WorldWideScience

Sample records for action impact assessment

  1. Methods for assessing environmental impacts of a FUSRAP property-cleanup/interim-storage remedial action

    This document provides a description of a property-cleanup/interim-storage action, explanation of how environmental impacts might occur, comprehensive treatment of most potential impacts that might occur as a result of this type of action, discussion of existing methodologies for estimating and assessing impacts, justification of the choice of specific methodologies for use in FUSRAP environmental reviews, assessments of representative impacts (or expected ranges of impacts where possible), suggested mitigation measures, and some key sources of information. The major topical areas covered are physical and biological impacts, radiological impacts, and socioeconomic impacts. Some project-related issues were beyond the scope of this document, including dollar costs, specific accident scenarios, project funding and changes in Congressional mandates, and project management (contracts, labor relations, quality assurance, liability, emergency preparedness, etc.). These issues will be covered in other documents supporting the decision-making process. Although the scope of this document covers property-cleanup and interim-storage actions, it is applicable to other similar remedial actions. For example, the analyses discussed herein for cleanup activities are applicable to any FUSRAP action that includes site cleanup

  2. Validation of signal impact assessment tool in order to explore pharmacovigilance signals' follow-up actions

    Rolfes, Leàn; Kolfschoten, Judith; Van Hunsel, Florence; Van Puijenbroek, Eugene; van Grootheest, Kees

    2014-01-01

    Background: To determine which actions are advisable for signals arising from a spontaneous reporting system, the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb uses a Signal Impact Assessment Tool (SIAT). It categorizes signals into one of four categories: strong/moderate signal strength and similarly

  3. A global call for action to include gender in research impact assessment.

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Adam, Paula; Grant, Jonathan; Hinrichs-Krapels, Saba; Graham, Kathryn E; Valentine, Pamela A; Sued, Omar; Boukhris, Omar F; Al Olaqi, Nada M; Al Rahbi, Idrees S; Dowd, Anne-Maree; Bice, Sara; Heiden, Tamika L; Fischer, Michael D; Dopson, Sue; Norton, Robyn; Pollitt, Alexandra; Wooding, Steven; Balling, Gert V; Jakobsen, Ulla; Kuhlmann, Ellen; Klinge, Ineke; Pololi, Linda H; Jagsi, Reshma; Smith, Helen Lawton; Etzkowitz, Henry; Nielsen, Mathias W; Carrion, Carme; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Vizcaino, Esther; Naing, Lin; Cheok, Quentin H N; Eckelmann, Baerbel; Simuyemba, Moses C; Msiska, Temwa; Declich, Giovanna; Edmunds, Laurel D; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Buchan, Alison M J; Williamson, Catherine; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Surender, Rebecca; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-01-01

    Global investment in biomedical research has grown significantly over the last decades, reaching approximately a quarter of a trillion US dollars in 2010. However, not all of this investment is distributed evenly by gender. It follows, arguably, that scarce research resources may not be optimally invested (by either not supporting the best science or by failing to investigate topics that benefit women and men equitably). Women across the world tend to be significantly underrepresented in research both as researchers and research participants, receive less research funding, and appear less frequently than men as authors on research publications. There is also some evidence that women are relatively disadvantaged as the beneficiaries of research, in terms of its health, societal and economic impacts. Historical gender biases may have created a path dependency that means that the research system and the impacts of research are biased towards male researchers and male beneficiaries, making it inherently difficult (though not impossible) to eliminate gender bias. In this commentary, we - a group of scholars and practitioners from Africa, America, Asia and Europe - argue that gender-sensitive research impact assessment could become a force for good in moving science policy and practice towards gender equity. Research impact assessment is the multidisciplinary field of scientific inquiry that examines the research process to maximise scientific, societal and economic returns on investment in research. It encompasses many theoretical and methodological approaches that can be used to investigate gender bias and recommend actions for change to maximise research impact. We offer a set of recommendations to research funders, research institutions and research evaluators who conduct impact assessment on how to include and strengthen analysis of gender equity in research impact assessment and issue a global call for action. PMID:27432056

  4. Health impacts of climate change in Vanuatu: an assessment and adaptation action plan.

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne; McIver, Lachlan

    2013-05-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges and Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable due to, among other factors, their geography, demography and level of economic development. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used as a basis for the consideration of the potential health impacts of changes in the climate on the population of Vanuatu, to assess the risks and propose a range of potential adaptive responses appropriate for Vanuatu. The HIA process involved the participation of a broad range of stakeholders including expert sector representatives in the areas of bio-physical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food, who provided informed comment and input into the understanding of the potential health impacts and development of adaptation strategies. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed with the application of a qualitative process that considered both the consequences and the likelihood of each of the potential health impacts occurring. Potential adaptation strategies and actions were developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by the various sectors in Vanuatu to contribute to future decision making processes associated with the health impacts of climate change. PMID:23618474

  5. Adapting to climate change. Towards a European framework for action. Impact Assessment

    the general objective of promoting adaptation is translated into this context to specific objectives i.e. of identifying priority adaptation measures and of defining an action plan for the next 4 years. It also establishes operational objectives corresponding to the key problems identified in the previous section. This impact assessment is of a qualitative nature. A first set of options is presented in Chapter 4, these refer to the overall adaptation approaches, for which a proportionate assessment of the economic, environmental and social impacts is conducted to allow a prioritisation of adaptation actions. A second set of options is presented in Chapter 5, which refers to the specific actions to be undertaken in the short term. These options are assessed with respect to the operational criteria defined in chapter 3, and with respect to subsidiarity, knowledge basis and resources aspects. Chapter 6 describes the monitoring and evaluation actions to be undertaken in priority, to allow a further review of the action framework with respect to the operational objectives defined in chapter 3. The analysis is based on the 2008 EEA/JRC/WHO report on Climate Change Impacts, and on a list of other reports and papers quoted in footnotes or detailed in an appendix, together with a glossary and a report providing detailed results on the public and stakeholder consultations on the Green Paper. Annex 1 provides further details on the framework for integrated assessment of adaptation policies, including recent estimates on adaptation costs from the literature. A more detailed analysis of climate change vulnerability, adaptation potential and the need for EU action is provided for environmental cross cutting issues (Annex 2) and at Sectoral or geographical level (Annex 3). Annex 4 provides an overview of National adaptation strategies. Annex 5 provides details on the concrete measures that have been screened for the short-term EU action plan. An executive summary is presented in a

  6. Assessing the impact of information and framing on support for climate policy action

    Full text: A significant share of the public appears mislead by the way the economic impacts of emissions reductions are traditionally communicated. This misunderstanding is associated with reduced support for policy action, and risks long term climate impacts that would be avoided if results were communicated properly. Correct this basis appears likely to have a larger effect on attitudes than new research and information on the impacts of climate change. Government action to achieve deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions - like other major policy changes -depends on public support, which in turn depends on perceptions of policy impacts. This paper reports research exploring the effect of three factors on support for policy action: the way that policy impacts are described; the magnitude of these impacts, and additional information on climate change impacts, provided internally through the surveys and externally through the release of An Inconvenient Truth and media coverage of the Stern Report (2006). The research used split sample phone and internet surveys (n = 4264) conducted in Australia and New Zealand in four waves from April to December 2006. The study gives rise to four major findings: Support for policy action is sensitive to the magnitude of expected economic impacts, with predicted support varying from 27% to 84% across the different levels of policy impact presented; Current approaches to communicating policy impacts are associated with public support for policy action being 8-10% lower than it would be if policy impacts were well communicated. This bias may be corrected by describing policy impacts in terms of changes relative to current levels - stating that incomes continue to rise - as well as describing impacts relative to the base case; The reduction in support associated with these biases is much larger than the increase in support associated with providing credible additional information on the impacts of climate change; Significantly more than

  7. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Vanuatu: An Assessment and Adaptation Action Plan

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne; McIver, Lachlan

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges and Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable due to, among other factors, their geography, demography and level of economic development. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used as a basis for the consideration of the potential health impacts of changes in the climate on the population of Vanuatu, to assess the risks and propose a range of potential adaptive responses appropriate for Vanuatu. The HIA process involv...

  8. Health impacts of climate change in the Solomon Islands: an assessment and adaptation action plan.

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-09-01

    The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of the Solomon Islands were assessed through the use of a Health Impact Assessment framework. The process used a collaborative and consultative approach with local experts to identify the impacts to health that could arise from local environmental changes, considered the risks associated with these and proposed appropriate potential adaptive responses. Participants included knowledgeable representatives from the biophysical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food sectors. The risk assessments considered both the likelihood and consequences of the health impacts occurring using a qualitative process. To mitigate the adverse effects of the health impacts, an extensive range of potential adaptation strategies were developed. The overall process provided an approach that could be used for further assessments as well as an extensive range of responses which could be used by sectors and to assist future decision making associated with the Solomon Islands' responses to climate change. PMID:25168977

  9. Health Impacts of Climate Change in the Solomon Islands: An Assessment and Adaptation Action Plan

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of the Solomon Islands were assessed through the use of a Health Impact Assessment framework. The process used a collaborative and consultative approach with local experts to identify the impacts to health that could arise from local environmental changes, considered the risks associated with these and proposed appropriate potential adaptive responses. Participants included knowledgeable representatives from the biophysical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food sectors. The risk assessments considered both the likelihood and consequences of the health impacts occurring using a qualitative process. To mitigate the adverse effects of the health impacts, an extensive range of potential adaptation strategies were developed. The overall process provided an approach that could be used for further assessments as well as an extensive range of responses which could be used by sectors and to assist future decision making associated with the Solomon Islands’ responses to climate change. PMID:25168977

  10. Development Impact Assessment Highlights Co-benefits of GHG Mitigation Actions

    2016-06-01

    This EC-LEDS document describes the Development Impact Assessment (DIA) process that explores interactions between development goals and the low emission development strategies. DIA aims to support informed decision-making by considering how policies and programs intended to meet one goal may impact other development priorities. Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) is a flagship U.S. government-led effort that assists countries in developing and implementing LEDS. The program enhances partner country efforts by providing targeting technical assistance and building a shared global knowledge base on LEDS. is a flagship U.S. government-led effort that assists countries in developing and implementing LEDS. The program enhances partner country efforts by providing targeting technical assistance and building a shared global knowledge base on LEDS.

  11. Unit environmental transport assessment of contaminants from Hanford's past-practice waste sites. Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) contracted Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide support to Advanced Sciences, Incorporated (ASI) in implementing tile regional no-action risk assessment in the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. Researchers at PNL were charged with developing unit concentrations for soil, groundwater, surface water, and air at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of tile Hanford installation. Using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), PNL simulated (1) a unit release of one ci for each radionuclide and one kg for each chemical from contaminated soils and ponded sites, (2) transport of the contaminants in and through various environmental media and (3) exposure/risk of four exposure scenarios, outlined by the Hanford Site Baseline Remedial Action Methodology. These four scenarios include residential, recreational, industrial, and agricultural exposures. Spacially and temporally distributed environmental concentrations based on unit releases of radionuclides and chemicals were supported to ASI in support of the HRA-EIS. Risk for the four exposure scenarios, based on unit environment concentrations in air, water, and soil. were also supplied to ASI. This report outlines the procedure that was used to implement the unit transport portion of the HRA-EIS baseline risk assessment. Deliverables include unit groundwater, surface water, air, and soil concentrations at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of the Hanford installation

  12. Concerted action on assessment of health and environmental impacts. Modeller and experimentalists' forum: final report

    The behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and the associated risks have to be determined through a combination of experimental and modelling studies. Modelling systems, such as those developed collaboratively in the European Union, are required: (a) to determine the potential consequences of accidental releases, (b) to help in emergency planning, (c) to determine the radiological impact of proposed routine radionuclide releases. Various experimental and environmental monitoring data are used as an input to such systems both directly through the choice of parameter values and indirectly through validation of the models. It is important to establish good contacts between the modelling and experimental communities to contribute towards the harmonisation of environmental modelling and to contribute to the maintenance of the European Commission modelling systems as state of the art. Such contacts are also beneficial in directing future experimental research and modelling programmes. The aspects of environmental transfer considered in this project are terrestrial food chains, external irradiation, resuspension, atmospheric dispersion, and aquatic transfer. To fulfil the objectives of the project, NRPB took the lead, with assistance from the other partners, in organising and hosting regular meetings of researchers in the experimental and modelling communities, setting key issues for discussion at each meeting, and drawing together the conclusions of each meeting. The emphasis of the meetings was on the adequacy of the three principal EC-sponsored computing systems, COSYMA and PC-COSYMA (probabilistic risk assessment systems), PC-CREAM (system for assessing the consequences of routine releases) and RODOS (the EC decision aiding system for emergency response). The meetings considered whether these systems make adequate use of the available experimental data and findings on environmental contamination and transfer. This aim of this study was to consider the models

  13. Assessing the Potential Impact of a Nationwide Class-Based Affirmative Action System

    Xiang, Alice; Rubin, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the possible consequences of a change in law school admissions in the United States from an affirmative action system based on race to one based on socioeconomic class. Using data from the 1991-1996 Law School Admission Council Bar Passage Study, students were reassigned attendance by simulation to law school tiers by transferring the affirmative action advantage for black students to students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The hypothetical academic outcomes for the students w...

  14. Health Impacts of Climate Change in the Solomon Islands: An Assessment and Adaptation Action Plan

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of ...

  15. Assessment of the impact of scheduled postmarketing safety summary analyses on regulatory actions.

    Sekine, S; Pinnow, E E; Wu, E; Kurtzig, R; Hall, M; Dal Pan, G J

    2016-07-01

    In addition to standard postmarketing drug safety monitoring, Section 915 of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) requires the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to conduct a summary analysis of adverse event reports to identify risks of a drug or biologic product 18 months after product approval, or after 10,000 patients have used the product, whichever is later. We assessed the extent to which these analyses identified new safety signals and resultant safety-related label changes. Among 458 newly approved products, 300 were the subjects of a scheduled analysis; a new safety signal that resulted in a safety-related label change was found for 11 of these products. Less than 2% of 713 safety-related label changes were based on the scheduled analyses. Our study suggests that the safety summary analyses provide only marginal value over other pharmacovigilance activities. PMID:26853718

  16. Sustainable Development Impacts of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: An integrated approach to assessment of co-benefits based on experience with the Clean Development Mechanism

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    Sustainable development priorities provide the context for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) by developing countries. While methods exist to assess the sustainable development (SD) co-benefits of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, no approach has yet been developed to...... assess the SD impacts of NAMAs. This paper argues for a new integrated approach to asses NAMAs' SD impacts that consists of SD indicators, procedures for stakeholder involvement and safeguards against negative impacts. The argument is based on a review of experience with the CDM’s contribution to SD...

  17. Introducing Health Impact Assessment

    Mannheimer, L N; Gulis, G; Lehto, J;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intersectoral Action for Health (IAH) and its Health Impact Assessment (HIA) tool are built on collaboration between actors and sectors, requiring multidimensional and horizontal way of working. The study aims to analyse the enablers and barriers when such a new way of working and tool...... used by which the actual problems, the governmental actions (or non-actions) (politics) and the understanding, implementation and evaluation of the initiative (policy) could be analysed. All actors involved, civil servants, politicians, representatives of the local public health institute and...... researchers, were interviewed and made to answer a questionnaire. RESULTS: The results showed that there were a number of factors behind the initiation of HIA, which either delayed or accelerated the process. The problems identified were e.g. the prevailing traditional health care focus and the deteriorating...

  18. Disability, disparate impact, and class actions.

    Stein, Michael Ashley; Waterstone, Michael E

    2006-12-01

    Following Title VII's enactment, group-based employment discrimination actions flourished due to disparate impact theory and the class action device. Courts recognized that subordination that defined a group's social identity was also sufficient legally to bind members together, even when relief had to be issued individually. Woven through these cases was a notion of panethnicity that united inherently unrelated groups into a common identity, for example, Asian Americans. Stringent judicial interpretation subsequently eroded both legal frameworks and it has become increasingly difficult to assert collective employment actions, even against discriminatory practices affecting an entire group. This deconstruction has immensely disadvantaged persons with disabilities. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), individual employee claims to accommodate specific impairments, such as whether to install ramps or replace computer screens, have all but eclipsed a coherent theory of disability-based disparate impact law. Moreover, the class action device has been virtually nonexistent in disability discrimination employment cases. The absence of collective action has been especially harmful because the realm of the workplace is precisely where group-based remedies are needed most. Specifically, a crucial but overlooked issue in disability integration is the harder-to-reach embedded norms that require job and policy modifications. The Article argues that pandisability theory serves as an analogue to earlier notions of panethnicity and provides an equally compelling heuristic for determining class identity. It shows that pandisability undergirds ADA public service and public accommodation class actions in which individualized remedy assessments have been accepted as part of group-based challenges to social exclusion. The Article also demonstrates that this broader vision of collective action is consistent with the history underlying the class action device. Taking

  19. Citizens' actions and environmental impact statements

    Above all, two kinds of citizens' participation in environmental decisions are to be considered: on the one hand the suit for damages and compensation for the purpose of internalization of external effects, and on the other hand the actions with the aim to influence character and content of public final decision cases. This is where cooperation and contributions towards state activities with more concern for the environment come into it. This sphere is investigated. Combined are the possibility of judicially arranged citizens' participation and a modern instrument of public decision: environmental impact statements. At the moment these appear to become exclusively an instrument for internal administration management. However, it is possible - this can be confirmed in comparative law - to couple this for the purpose of administration created instrument of technology assessment with citizens' actions. Therefore, the article aims to point to a solution how modern administration management through judicial mediation can orientate itself according to citizens' interests. (orig./LN)

  20. Integrated impact assessment

    Porter, A.L.; Rossini, F.A.

    1981-12-01

    Impact assessment studies the effects on society of proposed projects, programs, or policies. It is perhaps best known in the forms of technology assessment and environmental-impact assessment. The institutionalization of impact assessment, the principal features of impact assessment and its performance are discussed here, keynoting interdisciplinarity as a critical factor. Substantial progress in performance has occurred over the past decade, especially in environmental and social analyses, pointing to some critical issues for the decade ahead. Within studies, integration across disciplinary components, between contributions from professionals and parties-at-interest, and between producers and users must be improved. Across studies, practitioners of impact assessment need to intercommunicate to advance the state of their art. 38 references.

  1. Assessing climate impacts

    Wohl, Ellen E.; Roger S. Pulwarty; Zhang, Jian Yun

    2000-01-01

    Assessing climate impacts involves identifying sources and characteristics of climate variability, and mitigating potential negative impacts of that variability. Associated research focuses on climate driving mechanisms, biosphere–hydrosphere responses and mediation, and human responses. Examples of climate impacts come from 1998 flooding in the Yangtze River Basin and hurricanes in the Caribbean and Central America. Although we have limited understanding of the fu...

  2. Handbook for value-impact assessment

    The basic purpose of this handbook is to document a set of systematic procedures for providing information that can be used in performing value-impact assessments of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory actions. The handbook describes a structured but flexible process for performing the assessment. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the value-impact assessment process. Chapter 2 describes the attributes most frequently affected by proposed NRC actions, provides guidance concerningthe appropriate level of effort to be devoted to the assessment, suggests a standard format for documenting the assessment, and discusses the treatment of uncertainty. Chapter 3 contains detailed methods for evaluating each of the attributes affected by a regulatory action. The handbook has five appendixes containing background information, technical data, and example applications of the value-impact assessment procedures. This edition of the handbook focuses primarily on assessing nuclear power reactor safety issues

  3. Assessing Impact: Evidence and Action. Presentations from the AAHE Conference on Assessment & Quality (Miami Beach, Florida, June 11-15, 1997).

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle; Ewell, Peter T.; Gelman, Sherril B.; Kuh, George; Marchese, Theodore J.; Miller, Margaret A.; Wiggins, Grant

    This collection of seven major presentations at a 1997 conference on assessment and quality in higher education includes three plenary presentations and four introductions to program strands. In "Accountability and Assessment in a Second Decade: New Looks or Same Old Story?" Peter T. Ewell stresses the importance of defining the academic integrity…

  4. Impact assessment revisited

    Thiele, Jan; Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Markussen, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical underpinnings of the assessment of invasive alien species impacts need to be improved. At present most approaches are unreliable to quantify impact at regional scales and do not allow for comparison of different invasive species. There are four basic problems that need to be...... addressed: (1) Some impacted ecosystem traits are spatially not additive; (2) invader effects may increase non-linearly with abundance or there may be effect thresholds impairing estimates of linear impact models; (3) the abundance and impact of alien species will often co-vary with environmental variation......; and (4) the total invaded range is an inappropriate measure for quantifying regional impact because the habitat area available for invasion can vary markedly among invasive species. Mathematical models and empirical data using an invasive alien plant species (Heracleum mantegazzianum) indicate that...

  5. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)

  6. 21 CFR 25.20 - Actions requiring preparation of an environmental assessment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actions requiring preparation of an environmental... SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Agency Actions Requiring Environmental Consideration § 25.20 Actions requiring preparation of an environmental assessment. Any proposed action of a...

  7. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments

  8. Atlantic risk-based corrective action for petroleum impacted sites in Atlantic Canada : user guidance : appendix 9 : guidance for soil vapour and indoor air monitoring assessments. 2. ed.

    This paper provided guidance for assessing and understanding the processes that control subsurface hydrocarbon vapour transport into buildings. The paper was developed to assist contaminated site managers in completing adequate site characterizations and the development of conceptual models. Guidance was also provided for determining methods for sample collection and analysis, interpreting results within the Atlantic Risk-Based-Corrective Action (RBCA) framework, and using provincial contaminated site management processes in order to obtain closure. The guide was prepared to help protect occupants against chronic human health risks associated with long-term exposure to subsurface vapours. Provincial contaminated site management processes were reviewed. Analytical methods outlined in the paper included field- and laboratory-based techniques. Issues related to sub-slab and indoor air monitoring were also reviewed. 25 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands assessment (Assessment 2) are included as part of this EA. The following sections and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  10. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands assessment (Assessment 2) are included as part of this EA. The following sections and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service

  11. Social Impact Assessment in Europe

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Lyhne, Ivar;

    2015-01-01

    Social impact assessment (SIA) is applied worldwide to assess social impacts of plans and projects. In Europe, directives on environmental assessment (EA) require attention to social impacts, however, there is a need to investigate the implementation in practise. To this end, we study three Danish...... cases, which are characterised by debates and conflicts on social issues. Analysis of the EA statements shows inclusion of a broad range of social impacts. However, the EAs do not fully match the concerns of the public, and social impacts are not always analysed in depth, mitigation measures are not...... suggested or are postponed and the geographical distribution of impacts assessed is biased towards including negative local impacts. We discuss the scope and handling of social impacts, and possible implications. Based on this, we conclude with the view that EA might do the job of handling social impacts in...

  12. Impact Assessment as Shared Learning

    Paul N. Wilson

    2009-01-01

    Increased attention directed towards evidence-based aid clearly dominates evaluation discussions within the development community. All development agencies, but particularly non-governmental organizations (NGO), struggle with the requirements for rigorous impact assessments of their project/program interventions. Given the serious operational obstacles confronting impact assessments, any successful integration of impact assessments into ongoing and new NGO programs can gain from the adoption ...

  13. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado: Revision 2

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment and a floodplain/wetlands assessment are included as part of this EA. This report and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS).

  14. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado: Revision 2

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment and a floodplain/wetlands assessment are included as part of this EA. This report and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)

  15. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993

  16. Developments in Social Impact Assessment

    Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Along with environmental impact assessment, social impact assessment (SIA) has its origins in the 1970s and has developed from being a tool to meet regulatory requirements, to a discipline that seeks to contribute proactively to better project and policy development and to enhance the wellbeing of a

  17. Integrated Assessment of Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification

    Bautista, S.; Orr, B. J.; Vallejo, R.

    2009-12-01

    Recent advances in desertification and land degradation research have provided valuable conceptual and analytical frameworks, degradation indicators, assessment tools and surveillance systems with respect to desertification drivers, processes, and impacts. These findings, together with stakeholders’ perceptions and local/regional knowledge, have helped to define and propose measures and strategies to combat land degradation. However, integrated and comprehensive assessment and evaluation of prevention and restoration strategies and techniques to combat desertification is still lacking, and knowledge on the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the proposed strategies over a wide range of environmental and socio-economic conditions is very scarce. To address this challenge, we have launched a multinational project (PRACTICE - Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification. An Integrated Assessment), funded by the European Commission, in order to link S & T advances and traditional knowledge on prevention and restoration practices to combat desertification with sound implementation, learning and adaptive management, knowledge sharing, and dissemination of best practices. The key activities for pursuing this goal are (1) to establish a platform and information system of long-term monitoring sites for assessing sustainable management and actions to combat desertification, (2) to define an integrated protocol for the assessment of these actions, and (3) to link project assessment and evaluation with training and education, adaptive management, and knowledge sharing and dissemination through a participatory approach involving scientists, managers, technicians, financial officers, and members of the public who are/were impacted by the desertification control projects. Monitoring sites are distributed in the Mediterranean Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal), Africa (Morocco, Namibia, South Africa), Middle East (Israel), China, and South and North

  18. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    Karlson, Mårten, E-mail: mkarlso@kth.se; Mörtberg, Ulla, E-mail: mortberg@kth.se; Balfors, Berit, E-mail: balfors@kth.se

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  19. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  20. Environmental impacts of human action in watercourses

    Antunes do Carmo, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    The economic, social and environmental conditions of various European river basins and estuarine systems have changed dramatically in the last decades as a consequence of anthropogenic effects, and they will go on changing in the years to come due to increasing human pressure. Particularly in Portugal, various river-estuary systems have undergone several human interventions, notably engineering works to restore considerable stretches of channels and river banks. Whenever the characteristics and natural evolution of a river are altered as a result of human intervention there is an environmental impact. In other words, it is understood that differences can be observed between any present situation that is the result of the evolution of an environment after human intervention, and the natural situation that would have existed if this type of intervention had not taken place, taking into account our previous knowledge of the situation. A thorough understanding of the fluvial processes and new strategies are needed to develop a multifunctional use structure, which must take into account the many-faceted aims of sustainable development. This paper provides a brief description of the nature and distribution of the direct and indirect types of impact arising out of building and operating large dams, as well as some specific points that should be taken into consideration. It also reflects on the way in which the problem of extracting inert material from water environments has been dealt with in Portugal and offers a brief technical contribution which, although qualitative, provides a basic record and explanation of the consequences of significant interventions in water environments that have not been properly assessed or have not taken other mitigating circumstances into consideration.

  1. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado. Revision 1

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS).

  2. Evaluating Social Cognitive Theory in Action: An Assessment of the Youth Development Program's Impact on Secondary Student Retention in Selected Mississippi Delta Communities

    Dooley, T. Price; Schreckhise, William D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the Youth Development Program (YDP), a component of the federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA). We examine whether the YDP reduced dropout rates among youth in secondary schools in seven school districts in the impoverished Mississippi River Delta in southeast Arkansas. Initially, the program seems to have an impact. Students…

  3. Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Repository

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This repository contains Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA) that have been vetted/approved. Section 208 of the Electronic Government Act of 2002 (E-Gov Act) requires...

  4. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  5. Economic impact assessment on SANREM

    Norton, George W.; Alwang, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This PowerPoint summarizes findings from SANREM’s economic impact assessment cross-cutting research activity (CRRA-6). It describes results from budgeting studies, linear programming models, and aggregate impact analysis for several study sites. Additionally, it provides information about the CCRA’s publications and training activities.

  6. Health in social impact assessment

    den Broeder, Lea; Vanclay, Frank; Fehr, Rainer; Viliani, Francesca; Nowacki, Julia; Martuzzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    SIA developed alongside EIA in the early 1970s as a mechanism to consider the social impacts of planned interventions. The early understanding tended to limit the practical application of SIA to the project level, usually within the context of regulatory frameworks, and primarily considered only the direct negative impacts. However, like other types of impact assessment, SIA has evolved over time and has diverged considerably from EIA. Nowadays, SIA has widened its scope to become a “philosop...

  7. Action plan for the Tiger Team assessment report

    1990-08-30

    This document contains responses and planned actions that address the findings of the Tiger Team Assessment of Brookhaven National Laboratory, June 1990. In addition, the document contains descriptions of the management and organizational structure to be used in conducting planned actions, root causes for the problems identified in the findings, responses, planned actions, schedules and milestones for completing planned actions, and, where known, costs associated with planned actions.

  8. The Impact of Action Learning Experience on Reflective Practice

    Harris, Nicole S.

    2012-01-01

    This case study examines the changes that occur with respect to reflective practices as a result of participating in an action learning group through the identification of aspects/activities of action learning that contribute to such changes and the impact these aspects/activities had on the program participants at a department of the federal…

  9. Health impact assessment in Korea

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  10. Introducing Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Huijbregts, Mark AJ

    2015-01-01

    methodology projects and presents the international scientific discussions and methodological consensus attempts in consecutive working groups under the auspices of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) as well as the UNEP/ SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, and the (almost) parallel......This chapter serves as an introduction to the presentation of the many aspects of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in this volume of the book series ‘LCA Compendium’. It starts with a brief historical overview of the development of life cycle impact assessment driven by numerous national LCIA...

  11. Let us make impact assessment more accessible

    Impact assessment professionals have traditionally written documents for themselves. Often, their work appears to be received with indifference by business professionals and decision makers who have different needs and interests. The two groups conflict when they should be thinking and planning together at the 'big picture' level (including the understanding of the social factors at work in environmental impact assessment) and developing related and workable 'site-specific' implementation that characterizes socially acceptable decision making. To achieve this goal, the IA professional needs to rethink the approach. IA professionals often focus on the traditional 'physical' environment, confining the assessment to facts and figures about hard aspects of the environment. Reams of detailed data are compiled to demonstrate impact assessment and to achieve a degree of certainty and precision. However, the sheer bulk of data assures that it will not be read by those who most need to use it. The IA professional must learn to prepare assessments that effectively consider less quantifiable, 'softer' aspects of the environment. We advocate preparation of an impact analysis that management decision makers and environmental stewards can use as a reference tool. The goal is to reduce or eliminate the hundreds of unread pages containing lengthy modeling runs and obscure details, and instead to prepare documents that are useful in both courtroom and boardroom. This convenient and quick-study 'consumer report' style combines with a tiered decision making process that assures broad long-term thinking and planning, and focused short-term detailed implementation, using a level of detail appropriate to the decision at hand. This methodology integrates social factors into decision making, so as to provide meaningful discussion and analysis. These principles, which have been proven in US boardrooms and courtrooms, will be illustrated with actual examples from broad policy-level impact

  12. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nawaz, Kathleen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  13. Monitoring study and impact assessment

    Budidarsono, Suseno; Rahmanulloh, Arif

    2008-01-01

    Report on the progress of socio-economic objective of LTRP 5 in Indonesia. The objectives were: (1) Identify vegetable cultivation technology on agroforestry system that socially acceptable, economically feasible, and affordable; (2) Provide information on the level adoption of vegetable cultivation technology in agroforestry system and (3)Assess impacts of technology adoption on farmers' incomes.

  14. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify t

  15. Assessment of Traffic Noise Impacts

    Rich, Jeppe Husted; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2004-01-01

    A steady growth in traffic intensities in most urban areas throughout the world has forced planners and politicians to seriously consider the resulting environmental impact, such as traffic noise, accidents and air pollution. The assessment of such negative factors is needed in order to reveal...... the true social benefit of infrastructure plans. The paper presents a noise assessment model for the Copenhagen region, which brings together GIS technology and non-linear hedonic regression models to reveal the implicit costs of traffic noise measured as the marginal percentage loss in property values...... with respect to the decibel traffic noise. The model distinguishes between houses and apartments and shows that the ability to include refined accessibility variables have significant impact on estimated prices....

  16. Environmental assessment for 881 Hillside (High Priority Sites) interim remedial action

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the impact of an interim remedial action proposed for the High Priority Sites (881 Hillside Area) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This interim action is to be conducted to minimize the release of hazardous substances from the 881 Hillside Area that pose a potential long-term threat to public health and the environment. This document integrates current site characterization data and environmental analyses required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or ''Superfund'' process, into an environmental assessment pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Characterization of the 881 Hillside Area is continuing. Consequently, a final remedial action has not yet been proposed. Environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim remedial action and reasonable alternatives designed to remove organic and inorganic contaminants, including radionuclides, from alluvial groundwater in the 881 Hillside Area are addressed. 24 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs

  17. Final Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Falls City uranium mill tailings site, Falls City, Texas

    1991-12-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires Federal agencies to assess the impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This EA examines the short- and long-term effects of the DOE`s proposed remedial action for the Falls City tailings site. The no action alternative is also examined. The DOE will use the information and analyses presented here to determine whether the proposed action would have a significant impact on the environment. If the impacts are determined to be significant, an EIS will be prepared. If the impacts are not judged to be significant, the DOE will issue an official ``Finding of No Significant Impact`` and implement the proposed action.

  18. Final Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Falls City uranium mill tailings site, Falls City, Texas

    This environmental assessment (EA) is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires Federal agencies to assess the impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This EA examines the short- and long-term effects of the DOE's proposed remedial action for the Falls City tailings site. The no action alternative is also examined. The DOE will use the information and analyses presented here to determine whether the proposed action would have a significant impact on the environment. If the impacts are determined to be significant, an EIS will be prepared. If the impacts are not judged to be significant, the DOE will issue an official ''Finding of No Significant Impact'' and implement the proposed action

  19. Impact of recovery actions on IPE back-end results

    This paper presents a sensitivity study of the impact of various recovery/accident management actions on the IPE results. The human actions studied include: (1) RWST replenishment; (2) depressurization; (3) AC power recovery; (4) Component Cooling Water (CCW) cross-connection; and (5) manual actuation of containment spray (cavity flooding). The results indicate that the total frequency of severe accident sequences involving containment failure is lower than 1.0 x E-6/yr when all these recovery/accident management actions are taken credit. It is concluded that with appropriate considerations of operator actions in Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) and future accident management policy, the uncertain phenomenological issues may not play as important a role as they do now. Although the actual nonrecovery probability used in this study may be refined during future implementation of the accident management policy, the results of this study indicate that the frequency of severe accidents in which the reactor vessel fails is low when the recovery/accident management actions are taken credit. It is also clear from the study that with major recovery actions (such as RWST replenishment, AC power recovery and depressurization) being taken credit, additional accident management type of actions (e.g. manual actuation of containment spray and CCW cross-connection) may not be as effective in reducing the risk

  20. Sense-making and Impact Assessment

    Lyhne, Ivar

    The poster integrates knowledge about how we make sense of situations into SEA methodology to strengthen the staging of impact assessments and the process of scoping impacts.......The poster integrates knowledge about how we make sense of situations into SEA methodology to strengthen the staging of impact assessments and the process of scoping impacts....

  1. Space for action: How practitioners influence environmental assessment

    Highlights: • The concept of ‘space for action’ offers an important new lens on EA practice. • Focuses on the relation between practitioner's understanding and their actions • Environmental assessment practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. • Practitioners may underestimate their potential to make a difference. • Contributes to understanding change in the environmental assessment field. This article contributes to understanding of how change occurs in the field of environmental assessment (EA). It argues that the integration of new issues in EA, such as human health, is significantly influenced by how practitioners' understandings shape their actions, and by what happens when those, possibly different, interpretations of appropriate action are acted out. The concept of space for action is developed as a means of investigating this relation between understanding and action. Frame theory is also used, to develop a sharper focus on how ‘potential spaces for action’ are created, what these imply for (individuals') preferred choices and actions in certain situations, and what happens in practice when these are acted out and ‘actual spaces for action’ are created. This novel approach is then applied in a Swedish case study of transport planning. The analysis reveals the important work done by practitioners, revealing just how EA practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. Analysis of practice using the lens of spaces for action offers an important new perspective in understanding how the field adapts to new challenges

  2. Space for action: How practitioners influence environmental assessment

    Kågström, Mari, E-mail: mari.kagstrom@slu.se [Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Richardson, Tim, E-mail: tim.richardson@nmbu.no [Department of Landscape Architecture and Spatial Planning, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Frederik A Dahls vei 15, KA-bygningen, Ås (Norway)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The concept of ‘space for action’ offers an important new lens on EA practice. • Focuses on the relation between practitioner's understanding and their actions • Environmental assessment practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. • Practitioners may underestimate their potential to make a difference. • Contributes to understanding change in the environmental assessment field. This article contributes to understanding of how change occurs in the field of environmental assessment (EA). It argues that the integration of new issues in EA, such as human health, is significantly influenced by how practitioners' understandings shape their actions, and by what happens when those, possibly different, interpretations of appropriate action are acted out. The concept of space for action is developed as a means of investigating this relation between understanding and action. Frame theory is also used, to develop a sharper focus on how ‘potential spaces for action’ are created, what these imply for (individuals') preferred choices and actions in certain situations, and what happens in practice when these are acted out and ‘actual spaces for action’ are created. This novel approach is then applied in a Swedish case study of transport planning. The analysis reveals the important work done by practitioners, revealing just how EA practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. Analysis of practice using the lens of spaces for action offers an important new perspective in understanding how the field adapts to new challenges.

  3. A Health Impact Assessment Framework for Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Planning for Climate Change

    Helen Brown; Jeffery Spickett; Dianne Katscherian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action o...

  4. Environmental Assessment of Remedial Action at the Riverton Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Riverton, Wyoming

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-0254) on the proposed remedial action at the inactive uranium milling site near Riverton, Wyoming. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required

  5. Environmental Assessment of Remedial Action at the Riverton Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Riverton, Wyoming

    None

    1987-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-0254) on the proposed remedial action at the inactive uranium milling site near Riverton, Wyoming. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required.

  6. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site, Tuba City, Arizona

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site located approximately six miles east of Tuba City, Arizona. The site covers 105 acres and contains 25 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document

  7. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site, Tuba City, Arizona

    None

    1986-11-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site located approximately six miles east of Tuba City, Arizona. The site covers 105 acres and contains 25 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  8. Use of ecotoxicological screening action levels in ecological risk assessment at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Regulatory drivers found in several environmental statutes require that ecological risk assessment and Natural Resource Damage Assessment be performed to assess potential environmental impact from contaminated sites and from proposed remedial alternatives. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, the initial phase of the ecological risk assessment process required preliminary evaluation of contaminated sites to determine whether potential for ecological impact exists. The preliminary evaluations were made using Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels (ESALS) calculated as a function of reference toxicity dose, body weight, food/water/air intake, and fraction of soil intake with food. Reference toxicity doses were derived from the Environmental Protection Agency Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) and Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables (HEAST) toxicology databases. Other parameters required for ESAL calculations were derived from physiological, metabolic, and behavioral data available in the literature. The Los Alamos ESALs were derived for guilds of animals with similar behavioral patterns, which were identified from natural resource survey data collected at Los Alamos. Subsequent to development of Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels, Hazard Quotients, which are ratios of soil concentrations to Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels, were calculated for potential contaminants of concern. The Hazard Quotients were used to identify which potential contaminants of concern should be evaluated further for ecological impact. There is potential for ecological impact when the Hazard Quotient is equal to or greater than one

  9. Remedial actions at the former Union Carbide Corporation uranium mill sites, Rifle, Garfield County, Colorado: Final environmental impact statement

    This appendix provides the information needed to understand the conceptual designs for the remedial action alternatives addressed in this environmental impact statement (EIS). It is intended to provide sufficient details for the reader to evaluate the feasibility and assess the impacts of each remedial action alternative. It is not intended to provide the detailed engineering necessary to implement the alternatives. Details of the preferred remedial action will be presented in the remedial action plan (RAP). The remedial action alternatives addressed in this EIS include no action, stabilization at the New Rifle site, disposal at the Estes Gulch site, and disposal at the Lucas Mesa site. All alternatives include interim actions to remediate existing health and safety hazards to the Rifle community that presently exist at the Old and New Rifle processing sites. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  10. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    Viikari, L.

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    This document assesses the environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action at the Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings site located on the Navajo Reservation in southern Utah. The site covers 235 acres and contains 69 acres of tailings and several of the original mill structures. Remedial action must be performed in accordance with standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Navajo Nation. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings within the present tailings site by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier of compacted earth would be constructed over the pile, and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document. 240 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs

  12. Final voluntary release assessment/corrective action report

    NONE

    1996-11-12

    The US Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office (DOE-CAO) has completed a voluntary release assessment sampling program at selected Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Voluntary Release Assessment/Corrective Action (RA/CA) report has been prepared for final submittal to the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) Region 6, Hazardous Waste Management Division and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous and Radioactive Materials Bureau to describe the results of voluntary release assessment sampling and proposed corrective actions at the SWMU sites. The Voluntary RA/CA Program is intended to be the first phase in implementing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and corrective action process at the WIPP. Data generated as part of this sampling program are intended to update the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) for the WIPP (Assessment of Solid Waste Management Units at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), NMED/DOE/AIP 94/1. This Final Voluntary RA/CA Report documents the results of release assessment sampling at 11 SWMUs identified in the RFA. With this submittal, DOE formally requests a No Further Action determination for these SWMUs. Additionally, this report provides information to support DOE`s request for No Further Action at the Brinderson and Construction landfill SWMUs, and to support DOE`s request for approval of proposed corrective actions at three other SWMUs (the Badger Unit Drill Pad, the Cotton Baby Drill Pad, and the DOE-1 Drill Pad). This information is provided to document the results of the Voluntary RA/CA activities submitted to the EPA and NMED in August 1995.

  13. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    Mahmoudi, Hossein, E-mail: mahmoudi@uni-hohenheim.de [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Renn, Ortwin [Department of Technology and Environmental Sociology (and DIALOGIK), University of Stuttgart (Germany); Vanclay, Frank [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hoffmann, Volker [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Karami, Ezatollah [College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

  14. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary

  15. Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram

    None

    1977-07-01

    This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).

  16. Remedial action and waste disposal project -- 300-FF-1 remedial action readiness assessment report

    This report documents the readiness assessment for initial startup of the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Task. A readiness assessment verifies and documents that field activities are ready to start (or restart) safely. The 300-FF-1 assessment was initiated in April 1997. Readiness assessment activities included confirming the completion of project-specific procedures and permits, training staff, obtaining support equipment, receipt and approval of subcontractor submittals, and mobilization and construction of site support systems. The scope of the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Task includes excavation and disposal of contaminated soils at liquid waste disposal facilities and of waste in the 618-4 Burial Ground and the 300-FF-1 landfills. The scope also includes excavation of test pits and test trenches

  17. Utilizing toxicogenomic data to understand chemical mechanism of action in risk assessment

    Wilson, Vickie S., E-mail: wilson.vickie@epa.gov [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Keshava, Nagalakshmi [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Hester, Susan [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Segal, Deborah; Chiu, Weihsueh [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The predominant role of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment, thus far, has been one of augmentation of more traditional in vitro and in vivo toxicology data. This article focuses on the current available examples of instances where toxicogenomic data has been evaluated in human health risk assessment (e.g., acetochlor and arsenicals) which have been limited to the application of toxicogenomic data to inform mechanism of action. This article reviews the regulatory policy backdrop and highlights important efforts to ultimately achieve regulatory acceptance. A number of research efforts on specific chemicals that were designed for risk assessment purposes have employed mechanism or mode of action hypothesis testing and generating strategies. The strides made by large scale efforts to utilize toxicogenomic data in screening, testing, and risk assessment are also discussed. These efforts include both the refinement of methodologies for performing toxicogenomics studies and analysis of the resultant data sets. The current issues limiting the application of toxicogenomics to define mode or mechanism of action in risk assessment are discussed together with interrelated research needs. In summary, as chemical risk assessment moves away from a single mechanism of action approach toward a toxicity pathway-based paradigm, we envision that toxicogenomic data from multiple technologies (e.g., proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, supportive RT-PCR studies) can be used in conjunction with one another to understand the complexities of multiple, and possibly interacting, pathways affected by chemicals which will impact human health risk assessment.

  18. Proposal of standardization in environmental impact assessment

    Maitê de Souza Sandoval; Leandro Eugenio da Silva Cerri

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the significance of environmental impacts remains an important critical yet poorly understood component of environmental impact assessment (EIA) practice. This work is a study upon the findings of a bibliographic review about the evaluation and communication of environmental impact assessment in Brazil practice. Particular attention is given to the use of significance criteria, thresholds and EIA methodologies intending to incorporate more efficiency of environmental impact ...

  19. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Gunnison, Colorado. [UMTRA Project

    Bachrach, A.; Hoopes, J.; Morycz, D. (Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Pasadena, CA (USA)); Bone, M.; Cox, S.; Jones, D.; Lechel, D.; Meyer, C.; Nelson, M.; Peel, R.; Portillo, R.; Rogers, L.; Taber, B.; Zelle, P. (Weston (Roy F.), Inc., Washington, DC (USA)); Rice, G. (Sergent, Hauskins and Beckwith (USA))

    1984-12-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Gunnison uranium of mill tailings site located 0.5 miles south of Gunnison, Colorado. The site covers 56 acres and contains 35 acres of tailings, 2 of the original mill buildings and a water tower. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control of Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated (vicinity) properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the occurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Four alternatives have been addressed in this document. The first alternative is to consolidate the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile on the southern portion of the existing site. A radon barrier of silty clay would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Two other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a location farther from the city of Gunnison. The no action alternative is also assessed.

  20. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Gunnison, Colorado

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Gunnison uranium of mill tailings site located 0.5 miles south of Gunnison, Colorado. The site covers 56 acres and contains 35 acres of tailings, 2 of the original mill buildings and a water tower. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control of Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated [vicinity] properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the occurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Four alternatives have been addressed in this document. The first alternative is to consolidate the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile on the southern portion of the existing site. A radon barrier of silty clay would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Two other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a location farther from the city of Gunnison. The no action alternative is also assessed

  1. Environmental impact assessment: Process and implementation

    In this paper, the procedures and issues regarding the preparation of an environmental impact assessment in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as promulgated by the US Congress in 1969 are discussed. NEPA procedures and requirements are covered in general, while particular attention is given to the preparation of the environmental impact assessment. Also included is a discussion of the social impact assessment. The aim of the social impact assessment is to address the social issues involved in enhancing public understanding of the hazardous risks, thereby mitigating any conflicts that may arise in the NEPA process. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    One of the topics receiving much attention in recent years is climate change and the potential of its integration in impact assessment, both in terms of achieving mitigation and adaptation. Renewable energy projects are part of the efforts to mitigate climate change, replacing the use of fossil...... fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed...

  3. Framework for assessment of environmental impact (Fasset)

    The overall aim of the FASSET project is to develop a framework within which assessment models, relevant to the impact of ionising radiation on the environment, can be applied and results analysed for European ecosystems. Complete documentation on the FASSET project can be found on the FASSET's web-site (www.fasset.org). This paper describes the current state of the project, based on the project's first Annual Report. Seven European ecosystems are considered; four terrestrial (natural forests, semi-natural pastures, agricultural ecosystems and wetlands) and three aquatic (marine, brackish and freshwater). In FASSET Deliverable 1 a list of candidate generic reference organisms has been drawn up on the basis of expert judgement of exposure situations in the selected ecosystems. They serve as a starting points for development of dosimetric models, and for pooling available information on ecological relevance and biological effects. Further analysis of the candidate reference organisms is performed to justify their choice and assess their applicability in different situations, taking into account modelling of radionuclide transfer, estimates of internal and external dose rates, ecological significance and biological effects. Four general 'umbrella' radiation effects on biota are considered that, when manifested in an individual, may have an impact at population level or at higher levels of the organisational hierarchy. The four 'umbrellas' are: morbidity (fitness or well-being), mortality (death directly attributable to radiation), reproductive success (changed number of offspring) and scorable cytogenetic effects (molecular actions, aberrations). A database is being assembled, compiling dose and dose rates data from the literature for a number of organism categories for each of these four umbrella effects. The database also considers the suitability of data to derive the relative biological efficiency (RBE) for different types of radiation. The work from the three

  4. Treatment of operator actions in the HTGR risk assessment study

    Methods are presented for the treatment of operator actions, developed in the AIPA risk assessment study. Some examples are given of how these methods were applied to the analysis of potential HTGR accidents. Realistic predictions of accident risks required a balanced treatment of both beneficial and detrimental actions and responses of human operators and maintenance crews. Th essential elements of the human factors methodology used in the AIPA study include event tree and fault tree analysis, time-dependent operator response and repair models, a method for quantifying common cause failure probabilities, and synthesis of relevant experience data for use in these models

  5. Biological assessment of remedial action at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site near Naturita, Colorado

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to conduct remedial action to clean up the residual radioactive materials (RRM) at the Naturita uranium processing site in Colorado. The Naturita site is in Montrose County, Colorado, and is approximately 2 miles (mi) (3 kilometer [km]) from the unincorporated town of Naturita. The proposed remedial action is to remove the RRM from the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan disposal site. To address the potential impacts of the remedial action on threatened and endangered species, the DOE prepared this biological assessment. Informal consultations with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) were initiated in 1986, and the FWS provided a list of the threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. This list was updated by two FWS letters in 1988 and by verbal communication in 1990. A biological assessment was included in the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action that was prepared in 1990. This EA addressed the impacts of moving the Naturita RRM to the Dry Flats disposal site. In 1993, the design for the Dry Flats disposal alternative was changed. The FWS was again consulted in 1993 and provided a new list of threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. The Naturita EA and the biological assessment were revised in response to these changes. In 1994, remedial action was delayed because an alternate disposal site was being considered. The DOE decided to move the FIRM at the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan site. Due to this delay, the FWS was consulted in 1995 and a list of threatened and endangered species was provided. This biological assessment is a revision of the assessment attached to the Naturita EA and addresses moving the Naturita RRM to the Upper Burbank Quarry disposal site.

  6. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  7. Future human actions in safety assessment for radioactive waste repositories: Elements of a regulatory strategy

    The safety case for a radioactive waste disposal facility must provide assurance that the long-term performance of the overall system will satisfy appropriate national and international safety criteria. Human actions have the potential to affect the performance of deep geologic repositories, and must therefore be considered in any safety case. A safety case comprises a wide range of both quantitative and qualitative elements. An important element is a performance assessment (PA) that evaluates the overall behaviour of the disposal system taking account of all sources of uncertainty. Guidance from the regulator would be helpful in ensuring that potential impacts, including those related to human actions, are adequately assessed in a PA, and thereby allow the results to be judged against established regulatory targets or limits. In Sweden, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) are responsible for the regulation of nuclear activities including radioactive waste disposal. The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is responsible for the management of radioactive waste and for justifying its waste management policy and decisions. Future human actions must be considered at a broad level in developing a policy on the long-term disposition of radioactive wastes, including in the context of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Such considerations have been one reason behind the world-wide focus on deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, as opposed to the alternative of long-term or indefinite near-surface storage. A deep geological repository is conceived as a passively safe system that does not require ongoing institutional control to ensure long-term safety. SKB is in the process of siting a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel and, as part of this work, will be preparing an EIA in which alternatives to disposal must be considered. The objective of this paper is to

  8. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    None

    1996-04-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts.

  9. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts

  10. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program environmental compliance assessment checklists

    The purpose of the Environmental Compliance Assessment Program is to assess the compliance of Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites with applicable environmental regulations and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The mission is to identify, assess, and decontaminate sites utilized during the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s to process and store uranium and thorium ores in support of the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. To conduct the FUSRAP environmental compliance assessment, checklists were developed that outline audit procedures to determine the compliance status of the site. The checklists are divided in four groups to correspond to these regulatory areas: Hazardous Waste Management, PCB Management, Air Emissions, and Water Discharges

  11. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program environmental compliance assessment checklists

    Levine, M.B.; Sigmon, C.F.

    1989-09-29

    The purpose of the Environmental Compliance Assessment Program is to assess the compliance of Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites with applicable environmental regulations and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The mission is to identify, assess, and decontaminate sites utilized during the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s to process and store uranium and thorium ores in support of the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. To conduct the FUSRAP environmental compliance assessment, checklists were developed that outline audit procedures to determine the compliance status of the site. The checklists are divided in four groups to correspond to these regulatory areas: Hazardous Waste Management, PCB Management, Air Emissions, and Water Discharges.

  12. Curbing UK impacts on global biodiversity: an agenda for action

    Smith, Steve [Scott Wilson Ltd (United Kingdom); Craeynest, Lies [WWF (United Kingdom); Bass, Steve

    2008-05-15

    Stemming the tide of biodiversity loss is a global issue with national implications. The UK has set up initiatives to reduce its impacts on biodiversity worldwide — but as a government review found in 2006, these have yet to add up to a comprehensive strategy. How can the gaps be filled? New research suggests that action on a number of fronts is key. Many UK policies and practices clearly affect biodiversity even though they do not directly address it. For instance, UK imports such as coffee, cocoa and sugar are linked to biodiversity loss. By integrating relevant mainstream concerns such as trade and exploitation of natural resources into an overall strategy, the UK government could better demonstrate its commitment to reducing biodiversity loss significantly by the target date of 2010.

  13. Environmental Assessment of Remedial Action at the Mexican Hat Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    U.S. Department of Energy

    1987-01-01

    This document assesses the environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action at the Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings site located on the Navajo Reservation in southern Utah. The site covers 235 acres and contains 69 acres of tailings and several of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), authorized the U.S. Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated wit...

  14. Impact assessment of ionising radiation on wildlife

    This R and D project was commissioned by the Environment Agency and English Nature in January 2001 to provide up-to-date information on the impacts of ionising radiation on wildlife, upon which a robust assessment approach may be developed. This approach will also feed into the European Commission funded project 'Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact' (FASSET), due to complete in October 2003. This report describes the behaviour and transport of radionuclides in the environment, considers the impact of ionising radiation on wildlife, and makes recommendations on an approach for the impact assessment of ionising radiation on wildlife for England and Wales. The assessment approach focuses on three ecosystems representative of those considered potentially most at risk from the impact of authorised radioactive discharges, namely a coastal grassland (terrestrial ecosystem); estuarine and freshwater ecosystems. The likely scale of the impact on wildlife is also assessed in light of a preliminary analysis based on this assessment approach. The aims of the report are: to summarise the latest research on the behaviour, transfer and impact of ionising radiation effects on wildlife; an outline and review of the relevant European and national legislation which has impacts on the requirements for assessments of the impact of ionising radiation on wildlife in the UK; to consider the role of regulatory bodies in assessing the impact of ionising radiation on wildlife with respect to England and Wales; to make recommendations on the relative biological effectiveness of different types of radiation with respect to wildlife; and to recommend an approach to assess the impacts to wildlife from ionising radiation from authorised discharges in England and Wales, with spreadsheets to support the methodology. The report demonstrates the behaviour and transfer of radionuclides in a number of different ecosystem types. Particular emphasis is placed on exposure pathways in those

  15. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment

  16. Draft Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement and Comprehensive Land Use Plan: Volume 1 of 4

    This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with establishing future land-use objectives for the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Impact analysis is performed by examining the consequences (primarily from remediation activities) of the actions determined necessary to achieve a desired future land-use objective. It should be noted that site-specific decisions regarding remediation technologies and remediation activities would not be made by this document, but rather by processes specified in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. To facilitate the establishment of future land-use objectives, the Hanford Site was divided into four geographic areas: (1) Columbia River; (2) reactors on the river; (3) central plateau; (4) all other areas. The future land-use alternatives considered in detail for each of the geographic areas are as follows: Columbia River--unrestricted and restricted; reactors on the river--unrestricted and restricted; central plateau--exclusive; all other areas--restricted. A No-Action Alternative also is included to provide a baseline against which the potential impacts of the proposed action can be assessed

  17. Draft Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement and Comprehensive Land Use Plan: Summary

    This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with establishing future land-use objectives for the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Impact analysis is performed by examining the consequences (primarily from remediation activities) of the actions determined necessary to achieve a desired future land-use objective. It should be noted that site-specific decisions regarding remediation technologies and remediation activities would not be made by this document, but rather by processes specified in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. To facilitate the establishment of future land-use objectives, the Hanford Site was divided into four geographic areas: (1) Columbia River; (2) reactors on the river; (3) central plateau; (4) all other areas. The future land-use alternatives considered in detail for each of the geographic areas are as follows: Columbia River--unrestricted and restricted; reactors on the river--unrestricted and restricted; central plateau--exclusive; all other areas--restricted. A No-Action Alternative also is included to provide a baseline against which the potential impacts of the proposed action can be assessed

  18. Handling of future human actions in the safety assessment SR-Can

    This report documents the future human actions (FHA) considered in the long-term safety analysis of a KBS-3 repository. The report is one of the supporting documents to the safety assessment SR-Can. The purpose of this report is to provide an account of: General considerations concerning FHA; The methodology applied in SR-Can to assess FHA; The aspects of FHA that need to be considered in the evaluation of their impact on a deep geological repository; and The selection of representative scenarios for illustrative consequence analysis

  19. Handling of future human actions in the safety assessment SR-Can

    Moren, Lena

    2006-10-15

    This report documents the future human actions (FHA) considered in the long-term safety analysis of a KBS-3 repository. The report is one of the supporting documents to the safety assessment SR-Can. The purpose of this report is to provide an account of: General considerations concerning FHA; The methodology applied in SR-Can to assess FHA; The aspects of FHA that need to be considered in the evaluation of their impact on a deep geological repository; and The selection of representative scenarios for illustrative consequence analysis.

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of impact assessment instruments

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim; Hilding-Ryedvik, Tuija;

    2010-01-01

    The central role of impact assessment instruments globally in policy integration initiatives has been cemented in recent years. Associated with this trend, but also reflecting political emphasis on greater accountability in certain policy sectors and a renewed focus on economic competitiveness in...... sharpen effectiveness evaluation theory for impact assessment instruments this article critically examines the neglected issue of their political constitution. Analytical examples are used to concretely explore the nature and significance of the politicisation of impact assessment. It is argued that...... contemporary research context, learning derived from analysing the meaning and implications of plural interpretations of effectiveness represents the most constructive strategy for advancing impact assessment and policy integration theory. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  1. Health in social impact assessment

    den Broeder, Lea; Vanclay, Frank; Fehr, Rainer; Viliani, Francesca; Nowacki, Julia; Martuzzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    SIA developed alongside EIA in the early 1970s as a mechanism to consider the social impacts of planned interventions. The early understanding tended to limit the practical application of SIA to the project level, usually within the context of regulatory frameworks, and primarily considered only the

  2. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes

    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit; Bond, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systemat...

  3. Draft programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for performing remedial action to bring surface and ground water contaminant levels at 24 inactive uranium processing sites into compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. DOE is accomplishing this through the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface and Ground Water Projects. Remedial action will be conducted with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the full participation of affected states and Indian tribes. Uranium processing activities at most of 24 the inactive mill sites resulted in the contamination of ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to eliminate, or reduce to acceptable levels, the potential health and the environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting the EPA standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated. The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of four programmatic alternatives, including the proposed action. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies. Rather, the PEIS is a planning document that provides a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project; provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently

  4. Risk assessment in the DOE Assurance Program for Remedial Action

    This document provides information obtained during the performance of risk assessment tasks in support of the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) sponsored by the Office of Operational Safety of the Department of Energy. We have presented a method for the estimation of projected health effects at properties in the vicinity of uranium mill tailing piles due to transported tailings or emissions from the piles. Because radon and radon daughter exposure is identified as the principal factor contributing to health effects at such properties, the basis for estimating lung cancer risk as a result of such exposure is discussed in detail. Modeling of health risk due to a secondary pathway, ingestion of contaminated, home-grown food products, is also discussed since it is a potentially important additional source of exposure in certain geographic locations. Risk assessment methods used in various mill tailings reports are reviewed. The protocols for radiological surveys conducted in DOE-sponsored remedial action programs are critically reviewed with respect to their relevance to the needs of health risk estimation. The relevance of risk assessment to the APRA program is discussed briefly

  5. Risk assessment in the DOE Assurance Program for Remedial Action

    Marks, S.; Cross, F.T.; Denham, D.H.; Kennedy, W.E.; Stenner, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    This document provides information obtained during the performance of risk assessment tasks in support of the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) sponsored by the Office of Operational Safety of the Department of Energy. We have presented a method for the estimation of projected health effects at properties in the vicinity of uranium mill tailing piles due to transported tailings or emissions from the piles. Because radon and radon daughter exposure is identified as the principal factor contributing to health effects at such properties, the basis for estimating lung cancer risk as a result of such exposure is discussed in detail. Modeling of health risk due to a secondary pathway, ingestion of contaminated, home-grown food products, is also discussed since it is a potentially important additional source of exposure in certain geographic locations. Risk assessment methods used in various mill tailings reports are reviewed. The protocols for radiological surveys conducted in DOE-sponsored remedial action programs are critically reviewed with respect to their relevance to the needs of health risk estimation. The relevance of risk assessment to the APRA program is discussed briefly.

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment of Manufacturing Industry Projects

    Sigita Židonienė

    2016-01-01

    This article is focused on manufacturing industry and its significant environmental impact aspects coverage in environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports in Lithuania. Firstly, the paper describes how a significant impact can be determined and what sources should be used in its identification. Secondly, the significant environmental aspects related to manufacturing industry are identified. The main result of the paper is the depiction of how identified significant environmental aspects are...

  7. Assessing Climate Change Impacts: Agriculture

    Bosello, Francesco; Zhang, Jian

    2005-01-01

    The economy-wide implications of climate change on agricultural sectors in 2050 are estimated using a static computable general equilibrium model. Peculiar to this exercise is the coupling of the economic model with a climatic model forecasting temperature increase in the relevant year and with a crop-growth model estimating climate change impact on cereal productivity. The main results of the study point out on the one hand the limited influence of climate change on world food supply and wel...

  8. Preliminary final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternative systems for conducting the ground water program. One of these systems is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies, because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS presents multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, that could be used to implement all the alternatives presented in the PEIS except the no action alternative. The no action alternative must be considered by law. It consists of taking no action to meet EPA standards. Implementing all PEIS alternatives (except no action) means applying a ground water compliance strategy or a combination of strategies that would result in site-specific impacts

  9. Impact assessment of land use planning driving forces on environment

    Chen, Longgao, E-mail: chenlonggao@163.com [Institute of Land Resources, Jiangsu Normal University (JSNU), Xuzhou 221116 (China); Yang, Xiaoyan [Institute of Land Resources, Jiangsu Normal University (JSNU), Xuzhou 221116 (China); School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Chen, Longqian [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Li, Long [Department of Geography, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels 1050 (Belgium)

    2015-11-15

    Land use change may exert a negative impact on environmental quality. A state–impact–state (SIS) model describing a state transform under certain impacts has been integrated into land use planning (LUP) environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). This logical model is intuitive and easy to understand, but the exploration of impact is essential to establish the indicator system and to identify the scope of land use environmental impact when it is applied to a specific region. In this study, we investigated environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF), along with the conception, components, scope, and impact of LUPF. This method was illustrated by a case study in Zoucheng, China. Through the results, we concluded that (1) the LUPF on environment are impacts originated from the implementation of LUP on a regional environment, which are characterized by four aspects: magnitude, direction, action point, and its owner; (2) various scopes of LUPF on individual environmental elements based on different standards jointly define the final scope of LUPEA; (3) our case study in Zoucheng demonstrates the practicability of this proposed approach; (4) this method can be embedded into LUPEA with direction, magnitudes, and scopes of the LUPF on individual elements obtained, and the identified indicator system can be directly employed into LUPEA and (5) the assessment helps to identify key indicators and to set up a corresponding strategy to mitigate the negative impact of LUP on the environment, which are two important objectives of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in LUP. - Highlights: • Environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF) are investigated and categorized. • Our method can obtains the direction, magnitudes and scopes of environmental driving forces. • The LUPEA scope is determined by the combination of various scopes of LUPF on individual elements. • LUPF assessment can be embedded into LUPEA. • The method can help to

  10. Impact assessment of land use planning driving forces on environment

    Land use change may exert a negative impact on environmental quality. A state–impact–state (SIS) model describing a state transform under certain impacts has been integrated into land use planning (LUP) environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). This logical model is intuitive and easy to understand, but the exploration of impact is essential to establish the indicator system and to identify the scope of land use environmental impact when it is applied to a specific region. In this study, we investigated environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF), along with the conception, components, scope, and impact of LUPF. This method was illustrated by a case study in Zoucheng, China. Through the results, we concluded that (1) the LUPF on environment are impacts originated from the implementation of LUP on a regional environment, which are characterized by four aspects: magnitude, direction, action point, and its owner; (2) various scopes of LUPF on individual environmental elements based on different standards jointly define the final scope of LUPEA; (3) our case study in Zoucheng demonstrates the practicability of this proposed approach; (4) this method can be embedded into LUPEA with direction, magnitudes, and scopes of the LUPF on individual elements obtained, and the identified indicator system can be directly employed into LUPEA and (5) the assessment helps to identify key indicators and to set up a corresponding strategy to mitigate the negative impact of LUP on the environment, which are two important objectives of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in LUP. - Highlights: • Environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF) are investigated and categorized. • Our method can obtains the direction, magnitudes and scopes of environmental driving forces. • The LUPEA scope is determined by the combination of various scopes of LUPF on individual elements. • LUPF assessment can be embedded into LUPEA. • The method can help to

  11. Consequences Validity Evidence: Evaluating the Impact of Educational Assessments.

    Cook, David A; Lineberry, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Because tests that do not alter management (i.e., influence decisions and actions) should not be performed, data on the consequences of assessment constitute a critical source of validity evidence. Consequences validity evidence is challenging for many educators to understand, perhaps because it has no counterpart in the older framework of content, criterion, and construct validity. The authors' purpose is to explain consequences validity evidence and propose a framework for organizing its collection and interpretation.Both clinical and educational assessments can be viewed as interventions. The act of administering or taking a test, the interpretation of scores, and the ensuing decisions and actions influence those being assessed (e.g., patients or students) and other people and systems (e.g., physicians, teachers, hospitals, schools). Consequences validity evidence examines such impacts of assessments. Despite its importance, consequences evidence is reported infrequently in health professions education (range 5%-20% of studies in recent systematic reviews) and is typically limited in scope and rigor.Consequences validity evidence can derive from evaluations of the impact on examinees, educators, schools, or the end target of practice (e.g., patients or health care systems); and the downstream impact of classifications (e.g., different score cut points and labels). Impact can result from the uses of scores or from the assessment activity itself, and can be intended or unintended and beneficial or harmful. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods are useful. The type, quantity, and rigor of consequences evidence required will vary depending on the assessment and the claims for its use. PMID:26839945

  12. Environmental impact assessment of bioenergy systems

    As a part of the national SIHTI 2 (Energy and Environment) research programme, VTT studied potential environmental impacts of a biomass-fuelled IGCC power plant. The plant was planned to be built at the Enso Publication Papers Mill in Summa, close to the town of Hamina. The objectives of the study were to assess potential impacts of the whole power production chain, from the collection, handling and transportation of biofuels to the final treatment of emissions, waste waters and solid wastes from the IGCC plant. Impacts on the surrounding community and the environment, on the soil, water, air and biosphere, health and safety aspects, as well as socioeconomic impacts were assessed. The severity of secondary impacts on the environment was also evaluated. Comparisons with impacts of the present power production at Summa, and with those of coal and natural gas fired IGCC-plants were also carried out. In the assessment, the work requirements given by the new Finnish EIA law were followed as closely as possible, although no public hearings were arranged. Environmental and local authorities were, however, contacted. The fuel capacity of the planned IGCC plant would be 141 MWth, which corresponds to about 600 000 tons/a of wet biofuel (moisture about 50 %). This amount was planned to be covered by biofuel wastes available at Summa, and at other Enso plants, and by forest residues within relatively easy access. The impacts of the collection of logging residues on the forest ecosystem were assessed by the Finnish Forest Research Institute. (14 refs.)

  13. Radiological impact assessment within the IAEA Arctic Assessment Project (IASAP)

    Scott, E.M.; Gurbutt, P.; Harmes, I.;

    1998-01-01

    As part of the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) of IAEA, a working group was created to model the dispersal and transfer of radionuclides released from radioactive waste disposed of in the Kara Sea and bays of Novaya Zemlya and to assess the radiological impact. Existing models...... were extended, and new models developed to incorporate several features of the area (including ice formation and transport) which present modelling challenges. An extensive inter-model comparison involving both compartmental and 3-D hydrodynamic models was then carried out. Finally, the radiological...... models developed, highlights the general features of the inter-comparison and discusses the radiological impact assessment and conclusions based on it....

  14. Radiological impact assessment within the IAEA Arctic Assessment Project (IASAP)

    Scott, E.M.; Gurbutt, P.; Harmes, I.; Heling, R.; Kinehara, Y.; Nielsen, S.P.; Osvath, I.; Preller, R.; Sazykina, T.; Wada, A.; Sjoeblom,K.L.

    As part of the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) of IAEA, a working group was created to model the dispersal and transfer of radionuclides released from radioactive waste disposed of in the Kara Sea and bays of Novaya Zemlya and to assess the radiological impact. Existing models...... were extended, and new models developed to incorporate several features of the area (including ice formation and transport) which present modelling challenges. An extensive inter-model comparison involving both compartmental and 3-D hydrodynamic models was then carried out. Finally, the radiological...... models developed, highlights the general features of the inter-comparison and discusses the radiological impact assessment and conclusions based on it....

  15. The relation of risk assessment and health impact assessment

    Ádám, Balázs; Gulis, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The level and distribution of health risks in a society is substantially influenced by measures of various policies, programmes or projects. Risk assessment can evaluate the nature, likelihood and severity of an adverse effect. Health impact assessment (HIA) provides similar function when used as a...... risk appraisal phase to describe effects of various factors on different health outcomes. Consequently, HIA is typically led by a large, preferably intersectoral steering group with representatives of communities at risk. Risk assessment, in contrary, is mainly a licensed scientific process completed...... by licensed experts and lacks participatory approach. According to our findings, to be able to manage the analysis of the complex impact structure of various planned measures in HIA, the comprehensive assessment of health effects requires the analysis of the full impact scheme and must follow each...

  16. Social impact assessment in energy projects

    The research report is based on literature and interviews on the social impact assessment (SIA) in energy projects in Finland, both before and after the EIA Act has been in force in Finland. The concept and content of SIA, the requirements set by the legislation, its relation with other environmental impacts, the assessment process and the used methods have been studied on the basis of the literature analysis. A total of 26 persons representing the coordination authorities, persons issuing statements, researchers, civil servants, consultants and project developers were interviewed for the research. The interviews were made by the University of Turku in the form of theme interviews, investigating the present status, practices and expectations of the SIA. The unestablished status was seen to be the problem in the SIA, which was reflected in the interviewers' varying views about the content of the SIA. Among the operators, the general character of the SIA criticism in the statements concerning the assessment programmes or reports was seen as a problem as well; the assessment of social impact has been considered to be insufficient, however, without any identification of the effects or how the effects should have been assessed. For the time preceding the EIA Act, the assessment of the social impact of hydraulic work, power plant and transmission line projects and the project of the fifth nuclear power plant have been studied. As to the power plant and transmission line projects after the validity of the EIA Act, all the 20 projects were gone through which had progressed during the spring 1998 at least to the assessment report stage. Of these projects, the assessment of the social impact of one transmission line and one power plant project was studied in detail. The report also studies the assessment of the social impact of the repository for nuclear waste on the basis of the experience gained in Finland and in other countries. On the basis of the literature study

  17. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings site, Shiprock, New Mexico: Volume 1, Text

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the shiprock uranium mill tailings site located on the Navajo Indian Reservation, one mile south of Shiprock, New Mexico. The site contains 72 acres of tailings and four of the original mill buildings. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile. A seven-foot-thick radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Three other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed. 99 refs., 40 figs., 58 tabs

  18. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings site, Shiprock, New Mexico: Volume 1, Text

    None

    1984-05-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the shiprock uranium mill tailings site located on the Navajo Indian Reservation, one mile south of Shiprock, New Mexico. The site contains 72 acres of tailings and four of the original mill buildings. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile. A seven-foot-thick radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Three other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed. 99 refs., 40 figs., 58 tabs.

  19. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    N/A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  20. Using Collaborative Action Learning Projects to Increase the Impact of Management Development

    Lyso, Ingunn Hybertsen; Mjoen, Kristian; Levin, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the field of human resource development by exploring the conditions that influence the organizational impact of action learning projects. Many organizations use such projects as an integral part of their management development programs. Past research on action learning projects has shown how balancing action and…

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    Kerbrat, Olivier; Le Bourhis, Florent; MOGNOL, Pascal; Hascoët, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    International audience This chapter focuses on the environmental studies in additive manufacturing. For a cleaner production, environmental impacts that occur during the manufacturing phase should be assessed with accuracy. First, the literature on all the studies led to the characterization of the environmental impact of additive manufacturing processes. The studies on electric energy consumption of these processes are analyzed here, and then some studies taking into account raw material ...

  2. 14 CFR 1216.205 - Procedures for evaluating NASA actions impacting floodplains and wetlands.

    2010-01-01

    ... impacting floodplains and wetlands. 1216.205 Section 1216.205 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Floodplain and Wetlands Management § 1216.205 Procedures for evaluating NASA actions impacting floodplains and wetlands. (a) Before taking any action a...

  3. Untapped potential of health impact assessment.

    Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-04-01

    The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to "green economy" and "institutional framework" strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century's sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure. PMID:23599554

  4. ASSESSMENT OF ACTION OF DISINFECTANTS AGAINST LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES BIOFILMS

    T. K. CABEÇA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of this study was to assess the action of various disinfectants used in food industry against biofilm cells of Listeria monocytogenes formed on stainless steel surfaces during 24, 72 and 120 hours. Numbers of viable biofilm cells decreased after treatment with all the tested disinfectants (iodine, biguanide, quaternary ammonium compounds, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite was the most effective disinfectant against the biofilm cells, while biguanide and iodine were the least. Scanning electron microscopy observations demonstrated attached cells on stainless steel surfaces after treatment with all the disinfectants. These observations showed that microorganisms were not completely removed from stainless steel surfaces after treatment with the disinfectants, however, the attachment did not means the viability of remaining cells. The biofilm age in hours (24, 72 and 120 had no apparent influence on resistance of microbiological cells to the disinfectants under study. In conclusion biofilm cells of L. monocytogenes can withstand disinfectants action.

  5. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    1993-08-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ``may affect`` the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA).

  6. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ''may affect'' the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA)

  7. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    1987-06-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  8. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document

  9. Impact assessment of land use policies: Introduction

    Bezlepkina, I.; Brouwer, F.M.; Reidsma, P.

    2014-01-01

    This special issue is built around a series of impact assessments of land use policies and sustainable development in developing countries, carried out in the EU-funded project LUPIS (Sixth framework programme, Global Change and Ecosystems, Contract 36955). The project targeted at the development an

  10. A Methodology for Safety Culture Impact Assessment

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodology for assessing safety culture impact on nuclear power plants. A new methodology for assessing safety culture impact index has been developed and applied for the reference nuclear power plants. The developed SCII model might contribute to comparing the level of safety culture among nuclear power plants as well as to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Safety culture is defined to be fundamental attitudes and behaviors of the plant staff which demonstrate that nuclear safety is the most important consideration in all activities conducted in nuclear power operation. Through several accidents of nuclear power plant including the Fukusima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernovyl accidents in 1986, the safety of nuclear power plant is emerging into a matter of interest. From the accident review report, it can be easily found out that safety culture is important and one of dominant contributors to accidents. However, the impact methodology for assessing safety culture has not been established analytically yet. It is difficult to develop the methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively.

  11. A Methodology for Safety Culture Impact Assessment

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodology for assessing safety culture impact on nuclear power plants. A new methodology for assessing safety culture impact index has been developed and applied for the reference nuclear power plants. The developed SCII model might contribute to comparing the level of safety culture among nuclear power plants as well as to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Safety culture is defined to be fundamental attitudes and behaviors of the plant staff which demonstrate that nuclear safety is the most important consideration in all activities conducted in nuclear power operation. Through several accidents of nuclear power plant including the Fukusima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernovyl accidents in 1986, the safety of nuclear power plant is emerging into a matter of interest. From the accident review report, it can be easily found out that safety culture is important and one of dominant contributors to accidents. However, the impact methodology for assessing safety culture has not been established analytically yet. It is difficult to develop the methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively

  12. Impact assessment as a design tool

    Lyhne, Ivar

    Research and development (R&D) programmes constitute a pivotal arena for shaping technologies of the future. In order to make qualified decisions, R&D programmes ought to be subject to impact assessment (IA). It seems, however, that only a few countries have developed a systematic practice. One...

  13. Life Cycle Thinking in Impact Assessment

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2015-01-01

    It has been advocated that life cycle thinking (LCT) should be applied in impact assessment (IA) to a greater extent, since some development proposals pose a risk of significant impacts throughout the interconnected activities of product systems. Multiple authors have proposed the usage of life...... cycle assessment (LCA) for such analytical advancement, but little to no research on this tool application has been founded in IA practice so far. The aim of this article is to elaborate further on the gains assigned to application of LCA. The research builds on a review of 85 Danish IA reports, which...... reveal that LCT is appropriate for most of the IAs, but that LCA is rarely applied to provide such a perspective. Without LCA, the IAs show mixed performance in regard to LCT. Most IAs do consider the product provision of development proposals, but they rarely relate impacts to this function explicitly...

  14. The value of environmental impact assessments

    The environment and the economy are inextricably linked. Today the environmental, economic, and social associated with project and program decisions are at times of such a magnitude and duration that they exceed our ability to understand, let alone mitigate them. Energy production, distribution, pricing, policies, end uses, and externalities demonstrate the need for wise planning and informed decision making. International cooperation, based upon mutually shared respect, responsibility, and innovative solutions is an essential component of addressing contemporary issues, impacts, and opportunities. Both egypt and the united states have laws requiring environmental impact assessments. Just as egypt can learn from our successes and failures in the environmental impact assessment field over the past 36 years, the united states and other nations can learn as egypt develops and innovates its own approaches and solutions

  15. Finding of no significant impact proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0976) of the proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. The Northeast Site contains contaminated groundwater that would be removed, treated, and discharged to the Pinellas County Sewer System. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C.4321 et.seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  16. Finding of no significant impact proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0339) of the proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock in San Miguel County, Colorado. These sites contain radioactively contaminated materials that would be removed and stabilized at a remote location. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (ONSI).

  17. Finding of no significant impact proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0339) of the proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock in San Miguel County, Colorado. These sites contain radioactively contaminated materials that would be removed and stabilized at a remote location. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (ONSI)

  18. Minidoka Dam Wildlife Impact Assessment: Final Report.

    Martin, Robert C.; Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1989-03-01

    A wildlife impact assessment has been developed for the US Bureau of Reclamation's Minidoka Dam and Reservoir in south central Idaho. This assessment was conducted to fulfill requirements of the Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of this study included the following: select target wildlife species, and identify their current status and management goals; estimate the net effects on target wildlife species resulting from hydroelectric development and operation; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals for target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation; and consult and coordinate impact assessment activities with the Northwest Power Planning Council, Bonneville Power Administration, US Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, and other entities expressing interest in the project. 62 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Lowman Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Lowman, Idaho

    This document assesses the environmental impacts of stabilization on site of the contaminated materials at the Lowman uranium mill tailings site. The Lowman site is 0.5 road mile northeast of the unincorporated village of Lowman, Idaho, and 73 road miles from Boise, Idaho. The Lowman site consists of piles of radioactive sands, an ore storage area, abandoned mill buildings, and windblown/waterborne contaminated areas. A total of 29.5 acres of land are contaminated and most of this land occurs within the 35-acre designated site boundary. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings and other contaminated materials on the site. A radon barrier would be constructed over the consolidated residual radioactive materials and various erosion control measures would be implemented to ensure the long-term stability of the disposal cell. Radioactive constituents and other hazardous constituents were not detected in the groundwater beneath the Lowman site. The groundwater beneath the disposal cell would not become contaminated during or after remedial action so the maximum concentration limits or background concentrations for the contaminants listed in the draft EPA groundwater protection standards would be met at the point of compliance. No significant impacts were identified as a result of the proposed remedial action at the Lowman site

  20. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Lowman Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Lowman, Idaho. Final

    1991-01-01

    This document assesses the environmental impacts of stabilization on site of the contaminated materials at the Lowman uranium mill tailings site. The Lowman site is 0.5 road mile northeast of the unincorporated village of Lowman, Idaho, and 73 road miles from Boise, Idaho. The Lowman site consists of piles of radioactive sands, an ore storage area, abandoned mill buildings, and windblown/waterborne contaminated areas. A total of 29.5 acres of land are contaminated and most of this land occurs within the 35-acre designated site boundary. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings and other contaminated materials on the site. A radon barrier would be constructed over the consolidated residual radioactive materials and various erosion control measures would be implemented to ensure the long-term stability of the disposal cell. Radioactive constituents and other hazardous constituents were not detected in the groundwater beneath the Lowman site. The groundwater beneath the disposal cell would not become contaminated during or after remedial action so the maximum concentration limits or background concentrations for the contaminants listed in the draft EPA groundwater protection standards would be met at the point of compliance. No significant impacts were identified as a result of the proposed remedial action at the Lowman site.

  1. Cumulative impact assessments and bird/wind farm interactions: Developing a conceptual framework

    The wind power industry has grown rapidly in the UK to meet EU targets of sourcing 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Although wind power is a renewable energy source, there are environmental concerns over increasing numbers of wind farm proposals and associated cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. EU and UK legislation requires a cumulative impact assessment (CIA) as part of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). However, in the absence of detailed guidance and definitions, such assessments within EIA are rarely adequate, restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Here we propose a conceptual framework to promote transparency in CIA through the explicit definition of impacts, actions and scales within an assessment. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development EIAs. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating CIA to a strategic level, as a component of spatially explicit planning.

  2. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    Public concern regarding the potential human health and environmental effects from uranium mill tailings led Congress to pass the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (Public Law 95-604) in 1978. In the UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings at 24 abandoned uranium mill processing sites needing remedial action. Uranium processing activities at most of the 24 mill processing sites resulted in the formation of contaminated ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of hazardous constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment by meeting EPA-proposed standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated with constituents from UMTRA Project sites. A major first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of the alternatives, including the proposed action. These alternatives are programmatic in that they are plans for conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance. This PEIS is a planning document that will provide a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assess the potential programmatic and environmental impacts of conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project; provide a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provide data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses documents more efficiently

  3. Impact assessment of agricultural innovations: a review

    Juan Carlos Barrientos-Fuentes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current conditions of the markets and favorable policies, as well as the progress of science and communications, are promoting further development and diffusion of agricultural innovations, which have effects on different areas of agrarian development. The objective of this paper is to present a review of characteristics of agricultural innovations and their diffusion, adoption and impacts, as well as an update of the types and methods of assessment. Agricultural innovations are not only new or improved products, they are also models and systems, and should have a positive social effect. Innovation areas in developing countries are more concentrated on production and distribution, whereas developed countries concentrate on offering inputs. Investments from the private sector in agricultural innovations are growing faster than those from the public sector. The adoption of innovations is medium-term, and usually less than 100%. The impact of innovations includes intermediate areas, such as institutional, political, scientific and productive areas. The economic efficiency of the investment in innovations is the most often mentioned purpose of impact assessments in the literature. The efficiency analysis (ex-post and its surplus approach is still the most used method for assessing impact of agricultural innovations. Nevertheless, other goals are becoming more important, such as food security, environmental protection and poverty reduction. Livelihood, comprehensive and multidimensional approaches go beyond the economic approach. Moreover, specific models with advantages of prognosis and improved precision are replacing or complementing the classic socio-economic approach

  4. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners

    Wong, Cecilia H.M., E-mail: ceciliawonghm@gmail.com; Ho, Wing-chung, E-mail: wingcho@cityu.edu.hk

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment.

  5. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners

    The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment

  6. Elements of a regulatory strategy for the consideration of future human actions in safety assessments

    of disposal system performance without any disruptive future human actions. These calculations should include the effects of any recent and ongoing human activities that might affect the performance of the disposal system. Additional calculations should illustrate the potential effects of disruptive human actions. Assessments of future human actions should be based on present-day conditions in the region of the disposal site and similar sites. Site-specific definitions of the region considered and the period examined for defining rates and frequencies should be provided by the proponent. Assessments should consider the long-term effects of disruption through the formation of new pathways and the dispersal of radioactive material in the biosphere. The proponent should develop and justify the scenarios analysed in an assessment. In addition to developing guidance for the proponent on the scope and conduct of assessments, the regulator could undertake illustrative assessments in order to assure themselves that they understand the impacts of the proposed strategy. Work on both guidance and independent assessments could be supported by the development of an international reference human action approach

  7. Voluntary offsetting actions: SISEF congress at impact zero... appropriate choice?

    Maesano M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyone have a carbon footprint. It represents the CO2 emission amount caused by the activities of a person during a specific interval time. The purpose of the study is to calculate CO2 emissions deriving from the VII SISEF Congress activities. The idea is to provide on add a value to the event through the realization of voluntary offsetting actions. These actions are local projects of sustainable forest management and tree plantation in order to improve carbon stock. Specifically, the emissions offset will be realized through direct actions: (1 a plantation of about 50 trees in the parking of STAT department of the University of Molise; (2 implementation of an arboretum in the Apennine flora Garden of Capracotta; and (3 a coppice conversion plan in Monte Vairano (Campobasso, owned by the University of Molise. The methodology foresaw the currently stored carbon baseline calculation and the expected time accumulation for the entire duration of the actions. The STAT Department of the University of Molise will bind its interventions in order to avoid additionality feature and will monitor over time to ensure the effects permanence in carbon storage. The total emissions calculations of Congress amounted to around 12 Mg CO2 and proposed offsetting actions largely exceed that value.

  8. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Gary R. Krieger; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H.; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2015-01-01

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two ...

  9. Health impact assessment of liquid biofuel production.

    Fink, Rok; Medved, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol and biodiesel as potential substitutes for fossil fuels in the transportation sector have been analyzed for environmental suitability. However, there could be impacts on human health during the production, therefore adverse health effects have to be analyzed. The aim of this study is to analyze to what health risk factors humans are exposed to in the production of biofuels and what the size of the health effects is. A health impact assessment expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was conducted in SimaPro 7.1 software. The results show a statistically significant lower carcinogenic impact of biofuels (p energy sources, this does not necessary mean that they do not represent any health hazards. PMID:22774773

  10. Impact Ratio Analysis: The New Affirmative Action Wrinkle.

    Lewis, Phyllis H.; Robbins, Anora R.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Labor's new guidelines on employee selection procedures are outlined, and their effect on affirmative action programs is discussed. Specific steps in following the guidelines are outlined, and college and universities are advised to review their related operations before an audit is imposed. (MSE)

  11. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  12. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area

  13. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-01-01

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated. PMID:26377091

  14. Critical factors in environmental impact assessment

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has shown that it is of proven benefit to the overall planning and environmental management of resource development projects, but certain elements within the application and practice of EIA remain problematic for proponents and regulatory decision makers alike. The use of the word 'critical' in the title of this paper suggests that if the components identified are not considered or implemented properly through the process of EIA, the product will be of less value to both the proponent and decision maker. In the context of EIA, the regulatory, financial, legal and social benefits that accrue make the need for good EIA practice even more imperative. A discussion is included that highlights a number of issues that need to be addressed to improve the effectiveness of EIA, a tool necessary to attaining provincial and federal regulatory approvals. To a large extent, the discussion reflects items of contemporary public concern, and those emerging issues of the scientific and regulatory community. At the same time, it needs to be realized that not all the identified items are necessarily new to the practice of impact assessment, but are nonetheless important to professional environmental impact assessment and decision making. Insight is also provided into the direction of decision making of the Energy and Utilities Board as it will affect the regulatory review and administration of resource development projects in the province of Alberta. 16 refs

  15. Health impact assessment: assessing opportunities and barriers to intersectoral health improvement in an expanded European Union.

    Lock, Karen; McKee, Martin

    2005-05-01

    On 1 May 2004 the European Union (EU) underwent unprecedented enlargement, from 15 to 25 countries, increasing its population by 20% to over 450 million. Although EU law has limited specific competence in the area of health, its influence on other policy sectors such as agriculture, trade, and employment has wide ranging implications for health. Yet with the exception of provisions on communicable disease control and food safety, public health considerations have played little part in negotiations on EU accession. This paper argues for an intersectoral public health approach in the expanded EU. It reviews the legal basis for assessing the health impacts of policy in the EU and, using health impact assessment as a case study, it examines how well the new member states may be prepared to tackle intersectoral public health action within the constraints imposed by EU policy. PMID:15831682

  16. Life cycle assessment part 2: current impact assessment practice.

    Pennington, D W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-07-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA). PMID:15051247

  17. Impacts of a Warming Arctic. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

    The Arctic is warming much more rapidly than previously known, at nearly twice the rate as the rest of the globe, and increasing greenhouse gases from human activities are projected to make it warmer still, according to an unprecedented four-year scientific study of the region conducted by an international team of 300 scientists. At least half the summer sea ice in the Arctic is projected to melt by the end of this century, along with a significant portion of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as the region is projected to warm an additional 4-7C by the year 2100. These changes will have major global impacts, such as contributing to global sea-level rise and intensifying global warming, according to the final report of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). The assessment was commissioned by the Arctic Council (a ministerial intergovernmental forum comprised of the eight Arctic countries and six Indigenous Peoples organizations) and the International Arctic Science Committee (an international scientific organization appointed by 18 national academies of science). The assessment's projections are based on a moderate estimate of future emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and incorporate results from five major global climate models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  18. From global framing to local action : translation of climate change impacts in Africa

    Ogunseitan, O.A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    There is considerable controversy regarding policy and climate change mitigation in Africa. Its resolution will require integrating local knowledge and values into climate impact assessments. Africa's vulnerability to climate change can be traced to the frequency of socio-ecological devastation that comes from major climate variations on the continent. The incidence of famines, homelessness and disease epidemics that require international assistance are reflections of weak policies and institution action frames used to cope with climate and weather related emergencies. However, the valuation of climate change impacts has a subjective dimension that can be gained only through indigenous experience and an understanding of values associated with life-saving intervention programs. A recent study showed that discount rates applied to future life-saving programs by Africans are very different from the rates applied in developed countries, and that the difference should be reflected in national development programs and transnational initiatives for capacity building. The study suggests that if the boundary institutions responsible for public health security have not been too effective in resolving the policy controversy surrounding Africa's participation in climate change assessments, it is due partly to the limitations imposed by cross-scale issues in framing. It was concluded that efforts to reduce Africa's dependence on global emergency health response systems will necessitate the development of autonomous capacity to adapt to natural disasters. Appropriate frame reflection is needed at the local level. 56 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. Slovak Republic Act No. 130/2006 on the assessment of environmental impact and amending some laws

    This Act regulates: (a) process of expert and public assessment of environmental impact: 1. strategic documents prior to their approval; 2. proposed actions before deciding on their location or from their authorized under special regulations; (b) competence of state administration and municipalities in the scope of the EIA; (c) the rights and obligations of the assessment process for assessing impacts. (2) This Act does not apply to strategic documents whose sole purpose is national defense, civil, financial or budget plans and programs. This Act consists of the following parts: (1) Basic provisions; (2) Assessment and design strategy papers and strategic documents nationwide; (3) Assessment of proposed action; (4) Assessment transboundary impacts; (5) Competence of state administration; (6) Common, transitional and repealing provisions. The Act includes the following annexes: (1) Strategic documents subject to the assessment of their impact on the environment, including health; (2) Content and structure of the notice of strategic documents; (3) Criteria for screening under par. 7; (4) Content and structure of the strategic assessment document; (5) Content and structure of the assessment report territorial planning documentation; (6) Content and structure of the final assessment of strategic document; (7) Impact clause strategic documents nationwide for the environment; (8) The list of proposed activities requiring the assessment of their impact on the environment; (9) Content and structure plan; (10) Criteria for screening by Act par. 29; (11) Content and structure of the report of the assessment of the proposed action; (12) Concluding observations of the impact assessment proposed action on the environment; (13) List of activities subject to compulsory international assessment of their impact on the environment, transboundary; (14) General criteria for determining significant adverse transboundary impact; (15) Contents assessment documentation impacts of the

  20. Improving Physics Teaching through Action Research: The Impact of a Nationwide Professional Development Programme

    Grace, Marcus; Rietdijk, Willeke; Garrett, Caro; Griffiths, Janice

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an independent evaluation of the Action Research for Physics (ARP) programme, a nationwide professional development programme which trains teachers to use action research to increase student interest in physics and encourage them to take post-compulsory physics. The impact of the programme was explored from the perspective of…

  1. Assessment as Action Research: Bridging Academic Scholarship and Everyday Practice

    Malenfant, Kara J.; Hinchliffe, Lisa Janicke; Gilchrist, Debra

    2016-01-01

    This introductory essay to this special issue demonstrates that action research has a vital role in evidence-informed practice in academic libraries. This special issue of "College and Research Libraries" ("C&RL") proudly features a selection of action research studies by participants of the Association of College and…

  2. Environmental analysis and data report prepared for the environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas

    This document contains information and data gathered in support of the preparation of the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Falls City, Texas. The Falls City EA was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires Federal agencies to assess the impacts of their actions on the environment. It examines the short- and long-term effects of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) remedial action for the Falls City site as well as the no action alternative. The DOE will use the information and analyses presented in the EA to determine whether the proposed action would have a significant impact on the environment. If the impacts are determined to be significant, an environmental impact statement (EIS) will be prepared. If the impacts are not determined to be significant, the DOE may issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and implement the proposed action. The information and data presented in this report are for background purposes only and are not required as part of the NEPA decision-making process

  3. Managing Societal Performance of Impact Investing: An Action Research Inquiry

    André, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Impact investments are emerging as a new asset class of social finance, sometimes driven by multinational enterprises as part of their strategic corporate social responsibility strategy. These investments intend to create positive societal impact beyond a financial return through the development of social enterprises. Scholars have highlighted the conflicting institutional logics that these later hybrid organizations must face when combining social welfare and profitability. Yet we lack in-de...

  4. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation.

    Kirsch, Louise P; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin; Cross, Emily S

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer's general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation. PMID:27149106

  5. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation.

    Louise P Kirsch

    Full Text Available Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer's general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS and zygomaticus major (ZM muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation.

  6. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer’s general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation. PMID:27149106

  7. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment; Metodik foer miljoekonsekvensbedoemning

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments.

  8. The Role of Training in Improving Peer Assessment Skills amongst Year Six Pupils in Primary School Writing: An Action Research Enquiry

    Boon, Stuart Ian

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is where students assess the quality of a peer's work. Studies have demonstrated its positive impact on learning yet most of these are in higher education. This study used training to improve the quality of written feedback in a year six primary school classroom. Action Research was selected as a research strategy given the need to…

  9. Assessment of Evacuation Protective Action Strategies For Emergency Preparedness Plan

    This report which studies about evacuation formation suggests some considerable factors to reduce damage of radiological accidents. Additional details would be required to study in depth and more elements should be considered for updating emergency preparedness. However, this methodology with sensitivity analysis could adapt to specific plant which has total information such as geological data, weather data and population data. In this point of view the evacuation study could be contribute to set up emergency preparedness plan and propose the direction to enhance protective action strategies. In radiological emergency, residents nearby nuclear power plant should perform protective action that is suggested by emergency preparedness plan. The objective of emergency preparedness plan is that damages, such as casualties and environmental damages, due to radioactive accident should be minimized. The recent PAR study includes a number of subjects to improve the quality of protective action strategies. For enhancing protective action strategies, researches that evaluate many factors related with emergency response scenario are essential parts to update emergency preparedness plan. Evacuation is very important response action as protective action strategy

  10. 76 FR 21938 - Potential Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Runway 13 Extension and Associated Actions for...

    2011-04-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Potential Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Runway 13 Extension and... Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of availability of a final EA and FONSI/ROD for the evaluation of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed Runway...

  11. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement actions. 775.12 Section 775.12 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact...

  12. Involvement of youth in Impact Assessment processes

    Skjervedal, Anna-Sofie Hurup; Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2016-01-01

    complementary alternative methods to the current PP forms. Through combining social media and the visual anthropological method of photo-interviewing, this paper seeks to give voice to the absent voice of the young Greenlanders, encouraging them to engage and have their say in these important matters regarding......Initial studies of the current public participation (PP) forms, public consultations and workshops, applied in Greenland in relation to Impact Assessments (IAs) of oil-gas and mineral projects, have revealed a narrow representation of the local communities. The local representatives involved in the...

  13. Integrated Climate Change Impacts Assessment in California

    Cayan, D. R.; Franco, G.; Meyer, R.; Anderson, M.; Bromirski, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes lessons learned from an ongoing series of climate change assessments for California, conducted by the scientific community and State and local agencies. A series of three Assessments have considered vulnerability and adaptation issues for both managed and natural systems. California's vulnerability is many faceted, arising because of an exceptionally drought prone climate, open coast and large estuary exposure to sea level rise, sensitive ecosystems and complex human footprint and economy. Key elements of the assessments have been a common set of climate and sea-level rise scenarios, based upon IPCC GCM simulations. Regionalized and localized output from GCM projections was provided to research teams investigating water supply, agriculture, coastal resources, ecosystem services, forestry, public health, and energy demand and hydropower generation. The assessment results are helping to investigate the broad range of uncertainty that is inherent in climate projections, and users are becoming better equipped to process an envelope of potential climate and impacts. Some projections suggest that without changes in California's present fresh-water delivery system, serious water shortages would take place, but that technical solutions are possible. Under a warmer climate, wildfire vulnerability is heightened markedly in some areas--estimated increases in burned area by the end of the 21st Century exceed 100% of the historical area burned in much of the forested areas of Northern California Along California coast and estuaries, projected rise in mean sea level will accelerate flooding occurrences, prompting the need for better education and preparedness. Many policymakers and agency personnel in California are factoring in results from the assessments and recognize the need for a sustained assessment process. An ongoing challenge, of course, is to achieve more engagement with a broader community of decision makers, and notably with the private sector.

  14. Simplified Assessment of R3 Nominal Assurance Degree to Seismic Action of the Existing Masonry Dwellings

    Teodor Broşteanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the assessment of the performance level of a building for a given seismic hazard level. Building performance level describes the expected seismic performance given by the computation of R3 Nominal Assurance Degree to Seismic Action of the Existing Masonry Dwellings and Monumental Buildings according to the Romanian Norm P100:1992 [1], modified on 1996 with the chapters 11 and 12, until the Part 3 of P100-1:2006 [2], will be performed for the Assessment and Strengthening Structural Design of the Seismic Vulnerable, Existing Buildings, in the frame of SR EN 1998-1:2004 EC8 [3]. The framing of damages into the potential risk degrees has a social and economic impact. Assessment and retrofitting of the existing buildings have represented a huge engineering challenge as a distinct problem versus a new building design. The performance level of a vulnerable existing building shows us the expected seismic performance level due to the classified damages, the pattern of cracks, the interruption of function, the economic losses and the needed interventions, all in function of the importance class of building on next life span of use. On recommends the computation of R (R3 Nominal Assurance Degree to Seismic Action of the Vulnerable Dwellings for the assessing and strengthening design, in comparison to both norms because of the bearing conventional seismic load computed by [1], will result less than the value which will be computed by the Part 3 of P100-1:2006, i.e. the norm P100:1992 is more severe. In the case of the breakable fracture probability of the existing structural masonry members, one recommends a bigger value of ? – reduction factor unless the given values by [1] for a new structure with a high ductility, especially for the deflections calibration on the same limit state.

  15. Assessing corporate project impacts in changeable contexts: A human rights perspective

    Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: kendyl.salcito@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: bhsinger@epi.ufl.edu [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: mitchell-g.weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: wielga@nomogaia.org [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Project-level impact assessment was originally conceived as a snapshot taken in advance of project implementation, contrasting current conditions with a likely future scenario involving a variety of predicted impacts. Current best practice guidance has encouraged a shift towards longitudinal assessments from the pre-project stage through the implementation and operating phases. Experience and study show, however, that assessment of infrastructure-intensive projects rarely endures past the project's construction phase. Negative consequences for environmental, social and health outcomes have been documented. Such consequences clarify the pressing need for longitudinal assessment in each of these domains, with human rights impact assessment (HRIA) as an umbrella over, and critical augmentation of, environmental, social and health assessments. Project impacts on human rights are more closely linked to political, economic and other factors beyond immediate effects of a company's policy and action throughout the project lifecycle. Delineating these processes requires an adequate framework, with strategies for collecting longitudinal data, protocols that provide core information for impact assessment and guidance for adaptive mitigation strategies as project-related effects change over time. This article presents general principles for the design and implementation of sustained, longitudinal HRIA, based on experience assessing and responding to human rights impact in a uranium mining project in Malawi. The case study demonstrates the value of longitudinal assessment both for limiting corporate risk and improving human welfare. - Graphical abstract: Assessing changes in human rights condition as affected by both project and context, over time. - Highlights: • Corporate capital projects affect human rights in myriad ways. • Ongoing, longitudinal impact assessment techniques are needed. • We present an approach for conducting longitudinal human rights impact

  16. Assessing corporate project impacts in changeable contexts: A human rights perspective

    Project-level impact assessment was originally conceived as a snapshot taken in advance of project implementation, contrasting current conditions with a likely future scenario involving a variety of predicted impacts. Current best practice guidance has encouraged a shift towards longitudinal assessments from the pre-project stage through the implementation and operating phases. Experience and study show, however, that assessment of infrastructure-intensive projects rarely endures past the project's construction phase. Negative consequences for environmental, social and health outcomes have been documented. Such consequences clarify the pressing need for longitudinal assessment in each of these domains, with human rights impact assessment (HRIA) as an umbrella over, and critical augmentation of, environmental, social and health assessments. Project impacts on human rights are more closely linked to political, economic and other factors beyond immediate effects of a company's policy and action throughout the project lifecycle. Delineating these processes requires an adequate framework, with strategies for collecting longitudinal data, protocols that provide core information for impact assessment and guidance for adaptive mitigation strategies as project-related effects change over time. This article presents general principles for the design and implementation of sustained, longitudinal HRIA, based on experience assessing and responding to human rights impact in a uranium mining project in Malawi. The case study demonstrates the value of longitudinal assessment both for limiting corporate risk and improving human welfare. - Graphical abstract: Assessing changes in human rights condition as affected by both project and context, over time. - Highlights: • Corporate capital projects affect human rights in myriad ways. • Ongoing, longitudinal impact assessment techniques are needed. • We present an approach for conducting longitudinal human rights impact assessment

  17. E-IMPACT - A ROBUST HAZARD-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR PROCESS INDUSTRIES

    KHANDOKER A. HOSSAIN; FAISAL KHAN; KELLY HAWBOLDT

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a hazard-based environmental impact assessment approach (E-Impact), for evaluating the environmental impact during process design and retrofit stages. E-Impact replaces the normalisation step of the conventional impact assessment phase. This approach compares the impact scores for different options and assigns a relative score to each option. This eliminates the complexity of the normalisation step in the evaluation phase. The applicability of the E-Impact has been illustr...

  18. Environmental impacts of fracking in the exploration and production of natural gas from unconventional deposits. Risk assessment, recommendations for action and evaluation of existing legal regulations and administrative structures; Umweltauswirkungen von Fracking bei der Aufsuchung und Gewinnung von Erdgas aus unkonventionellen Lagerstaetten. Risikobewertung, Handlungsempfehlungen und Evaluierung bestehender rechtlicher Regelungen und Verwaltungsstrukturen

    Meiners, Georg; Denneborg, Michael; Mueller, Frank [ahu AG Wasser - Boden - Geomatik, Aachen (Germany); Bergmann, Axel; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Dopp, Elke; Hansen, Carsten; Schueth, Christoph [IWW Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wasser - Beratungs- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    We examine the water-related environmental impacts and the risks for human health and the environment that could potentially be caused by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) during exploration and exploitation of unconventional natural gas reservoirs in Germany. This study covers both scientific-technical aspects and the existing mining and environmental regulations. Both were analyzed with respect to consistency, differences and current gaps of knowledge and lack of relevant information. After a general introduction, this study is divided into four sections: We first focus on the description of geospatial conditions, technical aspects and the chemical additives employed by hydraulic fracturing (Part A) and the existing regulatory and administrative framework (Part B), before we conduct a risk and deficit analysis (Part C) and derive recommendations for further actions and proceedings (Part D). The foundation of a sound risk analysis is a description of the current system, the relevant effect pathways and their interactions. We describe known and assumed unconventional natural gas reservoirs in Germany based on publicly available information. We present qualitatively the relevant system interactions for selected geosystems and assess potential technical and geological effect pathways. With regard to the technical aspects, we describe the principles of rock mechanics and provide an overview of the technical fracturing process. In terms of groundwater protection, the key focus is on borehole completion, modelling of fracture propagation and the longterm stability of the borehole (incl. cementation). The injected fracturing fluids contain proppants and several additional chemical additives. The evaluation of fracturing fluids used to date in Germany shows that even in newer fluids several additives were used which exhibit critical properties and/or for which an assessment of their behaviour and effects in the environment is not possible or limited due to lack of the

  19. Handling of future human actions in the safety assessment SR-Site

    This report documents the future human actions, FHA, considered in the long-term safety analysis of a KBS-3 repository. The report is one of the supporting documents to the safety assessment SR-Site (see further the Main report /SKB 2011/). The purpose of this report is to provide an account of general considerations concerning FHA, the methodology applied in SR-Site to assess FHA, the aspects of FHA needed to be considered in the evaluation of their impact on a deep geological repository and to select and analyse representative scenarios for illustrative consequence analysis. The main focus of this report is a time period when institutional control has ceased to be effective, thereby permitting inadvertent intrusion. However, a brief discussion of the earlier period when the repository has been closed, sealed and continuously kept under institutional control is also provided. General The potential exposure to large quantities of radiotoxic material is an inescapable consequence of the deposition of spent nuclear fuel in a final repository, and consequently intrusion into the repository needs to be considered in repository design and safety assessment. In accordance with ICRP recommendations /ICRP 2000/, intrusion in the post-closure phase of institutional control and beyond is primarily prevented through the design of the repository. In addition to that there will presumably continue to be safeguards measures, preservation of information (record keeping) and possibly some sort of markers placed at the site. During the institutional control period, activities at the site have to be restricted or directed if they have the potential to interfere with or hinder surveillance of the site, but this does not necessarily rule out all forms of access to the area. Also the fact that the repository contains fissile materials is an important aspect. Control of safeguards measures will most likely be upheld by national as well as international agencies. Furthermore, the

  20. Handling of future human actions in the safety assessment SR-Site

    2010-12-15

    This report documents the future human actions, FHA, considered in the long-term safety analysis of a KBS-3 repository. The report is one of the supporting documents to the safety assessment SR-Site (see further the Main report /SKB 2011/). The purpose of this report is to provide an account of general considerations concerning FHA, the methodology applied in SR-Site to assess FHA, the aspects of FHA needed to be considered in the evaluation of their impact on a deep geological repository and to select and analyse representative scenarios for illustrative consequence analysis. The main focus of this report is a time period when institutional control has ceased to be effective, thereby permitting inadvertent intrusion. However, a brief discussion of the earlier period when the repository has been closed, sealed and continuously kept under institutional control is also provided. General The potential exposure to large quantities of radiotoxic material is an inescapable consequence of the deposition of spent nuclear fuel in a final repository, and consequently intrusion into the repository needs to be considered in repository design and safety assessment. In accordance with ICRP recommendations /ICRP 2000/, intrusion in the post-closure phase of institutional control and beyond is primarily prevented through the design of the repository. In addition to that there will presumably continue to be safeguards measures, preservation of information (record keeping) and possibly some sort of markers placed at the site. During the institutional control period, activities at the site have to be restricted or directed if they have the potential to interfere with or hinder surveillance of the site, but this does not necessarily rule out all forms of access to the area. Also the fact that the repository contains fissile materials is an important aspect. Control of safeguards measures will most likely be upheld by national as well as international agencies. Furthermore, the

  1. A Health Impact Assessment Framework for Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Planning for Climate Change

    Helen Brown

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru.

  2. On the choice of performance assessment criteria and their impact on the overall system performance

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Green, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to illuminate the impact of the choice of a system’s performance criteria on the quality of the corresponding monitoring system’s assessment results. Special attention is given to the performance issues that are caused by or can be solved by control actions. The compressor...

  3. Evaluation of unit risk factors in support of the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    This report describes the generation of unit risk factors for use with the Graphical Information System (GIS) being developed by Advanced Sciences, Inc. for the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. The GIS couples information on source inventory and environmental transport with unit risk factors to estimate the potential risk from contamination at all locations on the Hanford Site. The major components of the effort to generate the unit risk factors were: determination of pollutants to include in the study, definition of media of concern, and definition of exposure assessment scenarios, methods, and parameters. The selection of pollutants was based on inventory lists which indicated the pollutants likely to be encountered at the known waste sites. The final pollutants selected included 47 chemical pollutants and 101 radionuclides. Unit risk factors have been generated for all 148 pollutants per unit initial concentration in five media: soil (per unit mass), soil (per unit area), air, groundwater, and surface water. The exposure scenarios were selected as the basis for the unit risk factor generation. The endpoint in the exposure assessment analysis is expressed as risk of developing cancer for radionuclides and carcinogenic chemicals. For noncarcinogenic chemicals, the risk endpoint is the hazard quotient. The cancer incidence and hazard quotient values are evaluated for all exposure pathways, pollutants, and scenarios. The hazard index values and unit risk values are used by the GIS to produce maps of risk for the Hanford Site

  4. Expediting the corrective action process: The expanded assessment

    The expedient assessment of environmental contamination by underground petroleum is necessary to facilitate more efficient remediation. The expanded assessment format is designed to allow greater flexibility for the contractor, decrease the time necessary to complete site assessment, and achieve overall cost savings by eliminating multiple reports and associated administrative costs

  5. The Lithuanian Government’s Policy of Regulatory Impact Assessment

    Jaroslav Dvorak

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper critically evaluates the development of the impact assessment instrument in Lithuania’s public administration and suggests improvements to its impact assessment system. Research question: What interesting conceptual imperatives have appeared in Lithuania’s investigation of the impact of regulatory policy? Methodology: This research study uses positivist methodology to analyse the problems that researchers have identified in Lithuania’s impact assessment. This investigat...

  6. Advancing Efforts to Achieve Health Equity: Equity Metrics for Health Impact Assessment Practice

    Jonathan Heller; Givens, Marjory L.; Yuen, Tina K.; Solange Gould; Maria Benkhalti Jandu; Emily Bourcier; Tim Choi

    2014-01-01

    Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA). Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communit...

  7. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem

  8. AIDA: the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to assess the possibility of deflecting an asteroid trajectory by using a kinetic impactor. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is under Phase A/B1 study at ESA from March 2015 until summer 2016. AIM is set to rendez-vous with the asteroid system a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions: AIM will release a set of CubeSats in deep space and a lander on the surface of the smaller asteroid and for the first time, deep-space inter-satellite linking will be demonstrated between the main spacecraft, the CubeSats, and the lander, and data will also be transmitted from interplanetary space to Earth by a laser communication system. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Small asteroids are believed to result from collisions and other processes (e.g., spinup, shaking) that made them what they are now. Having direct information on their surface and internal properties will allow us to understand how these processes work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. So far, our understanding of the collisional process and the validation of numerical simulations of the impact process rely on impact experiments at laboratory scales. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the

  9. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995. Revision 1

    As required by the Romer-Twining Agreement of 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this annual economic impact study for the state of Colorado. This report assesses the economic impacts related to the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in Colorado during the state fiscal year (FY) between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1995. To estimate net economic benefit, employment, salaries and wages, and other related economic benefits are discussed, quantified, and then compared to the state's 10 percent share of the remedial action costs. Actual data obtained from sites currently undergoing remedial action were used as the basis for analyses. If data were not available, estimates were used to derive economic indicators. This study describes the types of employment associated with the UMTRA Project and estimates of the numbers of people employed by UMTRA Project subcontractors in Colorado during state FY 1995. Employment totals are reported in estimated average annual jobs; however, the actual number of workers at the site fluctuates depending on weather and on the status of remedial action activities. In addition, the actual number of people employed on the Project during the year may be higher than the average annual employment reported due to the temporary nature of some of the jobs

  10. Assessing the environmental impact of geothermal residues

    Scale, sludge and drilling mud from three geothermal fields (Bulalo, Philippines; Cerro Prieto, Mexico; and Dixie Valley, USA) containing As, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb at levels above the earth's crustal abundance were studied for their environmental impact. Several techniques and procedures were used to assess the risk posed by the residues: whole rock analysis, X- ray diffraction, radioactivity counting, protocol leach tests, toxicity testing, accelerated weathering test and a preliminary acid mine dramage potential test. There was no evidence of toxicity or genotoxicity present in any of the samples tested. Leaching tests indicated that all of the wastes could be classified as non-hazardous. One sample showed a low-level radio activity but it was still within the occupational dose limit. Three samples tested positive for acidification potential while none of the regulated elements were found in the leachate after three months of weathering test

  11. Environmental impact assessment of nuclear desalination

    Nuclear desalination is gaining interest among the IAEA Member States, as indicated by the planned projects, and it is expected that the number of nuclear desalination plants will increase in the near future. The IAEA has already provided its Member States with reports and documents that disseminate information regarding the technical and economic feasibility of nuclear desalination. With the rising environmental awareness, in the scope of IAEA's activities on seawater desalination using nuclear power, a need was identified for a report that would provide a generic assessment of the environmental issues in nuclear desalination. In order to offer an overview of specific environmental impacts which are to be expected, their probable magnitude, and recommended mitigation measures, this publication encompasses information provided by the IAEA Member States as well as other specialized sources. It is intended for decision makers and experts dealing with environmental, desalination and water management issues, offering insight into the environmental aspects that are essential in planning and developing nuclear desalination

  12. Treating Women Drug Abusers: Action Therapy and Trauma Assessment

    Uhler, Ann S.; Parker, Olga V.

    2002-01-01

    The authors suggest that action therapy, a group of techniques including psychodrama, drama therapy, and role training, warrants research attention to determine whether it is well suited to the special characteristics and needs of women clients. In addition, the authors call on researchers to develop a new standardized tool for counselors to use during initial interviews to determine whether women presenting for drug abuse treatment also have significant issues related to trauma. The authors ...

  13. Exploring Health Impact Assessment in Europe

    Matthias Wismar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Health impact assessment (HIA prospectively judges the potential health impacts of pending decisions and feeds the assessment back into the decision making process. HIA is considered as a key tool for intersectoral collaboration. This article presents selected results of a mapping exercise on HIA in Europe. The mapping exercise is complemented by the presentation of a conceptual framework on the effectiveness of HIA and illustrative examples.

    Method: Two methodologies are employed in this article: First, the use of HIA across Europe is based on a survey conducted by 21 teams in 19 countries. A semi standardized questionnaire was employed, using a wide variety of sources. Second, for the discussion on the effectiveness of HIA, a conceptual framework using four types of effectiveness was employed. Results: HIA is a common practice only in a handful of European countries. In most of Europe, HIA is at an early developmental stage. The mapping exercise, however, provides evidence that HIA can work across all sectors and at all political level, although there is currently a focus on the local level. HIA is conducted in different countries by different sets of actors and organizations, reflecting the existing setup. The evidence on the effectiveness of HIA is still inconclusive. However, single case studies and upcoming evidence suggests that HIA has the capacity to inform and influence the decision making process.

    Conclusions: HIA can work and deliver. The variations in context across European countries have resulted in different forms of implementation and different dynamics of developing HIA.

  14. Assessing the EC ILUC proposal. Dutch national ILUC Impact Assessment

    Peters, D.; Toop, G.; Van den Bos, A.; Spoettle, M.

    2013-04-15

    Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC) is the effect that when existing agricultural land producing food is used for biofuel feedstock production, food production is reduced and this reduction is partially compensated by the conversion of non-agricultural land into new cropland elsewhere. ILUC can have a negative impact on the GHG performance of biofuels and can lead to loss of biodiversity. ILUC, its quantification and possible policy measures have been debated in the EU since 2008. The final legislative text to be negotiated on the basis of the ILUC proposal is likely to have a profound impact on the current EU biofuels market but especially on its future development. This report assesses the legal soundness and factual basis of the proposal. It also assesses the policy risks, effectiveness of, and economic consequences resulting from the four most important proposed measures. Alternative scenarios are explored for each of the proposed measures. The report starts with a description of the Dutch biofuels market as the current situation and future perspective of this market is naturally of specific concern for Dutch negotiators in Brussels. This report takes the IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute) 2011 modelling study as a starting point when assessing the ILUC impacts of EU biofuels. The IFPRI study modelling results assign high ILUC emissions to conventional biodiesel and assigns much lower ILUC emissions to conventional ethanol. The study does not model ILUC effects of advanced biofuels. The Dutch biofuels market is dominated by biodiesel, of which a large share is double counting. Following the IFPRI 2011 ILUC modelling, this means that a high share of biofuels with a high ILUC risk are supplied to the market but also a high share of advanced, double counting biofuels with a low to medium ILUC risk. The Netherlands hosts a relatively large oilseed crushing and biofuel production industry, of which an important share consists of advanced biofuel

  15. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

  16. Water-quality impact assessment for hydropower

    A methodology to assess the impact of a hydropower facility on downstream water quality is described. Negative impacts can result from the substitution of discharges aerated over a spillway with minimally aerated turbine discharges that are often withdrawn from lower reservoir levels, where dissolved oxygen (DO) is typically low. Three case studies illustrate the proposed method and problems that can be encountered. Historic data are used to establish the probability of low-dissolved-oxygen occurrences. Synoptic surveys, combined with downstream monitoring, give an overall picture of the water-quality dynamics in the river and the reservoir. Spillway aeration is determined through measurements and adjusted for temperature. Theoretical computations of selective withdrawal are sensitive to boundary conditions, such as the location of the outlet-relative to the reservoir bottom, but withdrawal from the different layers is estimated from measured upstream and downstream temperatures and dissolved-oxygen profiles. Based on field measurements, the downstream water quality under hydropower operation is predicted. Improving selective withdrawal characteristics or diverting part of the flow over the spillway provided cost-effective mitigation solutions for small hydropower facilities (less than 15 MW) because of the low capital investment required

  17. Catalysis-by-design impacts assessment

    Fassbender, L L; Young, J K [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA); Sen, R K [Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (USA)

    1991-05-01

    Catalyst researchers have always recognized the need to develop a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of catalytic processes, and have hoped that it would lead to developing a theoretical predictive base to guide the search for new catalysts. This understanding allows one to develop a set of hierarchical models, from fundamental atomic-level ab-initio models to detailed engineering simulations of reactor systems, to direct the search for optimized, efficient catalyst systems. During the last two decades, the explosions of advanced surface analysis techniques have helped considerably to develop the building blocks for understanding various catalytic reactions. An effort to couple these theoretical and experimental advances to develop a set of hierarchical models to predict the nature of catalytic materials is a program entitled Catalysis-by-Design (CRD).'' In assessing the potential impacts of CBD on US industry, the key point to remember is that the value of the program lies in developing a novel methodology to search for new catalyst systems. Industrial researchers can then use this methodology to develop proprietary catalysts. Most companies involved in catalyst R D have two types of ongoing projects. The first type, what we call market-driven R D,'' are projects that support and improve upon a company's existing product lines. Project of the second type, technology-driven R D,'' are longer term, involve the development of totally new catalysts, and are initiated through scientists' research ideas. The CBD approach will impact both types of projects. However, this analysis indicates that the near-term impacts will be on market-driven'' projects. The conclusions and recommendations presented in this report were obtained by the authors through personal interviews with individuals involved in a variety of industrial catalyst development programs and through the three CBD workshops held in the summer of 1989. 34 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. An Action Research Study: Engaging in Authentic Formative Assessment

    Drost, Bryan R.

    2012-01-01

    Effective teaching in the United States over the last decade has been based on student performance on standardized tests (Darling-Hammond, 2010). Many school districts, in attempts to make gains on standardized assessments, have implemented standardized formative assessment procedures that dictate intervention for students not making gains…

  19. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments Angela N. Mwenda Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that considers the anticipated impacts of de

  20. ParticipACTION: Baseline assessment of the 'new ParticipACTION': A quantitative survey of Canadian organizational awareness and capacity

    Bauman Adrian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ParticipACTION is a Canadian physical activity (PA communications and social marketing organization that was relaunched in 2007 after a six-year hiatus. This study assesses the baseline awareness and capacity of Canadian organizations that promote physical activity, to adopt, implement and promote ParticipACTION's physical activity campaign. The three objectives were: (1 to determine organizational awareness of both the 'original' and 'new' ParticipACTION; (2 to report baseline levels of three organizational capacity domains (i.e., to adopt, implement and externally promote physical activity initiatives; and, (3 to explore potential differences in those domains based on organizational size, sector and primary mandate. Methods Organizations at local, provincial/territorial, and national levels were sent an invitation via email prior to the official launch of ParticipACTION to complete an on-line survey. The survey assessed their organization's capacity to adopt, implement and externally promote a new physical activity campaign within their organizational mandates. Descriptive statistics were employed to address the first two study objectives. A series of one-way analysis of variance were conducted to examine the third objective. Results The response rate was 29.7% (268/902. The majority of responding organizations had over 40 employees and had operated for over 10 years. Education was the most common primary mandate, followed by sport and recreation. Organizations were evenly distributed between government and not-for-profits. Approximately 96% of respondents had heard of the 'original' ParticipACTION while 54.6% had heard of the 'new' ParticipACTION (Objective 1. Findings indicate good organizational capacity in Canada to promote physical activity (Objective 2 based on reported means of approximately 4.0 (on 5-point scales for capacity to adopt, implement, and externally promote new physical activity campaigns. Capacity to

  1. Practitioners, professional cultures, and perceptions of impact assessment

    The very nature of impact assessment (IA) means that it often involves practitioners from a very wide range of disciplinary and professional backgrounds, which open the possibility that how IA is perceived and practised may vary according to the professional background of the practitioner. The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which a practitioner's professional background influences their perceptions of the adequacy of impact assessment in New Zealand under the Resource Management Act (RMA). Information gathered concerned professional affiliations, training, understanding of impact assessment practise, and perceptions of adequacy in relation to impact assessment. The results showed a dominance of a legalistic, operational perspective of impact assessment under the Resource Management Act, across all the main professions represented in the study. However, among preparers of impact assessments there was clear evidence of differences between the four main professional groups – surveyors, planners, engineers and natural scientists – in the way they see the nature and purpose of impact assessment, the practical steps involved, and what constitutes adequacy. Similarly, impact assessment reviewers – predominantly planners and lawyers – showed variations in their expectations of impact assessment depending on their respective professional affiliation. Although in many cases the differences seem to be more of a matter of emphasis, rather than major disputes on what constitutes a good process, even those differences can add up to rather distinct professional cultures of impact assessment. The following factors are seen as leading to the emergence of such professional cultures: different professions often contribute in different ways to an impact assessment, affecting their perception of the nature and purpose of the process; impact assessment training will usually be a secondary concern, compared with the core professional training, which will be

  2. "Advanced Voice Function Assessment"-Goals and activities of COST Action 2103

    Kob, M.; Dejonckere, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    The COST Action 2103 "Advanced Voice Function Assessment" is a joint initiative of speech processing teams (engineers and physicists) and the European Laryngological Research Group (ELRG) (laryngologists/phoniatricians). The Action officially started in December 2006, and is running till the end of

  3. 7 CFR 3407.7 - Actions normally requiring an environmental assessment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actions normally requiring an environmental... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 3407.7 Actions normally requiring an environmental assessment. The... may result in a particular technology's moving from the field evaluation stage to...

  4. Quantitative health impact assessment: current practice and future directions

    Veerman, Lennert; Barendregt, Jan; Mackenbach, Johan

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. DESIGN: HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health (exposure impact assessment) and (2) methods used to quantify health outcomes resulting from changes in exposure to determinants (outcome assessment). MAIN RESULTS: Of 98 prospective HIA studies, 17 reported quantitati...

  5. Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge : Environmental Action Statement, Environmental Assessment, Interim Hunting and Fishing Plan : 2004

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains the Environmental Action Statement, Environmental Assessment, and Interim Hunting and Fishing Plan for Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge from...

  6. 76 FR 19110 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    2011-04-06

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... the Department. The assessments were approved and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between May 3, 2010 and January 7, 2011. DATES: The Privacy Impact Assessments are available on the DHS...

  7. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. [UMTRA Project

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  9. National Impact Assessment of CMS Quality Measures Reports

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Impact Assessment of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Quality Measures Reports (Impact Reports) are mandated by section 3014(b), as...

  10. Cues-to-Action in Initiating Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender-Related Policies Among Magnet Hospital Chief Nursing Officers: A Demographic Assessment.

    Klotzbaugh, Ralph; Spencer, Gale

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Magnet Chief Nursing Officers' cues-to-action initiating lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT)-specific policies. Homonegativity has a negative effect on employee recruitment and retention and patient satisfaction. Little has been known about what cues-to-action might initiate LGBT inclusive training. Surveys were mailed to 343 Chief Nursing Officers. Cues-to-action survey was used to assess what inspires initiation of LGBT training. Demographic surveys were used to assess what impact variables might have on cues-to-action. Age, sex, religiosity, location, and region had significant effect on cues-to-action. Developing demographically informed training and policies for LGBT equality in health care is suggestive of greater employee and patient satisfaction. PMID:25932818

  11. A Computer-Based Approach to Environmental Impact Assessment

    Fedra, K.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requires the qualitative and quantitative prediction, assessment and evaluation of the impacts of human activities on the environment in terms of appropriate indicators. Various types of models are major tools for the prediction and analysis of these impacts. They must describe environmental systems in terms of those indicators that environmental law and regulations define and prescribe to evaluate the severity of impacts. In this report, methods and...

  12. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J. [eds.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  13. User Instructions for the Systems Assessment Capability, Rev. 0, Computer Codes Volume 2: Impact Modules

    One activity of the Department of Energy?s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project is an assessment of cumulative impacts from Hanford Site wastes on the subsurface environment and the Columbia River. Through the application of a system assessment capability (SAC), decisions for each cleanup and disposal action will be able to take into account the composite effect of other cleanup and disposal actions. The SAC has developed a suite of computer programs to simulate the migration of contaminants (analytes) present on the Hanford Site and to assess the potential impacts of the analytes, including dose to humans, socio-cultural impacts, economic impacts, and ecological impacts. The general approach to handling uncertainty in the SAC computer codes is a Monte Carlo approach. Conceptually, one generates a value for every stochastic parameter in the code (the entire sequence of modules from inventory through transport and impacts) and then executes the simulation, obtaining an output value, or result. This document provides user instructions for the SAC codes that generate human, ecological, economic, and cultural impacts

  14. Researching the Impact of Teacher Professional Development Programmes Based on Action Research, Constructivism, and Systems Theory

    Zehetmeier, Stefan; Andreitz, Irina; Erlacher, Willibald; Rauch, Franz

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the topic of professional development programmes' impact. Concepts and ideas of action research, constructivism, and systems theory are used as a theoretical framework and are combined to describe and analyse an exemplary professional development programme in Austria. Empirical findings from both quantitative and qualitative…

  15. COST Action D42 "ENVIART" "The Czech Republik": Impact of 4 Years Networking.

    Škrdlantová, M.; Doubravová, K.; Kučerová, L.; Smolík, Jiří; Andělová, Ludmila; Džumbová, Lucie; Veselý, M.; Zmeškal, O.; Dzik, P.

    2010, P 129. ISBN N. [Final Conference 2010 of the COST Action D42 - Impact of the Indoor Environment of the Preservation of Our Moveable Cultural Heritage. Dublin (IE), 07.11.2010-10.11.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : dyed textile * aerosol in library * photographs fading Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  16. Reinventing Strategic Philanthropy: the sustainable organization of voluntary action for impact

    L.C.P.M. Meijs (Lucas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPhilanthropic organizations have recently started to focus on how to invest their resources in a way that will really make a difference to society. Strategic philanthropy is the new concept for voluntary action for the public good to create a valuable sustainable impact! This inaugural

  17. Dramatic Impact of Action Research of Arts-Based Teaching on At-Risk Students

    Li, Xin; Kenzy, Patty; Underwood, Lucy; Severson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study was presented at the American Educational Research Association 2012 conference in Vancouver, Canada. The study explored how action research of arts-based teaching (ABT) impacted at-risk students in three urban public schools in southern California, USA. ABT was defined as using arts, music, drama, and dance in teaching other subjects. A…

  18. Action Research Networks: Role and Purpose in the Evaluation of Research Outcomes and Impacts

    Zornes, Deborah; Ferkins, Lesley; Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to share thinking about networks in action research (AR) and to consider their role, purpose, and how networks' outcomes and impacts might be evaluated. Networks are often a by-product of AR projects, yet research focused on the network itself as part of a project is rare. The paper is one of several associated with the…

  19. Assessing the demographic and public service impacts of repository siting

    Demographic and public service impacts are likely to be among the most evident of those changes resulting from nuclear waste repository development. Knowledge of the characteristics of such impacts and of the means to assess them is critical. The first section of this chapter examines those likely to be unique to repositories. The second section describes the alternatives for assessing such impacts and the particular difficulties likely to affect the assessments. Given the state of development of techniques for assessing impacts and the range of factors that must be considered, perhaps their best use is as a means of sensitizing decision makers to the potential implications of their decisions. 2 tables

  20. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: ► The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. ► The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. ► A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. ► Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  1. Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions.

  2. Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions

  3. Research in Action: Assessment and Treatment of Child Sexual Abusers.

    Chaffin, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Reviews recent studies on child sexual abusers and abuser treatment and their implications for patient assessment and treatment. Reviews recidivism outcome studies from the perspective of their contributions to questions of which sort of treatments appear to be effective with which populations, and suggests that clinicians be aware of the need for…

  4. Qualitative Assessment across Language Barriers: An Action Research Study

    Cronje, Johannes C.

    2009-01-01

    If students cannot express themselves in the language of the assessor, and if the assessor is not familiar with the cultural constraints within which students operate, it is difficult for the assessor to collect evidence of adequate performance. This article describes the assessment of three digital artefacts where the assessor strove to…

  5. Photoenhanced toxicity of oil in spill response and impact assessment

    Barron, M.G. [P.E.A.K. Research, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Photoenhanced toxicity is described as the increase in chemical toxicity to aquatic organisms that have also been exposed to light sources containing ultraviolet radiation (UV). When tested under natural sunlight or laboratory sources of UV, fresh and weathered crude oils and spill products exhibit phototoxicity. These same products do not exhibit phototoxicity under standard testing with fluorescent lighting. Spill water from the North Cape fuel oil spill and Alaska North Slope crude oil dispersed with the chemical agent Corexit 9527 exhibited phototoxicity when tested under UV light sources. The greatest potential hazard of photoenhanced toxicity is expected to be felt by embryo and larval stages of aquatic organisms inhabiting the photic zone of the water column and intertidal areas because they are relatively translucent to UV. The author suggested that assessment of oil spill impacts should take into consideration photoenhanced toxicity since it may have an impact on the estimates of spatial and temporal extent of injury to aquatic organisms. In addition, the degree of photoenhanced toxicity may be influenced by the choice of remedial action and oil removal operations. 22 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  6. Photoenhanced toxicity of oil in spill response and impact assessment

    Photoenhanced toxicity is described as the increase in chemical toxicity to aquatic organisms that have also been exposed to light sources containing ultraviolet radiation (UV). When tested under natural sunlight or laboratory sources of UV, fresh and weathered crude oils and spill products exhibit phototoxicity. These same products do not exhibit phototoxicity under standard testing with fluorescent lighting. Spill water from the North Cape fuel oil spill and Alaska North Slope crude oil dispersed with the chemical agent Corexit 9527 exhibited phototoxicity when tested under UV light sources. The greatest potential hazard of photoenhanced toxicity is expected to be felt by embryo and larval stages of aquatic organisms inhabiting the photic zone of the water column and intertidal areas because they are relatively translucent to UV. The author suggested that assessment of oil spill impacts should take into consideration photoenhanced toxicity since it may have an impact on the estimates of spatial and temporal extent of injury to aquatic organisms. In addition, the degree of photoenhanced toxicity may be influenced by the choice of remedial action and oil removal operations. 22 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ESTATE PROVIDING WITH MANAGERIAL PROCESS

    J. Nouri, A. H. Mahvi, M. Younesian, R. Nabizadeh, I. Hashemi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available At this study, an environmental impact assessment establishment of Shahzand Industrial Estate in Arak at the central part of Iran was investigated. After collection of data and analysis of the findings, the positive and negative impacts resulted from establishment of the industrial estate were investigated, using the Leopold Matrix and Scaling checklist methods providing the managerial solutions in order to minimize the environmental harmful impacts. The existing environmental situation was investigated and then environmental impact alternatives were determined. This was done regarding to the amount and kind of predicted pollutions for industrial estate at the construction and operational phases. The environmental impact assessment of the investigated estate was studied at the three terms of immediate, direct and indirect impacts at the short, medium and long term. By expanding of Leopold Matrix to four parted matrix, in addition to amount, importance and extend of the impacts, the remaining duration of impact in the environment were assessed as a separate factor in environmental impact assessment. The results of the study with two alternatives, such as; No (performance of the project with no concern for environmental issue and as yes (performance of the project with application of the environmental harmful impacts were studied in construction and operation phases. The impact assessment of "NO" property resulted (-1065, therefore the execution of project was rejected, but after reducing the harmful impact performance which were resulted (+1095 has been accepted. Therefore, method of reducing harmful environmental impacts along with environmental management programs introduced and accepted in this study.

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Corrective Action Plan in response to Tiger Team assessment

    This report presents a complete response to the Tiger Team assessment that was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) from October 22, 1990, through November 30, 1990. The action plans have undergone both a discipline review and a cross-cutting review with respect to root cause. In addition, the action plans have been integrated with initiatives being pursued across Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in response to Tiger Team findings at other DOE facilities operated by Energy Systems. The root cause section is complete and describes how ORNL intends to address the root causes of the findings identified during the assessment. The action plan has benefited from a complete review by various offices at DOE Headquarters as well as review by the Tiger Team that conducted the assessment to ensure that the described actions are responsive to the observed problems

  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Corrective Action Plan in response to Tiger Team assessment

    Kuliasha, Michael A.

    1991-08-23

    This report presents a complete response to the Tiger Team assessment that was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) from October 22, 1990, through November 30, 1990. The action plans have undergone both a discipline review and a cross-cutting review with respect to root cause. In addition, the action plans have been integrated with initiatives being pursued across Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in response to Tiger Team findings at other DOE facilities operated by Energy Systems. The root cause section is complete and describes how ORNL intends to address the root causes of the findings identified during the assessment. The action plan has benefited from a complete review by various offices at DOE Headquarters as well as review by the Tiger Team that conducted the assessment to ensure that the described actions are responsive to the observed problems.

  10. Noise impact assessment of wind farms

    The noise impact assessment of a wind farm is dependent upon a number of factors pertinent to the site. The most controversial is the selection of a criterion which is acceptable to both the developer of a site, in terms of maximising the number of turbines he may operate without fear of injunction to stop, and the local residents and Environmental Health Officer who will have to enforce any agreements. A number of British Standards exist which cover noise issues. There are, however, certain reservations about their use when applied to potential wind farm developments; some of the more relevant standards are outlined. In addition, Draft Planning Guidance notes which have recently been issued are discussed. These are intended to provide an indication to local planning authorities as to what noise levels and criteria may be acceptable when considering noise emitted by wind farms. No European standard for noise emission from wind farms exists but the legislative position in Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany and Sweden is briefly considered. It is considered that when a maximum level criterion is set it should take into account the existing background noise levels based on measurements which are taken at the most sensitive dwellings to the site. A method for calculating emitted noise levels from turbine arrays is described. (UK)

  11. Assessing continued competency through simulation: A call for stringent action.

    Decker, Sharon; Utterback, Virginia Ann; Thomas, Mary Beth; Mitchell, Melinda; Sportsman, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes that simulation has potential as a method to validate critical and reflective thinking skills and continued competency of registered nurses. The authors recognize the challenges and benefits for using simulation in assessing competency. Furthermore, the authors stress that the potential use of simulation in competency testing cannot be achieved until educators and researchers acquire the specific knowledge and skills to make informed decisions and recommend policy. PMID:21667795

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Lakeview, Oregon: Volume 1, Text

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Lakeview uranium mill tailings site located one mile north of Lakeview, Oregon. The site covers 256 acres and contains 30 acres of tailings, 69 acres of evaporation ponds, and 25 acres of windblown materials. Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Three alternatives have been addressed in this document. The first alternative (the proposed action) is relocation of all contaminated materials to the Collins Ranch site. The contaminated materials would be consolidated into an embankment constructed partially below grade and covered with radon protection and erosion protection covers. A second alternative would relocate the tailings to the Flynn Ranch site and dispose of the contaminated materials in a slightly below grade embankment. A radon protection and erosion protection cover system would also be installed. The no-action alternative is also assessed. Stabilization in place is not considered due to potential seismic and geothermal hazards associated with the current tailings site, and the inability to meet EPA standards. 79 refs., 33 figs., 17 tabs

  13. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Lakeview, Oregon: Volume 2, Appendices

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Lakeview uranium mill tailings site located one mile north of Lakeview, Oregon. The site covers 256 acres and contains 30 acres of tailings, 69 acres of evaporation ponds, and 25 acres of windblown materials. Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Three alternatives have been addressed in this document. The first alternative (the proposed action) is relocation of all contaminated materials to the Collins Ranch site. The contaminated materials would be consolidated into an embankment constructed partially below grade and covered with radon protection and erosion protection covers. A second alternative would relocate the tailings to the Flynn Ranch site and dispose of the contaminated materials in a slightly below grade embankment. A radon protection and erosion protection cover system would also be installed. The no-action alternative is also assessed. Stabilization in place is not considered due to potential seismic and geothermal hazards associated with the current tailings site, and the inability to meet EPA standards. Volume 2 contains 11 appendices

  14. Methodology for the assessment of the impact of existing high voltage lines in urban areas

    This paper presents a methodology for the assessment of the impact of existing high voltage lines in urban areas. This methodology is based on the numeric evaluation of several impacts which are combined with weight factors. The novelty is that it opens up the possibility of citizen participation, basically in the way in which impacts and weighting factors are determined. The proposed methodology has been applied first in the municipality of Rubi, a mid-sized town near Barcelona, and later on in several municipalities in the Catalonia region in Spain. The results were used to prioritise mitigation action in the Catalonia Energy Plan.

  15. Action observation has a positive impact on rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke.

    Ertelt, Denis; Small, Steven; Solodkin, Ana; Dettmers, Christian; McNamara, Adam; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Evidence exists that the observation of actions activates the same cortical motor areas that are involved in the performance of the observed actions. The neural substrate for this is the mirror neuron system. We harness this neuronal system and its ability to re-enact stored motor representations as a means for rehabilitating motor control. We combined observation of daily actions with concomitant physical training of the observed actions in a new neurorehabilitative program (action observation therapy). Eight stroke patients with moderate, chronic motor deficit of the upper limb as a consequence of medial artery infarction participated. A significant improvement of motor functions in the course of a 4-week treatment, as compared to the stable pre-treatment baseline, and compared with a control group have been found. The improvement lasted for at least 8 weeks after the end of the intervention. Additionally, the effects of action observation therapy on the reorganization of the motor system were investigated by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using an independent sensorimotor task consisting of object manipulation. The direct comparison of neural activations between experimental and control groups after training with those elicited by the same task before training yielded a significant rise in activity in the bilateral ventral premotor cortex, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the contralateral supramarginal gyrus. Our results provide pieces of evidence that action observation has a positive additional impact on recovery of motor functions after stroke by reactivation of motor areas, which contain the action observation/action execution matching system. PMID:17499164

  16. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  17. Landscape Scenarios and Multifunctionality: Making Land Use Impact Assessment Operational

    Helming, K.; Perez-Soba, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ex ante impact assessment can help in structuring the analysis of human-environment interactions thereby supporting land use decision making for sustainable development. The contributions to this special feature focus on some of the challenges of making land use impact assessment operational for pol

  18. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries; Miljoekonsekvensbeskrivningar i Norden

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Palsson, S.E. [Geislavarnir rikisins (Iceland); Poroddsson, P. [Skipulagsstofnun (Iceland)

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  19. The future of human rights impact assessments of trade agreements

    Walker, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Future of Human Rights Impact Assessments of Trade Agreements develops a methodology for human rights impact assessments of trade agreements and considers whether there is any value in using the methodology on a sustained basis to ensure that the human dimensions of international trade are taken

  20. 75 FR 51468 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    2010-08-20

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office...'s Web site between October 1, 2009 and May 31, 2010. DATES: The Privacy Impact Assessments will be available on the DHS Web site until October 19, 2010, after which they may be obtained by contacting the...

  1. Environmental compliance assessment findings for Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Program

    This report presents the results of an environmental assessment conducted at Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) in St. Charles County, Missouri, in accordance with the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Environmental Compliance Assessment Checklists. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate the compliance of the site with applicable federal and Missouri environment regulations. Assessments activities included the following: review of site records, reports ,and files; inspection of the WSSRAP storage building, other selected buildings, and the adjacent grounds; and interviews with project personnel. This assessment was conducted on August 28-30, 1989. The assessment covered five management areas as set forth in the Checklist: Hazardous Waste Management, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Management; Air Emissions; Wastewater Discharges and Petroleum Management. No samples were collected. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Investigating the Impact of Possession-Way of a Smartphone on Action Recognition

    Zae Myung Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past few decades, action recognition has been attracting many researchers due to its wide use in a variety of applications. Especially with the increasing number of smartphone users, many studies have been conducted using sensors within a smartphone. However, a lot of these studies assume that the users carry the device in specific ways such as by hand, in a pocket, in a bag, etc. This paper investigates the impact of providing an action recognition system with the information of the possession-way of a smartphone, and vice versa. The experimental dataset consists of five possession-ways (hand, backpack, upper-pocket, lower-pocket, and shoulder-bag and two actions (walking and running gathered by seven users separately. Various machine learning models including recurrent neural network architectures are employed to explore the relationship between the action recognition and the possession-way recognition. The experimental results show that the assumption of possession-ways of smartphones do affect the performance of action recognition, and vice versa. The results also reveal that a good performance is achieved when both actions and possession-ways are recognized simultaneously.

  3. Investigating the Impact of Possession-Way of a Smartphone on Action Recognition.

    Kim, Zae Myung; Jeong, Young-Seob; Oh, Hyung Rai; Oh, Kyo-Joong; Lim, Chae-Gyun; Iraqi, Youssef; Choi, Ho-Jin

    2016-01-01

    For the past few decades, action recognition has been attracting many researchers due to its wide use in a variety of applications. Especially with the increasing number of smartphone users, many studies have been conducted using sensors within a smartphone. However, a lot of these studies assume that the users carry the device in specific ways such as by hand, in a pocket, in a bag, etc. This paper investigates the impact of providing an action recognition system with the information of the possession-way of a smartphone, and vice versa. The experimental dataset consists of five possession-ways (hand, backpack, upper-pocket, lower-pocket, and shoulder-bag) and two actions (walking and running) gathered by seven users separately. Various machine learning models including recurrent neural network architectures are employed to explore the relationship between the action recognition and the possession-way recognition. The experimental results show that the assumption of possession-ways of smartphones do affect the performance of action recognition, and vice versa. The results also reveal that a good performance is achieved when both actions and possession-ways are recognized simultaneously. PMID:27271623

  4. Investigating the Impact of Possession-Way of a Smartphone on Action Recognition †

    Kim, Zae Myung; Jeong, Young-Seob; Oh, Hyung Rai; Oh, Kyo-Joong; Lim, Chae-Gyun; Iraqi, Youssef; Choi, Ho-Jin

    2016-01-01

    For the past few decades, action recognition has been attracting many researchers due to its wide use in a variety of applications. Especially with the increasing number of smartphone users, many studies have been conducted using sensors within a smartphone. However, a lot of these studies assume that the users carry the device in specific ways such as by hand, in a pocket, in a bag, etc. This paper investigates the impact of providing an action recognition system with the information of the possession-way of a smartphone, and vice versa. The experimental dataset consists of five possession-ways (hand, backpack, upper-pocket, lower-pocket, and shoulder-bag) and two actions (walking and running) gathered by seven users separately. Various machine learning models including recurrent neural network architectures are employed to explore the relationship between the action recognition and the possession-way recognition. The experimental results show that the assumption of possession-ways of smartphones do affect the performance of action recognition, and vice versa. The results also reveal that a good performance is achieved when both actions and possession-ways are recognized simultaneously. PMID:27271623

  5. An environmental impact assessment system for agricultural R and D

    A strategic planning process has been implemented at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) to introduce sustainable agriculture concepts in all steps of Research and Development (R and D). An essential part of the devised mission statement called for the impact assessment of all technology innovation resulting from R and D, under field conditions (ex-post). However, methods for impact assessment of technology innovations at the farmstead level appropriate for the institutional context were lacking. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) system (AMBITEC-AGRO) developed to attend that demand is composed by a set of weighing matrices constructed in an electronic spreadsheet. Impact indicators are evaluated in the field in an interview/survey, and weighed according to their spatial scale and importance toward effecting environmental impacts. The results of these weighing procedures are expressed graphically in the assessment spreadsheets. Finally, the indicator evaluations are composed into an Environmental Impact Index for the agricultural technology innovation

  6. Climate Change in Environmental Impact Assessment of Renewable Energy Projects

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2012-01-01

    Many renewable energy projects are subject to EIA. However a question that surfaces is what use an impact assessment is when the project is ‘good for the environment’? One of the current topics receiving much attention in impact assessment is climate change and how this factor is integrated in...... impact assessments. This warrants the question: How do we assess the climate change related impacts of a project that inherently has a positive effect on climate? This paper is based on a document study of EIA reports from Denmark. The results show that climate change is included in most of the EIA...... reports reviewed, and that only climate change mitigation is in focus while adaptation is absent. Also the results point to focus on positive impacts, while the indirect negative impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  7. Assessing the social impacts of the biofuel lifecycle

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    . The indicators address a wide variety of issues; some approaches focus on impacts created in the very close proximity of the processes included in the product system, whereas others focus on the more remote societal consequences. The perception of social impacts is thus very varying. An assessment...... and maybe ownership of a company and thereby in some cases give a reasonable impression of the social impacts that can be expected from the company performing the assessed process. SLCA is in an early stage of development where consensus building seems premature. Nevertheless, some agreement regarding......In order to assess the social impacts of the biofuel lifecycle, Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) may be a promising tool. However, as this review study points out, several problems are still to be solved. SLCA can be defined as a tool for assessing a product’s or service’s total impact on human...

  8. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    Ahari Saeid; Habibzadeh Shahram; Yousefi Moharram; Amani Firouz; Abdi Reza

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR) was used. The study was carried out in a...

  9. Corrective Action Plan in response to the March 1992 Tiger Team Assessment of the Ames Laboratory

    On March 5, 1992, a Department of Energy (DOE) Tiger Team completed an assessment of the Ames Laboratory, located in Ames, Iowa. The purpose of the assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy with a report on the status and performance of Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) programs at Ames Laboratory. Detailed findings of the assessment are presented in the report, DOE/EH-0237, Tiger Team Assessment of the Ames Laboratory. This document, the Ames Laboratory Corrective Action Plan (ALCAP), presents corrective actions to overcome deficiencies cited in the Tiger Team Assessment. The Tiger Team identified 53 Environmental findings, from which the Team derived four key findings. In the Safety and Health (S ampersand H) area, 126 concerns were identified, eight of which were designated Category 11 (there were no Category I concerns). Seven key concerns were derived from the 126 concerns. The Management Subteam developed 19 findings which have been summarized in four key findings. The eight S ampersand H Category 11 concerns identified in the Tiger Team Assessment were given prompt management attention. Actions to address these deficiencies have been described in individual corrective action plans, which were submitted to DOE Headquarters on March 20, 1992. The ALCAP includes actions described in this early response, as well as a long term strategy and framework for correcting all remaining deficiencies. Accordingly, the ALCAP presents the organizational structure, management systems, and specific responses that are being developed to implement corrective actions and to resolve root causes identified in the Tiger Team Assessment. The Chicago Field Office (CH), IowaState University (ISU), the Institute for Physical Research and Technology (IPRT), and Ames Laboratory prepared the ALCAP with input from the DOE Headquarters, Office of Energy Research (ER)

  10. Promoting social responsibility for health: health impact assessment and healthy public policy at the community level.

    Mittelmark, M B

    2001-09-01

    The 1997 Jakarta Declaration on Health Promotion into the 21st Century called for new responses to address the emerging threats to health. The declaration placed a high priority on promoting social responsibility for health, and it identified equity-focused health impact assessment as a high priority for action. This theme was among the foci at the 2000 Fifth Global Conference on Health Promotion held in Mexico. This paper, which is an abbreviation of a technical report prepared for the Mexico conference, advances arguments for focusing on health impact assessment at the local level. Health impact assessment identifies negative health impacts that call for policy responses, and identifies and encourages practices and policies that promote health. Health impact assessment may be highly technical and require sophisticated technology and expertise. But it can also be a simple, highly practical process, accessible to ordinary people, and one that helps a community come to grips with local circumstances that need changing for better health. To illustrate the possibilities, this paper presents a case study, the People Assessing Their Health (PATH) project from Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It places ordinary citizens, rather than community elites, at the very heart of local decision-making. Evidence from PATH demonstrates that low technology health impact assessment, done by and for local people, can shift thinking beyond the illness problems of individuals. It can bring into consideration, instead, how programmes and policies support or weaken community health, and illuminate a community's capacity to improve local circumstances for better health. This stands in contrast to evidence that highly technological approaches to community-level health impact assessment can be self-defeating. Further development of simple, people-centred, low technology approaches to health impact assessment at the local level is called for. PMID:11509463

  11. The Lithuanian Government’s Policy of Regulatory Impact Assessment

    Jaroslav Dvorak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper critically evaluates the development of the impact assessment instrument in Lithuania’s public administration and suggests improvements to its impact assessment system. Research question: What interesting conceptual imperatives have appeared in Lithuania’s investigation of the impact of regulatory policy? Methodology: This research study uses positivist methodology to analyse the problems that researchers have identified in Lithuania’s impact assessment. This investigation explains why certain problems have appeared, what has changed and what system changes can be identified traced. The study proceeds as follows. First, the research on impact assessment carried out in Lithuania is analysed. Second, regulations on impact assessment in Lithuania are investigated. A substitute for non-existent integrated theory is emphased by the logical structure of the EU administrative system imperatives, principles, and norms, whose modifications have become the basis of impact assessment system design in Lithuania. The present research combines, integrates and consolidates the theoretical and practical information on impact assessment into an explanatory scheme, which could be developed into a model in the future. Information from two qualitative interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 was also used. Conclusions: The present research reveals that Lithuania’s regulatory impact assessment model is still being constructed and reconstructed towards evidence-based management. A model which revises the old impact stereotype has been designed, based on contemporary methodologies (cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses, consultations with the interested parties, a small but exhaustive legal initiatives impact assessment, and a centralised and institutional coordination of impact assessment. Practical consequences: The present research presents the issues which could be useful for the states that are starting to implement a

  12. Using a life-cycle perspective to assess potential social impacts of ICT services : a pre-study

    Moberg, Åsa; Picha, Malin; Erlandsson-Segerström, Birgitta; Karagianni, Catherine; Malmodin, Jens; Wiklund, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    Buying that new mobile phone may make your life easier, provide continuous access to the net and change your image, but what social impact will your action have on others? Different stakeholders along the life cycle of the mobile phone will be affected, in positive and negative ways. Who is responsible and how can we know the impact? Handling environmental impact with a life cycle perspective, for example using life cycle assessment (LCA), is today common practice. A similar technique for soc...

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Corrective Action Plan in response to Tiger Team assessment

    This report presents a complete response to the Tiger Team assessment that was conducted to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) from October 2, 1990, through November 30, 1990. The action plans have undergone both a discipline review and a cross-cutting review with respect to root cause. In addition, the action plans have been integrated with initiatives being pursued across Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in response to Tiger Team findings at other DOE facilities operated by Energy Systems. The root cause section is complete and describes how ORNL intends to address the root cause of the findings identified during the assessment. This report is concerned with reactors safety and health findings, responses, and planned actions. Specific areas include: organization and administration; quality verification; operations; maintenance; training and certification; auxiliary systems; emergency preparedness; technical support; nuclear criticality safety; security/safety interface; experimental activities; site/facility safety review; radiological protection; personnel protection; fire protection; management findings, responses, and planned actions; self-assessment findings, responses, and planned actions; and summary of planned actions, schedules, and costs

  14. Quantitative Assessment of Implicit Environmental Impacts of Construction Projects

    SHUAI Xiao-gen; LI Hui-qiang; TANG Li

    2009-01-01

    Assessment system of implicit environmental impacts was established including environmental impact indicator, resources consumption indicator and energy consumption indicator. The quantification of environmental impact indicators is based on the life cycle assessment system of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the evaluation software BEES. Normalization reference values and weights of 12 categories of environmental impacts were identified, and the environmental impact indicators in the phases of raw material extraction, transportation, manufacturing, use and end of life were analyzed. By analyzing the environmental performance of a university refectory as a case study, it is demonstrated that human health, global warming and acidification are the first three environmental impacts in 12 categories. The total implicit environmental impact load per square meter of this project is 18.448×10~(-2) standard human equivalent weight. Moreover, 97.3% of total environmental impacts occur in the phase of raw material extraction.

  15. Landscape Scenarios and Multifunctionality: Making Land Use Impact Assessment Operational

    Marta Pérez-Soba; Katharina Helming

    2011-01-01

    Ex ante impact assessment can help in structuring the analysis of human-environment interactions thereby supporting land use decision making for sustainable development. The contributions to this special feature focus on some of the challenges of making land use impact assessment operational for policy making. A total of nine papers deal with the needs and uses of assessment tools for policy making at the European level, with the value-based influence in scenario development, and with ex ante...

  16. Assessment of impact due to entrainment of ichthyoplankton

    Three approaches to the assessment of impact associated with the entrainment of ichthyoplankton into power stations are discussed. The first is the estimation of the probability of mortality for those organisms entrained. The second is the assessment to the fish populations which have the egg and larvae life stages entrained. The third approach is the assessment of impact to the community or ecosystem. Some models are presented as examples for each of the three approaches. (U.S.)

  17. Impacts assessment for the National Ignition Facility

    Bay Area Economics

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the economic and other impacts that will be created by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction and ongoing operation, as well as the impacts that may be created by new technologies that may be developed as a result of NIF development and operation.

  18. Assessing Our Work on Impact Evaluation

    Goldstein, Markus; Skoufias, Emmanuel; Fiszbein, Ariel

    2008-01-01

    Over the last several years, the World Bank has increasingly engaged in impact evaluations as means of building evidence for results. During this process, the Bank has also produced an extensive variety of knowledge products. However, there are several institutional and resource issues that constrain the effectiveness of our impact evaluation work. This brief outlines recent gains in the B...

  19. Scoping session of the programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    This document is about the scoping session which was held at the Community Center in Falls City, Texas. The purpose was to obtain public comment on the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA), specifically on the ground water project. Presentations made by the manager for the entire UMTRA program, manager of the site and ground water program, comments made by two residents of Fall City are included in this document

  20. Preliminary environmental impact assessment for the final disposal of vanadium hazardous wastes

    The aim of the present paper is the environmental impact assessment for the final management of vanadium wastes. The assessed practice is proposed as a final solution for a real problem in Cuba, related with the combustion fossil fuel burn in the electric generation. The study case, embrace the interim storage of hazardous wastes with high vanadium contents (5.08 T) and other heavy metals traces (Cr, Zn). According to the Cuban conditions (tacking into account the environmental regulations and infrastructure lack for the hazardous wastes disposal), it was decided the terrestrial dilution as a final disposal way. The environmental impact assessment methodology used, take into account, in the analyzed management practice, the actions, factors and environmental impacts. The positives and more relevant impacts were obtained for the socioeconomic means. The negative and irrelevant impacts were associated to the biotic and abiotic means. Socioeconomic factors were the most affected and the biotic and abiotic factors were less affected. The waste handling was the most relevant environmental action. According to the evaluated conditions, the obtained results showed that is feasible the terrestrial dilution as a sustainability way for the final disposal of vanadium hazardous wastes

  1. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown

  2. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

    Martin, M.A.

    2000-01-26

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

  3. Assessing Development Impacts Associated with Low Emission Development Strategies: Lessons Learned from Pilot Efforts in Kenya and Montenegro

    Cox, S.; Katz, J.; Wurtenberger, L.

    2014-01-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate economy-wide policies and implementation plans designed to enable a country to meet its long-term development objectives while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A development impact assessment tool was developed to inform an analytically robust and transparent prioritization of LEDS actions based on their economic, social, and environmental impacts. The graphical tool helps policymakers communicate the development impacts of LEDS options and identify actions that help meet both emissions reduction and development goals. This paper summarizes the adaptation and piloting of the tool in Kenya and Montenegro. The paper highlights strengths of the tool and discusses key needs for improving it.

  4. LCA of contaminated site remediation - integration of site-specific impact assessment of local toxic impacts

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia;

    2011-01-01

    -generic assessments poorly reflect the fate of frequent soil contaminants such as chloroethenes as they exclude the groundwater compartment and assume that the main part escapes to the atmosphere. Another important limitation of the generic impact assessment models is that they do not include the formation of......The environmental impacts from remediation can be divided into primary and secondary impacts. Primary impacts cover the local impacts associated with the on-site contamination, whereas the secondary impacts are impacts on the local, regional and global scale generated by the remediation activities...... impacts have typically been assessed using site-generic characterization models representing a continental scale and excluding the groundwater compartment. Soil contaminants have therefore generally been assigned as emissions to surface soil or surface water compartments. However, such site...

  5. Putting social impact assessment to the test as a method for implementing responsible tourism practice

    McCombes, Lucy, E-mail: l.mccombes@leedsbeckett.ac.uk [International Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality (ICRETH), Leeds Beckett University, Headingley Campus, Macaulay Hall 103, Leeds LS6 3QS (United Kingdom); Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl [Professor of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands); Evers, Yvette, E-mail: y.evers@tft-earth.org [The Forest Trust, Chemin de Chantavril 2, 1260 Nyon (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    The discourse on the social impacts of tourism needs to shift from the current descriptive critique of tourism to considering what can be done in actual practice to embed the management of tourism's social impacts into the existing planning, product development and operational processes of tourism businesses. A pragmatic approach for designing research methodologies, social management systems and initial actions, which is shaped by the real world operational constraints and existing systems used in the tourism industry, is needed. Our pilot study with a small Bulgarian travel company put social impact assessment (SIA) to the test to see if it could provide this desired approach and assist in implementing responsible tourism development practice, especially in small tourism businesses. Our findings showed that our adapted SIA method has value as a practical method for embedding a responsible tourism approach. While there were some challenges, SIA proved to be effective in assisting the staff of our test case tourism business to better understand their social impacts on their local communities and to identify actions to take. - Highlights: • Pragmatic approach is needed for the responsible management of social impacts of tourism. • Our adapted Social impact Assessment (SIA) method has value as a practical method. • SIA can be embedded into tourism businesses existing ‘ways of doing things’. • We identified challenges and ways to improve our method to better suit small tourism business context.

  6. Putting social impact assessment to the test as a method for implementing responsible tourism practice

    The discourse on the social impacts of tourism needs to shift from the current descriptive critique of tourism to considering what can be done in actual practice to embed the management of tourism's social impacts into the existing planning, product development and operational processes of tourism businesses. A pragmatic approach for designing research methodologies, social management systems and initial actions, which is shaped by the real world operational constraints and existing systems used in the tourism industry, is needed. Our pilot study with a small Bulgarian travel company put social impact assessment (SIA) to the test to see if it could provide this desired approach and assist in implementing responsible tourism development practice, especially in small tourism businesses. Our findings showed that our adapted SIA method has value as a practical method for embedding a responsible tourism approach. While there were some challenges, SIA proved to be effective in assisting the staff of our test case tourism business to better understand their social impacts on their local communities and to identify actions to take. - Highlights: • Pragmatic approach is needed for the responsible management of social impacts of tourism. • Our adapted Social impact Assessment (SIA) method has value as a practical method. • SIA can be embedded into tourism businesses existing ‘ways of doing things’. • We identified challenges and ways to improve our method to better suit small tourism business context

  7. Compensatory mitigation and screening rules in environmental impact assessment

    Concerns about the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) have prompted proposals to improve its performance by limiting the discretion of decision-makers in screening. To investigate whether such proposals are likely to generate the desired results, we conducted an evaluation of the screening process under the Australian government's EIA regime from its introduction on 16 July 2000 to 30 June 2013 (study period). Almost 1 in 5 ‘particular manner’ decisions—a type of screening decision under the regime—were found to be unlawful. The extent of non-compliance is explained on the basis of convenience. The department was required to assess a large number of projects under tight timeframes and with limited resources, while being pressured by proponents to allow their projects to bypass EIA. These pressures resulted in the development of an informal custom whereby the formal compensatory mitigation restrictions were frequently ignored. The results highlight the relative significance of formal and informal institutions in EIA. Formal EIA rules typically provide a mere outline of the process. The informal institutions adopted by administrators often have a greater influence on how the process operates and what it achieves. - Highlights: • Concerns about the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) have prompted proposals to improve its performance by limiting the discretion of decision-makers in screening. • To investigate whether such proposals are likely to generate the desired results, we conducted an evaluation of the Australian government's screening process, looking at the extent of compliance with a formal prohibition on the consideration of compensatory mitigation. • Almost 1 in 5 ‘particular manner’ decisions – a type of screening decision under the regime – were found to be unlawful (with a 95% confidence interval of between 1:4 and 1:7) because of a failure to abide by the compensatory mitigation

  8. Assessment of Containment Structures Against Missile Impact Threats

    LI Q M

    2006-01-01

    In order to ensure the highest safety requirements,nuclear power plant structures (the containment structures,the fuel storages and transportation systems) should be assessed against all possible internal and external impact threats.The internal impact threats include kinetic missiles generated by the failure of high pressure vessels and pipes,the failure of high speed rotating machineries and accidental drops.The external impact threats may come from airborne missiles,aircraft impact,explosion blast and fragments.The impact effects of these threats on concrete and steel structures in a nuclear power plant are discussed.Methods and procedures for the impact assessment of nuclear power plants are introduced.Recent studies on penetration and perforation mechanics as well as progresses on dynamic properties of concrete-like materials are presented to increase the understanding of the impact effects on concrete containment structures.

  9. The environmental impact assessment of uranium mining in Australia

    Federal environmental impact assessment legislation has existed in Australia since 1974. A number of uranium mines have been developed in this time, utilizing a range of mining techniques, including opencut, underground and in-situ leach. Projects have also been undertaken in a variety of geographical areas requiring consideration of diverse biodiversity, cultural heritage and social impact issues. Assessment of uranium mining proposals in Australia is also conducted in a climate of political opposition from a cross section of the Australian community. This paper outlines some of the key issues that arose during recent assessments and which provide a lead to the role of environmental impact assessment in environmental policy development. Issues are also relevant to recent assessments on a replacement nuclear reactor, shipments of waste for reprocessing and proposed assessments on proposals for low and intermediate level nuclear waste facilities. (author)

  10. Contents of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in the safety evaluation of a repository for spent fuels

    of disposal system performance without any disruptive future human actions. These calculations should include the effects of any recent and ongoing human activities that might affect the performance of the disposal system. Additional calculations should illustrate the potential effects of disruptive human actions. Assessments of future human actions should be based on present-day conditions in the region of the disposal site and similar sites. Site-specific definitions of the region considered and the period examined for defining rates and frequencies should be provided by the proponent. Assessments should consider the long-term effects of disruption through the formation of new pathways and the dispersal of radioactive material in the biosphere. The proponent should develop and justify the scenarios analysed in an assessment. In addition to developing guidance for the proponent on the scope and conduct of assessments, the regulator could undertake illustrative assessments in order to assure themselves that they understand the impacts of the proposed strategy. Work on both guidance and independent assessments could be support by the development of an international reference human action approach

  11. Social impact assessment and management methodology using social indicators and planning strategies

    Olsen, M. E.; Curry, M. G.; Greene, M. R.; Melber, B. D.; Merwin, D. J.

    1978-08-01

    The scope of environmental impact statements prepared during the past few years has steadily expanded to incorporate all aspects of the social as well as the natural environment, including demographic, economic, social, political, and cultural conditions. Broadly conceived, social impacts are alterations in people's living conditions that occur in conjunction with a new policy, program, or project, and that (1) are in addition to all other concurrent changes produced by other factors, and (2) are seen by those affected as significant social events. Since any social environment is constantly changing, the crucial problems in analyzing social impacts are to identify those social alterations that are a direct or indirect result of the specific action under examination, apart from all other events and changes, and to determine which of these alterations are having significant social effects on the people involved. Three features of this conception of social impacts are especially noteworthy. First, although impacts are often thought of as undesirable or detrimental in nature, they may also be desirable or beneficial. Second, although impacts are often described as caused by prior intervening innovations, in reality they always interact with their original causes in a reciprocal process, either immediately or after some time lag. Third, the purpose of social impact assessment is to enable policy makers to anticipate and plan for potential impacts before they occur, and then act to prevent or mitigate undesired impacts. A new methodology for performing social impact assessment and management studies that meet current needs by emphasizing standardized social indicators and social planning techniques is proposed. We refer to our approach as the Social Impact and Planning (SIP) method of social impact assessment. (ERB)

  12. Social impact assessment and management methodology using social indicators and planning strategies

    The scope of environmental impact statements prepared during the past few years has steadily expanded to incorporate all aspects of the social as well as the natural environment, including demographic, economic, social, political, and cultural conditions. Broadly conceived, social impacts are alterations in people's living conditions that occur in conjunction with a new policy, program, or project, and that (1) are in addition to all other concurrent changes produced by other factors, and (2) are seen by those affected as significant social events. Since any social environment is constantly changing, the crucial problems in analyzing social impacts are to identify those social alterations that are a direct or indirect result of the specific action under examination, apart from all other events and changes, and to determine which of these alterations are having significant social effects on the people involved. Three features of this conception of social impacts are especially noteworthy. First, although impacts are often thought of as undesirable or detrimental in nature, they may also be desirable or beneficial. Second, although impacts are often described as caused by prior intervening innovations, in reality they always interact with their original causes in a reciprocal process, either immediately or after some time lag. Third, the purpose of social impact assessment is to enable policy makers to anticipate and plan for potential impacts before they occur, and then act to prevent or mitigate undesired impacts. A new methodology for performing social impact assessment and management studies that meet current needs by emphasizing standardized social indicators and social planning techniques is proposed. We refer to our approach as the Social Impact and Planning (SIP) method of social impact assessment

  13. Strengthening non-state climate action: a progress assessment of commitments launched at the 2014 UN Climate Summit

    Chan, Sander; Falkner, Robert; van Asselt, Harro; Goldberg, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This report provides the first progress assessment of climate actions launched at the 2014 UN Climate Summit in New York. It considers the distribution and performance of climate actions along multiple dimensions that are relevant to both mitigation and adaptation. While it is too early for a conclusive assessment of the effectiveness of climate actions, this study makes a first and indispensable step toward such an assessment. Initial findings are encouraging. One year after their launch, mo...

  14. Assessing social impacts in urban waterfront regeneration

    The target of this article is to identify the social impacts of urban waterfront regeneration. For this purpose, four different dimensions of social impacts in urban waterfront planning are presented: resources and identity, social status, access and activities and waterfront experience. The four social dimensions refer to the different ways of experiencing and using the edges of the sea, lake or river to make an understanding of their qualities to the community. The contents of this typology are illustrated by analysing some basic features of three different newly built waterfront areas in Helsinki. The article is based on post-evaluation

  15. Impact Assessment and Project Development: An Overview

    Alburo, Florian; Koppel, Bruce

    1984-01-01

    This paper provides a background for the reports produced on a nine-month training and application program designed to encourage the institutionalization of broad-scoped project impact evaluation skills and strategies. The training has been through the initiative of the micro component of the Economic and Social Impact Analysis/Women in Development (ESIA/WID) and the Food Systems Program of the East-West Center Resource Systems Institute (RSI). It reviews the micro component of the ESIA/WID t...

  16. Assessing the impact of offline URL advertising

    M. GEUENS; D. VANTOMME; G. GOESSAERT; B. WEIJTERS

    2003-01-01

    To examine the impact of offline URL advertising, a quantitative study among internet users and non-users is carried out. For internet users, the results reveal a significant impact on each level of the hierarchy of effects. Respondents remembering an offline URL ad are more aware and have a higher knowledge of the site, show a more positive attitude towards the site, and indicate a higher intention to visit/revisit the site. Remarkably, offline URL advertising not only is able to attract int...

  17. Evaluation of impacts and mitigation assessments for the UMTRA Project: Gunnison and Durango pilot studies. Final report

    This report evaluates the impacts assessment and proposed mitigations provided in environmental documents concerning the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The projected impacts and proposed mitigations identified in UMTRA Project environmental documents were evaluated for two UMTRA Project sites. These sites are Gunnison and Durango, which are representative of currently active and inactive UMTRA Project sites, respectively. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation was prepared for the remedial action at Durango and Gunnison as well as for the provision of an alternate water supply system at Gunnison. Additionally, environmental analysis was completed for mill site demolition Gunnison, and for a new road related to the Durango remedial action. The results in this report pertain only to the impact assessments prepared by the Regulatory Compliance staff as a part of the NEPA compliance requirements. Similarly, the mitigative measures documented are those that were identified during the NEPA process

  18. Pricing commodity outpatient procedures assessing the impact.

    Cleverley, William O

    2015-10-01

    Hospitals should carefully consider all relevant factors before choosing to lower prices and payments for certain outpatient commodity services in an effort to remain competitive in their market. Key steps to take in the evaluation process include: Determining current profitability. Assessing profitability by payer class. Understanding overall cost positions. Assessing the relative payment terms of current commercial contracts. Determining the net revenue effect of proposed changes. PMID:26595979

  19. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Widening Trench 36 of the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    N/A

    1999-02-11

    This environmental assessment was prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action to widen and operate unused Trench 36 in the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground for disposal of low-level waste. Information contained herein will be used by the Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1508.27. This environmental assessment was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act of1969'', as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for ''National Environmental Polio Act'' (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021). The following is a description of each section of this environmental assessment. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This section provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S, Department of Energy is addressing with the Proposed Action. Background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. This section provides a description of the Proposed Action with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. This section describes reasonable,alternative actions to the Proposed Action, which addresses the Purpose and Need. A No Action Alternative

  20. Using Action Research to Assess and Advocate for Innovative School Library Design

    Harper, Meghan; Deskins,Liz

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative project designed to use action research to assess and advocate for innovative design changes in a school library. The high school library was in its fifth year of service, and yet the layout of the library was not meeting the learning and technological needs of 21st-century high school students. The purpose…

  1. Assessing environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2005-01-01

    material flows in the life cycle of a product are translated into environmental impacts and consumption of resources, and questions like these are given an answer. The environmental impacts may range from very local (e.g. land use) to global (like climate change). As an environmental analysis tool, LCA is...... product system sets the frame for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and the bearings it has on current LCIA methodology are described in this paper together with the newest developments within this discipline.......What are the environmental impacts from an armchairor a cellular phone or a steak, if you take into account all the activities needed to produce, maintain, use or consume and eventually dispose of it? Life cycle impact assessment is the part of life cycle assessment (LCA) where the inventory of...

  2. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT OF SOCIAL FACTORS ON AGRIBUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    Rezvyakov, A.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes methodical approaches to an impact assessment of social factors on development of the agribusiness as a subsidiary tool applied in development and adjustment of social and economic programs and plans for the rural territories.

  3. Developments in Impact Assessment in North America

    Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

  4. In Brief: Impacts of wind energy assessed

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    By 2020, greater use of wind energy could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. energy sector by about 4.5%. However, greater effort is needed to address potentially negative impacts of this growing energy source, according to a new report from a committee of the U.S. National Research Council. Potential impacts of wind energy projects include deaths of birds and bats, reduced value of property located near a turbine, and habitat loss and fragmentation. However, because these are generally local projects, there is little information available to determine the cumulative effects of wind turbines over a whole region. The report makes several recommendations on how to improve regulation at the local, state, and federal levels. The report also sets out a guide for evaluating wind-energy projects, which includes questions about potential environmental, economic, cultural, and aesthetic impacts. The report, ``Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects,'' is available at http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11935

  5. EU Territorial Impact Assessment: Under What Conditions?

    Zonneveld, W.; Waterhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    Since the start of the making of the ESDP, back in 1989, there has been interest in a ‘Territorial impact assessment’. This interest has been revamped now that the Territorial Cohesion green paper is out. Yet, at the EU level there is still little guidance on how a TIA might be done and on what it a

  6. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - MIDPOINTS VS. ENDPOINTS

    The question of whether to use midpoints or endpoints or both in an LCIA framework is often dependent upon the goal and scope and the decision that is being supported by the LCIA. LCIAs for Enlightenment may not require an aggregation of impact categories and may be most useful ...

  7. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium Processing Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 4

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contain measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect groundwater quality. Remedial action at the Naturita site must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Colorado. The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to either the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast, or a licensed non-DOE disposal facility capable of handling RRM. At either disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed Dry Flats disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This report discusses environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action.

  8. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium Processing Site near Naturita, Colorado

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contain measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect groundwater quality. Remedial action at the Naturita site must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Colorado. The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to either the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast, or a licensed non-DOE disposal facility capable of handling RRM. At either disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed Dry Flats disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action would be conducted by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This report discusses environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action

  9. High-Impact Actions for Individuals to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Nicholas, K. A.; Wynes, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is the result of greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, which records the aggregation of billions of individual decisions. While systemic and structural changes receive great attention for addressing climate change, the contribution that individual citizens can make is often overlooked, especially in developed countries where per-capita emissions are highest. Here we consider a broad range of individual lifestyle choices and calculate their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We find that four widely applicable high-impact actions have the potential to reduce personal emissions by more than 1 tonne CO2-equivalent per year: having one fewer child (59.2 tonnes of reductions), living car-free (2.3 tonnes), avoiding airplane travel (1.5 tonnes per flight) and eating a plant-based diet (0.82 tonnes). These actions have much greater potential to reduce emissions than commonly promoted strategies like recycling (4 times less effective than a plant-based diet) or changing lightbulbs (8 times). However, high school textbooks from Canada and government resources from the EU, USA, Canada, and Australia largely fail to mention these actions, instead focusing on incremental changes with much smaller potential impact. We conclude that climate policy should focus not only on national and international targets, but also on encouraging responsible behaviour, especially for adolescents who will grow up in the era of climate change and are poised to establish a lifelong pattern of sustainable lifestyle choices.

  10. Life cycle assessment Part 2 : Current impact assessment practice

    Pennington, DW; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-01-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse,

  11. Assessment of MEGA BORG impacts on sea turtles

    Studies were conducted to assess the impacts of the MEGA BORG oil spill on sea turtles in the path of the oil plume. Aerial surveys were performed to determine the presence of turtles and provide a gross visual assessment of potential impacts. Although extensive efforts were made to capture sea turtles around oil and gas platforms only one loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, was captured. Neither external visual inspection nor laboratory fecal analysis showed evidence of petroleum contamination

  12. A Study on Public Participation in Environmental Impact Assessments

    WangJing

    2005-01-01

    China's legislature on the environmental impact assessments contains related provisions on public participation as an important element of institutions in this field. So far, however, the stipulation remains at the level of a plain statement of principle both substantially and procedurally. The newly enacted Law on the Assessment of the Environment Impact has seen great progress in provisions for public participation if compared with similar statutes enacted in the past legislation. However, there is a gap in the procedures,

  13. Ecological impact assessment tools for fluvial flooding and coastal inundation

    Old, Gareth; Acreman, Michael; Laize, Cedric; Nottage, Albert; Overton, Ian; Mountford, Owen; Packman, John; Walton, Sam; Cowx, Ian; Thorne, Colin; Thompson, Julian; Newman, Jonathan; Ramsbottom, David; Gouldby, Ben; LUMBROSO, Darren

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the scientific basis and development of the Ecological Impact Assessment (EIA) tools for fluvial flooding (EIA F tool) and coastal inundation (EIA C tool). These tools have been developed within the Ecological Consequences of Flooding (ECF) project and may be used to support an environmental risk assessment. When developing plans to manage flood risk, economic, social and environmental impacts are considered. There are many tools that help to estimate the economic ...

  14. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research. PMID:24391285

  15. The Positive Impact of Personal Goal Setting on Assessment

    Smithson, Marla

    2012-01-01

    This action research is a quantitative study of personal goal setting and how it affects the academic performance of third grade students on weekly Math, Reading, and Language Arts assessments in a proactive effort to increase individual performance on standardized tests. The students' weekly performance was indicative of their expected…

  16. Chinese life cycle impact assessment factors

    Yang, Jianxin; Nielsen, Per Henning

    2001-01-01

    The methodological basis and procedures for determination of Chinese normalization references and weighting factors according to the EDIP-method is described. According to Chinese industrial development intensity and population density, China was divided into three regions and the normalization...... references for each region were calculated on the basis of an inventory of all of the region's environmental emissions in 1990. The normalization reference was determined as the total environmental impact potential for the area in question in 1990(EP(j)(90)) divided by the population. The weighting factor...... was determined as the normalization reference (ER ( j)90) divided by society's target contribution in the year 2000 abased on Chinese political reduction plans, ER ( j)(T2000). This paper presents and discuss results obtained for eight different environmental impact categories relevant for China...

  17. Companies' strategies to decrease environmental impacts: the French example of the environmental impacts assessments law implementation

    Borderon, Séverine; Sanseverino-Godfrin, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    Companies' impacts on biodiversity can provoke irreversible damage. Biodiversity is drastically decreasing, and alarming preoccupations related to climate change arise. It is important to take conscience that humans' activities play an important part on such a result. In order to help companies to limit their impact on biodiversity, the law has developed tools such as environmental impact assessments. It aims at responsibilising firms by improving their knowledge on their environmental impact...

  18. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Global Hydropower

    Aanund Killingtveit; Byman Hamududu

    2012-01-01

    Currently, hydropower accounts for close to 16% of the world’s total power supply and is the world’s most dominant (86%) source of renewable electrical energy. The key resource for hydropower generation is runoff, which is dependent on precipitation. The future global climate is uncertain and thus poses some risk for the hydropower generation sector. The crucial question and challenge then is what will be the impact of climate change on global hydropower generation and what are the resulting ...

  19. Impact of probability risk assessment on containment

    The structural reliability analysis of containments as contributing factors to risk analyses of nuclear power plants is presented. In this context porbabilistic models for the occurrence and effects of potential internal loading conditions (i.e. LOCA) as well as external loads (i.e. earthquake and aircraft impact) have been developed and utilized within a reliability concept. The analysis is exemplified by application to a spherical containment structure located in an area of low seismicity. (orig.)

  20. Methodology of impact assessment of research projects

    In the context of the management of research projects development it is necessary to have tools to monitor and evaluate progress and the performance of the projects, as well as their results and the impact on society (international agencies of the United Nations and the States 2002 and 2005 Paris Declaration), with the objective of to ensure their contribution to the social and economic development of countries. Many organizations, agencies and Governments apply different methodologies (IDB, World Bank, UNDP, ECLAC, UNESCO; UNICEF, Canada, Japan, other) for these purposes. In the results-based project management system not only paramount is the process or product itself, but also the result or impact of the project (if the program/project produced the effects desired persons, households and institutions and whether those effects are attributable to the intervention of the program / project). The work shows a methodology that allows for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of impact of research projects and has been result of experience in project management of international collaboration with the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) and the Cuban Nuclear programme. (author)

  1. THE DEINKING OF NON-IMPACT PRINTED PAPER BY COMBINING ENZYME WITH MECHANICAL ACTION

    Gaosheng Wang; Laisu Xie; Yanquan Long

    2004-01-01

    We studied an enzymatic deinking process of non-impact printed paper which was carried out in batch equipment, similar to Valley beater. The equipment can provide suitable forces to cause toner separation from fiber rather than fiber damage. The factors that influenced the deinking efficiency included beating time, pressure between rotating bars and bottom bars, enzyme properties such as dosage,cellulase activity, temperature, pH, etc. Beating time and enzyme type and enzyme dosage was investigated in detail. The deinked pulp was brighter and cleaner. The drainage property also can be controlled by adjusting enzyme dosage and mechanical action strength. Combining enzyme with mechanical action provides the best deinking effects,not enzyme alone. In the meantime, mechanism of enzymatic deinking was discussed depending on the deinked pulp properties.

  2. THE DEINKING OF NON-IMPACT PRINTED PAPER BY COMBINING ENZYME WITH MECHANICAL ACTION

    GaoshengWang; LaisuXie; YanquanLong

    2004-01-01

    We studied an enzymatic deinking process of non-impact printed paper which was carried out in batch equipment, similar to Valley beater. The equipment can provide suitable forces to cause toner separation from fiber rather than fiber damage. The factors that influenced the deinking efficiency included beating time, pressure between rotating bars and bottom bars, enzyme properties such as dosage, cellulase activity, temperature, pH, etc. Beating time and enzyme type and enzyme dosage was investigated in detail. The deinked pulp was brighter and cleaner. The drainage property also can be controlled by adjusting enzyme dosage and mechanical action strength. Combining enzyme with mechanical action provides the best deinking effects, not enzyme alone. In the meantime, mechanism of enzymatic deinking was discussed depending on the deinked pulp properties.

  3. Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Evaluation of selected feasibility studies of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) hazardous waste sites

    Whelan, G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Hartz, K.E.; Hilliard, N.D. (Beck (R.W.) and Associates, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Congress and the public have mandated much closer scrutiny of the management of chemically hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes. Legislative language, regulatory intent, and prudent technical judgment, call for using scientifically based studies to assess current conditions and to evaluate and select costeffective strategies for mitigating unacceptable situations. The NCP requires that a Remedial Investigation (RI) and a Feasibility Study (FS) be conducted at each site targeted for remedial response action. The goal of the RI is to obtain the site data needed so that the potential impacts on public health or welfare or on the environment can be evaluated and so that the remedial alternatives can be identified and selected. The goal of the FS is to identify and evaluate alternative remedial actions (including a no-action alternative) in terms of their cost, effectiveness, and engineering feasibility. The NCP also requires the analysis of impacts on public health and welfare and on the environment; this analysis is the endangerment assessment (EA). In summary, the RI, EA, and FS processes require assessment of the contamination at a site, of the potential impacts in public health or the environment from that contamination, and of alternative RAs that could address potential impacts to the environment. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Pharmacological assessment of the onset of action of aclidinium and glycopyrronium versus tiotropium in COPD patients and human isolated bronchi.

    Rogliani, Paola; Calzetta, Luigino; Ora, Josuel; Lipsi, Roberto; Segreti, Andrea; Matera, Maria Gabriella; Cazzola, Mario

    2015-08-15

    Preclinical studies suggested that aclidinium and glycopyrronium might have a faster onset of action than tiotropium. In this study we assessed the onset of action of aclidinium and glycopyrronium versus tiotropium, all administered at the approved clinical doses, in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in human isolated bronchi by using different concentrations. Sixteen COPD patients inhaled single doses of aclidinium 400µg, glycopyrronium 50μg and tiotropium 18µg and FEV1 was measured to assess their onset of action. In human isolated bronchi the time to evoke half maximal relaxation of transmural stimulation was tested from 10nM to 1µM for each drug. Nine, eight and twelve patients did not achieve 15% increase of FEV1 after inhalation of aclidinium, glycopyrronium and tiotropium, respectively. Aclidinium (15.6±7.5min) and glycopyrronium (17.9±10.4min) enhanced 15% FEV1 more rapidly than tiotropium (42.5±19.4min), with no significant difference (P>0.05). In isolated airways, glycopyrronium elicited a dose-dependent onset of action (10nM: 8.2±1.3min, 100nM: 7.1±2.1min, 1μM: 3.4±0.4min) that was faster compared to that induced by aclidinium (1μM: 6.4±0.5min) and tiotropium (1μM: 8.4±1.1min) (Pglycopyrronium was faster than that induced by tiotropium, but since our analysis was restricted to the acute effect of these LAMAs and the inhaled doses were not isoeffective, the real differences in their impact on the onset of bronchodilation will be definitely determined after a long-term challenge of these treatments at isoeffective doses in COPD patients. PMID:25952728

  5. Taking a closer look at the managed care class actions: impact litigation as an assist to the market.

    Cerminara, Kathy L

    2002-01-01

    Professor Cerminara examines the use of class action lawsuits to empower individuals to challenge health care decision-making. The article begins by noting the benefits of class actions which provide strength in numbers and a far-ranging impact by challenging policy decisions and encouraging corporate responsiveness. Professor Cerminara concludes that class actions are but one step in the process of empowering individuals and decreasing their resentment of the lack of process currently within the health care system. PMID:12430380

  6. Climate Change Impact Assessments for International Market Systems (CLIMARK)

    Winkler, J. A.; Andresen, J.; Black, J.; Bujdoso, G.; Chmielewski, F.; Kirschke, D.; Kurlus, R.; Liszewska, M.; Loveridge, S.; Niedzwiedz, T.; Nizalov, D.; Rothwell, N.; Tan, P.; Ustrnul, Z.; von Witzke, H.; Zavalloni, C.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, S.

    2012-12-01

    The vast majority of climate change impact assessments evaluate how local or regional systems and processes may be affected by a future climate. Alternative strategies that extend beyond the local or regional scale are needed when assessing the potential impacts of climate change on international market systems, including agricultural commodities. These industries have multiple production regions that are distributed worldwide and are likely to be differentially impacted by climate change. Furthermore, for many industries and market systems, especially those with long-term climate-dependent investments, temporal dynamics need to be incorporated into the assessment process, including changing patterns of international trade, consumption and production, and evolving adaptation strategies by industry stakeholder groups. A framework for conducting climate change assessments for international market systems, developed as part of the CLIMARK (Climate Change and International Markets) project is outlined, and progress toward applying the framework for an impact assessment for the international tart cherry industry is described. The tart cherry industry was selected for analysis in part because tart cherries are a perennial crop requiring long-term investments by the producer. Components of the project include the preparation of fine resolution climate scenarios, evaluation of phenological models for diverse production regions, the development of a yield model for tart cherry production, new methods for incorporating individual decision making and adaptation options into impact assessments, and modification of international trade models for use in impact studies. Innovative aspects of the project include linkages between model components and evaluation of the mega-uncertainty surrounding the assessment outcomes. Incorporation of spatial and temporal dynamics provides a more comprehensive evaluation of climate change impacts and an assessment product of potentially greater

  7. Environmental impact assessment in practice: A gender critique

    The author evaluates the extent to which environmental impact assessment (EIA) as conceptualized by EIA systems is a gendered process. Through a discourse analysis of in-depth interviews with bureaucrats, technocrats, and activists involved with the Sardar Sarovar dam project in India, the author examines the practice of EIA in a Third World country. She uses a theoretical framework, informed by a theory of gender, to evaluate the interviews. In practice, EIA is marked by gender biases that ignore the gender-specific nature of impacts. Such biases distort the impact assessment process, making environmental sustainability difficult, if not impossible, to achieve

  8. Value/impact assessment of jet impingement loads and pipe-to-pipe impact damage

    To account for effects that might result from a loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA), nuclear power plant designers have been required to analyze the effects of double-ended guillotine breaks (DEGB) in high-energy piping. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), through its Standard Review Plan (SRP), requires that plant designers follow certain prescribed methods and criteria in the estimation of dynamic effects associated with the postulated rupture of piping. The work reported in this NUREG is intended to provide the basis for NRC decisions on adopting revisions to parts of the SRP 3.6.2 entitled ''Determination of Rupture Locations and Dynamic Effects Associated with the Postulated Rupture of Piping.'' The revisions considered in this work evaluated updated prescriptions for calculating jet impingement forces on critical systems and the requirement to consider pipe-whip damage to a new population of pipes. In accordance with the procedures documented in NUREG/CR-3586 entitled ''A Handbook for Value-Impact Assessment,'' this report found indication that substantial costs and occupational radiation exposure would result from the proposed action without substantially reducing the risks to public health and safety. 21 refs., 2 figs., 18 tabs

  9. 76 FR 30952 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    2011-05-27

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... assessments were approved and published on the Privacy Office's web site between January 8, 2011 and March 31, 2011. DATES: The PIAs will be available on the DHS Web site until July 26, 2011, after which they...

  10. 76 FR 37823 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... assessments were approved and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between March 31, 2011 and May 31, 2011. DATES: The PIAs will be available on the DHS Web site until August 29, 2011, after which they...

  11. Cloud-Based Environmental Impact Assessment Expert System – A Case Study of Fiji

    Sam Goundar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments [EIA] involve identifying, measuring, and assessing impacts. This complex process deals with considerable amount of information and requires processing and analysis of quantitative data, qualitative information as well as expert human judgements. Often, available information is incomplete, subjective, and inconsistent. This challenge of collecting, processing, analyzing, and reporting EIA information can be met by computer systems. A Cloud-based Environmental Impact Assessment [EIA] system is proposed in this paper to overcome the many challenges faced by practitioners. Fiji’s EIA process is used as a case study. The steps involved in the process are automated as a sequence of computer executable programs with Expert System. Based on the information provided about projects, the EIA system is expected to compute environmental impacts and produce Environment Impact Statements. With the system, a user enters information about the environmental settings in which the development project is expected to take place as well as the proposed development project activities. Based on the input, an expert system with an inference engine uses rules to check the knowledge base and report on possible impacts and mitigation actions. The knowledge base is connected to databases on domain experts, GIS and simulation models.

  12. Environmental integrated impact assessment for waste treatment activity: methodology and case-study application

    A literature method for the environmental integrated impact assessment, according to the IPPC Directive, has been critically analysed and adjusted in order to be used for the environmental performance assessment of waste treatment activities. The assessment parameters, sorted in eight treatment and combined pollution categories, have been partly redefined and re balanced. The adjusted methodology has been applied to a real case-study, a chemical- physical waste treatment plant, in order to calculate the current performance (Actual Integrated Index) and the ideal performance (Actual Integrated Index) achievable by technical and operational improvements. The adjusted methodology has also been used as a decision support system, in order to estimate the value of the expected environmental performances improvement after the execution achievable from the introduction of a single one or a set of improvement actions. The valuation of the Integrated Index percentage reduction, along with the action achievable, made the best actions able to be identified, both in comparative way and in the cost-effective one. The results, 50 as Effective Integrated Index and 42 as Ideal Integrated Index, in a 10-100 scale, show a medium impact level and point out an appreciable improvement margin on all the environmental performances, especially in air emission control and water consumption

  13. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    N/A

    2000-05-24

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  14. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir: Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impacts

    This notice announces BPA's decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  15. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact

  16. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

    1999-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  17. Assessing the economic impacts of ICT

    Smith, Keith

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a wide-ranging overview of issues related to the economic impacts of ICT. It discusses the broad issues of theory and method involved in thinking about a new radical technology, such as ICT, in economic change. However this discussion is extended in several directions – into a discussion of statistical and measurement issues, into an overview of the empirical dimensions of ICT in economic growth both at OECD and European levels, and into a discussion of the nature of ICT as a te...

  18. EU Territorial Impact Assessment: Under What Conditions?

    Zonneveld, W.; Waterhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    Since the start of the making of the ESDP, back in 1989, there has been interest in a ‘Territorial impact assessment’. This interest has been revamped now that the Territorial Cohesion green paper is out. Yet, at the EU level there is still little guidance on how a TIA might be done and on what it actually is or could be. This paper aims to ask and answer a set of fundamental questions that need to be addressed before engaging into developing an EU TIA instrument. Taking a multi-level governa...

  19. Sustainable Development Impacts of NAMAs: An integrated approach to assessment of co-benefits based on experience with the CDM

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    Sustainable development priorities provide the context for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) by developing countries. While methods exist to assess the sustainable development (SD) co-benefits of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, no approach has yet been developed to...... assess the SD impacts of NAMAs. This paper argues for a new integrated approach to asses NAMAs' SD impacts that consists of SD indicators, procedures for stakeholder involvement and safeguards against negative impacts. The argument is based on a review of experience with the CDM’s contribution to SD and...

  20. Social and environmental impact assessment - theoretical contributions

    Moutinho, Nuno; Mouta, Helena

    2011-01-01

    When we have to make an investment decision, we have to consider social and environmental factors that can bring some doubts about the project. We analyse not only which social and environmental characteristics to assess, but also identify main risks and show how to mitigate them. In addition, we support the idea that both areas have to be analysed at the beginning of the project and that it has to be done at the time investors analyse other factors, in particular technical issues.

  1. Impact assessment and policy learning in the European Commission

    Governance for sustainable development requires policy coherence and Environmental Policy Integration, which are being hindered by difficulties coordinating the two separate impact assessment processes being conducted in the European Commission. One of them, the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process, looks primarily at EU-internal impacts, whereas the other one, Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) in DG Trade, looks outward to other countries and intergovernmental organizations. Ideally, the two processes should complement one another, especially as the two are set to continue being done in parallel. The paper uses a case study of the reform of the European sugar regime under a World Trade Organization ruling to demonstrate how the two impact assessment processes could better complement one another. Feedback from the experience had with existing trade agreements could then promote policy learning and inform the negotiations on new agreements. The number of new bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements is expected to continue rising, thus increasing the importance of the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process required for them

  2. Sensitivity to Uncertainty in Asteroid Impact Risk Assessment

    Mathias, D.; Wheeler, L.; Prabhu, D. K.; Aftosmis, M.; Dotson, J.; Robertson, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center is developing a physics-based impact risk model for probabilistically assessing threats from potential asteroid impacts on Earth. The model integrates probabilistic sampling of asteroid parameter ranges with physics-based analyses of entry, breakup, and impact to estimate damage areas and casualties from various impact scenarios. Assessing these threats is a highly coupled, dynamic problem involving significant uncertainties in the range of expected asteroid characteristics, how those characteristics may affect the level of damage, and the fidelity of various modeling approaches and assumptions. The presented model is used to explore the sensitivity of impact risk estimates to these uncertainties in order to gain insight into what additional data or modeling refinements are most important for producing effective, meaningful risk assessments. In the extreme cases of very small or very large impacts, the results are generally insensitive to many of the characterization and modeling assumptions. However, the nature of the sensitivity can change across moderate-sized impacts. Results will focus on the value of additional information in this critical, mid-size range, and how this additional data can support more robust mitigation decisions.

  3. Evaluation of air quality and noise impact assessments, Davis Canyon

    In this report, several issues are identified regarding the air quality and noise assessments presented in the final salt repository environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Energy for the Davis Canyon, Utah, site. Necessary revisions to the data and methods used to develop the EA impact assessment are described. Then, a comparative evaluation is presented in which estimated impacts based upon the revised data and methods are compared with the impacts published in the EA. The evaluation indicates that the conclusions of the EA air quality and noise impact sections would be unchanged. Consequently, the guideline findings presented in Chapter 6 of the EA are also unchanged by the revised analysis. 50 refs., 16 tabs

  4. A statistical proposal for environmental impact assessment of development projects

    Environmental impact assessment of development projects is a fundamental process, which main goal is to avoid that their construction and functioning, lead to serious and negative consequences on the environment. Some of the most important limitations of the models employed to assess environmental impacts, are the subjectivity of its parameters and weights, and the multicolineality among the variables, which represent high quantities of similar information. This work presents a multivariate statistical-based method that tries to diminish such limitations. For this purpose, environmental impact assessment, is valuated through different environmental impact attributes and environmental elements, synthesized in an environmental quality index (ICA in Spanish). ICA can be applied at different levels, such as at a project level, or applied only at a partial level on one or some environmental components.

  5. Social impact assessment: A review and proposed approach: Final report

    Bradbury, J A

    1986-12-01

    The objective of the report is to identify the essential components of a comprehensive plan to assess the potential social impacts of the proposed construction and operation of a high level radioactive waste repository by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. The tasks taken to achieve this objective are: examination of the literature on Social Impact Assessment (SIA); identification of different conceptual frameworks that have been proposed or used in SIA; examination of specific aspects of the frameworks; assessment of strengths and weaknesses of the frameworks; synthesis of common elements in these frameworks; and examination and evaluation of methods of data collection and analysis. 150 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Social impact assessment: A review and proposed approach: Final report

    The objective of the report is to identify the essential components of a comprehensive plan to assess the potential social impacts of the proposed construction and operation of a high level radioactive waste repository by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. The tasks taken to achieve this objective are: examination of the literature on Social Impact Assessment (SIA); identification of different conceptual frameworks that have been proposed or used in SIA; examination of specific aspects of the frameworks; assessment of strengths and weaknesses of the frameworks; synthesis of common elements in these frameworks; and examination and evaluation of methods of data collection and analysis. 150 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Assessing the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change

    Hansen, Gerrit; Stone, Dáithí

    2016-05-01

    Impacts of recent regional changes in climate on natural and human systems are documented across the globe, yet studies explicitly linking these observations to anthropogenic forcing of the climate are scarce. Here we provide a systematic assessment of the role of anthropogenic climate change for the range of impacts of regional climate trends reported in the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report. We find that almost two-thirds of the impacts related to atmospheric and ocean temperature can be confidently attributed to anthropogenic forcing. In contrast, evidence connecting changes in precipitation and their respective impacts to human influence is still weak. Moreover, anthropogenic climate change has been a major influence for approximately three-quarters of the impacts observed on continental scales. Hence the effects of anthropogenic emissions can now be discerned not only globally, but also at more regional and local scales for a variety of natural and human systems.

  8. Using Reflective Practice to Incorporate Formative Assessment in a Middle School Science Classroom: A Participatory Action Research Study

    Trauth-Nare, Amy; Buck, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the efficacy of using reflective practice to guide our action research study of incorporating formative assessment into middle school science teaching and learning. Using participatory action research, we worked collaboratively to incorporate formative assessment into two instructional units, and then engaged in…

  9. Intertwined Actions against serious environmental damage: The impact of Shell in Nigeria

    Antoni Pigrau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for natural resources and energy continues to growin the developed world and, with it, the negative impacts on the environment and the rights of the peoples directly affected by extractive activities undertaken by the largest transnational corporations. Three factors compel victims of serious environmental damage to resort simultaneously to any available avenue of legal action (whether judicial or non-judicial, national or international: (1 the link between environmental damage and human rights abuses; (2 weak legislation, combined with the inability or unwillingness of the law-enforcing institutions in many countries where such extractive activities take place; and (3 the absence of international avenues to claim direct liability from corporations. We call this phenomenon intertwined actions, as the various judicial actions undertaken by the victims end up mutually reinforcing and increasing the visibility of the problem. The aim of this paper is to show this reality on the basis of the various instances of litigation that are taking place in the specific context of Shell’s activities in the Niger delta.

  10. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Pond B Dam Repair Project at the Savannah River Site

    N/A

    1999-09-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1285) for the proposed repair of the Pond B dam at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  11. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    N/A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  12. Applying the risk-based corrective action process to ecological assessment of contaminated sites

    Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) is a process in which site investigation and corrective action are focused on the goals of minimizing human health and environmental risk. A basic framework for the RBCA process is outlined in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Emergency Standard Guide ES 38-94, Risk-Based Corrective Action Applied at Petroleum Release Sites . This presentation will include discussion of the critical features and, framework of the RBCA process, and will introduce a propose or RBCA which is specifically tailored to the problem of evaluating and responding to environmental risks. The RBCA process includes a number of useful features which expedite and streamline the site assessment and corrective action selection process. Of particular interest, with respect to environmental risk, is a tiered approach to site investigation. This new proposal includes a tiered methodology for investigating environmental risk which begins with a simple, generic analysis and progresses to a more detailed, site-specific analysis, if warranted. The discussion will also cover an example RBCA assessment of a site contaminated with weathered crude oil, and will include results from a laboratory investigation of the ecological toxicity of the contaminated site soils

  13. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1994

    1994-11-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994. To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized. This study assesses benefits associated with the Grand Junction, Gunnison, Naturita, and Rifle UMTRA Projects sites for the 1-year period under study. Work at the Naturita site was initiated in April 1994 and involved demolition of buildings at the processing site. Actual start-up of remediation of Naturita is planned to begin in the spring of 1995. Work at the Slick Rock and Maybell sites is expected to begin in 1995. The only current economic benefits associated with these sites are related to UMTRA Project support work.

  14. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1994

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994. To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized. This study assesses benefits associated with the Grand Junction, Gunnison, Naturita, and Rifle UMTRA Projects sites for the 1-year period under study. Work at the Naturita site was initiated in April 1994 and involved demolition of buildings at the processing site. Actual start-up of remediation of Naturita is planned to begin in the spring of 1995. Work at the Slick Rock and Maybell sites is expected to begin in 1995. The only current economic benefits associated with these sites are related to UMTRA Project support work

  15. Fragility assessment method of Concrete Wall Subjected to Impact Loading

    Hahm, Daegi; Shin, Sang Shup; Choi, In-Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    These studies have been aimed to verify and ensure the safety of the targeted walls and structures especially in the viewpoint of the deterministic approach. However, recently, the regulation and the assessment of the safety of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) against to an aircraft impact are strongly encouraged to adopt a probabilistic approach, i.e., the probabilistic risk assessment of an aircraft impact. In Korea, research to develop aircraft impact risk quantification technology was initiated in 2012 by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). In this paper, for the one example of the probabilistic safety assessment approach, a method to estimate the failure probability and fragility of concrete wall subjected to impact loading caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts will be introduced. This method and the corresponding results will be used for the total technical roadmap and the procedure to assess the aircraft impact risk (Fig.1). A method and corresponding results of the estimation of the failure probability and fragility for a concrete wall subjected to impact loadings caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts was introduced. The detailed information of the target concrete wall in NPP, and the example aircraft engine model is considered safeguard information (SGI), and is not contained in this paper.

  16. Fragility assessment method of Concrete Wall Subjected to Impact Loading

    These studies have been aimed to verify and ensure the safety of the targeted walls and structures especially in the viewpoint of the deterministic approach. However, recently, the regulation and the assessment of the safety of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) against to an aircraft impact are strongly encouraged to adopt a probabilistic approach, i.e., the probabilistic risk assessment of an aircraft impact. In Korea, research to develop aircraft impact risk quantification technology was initiated in 2012 by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). In this paper, for the one example of the probabilistic safety assessment approach, a method to estimate the failure probability and fragility of concrete wall subjected to impact loading caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts will be introduced. This method and the corresponding results will be used for the total technical roadmap and the procedure to assess the aircraft impact risk (Fig.1). A method and corresponding results of the estimation of the failure probability and fragility for a concrete wall subjected to impact loadings caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts was introduced. The detailed information of the target concrete wall in NPP, and the example aircraft engine model is considered safeguard information (SGI), and is not contained in this paper

  17. Environment impact caused by the microorganism action in the process of using gangue packed for mine

    Deng, Y.; Zhao, F. [Henen Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China)

    2008-09-15

    The quantities of gas and the methane content formed by the action of microorganisms action along with the zymotic fluid and residues, pH values, the metals and the organic matter were measured for the long-flame coal, gangue, mine water of Yima Yuejin Mine and in the case of adding inoculums. The results show that coal and gangue are involved in the microbial role. The quantity of inoculums is directly related to the quantities of gas and the methane content. At the same time this has a certain degree of impact on the NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N, NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N, S{sup 2-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and metals content. Moreover, because of anaerobic fermentation, the NH{sub 3}{sup +} content is seriously substandard. Overall, group B which has a smaller proportion of gangue has less impact on the environment than group A which has a larger proportion of gangue. In further research into obtaining and using biogas, we must prevent secondary pollution of groundwater at the same time. 4 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  18. Environmental assessment of remedial action, acid/middle Pueblo Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    The radiological survey of the former radioactive waste treatment plant site (TA-45), Acid Canyon, and Pueblo Canyon found residual radioactivity at the site itself and in the channel and banks of Acid, Pueblo, and lower Los Alamos Canyons, all the way to the Rio Grande. The largest reservoir of radioactive material is in lower Pueblo Canyon, which is on DOE property. The only areas where residual radioactivity exceeds the proposed cleanup criteria are at the former vehicle decontamination facility, located between the former treatment plant site and Acid Canyon, around the former untreated waste outfall and for a short distance below, and in two small areas farther down in Acid Canyon. The three alternatives proposed are (1) to take no action, (2) to fence the areas where the residual radioactivity exceeds the proposed criteria (minimal action), and (3) to clean up the former vehicle decontamination facility and around the former untreated waste outfall. Calculations based on actual measurements indicate that the annual dose at the location having the greatest residual radioactivity would be about 12% of the applicable guideline. Most doses are much smaller than that. No environmental impacts are associated with either the no-action or minimal action alternatives. The impact associated with the cleanup alternative is very small. The preferred alternative is to clean up the areas around the former vehicle decontamination facility and the untreated waste outfall. This course of action is recommended not because of any real danger associated with the residual radioactivity, but rather because the cleanup operation is a minor effort and would conform with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) philosophy

  19. BioCAS: Biometeorological Climate impact Assessment System for building-scale impact assessment of heat-stress related mortality

    Kim, Kyu Rang; Yi, Chaeyeon; Lee, Ji-Sun; Jänicke, Britta; Fehrenbach, Ute; Scherer, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    An urban climate analysis system for Seoul was combined with biometeorological models for the spatially distributed assessment of heat stress risks. The Biometeorological Climate impact Assessment System (BioCAS) is based on the Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS) workbench which provides urban planners with gridded data relevant for local climate assessment at 25 m and 5 m spatial resolutions. The influence of building morphology and vegetation on mean radiant temperature Tmrt was simulated by the ...

  20. How to assess extreme weather impacts - case European transport network

    Leviäkangas, P.

    2010-09-01

    To assess the impacts of climate change and preparing for impacts is a process. This process we must understand and learn to apply. EWENT (Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport) will be a test bench for one prospective approach. It has the following main components: 1) identifying what is "extreme", 2) assessing the change in the probabilities, 3) constructing the causal impact models, 4) finding appropriate methods of pricing and costing, 5) finding alternative strategy option, 6) assessing the efficiency of strategy option. This process follows actually the steps of standardized risk management process. Each step is challenging, but if EWENT project succeeds to assess the extreme weather impacts on European transport networks, it is one possible benchmark how to carry out similar analyses in other regions and on country level. EWENT approach could particularly useful for weather and climate information service providers, offering tools for transport authorities and financiers to assess weather risks, and then rationally managing the risks. EWENT project is financed by the European Commission and participated by met-service organisations and transport research institutes from different parts of Europe. The presentation will explain EWENT approach in detail and bring forth the findings of the first work packages.

  1. Qualitative assessment of environmental impacts through fuzzy logic

    The vagueness of many concepts usually utilized in environmental impact studies, along with frequent lack of quantitative information, suggests that fuzzy logic can be applied to carry out qualitative assessment of such impacts. This paper proposes a method for valuing environmental impacts caused by projects, based on fuzzy sets theory and methods of approximate reasoning. First, impacts must be described by a set of features. A linguistic variable is assigned to each feature, whose values are fuzzy sets. A fuzzy evaluation of environmental impacts is achieved using rule based fuzzy inference and the estimated fuzzy value of each feature. Generalized modus ponens has been the inference method. Finally, a crisp value of impact is attained by aggregation and defuzzification of all fuzzy results

  2. Environmental impact assessments and geological repositories for radioactive waste

    Since 1985 it has been obligatory that facilities in the European Union designed for the permanent storage or disposal of radioactive waste be assessed to determine their effects on the environment. This assessment must be undertaken in advance of any decision by national authorities to give consent for development work to proceed. Member States are given wide discretion on how the above requirements are implemented in practice, e.g. the relevant European Council Directives call for the results of the environmental assessment to be made available to the public before development consent is granted but the detailed arrangements for dissemination of such information and procedures for public consultation are determined by individual Member States. Although the Directives require an assessment of the direct and indirect effects of a project on human beings and on various elements of the natural environment, they are non-specific as to what particular impacts should be addressed, particularly as regards the effects of a project on human beings. Therefore, for example, each Member State may decide whether or not social, health and economic impacts should be included in the assessment. This paper discusses the above issues. It proposes a model approach to environmental impact assessment in the context of geological repositories, including the role of the assessment on the overall decision processes for repository development, the scope and content of the assessment report, and approaches to public involvement

  3. Assessing MMOD Impacts on Seal Performance

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Daniels, C.; Dunlap, P.; Steinetz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The elastomer seal needed to seal in cabin air when NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle is docked is exposed to space prior to docking. While open to space, the seal might be hit by orbital debris or meteoroids. The likelihood of damage of this type depends on the size of the particle. Our campaign is designed to find the smallest particle that will cause seal failure resulting in loss of mission. We will then be able to estimate environmental risks to the seal. Preliminary tests indicate seals can withstand a surprising amount of damage and still function. Collaborations with internal and external partners are in place and include seal leak testing, modeling of the space environment using a computer code known as BUMPER, and hypervelocity impact (HVI) studies at Caltech. Preliminary work at White Sands Test Facility showed a 0.5 mm diameter HVI damaged areas about 7 times that diameter, boring deep (5 mm) into elastomer specimens. BUMPER simulations indicate there is a 1 in 1440 chance of getting hit by a particle of diameter 0.08 cm for current Lunar missions; and 0.27 cm for a 10 year ISS LIDS seal area exposure.

  4. Impact Assessment and Utilization of Eastern Redcedar

    Difei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The fast invasion of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L. has been considered a significant problem to the environment and rural communities. Approach: This study examined the adverse ecological and economic impacts of eastern redcedar and proposed the sustainable development of value-added panel products from such under-utilized invasive species. Also what economic sectors were mostly influenced was examined. Additionally experimental panels were manufactured from low quality eastern redcedar trees. Results: Both physical and mechanical characteristics of experimental panels were found to be satisfactory and comparable to those of typical commercial panels made from other species. It appears that average modulus of elasticity value of the samples with two density levels had 9% higher than that of a typical commercially produced panels. Conclusion: The importance of this study is expansion of the use of low quality eastern redcedar in value-added composite panel manufacture which seems an alternative solution in the development of an environmentally sound and economically effective way to utilize such resource.

  5. Training Needs Assessment as an Action Research Intervention in a Federal Agency

    Wiechert, Annette M.

    1997-01-01

    Consultants are frequently called to help organization leaders identify and solve problems. However, few research reports reveal the holistic nature of the process. This case study helps fill that void with naturalistic inquiry into a process consulting intervention. This action research describes an external consultant's intervention with leaders of a large federal agency over an 18-month period to help conduct and implement a training needs assessment (TNA). A naturalistic inquiry de...

  6. Coordinating multimodal social semiotics and an institutional perspective in studying assessment actions in mathematics classrooms.

    Björklund Boistrup, Lisa; Selander, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    What can a multimodal social semiotic perspective in coordination with an institutional perspective make visible? In this paper we describe how we coordinate these two perspectives in order to look at the same empirical material with different focuses. The research interest is assessment actions in mathematics classrooms, an interest that also affects research objectives and possible results. When coordinating the different perspectives, we have chosen, for the analytical frame-work, to devel...

  7. Risk assessment due to terrorist actions on public transportation networks : a case study in Portugal

    Pereira, João M.; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2014-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed in collaboration with one of the largest Public Transportation Operator in Portugal and addresses the problem of risk assessment due to terrorist actions involving explosions at different levels. First, a region of the Operator is selected. The elements in the Operator's network with the highest associated risk are highlighted for each threat using the COUNTERACT guidelines. Subsequently, from the group of elements with the highest associated ris...

  8. Guidelines for the environmental impact assessment in procedure for mining projects

    Salminen, R.; Heikkinen, P.; Nikkarinen, M.; Parkkinen, J.; Sipilae, P.; Suomela, P.; Wennerstroem, M.

    2000-01-01

    The procedure for environmental impact assessment (EIA) in connection with mining covers extraction, preparation and processing of metallic minerals or other extractable minerals when the total amount of ore to be extracted is at least 550 000 tonnes per year or when the surface area of the open-cast mine exceeds 25 hectares. In addition, the Ministry of the Environment can decide that the assessment procedure shall be applied to an individual project (The EIA Act paragraph 1, section 4.) The EIA procedure is two-stage. The first stage comprises drawing up of an assessment programme. The second stage includes collecting assessment reports on the basis of which an assessment of the environmental impact will be made. The authority concerned shall then disseminate information on the project and arrange hearing of the parties. Hearing is followed by submission of an executive summary of the assessment programme and the environmental impact assessment, which together with the environmental impact statement will be used by the licensing authority when taking decision on the matter. The environmental impact assessment procedure in connection with mining will coincide either with the application for mining concession or the submission of the environmental impact statement to the Safety Technology Authority together with a general plan. The aim of the environmental impact assessment is to study what indirect and direct, both positive and negative, effects the project will have on the surrounding nature, man, society and industry. A further aim is to present a proposal for actions in order to prevent and limit the detrimental effects of the project on the environment as well as to present a proposal for a follow-up programme. The dialogue between the operator and the contact authority is of great importance during the entire process of the environmental impact assessment. It is in the interest of all parties that the environmental impact assessment will be made with care. In

  9. Facilitating communities in designing and using their own community health impact assessment tool

    Reducing health inequities and improving the health of communities require an informed public that is aware of the social determinants of health and how policies and programs have an impact on the health of their communities. People Assessing Their Health (PATH) is a process that uses community-driven health impact assessment to build the capacity of people to become active participants in the decisions that affect the well-being of their community. The PATH process is both a health promotion and a community development approach that builds people's ability to bring critical analysis to a situation and to engage in effective social action to bring about desired change. Because it increases analytical skills and provides communities with their own unique tool to assess the potential impact of projects, programs or policies on the health and well-being of their community it is an empowering process. PATH was originally used in three communities in northeastern Nova Scotia, Canada in 1996 when the Canadian health care system was being restructured to a more decentralized system. Since then it has been used in other communities in Nova Scotia and India. This paper will describe the PATH process and the use of the community health impact assessment as well as the methodology used in the PATH process. The lessons learned from PATH's experiences of building capacity among the community in Canada and India will be presented.

  10. Environmental impact assessment: Classification of ecosystems with respect to vulnerability for radioactive contamination

    This presentation recommends that an environmental impact assessment should be made ahead of any major action plan in the environment. The final document should point out to the authorities and public that expertise has been systematised in order to predict the effects of an action plan on the environment. This should be done for different scenarios and time scales. A useful tool for an environmental impact assessment is GIS, Geographic Information Systems. It can be used to identify areas and ecosystems that are vulnerable to radioactive contamination. To predict the radiation dose to humans and biota, a vulnerability assessment considers population density, land use, economic resources and the chemical and biological pathways of radionuclides in different ecosystems. Supplemented with knowledge of consumption and dietary habits a vulnerability assessment can be used to identify critical groups and to calculate doses to these groups. For ecosystems, vulnerability can be quantified by using critical loads for radioactive contamination or flux of radionuclides from an area. One criterion for critical load can be that intervention limits for food products should not be exceeded. If the critical load is low, this indicates a high vulnerability. The flux from an area can also identify vulnerability and it can be used to calculate collective dose. The vulnerability approach is a methodology that can be used to select areas that are suitable for treatment, transport and disposal of radioactive waste

  11. Simplified Assessment of R3 Nominal Assurance Degree to Seismic Action of the Existing Masonry Dwellings

    Teodor Broşteanu; Magda Broşteanu

    2008-01-01

    This paper refers to the assessment of the performance level of a building for a given seismic hazard level. Building performance level describes the expected seismic performance given by the computation of R3 Nominal Assurance Degree to Seismic Action of the Existing Masonry Dwellings and Monumental Buildings according to the Romanian Norm P100:1992 [1], modified on 1996 with the chapters 11 and 12, until the Part 3 of P100-1:2006 [2], will be performed for the Assessment and Strengthening S...

  12. A new approach for environmental justice impact assessment

    President Clinton's Executive Order 12898 calls for examination of disproportionately high and adverse impacts to minority and low-income communities. In addition to demographic mapping, environmental justice analyses should also include quantitative impact assessment to show presence or absence of disproportionate impacts. This study demonstrates use of a geographic information system (GIS) and a computer model. For this demonstration, a safety analysis report and a computer code were used to develop impact assessment data from a hypothetical facility accident producing a radiological airborne plume. The computer code modeled the plume, plotted dose contours, and provided latitude and longitude coordinates for transfer to the GIS. The GIS integrated and mapped the impact and demographic data toprovide a graphical representation of the plume with respect to the population. Impacts were then analyzed. The GIS was used to estimate the total dose to the exposed population under the plume, the dose to the low-income population under the plume, and the dose to the minority population under the plume. Impacts among the population groups were compared to determine whether a dispropotionate share of the impacts were borne by minority or low-income populations

  13. Environmental impact assessment around TRIGA research reactor

    Population distribution, atmospheric change, X/Q, characteristics of terrestrial ecosystem around Seoul site were surveyed. Environmental radiation and radioactivities such as grossα, grossβ, Cs-137, Sr-90 and H-3 of various environmental samples were analyzed. The values of environmental radiation dose tended to increase gradually in the light of the recent five years' results of environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear power plants from 1980 to 1984, however, the changes were not significant. In addition, continuous assessment of environmental radiation monitoring on the roofs of main building and life science building at KAERI showed that the environmental radiation dose tended to increase a little during the night time. Judging from the above results, it is concluded that environmental contamination level by radioactive materials could be ignored in the case of radioisotope production or experiment using radioisotopes except the release of gaseous radioactive materials such as Ar-41 of short half life by the operation of nuclear reactor. (Author)

  14. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    Esben Meulengracht Flachs; Jan Sørensen; Jakob Bønløkke; Henrik Brønnum-Hansen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M ...

  15. Impact Factor 2.0 : Applying Social Network Analysis to Scientific Impact Assessment

    Hoffmann, Christian Pieter; Lutz, Christoph; Meckel, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Social media are becoming increasingly popular in scientific communication. A range of platforms are geared specifically towards the academic community. Proponents of the altmetrics approach point out that these new media allow for new avenues of scientific impact assessment. Traditional impact measures based on bibliographic analysis have long been criticized for overlooking the relational dynamic of scientific impact. We therefore propose an application of social network analysis to researc...

  16. 39 CFR 775.5 - Classes of actions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1508.27. (b) Actions requiring an environmental assessment. Classes of actions that will... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of actions. 775.5 Section 775.5 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.5 Classes of actions. (a) Actions which normally require an environment impact...

  17. Recent advances in environmental monitoring and impact assessment

    Right from the beginning, protection of public from radiation is considered as the top priority research area among nuclear scientists. It is mandatory to conduct an environmental impact assessment during the various stages of nuclear installation such as design, construction, operation, decommissioning, etc. to ensure that radiological impact to human due to the practices will not impart any undue impact to present generation as well as to future generation. Over the period of time, the impact assessment methodologies have evolved from using mere measured data to complicated mathematical calculations based on several environmental parameters. This was necessary to accommodate the complex transport of radionuclides through environment which depends upon many other physical, chemical and biological parameters of the environment. (author)

  18. Environmental impact assessment for energy pathways: an integrated methodology

    This document presents the synthesis of my research work contributing to the development of an integrated methodology of environmental impact assessment for energy pathways. In the context of world globalization, environmental impact assessments issues are highly linked with the following questioning: Which environmental impacts? for which demand? at which location? at which temporal scale? My work is built upon the definition of a conceptual framework able to handle these issues and upon its progressive implementation. The integration of the spatial and temporal issues within the methodology are key elements. Fundamental cornerstones of this framework are presented along the DPSIR concept (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses). They cover a comprehensive analysis of the limits and the relevance of life cycle analysis and the development of a geo-spatialized environmental performance approach for an electrical production pathway. Perspectives linked with the development of this integrated methodology are detailed for energy pathways. (author)

  19. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-U-14 Ditch

    Singleton, K.M.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater impact assessments are conducted at liquid effluent receiving sites on the Hanford Site to determine hydrologic and contaminant impacts caused by discharging wastewater to the soil column. The assessments conducted are pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00A and M-17-00B, as agreed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Ecology et al. 1992). This report assesses impacts on the groundwater and vadose zone from wastewater discharged to the 216-U-14 Ditch. Contemporary effluent waste streams of interest are 242-S Evaporator Steam Condensate and UO{sub 3}/U Plant wastewater.

  20. Impact assessment procedures for sustainable development: A complexity theory perspective

    The author assumes that effective Impact Assessment procedures should somehow contribute to sustainable development. There is no widely agreed framework for evaluating such effectiveness. The author suggests that complexity theories may offer criteria. The relevant question is 'do Impact Assessment Procedures contribute to the 'requisite variety' of a social system for it to deal with changing circumstances?' Requisite variety theoretically relates to the capability of a system to deal with changes in its environment. The author reconstructs how thinking about achieving sustainable development has developed in a sequence of discourses in The Netherlands since the 1970s. Each new discourse built on the previous ones, and is supposed to have added to 'requisite variety'. The author asserts that Impact Assessment procedures may be a necessary component in such sequences and derives possible criteria for effectiveness

  1. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human

  2. Assessing the impact of blended learning on student performance

    Do Won Kwak; Flavio Menezes; Carl Sherwood

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses quantitatively the impact on student performance of a blended learning experiment within a large undergraduate first year course in statistics for business and economics students. We employ a differences- in-difference econometric approach, which controls for differences in student characteristics and course delivery method, to evaluate the impact of blended learning on student performance. Although students in the course manifest a preference for live lectures over online...

  3. Assessments of biofuel sustainability: air pollution and health impacts

    Tsao, Chi-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels, particularly, on air quality and human health. Sugarcane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here a systematic framework, including emission modeling, air quality simulation, and health impact assessment was developed to quanti...

  4. Altmetrics in Institutional Repositories: New Perspectives for Assessing Research Impact

    Rehemtula, Salima; Rosa, Maria de Lurdes; Leitão, Paulo; Avilés, Rosario Arquero

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project is to find out if and how Institutional Repositories (IR) are using alternative metrics or Altmetrics (besides usage statistics and citation counts) as a value-added service to showcase their content impact and give some hints on how this tool can be used to supplement the traditional research performance assessment exercise in an institution. Altmetrics can provide a measure of impact for all non-journal scholarly works available in Open Access (OA), like usage statis...

  5. Three topics to the evolution of the environmetal impact assessment

    Vito Verna Coronado

    2013-01-01

    The paper identifies three topics in order to evaluate the improvements in the regulation of the National System of EnvironmentalImpact Assessment, looking to benefit the people’s trust in the environmental certification. The first one consists in the gradual transition from the prevention paradigm to the integration one, as the purpose of the different instruments that compose the system; the second involves the enrichment in the evaluation of the Environmental Impact Study (EIS), by incorpo...

  6. Methods of Assessment of Tourism Impact in Protected Areas

    Minciu Rodica; Pãdurean Mihaela; Hornoiu Remus

    2011-01-01

    Intensifying international tourist trips and the pressure that they exert on fragile areas, especially on protected areas, generate a range of issues related to achieving a balance between tourism resources on the one hand and tourism activities on the other, between benefits of tourism for local communities and the negative impact that it could have on the environment. Within this context, the identification of the methods and the indicators for assessing the impact of tourism and the implem...

  7. Assessing Budget Support with Statistical Impact Evaluation: a Methodological Proposal

    Elbers, Chris; Gunning, Jan Willem; de Hoop, Kobus

    2007-01-01

    Donor agencies and recipient governments want to assess the effectiveness of aid-supported sector policies. Unfortunately, existing methods for impact evaluation are designed for the evaluation of homogeneous interventions (‘projects’) where those with and without ‘treatment’ can be compared. The lack of a methodology for evaluations of sector-wide programs is a serious constraint in the debate on aid effectiveness. We propose a method of statistical impact evaluation in situations with heter...

  8. Injury Risk Assessment of Non-Lethal Projectile Head Impacts

    Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports ...

  9. Life cycle analysis for the assessment of environmental impacts

    The paper presents the structure of a model and a database devoted to the life-cycle analysis of industrial products for the assessment of environmental impacts. The data cover a large variety of industrial sectors; the whole life-cycle of the products has to be considered when the environmental impacts are calculated. The author considers that the data format could be standardized in view of exchanging data between different studies and to enlarge the quality of the studies. (author)

  10. Elements of a regulatory strategy for the consideration of future human actions in safety assessments

    Wilmot, R.D.; Wickham, S.M.; Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this report is to discuss issues that should be considered in the development of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in any forthcoming license application for a deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden and for sites of other repositories. The report comprises an outline of key issues concerning the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, reviews of regulatory developments, recent safety assessments and supporting studies, and international initiatives on the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, and the principal elements of a regulatory strategy. Performance assessments (PAs) are generally accepted as providing illustrations of system performance under given sets of assumptions. The results of PAs are clearer and easier tounderstand if certain large uncertainties are accounted for by determining performance under several different sets of assumptions or scenarios, each of which defines a possible evolution of the disposal system. A number of assumptions can be made that would restrict the scope of an assessment without reducing the credibility of the corresponding safety case. Reducing speculation about technological development, by assuming that the techniques used in future human activities are similar to those currently in use in the region or at similar sites, will simplify the assessment. A distinction is generally made between inadvertent and intentional intrusion, with intentional activities excluded because society cannot protect future populations from their own actions if they understand the potential consequences. A division of human activities into 'recent and ongoing' and 'future' activities considers not only the timing of the activities but also the degree of control or influence that can be imposed on them. Recent and ongoing human activities are those that affect an area beyond the immediate vicinity of the disposal facility and which neither the proponent

  11. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

  12. Mars Rover Curriculum: Impact Assessment and Evaluation

    Bering, E. A., III; Carlson, C.; Nieser, K.; Slagle, E. M.; Jacobs, L. T.; Kapral, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Houston is in the process of developing a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model Mars rover: the Mars Rover Model Celebration (MRC). It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. A total of 140 Mars Rover teachers from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 cohorts were invited to complete the Mars Rover Teacher Evaluation Survey. The survey was administered online and could be taken at the convenience of the participant. So far ~40 teachers have participated with responses still coming in. A total of 675 students from the 2013-2014 cohort were invited to submit brief self-assessments of their participation in the program. Teachers were asked to rate their current level of confidence in their ability to teach specific topics within the Earth and Life Science realms, as well as their confidence in their ability to implement teaching strategies with their students. The majority of teachers (81-90%) felt somewhat to very confident in their ability to effectively teach concepts related to earth and life sciences to their students. In addition, many of the teachers felt that their confidence in teaching these concepts increased somewhat to quite a bit as a result of their participation in the MRC program (54-88%). The most striking increase in this area was the reported 48% of teachers who felt their confidence in teaching "Earth and the solar system and universe" increased "Quite a bit" as a result of their participation in the MRC program. The vast majority of teachers (86-100%) felt somewhat to very confident in their ability to effectively implement all of the listed teaching strategies. The most striking increases were the percentage of teachers who felt their confidence increased "Quite a bit" as a result of their participation

  13. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  14. Environmental impact assessment in the Fijian state sector

    For over 20 years, the South Pacific state of Fiji has required developers to conduct more than 70 environmental impact assessments (EIA), without specifying the environmental quality or impacts it considers (in)appropriate. It has ignored aspects of EIA to which agencies funding development have paid little attention--assessing alternatives, monitoring outcomes and enforcing consent conditions. This infers the Fijian state is not serious about using EIA to control environmental quality. Factors other than technical shortcomings are shaping the way the state constrains EIA practice. Unless these factors change, the comprehensive EIA system proposed in Sustainable Development legislation will not prevent environmental degradation

  15. Impact of actions of food and nutrition education program in a population of adolescents

    Juliana Garcia BALDASSO

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate changes in food intake after adolescents attended a food and nutrition education program at a non-profit institution. Methods: Fifty-four adolescents aged 16 to 19 years, of low socioeconomic level, enrolled in an non-governmental organization in São Paulo, underwent a nutritional intervention of six months consisting of six meetings with dieticians, as well as strategic communication and relationship actions. Body weight, height, body mass index, questionnaire on knowledge on nutrition and feeding practices, 24-hour recall, and diet quality assessment using the Diet Quality Index associated with the Digital Food Guide were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Dietary pattern improvement was defined as an increase of at least 5 points in Diet Quality Index associated with the Digital Food Guide. Results: Understanding of food labels increased, and the dietary patterns on weekdays and weekends improved by 33 and 37%, respectively. The intake of legumes, milk, dairy products, fruits, and vegetables increased (adequacy components. However, intakes of nuts and whole grains were low, and intake of moderation components was high. Conclusion: The program improved the dietary patterns of adolescents, making it a viable and inexpensive method to prevent disease and improve health and quality of life. In addition, the Diet Quality Index associated with the Digital Food Guide has proven to be a good nutritional tool for assessing changes in food intake and for guiding future counseling and nutritional intervention actions for this population.

  16. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level

  17. A New Framework for Spatio-temporal Climate Change Impact Assessment for Terrestrial Wildlife

    Lankford-Bingle, Amber J.; Svancara, Leona K.; Vierling, Kerri

    2015-12-01

    We describe a first step framework for climate change species' impact assessments that produces spatially and temporally heterogeneous models of climate impacts. Case study results are provided for great gray owl ( Strix nebulosa) in Idaho as an example of framework application. This framework applies species-specific sensitivity weights to spatial and seasonal models of climate exposure to produce spatial and seasonal models of climate impact. We also evaluated three methods of calculating sensitivity by comparing spatial models of combined exposure and sensitivity. We found the methods used to calculated sensitivity showed little difference, except where sensitivity was directional (i.e., more sensitive to an increase in temperature than a decrease). This approach may assist in the development of State Wildlife Action Plans and other wildlife management plans in the face of potential future climate change.

  18. Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands

  19. Assessment of the impact of frequency support on DFIG wind turbine loads

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio; You, Rui; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    This study presents models and tools for the assessment of the impact that providing frequency support has on doubly-fed generator (DFIG) wind turbine structural loads and drive train. The focus is on primary frequency support, aiming at quantifying the impact on wind turbines acting as frequency...... containment reserve and providing inertial response. The sensitivity of wind turbine load indicators—load duration- distribution and maximum load values—to inertial response control actions and different torsional models of drive train is investigated. The analysis is done by co-simulations of an aeroelastic...... code and electrical models. In this simulation framework, the impact that power system conditions can have on wind turbines, and vice versa the support that wind turbines can offer to the power system can be investigated....

  20. Assessing the impact of windfarms - the learning curve in Cornwall

    This paper uses windfarm application decisions in Cornwall between 1989 and 1995 to illustrate the learning curve of planners in assessing appropriate windfarm locations, and in particular how the process of knowledge construction is constantly reviewed and modified in the light of experience and circumstance. One of the accepted purposes of Environmental Impact Assessment is to predict the possible effects, both beneficial and adverse, of the development on the environment. In practice what is beneficial and what is adverse can be a matter of dispute. The paper draws out the role of the planning system in assessing what is problematic or benign, and the practical strategies and procedures used to assess and control the environmental impacts of wind energy schemes. (Author)

  1. The convention on environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context

    The ECE Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (EIA Convention) is the first multilateral treaty to specify the procedural rights and duties of Parties with regard to transboundary impacts of proposed activities and to provide procedures, in a transboundary context, for the consideration of environmental impacts in decision-making. The EIA Convention, elaborated under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), was adopted at Espoo, Finland, in February 1991. Obligations stipulated, and measures and procedures provided for in this Convention are described. (author)

  2. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  3. Assessment of public health impact of work-related asthma

    Jaakkola Maritta S; Jaakkola Jouni JK

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases in working-aged populations and occupational exposures are important causal agents. Our aims were to evaluate the best methods to assess occurrence, public health impact, and burden to society related to occupational or work-related asthma and to achieve comparable estimates for different populations. Methods We addressed three central questions: 1: What is the best method to assess the occurrence of occupational asthma? We ...

  4. Environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents

    This review summarises the theoretical basis of risk analysis, and the political and social implications of introducing new biotechnology products in agricultural environments. The main factors to be considered under the present European regulation in the environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents are briefly discussed. Finally, an alternative risk assessment paradigm is proposed for genetically modified microorganisms, which shall consider the intrinsic properties of each antagonist, rather than the method used for generating it

  5. Life cycle assessment. Specific indicators for Italy in impact evaluation

    After a brief recall and a short description of the LCA (life cycle assessment) methodology, the work is focused on the impact assessment step, discussing the state of the art and a critical identification of environmental indicators, of normalization and weighting principles for the different environmental categories specific for Italy. The application methodology to a case study concerning the production of butter by the Consorzio Granterre of Modena (Italy) is also described

  6. IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF KITCHEN GARDENING TRAINING UNDER WATERSHED PROGRAMME

    Tabinda Qaiser; Hassnain Shah; Sajida Taj; Murad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Kitchen Gardening Project is the revolutionary step to increase vegetables production as well as provision of cheap vegetables to the consumers. The main focus of the study was to assess the impact of kitchen gardening training given by Water Resources Research Institute (WRRI) under watershed project in Arokas and Ghoragali. Capacity building of rural women in Kitchen Gardening was the focus and twenty trainees of kitchen gardening were selected randomly from each location to assess the impa...

  7. Assessing the Impacts of Citizen Participation in Science Governance

    Hansen, Janus; Allansdottir, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore new avenues of analysis on the thorny issue of the impact of participatory technology assessment (PTA). We apply qualitative comparative analysis to data abstracted from a series of detailed country case studies of policy-making on xenotransplantation to explore which fac...... in attempting to account for both permissive and restrictive policies. We conclude that the paper makes both a substantial and a methodological contribution to the literature on public participation in technology assessment and policy-making....

  8. 7 CFR 1940.311 - Environmental assessments for Class I actions.

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental assessment in order to determine if the proposal will have a significant impact on the environment... year. (4) Financial assistance for a livestock-holding facility or feed-lot meeting the criteria of... designed for on-farm needs such as methane digestors and fuel alcohol production facilities; (5)...

  9. Environmental impact assessment for an OTEC plant in Martinique Island

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is a marine renewable energy system that uses the temperature difference between the cold deep waters and warm surface waters to produce electricity. DCNS, a world-expert in naval defence and an innovator in energy has conducted technical, juridical and environmental feasibility studies of a plant offshore Martinique under an agreement with the Regional Council. In this context, DCNS realised a preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment in order to prepare public debate to be done further. Due to innovation of such a project, a specific methodology has been done for that. First step was to study bibliography in details, for site assessment of course, but also for impacts of other projects in the world that should present relevant similarities with OTEC (coastal thermal power plants for example). This bibliographic study dealt with thematic synthesis for each topic of physical, biological and human field that could be impacted by the project (total of 28 topics). The aim was to define priorities for specific assessments that have been done further: acoustic impacts, biogeochemical impacts of artificial upwelling, biofouling impacts, etc. Some of these topics are now on course with specific scientific research programs that have been launched at the end of this study. For each new topic, a specific methodology has been used or adapted for OTEC. These methods are made step by step, with a preliminary approach followed by a specific research program when it is necessary. Noise prediction has been done with a specific tool used for ship construction industry and a 3D propagation modelling. Biofouling has been assessed by a bibliographic approach and will be precised further with experimental moorings. Biogeochemical and biological impacts due to artificial and localised upwelling are now being studied in details with a double skill approach (physical modelling and plankton analysis), after preliminary water chemicals

  10. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  11. Modeling the impact of point of compliance on timing of ground water corrective action

    The impact of Point of Compliance (POC) on the timing and effectiveness of ground water corrective action was evaluated by modeling ground water travel times and flow paths at hypothetical iron and steelmaking facilities. The GWPATH computer code, an interactive code that estimates two dimensional fluid pathline and travel times in fully saturated ground water domains, was used to track ground water migration over time from Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) during the operational life of three representative facilities. It was apparent from the simulations that it is impossible, in most cases, to relate specific contaminant plumes to individual historic or current SWMUs. The study also examined the validity of establishing open-quotes buffer zonesclose quotes near the facility property boundary. Such buffer zones were configured to provide adequate advance warning of potential contaminant migration so that appropriate corrective measures could be taken prior to offsite migration. The model generated buffer zone is specific to each hydrogeologic setting and was equivalent to the distance traveled by ground water proximal to the facility boundary in a period of two years. The model results were used to aid in evaluating the potential implications of current RCRA rulemaking under the Continuing Releases/Corrective Action Program (CR/CAP)

  12. Mid-term evaluation of the Climate Change Action Fund: Science, Impacts and Adaptation (SIA) block

    In 1998, the Climate Change Action Fund was established by the Government of Canada. Its budget represented 150 million dollars over a three year period, and was an additional 625 million dollars in the federal budget of February 2000 was allocated for climate change initiatives, of which 150 million dollars were earmarked over a three year period to the Climate Change Action Fund. To provide input for Treasury Board Submissions looking for funding approval in the future, it was necessary to conduct a mid-term evaluation focused on program performance to date. The period covered by the evaluation was September 2000 to the end of January 2001. This report examined the performance of the Science, Impact and Adaptation Block (SIA). Based on a series of interviews with representatives of Block managers, Technical and Executive Policy Committees, successful applicants, unsuccessful applicants and peer reviewers, as well as a review of the documentation maintained by SIA, it addressed the following issues: Block relevance, progress/success to date, and effectiveness in meeting the objectives. It was determined that the objectives displayed relevance to the climate change agenda of the federal government, progress to date was considered satisfactory, and most of the objectives should be met in a timely fashion. A summary of the findings was included in this document along with recommendations pertaining to the findings. 3 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions

    Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental impacts associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate impacts of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental impact assessment and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on assessing a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy assessments. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare impacts versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying impacts and the policy choices.

  14. Exploring the impact of the IPCC Assessment Reports on science

    Vasileiadou, E.; Heimeriks, G.J.; Petersen, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Even though critique to IPCC is certainly not new, the climate controversies of 2009 and 2010 brought this critique again to the fore in public media. The paper contributes to this ongoing debate, and investigates empirically the impact of the four Assessment Reports of the IPCC on scientific public

  15. Environmental impact assessment and soil remediation profile in Ecuador

    This report presents a market overview of the environmental impact assessments (EIAs) that are needed in Ecuador before mining or petroleum exploration licenses can be issued. A growing market is also developing in Ecuador for soil remediation technologies to clean polluted soils from the past 35 years of oil production in the country. The current interest is on the Trans-Ecuadorian Oil Pipeline for which oil recovery and soil clean-up will be required at well-head sites, production stations and camps. This paper describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to transfer technology expertise in conducting environmental impact assessments for all project stages on the natural environment. EIAs in Ecuador also require an assessment of the potential human impacts on the social and cultural environment. The key factors shaping market growth were described with particular reference to opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the several organizations that manage and approve environmental impact assessment projects. Considerations for market-entry in Ecuador were also outlined

  16. Environmental impact assessement related to metallurgical industry activities

    Cirtina, D.; Ionescu, N; L. M. Cirtina

    2016-01-01

    In this work is presented the impact assess of metallurgical specific activities on the environment through global pollution index calculation. The pollution index value calculated for environmental components: air, water, soil, vegetation, noise, waste, population health status indicated an environment subject to human effect within acceptable limits.

  17. Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-11-01

    This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

  18. Parametric assessment of climate change impacts of automotive material substitution.

    Geyer, Roland

    2008-09-15

    Quantifying the net climate change impact of automotive material substitution is not a trivial task. It requires the assessment of the mass reduction potential of automotive materials, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from their production and recycling, and their impact on GHG emissions from vehicle use. The model presented in this paper is based on life cycle assessment (LCA) and completely parameterized, i.e., its computational structure is separated from the required input data, which is not traditionally done in LCAs. The parameterization increases scientific rigor and transparency of the assessment methodology, facilitates sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the results, and also makes it possible to compare different studies and explain their disparities. The state of the art of the modeling methodology is reviewed and advanced. Assessment of the GHG emission impacts of material recycling through consequential system expansion shows that our understanding of this issue is still incomplete. This is a critical knowledge gap since a case study shows thatfor materials such as aluminum, the GHG emission impacts of material production and recycling are both of the same size as the use phase savings from vehicle mass reduction. PMID:18853818

  19. Disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. Environmental impact assessment program

    The report presents the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of the high level radioactive waste disposal in Finland. In EIA different alternatives concerning site selection, construction, operation and sealing of the disposal facility as well as waste transportation and encapsulation of the waste are considered

  20. Integrating a quantitative risk appraisal in a health impact assessment

    Adám, Balázs; Molnár, Agnes; Gulis, Gabriel; Adány, Róza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the quantification of health outcomes in a health impact assessment (HIA) is scarce in practice, it is preferred by policymakers, as it assists various aspects of the decision-making process. This article provides an example of integrating a quantitative risk appraisal in an...

  1. 76 FR 78934 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    2011-12-20

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... approved and published on the Privacy Office's web site between September 1, 2011 and November 30, 2011. DATES: The PIAs will be available on the DHS Web site until February 21, 2012, after which they may...

  2. 77 FR 46100 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... Privacy Office's Web site between March 1, 2012 and May 31, 2012. DATES: The PIAs will be available on the DHS Web site until October 1, 2012, after which they may be obtained by contacting the DHS...

  3. 76 FR 58814 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    2011-09-22

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... approved and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between June 1, 2011 and August 31, 2011. DATES: The PIAs will be available on the DHS Web site until November 21, 2011, after which they may...

  4. 77 FR 16846 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    2012-03-22

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... approved and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between December 1, 2011 and February 29, 2012. DATES: The PIAs will be available on the DHS Web site until May 21, 2012, after which they may...

  5. Using causal maps to support ex-post assessment of social impacts of dams

    Aledo, Antonio, E-mail: Antonio.Aledo@ua.es [Departamento de Sociología 1, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante 03080 (Spain); García-Andreu, Hugo, E-mail: Hugo.Andreu@ua.es [Departamento de Sociología 1, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante 03080 (Spain); Pinese, José, E-mail: pinese@uel.br [Centro de Ciências Exatas, UEL, Rodovia Celso Cid, Km 380, Campus Universitário, Londrina, PR 86057-970 (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    - Highlights: • We defend the usefulness of causal maps (CM) for ex-post impact assessment of dams. • Political decisions are presented as unavoidable technical measures. • CM enable the identification of multiple causes involved in the dam impacts. • An alternative management of the dams is shown from the precise tracking of the causes. • Participatory CM better the quality of information and the governance of the research. This paper presents the results of an ex-post assessment of two important dams in Brazil. The study follows the principles of Social Impact Management, which offer a suitable framework for analyzing the complex social transformations triggered by hydroelectric dams. In the implementation of this approach, participative causal maps were used to identify the ex-post social impacts of the Porto Primavera and Rosana dams on the community of Porto Rico, located along the High Paraná River. We found that in the operation of dams there are intermediate causes of a political nature, stemming from decisions based on values and interests not determined by neutral, exclusively technical reasons; and this insight opens up an area of action for managing the negative impacts of dams.

  6. Using causal maps to support ex-post assessment of social impacts of dams

    - Highlights: • We defend the usefulness of causal maps (CM) for ex-post impact assessment of dams. • Political decisions are presented as unavoidable technical measures. • CM enable the identification of multiple causes involved in the dam impacts. • An alternative management of the dams is shown from the precise tracking of the causes. • Participatory CM better the quality of information and the governance of the research. This paper presents the results of an ex-post assessment of two important dams in Brazil. The study follows the principles of Social Impact Management, which offer a suitable framework for analyzing the complex social transformations triggered by hydroelectric dams. In the implementation of this approach, participative causal maps were used to identify the ex-post social impacts of the Porto Primavera and Rosana dams on the community of Porto Rico, located along the High Paraná River. We found that in the operation of dams there are intermediate causes of a political nature, stemming from decisions based on values and interests not determined by neutral, exclusively technical reasons; and this insight opens up an area of action for managing the negative impacts of dams

  7. Site-dependent life-cycle impact assessment of acidification

    Potting, Josepha Maria Barbara; Schöpp, W.; Blok, Kornelis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    The lack of spatial differentiation in current life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) affects the relevance of the assessed impact. This article first describes a framework for constructing factors relating the region of emission to the acidifying impact on its deposition areas. Next, these factors...... and thresholds for acidification, eutrophication via air; and tropospheric ozone formation. The application of the acidification factors in LCIA is very straightforward. The only additional data required, the geographical site of the emission, is generally provided by current life-cycle inventory...... analysis. The acidification factors add resolving power of a factor of 1,000 difference between the highest and lowest ratings, while the combined uncertainties in the RAINS model are canceled out to a large extent in the acidification factors as a result of the large number of ecosystems they cover The...

  8. The Impact Of Integration, Affirmative Action, And Diversity On Minority Student Recruitment At The University Of Alabama: A Longitudinal Perspective

    John L. Festervand

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the University of Alabama's positions, actions, policies, and accomplishments over the past forty years with respect to minority representation among its students and faculty. The impact and progression of these initiatives by the University of Alabama demonstrates strides have been made. The paper also examines the University's recruiting efforts to attract more minority faculty and students. The transition from integration to affirmative action to diversity in higher education also are examined.

  9. National technology needs assessment for the preparation and implementation of climate change action plans

    Berkel, C.W.M. van; Blonk, T.J.; Westra, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) it is recognised that developed countries have a responsibility in assisting developing countries and countries in economic transition in building a national capacity for the development, acquisition and transfer of Climate-related Technologies (CTs). Such assistance is most likely to be successful once it is tailored to the results of a sound assessment of the country`s development needs and once the results of this assessment have been endorsed by the most important stakeholders in the country. Recent insight in the opportunities and constraints for National (technology) Needs Assessments (NNAs) as planning tool for both capacity building and technology transfer regarding Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) is applied here to propose a participatory Climate Change Action Planning (CCAP) process. This participatory planning process is thought to serve the dual objective of defining a national Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) while at the same time contributing to the creation of a broad supportive basis for its acceptance and implementation among stakeholders in the developing country.

  10. Impact assessment modelling of matter-less stressors in the context of Life Cycle Assessment

    Cucurachi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In the last three decades, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework has grown to establish itself as the leading tool for the assessment of the environmental impacts of product systems.LCA studies are now conducted globally both in and outside the academia and also used as a basis for policy making.Now that the science behind existing and established impact assessment models is more solid, LCA modellers may work on deepening and broadening LCA, and on tackling the issues that make the framew...

  11. Offshore oil exploration and impact assessment in Greenland

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2016-01-01

    Greenland needs development. Oil and mineral extraction is pursued as a means to achieve economical growth. Fisheries, hunting and tourism are the main pillars in the Greenland economy in 2015. These businesses are however sensitive to potential negative impacts from oil and gas development. Local...... benefits are expected to derive from oil and gas projects, but these benefits cannot be achieved without careful planning and project management. To secure that negative impacts are mitigated and that positive outcomes are achieved, Impact Assessments (IA) have been implemented as in the Greenlandic...... regulation system in relation to oil and gas projects to promote sustainable development. Additional Impact Benefit Agreements (IBA) have to be negotiated between the communities potentially affected, the Government and the oil companies to assure that social investments are made to secure long-term benefits...

  12. Automated Research Impact Assessment: A New Bibliometrics Approach

    Drew, Christina H.; Pettibone, Kristianna G.; Finch, Fallis Owen; Giles, Douglas; Jordan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As federal programs are held more accountable for their research investments, The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has developed a new method to quantify the impact of our funded research on the scientific and broader communities. In this article we review traditional bibliometric analyses, address challenges associated with them, and describe a new bibliometric analysis method, the Automated Research Impact Assessment (ARIA). ARIA taps into a resource that has only rarely been used for bibliometric analyses: references cited in “important” research artifacts, such as policies, regulations, clinical guidelines, and expert panel reports. The approach includes new statistics that science managers can use to benchmark contributions to research by funding source. This new method provides the ability to conduct automated impact analyses of federal research that can be incorporated in program evaluations. We apply this method to several case studies to examine the impact of NIEHS funded research. PMID:26989272

  13. Impact of FDA Actions, DTCA, and Public Information on the Market for Pain Medication.

    Bradford, W David; Kleit, Andrew N

    2015-07-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most important classes of prescription drugs used by primary care physicians to manage pain. The NSAID class of products has a somewhat controversial history, around which a complex regulatory and informational environment has developed. This history includes a boxed warning mandated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for all NSAIDs in 2005. We investigate the impact that various information shocks have had on the use of prescription medications for pain in primary care in the USA. We accomplish this by extracting data on nearly 600,000 patients from a unique nationwide electronic medical record database and estimate the probability of any active prescription for the four types of pain medications as a function of FDA actions, advertising, media coverage, and patient characteristics. We find that even after accounting for multiple sources of information, the FDA label changes and boxed warnings had a significant effect on pain medication prescribing. The boxed warning did not have the same impact on the use of all NSAID inhibitors. We find that the boxed warning reduced the use of NSAID COX-2 inhibitor use, which was the focus of much of the press attention. In contrast, however, the warning actually increased the use of non-COX-2 NSAID inhibitors. Thus, the efficacy of the FDA's black box warning is clearly mixed. PMID:25059655

  14. Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change

    Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

  15. Partial sleep deprivation impacts impulsive action but not impulsive decision-making.

    Demos, K E; Hart, C N; Sweet, L H; Mailloux, K A; Trautvetter, J; Williams, S E; Wing, R R; McCaffery, J M

    2016-10-01

    Sleep deprivation may lead to increased impulsivity, however, previous literature has focused on examining effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) rather than the more common condition, partial sleep deprivation (PSD) or 'short sleep'. Moreover, it has been unclear whether PSD impacts impulse-related cognitive processes, and specifically if it differentially affects impulsive action versus impulsive decision-making. We sought to determine if short compared to long sleep (6 vs. 9h/night) impacts impulsive action via behavioral inhibition (Go/No-Go), and/or impulsive decision-making processes of risk taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task [BART]) and preferences for immediate over delayed rewards (Delay Discounting). In a within-subject design, 34 participants (71% female, mean age=37.0years, SD=10.54) were assigned to four consecutive nights of 6h/night (short sleep) and 9h/night (long sleep) in their own home in random counterbalanced order. Sleep was measured via wrist-worn actigraphs to confirm adherence to the sleep schedules (mean short sleep=5.9h, SD=0.3; mean long sleep=8.6h, SD=0.3, psleep conditions. Participants had more inhibition errors on the Go/No-Go task after short (mean false alarms=19.79%, SD=14.51) versus long sleep (mean=15.97%, SD=9.51, p=0.039). This effect was strongest in participants reporting longer habitual time in bed (p=0.04). There were no differences in performance following long- versus short-sleep for either delay discounting or the BART (p's>0.4). Overall, these results indicate that four days of PSD diminishes behavioral inhibition abilities, but may not alter impulsive decision-making. These findings contribute to the emerging understanding of how partial sleep deprivation, currently an epidemic, impacts cognitive ability. Future research should continue to explore the connection between PSD and cognitive functions, and ways to minimize the occurrence and negative consequences of short sleep. PMID:27267950

  16. Operable Unit 3: Proposed Plan/Environmental Assessment for interim remedial action

    This document presents a Proposed Plan and an Environmental Assessment for an interim remedial action to be undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) within Operable Unit 3 (OU3) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This proposed plan provides site background information, describes the remedial alternatives being considered, presents a comparative evaluation of the alternatives and a rationnale for the identification of DOE's preferred alternative, evaluates the potential environmental and public health effects associated with the alternatives, and outlines the public's role in helping DOE and the EPA to make the final decision on a remedy

  17. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects. In...... this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative...... potency factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated....

  18. Developing a Standardised Tool for Impact Assessment of INFLIBNET

    S. Ramesh,

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a standardised tool to measure the impact of INFLIBNET services.The methodology involves validation of the impact assessment scale by establishing reliability and validity. Construct validity was established initially, based on previous research findings on impact assessment. This was followed by content validity by asking opinion from three experts, who rated the scale to be highly valid, along with certain modifications. Later, Test Retest reliability was established using data from 21 respondents with an interval 75 days. ‘r’ value ranges from 0.46 – 0.49 for different sub-scales. Alpha co-efficiency was also calculated c value range between 0.54 and 0.80, Thus, the scale was found to be stable and valid and ready for identifying impact of INFLIBNET services. The paper involves application of Psychometric in the field of Library Science, emphasizing the importance of standardisation in assessment of any new resources/ service.

  19. Injury risk assessment of non-lethal projectile head impacts.

    Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as "force wall approach" suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the "force wall approach" and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

  20. Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface–atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo—and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO2 and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: ► A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. ► Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. ► Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. ► Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed methodologies are elaborated.

  1. Cyber threat impact assessment and analysis for space vehicle architectures

    McGraw, Robert M.; Fowler, Mark J.; Umphress, David; MacDonald, Richard A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper covers research into an assessment of potential impacts and techniques to detect and mitigate cyber attacks that affect the networks and control systems of space vehicles. Such systems, if subverted by malicious insiders, external hackers and/or supply chain threats, can be controlled in a manner to cause physical damage to the space platforms. Similar attacks on Earth-borne cyber physical systems include the Shamoon, Duqu, Flame and Stuxnet exploits. These have been used to bring down foreign power generation and refining systems. This paper discusses the potential impacts of similar cyber attacks on space-based platforms through the use of simulation models, including custom models developed in Python using SimPy and commercial SATCOM analysis tools, as an example STK/SOLIS. The paper discusses the architecture and fidelity of the simulation model that has been developed for performing the impact assessment. The paper walks through the application of an attack vector at the subsystem level and how it affects the control and orientation of the space vehicle. SimPy is used to model and extract raw impact data at the bus level, while STK/SOLIS is used to extract raw impact data at the subsystem level and to visually display the effect on the physical plant of the space vehicle.

  2. Assessment of aircraft impact loads on the design of ITER buildings

    The design of ITER buildings and main mechanical components must consider the effect of a variety of external hazards, being aircraft impact among them. Therefore, it is the objective of the work presented in this paper to perform a first assessment on the subject. The methodology proposed by ITER to assess the effect of aircraft impact on the design of the Tokamak Complex is inspired by ETCC, which was developed for the European Pressurized Reactor. Thus, its applicability to ITER experimental nuclear facilities may raise some specific problems, since the consequences of the methodology and model proposed for aircraft impacts are not very well known. The work presented in this paper aims to assess the applicability of the dynamic simplified model proposed by ITER and perform a first check of the basic design of the aircraft crash protection concrete structure of the Tokamak Complex. The analysis is based on the simplified methodology, and is limited to a limited number of configurations. Moreover, in order to provide a guide for definition of the final geometry, the material choices of concrete structures, and the steel reinforcement ratios of the aircraft crash protection structures, an optimization analyses has been performed. It is important to note that, since the Tokamak Complex is seismically isolated in the horizontal plane, the floor response spectra (FRS) caused by an aircraft impact could be more important than those induced by seismic action. Therefore, in order to make a preliminary assessment on this issue, the FRS caused by an aircraft impact in some representative scenarios has been generated.

  3. A Contribution to the Built Heritage Environmental Impact Assessment

    Žarnić, R.; Rajčić, V.; Skordaki, N.

    2015-08-01

    The understanding and assessment of environmental impact on heritage assets is of the highest importance for heritage preservation through well-organized maintenance based on proper decision-making. The effort towards development of protocol that would enable comparison of data on heritage assets in Europe and Mediterranean countries was done through EU Project European Cultural Heritage Identity Card. The special attention was paid to classification of environmental and man-induced risks to heritage. In the present paper the idea of EU CHIC is presented. Environmental risks are discussed in context of their influence on structure of heritage buildings that are exposed to sudden environmental impacts.

  4. Assessment of the health impact of an environmental pollution and quantitative assessment of health risks

    The report made by a working group is written for experts in health risk assessment or for professionals involved in risk management. It proposes a methodological and conceptual framework which could build a unified approach to a quantitative assessment of health risks. In the first part, under the form of questions and answers, it defines the health impact, describes how to assess the excess of individual risk and the related hypothesis, how to pass from the excess of individual risk to the health impact, how to express the results of an health impact calculation, how to take the lack of knowledge into account at the different steps of this calculation, what is the significance of the result of such a calculation, and how useful an health impact assessment can be. The second part proposes a more detailed presentation of the scientific background for the health impact calculation with its indicators, its uncertainties, its practice in other countries, its relevance, and its fields of application. Then, after a comment of the dose-response relationship, it reports the scientific validity of the assessment of a number of cases

  5. Impact of action primes on implicit processing of thematic and functional similarity relations: evidence from eye-tracking.

    Pluciennicka, Ewa; Wamain, Yannick; Coello, Yann; Kalénine, Solène

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the role of action representations in thematic and functional similarity relations between manipulable artifact objects. Recent behavioral and neurophysiological evidence indicates that while they are all relevant for manipulable artifact concepts, semantic relations based on thematic (e.g., saw-wood), specific function similarity (e.g., saw-axe), and general function similarity (e.g., saw-knife) are differently processed, and may relate to different levels of action representation. Point-light displays of object-related actions previously encoded at the gesture level (e.g., "sawing") or at the higher level of action representation (e.g., "cutting") were used as primes before participants identified target objects (e.g., saw) among semantically related and unrelated distractors (e.g., wood, feather, piano). Analysis of eye movements on the different objects during target identification informed about the amplitude and the timing of implicit activation of the different semantic relations. Results showed that action prime encoding impacted the processing of thematic relations, but not that of functional similarity relations. Semantic competition with thematic distractors was greater and earlier following action primes encoded at the gesture level compared to action primes encoded at higher level. As a whole, these findings highlight the direct influence of action representations on thematic relation processing, and suggest that thematic relations involve gesture-level representations rather than intention-level representations. PMID:26077343

  6. Olympia-South Tacoma reconductor project: Final environmental assessment and mitigation action plan

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to change a 230,000-volt (230-kV) transmission line that runs between Olympia Substation and South Tacoma Switching Station, a distance of about 58 kilometers (36 miles). Under the proposal, they would restrict the line with slightly larger new wire in order to improve line safety. An Environmental Assessment (EA) was prepared to determine whether the proposal would cause any significant environmental impact. The EA was reviewed by the public in December 1995. This Final EA has revisions that address the public comments. It was found that the project would cause little overall environmental impact and a Finding of No Significant Impact has been completed

  7. The assessment of future human actions at radioactive waste disposal sites: An international perspective

    For some deep geological disposal systems, the level of confinement provided by the natural and engineered barriers is considered to be so high that the greatest long-term risks associated with waste disposal may arise from the possibility of future human actions breaching the natural and/or engineered barrier systems. Following a Workshop in 1989, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency established a Working Group on Assessment of Future Human Actions (FHA) at Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites. This Group met four times in the period 1991-1993, and has extensively reviewed approaches to and experience of incorporating the effects of FHA into long-term performance assessments (PAs). The Working Group's report reviews the main issues concerning the treatment of FHA, presents a general framework for the quantitative consideration of FHA in radioactive waste disposal programmes, and discusses means to reduce the risks associated with FHA. The Working Group concluded that FHA must be considered in PAs, although FHA where the actors were cognizant of the risks could be ignored. Credit can be taken for no more than several hundred years of active site control; additional efforts should therefore be taken to reduce the risks associated with FHA. International agreement on principles for the construction of FHA scenarios would build confidence, as would further discussion concerning regulatory policies for judging the risks associated with FHA

  8. Concerted action for offshore wind energy deployment (COD). Overview of Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind energy

    Roth, E.M.; Verhoef, L.A.; Dingenouts, M.W.L.

    2004-09-01

    This report is the result of an analysis of all publications on the environmental impacts of offshore wind parks, which have been collected and inserted into a database by the members of the COD working group. The purpose of the overview is to unveil and compare the already available body of reports on Environmental Research of offshore wind energy in a structured way. In this overview the following questions will be addressed: which studies have been published until now? (Chapter 2); what baseline studies were carried out and what methodologies have been studied? (Chapter 3); what are the impacts of Offshore Wind Farms? (Chapter 4); what can be concluded from the reports in the database (Chapter 5); what recommendations are possible up to now? (Chapter 6). Chapter 5 contains recommendations for the environmental research method to be used to obtain the most unequivocal results, the need-to-know information for baseline and effect studies for a good Environmental Impact Assessment and which environmental issues should be studied on a European rather than national.

  9. Concerted action for offshore wind energy deployment (COD). Overview of Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind energy

    This report is the result of an analysis of all publications on the environmental impacts of offshore wind parks, which have been collected and inserted into a database by the members of the COD working group. The purpose of the overview is to unveil and compare the already available body of reports on Environmental Research of offshore wind energy in a structured way. In this overview the following questions will be addressed: which studies have been published until now? (Chapter 2); what baseline studies were carried out and what methodologies have been studied? (Chapter 3); what are the impacts of Offshore Wind Farms? (Chapter 4); what can be concluded from the reports in the database (Chapter 5); what recommendations are possible up to now? (Chapter 6). Chapter 5 contains recommendations for the environmental research method to be used to obtain the most unequivocal results, the need-to-know information for baseline and effect studies for a good Environmental Impact Assessment and which environmental issues should be studied on a European rather than national

  10. Silver emissions and their environmental impacts: a multilevel assessment.

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Graedel, T E

    2007-09-01

    A detailed accounting of environmental releases of silver is presented for the year 1997, based on data from Yale University's Stocks and Flows (STAF) project and other sources. The analysis is carried out for 64 countries, eight regions, and the world. From the chemical composition and receiving media of these different releases, each emission category is assigned an environmental impact score in accordance with the Indiana Relative Chemical Hazard (IRCH) ranking system. Flows are scaled by impact and land area to form an overall semiquantitative assessment of the environmental impact of silver. Of the 64 countries, the United States has the highest gross emissions for nearly all flows to the environment. On a regional basis, Asia is the largest emitter of silver directly to land and water. In major silver-producing countries, tailings tend to have the highest environmental impact of any emissions category; in nonproducing countries, it is dissipation to land (Hong Kong having the highest impact in this category). Globally, more than 13 Gg of silver are emitted annually to the environment, with that in tailings and landfills making up almost three-fourths of the total. The utility of this method for evaluating the environmental impact of other metals is explored. PMID:17937316

  11. Trends in environmental impact assessment of energy projects

    This document is designed to provide guidance for EIAs associated with energy projects, and particularly to discuss the economic, risk and institutional/public participation changes now taking place, It begins by examining the meaning of the term environmental impact assessment (EIA), and outlines the components of such an assessment. EIAs play an important role in obtaining developmental aid, but there are special problems and constraints associated with preparing them in developing countries. A discussion of these factors is followed by individual chapters on the economic, methodological and institutional changes noted above, as well as the requirements for specific multilateral institutions

  12. A probabilistic approach to Radiological Environmental Impact Assessment

    Since a radiological environmental impact assessment typically relies on limited data and poorly based extrapolation methods, point estimations, as implied by a deterministic approach, do not suffice. To be of practical use for risk management, it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty margins of the estimates as well. In this paper we discuss how to work out a probabilistic approach for dealing with uncertainties in assessments of the radiological risks to non-human biota of a radioactive contamination. Possible strategies for deriving the relevant probability distribution functions from available empirical data and theoretical knowledge are outlined

  13. Planning Environmental Impact Assessment Orienting Sustainable Development:Opportunities and Challenges

    Sun Yanjun; Chen Xingeng; Bao Yun; Peng Xiaochun; Gao Changbo

    2005-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment is a frontier subject in the field of Environmental Impact Assessment. In the past two decades, especially in recent years, much more importance has been attached to Strategic Environmental Assessment. The Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the P.R.China which was promulgated provides a great opportunity for the development of Planning Environmental Impact Assessment and brings great challenges for the development of traditional Project Environmental Impact Assessment and Planning Environmental Impact Assessment at the same time.In order to promote the implementation of"The EIA Law", the inherent limitations of Project Environmental Impact Assessment must be identified sufficiendy and the theory research and practice of Planning Environmental Impact Assessment should be strengthened as well. Measures should be taken currendy to enforce the operation system. The authors wish to offer a few references to the progress and implementation of Planning Environmental Impact Assessment in China.

  14. Thermal impact assessment of multi power plant operations on estuaries

    The assessment of the thermal impact of multi power plant operations on large estuaries requires careful consideration of the problems associated with: re-entrainment, re-circulation, thermal interaction, delay in the attainment of thermal equilibrium state, and uncertainty in specifying open boundaries and open boundary conditions of the regions, which are critically important in the analysis of the thermal conditions in receiving water bodies with tidal dominated, periodically reversing flow conditions. The results of an extensive study in the Hudson River at Indian Point, 42 miles upstream of the ocean end at the Battery, concluded that the tidal-transient, multi-dimensional discrete-element (UTA) thermal transport models (ESTONE, FLOTWO, TMPTWO computer codes) and the near-field far-field zone-matching methodology can be employed with a high degree of reliability in the assessment of the thermal impact of multi power plant operations on tidal dominated estuaries

  15. A framework for social life cycle impact assessment

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Schierbeck, Jens

    2006-01-01

    providing information about the potential social impacts on people caused by the activities in the life cycle of their product. The development of the methodology has been guided by a business perspective accepting that companies, on the one hand, have responsibility for the people affected by their...... the companies along the life cycle to the product. This need is not present in Environmental LCA, where we base the connection on the physical link which exists between process and product. (2) Boundaries of the product system are determined with respect to the influence that the product manufacturer......Goal, Scope and Background. To enhance the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool in business decision-making, a methodology for Social life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is being developed. Social LCA aims at facilitating companies to conduct business in a socially responsible manner by...

  16. A method of impact assessment for ionising radiation on wildlife

    A method for undertaking an impact assessment of ionising radiation on wildlife has been developed for the UK Environment Agency, who has a legal requirement to assess the impacts of consents and authorisations for discharges under the Habitats Regulations (1994). A simple approach has been adopted based on the latest thinking in the field, in which the calculation of doses to wildlife are determined by their size, internal incorporation of radionuclides and external exposure in the environment. The doses are calculated either by using literature derived values or empirical measurements of radionuclide concentrations at the site of interest. The data required to enable dose calculations are: - Concentrations of each radionuclide in the soil/sediment, water or air (from empirical or modelled approaches); - Concentration factors for each radionuclide in each organism to be assessed relative to soil, water or air (based on literature values or actual measurements at the site of interest); - Organism dimensions (as an ellipsoid); - The proportion of time the organism spends in different 'compartments' of the ecosystem. The impact assessment approach then focuses on three ecosystems representative of those considered potentially most at risk from the impact of authorised radioactive discharges, namely a coastal grassland (terrestrial ecosystem); estuarine and freshwater ecosystems. A range of target organisms have been chosen to be representative of species found in each ecosystem. Several radionuclides were initially selected for the impact assessment: - Estuarine and freshwater ecosystems: 3H, 14C, 99Tc, 90Sr, 137Cs, 239+240Pu, 238U, 129I, 210Po - Terrestrial ecosystem: 3H, 14C, 35S, 90Sr, 137Cs, 239+240Pu, 238U, 129I, 226Ra. Subsequently, the method has been extended to additional radionuclides, including all the major natural series radionuclides. Dose calculations have been programmed into user-friendly Excel spreadsheets using Visual Basic for Applications. The

  17. Proposing a framework for Health Impact Assessment in Iran

    Fakhri, Ali; Harris, Patrick; Maleki, MohammadReza

    2015-01-01

    Background Health impact assessments (HIA) of policies and projects are conducted differently in different contexts although there has been less HIA research to date in non-western countries. Global HIA research has however suggested that the technical conduct of HIAs is tied to broader conditions and influences to do with decision making and policy development. This study was conducted to develop a conceptual framework for progressing HIA in Iran including all factors influencing HIA plannin...

  18. Lebanon : Economic and Social Impact Assessment of the Syrian Conflict

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    To provide a solid basis to define its needs and frame its priorities in terms of the specific assistance it seeks from the international community as well as to inform its own domestic policy response, the Government of Lebanon (GoL) requested the World Bank to lead an Economic and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) of the Syrian conflict on Lebanon. Upon an official request from the Prime M...

  19. Social Impact Assessment in Urban and Regional Planning

    Milojkić, Danijela

    2012-01-01

    European institutions, international organizations and a number of theoretical works hold a view that the Social impact assessment - the SIA analysis - contributes to a stable, equitable and sustainable development management, preventing the unnecessary waste of money and other resources on neutralizing the negative effects of planned interventions. However, most often than not, the phrase ‘planned intervention’ does not denote an intervention in the field of urban and spatial ...

  20. Modelling of tilt rotor mission performance to assess environmental impact

    Ruge Montilla, Jhonn Hamberth

    2012-01-01

    New technologies and new rotorcraft operations are being developed in order to meet new environmental requirements such as noise reduction and less pollutant emissions. In this project a parametric study was developed over a tilt rotor model in order to assess the environmental impact in terms of operational parameter and fuel burned looking at pollutant emission released into the air such as NOx, CO, UHC, PM, CO2 & H2O In order to perform the study previously stated, a computational to...

  1. The Impact of Inclusion Criteria in Health Economic Assessments

    Anke Richter; Patricia Thieda; Kylie Thaler; Gerald Gartlehner

    2011-01-01

    The debate surrounding whether the findings of efficacy studies are applicable to real-world treatment situations is ongoing. The issue of lack of applicability due to a lack of clinical heterogeneity could be addressed by employing less restrictive inclusion criteria. Given that health economic assessments based on cost-effectiveness measures are required by many governments and insurance providers, the impact of this choice may be far reaching. The objective of this article was to explore t...

  2. Climate Change Impact Assessment of Food- and Waterborne Diseases

    Jan C. Semenza; Herbst, Susanne; Rechenburg, Andrea; Jonathan E. Suk; Höser, Christoph; Schreiber, Christiane; Kistemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The PubMed and ScienceDirect bibliographic databases were searched for the period of 1998–2009 to evaluate the impact of climatic and environmental determinants on food- and waterborne diseases. The authors assessed 1,642 short and concise sentences (key facts), which were extracted from 722 relevant articles and stored in a climate change knowledge base. Key facts pertaining to temperature, precipitation, water, and food for 6 selected pathogens were scrutinized, evaluated, and compiled acco...

  3. Using Event Studies to Assess the Impact of Unexpected Events

    James V Koch; Robert N Fenili

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of the financial impact of unexpected events is the realm of the “event study.” We examine how CEOs, boards, and public policymakers can utilize event studies to inform and improve their decision making. The breadth of application of event studies is surprisingly broad and ranges from situations involving the death of a CEO to emergency product recalls. We present illustrative event studies for two Steve Jobs-related announcements concerning his health in order to ...

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment in the Visegrad Group countries

    Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental impacts, or transboundary impact assessment. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA

  5. Flexible Automation: Two Approaches to the Assessment of Employment Impacts

    Goldberg, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    This paper on flexible automation written by Dr. Goldberg was presented to a IIASA workshop which was held in June 1982 in Berlin (GDR) and organized by the Management and Technology Area in cooperation with the Academy of Sciences of the GDR. This paper is particularly interesting in several respects. Firstly, it addresses the problem which corresponds to the Institute's interest. The main issue addressed is the impact assessment of flexible automation in employment. Two methodological ...

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment in the Visegrad Group countries

    Gałaś, Slávka, E-mail: sgalas@geol.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Analysis, Cartography and Economic Geology Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 059 Krakow (Poland); Gałaś, Andrzej, E-mail: pollux@geol.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Analysis, Cartography and Economic Geology Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 059 Krakow (Poland); Zeleňáková, Martina, E-mail: martina.zelenakova@tuke.sk [Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Zvijáková, Lenka, E-mail: lenkazvijakova@gmail.com [Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Fialová, Jitka, E-mail: jitka.fialova@mendelu.cz [Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Department of Landscape Management, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental impacts, or transboundary impact assessment. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA

  7. Health Impact Assessment of an oil drilling project in California

    McCallum, Lindsay C.; Kathleen Souweine; Mary McDaniel; Bart Koppe; Christine McFarland; Katherine Butler; Ollson, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was conducted to evaluate the potential community health implications of a proposed oil drilling and production project in Hermosa Beach, California. The HIA considered 17 determinants of health that fell under 6 major categories (i.e., air quality, water and soil quality, upset conditions, noise and light emissions, traffic, and community livability). Material and Methods: This paper attempts to address some of the gaps within the HIA practice b...

  8. Scenario analysis in spatial impact assessment:a methodological approach

    Torrieri, F.; Nijkamp, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of Spatial or Territorial Impact Assessment as a new tool for balanced urban or regional planning from a long-term sustainability perspective. It then argues that modern scenario methods may be a useful complement to pro-active and future oriented urban or regional strategic thinking. A cognitive interactive model for scenario analysis is next presented and its advantages are outlined.

  9. Health impact assessment of climate change in Bangladesh

    Global climate change (GCC) may have serious and irreversible impacts. Improved methods are needed to predict and quantify health impacts, so that appropriate risk management strategies can be focused on vulnerable areas. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is proposed as an effective tool in environmental health impact assessment (HIA). The DALY accounts for years of life lost to premature death and/or morbidity. Both the DALY and the determinants-of-health approach are applied to HIA of GCC in Bangladesh. Based on historical data, a major storm event may result in approximately 290 DALY per 1000 population, including both deaths and injuries, compared to a current all-cause rate of about 280 per 1000 in the region. A more precise result would require a large input of data; however, this level of analysis may be sufficient to rank risks, and to motivate and target risk management efforts

  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Corrective Action Plan in response to Tiger Team assessment. Volume 1, Revision 5

    Kuliasha, Michael A.

    1991-08-23

    This report presents a complete response to the Tiger Team assessment that was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) from October 22, 1990, through November 30, 1990. The action plans have undergone both a discipline review and a cross-cutting review with respect to root cause. In addition, the action plans have been integrated with initiatives being pursued across Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in response to Tiger Team findings at other DOE facilities operated by Energy Systems. The root cause section is complete and describes how ORNL intends to address the root causes of the findings identified during the assessment. The action plan has benefited from a complete review by various offices at DOE Headquarters as well as review by the Tiger Team that conducted the assessment to ensure that the described actions are responsive to the observed problems.

  11. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 2

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project is to eliminate, reduce, or address to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities. One of the first steps in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This report contains the comments and responses received on the draft PEIS

  12. Health impact assessment: where does the law come in?

    The European Convention on Human Rights has profound implications for HIA. Public authorities have a positive obligation to stop others from infringing citizens' rights to life and to respect for private and family life. These rights are qualified and have now been interpreted in many thousands of cases. Authorities must, as best they reasonably can, secure the safety of citizens and inform the citizens about the safety or otherwise of any development. Authorities have to strike a balance between the individuals rights and the public benefit. Any public authority before approving a scheme or reaching a regulatory decision which may impact on human rights must consider the nature of that impact, its seriousness and whether it can be justified on public interest grounds. A number of court judgements in cases concerning these issues are discussed. This article is not about how certain of the ideas underlying Health Impact Assessment, in certain circumstances, are or can be incorporated in existing legally recognised instruments such as Environmental Impact Assessments. Nor is it about the statutory powers which authorities--local and national--could, if so inclined, exercise, to further the health and well-being of their constituents. It is about something rather more general, important and yet rather formless, namely the duties identified by the European Court of Human Rights as resting upon public authorities to take steps to safeguard the public health rights of their citizens

  13. Advances and challenges of incorporating ecosystem services into impact assessment.

    Rosa, Josianne Claudia Sales; Sánchez, Luis E

    2016-09-15

    An ecosystem services approach (ESA) to assess the environmental and social impacts of projects is a conceptual innovation that contributes to overcome two widely acknowledged deficiencies of impact assessment (IA): integration of knowledge areas and participation of affected communities. This potential was demonstrated through a practical application to a large mining project, showing evidence of advances in relation to current practice and identifying challenges. Data was obtained from the environmental impact study of the reviewed project and its supplements; additional data to fulfill the needs of the ESA were collected using rapid appraisal techniques. Results show that the ESA provides: (i) a more effective scoping; (ii) a contribution to delimitate the study area; (iii) a more detailed identification of impacts; (iv) a determination of significance inclusive of the perspective of affected communities; (v) a design of mitigation focused on human well-being. The challenges of using the ESA fall into two groups: the limitations inherent to the concept and those that can be overcome by furthering research and advancing practical applications. This research added evidence to previous studies showing that incorporating ecosystem services into IA can improve practice. PMID:27285950

  14. Mutagenesis and teratogenesis as end points in health impact assessment

    The genetic and teratogenic effects of agents released to the environment as a consequence of energy production are exceedingly difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, these effects on human health may be very costly in the context of cost-benefit analysis. In fact, the procedures required to limit mutagenic or teratogenic agents to the levels considered acceptable by regulatory bodies may constitute a major fraction of the cost of energy, especially where prudence dictates that a lack of empirical data requires extremely conservative regulations. Experience with ionizing radiation and with regulation of nuclear power installations illustrates the difficulty of genetic and teratogenic health impact assessment and the great uncertainties involved, as well as the influence of these impacts on the regulatory process and the consequent increased cost of power from this source. Data on genetic and teratogenic impacts on human health from chemical agents released to the environment by other energy technologies are much less complete, and, because of the large number of potentially active agents involved, it is evident that generic solutions to health impact assessment will be required to evaluate these energy alternatives

  15. Preliminary impact assessment of effusive eruptions at Etna volcano

    Cappello, Annalisa; Michaud-Dubuy, Audrey; Branca, Stefano; De Beni, Emanuela; Del Negro, Ciro

    2016-04-01

    Lava flows are a recurring and widespread form of volcanic activity that threaten people and property around the world. The growing demographic congestion around volcanic structures increases the potential risks and costs that lava flows represent, and leads to a pressing need for faster and more accurate assessment of lava flow impact. To fully evaluate potential effects and losses that an effusive eruption may cause to society, property and environment, it is necessary to consider the hazard, the distribution of the exposed elements at stake and the associated vulnerability. Lava flow hazard assessment is at an advanced state, whereas comprehensive vulnerability assessment is lacking. Cataloguing and analyzing volcanic impacts provide insight on likely societal and physical vulnerabilities during future eruptions. Here we quantify the lava flow impact of two past main effusive eruptions of Etna volcano: the 1669, which is the biggest and destructive flank eruption to have occurred on Etna in historical time, and the 1981, lasting only 6 days, but characterized by an intense eruptive dynamics. Different elements at stake are considered, including population, hospitals, critical facilities, buildings of historic value, industrial infrastructures, gas and electricity networks, railways, roads, footways and finally land use. All these elements were combined with the 1669 and 1981 lava flow fields to quantify the social damage and economic loss.

  16. Impacts of Climate Change on Brazilian Agriculture : Refocusing Impact Assessments to 2050

    World Bank, (WB)

    2010-01-01

    This report evaluates the requirements for an assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture to guide policy makers on investment priorities and phasing. Because agriculture is vital for national food security and is a strong contributor to Brazil's GDP growth, there is growing concern that Brazilian agriculture is increasingly vulnerable to climate variability and change. To meet nat...

  17. Assessing the environmental impact of buildings in the UK

    Bartlett, P.; Baldwin, R. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The protection of the environment is one of today`s key issues demanding international action. In the UK, the government has issued a {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} White Paper and two updating reviews, setting out its Agenda; businesses are also responding by developing environmental policy statements as part of their business strategy; general public concern is evident through changes in purchasing practices and an increasing interest in recycling waste such as paper, cans, and bottles. In Europe, initiatives are being taken to develop ecolabelling schemes specifically for assessing consumer products. Environmental management systems are being developed through BSI and internationally. Underlying these concerns is a perception that industrialised economies have significantly and irreversibly changed (or perhaps about to change) the planet`s climate, atmosphere and ecosystems. This perception is fuelled by reports in the media of rising pollution, poor air quality, threats to ecosystems such as historic hedgerows, and even graffiti and litter. This paper describes action taken by the BRE to set standards for environmentally friendlier buildings which uses market forces to bring about environmental sensitivity in the industry. BREEAM is an environmental assessment method, embodies in an accreditation scheme, which is enjoying considerable success in the UK. The paper describes its development and underlying philosophy and provides details of its content and operation.

  18. Assessment of the human impact on the abiotic environment Indicators for a sustainable development

    Environmental protection against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation, radioactive materials and other harmful substances is more than to avoid acute dangers or risks for humans or for non-human living organisms. To allow for a sustainable development the abiotic part of the environment must not be neglected in concepts of environmental protection. To this end, indicators are needed for the assessment of the human impact on the abiotic environment which allows to compare different human actions with respect to sustainability and to choose appropriate measures in the competition for a sustainable development. In this paper, the needs for an assessment of the abiotic environment are exemplified and some considerations for suitable indicators are presented. (author)

  19. Revised draft Hanford remedial action environmental impact statement and comprehensive land-use plan

    This report evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with implementing a comprehensive land-use plan for the Hanford Site for at least the next 50 years. With the exception of the required No-Action Alternative, each of the six alternatives presented represents a Tribal, Federal, state, or local agency's Preferred Alternative. Each alternative is presented separately. The DOE's Preferred Alternative anticipates multiple uses of the Hanford Site, including: consolidating waste management operations in the Central Plateau, allowing industrial development in the eastern and southern portions of the site, increasing recreational access to the Columbia River, and expanding the Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge to include all of the Wahluke Slope (managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service). The Hanford Site occupies 1,517 square kilometers (km2) (586 square miles [mi2]) in southeastern Washington. Today, the Hanford Site has diverse missions associated with environmental restoration, waste management, and science and technology. These missions have resulted in the growing need for a comprehensive, long-term approach to planning and development for the Site

  20. Revised draft Hanford remedial action environmental impact statement and comprehensive land-use plan: Executive summary

    This report evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with implementing a comprehensive land-use plan for the Hanford Site for at least the next 50 years. With the exception of the required No-Action Alternative, each of the six alternatives presented represents a Tribal, Federal, state, or local agency's Preferred Alternative. Each alternative is presented separately. The DOE's Preferred Alternative anticipates multiple uses of the Hanford Site, including: consolidating waste management operations in the Central Plateau, allowing industrial development in the eastern and southern portions of the site, increasing recreational access to the Columbia River, and expanding the Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge to include all of the Wahluke Slope (managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service). The Hanford Site occupies 1,517 square kilometers (km2) (586 square miles [mi2]) in southeastern Washington. Today, the Hanford Site has diverse missions associated with environmental restoration, waste management, and science and technology. These missions have resulted in the growing need for a comprehensive, long-term approach to planning and development for the Site

  1. MODEL OF POLICE OFFICERS’ ACTION ON USING THE MEANS OF PHYSICAL IMPACT ON OFFENDERS

    Aznaur Hasanovich Kodzokov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A special study was carried out with the aim to form a model of operational service of police officers for use of means of physical impact on offenders.The study used such methods of research as: content analysis of literary sources, interview of 164 and a pilot survey of 72 specialists of fire and physical training in all regions of Russia, a survey of 100 staff-members of District Departments of Internal Affairs. Respondents were police officers with multiyear experience (over 10 years in activities, directly related to single combat and detention of offenders.The high importance of disobedience of offenders implies purposeful training of police officers on adequate actions in such situations. However, none of the programs on physical training provide appropriate educational material. The experience of inspections shows that cadets and students of educational institutions and employees of the Police have no idea how the legal means can be used to enforce their claims against the offender, who offers no resistance but simply does not obey.Dangerous situations in professional activities of police officers remain of high importance. The study shows that in almost every second case police officers are actively attacked and in every fifth case they are exposed to cold steel or firearms used by offenders.

  2. Assessing the likely impacts of climate change on infrastructure

    Full text: In 2005, the Victorian Government contracted CSIRO, Maunsell Australia and Phillips Fox to undertake an overview assessment of the likely impacts of climate change on the State's infrastructure, establish the categories of infrastructure most at risk and outline opportunities for adaptation responses. The Government released the assessment in May 2007. Climate change poses a significant risk to infrastructure and its owners, managers and long-term operators. The work was undertaken on the basis that it should not be assumed that future climate and its impacts will simply be an extension of what has been experienced in the past. Major infrastructure items have long useful life spans (20-100 years). A bridge built today is expected to still be in use in tens, if not hundreds, of years. This means that recognition of likely climate change impacts and appropriate adaptation measures should occur now. Recognition of the risks associated with climate change is a valuable first step towards better planning of new infrastructure investments and reducing potential damage to existing infrastructure.lnfrastructure types examined were water, power, telecommunications, transport and buildings. The climate change projections used in this report are based on CSIRO climate modelling, supported by findings from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climatic and other variables considered were temperature, rainfall, available moisture, humidity, winds, fire-weather frequency and intensity, solar radiation levels and sea-level rise. For each climate change variable identified, we described a worst-case impact for low and high climate change projections for the years 2030 and 2070. The assessment was made on the basis of 'business as usual' with no adaptation responses to climate change. The report also details the current governance structures associated with each infrastructure type. Overall, the report assessed the likely impact of climate change on

  3. Data for the screening assessment. Volume 2: Appendices, Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    The Columbia River is a critical resource for residents of the Pacific Northwest. This resource drew the Manhattan Project's planners to the site now called Hanford to produce nuclear weapon materials. Production of those materials has left behind a legacy of chemical and radioactive contamination and materials that have, are, and will continue to pose a threat to the Columbia river for the foreseeable future. To evaluate the impact to the river from this Hanford-derived contamination, the US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and State of Washington Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party agencies) initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, stakeholder, tribal, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. A major CRCIA Team decision was to organize CRCIA into phases, with additional phases to be identified as warranted after completion of the initial phase. The initial phase is comprised of two parts: (1) a screening assessment to evaluate the current impact to the river resulting from Hanford-derived contamination and (2) identification of requirements considered necessary by the CRCIA Management Team for a comprehensive assessment of impact to the river. The purpose of the screening assessment is to support cleanup decisions. The scope of the screening assessment is to evaluate the current risk to humans and the environment resulting from Hanford-derived contaminants. The screening assessment has the primary components of: identifying contaminants to be assessed; identifying a variety of exposure scenarios to evaluate human contaminant exposure; identifying a variety of other species to evaluate ecological contaminant exposure; and assessing risks posed by exposure of humans and other species to the contaminants. This volume compiles the data from this study

  4. Fungidice Risk Assessment for Aquatic Ecosystems: Importance of Interspecific Variation, Toxic Mode of Action, and Exposure Regime

    Maltby, L.; Brock, T.C.M.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The risk assessment of fungicides in Europe uses information from ecotoxicity studies performed on vertebrates, invertebrates, and primary producers, but not nontarget fungi. But which toxicity data should be used to assess risk and how important are modes of action and exposure regimes? A data set

  5. The Assessment of a Tutoring Program to Meet CAS Standards Using a SWOT Analysis and Action Plan

    Fullmer, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the use of SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and subsequent action planning as a tool of self-assessment to meet CAS (Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education) requirements for systematic assessment. The use of the evaluation results to devise improvements to increase the…

  6. Action Research, Assessment, and Institutional Review Boards (IRB): Conflicting Demands or Productive Tension for the Academic Librarian?

    Farrell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This article puts forward an "assessment/action research/publication" cycle that integrates aspects of the assessment, research, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) processes to provide academic librarians with a systematic approach for balancing competing workplace demands and give library managers a roadmap for creating a…

  7. Human scenarios for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Napier, B.A.; Harper, B.L.; Lane, N.K.; Strenge, D.L.; Spivey, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Impact Assessment (CRCIA) was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to humans. Because humans affected by the Columbia river are involved in a wide range of activities, various scenarios have been developed on which to base the risk assessments. The scenarios illustrate the range of activities possible by members of the public coming in contact with the Columbia River so that the impact of contaminants in the river on human health can be assessed. Each scenario illustrates particular activity patterns by a specific group. Risk will be assessed at the screening level for each scenario. This report defines the scenarios and the exposure factors that will be the basis for estimating the potential range of risk to human health from Hanford-derived radioactive as well as non-radioactive contaminants associated with the Columbia River.

  8. Human scenarios for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Impact Assessment (CRCIA) was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to humans. Because humans affected by the Columbia river are involved in a wide range of activities, various scenarios have been developed on which to base the risk assessments. The scenarios illustrate the range of activities possible by members of the public coming in contact with the Columbia River so that the impact of contaminants in the river on human health can be assessed. Each scenario illustrates particular activity patterns by a specific group. Risk will be assessed at the screening level for each scenario. This report defines the scenarios and the exposure factors that will be the basis for estimating the potential range of risk to human health from Hanford-derived radioactive as well as non-radioactive contaminants associated with the Columbia River

  9. The 6/94 gap in health impact assessment

    Health impact assessment (HIA), a methodology that aims to facilitate the mitigation of negative and enhancement of positive health effects due to projects, programmes and policies, has been developed over the past 20-30 years. There is an underlying assumption that HIA has become a full fledged critical piece of the impact assessment process with a stature equal to both environmental and social impact assessments. This assumption needs to be supported by evidence however. Within the context of projects in developing country settings, HIA is simply a slogan without a clearly articulated and relevant methodology, offered by academia and having little or no salience in the decision-making process regarding impacts. This harsh assertion is supported by posing a simple question: 'Where in the world have HIAs been carried out?' To answer this question, we systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature and online HIA-specific databases. We identified 237 HIA-related publications, but only 6% of these publications had a focus on the developing world. What emerges is, therefore, a huge disparity, which we coin the 6/94 gap in HIA, even worse than the widely known 10/90 gap in health research (10% of health research funding is utilized for diseases causing 90% of the global burden of disease). Implications of this 6/94 gap in HIA are discussed with pointed emphasis on extractive industries (oil/gas and mining) and water resources development. We conclude that there is a pressing need to institutionalize HIA in the developing world, as a consequence of current predictions of major extractive industry and water resources development, with China's investments in these sectors across Africa being particularly salient

  10. Methodology for qualitative uncertainty assessment of climate impact indicators

    Otto, Juliane; Keup-Thiel, Elke; Rechid, Diana; Hänsler, Andreas; Pfeifer, Susanne; Roth, Ellinor; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    The FP7 project "Climate Information Portal for Copernicus" (CLIPC) is developing an integrated platform of climate data services to provide a single point of access for authoritative scientific information on climate change and climate change impacts. In this project, the Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS) has been in charge of the development of a methodology on how to assess the uncertainties related to climate impact indicators. Existing climate data portals mainly treat the uncertainties in two ways: Either they provide generic guidance and/or express with statistical measures the quantifiable fraction of the uncertainty. However, none of the climate data portals give the users a qualitative guidance how confident they can be in the validity of the displayed data. The need for such guidance was identified in CLIPC user consultations. Therefore, we aim to provide an uncertainty assessment that provides the users with climate impact indicator-specific guidance on the degree to which they can trust the outcome. We will present an approach that provides information on the importance of different sources of uncertainties associated with a specific climate impact indicator and how these sources affect the overall 'degree of confidence' of this respective indicator. To meet users requirements in the effective communication of uncertainties, their feedback has been involved during the development process of the methodology. Assessing and visualising the quantitative component of uncertainty is part of the qualitative guidance. As visual analysis method, we apply the Climate Signal Maps (Pfeifer et al. 2015), which highlight only those areas with robust climate change signals. Here, robustness is defined as a combination of model agreement and the significance of the individual model projections. Reference Pfeifer, S., Bülow, K., Gobiet, A., Hänsler, A., Mudelsee, M., Otto, J., Rechid, D., Teichmann, C. and Jacob, D.: Robustness of Ensemble Climate Projections

  11. An assessment of the atmospheric centers of action in the northern hemisphere winter

    Sun, X. J.; Wang, P. X.; Wang, J. X. L.

    2016-04-01

    In the northern hemisphere, there are six permanent or semi-permanent atmospheric activity centers, namely the Icelandic Low, Aleutian Low, India Low, Mongolia High, North Pacific High, and North Atlantic High. The first four are semi-permanent action centers and the last two are permanent circulation systems. The India Low exists only during the summer. By using 160 years (1850-2009) of monthly mean sea level pressure data from the Hadley Centre in the UK, we conduct a comprehensive study of the five boreal winter atmospheric centers of action (ACAs). Based on a unified definition and a method determined in previous studies, we calculate the indices of areal coverage (S), intensity (P), and position of action center (λ c, φ c) for each of these five ACAs. Through an in-depth analysis of these indices and their relationships with climate variables, we evaluate the indices by describing and explaining areal climate anomalies, particularly precipitation and temperature anomalies in China. We show that (1) ACAs significantly influence the climate anomalies of surrounding areas (2) the influences of oceanic ACAs are larger and the intensity anomalies of ACAs have a greater impact than their location displacement, and (3) ACAs exert more control on temperature than they do on precipitation. For the two ACAs over the north Atlantic, the impacts of their intensities on the anomalies of temperature and precipitation are similar. For the two ACAs over the north Pacific, their influences are almost the opposite. The most influential ACA for climate anomalies in China during the boreal winter is HMO. When HMO is stronger, China has a colder winter and it is wetter in the north. With stronger ACAs in the upstream, i.e., the Icelandic Low and North Atlantic High, northern China has a warmer winter. The ACAs over the north Pacific exert little influence on climate anomalies in China during winter. The analyses presented in this paper provide a set of useful indices for

  12. Oil spill impacts on mangroves: Recommendations for operational planning and action based on a global review.

    Duke, Norman C

    2016-08-30

    Mangrove tidal wetland habitats are recognised as highly vulnerable to large and chronic oil spills. This review of current literature and public databases covers the last 6 decades, summarising global data on oil spill incidents affecting, or likely to have affected, mangrove habitat. Over this period, there have been at least 238 notable oil spills along mangrove shorelines worldwide. In total, at least 5.5milliontonnes of oil has been released into mangrove-lined, coastal waters, oiling possibly up to around 1.94millionha of mangrove habitat, and killing at least 126,000ha of mangrove vegetation since 1958. However, there were assessment limitations with incomplete and unavailable data, as well as unequal coverage across world regions. To redress the gaps described here in reporting on oil spill impacts on mangroves and their recovery worldwide, a number of recommendations and suggestions are made for refreshing and updating standard operational procedures for responders, managers and researchers alike. PMID:27373945

  13. Uncertainty assessment tool for climate change impact indicators

    Otto, Juliane; Keup-Thiel, Elke; Jacob, Daniela; Rechid, Diana; Lückenkötter, Johannes; Juckes, Martin

    2015-04-01

    A major difficulty in the study of climate change impact indicators is dealing with the numerous sources of uncertainties of climate and non-climate data . Its assessment, however, is needed to communicate to users the degree of certainty of climate change impact indicators. This communication of uncertainty is an important component of the FP7 project "Climate Information Portal for Copernicus" (CLIPC). CLIPC is developing a portal to provide a central point of access for authoritative scientific information on climate change. In this project the Climate Service Center 2.0 is in charge of the development of a tool to assess the uncertainty of climate change impact indicators. The calculation of climate change impact indicators will include climate data from satellite and in-situ observations, climate models and re-analyses, and non-climate data. There is a lack of a systematic classification of uncertainties arising from the whole range of climate change impact indicators. We develop a framework that intends to clarify the potential sources of uncertainty of a given indicator and provides - if possible - solutions how to quantify the uncertainties. To structure the sources of uncertainties of climate change impact indicators, we first classify uncertainties along a 'cascade of uncertainty' (Reyer 2013). Our cascade consists of three levels which correspond to the CLIPC meta-classification of impact indicators: Tier-1 indicators are intended to give information on the climate system. Tier-2 indicators attempt to quantify the impacts of climate change on biophysical systems (i.e. flood risks). Tier-3 indicators primarily aim at providing information on the socio-economic systems affected by climate change. At each level, the potential sources of uncertainty of the input data sets and its processing will be discussed. Reference: Reyer, C. (2013): The cascade of uncertainty in modeling forest ecosystem responses to environmental change and the challenge of sustainable

  14. Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources.

    Beniston, Martin; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-09-15

    As the evidence for human induced climate change becomes clearer, so too does the realization that its effects will have impacts on numerous environmental and socio-economic systems. Mountains are recognized as very sensitive physical environments with populations whose histories and current social positions often strain their capacity to accommodate intense and rapid changes to their resource base. It is thus essential to assess the impacts of a changing climate, focusing on the quantity of water originating in mountain regions, particularly where snow and ice melt represent a large streamflow component as well as a local resource in terms of freshwater supply, hydropower generation, or irrigation. Increasing evidence of glacier retreat, permafrost degradation and reduced mountain snowpack has been observed in many regions, thereby suggesting that climate change may seriously affect streamflow regimes. These changes could in turn threaten the availability of water resources for many environmental and economic systems, and exacerbate a range of natural hazards that would compound these impacts. As a consequence, socio-economic structures of downstream living populations would be also impacted, calling for better preparedness and strategies to avoid conflicts of interest between water-dependent economic actors. This paper is thus an introduction to the Special Issue of this journal dedicated to the European Union Seventh Framework Program (EU-FP7) project ACQWA (Assessing Climate Impacts on the Quantity and Quality of WAter), a major European network of scientists that was coordinated by the University of Geneva from 2008 to 2014. The goal of ACQWA has been to address a number of these issues and propose a range of solutions for adaptation to change and to help improve water governance in regions where quantity, seasonality, and perhaps quality of water may substantially change in coming decades. PMID:24360916

  15. Application for approval of the Cold Lake Expansion Project: volume 2: environmental impact assessment: Part 1: biophysical and resource use assessment. Part 2: impact model descriptions

    An environmental assessment of the Cold Lake Expansion Project has been conducted to identify major issues of concern by public and government agencies, to determine means to eliminate or reduce those impacts, and to recommend any further efforts required to obtain missing information or monitor impacts. Volume 2 of the environmental impact assessment is divided into two parts. Part 1 (biophysical and resource use assessment) constitutes the primary environmental impact assessment document for the Cold Lake expansion project. It includes technical support documentation in regard to: (1) an assessment of noise impacts, (2) an assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, (3) a conceptual conservation and reclamation plan, (4) a historical resource impact assessment, and (5) a description of effects of oil spills on fish. Part 2 (impact model description) serves a reference document for part 1. It describes the approach taken in developing and assessing the impact models, discusses proposed methods for mitigation and management of residual impacts, and the recommended monitoring requirements for each of the major resource disciplines. The impact models describe the specific pathways through which impacts will occur as a result of interactions between project-related activities and important environmental components. 476 refs., 58 tabs., 23 figs

  16. 7 CFR 1940.318 - Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions.

    2010-01-01

    ... action has the potential for significantly affecting the quality of the human environment or will recommend that the action does not have this potential and, therefore, the preparation of an EIS is not... an action or comments or new or changed information relating to the action's potential...

  17. Balance in scientific impact assessment: the EGU Awards Committe experience

    Montanari, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of scientific impact is becoming an essential step all over the world for assigning academic positions, funding and recognition. Impact is generally assessed by means of objective bibliometric indicators which are frequently integrated with a subjective evaluation by one or more individuals. An essential requirement of impact assessment is to ensure balance across several potential discriminating factors, including gender, ethnics, culture, scientific field and many others. Scientific associations need to ensure balance in any step of their activity and in particular when electing their representatives, evaluating scientific contributions, reviewing papers and assigning awards. While ensuring balance is a strict necessity, how to get to target is still a matter of vivid debates. In fact, the context of science is very different with respect to the general context of society and the need for scientific associations to maintain confidentiality in their evaluation procedures makes the application of transparent procedures more complicated. This talk aims to present the experience and the efforts of the European Geosciences Union to ensure balance, with a particular focus on gender balance. Data and statistics will be presented in the attempt to provide constructive indications to get to the target of giving equal opportunities to researchers across gender, continents and ethnic groups. Science is a unifying discipline and balance will be vital to ensure that humans and our planet co-evolve sustainably.

  18. A Computer Program for Assessing Nuclear Safety Culture Impact

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Through several accidents of NPP including the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernobyl accidents in 1986, a lack of safety culture was pointed out as one of the root cause of these accidents. Due to its latent influences on safety performance, safety culture has become an important issue in safety researches. Most of the researches describe how to evaluate the state of the safety culture of the organization. However, they did not include a possibility that the accident occurs due to the lack of safety culture. Because of that, a methodology for evaluating the impact of the safety culture on NPP's safety is required. In this study, the methodology for assessing safety culture impact is suggested and a computer program is developed for its application. SCII model which is the new methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively by using PSA model. The computer program is developed for its application. This program visualizes the SCIs and the SCIIs. It might contribute to comparing the level of the safety culture among NPPs as well as improving the management safety of NPP.

  19. A Computer Program for Assessing Nuclear Safety Culture Impact

    Through several accidents of NPP including the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernobyl accidents in 1986, a lack of safety culture was pointed out as one of the root cause of these accidents. Due to its latent influences on safety performance, safety culture has become an important issue in safety researches. Most of the researches describe how to evaluate the state of the safety culture of the organization. However, they did not include a possibility that the accident occurs due to the lack of safety culture. Because of that, a methodology for evaluating the impact of the safety culture on NPP's safety is required. In this study, the methodology for assessing safety culture impact is suggested and a computer program is developed for its application. SCII model which is the new methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively by using PSA model. The computer program is developed for its application. This program visualizes the SCIs and the SCIIs. It might contribute to comparing the level of the safety culture among NPPs as well as improving the management safety of NPP

  20. Risk and environmental impact assessment: nuclear and environmental licensing interface

    The main aims of this paper are the identification and discussion of interfaces and application of common concepts in the existing nuclear and environmental licensing procedures. Risk and impact assessment of nuclear electricity generation are two of these concepts which are discussed detail. The risk concept, which had initially focused on engineering projects, has been extended to many other areas of human activity. Risk resulting from the use of ionization radiation has been associated to the dose for the critical members of the public. Therefore, radiation protection applies basic dose limits which are established in national and international recommendations. These recommendations are increasing the emphasis to keep all the exposures to ionizing radiation as low as reasonable achievable, economical and social factors being taken into account. On the other hand, environmental impact assessment has been used as a tool in planning and decision-making processes, thus including environmental concern in the discussion of social and economical development strategies. This paper aims to discuss the association of these two concepts by presenting the procedures of control of radiological impact during normal operation of a nuclear power plant and the various forms of risk communication to the public in the case of events occurrence. (author). 13 refs

  1. Gender impact assessment in microfinance and microenterprise: why and how.

    Johnson, S

    2000-02-01

    This article discusses the reasons for conducting gender impact assessment in microfinance and microenterprise. Although women are increasingly being targeted in microfinance and microenterprise projects, this does not necessarily mean that gender relations are being taken into account. Rather, targeting women raises a host of questions about the context in which women are operating their businesses or handling finance. Assessing gender impact in microfinance and microenterprise can help answer the questions in order to understand whether women are able to use the services and make the anticipated improvements in their livelihoods. Moreover, several approaches are suggested: 1) establish a gender baseline; 2) consider the potential impacts of the project on gender relations; 3) establish the information and indicators required; and 4) collect and analyze the data using tools and techniques appropriate to the task. However, in the context of gender relations there remains much ground, which often cannot be openly discussed. The discussion of how people organize their financial and economic affairs inside the household is usually a delicate area. Hence, it is suggested that such matters should be handled very carefully and to consider the composition and dynamics of the research team itself. PMID:12295962

  2. Social impact assessment of the main welfare and tax measures for 2014

    2014-01-01

    This is a social impact assessment of the main welfare and tax measures for 2014, undertaken by the Department of Social Protection. The assessment is intended to contribute to public understanding of the impact of budgetary policy.

  3. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    Ahari Saeid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion

  4. Towards a meaningful assessment of marine ecological impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    Woods, John S; Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Verones, Francesca; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-01-01

    Human demands on marine resources and space are currently unprecedented and concerns are rising over observed declines in marine biodiversity. A quantitative understanding of the impact of industrial activities on the marine environment is thus essential. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely applied method for quantifying the environmental impact of products and processes. LCA was originally developed to assess the impacts of land-based industries on mainly terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. As such, impact indicators for major drivers of marine biodiversity loss are currently lacking. We review quantitative approaches for cause-effect assessment of seven major drivers of marine biodiversity loss: climate change, ocean acidification, eutrophication-induced hypoxia, seabed damage, overexploitation of biotic resources, invasive species and marine plastic debris. Our review shows that impact indicators can be developed for all identified drivers, albeit at different levels of coverage of cause-effect pathways and variable levels of uncertainty and spatial coverage. Modeling approaches to predict the spatial distribution and intensity of human-driven interventions in the marine environment are relatively well-established and can be employed to develop spatially-explicit LCA fate factors. Modeling approaches to quantify the effects of these interventions on marine biodiversity are less well-developed. We highlight specific research challenges to facilitate a coherent incorporation of marine biodiversity loss in LCA, thereby making LCA a more comprehensive and robust environmental impact assessment tool. Research challenges of particular importance include i) incorporation of the non-linear behavior of global circulation models (GCMs) within an LCA framework and ii) improving spatial differentiation, especially the representation of coastal regions in GCMs and ocean-carbon cycle models. PMID:26826362

  5. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1993 (July 1, 1992, through June 30, 1993). To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized

  6. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995

    This Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1995 (1 July 1994 through 30 June 1995). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock, Colorado. Economic data were requested from the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE). The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized

  7. Reconsidering the risk assessment concept: Standardizing the impact description as a building block for vulnerability assessment

    K. Hollenstein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessments for natural hazards are becoming more widely used and accepted. Using an extended definition of risk, it becomes obvious that performant procedures for vulnerability assessments are vital for the success of the risk concept. However, there are large gaps in knowledge about vulnerability. To alleviate the situation, a conceptual extension of the scope of existing and new models is suggested. The basis of the suggested concept is a stadardization of the output of hazard assessments. This is achieved by defining states of the target objects that depend on the impact and at the same time affect the object's performance characteristics. The possible state variables can be related to a limited set of impact descriptors termed generic impact description interface. The concept suggests that both hazard and vulnerability assessment models are developed according to the specification of this interface, thus facilitating modularized risk assessments. Potential problems related to the application of the concept include acceptance issues and the lacking accuracy of transformation of outputs of existing models. Potential applications and simple examples for adapting existing models are briefly discussed.

  8. Assessing the end-of-life impacts of buildings.

    Vieira, Pedro Santos; Horvath, Arpad

    2008-07-01

    This paper builds on previous research on end of life of products by synthesizing some of the theories proposed in the literature and presenting a method for environmental decision-making related to buildings. This is achieved through different solutions, but most significantly through the use of hybrid life-cycle assessment and the definition of allocation boundaries in a way that decreases the uncertainty associated with technologicalforecasting. Results show that there is no significant difference between the results of two major end-of-life assessment approaches (attributional and consequential), and that the choice between the use of one or the other for buildings may not be a critical decision. Assessing the impacts of recycling polices requires accounting for product substitutions, market analysis, and the full supply chain impacts of the recycling chains. Increasing the recycling of concrete from deconstructed buildings from the current 27% rate to 50% could yield a 2-3% (2.7-5.6 million metric tons of CO2 equivalents) reduction in buildings' greenhouse gas emissions, or the equivalent of removing 408,000-847,000 typical cars from U.S. roads. PMID:18677988

  9. The development of ecological impact assessment in China.

    Liu, Xuehua; Li, Zhouyuan; Liao, Chenghao; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Annah; Li, Dong; Li, Yajun; Tang, Zhuo

    2015-12-01

    The balance between economic development and ecological conservation in China has become a critical issue in recent decades. Ecological impact assessment (EcoIA) was established beginning in the 1980s as a component of environmental impact assessment (EIA) that focuses specifically on human-related changes in ecosystem structure and function. EcoIA has since been widely applied throughout the country with continuous refinements in theory and practice. As compared to EIA, EcoIA is often performed at a larger scale in the long-term, and thus requires more advanced tools and techniques to quantify and assess. This paper reviews the development of EcoIA over the past 30years in China, with specific consideration given to refinements in legislation and methodology. Three stages in the development of EcoIA in China are identified, along with their achievements and limitations. Supplementing this qualitative analysis, the paper also provides a quantitative bibliometrics review of academic publications concerning EcoIA in China over the three identified stages. Lastly, general trends in the development of EcoIA are summarized with the aim of conveying potential future trajectories. This review is intended to introduce the EcoIA system to scholars interested in the growing field of environmental management in China. PMID:26318514

  10. Ecohydrological modeling for large-scale environmental impact assessment.

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Esfahanian, Elaheh; Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Ecohydrological models are frequently used to assess the biological integrity of unsampled streams. These models vary in complexity and scale, and their utility depends on their final application. Tradeoffs are usually made in model scale, where large-scale models are useful for determining broad impacts of human activities on biological conditions, and regional-scale (e.g. watershed or ecoregion) models provide stakeholders greater detail at the individual stream reach level. Given these tradeoffs, the objective of this study was to develop large-scale stream health models with reach level accuracy similar to regional-scale models thereby allowing for impacts assessments and improved decision-making capabilities. To accomplish this, four measures of biological integrity (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT), Family Index of Biotic Integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI)) were modeled based on four thermal classes (cold, cold-transitional, cool, and warm) of streams that broadly dictate the distribution of aquatic biota in Michigan. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow and water quality in seven watersheds and the Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate 171 ecologically relevant flow regime variables. Unique variables were selected for each thermal class using a Bayesian variable selection method. The variables were then used in development of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) models of EPT, FIBI, HBI, and IBI. ANFIS model accuracy improved when accounting for stream thermal class rather than developing a global model. PMID:26595397

  11. Social impact assessments: Developing a consolidated conceptual framework

    Social Impact Assessments (SIAs) have played an increasingly important role in the conduct of planned interventions, providing proponents the capacity to assess and manage the social consequences of their activities. Whilst the SIA field has experienced significant conceptual and practical development over the last decade, efforts at consolidating this within one framework have been limited. In this paper, we incorporate this new knowledge by redeveloping and thus updating the SIA procedural framework developed by Interorganizational Committee on Guidelines and Principles for Social Impact Assessment. In doing so, this updated procedural framework has attempted to incorporate current ‘best practice’ that focuses on participatory approaches to undertaking an SIA. This involved making adaptions to two steps, expansions to five steps, integration of a stronger participatory approach to six steps, and the development of a new step, Management and Evaluation reflecting moves towards ex-post use of SIA processes. It is hoped that this consolidation of the literature of a decade's worth of key findings in SIA research will lead to further efforts towards a meta-evaluation of SIA literature and a platform from which newer developments may be further investigated

  12. Air Pollution and Climate Change Health Impact Assessment. The ACHIA Project

    Climate change may affect human health via interactions with air pollutants such as ozone and PM2.5. These air pollutants are linked to climate because they can be both affected by and have effects on climate. In coming decades, substantial, cost-effective improvements in public health may be achieved with well-planned strategies to mitigate climate impacts while also reducing health effects of ozone and PM2.5. Climate mitigation actions affect greenhouse pollutant emissions, including methane and black carbon, but also may affect other key air pollution precursors such as NOx, CO, and SOx. To better understand the potential of such strategies, studies are needed that assess possible future health impacts under alternative assumptions about future emissions and climate across multiple spatial scales. The overall objective of this project is to apply state of the art climate, air quality, and health modelling tools to assess future health impacts of ozone and PM2.5 under different IPCCs scenario of climate change, focusing specifically on pollution-related health co-benefits which could be achieved under alternative climate mitigation pathways in the period 2030-2050. This question will be explored at three spatial scales: global, regional (Europe), and urban (Paris). ACHIA is comprised of an integrated set of four work packages: WP1. Global Climate and Air Pollution Impacts of Alternative Emissions Pathways; WP2. Climate and Air Quality at Regional and Urban Scales: Results for Europe and Paris; WP3. Health Impact Assessment; WP4. Dissemination, Evaluation, Management. ACHIA is designed to create an interdisciplinary approach to the impacts of climate change on health through air quality changes, and to start longer-term collaborations between communities. We expect the project to advance state of art across all WPs, with important implications for research groups around the world. A particular innovation of the project is the multi-scale aspect, i.e., the analysis

  13. Thermodynamic investigation and environment impact assessment of hydrogen production from steam reforming of poultry tallow

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis and environmental impact assessment of H2 production system. • Thermodynamic analysis identifies optimal conditions for H2 production. • LCA is applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of H2 production system. • Inventories data are derived from process simulation and from literature review. • Thermal energy process is the main contributor to the environmental impact. - Abstract: In this research, various assessment tools are applied to comprehensively investigate hydrogen production from steam reforming of poultry tallow (PT). These tools investigate the chemical reactions, design and simulate the entire hydrogen production process, study the energetic performance and perform an environment impact assessment using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The chemical reaction investigation identifies thermodynamically optimal operating conditions at which PT may be converted to hydrogen via the steam reforming process. The synthesis gas composition was determined by simulations to minimize the Gibbs free energy using the Aspen Plus™ 10.2 software. These optimal conditions are, subsequently, used in the design and simulation of the entire PT-to-hydrogen process. LCA is applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of PT-to-hydrogen system. The system boundaries include rendering and reforming along with the required transportation process. The reforming inventories data are derived from process simulation in Aspen Plus™, whereas the rendering data are adapted from a literature review. The life cycle inventories data of PT-to-hydrogen are computationally implemented into SimaPro 7.3. A set of seven relevant environmental impact categories are evaluated: global warming, abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, and cumulative non-renewable fossil and nuclear energy demand. The results are subject to a systematic sensitivity analysis and compared to

  14. Improved cook stove adoption and impact assessment: A proposed methodology

    Aims: Until now, the success of improved cook stoves (ICS) implementation programs has usually been measured by the number of ICS distributed. Some important research has been conducted to try to determine the effects of the use of an ICS in the user′s health, but these studies are expensive and time consuming. Moreover, no evaluations show the impact of the technology in the user′s lives. This study seeks to contribute to fill this gap. Scope: By applying cluster analysis techniques to survey data, the most relevant variables that explain adoption and impact were identified. Using these variables, two qualitative indexes are proposed: The adoption index considers the use of the new technology, the level of satisfaction, and the conditions of the stove. The impact index considers the changes in cooking practices and life quality brought about by the ICS. Both indexes are then applied to two implementation programs. The indexes show the differences between the program results and the user′s perceptions of each technology. Conclusions: The proposed indexes can be used to measure the success of an ICS implementation program in terms of the benefits perceived by the users of these technologies. -- Highlights: •Two qualitative indexes are proposed to measure the benefits perceived by ICS users. •Two implementation programs were assessed. •The approach enables determining the impact of ICS programs at a fraction of the cost. •It enables comparing the results of different implementation programs

  15. Economic Impact Assessment of Alternative Climate Policy Strategies

    This paper investigates the world economic implications of climate change policy strategies, especially the evaluation of impacts by an implementation of Clean Development Mechanisms, Joint Implementation and Emissions trading with a world integrated assessment model. Of special interest in this context are the welfare spill over and competitiveness effects that result from diverse climate policy strategies. In particular, this study elaborates and compares multi gas policy strategies and explores the impacts of the inclusion of sinks. Because of the recent decision of an isolated climate policy strategy by the United States of America, we examine the economic impacts of all world regions by a non cooperative and free rider position of the USA. It turns out that Clean Development Mechanisms and Joint Implementation show evidence of improvement in the economic development in the host countries and increase the share of new applied technologies. The decomposition of welfare effects demonstrates that the competitiveness effect including the spill over effects from trade have the strongest importance because of the intense trade relations between countries. Climatic effects have a significant impact within the next 50 years, cause considerable welfare losses to world regions and will intensify if some highly responsible nations like the USA do not reduce their emissions

  16. Assessment of the atmospheric impact of volcanic eruptions

    Sigurdsson, H.

    1988-01-01

    The dominant global impact of volcanic activity is likely to be related to the effects of volcanic gases on the Earth's atmosphere. Volcanic gas emissions from individual volcanic arc eruptions are likely to cause increases in the stratospheric optical depth that result in surface landmass temperature decline of 2 to 3 K for less than a decade. Trachytic and intermediate magmas are much more effective in this regard than high-silica magmas, and may also lead to extensive ozone depletion due to effect of halogens and magmatic water. Given the assumed relationship between arc volcanism and subduction rate, and the relatively small variation in global spreading rates in the geologic record, it is unlikely that the rates of arc volcanism have varied greatly during the Cenozoic. Hotspot related basaltic fissure eruptions in the subaerial environment have a higher mass yield of sulfur, but lofting of the valcanic aerosol to levels above the tropopause is required for a climate impact. High-latitude events, such as the Laki 1783 eruption can easily penetrate the tropopause and enter the stratosphere, but formation of a stratospheric volcanic aerosol form low-latitude effusive basaltic eruptions is problematical, due to the elevated low-latitude tropopause. Due to the high sulfur content of hotspot-derived basaltic magmas, their very high mass eruption rates and the episodic behavior, hotspots must be regarded as potentially major modifiers of Earth's climate through the action of their volcanic volatiles on the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere.

  17. Assessment of the Health Impacts of Climate Change in Kiribati

    Lachlan McIver

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kiribati—a low-lying, resource-poor Pacific atoll nation—is one of the most vulnerable countries in the World to the impacts of climate change, including the likely detrimental effects on human health. We describe the preparation of a climate change and health adaptation plan for Kiribati carried out by the World Health Organization and the Kiribati Ministry of Health and Medical Services, including an assessment of risks to health, sources of vulnerability and suggestions for highest priority adaptation responses. This paper identifies advantages and disadvantages in the process that was followed, lays out a future direction of climate change and health adaptation work in Kiribati, and proposes lessons that may be applicable to other small, developing island nations as they prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate change on health.

  18. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF CORRUPTION UPON THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Sorin-Daniel, MANOLE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper is dedicated to estimating the influence of corruption upon Romania’s economic growth by means of an econometric model ARMA component. In order to quantify the impact, firstly some indicators have been identified to properly assess the economic condition and corruption. The most important economic growth indicator is real GDP growth rate (or chain index of real GDP. In order to estimate the level of corruption, the authors have used the Corruption Perceptions Index, annually launched and calculated by Transparency International. The model chosen for this paper has an ARMA component and expresses the dependence of the economic variable on the corruption variable by a straight-line relationship. The model shows that one of the factors having a significant negative impact upon the economic growth is corruption.

  19. Indicators for human toxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Pennington, David W.; Olsen, Stig Irving;

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this task group under SETAC-Europe’s Second Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA-WIA2) were to identify and discuss the suitability of toxicological impact measures for human health for use in characterization in LCIA. The current state of the art of defining...... such as No Observed Effect Levels (NOEL). NOELs, and similar data, are determined in laboratory studies using rodents and are then extrapolated to more relevant human measures. Many examples also exist of measures and methods beyond potency-based indicators that attempt to account for differences in...... expected severity, as well as potency. Quantitative severity-based indicators yield measures in terms of Years of Life Lost (YOLL), Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and other similar measures. DALYs and QALYs are examples of approaches that attempt to account for...

  20. Assessing the impact of climate change on extreme sea levels

    Full text: Full text: Assessments of the impact of climate change on extreme sea levels along parts of the Victorian coast will be presented. The method involves identifying a large population of storm surge events in tide gauge records along the stretch of coastline of interest and modelling each event with a hydrodynamic model. Conditions under future climate regimes are considered by perturbing the atmospheric boundary conditions of the model in accordance with wind speed projections from climate models. Extreme value analysis is applied to the output of the hydrodynamic model to generate probabilities and return periods for storm surge heights. A Monte-Carlo approach is used to combine these heights with tide heights. Finally estimates of future mean sea level rise from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change are added in. Initial work on the possible impact of changes in extreme sea levels on the risk of inundation of low lying coastal land will also be presented