relation to the value of the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) has been proposed as a means of assessing the propensity of a metallic material to localized corrosion. Microbial activity is known to influence E{sub corr} however, the precise mechanism is unresolved. Shewanella putrefaciens, a bacteria with many of the characteristics of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), are being grown under controlled conditions on 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces to understand the relationship between E{sub corr} and metabolic activity. It has been observed that the growth of the bacteria under aerobic conditions, without the production of metabolic sulfide, leads to only minor variation in E{sub corr}. These changes possibly correlate to the periods of active bacterial growth.

  2. Sources of actual and potential radioactive contamination at the Dnieper River basin with regard to preparation of strategic action plan

    Full text: The Dnieper River basin is one of the largest drainage areas in Europe. The modern Dnieper is a cascade of large artificial reservoirs (Kiev, Kanev, Kremenchug, Dniprodzerzhinsk, Zaporozhie, Kakhovske) carrying its water to the Black Sea. It is largest water artery of Ukraine where more then 20 million of peoples live, and which water extensively use for water supply, fishery, irrigation and recreation in the region. At the same time the Dnieper basin is the most important industrial, agricultural congested area. About 20 units of Nuclear Reactors are in operation of 6 NPP situated on the territory of Ukraine (4) and Russia (2) as well. This area was also heavy contaminated mainly with long-lived radionuclides such as Cs 137 and Sr 90 and Pu due to Chernobyl releases in 1986. In the central part of Ukraine Uranium mining and uranium ores re-processing industry are developed. At the moment most of these facilities are suspended their activity because economical reason. However the problem of uranium tailing of liquid and solid wastes are remain to be one of the serious sources for the Environmental contamination and uncertainties with its impact to the human health in the region (Zheltie Vodi town and Dnieprodzerzhinsk). The Radiation Risk Assessment of the environmental impacts of these sources ('Hot spots') in the basin and Priorities for potential actions to reduce the ecological Risks of its impacts are considering. The Results of this study are the basis for Strategic Action Plan recommended for three countries (Ukraine, Russia and Belarus) at the Dnieper River Basin obtained using Optimization Procedures and experience of Radiation Protection Practice

  3. Effectiveness of elite female basketball players’ technical-tactic actions and ways for their improvement at stage of maximal realization of individual potentials

    Sushko R.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study effectiveness of elite female basketball players’ technical-tactic actions and determine the ways for their improvement at stage of maximal realization of individual potentials. Material: the authors analyzed competition functioning’s indicators of female basketball players of national combined team of Ukraine and their age characteristics. Results: effectiveness of technical-tactic actions in structure of national female basketball players’ combined team of Ukraine competition functioning at European championship. The authors present: indicators of team composition; roles in team; won and lost games; quantity of scored and skipped points; technical-tactic actions; age of sportswomen. Age indicators of elite female basketball players at stage of maximal realization have been given. Conclusions: we have composed a list of the most important technical-tactic actions in competition functioning. We also outlined ways for their perfection at stage of maximal realization of individual potentials of elite female basketball players of different game roles.

  4. Assessing the Electrode-Neuron Interface with the Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential, Electrode Position, and Behavioral Thresholds.

    DeVries, Lindsay; Scheperle, Rachel; Bierer, Julie Arenberg

    2016-06-01

    Variability in speech perception scores among cochlear implant listeners may largely reflect the variable efficacy of implant electrodes to convey stimulus information to the auditory nerve. In the present study, three metrics were applied to assess the quality of the electrode-neuron interface of individual cochlear implant channels: the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP), the estimation of electrode position using computerized tomography (CT), and behavioral thresholds using focused stimulation. The primary motivation of this approach is to evaluate the ECAP as a site-specific measure of the electrode-neuron interface in the context of two peripheral factors that likely contribute to degraded perception: large electrode-to-modiolus distance and reduced neural density. Ten unilaterally implanted adults with Advanced Bionics HiRes90k devices participated. ECAPs were elicited with monopolar stimulation within a forward-masking paradigm to construct channel interaction functions (CIF), behavioral thresholds were obtained with quadrupolar (sQP) stimulation, and data from imaging provided estimates of electrode-to-modiolus distance and scalar location (scala tympani (ST), intermediate, or scala vestibuli (SV)) for each electrode. The width of the ECAP CIF was positively correlated with electrode-to-modiolus distance; both of these measures were also influenced by scalar position. The ECAP peak amplitude was negatively correlated with behavioral thresholds. Moreover, subjects with low behavioral thresholds and large ECAP amplitudes, averaged across electrodes, tended to have higher speech perception scores. These results suggest a potential clinical role for the ECAP in the objective assessment of individual cochlear implant channels, with the potential to improve speech perception outcomes. PMID:26926152

  5. Possibilities and limitations of vegetative propagation in breeding and mass propagation of Norway spruce

    Högberg, Karl-Anders

    2003-01-01

    The use of vegetative mass propagation in practical forestry with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is limited at present, although its potential to deliver high genetic gains is obvious. The objective of this thesis was to study possibilities and limitations of vegetative propagation when applied in different parts of a breeding/mass propagation system for Norway spruce. Two vegetative propagation methods were studied: somatic embryogenesis and cutting propagation. Somatic embryogenesi...

  6. An improved effective potential for electroweak phase transitions

    Balakrishnan, J; Janaki Balakrishnan; Ian G Moss

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that improved potentials and corrected mass terms can be introduced by using a quadratic source term in the path integral construction for the effective action. The advantage of doing things this way is that we avoid ever having to deal with complex propagators in the loop expansion. The resulting effective action for electroweak phase transitions is similar to the usual results.

  7. Study of crotoxin mechanism of action to mammary carcinomas and evaluation of its potential as a radiopharmaceutical

    Crotoxin, the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, has been studied since 1938. It is a natural polypeptidic complex with pharmacological potential because of its antitumoral properties which has attracted great interest for diagnosis and therapy of oncological diseases. However, Crotoxin mechanism of action and sites of specific interaction on tumor cells are still misunderstood. Breast cancer is the second most frequent type in the world and the most common cancer in women. About 30 to 60% of mammary tumors overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a transmembrane protein related to cell proliferation. Since literature has reported that Crotoxin antitumoral effect is more potent on cells with EGFR overexpression the objectives of this work were to evaluate Crotoxin cytotoxic effects on mammary tumor cells human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and Ehrlich tumor cells (murine ascitics carcinoma), and to investigate the specific molecular interaction of Crotoxin on Ehrlich tumor cells. Initially, Crotoxin was radiolabelled with iodine-125 (125I-Crotoxin) and iodine-131 (131I-Crotoxin). Saturation and competition assay were carried out to characterize Crotoxin in vitro interaction; Crotoxin biodistribution studies and singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT) of mice bearing Ehrlich tumor have been evaluated to describe in vivo interaction. Our results showed that Crotoxin presented cytotoxic effect against Ehrlich with DL50 in vitro (concentration of compound which is lethal for 50% of cells) of about one micromolar, but did not present significant effect against MCF-7. Morphological alterations characteristic of apoptosis suggests programmed cell death. 125I-Crotoxin interaction with Ehrlich tumor cells was saturable with approximately 70% specificity, and presented Kd=24.98 nmol/L and Bmax=16,570 sites/cell for low affinity binding sites and Kd=0.06 nmol/L and Bmax=210 sites/cell high affinity binding sites; moreover, the

  8. Propagating Synchrony in Feed-Forward Networks

    Sven eJahnke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated patterns of precisely timed action potentials (spikes emerge in a variety of neural circuits but their dynamical originis still not well understood. One hypothesis states that synchronous activity propagating through feed-forward chains of groups of neurons (synfire chains may dynamically generate such spike patterns. Additionally, synfire chains offer the possibility to enable reliable signal transmission. So far, mostly densely connected chains, often with all-to-all connectivity between groups, have been theoretically and computationally studied. Yet, such prominent feed-forward structures have not been observed experimentally. Here we analytically and numerically investigate under which conditions diluted feed-forward chains may exhibit synchrony propagation. In addition to conventional linear input summation, we study the impact of nonlinear, non-additive summation accounting for the effect of fast dendritic spikes. The non-linearities promote synchronous inputs to generate precisely timed spikes. We identify how non-additive coupling relaxes the conditions on connectivity such that it enables synchrony propagation at connectivities substantially lower than required for linearly coupled chains. Although the analytical treatment is based on a simple leaky integrate-and-fire neuron model, we show how to generalize our methods to biologically more detailed neuron models and verify our results by numerical simulations with, e.g., Hodgkin Huxley type neurons.

  9. Sanitation Can Be A Foundation Disease Management Tool: Potential Of Spreading Binucleate Rhizoctonia from Nursery Propagation Floors To Trays Containing Azalea Stem Cuttings

    Binucelate Rhizoctonia spp. (BNR), the cause of web blight, are present all year on container-grown azaleas in the southern U.S. BNR can be eliminated during vegetative propagation by submerging stem cuttings in 50°C water for 21 minutes. The objective was to evaluate risk of rooting trays being con...

  10. Effects of Ginkgolide B on action potential and calcium,potassium current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes

    Xiao-yan QI; Zhi-xiong ZHANG; You-qiu XU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Ginkgolide B (GB) on action potential (AP), delayed rectifier potassium current (IK), and L-type calcium current (ICa-L) in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. METHODS: Single ventricular myocytes were isolated by an enzymatic dissociation method. AP, IK, ICa-L were recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique in either current or voltage clamp mode. RESULTS: GB shortened APD in a concentration-dependent manner. GB 0.1, 1, and 10 μmol/L shortened APD50 by 7.9 % (n=5, P>0.05), 18.4 % (n=5, P<0.01), and 28.9 % (n=6, P<0.01), respectively; APD90 by 12.4 % (n=5, P>0.05), 17.6 % (n=5, P<0.01), 26.4 % (n=5, P<0.01),respectively. GB increased IK in a concentration-dependent manner. GB 0.1, 1, and l0 μmol/L increased IK by 20.1% (n=6, P<0.05), 43.1% (n=6, P<0.01), 55.6 % (n=6, P<0.05); increased IKtail by 10.7 % (n=6, P<0.05),25.1% (n=6, P<0.05), and 37.7 % (n=6, P<0.05), respectively at testing potential of +50 mV and shift the I-V curve of Ik upward. But GB had no significant effect on ICa-L at above concentrations. CONCLUSION: GB significantly shortened APD in a concentration-dependent manner which mainly due to increase of IK.

  11. Percutaneous method for single-catheter multiple monophasic action potential recordings during magnetocardiographic mapping in spontaneously breathing rodents

    To test the feasibility of a novel method to combine magnetocardiographic (MCG) estimate of ventricular repolarization (VR) and multiple monophasic action potential (MultiMAP) recording in spontaneously breathing rodents with percutaneous sub-xyphoid epicardial placement of a MCG-compatible amagnetic catheter (AC), ten Wistar rats (WRs) and ten guinea pigs (GPs) were studied. Under fluoroscopic control, the AC was moved until four stable MAPs were recorded (fixed inter-electrode distance of 1.2 mm). 36-channel DC-SQUID (sensitivity 20 fT Hz–½) were used for MCG mapping. MAPs, differentially amplified (BW: DC-500 Hz), were digitized at 1 kHz. AC pacing provided local ventricular effective refractory period (VERP) estimate. MAP duration (MAPd) was measured at 50% and 90% levels of repolarization. Simultaneous MCG mapping and MultiMAP recording were successful in all animals. Average MAPd50% and MAPd90% were shorter in WRs than in GPs (26.4 ± 2.9 ms versus 110.6 ± 14.3 ms and 60.7 ± 5.4 ms versus 127.7 ± 15.3 ms, respectively). VERP was 51 ± 4.8 ms in WRs and 108.4 ± 12.9 ms in GPs, respectively. The MAP amplitude was 16.9 ± 4.5 in WRs and 16.2 ± 4.2 in GPs. MAP and MCG parameters of VR were in good agreement. All animals survived the procedure. Two also survived a second invasive study; one was followed up until natural death at 52 months. Percutaneous MultiMAP recording is minimally invasive, usually avoids animal sacrifice, is compatible with simultaneous surface MCG mapping and might be used for experimental validation of MCG VR abnormality, to study the arrhythmogenic potential of new drugs and/or animal models of ventricular arrhythmias. (paper)

  12. Copper(II)-Bis(Thiosemicarbazonato) Complexes as Antibacterial Agents: Insights into Their Mode of Action and Potential as Therapeutics.

    Djoko, Karrera Y; Goytia, Maira M; Donnelly, Paul S; Schembri, Mark A; Shafer, William M; McEwan, Alastair G

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of lipophilic copper (Cu)-containing complexes to combat bacterial infections. In this work, we showed that Cu complexes with bis(thiosemicarbazone) ligands [Cu(btsc)] exert antibacterial activity against a range of medically significant pathogens. Previous work using Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed that Cu(btsc) complexes may act as inhibitors of respiratory dehydrogenases in the electron transport chain. We now show that these complexes are also toxic against pathogens that lack a respiratory chain. Respiration in Escherichia coli was slightly affected by Cu(btsc) complexes, but our results indicate that, in this model bacterium, the complexes act primarily as agents that deliver toxic Cu ions efficiently into the cytoplasm. Although the chemistry of Cu(btsc) complexes may dictate their mechanism of action, their efficacy depends heavily on bacterial physiology. This is linked to the ability of the target bacterium to tolerate Cu and, additionally, the susceptibility of the respiratory chain to direct inhibition by Cu(btsc) complexes. The physiology of N. gonorrhoeae, including multidrug-resistant strains, makes it highly susceptible to damage by Cu ions and Cu(btsc) complexes, highlighting the potential of Cu(btsc) complexes (and Cu-based therapeutics) as a promising treatment against this important bacterial pathogen. PMID:26239980

  13. Liénard-type models for the simulation of the action potential of cardiac nodal cells

    Podziemski, P.; Żebrowski, J. J.

    2013-10-01

    Existing models of cardiac cells which include multi-variable cardiac transmembrane current are too complex to simulate the long time dynamical properties of the heart rhythm. The large number of parameters that need to be defined and set for such models make them not only cumbersome to use but also require a large computing power. Consequently, the application of such models for the bedside analysis of heart rate of a specific patient may be difficult. Other ways of modelling need to be investigated. We consider the general problem of developing a model of cardiac pacemaker tissue that allows to combine the investigation of phenomena at a time scale of thousands of heart beats with the ability to reproduce realistic tissue-level characteristics of cell dynamics. We propose a modified van der Pol-Duffing equation-a Liénard-type oscillator-as a phenomenological model for cardiac nodal tissue, with certain important physiological similarities to ion-channel models of cardiac pacemaker cells. The model presented here is specifically designed to qualitatively reproduce mesoscopic characteristics of cell dynamics, including action potential duration (APD) restitution properties, phase response characteristics, and phase space structure. We show that these characteristics agree qualitatively with the extensive ionic models and experimental results in the literature [Anumonwo et al., 1991, [33], Cao et al., 1999, [49], Coster and Celler, 2003, [31], Qu, 2004, [45], Tsalikakis et al., 2007, [32], Inada et al., 2009, [14], Qu et al., 2010, [50

  14. Theoretical study of L-type Ca(2+) current inactivation kinetics during action potential repolarization and early afterdepolarizations.

    Morotti, Stefano; Grandi, Eleonora; Summa, Aurora; Ginsburg, Kenneth S; Bers, Donald M

    2012-09-15

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release mediates excitation–contraction coupling (ECC) in cardiac myocytes. It is triggered upon membrane depolarization by entry of Ca(2+) via L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs), which undergo both voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation (VDI and CDI, respectively). We developed improved models of L-type Ca(2+) current and SR Ca(2+) release within the framework of the Shannon-Bers rabbit ventricular action potential (AP) model. The formulation of SR Ca(2+) release was modified to reproduce high ECC gain at negative membrane voltages. An existing LTCC model was extended to reflect more faithfully contributions of CDI and VDI to total inactivation. Ba(2+) current inactivation included an ion-dependent component (albeit small compared with CDI), in addition to pure VDI. Under physiological conditions (during an AP) LTCC inactivates predominantly via CDI, which is controlled mostly by SR Ca(2+) release during the initial AP phase, but by Ca(2+) through LTCCs for the remaining part. Simulations of decreased CDI or K(+) channel block predicted the occurrence of early and delayed after depolarizations. Our model accurately describes ECC and allows dissection of the relative contributions of different Ca(2+) sources to total CDI, and the relative roles of CDI and VDI, during normal and abnormal repolarization. PMID:22586219

  15. Electrophysiological evaluation of nerve function in inferior alveolar nerve injury: relationship between nerve action potentials and histomorphometric observations.

    Murayama, M; Sasaki, K; Shibahara, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury by determining degrees of nerve disturbance using the sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) and sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV). Crush and partial and complete nerve amputation injuries were applied to the IAN of rabbits, then SNAPs and histomorphometric observations were recorded at 1, 5, and 10 weeks. For crush injury, most nerves were smaller in diameter at 5 weeks than at 1 week, however after 10 weeks, extensive nerve regeneration was observed. The SNAP showed a decrease in SCV at weeks 1 and 5, followed by an increase at week 10. For partial nerve amputation, small to medium-sized nerve fibres were observed at weeks 1 and 5, then larger nerves were seen at week 10. Minimal changes in SCV were observed at weeks 1 and 5, however SCV increased at week 10. For complete nerve amputation, nerve fibres were sparse at week 1, but gradual nerve regeneration was observed at weeks 5 and 10. SNAPs were detectable from week 10, however the SCV was extremely low. This study showed SCV to be an effective factor in the evaluation of nerve injury and regeneration. PMID:26433750

  16. Dendrite-derived supernumerary axons on adult axotomized motor neurons possess proteins that are essential for the initiation and propagation of action potentials and synaptic vesicle release

    Meehan, Claire Francesca; MacDermid, Victoria E; Montague, Steven J;

    2011-01-01

    . This study extends this definition to determine whether, more importantly, these processes possess the prerequisite molecular machinery to function as axons. Using a combination of intracellular labeling and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that the distribution of voltage-gated sodium channels on...... from the tips of distal dendrites represent a rearrangement of neuronal polarity whereby axotomized neurons can develop additional functional axons in vivo....

  17. Group symmetries and information propagation

    Spectroscopy concerns itself with the ways in which the Hamiltonian and other interesting operators defined in few-particle spaces are determined or determine properties of many-particle systems. But the action of the central limit theorem (CLT) filters the transmission of information between source and observed so whether propagating forward from a few-particle defining space, as is usual in theoretical studies, or projecting backward to it from measured things, each is only sensitive to averaged properties of the other. Our concern is with the propagation of spectroscopic information in the presence of good symmetries when filtering action of the CLT is effective. Specifically, we propose to address the question, What propagates and how. We begin with some examples, using both scalar and isospin geometries to illustrate simple propagation. Examples of matrix propagation are studied; contact with standard tensor algebra is established and an algorithm put forward for the expansion of any operator in terms of another set, complete or not; shell-model results for 20Ne using a realistic interaction and two trace-equivalent forms are presented; and some further challenges are mentioned

  18. Lanczos wave packet propagation on coupled potential energy surfaces: the three body predissociation of rotating D3 and H3 {{3}^{2}}{{A}^{\\prime }}(2sa_{1}^{\\prime })

    Lehner, M.; Jungen, M.

    2015-02-01

    A three-dimensional wave packet method, based on Lanczos tridiagonalization of the Hamiltonian, is introduced and applied to the three-particle predissociation of rotating D3 and H3 3{{ }2}{{A}\\prime } (2sa1\\prime ). The time-dependent propagation calculations on the (diabatic) ground state potential energy surfaces include the non-adiabatic transition from the excited initial state. Results for the eight lowest vibrational levels are presented as Dalitz plots and compared to momentum correlation measurements.

  19. An exploratory investigation of various modes of action and potential adverse outcomes of fluoxetine in marine mussels

    Highlights: • Mode of action (MOA) related endpoints and biomarkers of toxicity were assessed in mussels exposed to fluoxetine (FX). • Significant FX bioaccumulation was observed in tissues of mussels exposed to 30 and 300 ng/L FX. • Alterations of cAMP-related cell signaling were observed in exposed mussels as part of the MOA of FX. • FX reduced the health status of mussels inducing lysosomal effects in digestive gland and antioxidant responses in gills. • The importance of considering additional MOAs and adverse outcome pathways for FX impacts on mussels is highlighted. - Abstract: The present study investigated possible adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) of the antidepressant fluoxetine (FX) in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. An evaluation of molecular endpoints involved in modes of action (MOAs) of FX and biomarkers for sub-lethal toxicity were explored in mussels after a 7-day administration of nominal FX concentrations encompassing a range of environmentally relevant values (0.03–300 ng/L). FX bioaccumulated in mussel tissues after treatment with 30 and 300 ng/L FX, resulting in bioconcentration factor (BCF) values ranging from 200 to 800, which were higher than expected based solely on hydrophobic partitioning models. Because FX acts as a selective serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor increasing serotonergic neurotransmission at mammalian synapses, cell signaling alterations triggered by 5-HT receptor occupations were assessed. cAMP levels and PKA activities were decreased in digestive gland and mantle/gonads of FX-treated mussels, consistent with an increased occupation of 5-HT1 receptors negatively coupled to the cAMP/PKA pathway. mRNA levels of a ABCB gene encoding the P-glycoprotein were also significantly down-regulated. This membrane transporter acts in detoxification towards xenobiotics and in altering pharmacokinetics of antidepressants; moreover, it is under a cAMP/PKA transcriptional regulation in mussels. Potential stress

  20. An exploratory investigation of various modes of action and potential adverse outcomes of fluoxetine in marine mussels

    Franzellitti, Silvia, E-mail: silvia.franzellitti@unibo.it [University of Bologna, Interdepartment Centre for Environmental Science Research, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, via Selmi 3, 40100 Bologna (Italy); Buratti, Sara; Capolupo, Marco [University of Bologna, Interdepartment Centre for Environmental Science Research, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); Du, Bowen; Haddad, Samuel P. [Department of Environmental Science, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Chambliss, C. Kevin [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Brooks, Bryan W. [Department of Environmental Science, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Fabbri, Elena [University of Bologna, Interdepartment Centre for Environmental Science Research, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, via Selmi 3, 40100 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Mode of action (MOA) related endpoints and biomarkers of toxicity were assessed in mussels exposed to fluoxetine (FX). • Significant FX bioaccumulation was observed in tissues of mussels exposed to 30 and 300 ng/L FX. • Alterations of cAMP-related cell signaling were observed in exposed mussels as part of the MOA of FX. • FX reduced the health status of mussels inducing lysosomal effects in digestive gland and antioxidant responses in gills. • The importance of considering additional MOAs and adverse outcome pathways for FX impacts on mussels is highlighted. - Abstract: The present study investigated possible adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) of the antidepressant fluoxetine (FX) in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. An evaluation of molecular endpoints involved in modes of action (MOAs) of FX and biomarkers for sub-lethal toxicity were explored in mussels after a 7-day administration of nominal FX concentrations encompassing a range of environmentally relevant values (0.03–300 ng/L). FX bioaccumulated in mussel tissues after treatment with 30 and 300 ng/L FX, resulting in bioconcentration factor (BCF) values ranging from 200 to 800, which were higher than expected based solely on hydrophobic partitioning models. Because FX acts as a selective serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor increasing serotonergic neurotransmission at mammalian synapses, cell signaling alterations triggered by 5-HT receptor occupations were assessed. cAMP levels and PKA activities were decreased in digestive gland and mantle/gonads of FX-treated mussels, consistent with an increased occupation of 5-HT1 receptors negatively coupled to the cAMP/PKA pathway. mRNA levels of a ABCB gene encoding the P-glycoprotein were also significantly down-regulated. This membrane transporter acts in detoxification towards xenobiotics and in altering pharmacokinetics of antidepressants; moreover, it is under a cAMP/PKA transcriptional regulation in mussels. Potential stress

  1. Heeding a Call to Action for U.S. Coral Reefs: the Untapped Potential of the Clean Water Act

    A recently published call to action by Dodge et al. (2008) identifies nine actions needed to protect coral reefs. The authors identify several management goals that cannot be accomplished with MPAs alone, the traditional approach to coral reef protection. For U.S. waters, the Cle...

  2. Approximate analytical solutions for excitation and propagation in cardiac tissue

    Greene, D'Artagnan; Shiferaw, Yohannes

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that a variety of cardiac arrhythmias are initiated by a focal excitation in heart tissue. At the single cell level these currents are typically induced by intracellular processes such as spontaneous calcium release (SCR). However, it is not understood how the size and morphology of these focal excitations are related to the electrophysiological properties of cardiac cells. In this paper a detailed physiologically based ionic model is analyzed by projecting the excitation dynamics to a reduced one-dimensional parameter space. Based on this analysis we show that the inward current required for an excitation to occur is largely dictated by the voltage dependence of the inward rectifier potassium current (IK 1) , and is insensitive to the detailed properties of the sodium current. We derive an analytical expression relating the size of a stimulus and the critical current required to induce a propagating action potential (AP), and argue that this relationship determines the necessary number of cells that must undergo SCR in order to induce ectopic activity in cardiac tissue. Finally, we show that, once a focal excitation begins to propagate, its propagation characteristics, such as the conduction velocity and the critical radius for propagation, are largely determined by the sodium and gap junction currents with a substantially lesser effect due to repolarizing potassium currents. These results reveal the relationship between ion channel properties and important tissue scale processes such as excitation and propagation.

  3. Action potential-evoked calcium release is impaired in single skeletal muscle fibers from heart failure patients.

    Marino DiFranco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (HF has been attributed to abnormalities of the skeletal muscles. Muscle function depends on intact excitation-contraction coupling (ECC, but ECC studies in HF models have been inconclusive, due to deficiencies in the animal models and tools used to measure calcium (Ca2+ release, mandating investigations in skeletal muscle from HF patients. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ca2+ release is significantly impaired in the skeletal muscle of HF patients in whom exercise capacity is severely diminished compared to age-matched healthy volunteers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using state-of-the-art electrophysiological and optical techniques in single muscle fibers from biopsies of the locomotive vastus lateralis muscle, we measured the action potential (AP-evoked Ca2+ release in 4 HF patients and 4 age-matched healthy controls. The mean peak Ca2+ release flux in fibers obtained from HF patients (10±1.2 µM/ms was markedly (2.6-fold and significantly (p<0.05 smaller than in fibers from healthy volunteers (28±3.3 µM/ms. This impairment in AP-evoked Ca2+ release was ubiquitous and was not explained by differences in the excitability mechanisms since single APs were indistinguishable between HF patients and healthy volunteers. CONCLUSIONS: These findings prove the feasibility of performing electrophysiological experiments in single fibers from human skeletal muscle, and offer a new approach for investigations of myopathies due to HF and other diseases. Importantly, we have demonstrated that one step in the ECC process, AP-evoked Ca2+ release, is impaired in single muscle fibers in HF patients.

  4. Elevated heart rate triggers action potential alternans and sudden death. translational study of a homozygous KCNH2 mutation.

    Ulrich Schweigmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome (LQTS leads to arrhythmic events and increased risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD. Homozygous KCNH2 mutations underlying LQTS-2 have previously been termed "human HERG knockout" and typically express severe phenotypes. We studied genotype-phenotype correlations of an LQTS type 2 mutation identified in the homozygous index patient from a consanguineous Turkish family after his brother died suddenly during febrile illness. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical work-up, DNA sequencing, mutagenesis, cell culture, patch-clamp, in silico mathematical modelling, protein biochemistry, confocal microscopy were performed. Genetic analysis revealed a homozygous C-terminal KCNH2 mutation (p.R835Q in the index patient (QTc ∼506 ms with notched T waves. Parents were I° cousins - both heterozygous for the mutation and clinically unremarkable (QTc ∼447 ms, father and ∼396 ms, mother. Heterologous expression of KCNH2-R835Q showed mildly reduced current amplitudes. Biophysical properties of ionic currents were also only nominally changed with slight acceleration of deactivation and more negative V50 in R835Q-currents. Protein biochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed similar expression patterns and trafficking of WT and R835Q, even at elevated temperature. In silico analysis demonstrated mildly prolonged ventricular action potential duration (APD compared to WT at a cycle length of 1000 ms. At a cycle length of 350 ms M-cell APD remained stable in WT, but displayed APD alternans in R835Q. CONCLUSION: Kv11.1 channels affected by the C-terminal R835Q mutation display mildly modified biophysical properties, but leads to M-cell APD alternans with elevated heart rate and could precipitate SCD under specific clinical circumstances associated with high heart rates.

  5. Evaluation of nystatin containing chitosan hydrogels as potential dual action bio-active restorative materials: in vitro approach.

    Perchyonok, V Tamara; Reher, Vanessa; Zhang, Shengmiao; Basson, Nicki; Grobler, Sias

    2014-01-01

    Healing is a specific biological process related to the general phenomenon of growth and tissue regeneration and is a process generally affected by several systemic conditions or as detrimental side-effects of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced inflammation of the oral mucosa. The objectives of this study is to evaluate the novel chitosan based functional drug delivery systems, which can be successfully incorporated into "dual action bioactive restorative materials", capable of inducing in vitro improved wound healing prototype and containing an antibiotic, such as nystatin, krill oil as an antioxidant and hydroxyapatite as a molecular bone scaffold, which is naturally present in bone and is reported to be successfully used in promoting bone integration when implanted as well as promoting healing. The hydrogels were prepared using a protocol as previously reported by us. The physico-chemical features, including surface morphology (SEM), release behaviors, stability of the therapeutic agent-antioxidant-chitosan, were measured and compared to the earlier reported chitosan-antioxidant containing hydrogels. Structural investigations of the reactive surface of the hydrogel are reported. Release of nystatin was investigated for all newly prepared hydrogels. Bio-adhesive studies were performed in order to assess the suitability of these designer materials. Free radical defense capacity of the biomaterials was evaluated using established in vitro model. The bio-adhesive capacity of the materials in the in vitro system was tested and quantified. It was found that the favorable synergistic effect of free radical built-in defense mechanism of the new functional materials increased sustainable bio-adhesion and therefore acted as a functional multi-dimensional restorative material with potential application in wound healing in vitro. PMID:25459982

  6. Evaluation of Nystatin Containing Chitosan Hydrogels as Potential Dual Action Bio-Active Restorative Materials: in Vitro Approach

    V. Tamara Perchyonok

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Healing is a specific biological process related to the general phenomenon of growth and tissue regeneration and is a process generally affected by several systemic conditions or as detrimental side-effects of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced inflammation of the oral mucosa. The objectives of this study is to evaluate the novel chitosan based functional drug delivery systems, which can be successfully incorporated into “dual action bioactive restorative materials”, capable of inducing in vitro improved wound healing prototype and containing an antibiotic, such as nystatin, krill oil as an antioxidant and hydroxyapatite as a molecular bone scaffold, which is naturally present in bone and is reported to be successfully used in promoting bone integration when implanted as well as promoting healing. The hydrogels were prepared using a protocol as previously reported by us. The physico-chemical features, including surface morphology (SEM, release behaviors, stability of the therapeutic agent-antioxidant-chitosan, were measured and compared to the earlier reported chitosan-antioxidant containing hydrogels. Structural investigations of the reactive surface of the hydrogel are reported. Release of nystatin was investigated for all newly prepared hydrogels. Bio-adhesive studies were performed in order to assess the suitability of these designer materials. Free radical defense capacity of the biomaterials was evaluated using established in vitro model. The bio-adhesive capacity of the materials in the in vitro system was tested and quantified. It was found that the favorable synergistic effect of free radical built-in defense mechanism of the new functional materials increased sustainable bio-adhesion and therefore acted as a functional multi-dimensional restorative material with potential application in wound healing in vitro.

  7. Problems, Prescriptions and Potential in Actionable Climate Change Science - A Case Study from California Coastal Marsh Research

    MacDonald, G. M.; Ambrose, R. F.; Thorne, K.; Takekawa, J.; Brown, L. N.; Fejtek, S.; Gold, M.; Rosencranz, J.

    2015-12-01

    Frustrations regarding the provision of actionable science extend to both producers and consumers. Scientists decry the lack of application of their research in shaping policy and practices while decision makers bemoan the lack of applicability of scientific research to the specific problems at hand or its narrow focus relative to the plethora of engineering, economic and social considerations that they must also consider. Incorporating climate change adds additional complexity due to uncertainties in estimating many facets of future climate, the inherent variability of climate and the decadal scales over which significant changes will develop. Recently a set of guidelines for successful science-policy interaction was derived from the analysis of transboundary water management. These are; 1 recognizing that science is a crucial but bounded input into the decision-making processes, 2 early establishment of conditions for collaboration and shared commitment among participants, 3 understanding that science-policy interactions are enhanced through greater collaboration and social or group-learning processes, 4 accepting that the collaborative production of knowledge is essential to build legitimate decision-making processes, and 5 engaging boundary organizations and informal networks as well as formal stakeholders. Here we present as a case study research on California coastal marshes, climate change and sea-level that is being conducted by university and USGS scientists under the auspices of the Southwest Climate Science Center. We also present research needs identified by a seperate analysis of best practices for coastal marsh restoration in the face of climate change that was conducted in extensive consultation with planners and managers. The initial communication, scientific research and outreach-dissemination of the marsh scientfic study are outlined and compared to best practices needs identified by planners and the science-policy guidelines outlined above

  8. Biophysical characterization of inwardly rectifying potassium currents (I(K1) I(K,ACh), I(K,Ca)) using sinus rhythm or atrial fibrillation action potential waveforms

    Tang, Chuyi; Skibsbye, Lasse; Yuan, Lei; Bentzen, Bo H; Jespersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    voltage protocols adapted from atrial action potentials recorded in human tissue at 1 and 3 Hz. The current recordings were performed in the HEK-293 heterologous cell system expressing either I(K1), I(K,ACh) or I(K,Ca) to establish the individual contribution of each of these currents during the voltage...

  9. Sensitivity of action potential to changes of inward rectifier potassium current IK1 is different in recent models of human ventricular cardiomyocytes

    Pásek, Michal; Šimurda, J.; Christé, G.

    Brno: Brno University of Technology, 2014 - (Fuis, V.), s. 476-479 ISBN 978-80-214-4871-1. ISSN 1805-8248. [Engineering Mechanics 2014. Svratka (CZ), 12.05.2014-15.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : human ventricular cardiomyocyte * action potential * inward rectifier potassium current * human ventricular cell model Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  10. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of selective phenolic acids on T47D human breast cancer cells: potential mechanisms of action

    Kampa, Marilena; Alexaki, Vassilia-Ismini; Notas, George; Nifli, Artemissia-Phoebe; Nistikaki, Anastassia; Hatzoglou, Anastassia; Bakogeorgou, Efstathia; Kouimtzoglou, Elena; Blekas, George; Boskou, Dimitrios; Gravanis, Achille; Castanas, Elias

    2003-01-01

    Introduction The oncoprotective role of food-derived polyphenol antioxidants has been described but the implicated mechanisms are not yet clear. In addition to polyphenols, phenolic acids, found at high concentrations in a number of plants, possess antioxidant action. The main phenolic acids found in foods are derivatives of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid. Methods This work concentrates on the antiproliferative action of caffeic acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid, protocatech...

  11. Complex-valued derivative propagation method with approximate Bohmian trajectories for quantum barrier scattering

    Chou, Chia-Chun, E-mail: ccchou@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2015-08-18

    Highlights: • The complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation is approximately solved in real space. • Equations of motion are derived through use of the derivative propagation method. • Numerically unstable reflected trajectories may pass through the potential barrier. • Transmitted wave packet is obtained by propagating individual Bohmian trajectories. • Excellent transmission probabilities are obtained for both thick and thin barriers. - Abstract: The complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation for the complex action is approximately solved by propagating individual Bohmian trajectories in real space. Equations of motion for the complex action and its spatial derivatives are derived through use of the derivative propagation method. We transform these equations into the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. Setting higher-order derivatives equal to zero, we obtain a truncated system of equations of motion describing the rate of change in the complex action and its spatial derivatives transported along approximate Bohmian trajectories. A set of test trajectories is propagated to determine appropriate initial positions for transmitted trajectories. Computational results for transmitted wave packets and transmission probabilities are presented and analyzed for a one-dimensional Eckart barrier and a two-dimensional system involving either a thick or thin Eckart barrier along the reaction coordinate coupled to a harmonic oscillator.

  12. Complex-valued derivative propagation method with approximate Bohmian trajectories for quantum barrier scattering

    Highlights: • The complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation is approximately solved in real space. • Equations of motion are derived through use of the derivative propagation method. • Numerically unstable reflected trajectories may pass through the potential barrier. • Transmitted wave packet is obtained by propagating individual Bohmian trajectories. • Excellent transmission probabilities are obtained for both thick and thin barriers. - Abstract: The complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation for the complex action is approximately solved by propagating individual Bohmian trajectories in real space. Equations of motion for the complex action and its spatial derivatives are derived through use of the derivative propagation method. We transform these equations into the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. Setting higher-order derivatives equal to zero, we obtain a truncated system of equations of motion describing the rate of change in the complex action and its spatial derivatives transported along approximate Bohmian trajectories. A set of test trajectories is propagated to determine appropriate initial positions for transmitted trajectories. Computational results for transmitted wave packets and transmission probabilities are presented and analyzed for a one-dimensional Eckart barrier and a two-dimensional system involving either a thick or thin Eckart barrier along the reaction coordinate coupled to a harmonic oscillator

  13. A computational model of the ionic currents, Ca2+ dynamics and action potentials underlying contraction of isolated uterine smooth muscle.

    Wing-Chiu Tong

    Full Text Available Uterine contractions during labor are discretely regulated by rhythmic action potentials (AP of varying duration and form that serve to determine calcium-dependent force production. We have employed a computational biology approach to develop a fuller understanding of the complexity of excitation-contraction (E-C coupling of uterine smooth muscle cells (USMC. Our overall aim is to establish a mathematical platform of sufficient biophysical detail to quantitatively describe known uterine E-C coupling parameters and thereby inform future empirical investigations of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms governing normal and dysfunctional labors. From published and unpublished data we construct mathematical models for fourteen ionic currents of USMCs: Ca2+ currents (L- and T-type, Na+ current, an hyperpolarization-activated current, three voltage-gated K+ currents, two Ca2+-activated K+ current, Ca2+-activated Cl current, non-specific cation current, Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, Na+-K+ pump and background current. The magnitudes and kinetics of each current system in a spindle shaped single cell with a specified surface area:volume ratio is described by differential equations, in terms of maximal conductances, electrochemical gradient, voltage-dependent activation/inactivation gating variables and temporal changes in intracellular Ca2+ computed from known Ca2+ fluxes. These quantifications are validated by the reconstruction of the individual experimental ionic currents obtained under voltage-clamp. Phasic contraction is modeled in relation to the time constant of changing [Ca2+]i. This integrated model is validated by its reconstruction of the different USMC AP configurations (spikes, plateau and bursts of spikes, the change from bursting to plateau type AP produced by estradiol and of simultaneous experimental recordings of spontaneous AP, [Ca2+]i and phasic force. In summary, our advanced mathematical model provides a powerful tool to

  14. Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals

    Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Pfeifer, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M. [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Schaefer, W.R., E-mail: wolfgang.schaefer@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17β-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ► We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ► 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak

  15. A Comparative Study On The Action Potential Simulation (APS Therapy And The Routine Physiotherapy Protocol In Knee Osteoarthritisin Elderly People

    Abbas Rahimi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common cause for which the elderly people refere to physiotherapy outpatient clinics. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the Action Potential Stimulation (APS Therapy and the routine physiotherapy (PT protocol on relieving pain and swelling as well as the duration of the relief period in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods: 69 patients (62 females & 7 males with knee osteoarthritis were recruited in this study. The subjects were divided into two groups including APS Therapy (n=37, mean age: 55±13 years old and the routine PT protocol (n=32, mean age: 61±14 years old groups. A 10-session treatment period was carried out for each group; and their pain and swelling were measured at the first, fifth and tenth sessions and also one-month after the last session (follow up. The swelling was measured using measuring the circumference of the knee on the patella, 5 Cm above and 5 Cm below the patella. The routine PT protocol consisted of hot pack, ultrasound, TENS and exercise; and the APS therapy protocol included hot pack, APS Therapy and the same exercise. During the follow up, 50 out of 61 subjects were called on the phone and any pain changes were recorded.Results: In terms of swelling, the results showed significant reduction just on the patella only in the APS Therapy group (P<0.05. Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS indicated a significant pain reduction in both groups. However, the APS Therapy group showed significantly pain reduction at the end of sessions five, ten and the follow up session (P<0.05. It was also revealed that while routine PT subjects showed no significant pain changes between the tenth and the follow up session, a gradual pain reduction was seen in the APS therapy group during this period (P<0.05. A gradual dosage reduction was recorded only in the APS therapy group, indicating a slight correlation with pain reduction (r=0.4.Conclusion: The

  16. Quantum dynamics via a time propagator in Wigner's phase space

    Grønager, Michael; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1995-01-01

    We derive an expression for a short-time phase space propagator. We use it in a new propagation scheme and demonstrate that it works for a Morse potential. The propagation scheme is used to propagate classical distributions which do not obey the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. It is shown...

  17. microRNA as a potential vector for the propagation of robustness in protein expression and oscillatory dynamics within a ceRNA network.

    Claude Gérard

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. miRNAs can induce thresholds in protein synthesis. Such thresholds in protein output can be also achieved by oligomerization of transcription factors (TF for the control of gene expression. First, we propose a minimal model for protein expression regulated by miRNA and by oligomerization of TF. We show that miRNA and oligomerization of TF generate a buffer, which increases the robustness of protein output towards molecular noise as well as towards random variation of kinetics parameters. Next, we extend the model by considering that the same miRNA can bind to multiple messenger RNAs, which accounts for the dynamics of a minimal competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs network. The model shows that, through common miRNA regulation, TF can control the expression of all proteins formed by the ceRNA network, even if it drives the expression of only one gene in the network. The model further suggests that the threshold in protein synthesis mediated by the oligomerization of TF can be propagated to the other genes, which can increase the robustness of the expression of all genes in such ceRNA network. Furthermore, we show that a miRNA could increase the time delay of a "Goodwin-like" oscillator model, which may favor the occurrence of oscillations of large amplitude. This result predicts important roles of miRNAs in the control of the molecular mechanisms leading to the emergence of biological rhythms. Moreover, a model for the latter oscillator embedded in a ceRNA network indicates that the oscillatory behavior can be propagated, via the shared miRNA, to all proteins formed by such ceRNA network. Thus, by means of computational models, we show that miRNAs could act as vectors allowing the propagation of robustness in protein synthesis as well as oscillatory behaviors within ceRNA networks.

  18. Potential role of TBC1D4 in enhanced post-exercise insulin action in human skeletal muscle

    Treebak, Jonas Thue; Frøsig, Christian; Pehmøller, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: TBC1 domain family, member 4 (TBC1D4; also known as AS160) is a cellular signalling intermediate to glucose transport regulated by insulin-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity is increased after acute exercise by an unknown mechanism that doe...... insulin action after exercise....

  19. Simulation of propagation in a bundle of skeletal muscle fibers: Modulation effects of passive fibers

    Henneberg, Kaj-åge; F.A., Roberge

    1997-01-01

    Computer simulations are used to study passive fiber modulation of propagation in a tightly packed bundle of frog skeletal muscle fibers (uniform fiber radius of 50 mu m). With T = 20 degrees C and a uniform nominal interstitial cleft width (d) over bar = 0.35 mu m, about 92% of the active fiber...... rate of rise of the action potential upstroke (V-max) from 512 to 503 V/s. Increasing the phase angle of the passive fiber membrane impedence (Z(m)) increases the phase delay between I-ma and I-ep, thereby increasing phi(epp) which in turn slows down propagation and increases V-max....

  20. Propagation of Gravitational Waves in Generalized TeVeS

    Sagi, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Efforts are underway to improve the design and sensitivity of gravitational waves detectors, with the hope that the next generation of these detectors will observe a gravitational wave signal. Such a signal will not only provide information on dynamics in the strong gravity regime that characterizes potential sources of gravitational waves, but will also serve as a decisive test for alternative theories of gravitation that are consistent with all other current experimental observations. We study the linearized theory of the tensor-vector-scalar theory of gravity (TeVeS) with generalized vector action, an alternative theory of gravitation designed to explain the apparent deficit of visible matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies without postulating yet undetected dark matter. We find the polarization states and propagation speeds for gravitational waves in vacuum, and show that in addition to the usual transverse-traceless propagation modes, there are two more transverse modes and two trace modes. Addition...

  1. Action-potential duration and the modulation of transmitter release from the sensory neurons of Aplysia in presynaptic facilitation and behavioral sensitization

    Hochner, Binyamin; Klein, Marc; Schacher, Samuel; Kandel, Eric R.

    1986-01-01

    Presynaptic facilitation of transmitter release from Aplysia sensory neurons is an important contributor to behavioral sensitization of the gill and siphon withdrawal reflex. The enhanced release is accompanied by reduction of the serotonin-sensitive S current in the sensory neurons and a consequent increase in duration of the presynaptic action potential (ranging from 10% to 30%). We find that changes of similar magnitude in the duration of depolarizing voltage-clamp steps in sensory neurons...

  2. Anti-cancer and potential chemopreventive actions of ginseng by activating Nrf2 (NFE2L2) anti-oxidative stress/anti-inflammatory pathways

    Wu Qing; Saw Constance; Kong Ah-Ng Tony

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews recent basic and clinical studies of ginseng, particularly the anti-cancer effects and the potential chemopreventive actions by activating the transcriptional factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2 or NFE2L2)-mediated anti-oxidative stress or anti-inflammatory pathways. Nrf2 is a novel target for cancer prevention as it regulates the antioxidant responsive element (ARE), a critical regulatory element in the promoter region of genes encoding cel...

  3. Early Afterdepolarizations with Growing Amplitudes via Delayed Subcritical Hopf Bifurcations and Unstable Manifolds of Saddle Foci in Cardiac Action Potential Dynamics

    Kügler, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are pathological oscillations in cardiac action potentials during the repolarization phase and may be caused by drug side effects, ion channel disease or oxidative stress. The most widely observed EAD pattern is characterized by oscillations with growing amplitudes. So far, its occurence has been explained in terms of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the action potential dynamics from which stable limit cycles with growing amplitudes emerge. The novel contribution of this article is the introduction of two alternative explanations of EAD genesis with growing amplitudes that do not involve stable limit cycles in fast subsystems. In particular, we demonstrate that EAD patterns with growing amplitudes may alternatively arise due to a delayed subcritical Hopf bifurcation or an unstable manifold of a saddle focus fixed point in the full fast-slow system modelling the action potential. Our work extends the list of possible dynamical EAD mechanisms and may contribute to a classification of drug effects in preclinical cardiotoxicity testing. PMID:26977805

  4. Evaluation of Nystatin Containing Chitosan Hydrogels as Potential Dual Action Bio-Active Restorative Materials: in Vitro Approach

    V. Tamara Perchyonok; Vanessa Reher; Shengmiao Zhang; Nicki Basson; Sias Grobler

    2014-01-01

    Healing is a specific biological process related to the general phenomenon of growth and tissue regeneration and is a process generally affected by several systemic conditions or as detrimental side-effects of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced inflammation of the oral mucosa. The objectives of this study is to evaluate the novel chitosan based functional drug delivery systems, which can be successfully incorporated into “dual action bioactive restorative materials”, capable of inducing i...

  5. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of selective phenolic acids on T47D human breast cancer cells: potential mechanisms of action

    The oncoprotective role of food-derived polyphenol antioxidants has been described but the implicated mechanisms are not yet clear. In addition to polyphenols, phenolic acids, found at high concentrations in a number of plants, possess antioxidant action. The main phenolic acids found in foods are derivatives of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid. This work concentrates on the antiproliferative action of caffeic acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid and 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid (PAA) on T47D human breast cancer cells, testing their antioxidant activity and a number of possible mechanisms involved (interaction with membrane and intracellular receptors, nitric oxide production). The tested compounds showed a time-dependent and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth with the following potency: caffeic acid > ferulic acid = protocatechuic acid = PAA > sinapic acid = syringic acid. Caffeic acid and PAA were chosen for further analysis. The antioxidative activity of these phenolic acids in T47D cells does not coincide with their inhibitory effect on tumoral proliferation. No interaction was found with steroid and adrenergic receptors. PAA induced an inhibition of nitric oxide synthase, while caffeic acid competes for binding and results in an inhibition of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-induced CYP1A1 enzyme. Both agents induce apoptosis via the Fas/FasL system. Phenolic acids exert a direct antiproliferative action, evident at low concentrations, comparable with those found in biological fluids after ingestion of foods rich in phenolic acids. Furthermore, the direct interaction with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, the nitric oxide synthase inhibition and their pro-apoptotic effect provide some insights into their biological mode of action

  6. Promoting HIV Vaccine Research in African American Communities: Does the Theory of Reasoned Action Explain Potential Outcomes of Involvement?

    Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration o...

  7. Deleting the accessory subunit KChIP2 results in loss of I(to,f) and increased I(K,slow) that maintains normal action potential configuration

    Thomsen, Morten B; Sosunov, Eugene A; Anyukhovsky, Evgeny P; Ozgen, Nazira; Boyden, Penelope A; Rosen, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    potential duration (APD) is maintained in KChIP2 knockout mice. OBJECTIVE: We tested the role of KChIP2 in regulating APD and studied the underlying ionic currents. METHODS: We used microelectrode techniques, whole-cell patch clamp studies, and real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification to...... characterize ventricular repolarization and its determinants in wild-type and KChIP2(-/-) mice. RESULTS: Despite comparable baseline action potentials, APD was more markedly prolonged by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in KChIP2(-/-) preparations. Peak K(+) current densities were similar in wild-type and KChIP2...

  8. Differential expression of hERG1 channel isoforms reproduces properties of native I(Kr) and modulates cardiac action potential characteristics

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2010-01-01

    The repolarizing cardiac rapid delayed rectifier current, I(Kr), is composed of ERG1 channels. It has been suggested that two isoforms of the ERG1 protein, ERG1a and ERG1b, both contribute to I(Kr). Marked heterogeneity in the kinetic properties of native I(Kr) has been described. We hypothesized...... that the heterogeneity of native I(Kr) can be reproduced by differential expression of ERG1a and ERG1b isoforms. Furthermore, the functional consequences of differential expression of ERG1 isoforms were explored as a potential mechanism underlying native heterogeneity of action potential duration (APD...

  9. Cell-to-Cell Propagation of the Bacterial Toxin CNF1 via Extracellular Vesicles: Potential Impact on the Therapeutic Use of the Toxin

    Alessia Fabbri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs, either constitutively or in a regulated manner, which represent an important mode of intercellular communication. EVs serve as vehicles for transfer between cells of membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids and RNA. Furthermore, certain bacterial protein toxins, or possibly their derived messages, can be transferred cell to cell via EVs. We have herein demonstrated that eukaryotic EVs represent an additional route of cell-to-cell propagation for the Escherichia coli protein toxin cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1. Our results prove that EVs from CNF1 pre-infected epithelial cells can induce cytoskeleton changes, Rac1 and NF-κB activation comparable to that triggered by CNF1. The observation that the toxin is detectable inside EVs derived from CNF1-intoxicated cells strongly supports the hypothesis that extracellular vesicles can offer to the toxin a novel route to travel from cell to cell. Since anthrax and tetanus toxins have also been reported to engage in the same process, we can hypothesize that EVs represent a common mechanism exploited by bacterial toxins to enhance their pathogenicity.

  10. The semiclassical propagator in fermionic Fock space

    Engl, Thomas; Urbina, Juan Diego; Richter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    We present a rigorous derivation of a semiclassical propagator for anticommuting (fermionic) degrees of freedom, starting from an exact representation in terms of Grassmann variables. As a key feature of our approach the anticommuting variables are integrated out exactly, and an exact path integral representation of the fermionic propagator in terms of commuting variables is constructed. Since our approach is not based on auxiliary (Hubbard-Stratonovich) fields, it surpasses the calculation of fermionic determinants yielding a standard form $\\int {\\cal D}[\\psi,\\psi^{*}] {\\rm e}^{i R[\\psi,\\psi^{*}]}$ with real actions for the propagator. These two features allow us to provide a rigorous definition of the classical limit of interacting fermionic fields and therefore to achieve the long-standing goal of a theoretically sound construction of a semiclassical van Vleck-Gutzwiller propagator in fermionic Fock space. As an application, we use our propagator to investigate how the different universality classes (ortho...

  11. Non-destructive generation of nano-scale periodic pinning potentials for magnetic domain walls: a way to bias domain wall propagation

    Metaxas, Peter; Zermatten, Pierre-Jean; Novak, Rafael; Jamet, Jean-Pierre; Weil, Raphael; Rohart, Stanislas; Ferre, Jacques; Mougin, Alexandra; Stamps, Robert; Baltz, Vincent; Rodmacq, Bernard; Gaudin, Gilles

    2012-02-01

    The stray magnetic field of an array of ferromagnetic nanodots is used to generate a spatially periodic pinning potential for domain walls moving through a physically separate, weakly disordered, magnetic layer lying beneath the array. This technique represents a non-destructive method to create tunable and localised pinning sites for domain walls which are consequently subject to co-existing (but independent) periodic and disordered pinning potentials. Beyond the fundamentally attractive application of creating a model experimental system to study interface motion through multiple co-existing pinning potentials, our system interestingly exhibits many characteristics that are normally associated with exchange bias. This is a direct result of the fact that pinning effects induced by the periodic pinning potential depend upon the polarity of the applied magnetic field which drives the domain wall motion, a phenomenon which manifests itself in field-polarity-dependent domain wall mobilities and profiles.

  12. Reactor safety and energy policy in Eastern Europe. Hazard potentials and possibilities for action. Lectures and discussions

    The eleven lectures given at the meeting attempt an interim statement on the safety of eastern European nuclear power stations and deal with the Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences as well as with the energy-political constraints and perspectives for eastern European states that were brought about especially by the collapse of the USSR and the associated infra-structural changes. A further six statements made at the panel discussion describe possibilities of action for the West in order to enhance reactor safety in eastern Europe. (DG)

  13. 76 FR 39367 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Raptor Propagation

    2011-07-06

    ... Regulations Governing Raptor Propagation AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Advance notice... propagated in captivity under Federal raptor propagation permits. DATES: We will accept comments received or...: Public Comments Propagation of bald eagles and golden eagles has not been allowed under the...

  14. Dopamine modulates Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity and action potential properties in CA1 pyramidal neurons of acute rat hippocampal slices

    Elke eEdelmann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP is a cellular model of hebbian synaptic plasticity which is believed to underlie memory formation. In an attempt to establish a STDP paradigm in CA1 of acute hippocampal slices from juvenile rats (P15-20, we found that changes in excitability resulting from different slice preparation protocols correlate with the success of STDP induction. Slice preparation with sucrose containing ACSF prolonged rise time, reduced frequency adaptation, and decreased latency of action potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons compared to preparation in conventional ASCF, while other basal electrophysiological parameters remained unaffected. Whereas we observed prominent timing-dependent (t-LTP to 171 ± 10% of controls in conventional ACSF, STDP was absent in sucrose prepared slices. This sucrose-induced STDP deficit could not be rescued by stronger STDP paradigms, applying either more pre- and/or postsynaptic stimuli, or by a higher stimulation frequency. Importantly, slice preparation with sucrose containing ACSF did not eliminate theta-burst stimulation induced LTP in CA1 in field potential recordings in our rat hippocampal slices. Application of dopamine (for 10-20 min to sucrose prepared slices completely rescued t-LTP and recovered action potential properties back to levels observed in ACSF prepared slices. Conversely, acute inhibition of D1 receptor signaling impaired t-LTP in ACSF prepared slices. No similar restoring effect for STDP as seen with dopamine was observed in response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. ELISA measurements demonstrated a significant reduction of endogenous dopamine levels (to 61.9 ± 6.9% of ACSF values in sucrose prepared slices. These results lead us to suggest that dopamine dependent regulation of action potential properties correlates with the efficiency to elicit STDP in CA1 pyramidal neurons.

  15. Potentiation of Sulfonylurea Action by an EPAC-selective cAMP Analog in INS-1 Cells: Comparison of Tolbutamide and Gliclazide and a Potential Role for EPAC Activation of a 2-APB-sensitive Ca2+ Influx

    Jarrard, Rachel E.; Wang, Yuchen; Salyer, Amy E.; Pratt, Evan P. S.; Soderling, Ian M.; Guerra, Marcy L.; Lange, Allison M.; Broderick, Hilary J.; Hockerman, Gregory H.

    2013-01-01

    Tolbutamide and gliclazide block the KATP channel Kir6.2/Sur1, causing membrane depolarization and stimulating insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. We examined the ability of the EPAC-selective cAMP analog 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP-AM to potentiate the action of these drugs and the mechanism that might account for it. Insulin secretion stimulated by both 200 μM tolbutamide and 20 μM gliclazide, concentrations that had equivalent effects on membrane potential, was inhibited by thapsigargin (1...

  16. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  17. Remarkable relations for the expectation values of simultaneous action of the kinetic and potential energy operators on Schrodinger wavefunctions

    Joubert, D

    2001-01-01

    For Psi an eigenfunction of the Hamiltonian operator H = T + V, where T is the kinetic energy operator and V the potential energy operator, the following relations between expectation values are satisfied: = , ^2 = , ^2 = .

  18. Long term cardioprotective action of trimetazidine and potential effect on the inflammatory process in patients with ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    Di Napoli, P; Taccardi, A A; Barsotti, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long term effects of trimetazidine in patients with dilated ischaemic cardiomyopathy. The effects of trimetazidine on left ventricular function as well as its tolerability profile and potential anti-inflammatory effects were studied.

  19. The electromagnetic potentials without the gauge transformations

    Espinoza, Augusto; Chubykalo, Andrey; Rodriguez, Alejandro Gutierrez; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico). Unidad Academica de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    In this note we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem lead to derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without making use of the gauge transformation. These potentials correspond to the potentials obtained by imposing so-called Coulomb condition (gauge) in the traditional approach. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by its instantaneous action at a distance, whereas another one propagates in the retarded form with the velocity of light. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities as well as the electric and magnetic fields. We show that the reality of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum-mechanics is also a property of these potentials in the classical electrodynamics. Equations for potentials obtained in our approach are already separated with respect to vector and scalar potentials, so there is no necessity in using the gauge transformations and, accordingly, in making use of either Lorentz or Coulomb condition. The vector potential and scalar potential introduced thus are uniquely defined. The scalar potential is a generator of the so called instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the solenoidal vector potential can propagate with the velocity of light and it is responsible for the retarded action of the electromagnetic field. (author)

  20. The electromagnetic potentials without the gauge transformations

    In this note we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem lead to derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without making use of the gauge transformation. These potentials correspond to the potentials obtained by imposing so-called Coulomb condition (gauge) in the traditional approach. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by its instantaneous action at a distance, whereas another one propagates in the retarded form with the velocity of light. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities as well as the electric and magnetic fields. We show that the reality of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum-mechanics is also a property of these potentials in the classical electrodynamics. Equations for potentials obtained in our approach are already separated with respect to vector and scalar potentials, so there is no necessity in using the gauge transformations and, accordingly, in making use of either Lorentz or Coulomb condition. The vector potential and scalar potential introduced thus are uniquely defined. The scalar potential is a generator of the so called instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the solenoidal vector potential can propagate with the velocity of light and it is responsible for the retarded action of the electromagnetic field. (author)

  1. Exact propagators in harmonic superspace

    Within the background field formulation in harmonic superspace for quantum N=2 super-Yang-Mills theories, the propagators of the matter, gauge and ghost superfields possess a complicated dependence on the SU(2) harmonic variables via the background vector multiplet. This dependence is shown to simplify drastically in the case of an on-shell vector multiplet. For a covariantly constant background vector multiplet, we exactly compute all the propagators. In conjunction with the covariant multi-loop scheme developed in hep-th/0302205, these results provide an efficient (manifestly N=2 supersymmetric) technical setup for computing multi-loop quantum corrections to effective actions in N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories, including the N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory

  2. Donnan effect on chloride ion distribution as a determinant of body fluid composition that allows action potentials to spread via fast sodium channels

    Kurbel Sven

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proteins in any solution with a pH value that differs from their isoelectric point exert both an electric Donnan effect (DE and colloid osmotic pressure. While the former alters the distribution of ions, the latter forces water diffusion. In cells with highly Cl--permeable membranes, the resting potential is more dependent on the cytoplasmic pH value, which alters the Donnan effect of cell proteins, than on the current action of Na/K pumps. Any weak (positive or negative electric disturbances of their resting potential are quickly corrected by chloride shifts. In many excitable cells, the spreading of action potentials is mediated through fast, voltage-gated sodium channels. Tissue cells share similar concentrations of cytoplasmic proteins and almost the same exposure to the interstitial fluid (IF chloride concentration. The consequence is that similar intra- and extra-cellular chloride concentrations make these cells share the same Nernst value for Cl-. Further extrapolation indicates that cells with the same chloride Nernst value and high chloride permeability should have similar resting membrane potentials, more negative than -80 mV. Fast sodium channels require potassium levels >20 times higher inside the cell than around it, while the concentration of Cl- ions needs to be >20 times higher outside the cell. When osmotic forces, electroneutrality and other ions are all taken into account, the overall osmolarity needs to be near 280 to 300 mosm/L to reach the required resting potential in excitable cells. High plasma protein concentrations keep the IF chloride concentration stable, which is important in keeping the resting membrane potential similar in all chloride-permeable cells. Probable consequences of this concept for neuron excitability, erythrocyte membrane permeability and several features of circulation design are briefly discussed.

  3. High energy bosons do not propagate

    Kurkov, M.A., E-mail: Kurkov@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Lizzi, Fedele, E-mail: fedele.lizzi@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Departament de Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria, Institut de Ciéncies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Vassilevich, Dmitri, E-mail: dvassil@gmail.com [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, S.P. (Brazil)

    2014-04-04

    We discuss the propagation of bosons (scalars, gauge fields and gravitons) at high energy in the context of the spectral action. Using heat kernel techniques, we find that in the high-momentum limit the quadratic part of the action does not contain positive powers of the derivatives. We interpret this as the fact that the two-point Green functions vanish for nearby points, where the proximity scale is given by the inverse of the cutoff.

  4. Eugenia uniflora L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Leishmania Agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and Possible Mechanisms of Action

    Klinger Antonio da Franca Rodrigues; Layane Valéria Amorim; Jamylla Mirck Guerra de Oliveira; Clarice Noleto Dias; Denise Fernandes Coutinho Moraes; Eloisa Helena de Aguiar Andrade; Jose Guilherme Soares Maia; Sabrina Maria Portela Carneiro; Fernando Aécio de Amorim Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora L. is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is commonly known as Brazilian cherry tree. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil (EuEO) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and assessed its anti-Leishmania activity. We also explored the potential mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity of EuEO. Thirty-two compounds were identified, which constituted 92.65% of the total oil composition. The most abundant components...

  5. Determination of thermodynamic potentials and the aggregation number for micelles with the mass-action model by isothermal titration calorimetry

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Westh, Peter; Holm, René

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation number (n), thermodynamic potentials (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) for 6 natural bile salts were determined on the basis of both original and previously published isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data. Different procedures to estimate parameters of...

  6. 4-Phenylselenyl-7-chloroquinoline, a new quinoline derivative containing selenium, has potential antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions.

    Pinz, Mikaela; Reis, Angélica S; Duarte, Vanessa; da Rocha, Márcia J; Goldani, Bruna S; Alves, Diego; Savegnago, Lucielli; Luchese, Cristiane; Wilhelm, Ethel A

    2016-06-01

    The development of new drugs to treat painful and inflammatory clinical conditions continues to be of great interest. The present study evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of 4-phenylselenyl-7-chloroquinoline (4-PSQ). Mice were orally (p.o.) pretreated with 4-PSQ (0.1-25mg/kg), meloxicam (25mg/kg, a reference drug) or vehicle, 30min prior to the acetic acid, formalin, hot-plate and open-field tests. 4-PSQ reduced abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid and it caused an increase in latency time in the hot-plate test. 4-PSQ inhibited early and late phases of nociception and reduced the paw edema caused by formalin. Locomotor and exploratory activities in the open field test were not altered by treatments. In addition, a time-response curve was carried out by administration of 4-PSQ (25mg/kg; p.o.) at different times before the acetic acid injection. The antinociceptive effect in inhibiting acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing of 4-PSQ started at 0.5h and remained significant up to 4h after administration. Indeed, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of 4-PSQ were investigated. 4-PSQ diminished the edema formation and decreased the myeloperoxidase activity and reactive species levels induced by croton oil in the ear tissue. 4-PSQ partially protected against the decrease of the 2,2'-Azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) levels induced by croton oil. Meloxicam presented similar results for 4-PSQ in tests evaluated. These results demonstrated that 4-PSQ exerts acute anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive actions, suggesting that it may represent an alternative in the development of future new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27020552

  7. A combined method to estimate parameters of the thalamocortical model from a heavily noise-corrupted time series of action potential

    Wang, Ruofan; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin, E-mail: dengbin@tju.edu.cn; Liu, Chen; Wei, Xile [Department of Electrical and Automation Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Tsang, K. M.; Chan, W. L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-03-15

    A combined method composing of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and the synchronization-based method is proposed for estimating electrophysiological variables and parameters of a thalamocortical (TC) neuron model, which is commonly used for studying Parkinson's disease for its relay role of connecting the basal ganglia and the cortex. In this work, we take into account the condition when only the time series of action potential with heavy noise are available. Numerical results demonstrate that not only this method can estimate model parameters from the extracted time series of action potential successfully but also the effect of its estimation is much better than the only use of the UKF or synchronization-based method, with a higher accuracy and a better robustness against noise, especially under the severe noise conditions. Considering the rather important role of TC neuron in the normal and pathological brain functions, the exploration of the method to estimate the critical parameters could have important implications for the study of its nonlinear dynamics and further treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  8. A combined method to estimate parameters of the thalamocortical model from a heavily noise-corrupted time series of action potential

    A combined method composing of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and the synchronization-based method is proposed for estimating electrophysiological variables and parameters of a thalamocortical (TC) neuron model, which is commonly used for studying Parkinson's disease for its relay role of connecting the basal ganglia and the cortex. In this work, we take into account the condition when only the time series of action potential with heavy noise are available. Numerical results demonstrate that not only this method can estimate model parameters from the extracted time series of action potential successfully but also the effect of its estimation is much better than the only use of the UKF or synchronization-based method, with a higher accuracy and a better robustness against noise, especially under the severe noise conditions. Considering the rather important role of TC neuron in the normal and pathological brain functions, the exploration of the method to estimate the critical parameters could have important implications for the study of its nonlinear dynamics and further treatment of Parkinson's disease

  9. Sustained Exocytosis after Action Potential-Like Stimulation at Low Frequencies in Mouse Chromaffin Cells Depends on a Dynamin-Dependent Fast Endocytotic Process

    Moya-Díaz, José; Álvarez, Yanina D.; Montenegro, Mauricio; Bayonés, Lucas; Belingheri, Ana V.; González-Jamett, Arlek M.; Cárdenas, Ana M.; Marengo, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    Under basal conditions the action potential firing rate of adrenal chromaffin cells is lower than 0.5 Hz. The maintenance of the secretory response at such frequencies requires a continuous replenishment of releasable vesicles. However, the mechanism that allows such vesicle replenishment remains unclear. Here, using membrane capacitance measurements on mouse chromaffin cells, we studied the mechanism of replenishment of a group of vesicles released by a single action potential-like stimulus (APls). The exocytosis triggered by APls (ETAP) represents a fraction (40%) of the immediately releasable pool, a group of vesicles highly coupled to voltage dependent calcium channels. ETAP was replenished with a time constant of 0.73 ± 0.11 s, fast enough to maintain synchronous exocytosis at 0.2–0.5 Hz stimulation. Regarding the mechanism involved in rapid ETAP replenishment, we found that it depends on the ready releasable pool; indeed depletion of this vesicle pool significantly delays ETAP replenishment. On the other hand, ETAP replenishment also correlates with a dynamin-dependent fast endocytosis process (τ = 0.53 ± 0.01 s). In this regard, disruption of dynamin function markedly inhibits the fast endocytosis and delays ETAP replenishment, but also significantly decreases the synchronous exocytosis during repetitive APls stimulation at low frequencies (0.2 and 0.5 Hz). Considering these findings, we propose a model in where both the transfer of vesicles from ready releasable pool and fast endocytosis allow rapid ETAP replenishment during low stimulation frequencies. PMID:27507935

  10. Conjugated docosahexaenoic acid suppresses KPL-1 human breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo: potential mechanisms of action

    The present study was conducted to examine the effect of conjugated docosahexaenoic acid (CDHA) on cell growth, cell cycle progression, mode of cell death, and expression of cell cycle regulatory and/or apoptosis-related proteins in KPL-1 human breast cancer cell line. This effect of CDHA was compared with that of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). KPL-1 cell growth was assessed by colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay; cell cycle progression and mode of cell death were examined by flow cytometry; and levels of expression of p53, p21Cip1/Waf1, cyclin D1, Bax, and Bcl-2 proteins were examined by Western blotting analysis. In vivo tumor growth was examined by injecting KPL-1 cells subcutaneously into the area of the right thoracic mammary fat pad of female athymic mice fed a CDHA diet. CDHA inhibited KPL-1 cells more effectively than did DHA (50% inhibitory concentration for 72 hours: 97 μmol/l and 270 μmol/l, respectively). With both CDHA and DHA growth inhibition was due to apoptosis, as indicated by the appearance of a sub-G1 fraction. The apoptosis cascade involved downregulation of Bcl-2 protein; Bax expression was unchanged. Cell cycle progression was due to G0/G1 arrest, which involved increased expression of p53 and p21Cip1/Waf1, and decreased expression of cyclin D1. CDHA modulated cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-related proteins in a manner similar to that of parent DHA. In the athymic mouse system 1.0% dietary CDHA, but not 0.2%, significantly suppressed growth of KPL-1 tumor cells; CDHA tended to decrease regional lymph node metastasis in a dose dependent manner. CDHA inhibited growth of KPL-1 human breast cancer cells in vitro more effectively than did DHA. The mechanisms of action involved modulation of apoptosis cascade and cell cycle progression. Dietary CDHA at 1.0% suppressed KPL-1 cell growth in the athymic mouse system

  11. Identification of sodium channel isoforms that mediate action potential firing in lamina I/II spinal cord neurons

    Smith Paula L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage-gated sodium channels play key roles in acute and chronic pain processing. The molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of sodium channel currents have been extensively studied for peripheral nociceptors while the properties of sodium channel currents in dorsal horn spinal cord neurons remain incompletely understood. Thus far, investigations into the roles of sodium channel function in nociceptive signaling have primarily focused on recombinant channels or peripheral nociceptors. Here, we utilize recordings from lamina I/II neurons withdrawn from the surface of spinal cord slices to systematically determine the functional properties of sodium channels expressed within the superficial dorsal horn. Results Sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons exhibited relatively hyperpolarized voltage-dependent properties and fast kinetics of both inactivation and recovery from inactivation, enabling small changes in neuronal membrane potentials to have large effects on intrinsic excitability. By combining biophysical and pharmacological channel properties with quantitative real-time PCR results, we demonstrate that functional sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons are predominantly composed of the NaV1.2 and NaV1.3 isoforms. Conclusions Overall, lamina I/II neurons express a unique combination of functional sodium channels that are highly divergent from the sodium channel isoforms found within peripheral nociceptors, creating potentially complementary or distinct ion channel targets for future pain therapeutics.

  12. Propagator of spinless tachyons

    The possibility of formulating a tachyon propagator is considered. Both nonrelativistic- and relativistic-tachyon propagators are derived. The presented theory is based on the reciprocity principle according to which the roles of space and time are interchanged. The roles of tachyon energy and momentum are also interchanged. The relativistic-tachyon propagator reflects the fact that positive- and negative-momentum states are separated by a gap which remains unaltered in all Lorentz frames. The relativistic-tachyon propagator includes the momentum sign function instead of the energy sign function as compared with the bradyon propagator. For these reasons, the relativistic-tachyon propagator leads to a solution of the tachyon Klein-Gordon equation which is Lorentz invariant. (author)

  13. Towards "Propagation = Logic + Control"

    Brand, Sebastian; Yap, Roland H. C.

    2006-01-01

    Constraint propagation algorithms implement logical inference. For efficiency, it is essential to control whether and in what order basic inference steps are taken. We provide a high-level framework that clearly differentiates between information needed for controlling propagation versus that needed for the logical semantics of complex constraints composed from primitive ones. We argue for the appropriateness of our controlled propagation framework by showing that it c...

  14. The role of dietary coconut for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: potential mechanisms of action.

    Fernando, W M A D B; Martins, Ian J; Goozee, K G; Brennan, Charles S; Jayasena, V; Martins, R N

    2015-07-14

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated to provide a large number of products, although it is mainly grown for its nutritional and medicinal values. Coconut oil, derived from the coconut fruit, has been recognised historically as containing high levels of saturated fat; however, closer scrutiny suggests that coconut should be regarded more favourably. Unlike most other dietary fats that are high in long-chain fatty acids, coconut oil comprises medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). MCFA are unique in that they are easily absorbed and metabolised by the liver, and can be converted to ketones. Ketone bodies are an important alternative energy source in the brain, and may be beneficial to people developing or already with memory impairment, as in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Coconut is classified as a highly nutritious 'functional food'. It is rich in dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals; however, notably, evidence is mounting to support the concept that coconut may be beneficial in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia, elevated LDL, insulin resistance and hypertension - these are the risk factors for CVD and type 2 diabetes, and also for AD. In addition, phenolic compounds and hormones (cytokinins) found in coconut may assist in preventing the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD. The purpose of the present review was to explore the literature related to coconut, outlining the known mechanistic physiology, and to discuss the potential role of coconut supplementation as a therapeutic option in the prevention and management of AD. PMID:25997382

  15. Healthy universities--time for action: a qualitative research study exploring the potential for a national programme.

    Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

    2010-03-01

    Despite the absence of national or international steers, there is within England growing interest in the Healthy University approach. This article introduces Healthy Universities; reports on a qualitative study exploring the potential for a national programme contributing to health, well-being and sustainable development; and concludes with reflections and recommendations. The study used questionnaires and interviews with key informants from English higher education institutions and national stakeholder organizations. The findings confirmed that higher education offers significant potential to impact positively on the health and well-being of students, staff and wider communities through education, research, knowledge exchange and institutional practice. There was strong support for extending the healthy settings approach beyond schools and further education, through a National Healthy Higher Education Programme that provides a whole system Healthy University Framework. Informants argued that although there are important public health drivers, it will also be necessary to show how a Healthy Universities can help achieve core business objectives and contribute to related agendas such as sustainability. Two models were discussed: an accreditation scheme with externally assessed standardized achievement criteria; and a flexible and light-touch framework focusing on change-related processes and utilizing self-assessment. While highlighting the appeal of league tables, many informants feared that a top-down approach could backfire, generating resistance and resulting in minimal compliance. In contrast, the majority felt that a process-focused aspirational model would be more likely to win hearts and minds and facilitate system-level change. Key recommendations relate to national programme development, research and evaluation and international collaboration and networking. PMID:20167825

  16. UWB Propagation through Walls

    M. Hajek

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of ultra wide band (UWB signals through walls is analyzed. For this propagation studies, it is necessary to consider not only propagation at a single frequency but in the whole band. The UWB radar output signal is formed by both transmitter and antenna. The effects of antenna receiving and transmitting responses for various antenna types (such as small and aperture antennas are studied in the frequency as well as time domain. Moreover, UWB radar output signals can be substantially affected due to electromagnetic wave propagation through walls and multipath effects.

  17. PDE type-4 inhibition increases L-type Ca(2+) currents, action potential firing, and quantal size of exocytosis in mouse chromaffin cells.

    Marcantoni, A; Carabelli, V; Vandael, D H; Comunanza, V; Carbone, E

    2009-03-01

    We studied the effects of the cAMP-hydrolyzing enzyme phosphodiesterase type-4 (PDE4) on the L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) and Ca(2+)-dependent secretion in mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs). The selective PDE4 inhibitor rolipram (3 microM) had a specific potentiating action on Ca(2+) currents of MCCs (40% increase within 3 min). A similar effect was produced by the selective beta(1)-AR agonist denopamine (1 microM) and by the unselective PDEs inhibitor IBMX (100 microM). Rolipram and denopamine actions were selective for LTCCs, and the Ca(2+) current increase remained unchanged if the two compounds were applied simultaneously. This suggests that at rest, LTCCs in MCCs are down-regulated by the low levels of cAMP determined by PDE4 activity and that LTCCs can be up-regulated by either inhibiting PDE4 or activating beta(1)-AR. No other PDEs are likely involved in this specific action. PDE4 inhibition had also a marked effect on the spontaneous firing of resting MCCs and catecholamine secretion. Rolipram up-regulated the LTCCs contributing to the "pace-maker" current underlying action potential (AP) discharges and accelerated the firing rate, with no significant effects on AP waveform. Acceleration of AP firing was also induced by the LTCC-agonist Bay K (1 microM), while nifedipine (3 microM) reduced the firing frequency, suggesting that LTCCs and intracellular cAMP play a key role in setting the pace-maker current regulating MCCs excitability. Rolipram increased also the size of the ready-releasable pool and the quantal content of secretory vesicles without affecting their probability of release. Thus, rolipram acts on MCCs by up-regulating both exocytosis and AP firings. These two processes are effectively down-regulated by PDE4 at rest and can dramatically increase the quantity of released catecholamines when PDE4 is inhibited and/or cAMP is raised. PMID:18779976

  18. Recent actions taken on methyl bromide under the Montreal Protocol: Their potential economic implications on international trade

    Methyl bromide (MB) produced and used by man is a versatile, highly effective, fastacting fumigant employed in a number of important ways to kill organisms destructive to plants. A wide spectrum of commodities is treated with MB. The compound is unique in that it provides a wide range of pest control, may be applied to a broad spectrum of both food and non-food commodities, can be used for fumigation of large and small quantities of materials, and, when applied properly, leaves no residues of toxicological significance. Recently, this compound has come under scientific scrutiny and has been identified as a potentially potent ozone depleting chemical. As a result, countries operating under the Montreal Protocol will be restricting its use, and, in some cases, eliminating its use altogether. To date there are no alternative chemical fumigants to replace methyl bromide. Non-chemical treatments such as irradiation, hot and cold treatments, modified atmosphere, etc., are the most promising. The paper focuses on the magnitude of the economic consequences on international trade and the necessity to have available alternative treatments that are highly effective, fast-acting, and practical. 8 refs, 12 tabs

  19. [Algorithm study on the three-dimensional cardiac tissue based on the model of ventricular action potential].

    Zhang, Hong; Ming, Lequn; Jin, Yinbin; Li, Mingjun; Zhang, Zhenxi; Lin, Yang

    2010-02-01

    Cardiac reentry is one of the important factors to induce arrhythmias. It could lead to ventricular tachycardia (VT) or even fibrillation (VF), resulting in sudden cardiac death. With the wide use of computer in the quantitative study of electrophysiology, the three-dimensional virtual heart for simulations needs to be developed imminently in computer. In this paper, numerical algorithm of the model was studied. The three-dimensional model was constructed by integrating Luo-Rudy 1991 ventricular cell model and diffusion equation. The operator splitting method was employed to solve the model. The alternate direction iterative (ADI) format and seven-point centered difference method were used for the partial differential equation. And the discrete format with second-order accuracy was taken for the boundary conditions. The results showed that the ADI format and seven-point centered difference method both could successfully figure out the membrane potential and electrical activities with good numerical stability. However, computing consumption could be greatly reduced with the ADI format, implying that the ADI method with large time step was more powerful in numerical simulations. PMID:20337013

  20. The angiogenic effect of dracorhodin perchlorate on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and its potential mechanism of action.

    Li, Feng; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Wei; Hu, Quan; Yin, Huinan

    2016-08-01

    Hyperglycemia is the key clinical feature of diabetes, and may induce refractory wound lesions and impaired angiogenesis. Dracorhodin perchlorate (Dra) is the major ingredient of dragon's blood and it has been used as a medicine to treat chronic wounds, such as diabetic foot, since ancient times in many cultures. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of Dra on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under high‑glucose (HG) stimulation and its potential mechanism. Dra was observed to increase the multiplication capacity of HUVECs both under low glucose (LG) and HG concentrations. Additionally, migration and tube formation in HUVECs was facilitated by Dra. The expression levels of Ras, mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) and vascular endothelial growth factor, which are key components of the Ras/MAPK pathway, were upregulated following Dra treatment. The present study is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of the effects of Dra on wound healing, and the association with the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27357516

  1. Molecular mechanisms of action and potential biomarkers of growth inhibition of dasatinib (BMS-354825) on hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Molecular targeted therapy has emerged as a promising treatment of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). One potential target is the Src family Kinase (SFK). C-Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase is a critical link of multiple signal pathways that regulate proliferation, invasion, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a novel SFK inhibitor, dasatinib (BMS-354825), on SFK/FAK/p130CAS, PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR, Ras/Raf/MAPK and Stats pathways in 9 HCC cell lines. Growth inhibition was assessed by MTS assay. EGFR, Src and downstream proteins FAK, Akt, MAPK42/44, Stat3 expressions were measured by western blot. Cell adhesion, migration and invasion were performed with and without dasatinib treatment. The IC50 of 9 cell lines ranged from 0.7 μM ~ 14.2 μM. In general the growth inhibition by dasatinib was related to total Src (t-Src) and the ratio of activated Src (p-Src) to t-Src. There was good correlation of the sensitivity to dasatinib and the inhibition level of p-Src, p-FAK576/577 and p-Akt. No inhibition was found on Stat3 and MAPK42/44 in all cell lines. The inhibition of cell adhesion, migration and invasion were correlated with p-FAK inhibition. Dasatinib inhibits the proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro via inhibiting of Src tyrosine kinase and affecting SFK/FAK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt, but not Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and JAK/Stat pathways. T-Src and p-Src/t-Src may be useful biomarkers to select HCC patients for dasatinib treatment

  2. Addictive evaluation of cholic acid-verticinone ester, a potential cough therapeutic agent with agonist action of opioid receptor

    Jiu-liang ZHANG; Hui WANG; Chang CHEN; Hui-fang PI; Han-li RUAN; Peng ZHANG; Ji-zhou WU

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this work was to search for potential drugs with potent antitussive and expectorant activities as well as a low toxicity, but without addictive properties. Cholic acid-verticinone ester (CA-Ver) was synthesized based on the clearly elucidated antitussive and expectorant activities of verticinone in bulbs of Fritillaria and different bile acids in Snake Bile. In our previous study, CA-Vet showed a much more potent activity than codeine phosphate. This study was carried out to investigate the central antitussive mechanism and the addictive evaluation of CA-Ver.Methods: Testing on a capsaicin-induced cough model of mice pretreated with naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, was performed for the observation of CA-Ver's central antitussive mechanism. We then took naloxone-induced withdrawal tests of mice for the judgment of CA-Ver's addiction. Lastly, we determined the opioid dependence of CA-Ver in the guinea pig ileum. Results: The test on the capsaicin-induced cough model showed that naloxone could block the antitussive effect of CA-Ver,suggesting the antitussive mechanism of CA-Ver was related to the central opioid receptors. The naloxone-urged withdrawal tests of the mice showed that CA-Ver was not addictive, and the test of the opioid dependence in the guinea pig ileum showed that CA-Ver had no withdrawal response.Conclusion: These findings suggested that CA-Ver deserved attention for its potent antitussive effects related to the central opioid receptors, but without addiction, and had a good development perspective.

  3. A generalized photon propagator

    Itin, Yakov

    2007-01-01

    A covariant gauge independent derivation of the generalized dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves in a medium with local and linear constitutive law is presented. A generalized photon propagator is derived. For Maxwell constitutive tensor, the standard light cone structure and the standard Feynman propagator are reinstated.

  4. Action potential initial dynamical control and analysis of a minimum neuron model%最小神经元模型放电起始动态控制与分析

    金淇涛; 王江; 魏熙乐; 邓斌; 车艳秋

    2011-01-01

    本文采用最小神经元模型,从生理学角度设计wash-out滤波器,实现了不同放电起始动态机理之间的转换,并证明wash-out滤波器控制通过影响阈下电流的竞争结果改变了神经元的放电起始动态机理.%Neuron is a basic unit of information transmission in the nervous system . Neuron encodes the information input from the dendrites by generating action potential sequences of different firing patterns. The different firing patterns result from different action potential initial dynamic mechanisms for neurons to generate spikes. The result of competition between neuron ion currents with different dynamic features in the sub threshold potential determines the action potential initial dynamic mechanism. In this paper, we adopt a minimum neuron model to design the wash-out filter from a physiological view for achieving the transition between different action potential initial dynamic mechanisms and for verifying that the wash-out filter control changes the action potential initial dynamic mechanism of neuron by affecting the result of competition between currents with different dynamic features in the sub-threshold potential.

  5. Propagation in multiscale random media

    Balk, Alexander M.

    2003-10-01

    Many studies consider media with microstructure, which has variations on some microscale, while the macroproperties are under investigation. Sometimes the medium has several microscales, all of them being much smaller than the macroscale. Sometimes the variations on the macroscale are also included, which are taken into account by some procedures, like WKB or geometric optics. What if the medium has variations on all scales from microscale to macroscale? This situation occurs in several practical problems. The talk is about such situations, in particular, passive tracer in a random velocity field, wave propagation in a random medium, Schrödinger equation with random potential. To treat such problems we have developed the statistical near-identity transformation. We find anomalous attenuation of the pulse propagating in a multiscale medium.

  6. Propagation in multiscale random media

    Many studies consider media with microstructure, which has variations on some microscale, while the macroproperties are under investigation. Sometimes the medium has several microscales, all of them being much smaller than the macroscale. Sometimes the variations on the macroscale are also included, which are taken into account by some procedures, like WKB or geometric optics. What if the medium has variations on all scales from microscale to macroscale? This situation occurs in several practical problems. The talk is about such situations, in particular, passive tracer in a random velocity field, wave propagation in a random medium, Schroedinger equation with random potential. To treat such problems we have developed the statistical near-identity transformation. We find anomalous attenuation of the pulse propagating in a multiscale medium

  7. Propagation in multiscale random media

    Balk, A.M

    2003-10-01

    Many studies consider media with microstructure, which has variations on some microscale, while the macroproperties are under investigation. Sometimes the medium has several microscales, all of them being much smaller than the macroscale. Sometimes the variations on the macroscale are also included, which are taken into account by some procedures, like WKB or geometric optics. What if the medium has variations on all scales from microscale to macroscale? This situation occurs in several practical problems. The talk is about such situations, in particular, passive tracer in a random velocity field, wave propagation in a random medium, Schroedinger equation with random potential. To treat such problems we have developed the statistical near-identity transformation. We find anomalous attenuation of the pulse propagating in a multiscale medium.

  8. Study of emergency-action levels for light water reactors

    An emergency action level (EAL) is an observation or judgment that forms the basis for declaring an emergency status at a nuclear generating facility. There are four graded emergency category classifications which indicate an increasing potential for offsite radiological impact. Each emergency category is normally associated with an implementation procedure that outlines the preplanned actions that the emergency director will undertake. Thus a transient which causes a system or parameter to reach an EAL will also cause a transition of the normal station organization to an emergency organization. This transition will include an augmentation of the basic shift staff in order to support the corrective and mitigative actions of the nuclear reactor operators. In this regard, the major purpose of EALs is to provide an early indication of potential problems. Ideally, the ensuing response of the emergency organization will prevent a propagation of errors or failures that could result in serious consequences

  9. Gear Crack Propagation Investigation

    1995-01-01

    Reduced weight is a major design goal in aircraft power transmissions. Some gear designs incorporate thin rims to help meet this goal. Thin rims, however, may lead to bending fatigue cracks. These cracks may propagate through a gear tooth or into the gear rim. A crack that propagates through a tooth would probably not be catastrophic, and ample warning of a failure could be possible. On the other hand, a crack that propagates through the rim would be catastrophic. Such cracks could lead to disengagement of a rotor or propeller from an engine, loss of an aircraft, and fatalities. To help create and validate tools for the gear designer, the NASA Lewis Research Center performed in-house analytical and experimental studies to investigate the effect of rim thickness on gear-tooth crack propagation. Our goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. In addition, we investigated the effect of rim thickness on crack propagation life. A finite-element-based computer program simulated gear-tooth crack propagation. The analysis used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, and quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. The program had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically via an automated remeshing scheme. Crack-tip stress-intensity factors were estimated to determine crack-propagation direction. Also, various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack-propagation life. Experiments were performed in Lewis' Spur Gear Fatigue Rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack-path predictions. Also, test gears were installed with special crack-propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending-fatigue crack growth. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios

  10. Determination of thermodynamic potentials and the aggregation number for micelles with the mass-action model by isothermal titration calorimetry: A case study on bile salts.

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Westh, Peter; Holm, René

    2015-09-01

    The aggregation number (n), thermodynamic potentials (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) for 6 natural bile salts were determined on the basis of both original and previously published isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data. Different procedures to estimate parameters of micelles with ITC were compared to a mass-action model (MAM) of reaction type: n⋅S⇌Mn. This analysis can provide guidelines for future ITC studies of systems behaving in accordance with this model such as micelles and proteins that undergo self-association to oligomers. Micelles with small aggregation numbers, as those of bile salts, are interesting because such small aggregates cannot be characterized as a separate macroscopic phase and the widely applied pseudo-phase model (PPM) is inaccurate. In the present work it was demonstrated that the aggregation number of micelles was constant at low concentrations enabling determination of the thermodynamic potentials by the MAM. A correlation between the aggregation number and the heat capacity was found, which implies that the dehydrated surface area of bile salts increases with the aggregation number. This is in accordance with Tanford's principles of opposing forces where neighbouring molecules in the aggregate are better able to shield from the surrounding hydrophilic environment when the aggregation number increases. PMID:25978555

  11. Expectation Particle Belief Propagation

    Lienart, Thibaut; Teh, Yee Whye; Doucet, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    We propose an original particle-based implementation of the Loopy Belief Propagation (LPB) algorithm for pairwise Markov Random Fields (MRF) on a continuous state space. The algorithm constructs adaptively efficient proposal distributions approximating the local beliefs at each note of the MRF. This is achieved by considering proposal distributions in the exponential family whose parameters are updated iterately in an Expectation Propagation (EP) framework. The proposed particle scheme provid...

  12. Survey Propagation Revisited

    Kroc, Lukas; Sabharwal, Ashish; Selman, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Survey propagation (SP) is an exciting new technique that has been remarkably successful at solving very large hard combinatorial problems, such as determining the satisfiability of Boolean formulas. In a promising attempt at understanding the success of SP, it was recently shown that SP can be viewed as a form of belief propagation, computing marginal probabilities over certain objects called covers of a formula. This explanation was, however, shortly dismissed by experiments suggesting that...

  13. Nonlinear physics of electrical wave propagation in the heart: a review

    Alonso, Sergio; Bär, Markus; Echebarria, Blas

    2016-09-01

    The beating of the heart is a synchronized contraction of muscle cells (myocytes) that is triggered by a periodic sequence of electrical waves (action potentials) originating in the sino-atrial node and propagating over the atria and the ventricles. Cardiac arrhythmias like atrial and ventricular fibrillation (AF,VF) or ventricular tachycardia (VT) are caused by disruptions and instabilities of these electrical excitations, that lead to the emergence of rotating waves (VT) and turbulent wave patterns (AF,VF). Numerous simulation and experimental studies during the last 20 years have addressed these topics. In this review we focus on the nonlinear dynamics of wave propagation in the heart with an emphasis on the theory of pulses, spirals and scroll waves and their instabilities in excitable media with applications to cardiac modeling. After an introduction into electrophysiological models for action potential propagation, the modeling and analysis of spatiotemporal alternans, spiral and scroll meandering, spiral breakup and scroll wave instabilities like negative line tension and sproing are reviewed in depth and discussed with emphasis on their impact for cardiac arrhythmias.

  14. Aspects of HF radio propagation

    Stephane Saillant; Veronique Rannou; Hanna Rothkaehl; Marco Pietrella; Martha Muriuki; Jean-Philippe Monilié; Cesidio Bianchi; Eulalia Benito; Alain Bourdillon; E. Michael Warrington; Ozgur Sari; Alan J. J. Stocker; Ersin Tulunay; Yurnadur Tulunay; Nikolay Y. Zaalov

    2009-01-01

    radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST 296 Action, interest lies with effects associated

    with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects are covered in this paper:

    a) The directions of arrival and times of fl...

  15. Dike Propagation Near Drifts

    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M and O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report

  16. Dike Propagation Near Drifts

    NA

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M&O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report.

  17. Character of diaphragm compound muscle action potential and phrenic nerve conduction time in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    Yuhong Hou; Rongchang Chen; Jinbing Pan; Yuanming Luo; Nanshan Zhong

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both hypoxia and carbon dioxide retention can damage phrenic nerve and muscle conduction, as well as diaphragm function. Diaphragm compound muscle action potential and phrenic nerve conduction time are reliable indicators for measuring phrenic nerve and diaphragm function.OBJECTIVES: To verify the hypothesis that changes of phrenic nerve conduction time (PNCT) and diaphragm compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients might contribute to the decline of phrenic nerve and diaphragm function. PNCT and CMAP were measured with multipair esophageal electrodes combined with unilateral magnetic stimulation.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Case controlled study. The experiment was carried out in Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Medical College, from June 2005 to April 2006.PARTICIPANTS: Twenty seven OSAHS patients and eight primary snoring subjects from Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Medical College were recruited and all subjects were diagnosed by polysomnography (PSG). Sixteen healthy, non-snoring subjects in the hospital for medical examination during the same time period were selected as the control group.METHODS: Esophageal electrodes, made by Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, combined with unilateral magnetic stimulation, were used to measure PNCT and CMAP of all subjects. PNCT was defined as the time from stimulation artifact to the onset of CMAP and diaphragm CMAP amplitude was measured from peak to peak. Oxygen desaturation index and apnea-hypopnea index were measured using PSG, and their relevance to PNCT and CMAP were analyzed. PNCT and CMAP in five OSAHS patients were repeatedly measured after effective nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment for more than 2 months.MAIN OUTCOME MEAAURES: (1) PNCT and diaphragm CMAP of suhjects in each group. (2) Relevance of oxygen desaturation index and apnea-hypopnea index to PNCT and CMAP. (3

  18. Collaborative multiagent reinforcement learning by payoff propagation

    Kok, Jelle R.; Vlassis, Nikos

    2006-01-01

    In this article we describe a set of scalable techniques for learning the behavior of a group of agents in a collaborative multiagent setting. As a basis we use the framework of coordination graphs of Guestrin, Koller, and Parr (2002a) which exploits the dependencies between agents to decompose the global payoff function into a sum of local terms. First, we deal with the single-state case and describe a payoff propagation algorithm that computes the individual actions that approximately maxim...

  19. Axon Membrane Skeleton Structure is Optimized for Coordinated Sodium Propagation

    Zhang, Yihao; Li, He; Tzingounis, Anastasios V; Lykotrafitis, George

    2016-01-01

    Axons transmit action potentials with high fidelity and minimal jitter. This unique capability is likely the result of the spatiotemporal arrangement of sodium channels along the axon. Super-resolution microscopy recently revealed that the axon membrane skeleton is structured as a series of actin rings connected by spectrin filaments that are held under entropic tension. Sodium channels also exhibit a periodic distribution pattern, as they bind to ankyrin G, which associates with spectrin. Here, we elucidate the relationship between the axon membrane skeleton structure and the function of the axon. By combining cytoskeletal dynamics and continuum diffusion modeling, we show that spectrin filaments under tension minimize the thermal fluctuations of sodium channels and prevent overlap of neighboring channel trajectories. Importantly, this axon skeletal arrangement allows for a highly reproducible band-like activation of sodium channels leading to coordinated sodium propagation along the axon.

  20. Pulse Wave Propagation in the Arterial Tree

    van de Vosse, Frans N.; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    The beating heart creates blood pressure and flow pulsations that propagate as waves through the arterial tree that are reflected at transitions in arterial geometry and elasticity. Waves carry information about the matter in which they propagate. Therefore, modeling of arterial wave propagation extends our knowledge about the functioning of the cardiovascular system and provides a means to diagnose disorders and predict the outcome of medical interventions. In this review we focus on the physical and mathematical modeling of pulse wave propagation, based on general fluid dynamical principles. In addition we present potential applications in cardiovascular research and clinical practice. Models of short- and long-term adaptation of the arterial system and methods that deal with uncertainties in personalized model parameters and boundary conditions are briefly discussed, as they are believed to be major topics for further study and will boost the significance of arterial pulse wave modeling even more.

  1. A novel method for the description of voltage-gated ionic currents based on action potential clamp results - Application to hippocampal mossy fiber boutons

    John R Clay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Action potential clamp (AP-clamp recordings of the delayed rectifier K+ current IK and the fast-activated Na+ current INa in rat hippocampal mossy fiber boutons (MFBs are analyzed using a computational technique recently reported. The method is implemented using a digitized AP from an MFB and computationally applying that that data set to published models of IK and INa. These numerical results are compared with experimental AP-clamp recordings. The INa result is consistent with experiment; the IK result is not. The difficulty with the IK model concerns the fully activated current-voltage relation, which is described here by the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz dependence of the driving force (V-EK rather than (V-EK itself, the standard model for this aspect of ion permeation. That revision leads to the second - a much steeper voltage dependent activation curve for IK than the one obtained from normalization of a family of IK records by (V-EK. The revised model provides an improved description of the AP-clamp measurement of IK in MFBs compared with the standard approach The method described here is general. It can be used to test models of ionic currents in any excitable cell. In this way it provides a novel approach to the relationship between ionic currents and membrane excitability in neurons.

  2. Simultaneous recording of the action potential and its whole-cell associated ion current on NG108-15 cells cultured over a MWCNT electrode

    Morales-Reyes, I.; Seseña-Rubfiaro, A.; Acosta-García, M. C.; Batina, N.; Godínez-Fernández, R.

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that, in excitable cells, the dynamics of the ion currents (I i) is extremely important to determine both the magnitude and time course of an action potential (A p). To observe these two processes simultaneously, we cultured NG108-15 cells over a multi-walled carbon nanotubes electrode (MWCNTe) surface and arranged a two independent Patch Clamp system configuration (Bi-Patch Clamp). The first system was used in the voltage or current clamp mode, using a glass micropipette as an electrode. The second system was modified to connect the MWCNTe to virtual ground. While the A p was recorded through the micropipette electrode, the MWCNTe was used to measure the underlying whole-cell current. This configuration allowed us to record both the membrane voltage (V m) and the current changes simultaneously. Images acquired by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate that cultured cells developed a complex network of neurites, which served to establish the necessary close contact and strong adhesion to the MWCNTe surface. These features were a key factor to obtain the recording of the whole-cell I i with a high signal to noise ratio (SNR). The experimental results were satisfactorily reproduced by a theoretical model developed to simulate the proposed system. Besides the contribution to a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms involved in cell communication, the developed method could be useful in cell physiology studies, pharmacology and diseases diagnosis.

  3. Bystander Effects Induced by Continuous Low-Dose-Rate 125I Seeds Potentiate the Killing Action of Irradiation on Human Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro

    Purpose: To investigate bystander effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) 125I seed irradiation on human lung cancer cells in vitro. Methods and Materials: A549 and NCI-H446 cell lines of differing radiosensitivity were directly exposed to LDR 125I seeds irradiation for 2 or 4 Gy and then cocultured with nonirradiated cells for 24 hours. Induction of micronucleus (MN), γH2AX foci, and apoptosis were assayed. Results: After 2 and 4 Gy irradiation, micronucleus formation rate (MFR) and apoptotic rate of A549 and NCI-H446 cells were increased, and the MFR and apoptotic rate of NCI-H446 cells was 2.1-2.8 times higher than that of A549 cells. After coculturing nonirradiated bystander cells with 125I seed irradiated cells for 24 hours, MFR and the mean number of γH2AX foci/cells of bystander A549 and NCI-H446 cells were similar and significantly higher than those of control (p 125I seeds could induce bystander effects, which potentiate the killing action on tumor cells and compensate for the influence of nonuniform distribution of radiation dosage on therapeutic outcomes

  4. Propagation in thermal explosions

    In a number a small scale experiments the propagation phenomena in thermal explosions caused by contact of a molten metal with water were studied. To investigate the rapid vapor-blanket collapse a small amount of molten tin (800 deg C) was poured on to a crucible under water at decreased pressure. After pressurization to 1 bar the pressure rise in the vessel was measured and the occurring events were observed by cinephotography (8000ps-1). The experiment showed that explosion propagation by blanket collapse is energetically possible. Similar experiments were performed with a larger interacting surface in a through shaped and in a think tank shaped arrangement, which demonstrated that propagation actually occured; the propagation velocity could be estimated to about 5-103cm s-1. The findings favour the interpretation that the explosion is driven by fragmentation rather than by super heat. Fragmentation or mixing can occur through self-driven collapse and possibly by penetration of coolant jets formed by the collapse in the blanket. In a continuously propagation explosion, Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities may take part in the mixing process

  5. Propagation of waves

    David, P

    2013-01-01

    Propagation of Waves focuses on the wave propagation around the earth, which is influenced by its curvature, surface irregularities, and by passage through atmospheric layers that may be refracting, absorbing, or ionized. This book begins by outlining the behavior of waves in the various media and at their interfaces, which simplifies the basic phenomena, such as absorption, refraction, reflection, and interference. Applications to the case of the terrestrial sphere are also discussed as a natural generalization. Following the deliberation on the diffraction of the "ground? wave around the ear

  6. Temporal scaling in information propagation

    Junming Huang; Chao Li; Wen-Qiang Wang; Hua-Wei Shen; Guojie Li; Xue-Qi Cheng

    2014-01-01

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite ...

  7. Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels at Nodes of Ranvier Secure Axonal Spike Propagation

    Jan Gründemann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity between brain regions relies on long-range signaling by myelinated axons. This is secured by saltatory action potential propagation that depends fundamentally on sodium channel availability at nodes of Ranvier. Although various potassium channel types have been anatomically localized to myelinated axons in the brain, direct evidence for their functional recruitment in maintaining node excitability is scarce. Cerebellar Purkinje cells provide continuous input to their targets in the cerebellar nuclei, reliably transmitting axonal spikes over a wide range of rates, requiring a constantly available pool of nodal sodium channels. We show that the recruitment of calcium-activated potassium channels (IK, KCa3.1 by local, activity-dependent calcium (Ca2+ influx at nodes of Ranvier via a T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ current provides a powerful mechanism that likely opposes depolarizing block at the nodes and is thus pivotal to securing continuous axonal spike propagation in spontaneously firing Purkinje cells.

  8. GRC RF Propagation Studies

    Nessel, James

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been involved in the characterization of atmospheric effects on space communications links operating at Ka-band and above for the past 20 years. This presentation reports out on the most recent activities of propagation characterization that NASA is currently involved in.

  9. DROMO propagator revisited

    Urrutxua, Hodei; Sanjurjo-Rivo, Manuel; Peláez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    In the year 2000 an in-house orbital propagator called DROMO (Peláez et al. in Celest Mech Dyn Astron 97:131-150, 2007. doi: 10.1007/s10569-006-9056-3) was developed by the Space Dynamics Group of the Technical University of Madrid, based in a set of redundant variables including Euler-Rodrigues parameters. An original deduction of the DROMO propagator is carried out, underlining its close relation with the ideal frame concept introduced by Hansen (Abh der Math-Phys Cl der Kon Sachs Ges der Wissensch 5:41-218, 1857). Based on the very same concept, Deprit (J Res Natl Bur Stand Sect B Math Sci 79B(1-2):1-15, 1975) proposed a formulation for orbit propagation. In this paper, similarities and differences with the theory carried out by Deprit are analyzed. Simultaneously, some improvements are introduced in the formulation, that lead to a more synthetic and better performing propagator. Also, the long-term effect of the oblateness of the primary is studied in terms of DROMO variables, and new numerical results are presented to evaluate the performance of the method.

  10. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  11. Stochasticity intrinsic to coupled-clock mechanisms underlies beat-to-beat variability of spontaneous action potential firing in sinoatrial node pacemaker cells

    Yaniv, Yael; Lyashkov, Alexey E.; Sirenko, Syevda; Okamoto, Yosuke; Guiriba, Toni-Rose; Ziman, Bruce D.; Morrell, Christopher H.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the spontaneous action potential (AP) of isolated sinoatrial node cells (SANC) is regulated by a system of stochastic mechanisms embodied within two clocks: ryanodine receptors of the “Ca2+ clock” within the sarcoplasmic reticulum, spontaneously activate during diastole and discharge local Ca2+ releases (LCRs) beneath the cell surface membrane; clock crosstalk occurs as LCRs activate an inward Na+/Ca2+ exchanger current (INCX), which together with If and decay of K+ channels prompts the “M clock,” the ensemble of sarcolemmal-electrogenic molecules, to generate APs. Prolongation of the average LCR period accompanies prolongation of the average AP beating interval (BI). Moreover, prolongation of the average AP BI accompanies increased AP BI variability. We hypothesized that both the average AP BI and AP BI variability are dependent upon stochasticity of clock mechanisms reported by the variability of LCR period. We perturbed the coupled-clock system by directly inhibiting the M clock by ivabradine (IVA) or the Ca2+ clock by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). When either clock is perturbed by IVA (3, 10 and 30μM), which has no direct effect on Ca2+ cycling, or CPA ( 0.5 and 5μM), which has no direct effect on the M clock ion channels, the clock system failed to achieve the basal AP BI and both AP BI and AP BI variability increased. The changes in average LCR period and its variability in response to perturbations of the coupled-clock system were correlated with changes in AP beating interval and AP beating interval variability. We conclude that the stochasticity within the coupled-clock system affects and is affected by the AP BI firing rate and rhythm via modulation of the effectiveness of clock coupling. PMID:25257916

  12. Eugenia uniflora L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Leishmania Agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and Possible Mechanisms of Action

    Klinger Antonio da Franca Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L. is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is commonly known as Brazilian cherry tree. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil (EuEO by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and assessed its anti-Leishmania activity. We also explored the potential mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity of EuEO. Thirty-two compounds were identified, which constituted 92.65% of the total oil composition. The most abundant components were sesquiterpenes (91.92%, with curzerene (47.3%, γ-elemene (14.25%, and trans-β-elemenone (10.4% being the major constituents. The bioactivity shown by EuEO against promastigotes (IC50, 3.04 μg·mL−1 and amastigotes (IC50, 1.92 μg·mL−1 suggested significant anti-Leishmania activity. In the cytotoxicity determination, EuEO was 20 times more toxic to amastigotes than to macrophages. Hemolytic activity was 63.22% at the highest concentration tested (400 μg·mL−1; however, there appeared to be no toxicity at 50 μg·mL−1. While the data show that EuEO activity is not mediated by nitric oxide production, they do suggest that macrophage activation may be involved in EuEO anti-Leishmania activity, as evidenced by increases in both the phagocytic capacity and the lysosomal activity. More studies are needed to determine in vivo activity as well as additional mechanisms of the anti-Leishmania activity.

  13. Sevoflurane postconditioning alleviates action potential duration shortening and L-type calcium current suppression induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat epicardial myocytes

    GONG Jun-song; YAO Yun-tai; FANG Neng-xin; HUANG Jian; LI Li-huan

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been proved that sevoflurane postconditioning (SpostC) could protect the heart against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury,however,there has been few research focused on the electrophysiological effects of SpostC.The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of SpostC on action potential duration (APD) and L-type calcium current (ICa,L) in isolated cardiomyocytes.Methods Langendorff perfused SD rat hearts were randomly assigned to one of the time control (TC),ischemia/reperfusion (I/R,25 minutes of ischemia followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion),and SpostC (postconditioned with 3% sevoflurane) groups.At the end of reperfusion,epicardial myocytes were dissociated enzymatically for patch clamp studies.Results Sevoflurane directly prolonged APD and decreased peak Ica,L densities in epicardial myocytes of the TC group (P<0.05).I/R injury shortened APD and decreased peak Ica,L densities in epicardial myocytes of the I/R group (P<0.05).SpostC prolonged APD and increased peak Ica,L densities in epicardial myocytes exposed to I/R injury (P<0.05).SpostC decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels,reduced the incidence of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation,and decreased reperfusion arrhythmia scores compared with the I/R group (all P<0.05).Conclusions SpostC attenuates APDshortening and ICa,L suppression induced by I/R injury.The regulation of APD and Ica,L by SpostC might be related with intracellular ROS modulation,which contributes to the alleviation of reperfusion ventricular arrhythmia.Chin Med J 2012;125(19):3485-3491

  14. Eugenia uniflora L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Leishmania Agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and Possible Mechanisms of Action.

    Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Amorim, Layane Valéria; de Oliveira, Jamylla Mirck Guerra; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, Jose Guilherme Soares; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2013-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora L. is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is commonly known as Brazilian cherry tree. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil (EuEO) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and assessed its anti-Leishmania activity. We also explored the potential mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity of EuEO. Thirty-two compounds were identified, which constituted 92.65% of the total oil composition. The most abundant components were sesquiterpenes (91.92%), with curzerene (47.3%), γ -elemene (14.25%), and trans- β -elemenone (10.4%) being the major constituents. The bioactivity shown by EuEO against promastigotes (IC50, 3.04  μ g·mL(-1)) and amastigotes (IC50, 1.92  μ g·mL(-1)) suggested significant anti-Leishmania activity. In the cytotoxicity determination, EuEO was 20 times more toxic to amastigotes than to macrophages. Hemolytic activity was 63.22% at the highest concentration tested (400  μ g·mL(-1)); however, there appeared to be no toxicity at 50  μ g·mL(-1). While the data show that EuEO activity is not mediated by nitric oxide production, they do suggest that macrophage activation may be involved in EuEO anti-Leishmania activity, as evidenced by increases in both the phagocytic capacity and the lysosomal activity. More studies are needed to determine in vivo activity as well as additional mechanisms of the anti-Leishmania activity. PMID:23533469

  15. Loss of ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Surface Expression in Heart Failure Underlies Dysregulation of Action Potential Duration and Myocardial Vulnerability to Injury.

    Zhan Gao

    Full Text Available The search for new approaches to treatment and prevention of heart failure is a major challenge in medicine. The adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP channel has been long associated with the ability to preserve myocardial function and viability under stress. High surface expression of membrane KATP channels ensures a rapid energy-sparing reduction in action potential duration (APD in response to metabolic challenges, while cellular signaling that reduces surface KATP channel expression blunts APD shortening, thus sacrificing energetic efficiency in exchange for greater cellular calcium entry and increased contractile force. In healthy hearts, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII phosphorylates the Kir6.2 KATP channel subunit initiating a cascade responsible for KATP channel endocytosis. Here, activation of CaMKII in a transaortic banding (TAB model of heart failure is coupled with a 35-40% reduction in surface expression of KATP channels compared to hearts from sham-operated mice. Linkage between KATP channel expression and CaMKII is verified in isolated cardiomyocytes in which activation of CaMKII results in downregulation of KATP channel current. Accordingly, shortening of monophasic APD is slowed in response to hypoxia or heart rate acceleration in failing compared to non-failing hearts, a phenomenon previously shown to result in significant increases in oxygen consumption. Even in the absence of coronary artery disease, failing myocardium can be further injured by ischemia due to a mismatch between metabolic supply and demand. Ischemia-reperfusion injury, following ischemic preconditioning, is diminished in hearts with CaMKII inhibition compared to wild-type hearts and this advantage is largely eliminated when myocardial KATP channel expression is absent, supporting that the myocardial protective benefit of CaMKII inhibition in heart failure may be substantially mediated by KATP channels. Recognition of Ca

  16. Regulation of action potential delays via voltage-gated potassium Kv1.1 channels in dentate granule cells during hippocampal epilepsy

    Florian eKirchheim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Action potential (AP responses of dentate gyrus granule (DG cells have to be tightly regulated to maintain hippocampal function. However, which ion channels control the response delay of DG cells is not known. In some neuron types, spike latency is influenced by a dendrotoxin (DTX-sensitive delay current (ID mediated by unidentified combinations of voltage-gated K+ (Kv channels of the Kv1 family Kv1.1-6. In DG cells, the ID has not been characterized and its molecular basis is unknown. The response phenotype of mature DG cells is usually considered homogenous but intrinsic adaptations likely occur in particular in conditions of hyperexcitability, for example during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. In this study, we examined response delays of DG cells and underlying ion channel molecules by employing a new combination of gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp recordings in acute brain slices and single-cell reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (SC RT-qPCR experiments. An in vivo mouse model of TLE consisting of intrahippocampal kainate (KA injection was used to examine epilepsy-related plasticity. Response delays of DG cells were DTX-sensitive and strongly increased in KA-injected hippocampi; Kv1.1 mRNA was elevated 10-fold, and the response delays correlated with Kv1.1 mRNA abundance on the single cell level. Other Kv1 subunits did not show overt changes in mRNA levels. Kv1.1 immunolabeling was enhanced in KA DG cells. The biophysical properties of ID and the delay heterogeneity between inner and outer DG cell layer were characterized. Using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs, where KA incubation also induced ID upregulation, reversibility and neuroprotective potential for DG cells were tested. In summary, the AP timing of DG cells is effectively controlled via scaling of Kv1.1 subunit transcription. With this antiepileptic mechanism, DG cells delay their

  17. Effects of Ascorbic Acid on the Amplitude of Ventral Tegmental Area Field Action Potential in Morphine-Exposed Rats (An Electrophysiology Study

    K Saadipour

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Evidences have indicated that the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA is the major source of dopamine (DA neurons projecting to cortical and limbic regions involved in cognitive and motivational aspects of addiction. Also, studies have indicated that the Ascorbic acid (vitamin C can reduce the dependency symptoms of opioids such as morphine via effect of activity on dopaminergic neuron in VTA. For this reason, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of ascorbic acid on the amplitude of Ventral Tegmental Area field action potential in morphine-exposed rats. Materials & Methods: Forty male Wistar’s rats were used in this experimental study conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2010. Animals were randomly divided into four groups after electrode implantation and recovery period: 1. No- Vit C and No-Addicted group (nVitC.nA 2. Vit C and No-Addicted group (VitC.nA 3. No- Vit C and Addicted group (nVitCA 4.Vit C and Addicted (VitC.A, The Vit C groups received 500 mg/kg of Vit C during 20 days. For addicted groups morphine was administrated once daily for 20 days. In the 20th day, the field potential recording was accomplished. Two-way ANOVA was used for data analysis followed by the Tukey test for post hoc analysis. Results were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results: This study shows the exposure to morphine declined the power of Delta and Beta bands (p<0.05 and Vit C solely enhance power of Theta and Beta (p<0.05, p<0.001 in VTA nuclei. Furthermore, Vit C could alter power of some bands which were affected by morphine. Therefore it seems that Vit C has an increasing effects on them (p<0.05. Conclusion: Although the effect of Vit C on power of the VTA bands is not well known, but it is supposed that this phenomenon can be related to alteration in activity of dopaminergic neuron in the brain.

  18. A lattice study of the quark propagator and vertex function

    Skullerud, Jon Ivar

    1994-01-01

    We report on the status of a study of the quark propagator and quark-gluon vertex in momentum space. Quark propagators have been generated at beta=6.0 using the O(a)-improved Sheikholeslami-Wohlert action and fixed to the Landau gauge. The first results for the quark pole mass and field renormalisation constant are reported, and plans for future work are presented.

  19. Body posture modulates action perception

    Zimmermann, M; Toni, I.; Lange, F.P. de

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted cognitive and neural similarities between planning and perceiving actions. Given that action planning involves a simulation of potential action plans that depends on the actor's body posture, we reasoned that perceiving actions may also be influenced by one's body posture. Here, we test whether and how this influence occurs by measuring behavioral and cerebral (fMRI) responses in human participants predicting goals of observed actions, while manipulating postur...

  20. Action Potential Classification Based on PCA and Improved K-means Algorithm%基于PCA和改进K均值算法的动作电位分类

    师黎; 杨振兴; 王治忠; 王岩

    2011-01-01

    微电极阵列记录的神经元信号往往是电极临近区域数个神经元的动作电位信号以及大量背景噪声的混叠,研究神经系统的信息处理机制以及神经编码、解码机理需了解相关每个神经元的动作电位,因此需从记录信号中分离出每个神经元的动作电位.基于此,提出基于主元分析(PCA)和改进K均值相结合的动作电位分类方法.该方法采用PCA提取动作电位特征,使用改进K均值算法实现动作电位分类.实验结果表明,该方法降低了动作电位的特征维数以及K均值算法对初始分类重心的依赖,提高动作电位分类结果的正确率及稳定性.尤其是在处理低信噪比信号时,分类正确率仍能达到理想水平.%Neural signal recorded by the microelectrode array is often the mixture which is composed of action potentials of several neurons near the electrodes and the background noises. Researches on the nervous system information processing mechanism and neural coding and decoding mechanism need know every related neuron's action potential. Therefore, every neuron's action potential is essential to be separated from the recorded signal. This paper proposes a method based on Principal Component Analysis(PCA) combined with improved K-means for action potential classification. The action potentials' features are extracted by PCA, the action potential classification is implemented by the improved K-means algorithm. Experimental results show that the method brings down action potential's feature dimensions and dependence of the initial classification center for the K-means algorithm, and increases the accuracy and stability of the classification results. Particularly, when processing the low Signal to Noise Ratio(SNR) signals, it can also achieve an expected purpose.

  1. Acute alteration of cardiac ECG, action potential, IKr and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K+ channel by PCB 126 and PCB 77

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been known as serious persistent organic pollutants (POPs), causing developmental delays and motor dysfunction. We have investigated the effects of two PCB congeners, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on ECG, action potential, and the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr) of guinea pigs' hearts, and hERG K+ current expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PCB 126 shortened the corrected QT interval (QTc) of ECG and decreased the action potential duration at 90% (APD90), and 50% of repolarization (APD50) (P 20). PCB 77 decreased APD20 (P 90, and APD50. The PCB 126 increased the IKr in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes held at 36 °C and hERG K+ current amplitude at the end of the voltage steps in voltage-dependent mode (P + current amplitude. The PCB 77 increased the diastolic Ca2+ and decreased Ca2+ transient amplitude (P 90 possibly by increasing IKr, while PCB 77 decreased the APD20 possibly by other modulation related with intracellular Ca2+. The present data indicate that the environmental toxicants, PCBs, can acutely affect cardiac electrophysiology including ECG, action potential, intracellular Ca2+, and channel activity, resulting in toxic effects on the cardiac function in view of the possible accumulation of the PCBs in human body. -- Highlights: ► PCBs are known as serious environmental pollutants and developmental disruptors. ► PCB 126 shortened QT interval of ECG and action potential duration. ► PCB 126 increased human ether-a-go-go-related K+ current and IKr. ► PCB 77 decreased action potential duration and increased intracellular Ca2+ content. ► PCBs acutely change cardiac electrophysiology and rhythmicity.

  2. Stochastic Expectation Propagation

    Li, Yingzhen; Hernandez-Lobato, Jose Miguel; Turner, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Expectation propagation (EP) is a deterministic approximation algorithm that is often used to perform approximate Bayesian parameter learning. EP approximates the full intractable posterior distribution through a set of local approximations that are iteratively refined for each datapoint. EP can offer analytic and computational advantages over other approximations, such as Variational Inference (VI), and is the method of choice for a number of models. The local nature of EP appears to make it...

  3. Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Kelley, T.A.

    1990-10-01

    The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of vhf signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in Fortran 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, DTOA study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of delta-times-of-arrival (DTOAs) vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

  4. HIGH AMPLITUDE PROPAGATED CONTRACTIONS

    Bharucha, Adil E.

    2012-01-01

    While most colonic motor activity is segmental and non-propulsive, colonic high amplitude propagated contractions (HAPC) can transfer colonic contents over long distances and often precede defecation. HAPC occur spontaneously, in response to pharmacological agents or colonic distention. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Rodriguez and colleagues report that anal relaxation during spontaneous and bisacodyl-induced HAPC exceeds anal relaxation during rectal distention in const...

  5. Infrared finite electron propagator

    We investigate the properties of a dressed electron which reduces, in a particular class of gauges, to the usual fermion. A one-loop calculation of the propagator is presented. We show explicitly that an infrared finite, multiplicative, mass shell renormalization is possible for this dressed electron, or, equivalently, for the usual fermion in the above-mentioned gauges. The results are in complete accord with previous conjectures. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Propagators and topology

    Maas, Axel [University of Graz, Institute of Physics, Graz (Austria)

    2015-03-01

    Two popular perspectives on the non-perturbative domain of Yang-Mills theories are either in terms of the gluons themselves or in terms of collective gluonic excitations, i.e. topological excitations. If both views are correct, then they are only two different representations of the same underlying physics. One possibility to investigate this connection is by the determination of gluon correlation functions in topological background fields, as created by the smearing of lattice configurations. This is performed here for the minimal Landau gauge gluon propagator, ghost propagator, and running coupling, both in momentum and position space for SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. The results show that the salient low-momentum features of the propagators are qualitatively retained under smearing at sufficiently small momenta, in agreement with an equivalence of both perspectives. However, the mid-momentum behavior is significantly affected. These results are also relevant for the construction of truncations in functional methods, as they provide hints on necessary properties to be retained in truncations. (orig.)

  7. Propagating waves along spicules

    Okamoto, Takenori J

    2011-01-01

    Alfv\\'enic waves are thought to play an important role in coronal heating and acceleration of solar wind. Here we investigated the statistical properties of Alfv\\'enic waves along spicules (jets that protrude into the corona) in a polar coronal hole using high cadence observations of the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard \\emph{Hinode}. We developed a technique for the automated detection of spicules and high-frequency waves. We detected 89 spicules, and found: (1) a mix of upward propagating, downward propagating, as well as standing waves (occurrence rates of 59%, 21%, and 20%, respectively). (2) The phase speed gradually increases with height. (3) Upward waves dominant at lower altitudes, standing waves at higher altitudes. (4) Standing waves dominant in the early and late phases of each spicule, while upward waves were dominant in the middle phase. (5) In some spicules, we find waves propagating upward (from the bottom) and downward (from the top) to form a standing wave in the middle of the spicule. (...

  8. Site of cochlear stimulation and its effect on electrically evoked compound action potentials using the MED-EL standard electrode array

    Helbig Silke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standard electrode array for the MED-EL MAESTRO cochlear implant system is 31 mm in length which allows an insertion angle of approximately 720°. When fully inserted, this long electrode array is capable of stimulating the most apical region of the cochlea. No investigation has explored Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential (ECAP recordings in this region with a large number of subjects using a commercially available cochlear implant system. The aim of this study is to determine if certain properties of ECAP recordings vary, depending on the stimulation site in the cochlea. Methods Recordings of auditory nerve responses were conducted in 67 subjects to demonstrate the feasibility of ECAP recordings using the Auditory Nerve Response Telemetry (ART™ feature of the MED-EL MAESTRO system software. These recordings were then analyzed based on the site of cochlear stimulation defined as basal, middle and apical to determine if the amplitude, threshold and slope of the amplitude growth function and the refractory time differs depending on the region of stimulation. Results Findings show significant differences in the ECAP recordings depending on the stimulation site. Comparing the apical with the basal region, on average higher amplitudes, lower thresholds and steeper slopes of the amplitude growth function have been observed. The refractory time shows an overall dependence on cochlear region; however post-hoc tests showed no significant effect between individual regions. Conclusions Obtaining ECAP recordings is also possible in the most apical region of the cochlea. However, differences can be observed depending on the region of the cochlea stimulated. Specifically, significant higher ECAP amplitude, lower thresholds and steeper amplitude growth function slopes have been observed in the apical region. These differences could be explained by the location of the stimulating electrode with respect to the neural tissue

  9. Breeding vegetatively propagated horticultural crops

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2011-01-01

    Horticulture is an important part of agriculture with many important crops being vegetatively propagated. Theobjectives of this work were to discuss some of the most important characteristics of vegetatively propagated crops and the breedingstrategies to develop and propagate new cultivars. Vegetative propagation enables to fix favorable combinations of important traits,very specific chemical compositions, superior genetic variance interactions and high levels of heterozygosity. Breeding new ...

  10. Electromagnetic potentials without gauge transformations

    In this paper, we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem enables the derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without the necessity of using gauge transformation. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the other propagates in retarded form with the velocity of light. In our attempt to show the superiority of the new proposed method to the standard one, we argue that the action-at-a-distance components cannot be considered as a drawback of our method, because the recommended procedure for eliminating the action at a distance in the Coulomb gauge leads to theoretical subtleties that allow us to say that the needed gauge transformation is not guaranteed. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that, in addition to the electric E and magnetic B fields, the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities. We show that this property of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum mechanics is also a property of the electromagnetic potentials in classical electrodynamics.

  11. Strong acoustic wave action

    Gokhberg, M. B.

    1983-07-01

    Experiments devoted to acoustic action on the atmosphere-magnetosphere-ionosphere system using ground based strong explosions are reviewed. The propagation of acoustic waves was observed by ground observations over 2000 km in horizontal direction and to an altitude of 200 km. Magnetic variations up to 100 nT were detected by ARIEL-3 satellite near the epicenter of the explosion connected with the formation of strong field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. The enhancement of VLF emission at 800 km altitude is observed.

  12. Radio Propagation into Modern Buildings

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Jørgensen, Niels T.K.; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben

    constructions. These materials are used in favor of achieving a proper level of thermal isolation, but it has been noticed that they can impact heavily on radio signal propagation. This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of the outdoor-to-indoor attenuation experienced in several modern constructions...... compared to an old building. The measurements are performed for frequencies from 800 MHz to 18 GHz with the aim of identifying the frequency dependence and the impact of the new materials on not only the cellular frequency bands used today (mainly below 3 GHz), but also the potential future bands (above 3...... GHz). The results show a material dependent and a frequency dependent attenuation, with an average increase of 20-25 dB in modern constructions compared to the old construction, which presents a low and almost constant attenuation below 10 dB. The different measurement results and observations...

  13. Detection of subcritical crack propagation for concrete dams

    2009-01-01

    Subcritical propagation of cracks is a warning sign of fracture.If such propagation is detected at an early stage,timely maintenance measures can be taken to prevent the failure of structures.To detect the subcritical propagation of a crack,the crack needs to be monitored continuously in a long term, which is not realistic under certain conditions.However,cracks in concrete dams can be monitored continuously by dam monitoring to offer possible detection for subcritical propagation.In this paper, with measured crack openings from dam monitoring,a state equation for characterizing crack development is established based on the grey system theory.The relation between the stability of the equation and the subcritical crack propagation is investigated,then a criterion is proposed for detecting subcritical propagation.An example demonstrates the validity of the criterion and its potential for practical application.

  14. The Application of a Massively Parallel Computer to the Simulation of Electrical Wave Propagation Phenomena in the Heart Muscle Using Simplified Models

    Karpoukhin, Mikhii G.; Kogan, Boris Y.; Karplus, Walter J.

    1995-01-01

    The simulation of heart arrhythmia and fibrillation are very important and challenging tasks. The solution of these problems using sophisticated mathematical models is beyond the capabilities of modern super computers. To overcome these difficulties it is proposed to break the whole simulation problem into two tightly coupled stages: generation of the action potential using sophisticated models. and propagation of the action potential using simplified models. The well known simplified models are compared and modified to bring the rate of depolarization and action potential duration restitution closer to reality. The modified method of lines is used to parallelize the computational process. The conditions for the appearance of 2D spiral waves after the application of a premature beat and the subsequent traveling of the spiral wave inside the simulated tissue are studied.

  15. Effects of sera obtained from electrically charged human body on action potential of giant axon of squid and its relationship to the therapy of the atomic bomb sequela, (2)

    The giant axon of squid was perfused for 20 min with sea water and four kinds of mixture of sera and sea water (1:2), and spike potential of the axon was compared by using a computer. Perfusates used were sea water, sera obtained before electric charge to the human body (pre-sera), sera obtained from the human body electrically charged with -300 volt (negative sera), and sera obtained from the human body electrically charged with +300 volt (positive sera). Negative sera increased action potential of the axon, and positive sera decreased action potential of the axon. These results revealed that negative sera have a greater deal of e-, and positive sera have less quantity of e- than pre-sera, suggesting the involvement of e- in the action potential of the axon. Microtubules in the inner part of the axonal membrane and cell membrane seem to be most greatly related to e-; however, changes in the other axons, cell membrane and protoplasm should also be taken into account. These experimental results seem to be of great value, particularly providing useful information on the treatment for late effects (cell damage) of atomic bombing or burn. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Stochastic model in microwave propagation

    Further experimental results of delay time in microwave propagation are reported in the presence of a lossy medium (wood). The measurements show that the presence of a lossy medium makes the propagation slightly superluminal. The results are interpreted on the basis of a stochastic (or path integral) model, showing how this model is able to describe each kind of physical system in which multi-path trajectories are present. -- Highlights: ► We present new experimental results on electromagnetic “anomalous” propagation. ► We apply a path integral theoretical model to wave propagation. ► Stochastic processes and multi-path trajectories in propagation are considered.

  17. PIV uncertainty propagation

    Sciacchitano, Andrea; Wieneke, Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    This paper discusses the propagation of the instantaneous uncertainty of PIV measurements to statistical and instantaneous quantities of interest derived from the velocity field. The expression of the uncertainty of vorticity, velocity divergence, mean value and Reynolds stresses is derived. It is shown that the uncertainty of vorticity and velocity divergence requires the knowledge of the spatial correlation between the error of the x and y particle image displacement, which depends upon the measurement spatial resolution. The uncertainty of statistical quantities is often dominated by the random uncertainty due to the finite sample size and decreases with the square root of the effective number of independent samples. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to assess the accuracy of the uncertainty propagation formulae. Furthermore, three experimental assessments are carried out. In the first experiment, a turntable is used to simulate a rigid rotation flow field. The estimated uncertainty of the vorticity is compared with the actual vorticity error root-mean-square, with differences between the two quantities within 5–10% for different interrogation window sizes and overlap factors. A turbulent jet flow is investigated in the second experimental assessment. The reference velocity, which is used to compute the reference value of the instantaneous flow properties of interest, is obtained with an auxiliary PIV system, which features a higher dynamic range than the measurement system. Finally, the uncertainty quantification of statistical quantities is assessed via PIV measurements in a cavity flow. The comparison between estimated uncertainty and actual error demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed uncertainty propagation methodology.

  18. Symmetry-improved CJT effective action

    The formalism introduced by Cornwall, Jackiw and Tomboulis (CJT) provides a systematic approach to consistently resumming non-perturbative effects in Quantum Thermal Field Theory. One major limitation of the CJT effective action is that its loopwise expansion introduces residual violations of possible global symmetries, thus giving rise to massive Goldstone bosons in the spontaneously broken phase of the theory. In this paper we develop a novel symmetry-improved CJT formalism for consistently encoding global symmetries in a loopwise expansion. In our formalism, the extremal solutions of the fields and propagators to a loopwise truncated CJT effective action are subject to additional constraints given by the Ward Identities due to global symmetries. By considering a simple O(2) scalar model, we show that, unlike other methods, our approach satisfies a number of important field-theoretic properties. In particular, we find that the Goldstone boson resulting from spontaneous symmetry breaking of O(2) is massless and the phase transition is a second-order one, already in the Hartree–Fock approximation. After taking the sunset diagrams into account, we show how our approach properly describes the threshold properties of the massless Goldstone boson and the Higgs particle in the loops. Finally, assuming minimal modifications to the Hartree–Fock approximated CJT effective action, we calculate the corresponding symmetry-improved CJT effective potential and discuss the conditions for its uniqueness for scalar-field values away from its minimum

  19. Sequential Back—Propagation

    王晖; 刘大有; 等

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of sequential processing and present a sequential model based on the back-propagation algorithm.This model is intended to deal with intrinsically sequential problems,such as word recognition,speech recognition,natural language understanding.This model can be used to train a network to learn the sequence of input patterns,in a fixed order or a random order.Besides,this model is open- and partial-associative,characterized as “resognizing while accumulating”, which, as we argue, is mental cognition process oriented.

  20. Laser propagation code study

    Rockower, Edward B.

    1985-01-01

    A number of laser propagation codes have been assessed as to their suitability for modeling Army High Energy Laser (HEL) weapons used in an anti- sensor mode. We identify a number of areas in which systems analysis HEL codes are deficient. Most notably, available HEL scaling law codes model the laser aperture as circular, possibly with a fixed (e.g. 10%) obscuration. However, most HELs have rectangular apertures with up to 30% obscuration. We present a beam-quality/aperture shape scaling rela...

  1. Temporal scaling in information propagation

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-06-01

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  2. Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator

    ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; MA Wei-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions Af(p2), Bf(p2) and effective mass Mf(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.

  3. Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator

    ZHUJi-Zhen; ZHOULi-Juan; MAWei-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the “rainbow”approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions A/(p2), Bl(p2) and effective mass M$(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.

  4. Forecasting the path of a laterally propagating dike

    Heimisson, Elías Rafn; Hooper, Andrew; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2015-12-01

    An important aspect of eruption forecasting is predicting the path of propagating dikes. We show how lateral dike propagation can be forecast using the minimum potential energy principle. We compare theory to observed propagation paths of dikes originating at the Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland, in 2014 and 1996, by developing a probability distribution for the most likely propagation path. The observed propagation paths agree well with the model prediction. We find that topography is very important for the model, and our preferred forecasting model considers its influence on the potential energy change of the crust and magma. We tested the influence of topography by running the model assuming no topography and found that the path of the 2014 dike could not be hindcasted. The results suggest that lateral dike propagation is governed not only by deviatoric stresses but also by pressure gradients and gravitational potential energy. Furthermore, the model predicts the formation of curved dikes around cone-shaped structures without the assumption of a local deviatoric stress field. We suggest that a likely eruption site for a laterally propagating dike is in topographic lows. The method presented here is simple and computationally feasible. Our results indicate that this kind of a model can be applied to mitigate volcanic hazards in regions where the tectonic setting promotes formation of laterally propagating vertical intrusive sheets.

  5. Learning about goals: development of action perception and action control

    Verschoor, Stephan Alexander

    2014-01-01

    By using innovative paradigms, the present thesis provides convincing evidence that action-effect learning, and sensorimotor processes in general play a crucial role in the development of action- perception and production in infancy. This finding was further generalized to sequential action. Furthermore the thesis suggests that means-selection-, ends-selection information, and action-effect knowledge together feed into a unitary concept of goal. Both these findings have the potential to gener...

  6. Action preparation helps and hinders perception of action

    Press, C; Gherri, E.; Heyes, C; Eimer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Several theories of the mechanisms linking perception and action require that the links are bidirectional, but there is a lack of consensus on the effects that action has on perception. We investigated this by measuring visual event-related brain potentials to observed hand actions while participants prepared responses that were spatially compatible (e.g., both were on the left side of the body) or incompatible and action type compatible (e.g., both were finger taps) or incompatible, with obs...

  7. BODY TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT ACTIONS OF CHLORDIMEFORM ON VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS AND AXONAL TRANSPORT IN OPTIC SYSTEM OF RAT

    Pattern reversal evoked potentials (PREPs), flash evoked potentials (FEPs), optic nerve axonal transport, and body temperature were measured in hooded rats treated with either saline or the formamidine insecticide/acaricide, chlordimeform (CDM). Rats receiving CDM had low body te...

  8. 牛磺酸对豚鼠乳头状肌慢反应动作电位的影响%Effects of taurine on slow action potentials in papillary muscles of guinea pig

    李萍; 康毅; 王国祥

    1995-01-01

    目的:研究牛磺酸对豚鼠乳头状肌慢反应动作电位的影响.方法:高钾(24 mmol·L-1)或河豚毒素(40μmol·L-1)诱发慢反应动作电位.哇巴因诱发振荡后电位.结果:牛磺酸(20mmol·L-1)减少Vmax,延长APD50并拮抗氯化钙(3 mmol·L-1)增加APA和Vmax及缩短APD的作用,增加哇巴因诱发OAP所需浓度并延长其发生时间.结论:牛磺酸有钙拮抗剂的性质%AIM: To examine the effects of taurine on the slow action potentials induced by KCl 24mmol·L-1 or tetrodotoxin 40 μmol·L-1 in guinea pig papillary muscles. METHODS:The transmembrane AP was recorded by a conventional glass microelectrode filled with to high K+-Tyrode's solution or perfused with Tyrode's solution containing tetrodotoxin.Ouabain was added in order to induce oscillatory afterpotentials. RESULTS: Taurine 20locity of slow action potential and prolonged the action potential duration at 50 % of repolarization. The amplitude of slow action potential and the maximal upstroke velocity both nized by taurine. Taurine increased the concentration of ouabain for oscillatory afterpotential and prolonged the onset time of oscillatory afterpotential. CONCLUSION: Taurine possesses a calcium antagonistic property.

  9. Collective effects in shock propagation through a clumpy medium

    A numerical simulation of shock propagation in a clumpy medium with a weak magnetic field is presented which illustrates a number of dynamical processes of potential importance for explaining spectral line width and radio polarization measurements in supernova remnants

  10. Aspects of HF radio propagation

    Stephane Saillant

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST 296 Action, interest lies with effects associated

    with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects are covered in this paper:

    a The directions of arrival and times of flight of signals received over a path oriented along the trough have

    been examined and several types of propagation effects identified. Of particular note, combining the HF observations

    with satellite measurements has identified the presence of irregularities within the floor of the trough that

    result in propagation displaced from the great circle direction. An understanding of the propagation effects that

    result in deviations of the signal path from the great circle direction are of particular relevance to the operation

    of HF radiolocation systems.

    b Inclusion of the results from the above mentioned measurements into a propagation model of the northerly

    ionosphere (i.e. those regions of the ionosphere located poleward of, and including, the mid-latitude trough

    and the use of this model to predict the coverage expected from transmitters where the signals impinge on the

    northerly ionosphere

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Freeman's mass action

    Freeman, Walter J III; Kozma, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Freeman's Mass Action (FMA) refers to the collective synaptic actions that neurons in the cortex exert on each other in vast numbers by synchronizing their firing of action potentials. In the aggregate, FMA is a powerful force that creates bursts of cortical neural activity that resemble the vortices of tornadoes and hurricanes. The bursts rapidly and repeatedly retrieve memories and bind them with sensory information into percepts. In this way, FMA expresses and transmits the meaning of sens...

  16. Light Front Boson Model Propagation

    Jorge Henrique Sales; Alfredo Takashi Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    stract The scope and aim of this work is to describe the two-body interaction mediated by a particle (either the scalar or the gauge boson) within the light-front formulation. To do this, first of all we point out the importance of propagators and Green functions in Quantum Mechanics. Then we project the covariant quantum propagator onto the light front time to get the propagator for scalar particles in these coordinates. This operator propagates the wave function from x+ = 0 to x+ > O. It corresponds to the definition of the time ordering operation in the light front time x+. We calculate the light-front Green's function for 2 interacting bosons propagating forward in x+. We also show how to write down the light front Green's function from the Feynman propagator and finally make a generalization to N bosons.

  17. Interferometric Propagation Delay

    Goldstein, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Radar interferometry based on (near) exact repeat passes has lately been used by many groups of scientists, worldwide, to achieve state of the art measurements of topography, glacier and ice stream motion, earthquake displacements, oil field subsidence, lava flows, crop-induced surface decorrelation, and other effects. Variations of tropospheric and ionospheric propagation delays limit the accuracy of all such measurements. We are investigating the extent of this limitation, using data from the Shuttle radar flight, SIR-C, which is sensitive to the troposphere, and the Earth Resources Satellites, ERS-1/2, which are sensitive to both the troposphere and the ionosphere. We are presently gathering statistics of the delay variations over selected, diverse areas to determine the best accuracy possible for repeat track interferometry. The phases of an interferogram depend on both the topography of the scene and variations in propagation delay. The delay variations can be caused by movement of elements in the scene, by changes in tropospheric water vapor and by changes of the charge concentrations in the ionosphere. We plan to separate these causes by using the data from a third satellite visit (three-pass interferometry). The figure gives the geometry of the three-pass observations. The page of the figure is taken to be perpendicular to the spacecraft orbits. The three observational locations are marked on the figure, giving baselines B-12 and B-13, separated by the angle alpha. These parameters are almost constant over the whole scene. However, each pixel has an individual look angle, theta, which is related to the topography, rho is the slant range. A possible spurious time delay is shown. Additional information is contained in the original.

  18. Back-propagation of accuracy

    Senashova, M. Yu.; Gorban, A. N.; Wunsch II, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we solve the problem: how to determine maximal allowable errors, possible for signals and parameters of each element of a network proceeding from the condition that the vector of output signals of the network should be calculated with given accuracy? "Back-propagation of accuracy" is developed to solve this problem. The calculation of allowable errors for each element of network by back-propagation of accuracy is surprisingly similar to a back-propagation of error, because it is...

  19. Join-Graph Propagation Algorithms

    Mateescu, Robert; Kask, Kalev; Gogate, Vibhav; Dechter, Rina

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates parameterized approximate message-passing schemes that are based on bounded inference and are inspired by Pearl's belief propagation algorithm (BP). We start with the bounded inference mini-clustering algorithm and then move to the iterative scheme called Iterative Join-Graph Propagation (IJGP), that combines both iteration and bounded inference. Algorithm IJGP belongs to the class of Generalized Belief Propagation algorithms, a framework that allowed connections with a...

  20. Propagation Terminal Design and Measurements

    Nessel, James

    2015-01-01

    The NASA propagation terminal has been designed and developed by the Glenn Research Center and is presently deployed at over 5 NASA and partner ground stations worldwide collecting information on the effects of the atmosphere on Ka-band and millimeter wave communications links. This lecture provides an overview of the fundamentals and requirements of the measurement of atmospheric propagation effects and, specifically, the types of hardware and digital signal processing techniques employed by current state-of-the-art propagation terminal systems.

  1. Cascade dynamics of complex propagation

    Centola, Damon; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Macy, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Random links between otherwise distant nodes can greatly facilitate the propagation of disease or information, provided contagion can be transmitted by a single active node. However, we show that when the propagation requires simultaneous exposure to multiple sources of activation, called complex propagation, the effect of random links can be just the opposite; it can make the propagation more difficult to achieve. We numerically calculate critical points for a threshold model using several classes of complex networks, including an empirical social network. We also provide an estimation of the critical values in terms of vulnerable nodes.

  2. Analysis of an H1 receptor-mediated, zinc-potentiated vasoconstrictor action of the histidyl dipeptide carnosine in rabbit saphenous vein

    O'Dowd, Anne; Miller, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The contractile action of the dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), active as a Zn·carnosine complex (Zn·Carn), was investigated in isolated rings of rabbit saphenous vein (RSV) and was found to be antagonized by the H1 antagonist mepyramine.Mepyramine-sensitive, histamine-induced contractures in RSV, were smaller (73±0.1%) and less well sustained than carnosine-induced contractures.Schild plot values for mepyramine antagonism were, for carnosine-induced contractures; pA2=7.97±0.12, slo...

  3. Propagation of Nonlinear Pressure Waves in Blood

    Elgarayhi, A.; E. K. El-Shewy; MAHMOUD, ABEER A.; Elhakem, Ali A.

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of weakly nonlinear pressure waves in a fluid-filled elastic tube has been investigated. The reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equation for small but finite amplitude. The effect of the final inner radius of the tube on the basic properties of the soliton wave was discussed. Moreover, the conditions of stability and the soliton existence via the potential and the corresponding phase portrait were computed. The applicability of the ...

  4. Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis for Propagating Detonations

    Wintenberger, E.; Shepherd, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Propagating detonations have recently been the focus of extensive work based on their use in pulse detonation engines [1]. The entropy minimum associated with Chapman–Jouguet (CJ) detonations [2] and its potential implications on the thermal efficiency of these systems [3] has been one of the main motivations for these efforts. The notion of applying thermodynamic cycles to detonation was considered first by Zel’dovich [4], who concluded that the efficiency of the detonation cycle is slightly...

  5. Nonlinear theory of propagation of intense laser pulses in magnetized plasma

    A one-dimensional nonlinear theory of propagation of intense laser pulses in cold underdense plasma is presented. The linearly polarized radiation propagates in the presence of a constant magnetic field applied perpendicular to both the electric vector and the direction of propagation. Dispersion of the incident radiation and generation of its harmonics are studied. The axial electric wakefield and potential are evaluated

  6. The propagation of the nerve impulse under the effect of a magnetic field

    The recent significant advance in superconductivity at high temperatures has raised an important problem in biophysics, in view of the underlying interest that has arisen in experiments in which very high magnetic fields are needed (in the multi-tesla range). This is occurring against a theoretical background in which there is no reliable way of estimating the effect of magnetic fields on the central nervous system. This has led us to discuss the problem of the coupling of magnetic fields with the coherent propagation of the polarization of the plasma membrane along the axon. Our work lies within the context of the phenomenological model of nerve impulse propagation due to Hodgkin and Huxley. Using the concept of gauge invariance we find that the magnetic field has a non negligible effect on the velocity of propagation of the action potential in the limit of the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation without recovery, but more realistic cases do not change the main conclusions of this work. (author). 26 refs

  7. Propagation of gravitational waves in the generalized tensor-vector-scalar theory

    Efforts are underway to improve the design and sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors, with the hope that the next generation of these detectors will observe a gravitational wave signal. Such a signal will not only provide information on dynamics in the strong gravity regime that characterizes potential sources of gravitational waves, but will also serve as a decisive test for alternative theories of gravitation that are consistent with all other current experimental observations. We study the linearized theory of the tensor-vector-scalar theory of gravity with generalized vector action, an alternative theory of gravitation designed to explain the apparent deficit of visible matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies without postulating yet-undetected dark matter. We find the polarization states and propagation speeds for gravitational waves in vacuum, and show that in addition to the usual transverse-traceless propagation modes, there are two more mixed longitudinal-transverse modes and two trace modes, of which at least one has longitudinal polarization. Additionally, the propagation speeds are different from the speed of light.

  8. Measuring propagation speed of Coulomb fields

    Sangro, R. de; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Piccolo, M.; Pizzella, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    The problem of gravity propagation has been subject of discussion for quite a long time: Newton, Laplace and, in relatively more modern times, Eddington pointed out that, if gravity propagated with finite velocity, planet motion around the sun would become unstable due to a torque originating from time lag of the gravitational interactions. Such an odd behavior can be found also in electromagnetism, when one computes the propagation of the electric fields generated by a set of uniformly moving charges. As a matter of fact the Lienard-Weichert retarded potential leads to the same formula as the one obtained assuming that the electric field propagate with infinite velocity. The Feynman explanation for this apparent paradox was based on the fact that uniform motions last indefinitely. To verify such an explanation, we performed an experiment to measure the time/space evolution of the electric field generated by an uniformly moving electron beam. The results we obtain, on a finite lifetime kinematical state, are compatible with an electric field rigidly carried by the beam itself. (orig.)

  9. Measuring propagation speed of Coulomb fields

    The problem of gravity propagation has been subject of discussion for quite a long time: Newton, Laplace and, in relatively more modern times, Eddington pointed out that, if gravity propagated with finite velocity, planet motion around the sun would become unstable due to a torque originating from time lag of the gravitational interactions. Such an odd behavior can be found also in electromagnetism, when one computes the propagation of the electric fields generated by a set of uniformly moving charges. As a matter of fact the Lienard-Weichert retarded potential leads to the same formula as the one obtained assuming that the electric field propagate with infinite velocity. The Feynman explanation for this apparent paradox was based on the fact that uniform motions last indefinitely. To verify such an explanation, we performed an experiment to measure the time/space evolution of the electric field generated by an uniformly moving electron beam. The results we obtain, on a finite lifetime kinematical state, are compatible with an electric field rigidly carried by the beam itself. (orig.)

  10. Effects of negative-energy propagations in deuteron-nucleus scattering

    The effects of negative-energy propagations in the effective optical potentials for relativistic deuteron-nucleus elastic scattering are investigated utilizing the Breit approach. First, we consider the effects of the (+-) and (-+) propagations. They represent that one of the nucleons in the deuteron propagates in its positive-energy state, while another propagates in negative-energy one. Second, the effects of the (--) propagation, which represents that both the nucleons propagate in their negative-energy states, are studies. It has been found that the characteristic features of the optical potentials near 400 MeV - the wine-bottle-bottom-shape of the central part and the enhanced spin-orbit strength - are pure relativistic effects mainly due to the (+-) and (-+) propagations, whereas the effects of the (--) propagation are small. (author)

  11. Static-light meson-meson potentials

    Bali, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    We investigate potentials between pairs of static-light mesons in Nf=2 Lattice QCD, in different spin channels. The question of attraction and repulsion is particularly interesting with respect to the X(3872) charmonium state and charged candidates such as the Z+(4430). We employ the nonperturbatively improved Sheikholeslami-Wohlert fermion and the Wilson gauge actions at a lattice spacing a approx. 0.084 fm and a pseudoscalar mass mPS approx. 760 MeV. We use stochastic all-to-all propagator techniques, improved by a hopping parameter expansion. The analysis is based on the variational method, utilizing various source and sink interpolators.

  12. HF propagation via the ionosphere over Africa. Science or art?

    Complete text of publication follows. The development of HF propagation in Africa is still of concern and further studies need to be carried out to ensure the continued improvement of HF communication over Africa. This paper concentrate on the accuracy of HF propagation prediction over Africa. The paper will present the validation of HF propagation conditions using two models : Ionospheric Communication Enhanced Profile Analysis and Circuit (ICEPAC) and Advanced Stand Alone Prediction Systems (ASAPS). The real-time data is obtained from monitoring stations of the international beacon project. The results will show the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for different paths. The potential of the two models as compared to real-time data in terms of the propagation condition prediction is illustrated. An attempt to draw conclusions for future improvement of HF propagation models is also presented.

  13. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  14. propagating through optical glasses

    M. Rosete-Aguilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La dispersión cromática de materiales ópticos ocasiona el ensanchamiento de un pulso óptico conforme se propaga a través del material. El ensanchamiento del pulso se produce por la dependencia de la velocidad de grupo con la frecuencia. En este artículo evaluamos el ensanchamiento temporal del pulso conforme se propaga en el vidrio óptico. Evaluamos la dependencia de la velocidad de grupo con la frecuencia en términos de la dependencia del índice de refracción de fase del vidrio con la longitud de onda de la luz. La dependencia del índice de refracción de fase con la longitud de onda en vidrios es bien conocida a través de la fórmula de Sellmeier. Se presentan resultados para pulsos de 50, 80 y 100 fs propagándose una distancia L en vidrios ópticos de Schott BK7, SF14 y Silica fundida los cuales son verificados usando un modelo de suma de frecuencias moduladas por una gaussiana

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication