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Sample records for action document bacillus

  1. Mode of action of mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis toxins.

    Soberón, Mario; Fernández, Luisa E; Pérez, Claudia; Gill, Sarjeet S; Bravo, Alejandra

    2007-04-01

    Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used for insect control. Their primary action is to lyse midgut epithelial cells. In lepidopteran insects, Cry1A monomeric toxins interact with a first receptor and this interaction triggers toxin oligomerization. The oligomeric structure interacts then with a second GPI-anchored receptor that induces insertion into membrane microdomains and larvae death. In the case of mosquitocidal Bt strains, two different toxins participate, Cry and Cyt. These toxins have a synergistic effect and Cyt1Aa overcomes Cry toxin-resistance. We will summarize recent findings on the identification of Cry receptors in mosquitoes and the mechanism of synergism: Cyt1Aa synergizes or suppresses resistance to Cry toxins by functioning as a Cry membrane-bound receptor. PMID:17145072

  2. 22 CFR 213.11 - Aggressive collection actions; documentation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggressive collection actions; documentation. 213.11 Section 213.11 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.11 Aggressive collection actions; documentation. (a) USAID takes actions and...

  3. 14 CFR 1261.406 - Aggressive collection action; documentation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggressive collection action; documentation... Activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) § 1261.406 Aggressive collection action; documentation. (a) NASA shall take aggressive action, on a timely basis with effective...

  4. 40 CFR 13.10 - Aggressive collection actions; documentation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aggressive collection actions; documentation. 13.10 Section 13.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Collection § 13.10 Aggressive collection actions; documentation. (a) EPA takes...

  5. Differential Actions of Chlorhexidine on the Cell Wall of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli

    Cheung, Hon-Yeung; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Cheung, Sau-Ha; Liang, Longman Yimin; Lam, Yun-Wah; Chiu, Sung-Kay

    2012-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is a chlorinated phenolic disinfectant used commonly in mouthwash for its action against bacteria. However, a comparative study of the action of chlorhexidine on the cell morphology of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is lacking. In this study, the actions of chlorhexidine on the cell morphology were identified with the aids of electron microscopy. After exposure to chlorhexidine, numerous spots of indentation on the cell wall were found in both Bacillus subtilis and Esc...

  6. Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control

    Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Soberón, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt protein families are a diverse group of proteins with activity against insects of different orders - Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and also against other invertebrates such as nematodes. Their primary action is to lyse midgut epithelial cells by inserting into the target membrane and forming pores. Among this group of proteins, members of the 3-Domain Cry family are used worldwide for insect control, and their mode of action has been characterized in some...

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The 'Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204

  8. The action of ionizing radiation on Bacillus subtilis spores in a dry and wet system

    The action of water in combination with ionizing radiation was examined using different strains of Bacillus subtilis spores. The parameter of the experiments was a modification of water content; maximal degree of desiccation was achieved by high vacuum. The Fricke-method for X-ray dosimetry was compared to the ionizing-chamber method. In the dry state spores of both wild and mutant strain appeared to be more sensitive than in the wet state. This contradicts to the opinion of dose enhancement by the indirect action of water. (orig.)

  9. Hanford Action Tracking System release planning support documents

    Keasling, R.

    1995-05-05

    This document contains impacts, plans, resource requirements, schedules, and documents to ensure the conduct of activities for the operation of the Hanford Action Tracking System (HATS). Each discrete topic in this document applies to a specific area of management and team interaction. These formally establish the planning, resources, documentation, and training responsibilities for the system management team. This document is composed of four appendices. These include the following: (1) organization impacts and implementation plan--expected organizational impacts resulting from setting up the new support system for the HATS, the plan to address each of these impacts and other system implementation requirements; (2) training and information requirements--training and information needed to use and operate the HATS; (3) operation/maintenance resources--resources required to maintain and operate the HATS once the system becomes operations; (4) training package--HATS implementation training needs, includes a training procedure, the environment for training users (tools and materials required for the facility, trainer, and trainee); schedule, and handout materials and forms to be completed at the time of training.

  10. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites

  11. Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control.

    Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario

    2007-03-15

    Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal (Cry) and Cytolitic (Cyt) protein families are a diverse group of proteins with activity against insects of different orders--Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and also against other invertebrates such as nematodes. Their primary action is to lyse midgut epithelial cells by inserting into the target membrane and forming pores. Among this group of proteins, members of the 3-Domain Cry family are used worldwide for insect control, and their mode of action has been characterized in some detail. Phylogenetic analyses established that the diversity of the 3-Domain Cry family evolved by the independent evolution of the three domains and by swapping of domain III among toxins. Like other pore-forming toxins (PFT) that affect mammals, Cry toxins interact with specific receptors located on the host cell surface and are activated by host proteases following receptor binding resulting in the formation of a pre-pore oligomeric structure that is insertion competent. In contrast, Cyt toxins directly interact with membrane lipids and insert into the membrane. Recent evidence suggests that Cyt synergize or overcome resistance to mosquitocidal-Cry proteins by functioning as a Cry-membrane bound receptor. In this review we summarize recent findings on the mode of action of Cry and Cyt toxins, and compare them to the mode of action of other bacterial PFT. Also, we discuss their use in the control of agricultural insect pests and insect vectors of human diseases. PMID:17198720

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  13. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles.

  14. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, open-quotes Corrective Action Strategyclose quotes (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles

  15. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    This document is the prescribed means for providing direct input to the US Department of Energy Headquarters regarding the status, accomplishments, strategy, and issues of the Richland Environmental Restoration Project. The project mission, organizational interfaces, and operational history of the Hanford Site are provided. Remediation strategies are analyzed in detail. The document includes a status of Richland Environmental Restoration project activities and accomplishments, and it presents current cost summaries, schedules, and technical baselines

  16. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This document is the prescribed means for providing direct input to the US Department of Energy Headquarters regarding the status, accomplishments, strategy, and issues of the Richland Environmental Restoration Project. The project mission, organizational interfaces, and operational history of the Hanford Site are provided. Remediation strategies are analyzed in detail. The document includes a status of Richland Environmental Restoration project activities and accomplishments, and it presents current cost summaries, schedules, and technical baselines.

  17. Transcriptome analysis documents induced competence of Bacillus subtilis during nitrogen limiting conditions

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Berka, R.; Knudsen, Steen;

    2002-01-01

    DNA microarrays were used to analyze the changes in gene expression in Bacillus subtilis strain 168 when nitrogen limiting (glutamate) and nitrogen excess (ammonium plus glutamate) growth conditions were compared. Among more than 100 genes that were significantly induced during nitrogen starvation...... we detected the comG, comF, comE, nin-nucA and comK transcription units together with recA. DNA was added to B. subtilis grown in minimal medium with glutamate as the sole nitrogen source and it was demonstrated that the cells were competent. Based on these observations we propose a simplification of...... previously designed one-step transformation procedures for B. subtilis strain 168....

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 567: Miscellaneous Soil Sites - Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 567: Miscellaneous Soil Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 567 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. The corrective actions implemented at CAU 567 were developed based on an evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, the assumed presence of COCs at specific locations, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the CAAs. The CAAs were selected on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. The implemented corrective actions meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. The CAAs meet all applicable federal and state regulations for closure of the site. Based on the implementation of these corrective actions, the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office provides the following recommendations: • No further corrective actions are necessary for CAU 567. • The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection issue a Notice of Completion to the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office for closure of CAU 567. • CAU 567 be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO.

  20. Bacillus thuringiensis: mechanism of action, resistance, and new applications: a review.

    Melo, André Luiz de Almeida; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Since the first report by Ishiwata in 1902 of a Bombyx mori infection, followed by the description by Berliner, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become the main microorganism used in biological control. The application of Bt to combat invertebrates of human interest gained momentum with the growing demand for food free of chemical pesticides and with the implementation of agriculture methods that were less damaging to the environment. However, the mechanisms of action of these products have not been fully elucidated. There are two proposed models: the first is that Bt causes an osmotic imbalance in response to the formation of pores in a cell membrane, and the second is that it causes an opening of ion channels that activate the process of cell death. There are various ways in which Bt resistance can develop: changes in the receptors that do not recognize the Cry toxin, the synthesis of membrane transporters that eliminate the peptides from the cytosol and the development of regulatory mechanisms that disrupt the production of toxin receptors. Besides the potential for formulation of biopesticides and the use in developing genetically modified cultivars, recent studies with Bt have discussed promising applications in other branches of science. Chitinase, an enzyme that degrades chitin, increases the efficiency of Bt insecticides, and there has been of increasing interest in the industry, given that its substrate is extremely abundant in nature. Another promising field is the potential for Bt proteins to act against cancer cells. Parasporins, toxins of Bt that do not have an entomopathogenic effect, have a cytotoxic effect on the cells changed by some cancers. This demonstrates the potential of the microorganism and new opportunities opening for future applications. PMID:25264571

  1. Clean Slate 1 corrective action decision document, Corrective Action Unit No. 412. Revision 1

    A Corrective Action Investigation has been completed at the Clean Slate 1 (CS-1) Site, located in the central portion of the Tonopah Test Range. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential correct action alternatives at the CS-1 Site and to evaluate these alternatives with respect to their technical, human health, and environmental benefits and to their cost. Base on this evaluation a corrective action will be recommended for implementation at the CS-1 Site

  2. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 383: AREA 12 E-TUNNEL SITES, NEVADA TEST SITE

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The recommendations and corrective actions described within this document apply to the future closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 383, Area 12 E-Tunnel Sites, which is a joint DTRA and NNSA/NSO site. The CAU consists of three (3) Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-06-06 (Muckpile); CAS 12-25-02 (Oil Spill); and CAS 12-28-02 (Radioactive Material). In addition to these CASs, E-Tunnel Ponds One, Two, and Three, and the Drainage Area above the ponds were included since closure of the Muckpile will impact these areas. This CADD is consistent with the requirements of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The DTRA point of contact is the Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Project Manager; currently Ms. Tiffany A. Lantow. The NNSA/NSO point of contact is the Environmental Restoration, Industrial Sites Project Manager; currently Ms. Janet Appenzeller-Wing. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for CAU 383. This document presents the recommended corrective action for CAU 383 (E-Tunnel Sites); however, implementation may be affected by the corrective action (to be determined) for CAU 551 (Area 12 Muckpiles) due to the close proximity of B, C, D, and F-Tunnels. The scope of this CADD consists of the following tasks: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  4. Mode of action of metabolites from Bacillus sp. strain IBA 33 on Geotrichum citri-aurantii arthroconidia.

    Gordillo, María Antonieta; Navarro, Antonio R; Maldonado, María Cristina

    2015-11-01

    Geotrichum citri-aurantii is a postharvest phytopathogenic fungus of lemons. We studied the mode of action of antifungal metabolites from Bacillus sp. strain IBA 33 on arthroconidia of G. citri-aurantii. These metabolites are lipopeptides belonging to the iturin family. Membrane permeabilization of G. citri-aurantii was analyzed and mitochondrial respiratory rate was evaluated. Disturbance of the plasma membrane promotes the leakage of many cellular components into the surrounding media, and mitochondrial membrane disorganization promotes the inhibition of the respiratory rate. Our findings provide insights into the ability of lipopeptides to suppress plant fungal pathogens and their possible agronomical applications. PMID:26394707

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 383: Area E-Tunnel Sites, Nevada Test Site

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 383, Area 12 E-Tunnel Sites, which is the joint responsibility of DTRA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 383 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and two adjacent areas: • CAS 12-06-06, Muckpile • CAS 12-25-02, Oil Spill • CAS 12-28-02, Radioactive Material • Drainage below the Muckpile • Ponds 1, 2, and 3 The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation to support the recommendation for closure with no further corrective action, by placing use restrictions at the three CASs and two adjacent areas of CAU 383.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 1

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-28

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 on the NTS, CAU 516 includes six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) consisting of two septic systems, a sump and piping, a clean-out box and piping, dry wells, and a vehicle decontamination area. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from July 22 through August 14, 2003, with supplemental sampling conducted in late 2003 and early 2004. The potential exposure pathways for any contaminants of concern (COCs) identified during the development of the DQOs at CAU 516 gave rise to the following objectives: (1) prevent or mitigate exposure to media containing COCs at concentrations exceeding PALs as defined in the corrective action investigation plan; and (2) prevent the spread of COCs beyond each CAS. The following alternatives have been developed for consideration at CAU 516: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 1, No Further Action, is the preferred corrective action for two CASs (06-51-02 and 22-19-04). Alternative 2, Clean Closure, is the preferred corrective action for four CASs (03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03). The selected alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, as well as meeting all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will further eliminate the contaminated media at CAU 516.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Offices's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This corrective action investigation was conducted in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 240 as developed under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 240 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02, Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03, Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). In March 1999, the corrective action investigation was performed to detect and evaluate analyte concentrations against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified at CAS 25-07-01 or CAS 25-07-03; therefore, there was no need for corrective action at these two CASs. At CAS 25-07-02, diesel-range organics and radionuclide concentrations in soil samples from F and J Roads Pad exceeded PALs. Based on this result, potential CAAs were identified and evaluated to ensure worker, public, and environmental protection against potential exposure to COCs in accordance with Nevada Administrative Code 445A. Following a review of potential exposure pathways, existing data, and future and current operations in Area 25, two CAAs were identified for CAU 240 (CAS 25-07-02): Alternative 1 - No Further Action and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. Alternative 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, as well as minimizing potential future exposure

  8. Role of receptor interaction in the mode of action of insecticidal Cry and Cyt toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Gómez, I; Pardo-López, L; Muñoz-Garay, C; Fernandez, L E; Pérez, C; Sánchez, J; Soberón, M; Bravo, A

    2007-01-01

    Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis are used for insect control. Their primary action is to lyse midgut epithelial cells. In this review we will summarize recent findings on the Cry toxin-receptor interaction and the role of receptor recognition in their mode of action. Cry toxins interact sequentially with multiple receptors. In lepidopteran insects, Cry1A monomeric toxins interact with the first receptor and this interaction triggers oligomerization of the toxins. The oligomer then interacts with second receptor inducing insertion into membrane microdomains and larval death. In the case of mosquitocidal toxins, Cry and Cyt toxins play a part. These toxins have a synergistic effect and Cyt1Aa overcomes Cry toxin resistance. Recently, it was proposed that Cyt1Aa synergizes or suppresses resistance to Cry toxins by functioning as a membrane-bound receptor for Cry toxin. PMID:17145116

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Susan Evans

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the subsurface at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, CNTA - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). CAU 443 is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, north of U.S. Highway 6, about 48 kilometers north of Warm Springs, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the corrective action plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for the UC-1 Cavity (Corrective Action Site 58-57-001) at CAU 443, as provided in the FFACO. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. A Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) was performed in several stages from 1999 to 2003, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites (Corrective Action Unit No. 443)'' (DOE/NV, 1999). Groundwater modeling was the primary activity of the CAI. Three phases of modeling were conducted for the Faultless underground nuclear test. The first involved the gathering and interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic data into a three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow, and use of the output of the flow model for a

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Contamination, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 of the NTS, CAU 528 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination. Corrective Action Unit 528 was created to address the presence of PCBs around the Test Cell C concrete pad. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 24, 2003, through January 8, 2004. The PCBs and total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics were identified as contaminants of concern in the surface and shallow subsurface soils in 12 areas (Areas 1 through 12) at CAS 25-27-03. Based on the review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS, the following alternatives have been developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. The three corrective action alternatives were evaluated on their technical merits, focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, and safety. Alternative 3 is the preferred corrective action for CAS 25-27-03. The selected alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated for closure of the sites and additionally to minimize potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 528.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Patrick Matthews

    2009-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 370, T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, located in Area 4 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 370 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 04-23-01, Atmospheric Test Site T-4. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 370 due to the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from June 25, 2008, through April 2, 2009, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site and Record of Technical Change No. 1.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 504: 16a-Tunnel Muckpile, Nevada Test Site

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 504, 16a-Tunnel Muckpile. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 504 is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): • 16-06-01, Muckpile • 16-23-01, Contaminated Burial Pit • 16-23-02, Contaminated Area • 16-99-01, Concrete Construction Waste Corrective Action Site 16-23-01 is not a burial pit; it is part of CAS 16-06-01. Therefore, there is not a separate data analysis and assessment for CAS 16-23-01; it is included as part of the assessment for CAS 16-06-01. In addition to these CASs, the channel between CAS 16-23-02 (Contaminated Area) and Mid Valley Road was investigated with walk-over radiological surveys and soil sampling using hand tools. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 504. A CADD was originally submitted for CAU 504 and approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). However, following an agreement between NDEP, DTRA, and the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office to change to a risk-based approach for assessing the corrective action investigation (CAI) data, NDEP agreed that the CAU could be re-evaluated using the risk-based approach and a CADD/CR prepared to close the site.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Mark Krause

    2010-08-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) presents information supporting the selection of corrective action alternatives (CAAs) leading to the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 562 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 02-26-11, Lead Shot • 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain • 02-59-01, Septic System • 02-60-01, Concrete Drain • 02-60-02, French Drain • 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain • 02-60-04, French Drain • 02-60-05, French Drain • 02-60-06, French Drain • 02-60-07, French Drain • 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall • 23-99-06, Grease Trap • 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of CAAs for the 13 CASs within CAU 562. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 27, 2009, through May 12, 2010, as set forth in the CAU 562 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: • Determine whether COCs are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. A data quality assessment (DQA) performed on the CAU 562 data demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the data for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the COCs for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at 10 of the 13 CASs in CAU 562, and thus corrective

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document, Area 15 Environmental Protection Agency Farm Laboratory Building, Corrective Action Unit No. 95, Revision 0

    NONE

    1997-08-18

    This report is the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, Laboratory Building (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 95), at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The scope of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential corrective action alternatives for the decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of the Laboratory Building, which were selected based on the results of investigative activities. Based on this evaluation, a preferred corrective action alternative is recommended. Studies were conducted at the EPA Farm from 1963 to 1981 to determine the animal intake and retention of radionuclides. The main building, the Laboratory Building, has approximately 370 square meters (4,000 square feet) of operational space. Other CAUS at the EPA Farm facility that will be investigated and/or remediated through other environmental restoration subprojects are not included in this CADD, with the exception of housekeeping sites. Associated structures that do not require classification as CAUS are considered in the evaluation of corrective action alternatives for CAU 95.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document, Area 15 Environmental Protection Agency Farm Laboratory Building, Corrective Action Unit No. 95, Revision 0

    This report is the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, Laboratory Building (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 95), at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The scope of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential corrective action alternatives for the decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of the Laboratory Building, which were selected based on the results of investigative activities. Based on this evaluation, a preferred corrective action alternative is recommended. Studies were conducted at the EPA Farm from 1963 to 1981 to determine the animal intake and retention of radionuclides. The main building, the Laboratory Building, has approximately 370 square meters (4,000 square feet) of operational space. Other CAUS at the EPA Farm facility that will be investigated and/or remediated through other environmental restoration subprojects are not included in this CADD, with the exception of housekeeping sites. Associated structures that do not require classification as CAUS are considered in the evaluation of corrective action alternatives for CAU 95

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 105 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 22, 2012, through May 23, 2013, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-16

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Offices's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This corrective action investigation was conducted in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 240 as developed under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 240 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02, Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03, Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). In March 1999, the corrective action investigation was performed to detect and evaluate analyte concentrations against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified at CAS 25-07-01 or CAS 25-07-03; therefore, there was no need for corrective action at these two CASs. At CAS 25-07-02, diesel-range organics and radionuclide concentrations in soil samples from F and J Roads Pad exceeded PALs. Based on this result, potential CAAs were identified and evaluated to ensure worker, public, and environmental protection against potential exposure to COCs in accordance with Nevada Administrative Code 445A. Following a review of potential exposure pathways, existing data, and future and current operations in Area 25, two CAAs were identified for CAU 240 (CAS 25-07-02): Alternative 1 - No Further Action and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. Alternative 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, as well as minimizing potential future exposure

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    This corrective action decision document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks, referred to as the Engine, Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault; 25-02-03, Underground Electrical Vault, referred to as the Deluge Valve Pit at the Test Cell A Facility; and 25-02-10, Underground Storage Tank, referred to as the former location of an aboveground storage tank for demineralized water at the Test Cell A Facility. Two of these CASs (25-02-03 and 25-02-10) were originally considered as underground storage tanks, but were found to be misidentified. Further, radio logical surveys conducted by Bechtel Nevada in January 1999 found no radiological contamination detected above background levels for these two sites; therefore, the closure report for CAU 135 will recommend no further action at these two sites. A corrective action investigation for the one remaining CAS (25-02-01) was conducted in June 1999, and analytes detected during this investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels. It was determined that contaminants of potential concern included polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Two corrective action objectives were identified for this CAS (i.e., prevention and mitigation of human exposure to sediments and surrounding areas), and subsequently two CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, and

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-12-23

    This corrective action decision document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks, referred to as the Engine, Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault; 25-02-03, Underground Electrical Vault, referred to as the Deluge Valve Pit at the Test Cell A Facility; and 25-02-10, Underground Storage Tank, referred to as the former location of an aboveground storage tank for demineralized water at the Test Cell A Facility. Two of these CASs (25-02-03 and 25-02-10) were originally considered as underground storage tanks, but were found to be misidentified. Further, radio logical surveys conducted by Bechtel Nevada in January 1999 found no radiological contamination detected above background levels for these two sites; therefore, the closure report for CAU 135 will recommend no further action at these two sites. A corrective action investigation for the one remaining CAS (25-02-01) was conducted in June 1999, and analytes detected during this investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels. It was determined that contaminants of potential concern included polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Two corrective action objectives were identified for this CAS (i.e., prevention and mitigation of human exposure to sediments and surrounding areas), and subsequently two CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action

  2. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT/CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 527: HORN SILVER MINE, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADDKR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 527: Horn Silver Mine, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996). Corrective Action Unit 527 is located within Area 26 of the NTS and consists of CAS 26-20-01, Contaminated Waste Dump No.1. This CADDKR refers to the site as CAU 527 or the Horn Silver Mine (HSM). This CADDKR provides or references the specific information necessary to support the closure of this CAU. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from November 12,2003 through January 21,2004. Additional sampling of liquid obtained from HSM-3 was conducted on May 3,2004. Corrective action investigation activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 527 (NNSAiNV, 2002a). Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities identified the explosive nitrobenzene as a contaminant of concern (COC) on the floor of the 500-foot drift (HSM No.2). No other COCs were identified in the rock samples collected during the investigation activities. The air samples collected from borings HSM-1, HSM-2, and HSM-3 showed volatile organic compounds (primarily gasoline-related contaminants) to be present above the acceptable residential exposure criteria in the boreholes. A conservative modeling effort demonstrated that these concentrations would not migrate to the surface at concentrations that will present an unacceptable risk to future land users. However, other COCs are assumed to exist based on historical documentation on the types of waste placed in the shaft; therefore, the mine including the 300- and 500-foot drifts is considered to be contaminated above action levels. Current results of the field investigation show there are no active transport mechanisms or exposure routes for the contaminants identified in the 500-foot drift. The analytical data did

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 571: Area 9 Yucca Flat Plutonium Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide documentation and justification that no further corrective action is needed for the closure of CAU 571 based on the implementation of corrective actions. This includes a description of investigation activities, an evaluation of the data, and a description of corrective actions that were performed. The CAIP provides information relating to the scope and planning of the investigation. Therefore, that information will not be repeated in this document.

  4. Corrective action decision document second gas station, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403). Revision No. 1

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes}. The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-03 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (3 5 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service.

  5. Concerted action of sphingomyelinase and non-hemolytic enterotoxin in pathogenic Bacillus cereus.

    Viktoria M Doll

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus causes food poisoning and serious non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. Non-hemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe, which is present in most B. cereus strains, is considered to be one of the main virulence factors. However, a B. cereus ΔnheBC mutant strain lacking Nhe is still cytotoxic to intestinal epithelial cells. In a screen for additional cytotoxic factors using an in vitro model for polarized colon epithelial cells we identified B. cereus sphingomyelinase (SMase as a strong inducer of epithelial cell death. Using single and double deletion mutants of sph, the gene encoding for SMase, and nheBC in B. cereus we demonstrated that SMase is an important factor for B. cereus cytotoxicity in vitro and pathogenicity in vivo. SMase substantially complemented Nhe induced cytotoxicity in vitro. In addition, SMase but not Nhe contributed significantly to the mortality rate of larvae in vivo in the insect model Galleria mellonella. Our study suggests that the role of B. cereus SMase as a secreted virulence factor for in vivo pathogenesis has been underestimated and that Nhe and SMase complement each other significantly to cause full B. cereus virulence hence disease formation.

  6. Bacillus subtilis spores as vaccine adjuvants: further insights into the mechanisms of action.

    Renata Damásio de Souza

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis spores have received growing attention regarding potential biotechnological applications, including the use as probiotics and in vaccine formulations. B. subtilis spores have also been shown to behave as particulate vaccine adjuvants, promoting the increase of antibody responses after co-administration with antigens either admixed or adsorbed on the spore surface. In this study, we further evaluated the immune modulatory properties of B. subtilis spores using a recombinant HIV gag p24 protein as a model antigen. The adjuvant effects of B. subtilis spores were not affected by the genetic background of the mouse lineage and did not induce significant inflammatory or deleterious effects after parenteral administration. Our results demonstrated that co-administration, but not adsorption to the spore surface, enhanced the immunogenicity of that target antigen after subcutaneous administration to BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Spores promoted activation of antigen presenting cells as demonstrated by the upregulation of MHC and CD40 molecules and enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by murine dendritic cells. In addition, in vivo studies indicated a direct role of the innate immunity on the immunomodulatory properties of B. subtilis spores, as demonstrated by the lack of adjuvant effects on MyD88 and TLR2 knockout mouse strains.

  7. Antagonistic action of Bacillus subtilis strain SG6 on Fusarium graminearum.

    Yueju Zhao

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB, a devastating disease that leads to extensive yield and quality loss of wheat and barley. Bacteria isolated from wheat kernels and plant anthers were screened for antagonistic activity against F. graminearum. Based on its in vitro effectiveness, strain SG6 was selected for characterization and identified as Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis SG6 exhibited a high antifungal effect on the mycelium growth, sporulation and DON production of F. graminearum with the inhibition rate of 87.9%, 95.6% and 100%, respectively. In order to gain insight into biological control effect in situ, we applied B. subtilis SG6 at anthesis through the soft dough stage of kernel development in field test. It was revealed that B. subtilis SG6 significantly reduced disease incidence (DI, FHB index and DON (P ≤ 0.05. Further, ultrastructural examination shows that B. subtilis SG6 strain induced stripping of F. graminearum hyphal surface by destroying the cellular structure. When hypha cell wall was damaged, the organelles and cytoplasm inside cell would exude, leading to cell death. The antifungal activity of SG6 could be associated with the coproduction of chitinase, fengycins and surfactins.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Grant Evenson

    2010-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit 560 comprises seven corrective action sites (CASs): •03-51-01, Leach Pit •06-04-02, Septic Tank •06-05-03, Leach Pit •06-05-04, Leach Bed •06-59-03, Building CP-400 Septic System •06-59-04, Office Trailer Complex Sewage Pond •06-59-05, Control Point Septic System The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 560 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 7, 2008, through February 24, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. •If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 560 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: •No contamination exceeding the FALs was identified at CASs 03-51-01, 06-04-02, and 06-59-04. •The soil at the base of the leach pit chamber at CAS 06-05-03 contains arsenic above the FAL of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) above the FAL of 0.74 mg/kg, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 5 to 20 feet (ft) below ground surface. The contamination is confined laterally to the walls of the

  9. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document. Final report: Revision 1

    A critical mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the planning, implementation, and completion of environmental restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from the late 1940s into the 1970s. Among these facilities are the 24 former uranium mill sites designed in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 (42 USC section 7901 et seq.) Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designated sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project only; a separate MAP document has been prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Unit 339

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) incorporates the methodology used for evaluating the remedial alternatives completed for a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12, east of the Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The discharge area has been impacted by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) F Listed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons waste. Based upon these findings, resulting from Phase 1 and Phase 2 site investigations, corrective action is required at the site. To determine the appropriate corrective action to be proposed, an evaluation of remedial alternatives was completed. The evaluation was completed using a Corrective Measures Study (CMS). Based on the results of the CMS, the favored closure alternative for the site is plugging the effluent discharge line, removing the sandbagged barrier, completing excavation of VOC impacted soils, and fencing the soil area impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), east of the discharge line and west of the soil berm. Management of the F Listed VOCs are dictated by RCRA. Due to the small volume of impacted soil, excavation and transportation to a Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is the most practical method of management. It is anticipated that the TPH (as oil) impacted soils will remain in place based upon; the A through K Analysis, concentrations detected (maximum 8,600 milligrams per kilogram), expected natural degradation of the hydrocarbons over time, and the findings of the Phase 2 Investigation that vertical migration has been minimal

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 3 with Errata Sheet

    Tim Echelard

    2006-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Project Shoal Area (PSA)-Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County, Nevada, approximately 48 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for CAU 447, as provided in the FFACO. Corrective Action Unit 447 consists of two corrective action sites (CASs): CAS 57-49-01, Emplacement Shaft, and CAS 57-57-001, Cavity. The emplacement shaft (CAS-57-49-01) was backfilled and plugged in 1996 and will not be evaluated further. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. The original Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for the PSA was approved in September 1996 and described a plan to drill and test four characterization wells, followed by flow and transport modeling (DOE/NV, 1996). The resultant drilling is described in a data report (DOE/NV, 1998e) and the data analysis and modeling in an interim modeling report (Pohll et al., 1998). After considering the results of the modeling effort

  12. Action of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on heterotypic biofilm: Candida albicans and Bacillus atrophaeus.

    Silva, Michelle Peneluppi; Dos Santos, Thais Alves; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; de Camargo Ribeiro, Felipe; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2016-05-01

    The increase in survival and resistance of microorganisms organized in biofilms demonstrates the need for new studies to develop therapies able to break this barrier, such as photodynamic therapy, which is characterized as an alternative, effective, and non-invasive treatment. The objective was to evaluate in vitro the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on heterotypic biofilms of Candida albicans and Bacillus atrophaeus using rose bengal (12.5 μM) and light-emitting diode (LED) (532 nm and 16.2 J). We used standard strains of B. atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) and C. albicans (ATCC 18804). The biofilm was formed in the bottom of the plate for 48 h. For the photodynamic therapy (PDT) experimental groups, we added 100 μL of rose bengal with LED (P+L+), 100 μL of rose bengal without LED (P+L-), 100 μL of NaCl 0.9 % solution with LED (P-L+), and a control group without photosensitizer or LED (P-L-). The plates remained in agitation for 5 min (pre-irradiation) and were irradiated with LED for 3 min, and the biofilm was detached using an ultrasonic homogenizer for 30 s. Serial dilutions were plated in BHI agar and HiChrom agar and incubated at 37 °C/48 h. There was a reduction of 33.92 and 29.31 % of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) for C. albicans and B. atrophaeus, respectively, from the control group to the group subjected to PDT. However, statistically significant differences were not observed among the P+L+, P+L-, P-L+, and P-L- groups. These results suggest that antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using rose bengal (12.5 μM) with a pre-irradiation period of 5 min and LED for 3 min was not enough to cause a significant reduction in the heterotypic biofilms of C. albicans and B. atrophaeus. PMID:26861975

  13. Three toxins, two receptors, one mechanism: Mode of action of Cry1A toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis in Heliothis virescens.

    Bretschneider, Anne; Heckel, David G; Pauchet, Yannick

    2016-09-01

    Insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are highly active against Lepidoptera. However, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins is on the rise. The 12-cadherin domain protein HevCaLP and the ABC transporter HevABCC2 are both genetically linked to Cry toxin resistance in Heliothis virescens. We investigated their interaction using stably expressing non-lytic clonal Sf9 cell lines expressing either protein or both together. Untransfected Sf9 cells are innately sensitive to Cry1Ca toxin, but not to Cry1A toxins; and quantitative PCR revealed negligible expression of genes involved in Cry1A toxicity such as cadherin, ABCC2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminopeptidase N (APN). Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac caused swelling of Sf9 cells expressing HevABCC2, and caused faster swelling, lysis and up to 86% mortality in cells expressing both proteins. No such effect was observed in control Sf9 cells or in cells expressing only HevCaLP. The results of a mixing experiment demonstrated that both proteins need to be expressed within the same cell for high cytotoxicity, and suggest a novel role for HevCaLP. Binding assays showed that the toxin-receptor interaction is specific. Our findings confirm that HevABCC2 is the central target in Cry1A toxin mode of action, and that HevCaLP plays a supporting role in increasing Cry1A toxicity. PMID:27456115

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision 0) with ROTC 1 and 2

    Krauss, Mark J

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 137 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 28 through August 17, 2006, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. ROTC-1: Downgrade FFACO UR at CAU 137, CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site to an Administrative UR. ROTC-2: Downgrade FFACO UR at CAU 137, CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site to an Administrative UR.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-12-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 consists of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-21-003-TANL; 09-21-001-TA09; TA-19-002-TAB2; TA-21-002-TAAL; and 03-19-001. The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU. The corrective action alternative recommended for CAU 410 is Clean Closure; therefore, no corrective action or corrective action plan is required. No use restrictions are required to be placed on this CAU because the investigation showed no evidence of remaining soil contamination or remaining debris/waste upon completion of all investigation activities.

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Matthews, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 105 comprises the following five corrective action sites (CASs): -02-23-04 Atmospheric Test Site - Whitney Closure In Place -02-23-05 Atmospheric Test Site T-2A Closure In Place -02-23-06 Atmospheric Test Site T-2B Clean Closure -02-23-08 Atmospheric Test Site T-2 Closure In Place -02-23-09 Atmospheric Test Site - Turk Closure In Place The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 105 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 22, 2012, through May 23, 2013, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 557: Spills and Tank Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Alfred Wickline

    2009-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 557, Spills and Tank Sites, in Areas 1, 3, 6, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 557 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 01-25-02, Fuel Spill • 03-02-02, Area 3 Subdock UST • 06-99-10, Tar Spills • 25-25-18, Train Maintenance Bldg 3901 Spill Site The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to identify and provide the justification and documentation that supports the recommendation for closure of the CAU 557 CASs with no further corrective action. To achieve this, a corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted from May 5 through November 24, 2008. The CAI activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 557: Spills and Tank Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 570: Area 9 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Matthews, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 570: Area 9 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The purpose of the CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 546: Injection Well and Surface Releases Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 546, Injection Well and Surface Releases, at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 546 is comprised of two corrective action sites (CASs): • 06-23-02, U-6a/Russet Testing Area • 09-20-01, Injection Well The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 546. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from May 5 through May 28, 2008, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 546: Injection Well and Surface Releases, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2008). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: • Determine whether a contaminant of concern is present at a given CAS. • Determine whether sufficient information is available to evaluate potential corrective action alternatives at each CAS. The CAU 546 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Because DQO data needs were met, and corrective actions have been implemented, it has been determined that no further corrective action (based on risk to human receptors) is necessary for the CAU 546 CASs. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office provides the following recommendations: • No further corrective actions are needed for CAU 546 CASs. • No Corrective Action Plan is required. • A Notice of Completion to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada Appendix D - Corrective Action Investigation Report, Central Nevada Test Area, CAU 417

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations office

    1999-04-02

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada Appendix D - Corrective Action Investigation Report, Central Nevada Test Area, CAU 417

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 477: Area 12 N-Tunnel Muckpile, Nevada Test Site

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 477, N-Tunnel Muckpile. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 477 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): • 12-06-03, Muckpile The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure with no further action, by placing use restrictions on CAU 477.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-02-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550: Smoky Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 550 includes 19 corrective action sites (CASs), which consist of one weapons-related atmospheric test (Smoky), three safety experiments (Ceres, Oberon, Titania), and 15 debris sites (Table ES-1). The CASs were sorted into the following study groups based on release potential and technical similarities: • Study Group 1, Atmospheric Test • Study Group 2, Safety Experiments • Study Group 3, Washes • Study Group 4, Debris The purpose of this document is to provide justification and documentation supporting the conclusion that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 550 based on implementation of the corrective actions listed in Table ES-1. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed between August 2012 and October 2013 as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan. The approach for the CAI was to investigate and make data quality objective (DQO) decisions based on the types of releases present. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the DQO process. The CAU 550 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 371: Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-07-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 371, Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe, located within Areas 11 and 18 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 371 comprises two corrective action sites (CASs): • 11-23-05, Pin Stripe Contamination Area • 18-45-01, U-18j-2 Crater (Johnnie Boy) The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 371 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls was implemented at both CASs. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 8, 2009, through February 16, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 371: Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 371 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Radiological doses exceeding the FAL of 25 millirem per year were not found to be present in the surface soil. However, it was assumed that radionuclides are present in subsurface media within the Johnnie Boy crater and the fissure at Pin Stripe. Due to the assumption of radiological dose exceeding the FAL, corrective actions were undertaken

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 309: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata Sheet

    Alfred Wickline

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 309, Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The corrective actions proposed in this document are according to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 309 is comprised of the three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1-1) listed below: (1) CAS 12-06-09, Muckpile; (2) CAS 12-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump (CWD); and (3) CAS 12-28-01, I-, J-, and K-Tunnel Debris. Corrective Action Sites 12-06-09 and 12-08-02 will be collectively referred to as muckpiles in this document. Corrective Action Site 12-28-01 will be referred to as the fallout plume because of the extensive lateral area of debris and fallout contamination resulting from the containment failures of the J- and K-Tunnels. A detailed discussion of the history of this CAU is presented in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 309: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada.'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). This CADD/CR provides justification for the closure of CAU 309 without further corrective action. This justification is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted according to the CAIP (NNSA/NSO, 2004), which provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation. Therefore, this information will not be repeated in this CADD/CR.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Grant Evenson

    2008-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, located in Areas 2, 3, 4, 12, and 15 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 234 is comprised of the following 12 corrective action sites: •02-09-48, Area 2 Mud Plant #1 •02-09-49, Area 2 Mud Plant #2 •02-99-05, Mud Spill •03-09-02, Mud Dump Trenches •04-44-02, Mud Spill •04-99-02, Mud Spill •12-09-01, Mud Pit •12-09-04, Mud Pit •12-09-08, Mud Pit •12-30-14, Cellar •12-99-07, Mud Dump •15-09-01, Mud Pit The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 234 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. •If contaminants of concern are present, determine their extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 234 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 190, Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (1996, as amended January 2007). Corrective Action Unit 190 is comprised of the following four corrective action sites (CASs): • 11-02-01, Underground Centrifuge • 11-02-02, Drain Lines and Outfall • 11-59-01, Tweezer Facility Septic System • 14-23-01, LTU-6 Test Area The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 190 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from March 21 through June 26, 2007. All CAI activities were conducted as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 190 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the data quality objective data needs.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 559: T Tunnel Compressor/Blower Pad, Nevada Test Site

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 559, T-Tunnel Compressor/Blower Pad. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 559 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): • 12-25-13, Oil Stained Soil and Concrete The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 559.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 476: Area 12 T-Tunnel Muckpile, Nevada Test Site

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 476, Area 12 T-Tunnel Muckpile. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 476 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): • 12-06-02, Muckpile The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 476.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 478: Area 12 T-Tunnel Ponds, Nevada Test Site

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 478, Area 12 T-Tunnel Ponds. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 478 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): • 12-23-01, Ponds (5) RAD Area The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 478.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    David A. Strand

    2005-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, in Areas 2, 3, 5, 6, 11, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 224 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); (2) 03-05-01, Leachfield; (3) 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; (4) 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); (5) 06-05-01, Leachfield; (6) 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; (7) 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; (8) 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (9) 23-05-02, Leachfield. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for the nine CASs within CAU 224. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 10, 2004, through January 18, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 224 Corrective Action Investigation Plan.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 274: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Grant Evenson

    2006-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 274, Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 274 is comprised of five corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-02-01, WX-6 ETS Building Septic System; (2) CAS 06-02-01, Cesspool; (3) CAS 09-01-01, Spill Site; (4) CAS 09-05-01, Leaching Pit; and (5) CAS 20-05-01, Septic System. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the closure of CAU 274 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from November 14 through December 17, 2005 as set forth in the CAU 274 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 274 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. No analytes were detected at concentrations exceeding the FALs. No COCs have been released to the soil at CAU 274, and corrective action is not required. Therefore, the DQO data needs were met, and it was determined that no corrective action based on risk to human receptors is necessary for the site. All FALs were calculated using the industrial site worker scenario except for benzo(a)pyrene, which was

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 145: Wells and Storage Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0, with ROTC No. 1 and Addendum

    David Strand

    2006-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 145, Wells and Storage Holes in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 145 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-20-01, Core Storage Holes; (2) 03-20-02, Decon Pad and Sump; (3) 03-20-04, Injection Wells; (4) 03-20-08, Injection Well; (5) 03-25-01, Oil Spills; and (6) 03-99-13, Drain and Injection Well. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for the six CASs within CAU 145. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 1, 2005, through November 8, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 145 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. Analytes detected during the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) were evaluated against appropriate final action levels to identify the contaminants of concern for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified contaminants of concern at one of the six CASs in CAU 145 and required the evaluation of corrective action alternatives. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 145 revealed the following: CASs 03-20-01, 03-20-02, 03-20-04, 03-20-08, and 03-99-13 do not contain contamination; and CAS 03-25-01 has pentachlorophenol and arsenic contamination in the subsurface soils. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations at the six CASs, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential corrective action alternatives, the following corrective actions are recommended for CAU 145. No further action is the preferred corrective action for CASs 03-20-01, 03-20-02, 03-20-04, 03-20-08, and 03-99-13. Close in place is the preferred corrective action

  14. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 383: AREA 12 E-TUNNEL SITES, NEVADA TEST SITE, REV. NO. 0

    Mark McLane

    2005-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The recommendations and corrective actions described within this document apply to the future closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 383, Area 12 E-Tunnel Sites, which is a joint DTRA and NNSA/NSO site. The CAU consists of three (3) Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-06-06 (Muckpile); CAS 12-25-02 (Oil Spill); and CAS 12-28-02 (Radioactive Material). In addition to these CASs, E-Tunnel Ponds One, Two, and Three, and the Drainage Area above the ponds were included since closure of the Muckpile will impact these areas. This CADD is consistent with the requirements of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The DTRA point of contact is the Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Project Manager; currently Ms. Tiffany A. Lantow. The NNSA/NSO point of contact is the Environmental Restoration, Industrial Sites Project Manager; currently Ms. Janet Appenzeller-Wing. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for CAU 383. This document presents the recommended corrective action for CAU 383 (E-Tunnel Sites); however, implementation may be affected by the corrective action (to be determined) for CAU 551 (Area 12 Muckpiles) due to the close proximity of B, C, D, and F-Tunnels. The scope of this CADD consists of the following tasks: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5

  15. Determination of the steps in mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis on midgut of Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    Turanli, F.; Cabuk, M.; Kismali, S.; Gelbič, Ivan

    Izmir : Entomological Society of Turkey , 2006. s. 153-153. [European Congress of Entomology /8./. 17.09.2006-22.09.2006, Izmir] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Irene Farnham and Sam Marutzky

    2011-07-01

    This CADD/CAP follows the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) stage, which results in development of a set of contaminant boundary forecasts produced from groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling of the Frenchman Flat CAU. The Frenchman Flat CAU is located in the southeastern portion of the NNSS and comprises 10 underground nuclear tests. The tests were conducted between 1965 and 1971 and resulted in the release of radionuclides in the subsurface in the vicinity of the test cavities. Two important aspects of the corrective action process are presented within this CADD/CAP. The CADD portion describes the results of the Frenchman Flat CAU data-collection and modeling activities completed during the CAI stage. The corrective action objectives and the actions recommended to meet the objectives are also described. The CAP portion describes the corrective action implementation plan. The CAP begins with the presentation of CAU regulatory boundary objectives and initial use restriction boundaries that are identified and negotiated by NNSA/NSO and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). The CAP also presents the model evaluation process designed to build confidence that the flow and contaminant transport modeling results can be used for the regulatory decisions required for CAU closure. The first two stages of the strategy have been completed for the Frenchman Flat CAU. A value of information analysis and a CAIP were developed during the CAIP stage. During the CAI stage, a CAIP addendum was developed, and the activities proposed in the CAIP and addendum were completed. These activities included hydrogeologic investigation of the underground testing areas, aquifer testing, isotopic and geochemistry-based investigations, and integrated geophysical investigations. After these investigations, a groundwater flow and contaminant transport model was developed to forecast contaminant boundaries that enclose areas potentially exceeding the Safe Drinking

  17. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, December 2000)

    This document is an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) that has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD) Decontamination Facility. CAU 254 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. The purpose of this addendum is to provide a rationale for the recommendation of a revised preferred alternative corrective action for CAU 254. This preferred alternative corrective action, Alternative 3, consists of the removal of accessible soil/sediment and all building material above ground level from the CAU 254 Site. This alternative is being recommended because a cost-effective technology is now available to dismantle the contaminated building and ensure complete removal of all CAU 254 CADD-identified contaminants of concern and any associated contamination. This preferred closure method alternative reduces the potential for future exposure pathways. Procedures will be developed, presented in the Corrective Action Plan, and implemented to ensure worker health and safety, protection of human health and the environment, and to meet all unrestricted release requirements in accordance with applicable state and federal regulations

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 500: Test Cell A Septic System, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 500 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site, CAS 25-04-05. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 500. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report based on sample data collected during the field investigation performed between February and May 1999, which showed no evidence of soil contamination at this site. The clean closure justification for CAU 500 is based on these results. Analytes detected were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CAU 500, and it was determined that the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90 for any of the soil samples collected. COCs were identified only within the septic tank and distribution box at the CAU. No COCs were identified outside these two areas; therefore, no corrective action was necessary for the soil. Closure activities were performed to address the COCs identified within the septic tank and distribution box. The DOE/NV recommended that neither corrective action nor a corrective action plan was required at CAU 500. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 500, and the septic tank and distribution box have been closed in accordance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit 365 comprises one corrective action site (CAS), CAS 08-23-02, U-8d Contamination Area. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 365 based on the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with a use restriction (UR). Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18, 2011, through August 2, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 365 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in supporting the DQO decisions. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were found to be present to the southwest of the Baneberry crater. It was also assumed that radionuclide levels present within the crater and fissure exceed the FAL. Corrective actions were undertaken that consisted of establishing a UR and posting warning signs for the crater, fissure, and the area located to the southwest of the crater where soil concentrations exceeded the FAL. These URs were recorded in the FFACO database; the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Facility Information Management System; and the NNSA/NSO CAU/CAS files. Therefore, NNSA/NSO provides the following recommendations: (1) No further corrective actions beyond what are described in this document are necessary for CAU 365. (2) A Notice of Completion to

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-09-26

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of recommended corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 127 consists of twelve corrective action sites (CASs). Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 24, 2003, through May 2, 2003, with additional sampling conducted on June 6, 2003, June 9, 2003, and June 24, 2003. Analytes detected during these investigation activities were evaluated against preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern (COCs) for each CAS, resulting in the determination that only two of the CASs did not have COCs exceeding regulatory levels. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action is the preferred corrective action for the two CASs (25-02-13, 26-02-01) identified with no COCs; (2) Clean Closure is the preferred corrective action for eight of the CASs (25-01-05, 25-23-11, 25-12-01, 25-01-06, 26-01-01, 26-01-02, 26-99-01, 26-23-01); and (3) Closure in Place is the preferred corrective action for the remaining two CASs (25-01-07, 25-02-02). These three alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, these alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites at CAU 127 and will reduce potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media.

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 106: Area 5, 11 Frenchman Flat Atmospheric Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Corrective Action Unit 106 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 05-20-02, Evaporation Pond; (2) 05-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site - Able; (3) 05-45-04, 306 GZ Rad Contaminated Area; (4) 05-45-05, 307 GZ Rad Contaminated Area. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 106 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of clean closure was implemented at CASs 05-45-04 and 05-45-05, while no corrective action was necessary at CASs 05-20-02 and 05-23-05. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 20, 2010, through June 1, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 106: Areas 5, 11 Frenchman Flat Atmospheric Sites. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (mechanical displacement and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 106 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Industrial Area exposure scenario (2,250 hours of annual exposure). The only radiological dose exceeding the FAL was at CAS 05-45-05 and was associated with potential source material (PSM). It is also assumed that additional PSM in the form of depleted uranium (DU) and DU-contaminated debris at CASs 05-45-04 and 05-45-05 exceed the FAL. Therefore, corrective actions were undertaken at these CASs that consisted of removing PSM and collecting verification

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 106: Area 5, 11 Frenchman Flat Atmospheric Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Patrick Matthews and Dawn Peterson

    2011-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit 106 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 05-20-02, Evaporation Pond; (2) 05-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site - Able; (3) 05-45-04, 306 GZ Rad Contaminated Area; (4) 05-45-05, 307 GZ Rad Contaminated Area. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 106 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of clean closure was implemented at CASs 05-45-04 and 05-45-05, while no corrective action was necessary at CASs 05-20-02 and 05-23-05. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 20, 2010, through June 1, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 106: Areas 5, 11 Frenchman Flat Atmospheric Sites. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (mechanical displacement and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 106 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Industrial Area exposure scenario (2,250 hours of annual exposure). The only radiological dose exceeding the FAL was at CAS 05-45-05 and was associated with potential source material (PSM). It is also assumed that additional PSM in the form of depleted uranium (DU) and DU-contaminated debris at CASs 05-45-04 and 05-45-05 exceed the FAL. Therefore, corrective actions were undertaken at these CASs that consisted of removing PSM and collecting verification

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 367 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): • 10-09-03, Mud Pit • 10-45-01, U-10h Crater (Sedan) • 10-45-02, Ess Crater Site • 10-45-03, Uncle Crater Site The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation of the corrective actions and site closure activities implemented at CAU 367. A corrective action of closure in place with use restrictions was completed at each of the three crater CASs (10-45-01, 10-45-02, and 10-45-03); corrective actions were not required at CAS 10-09-03. In addition, a limited soil removal corrective action was conducted at the location of a potential source material release. Based on completion of these correction actions, no additional corrective action is required at CAU 367, and site closure is considered complete. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 2010 through March 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of non-test or other releases (e.g., migration in washes and potential source material). Based on the proximity of the Uncle, Ess, and Sedan craters, the impact of the Sedan test on the fallout deposited from the two earlier tests, and aerial radiological surveys, the CAU 367 investigation was designed to study the releases from the three crater CASs as one combined release (primary release). Corrective Action Site 10-09-03, Mud Pit, consists of two mud pits identified at CAU 367. The mud pits are considered non-test releases or other releases and were investigated independent of the three crater CASs. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 367 dataset of

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 551, Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The corrective actions proposed in this document are in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 551 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that are shown on Figure 1-2 and listed below: CAS 12-01-09, Aboveground Storage Tank and Stain; CAS 12-06-05, U-12b Muckpile; CAS 12-06-07, Muckpile; and CAS 12-06-08, Muckpile. A detailed discussion of the history of this CAU is presented in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). This CADD/CR provides justification for the closure of CAU 551 in place with administrative controls. This justification is based upon process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NSO, 2004). The CAIP provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, this information will not be repeated in the CADD/CR. Corrective Action Unit 551, Area 12 Muckpiles, consists of four inactive sites located in the southwestern portion of Area 12. The four CAU 551 sites consist of three muckpiles, and an aboveground storage tank (AST) and stain. The CAU 551 sites were all used during underground nuclear testing at the B-, C-, D- and F-Tunnels in the late 1950s and early 1960s and have mostly remained inactive since that period

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 551, Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The corrective actions proposed in this document are in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 551 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that are shown on Figure 1-2 and listed below: CAS 12-01-09, Aboveground Storage Tank and Stain; CAS 12-06-05, U-12b Muckpile; CAS 12-06-07, Muckpile; and CAS 12-06-08, Muckpile. A detailed discussion of the history of this CAU is presented in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). This CADD/CR provides justification for the closure of CAU 551 in place with administrative controls. This justification is based upon process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NSO, 2004). The CAIP provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, this information will not be repeated in the CADD/CR. Corrective Action Unit 551, Area 12 Muckpiles, consists of four inactive sites located in the southwestern portion of Area 12. The four CAU 551 sites consist of three muckpiles, and an aboveground storage tank (AST) and stain. The CAU 551 sites were all used during underground nuclear testing at the B-, C-, D- and F-Tunnels in the late 1950s and early 1960s and have mostly remained inactive since that period.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1, 2, and Errata

    Wickline, Alfred

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) north of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 204 are located in Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Unit 204 is comprised of the six CASs identified in Table 1-1. As shown in Table 1-1, the FFACO describes four of these CASs as bunkers one as chemical exchange storage and one as a blockhouse. Subsequent investigations have identified four of these structures as instrumentation bunkers (CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, 05-33-01), one as an explosives storage bunker (CAS 05-99-02), and one as both (CAS 05-18-02). The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1 with ROTC 1

    Alfred N. Wickline

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 516 is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) 03-59-01 - Bldg 3C-36 Septic System; (2) 03-59-02 - Bldg 3C-45 Septic System; (3) 06-51-01 - Sump and Piping; (4) 06-51-02 - Clay Pipe and Debris; (5) 06-51-03 - Clean Out Box and Piping; and (7) 22-19-04 - Vehicle Decontamination Area. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of an acceptable corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 516. Corrective action investigation activities were performed between July 22 and August 14, 2003, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Supplemental sampling was conducted in late 2003 and early 2004.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 568. Area 3 Plutonium Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada Revision 0

    Matthews, Patrick [Nevada Field Ofice, Las Vegas, NV (United States). National Nuclear Security Administration

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for the 14 CASs within CAU 568. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from April 2014 through May 2015, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 568: Area 3 Plutonium Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the DQO process. The CAU 568 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated that the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations at the 14 CASs, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following corrective actions are recommended for CAU 568: • No further action is the preferred corrective action for CASs 03-23-17, 03-23-22, 03-23-26. • Closure in place is the preferred corrective action for CAS 03-23-19; 03-45-01; the SE DCBs at CASs 03-23-20, 03-23-23, 03-23-31, 03-23-32, 03-23-33, and 03-23-34; and the Pascal-BHCA at CAS 03-23-31. • Clean closure is the preferred corrective action for CASs 03-08-04, 03-23-30, and 03-26-04; and the four well head covers at CASs 03-23-20, 03-23-23, 03-23-31, and 03-23-33.

  9. Separation and identification of endoxylanases from Bacillus subtilis and their actions on wheat bran insoluble dietary fibre

    Xiaoping, Yuan; Jing, Wang; Huiyuan, Yao; Nihorimbere, Venant

    2005-01-01

    A novel and convenient method based on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and homogenization extraction was used for the purification of xylanase from crude enzymes. Two xylanases were purified by this method from the crude enzyme preparation from the selected strain of Bacillus subtilis. Subsequent analysis with thin layer chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that these two xylanases were endo-acting enzymes, designated xyl I and xyl II. Both ...

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with Errata

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 536 is comprised of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge, and is located in Area 3 of the NTS (Figure 1-2). The CAU was investigated in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) and Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 (NNSA/NV, 2003). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to support the recommended corrective action alternative selected to complete closure of the site. The CAU 536, Area 3 Release Site, includes the Steam Jenny Discharge (CAS 03-44-02) that was historically used for steam cleaning equipment in the Area 3 Camp. Concerns at this CAS include contaminants commonly associated with steam cleaning operations and Area 3 Camp activities that include total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), unspecified solvents, radionuclides, metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The CAIP for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NV, 2003), provides additional information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the CAS within CAU 536. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2003) that was approved prior to the start of the

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 374: Area 20 Schooner Unit Crater, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 374 comprises five corrective action sites (CASs): • 18-22-05, Drum • 18-22-06, Drums (20) • 18-22-08, Drum • 18-23-01, Danny Boy Contamination Area • 20-45-03, U-20u Crater (Schooner) The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 374 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls was implemented at CASs 18-23-01 and 20-45-03, and a corrective action of removing potential source material (PSM) was conducted at CAS 20-45-03. The other CASs require no further action; however, best management practices of removing PSM and drums at CAS 18-22-06, and removing drums at CAS 18-22-08 were performed. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from May 4 through October 6, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 374: Area 20 Schooner Unit Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigating the primary release of radionuclides and investigating other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 374 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Radiological doses exceeding the FAL of 25 millirem per year were found to be present in the surface soil that was sampled. It is assumed that radionuclide levels present in subsurface media within the craters and ejecta fields (default contamination boundaries) at the Danny Boy and

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles and Debris) Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Pastor, Laura

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 511, Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris). The CAU is comprised of nine corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 511 is comprised of nine CASs: (1) 03-08-02, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (2) 03-99-11, Waste Dump (Piles); (3) 03-99-12, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (4) 04-99-04, Contaminated Trench/Berm; (5) 06-16-01, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (6) 06-17-02, Scattered Ordnance/Automatic Weapons Range; (7) 07-08-01, Contaminated Mound; (8) 18-99-10, Ammunition Dump; and (9) 19-19-03, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris). The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 511 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) and closure activities were performed from January 2005 through August 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris)'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 511 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the data quality objective data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate preliminary

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)

    DOE/NV

    2001-02-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (located southwest of Area 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of Area 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area (located south of the Area 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant Burn Area or the Station 44 Burn Area; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training Area and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 219: Septic Systems and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    David Strand

    2006-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 219, Septic Systems and Injection Wells, in Areas 3, 16, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 219 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-11-01, Steam Pipes and Asbestos Tiles; (2) 16-04-01, Septic Tanks (3); (3) 16-04-02, Distribution Box; (4) 16-04-03, Sewer Pipes; (5) 23-20-01, DNA Motor Pool Sewage and Waste System; and (6) 23-20-02, Injection Well. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 219 with no further corrective action beyond the application of a use restriction at CASs 16-04-01, 16-04-02, and 16-04-03. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from June 20 through October 12, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 219 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. A best management practice was implemented at CASs 16-04-01, 16-04-02, and 16-04-03, and corrective action was performed at CAS 23-20-01 between January and April 2006. In addition, a use restriction will be applied to CASs 16-04-01, 16-04-02, and 16-04-03 to provide additional protection to Nevada Test Site personnel. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 219 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Matthews, Patrick and Sloop, Christy

    2011-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 372, Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, located within Areas 18 and 20 at the Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 372 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): • 18-45-02, Little Feller I Surface Crater • 18-45-03, Little Feller II Surface Crater • 20-23-01, U-20k Contamination Area • 20-45-01, U-20L Crater (Cabriolet) The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 372 based on the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at all CASs. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from November 9, 2009, through December 10, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 372 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL was established of 25 millirem per year based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were found to be present at all four CASs. It is assumed that radionuclide levels present within the Little Feller I and Cabriolet high

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-24

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action (CAU) 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 5 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs). The corrective action investigation (CAI) of CAU 5 was conducted from October 7, 2002 through January 30, 2003, with geophysical surveys completed from March 6 through May 8, 2002, and topographic surveys conducted from March 11 through April 29, 2003. Contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified only at CAS 12-15-01. Those COCs included total petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following single alternative was developed for consideration. Close in Place with Administrative Controls is the recommended alternative for all of the CASs in CAU 5. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate inadvertent intrusion into landfills at CAU 5.

  18. Probiotic actions of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi and Saccharomyces boulardii in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen larvae culture

    Diego Moreira de Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi and Saccharomyces boulardii as probiotics to improve Rhamdia quelen culture. Six hundred larvaes (0.16±0.07 g were divided in three replicate tanks (25-L recirculation, 20 ºC, photoperiod of 12 h light/12 h darkness per treatment and were randomly assigned to the following treatments: Bacillus cereus var. toyoi; Saccharomyces boulardii; B. toyoi and S. boulardii; and control (without probiotic addition for a period of 30 days. The fish were fed five times daily (56% crude protein - Supra alevino inicial® and the probiotics were applied in water once a day. The doses of probiotics were 5 × 10(8 and 2 × 10(9 CFU (colony forming unit/mL for B. cereus var. toyoi and S. boulardii, respectively. Both probiotics have an inhibitory effect in vitro against Vibrio carchariae and are able to grow in media prepared with fishery water; however, no effect was observed on growth parameters when they were administered to Rhamdia quelen larvae.

  19. The Regularities of Mutagenic Action of gamma-Radiation on Vegetative Bacillus subtilis Cells with Different Repair Genotype

    Boreyko, A V; Krasavin, E A

    2000-01-01

    The regularities of induction of his^-\\to his^+ mutations in vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells with different repair capacity after gamma-irradiation have been studied. The wild type cells, polA1, recE4, recA, recP, add5, recH were used in experiments. It was shown that radiation-induced mutagenesis is determined by a repair genotype of cells. The blocking of different reparation genes is reflected on mutagenesis ratio by the various ways. A frequency of induction mutations in polA strain is higher than in wild type cells and it is characterized by the linearly-quadratic dose curve. The different rec^- strains that belong to various epistatic groups reveal an unequal mutation induction. The add5 and recP strains are characterized by the high-level induction mutations in contrast with the wild type cells. The mutagenesis in recE and recH strains, on the contrary, sharply reduces. The different influence of rec genes inhering to various epistatic groups on mutagenesis in Bacillus subtilis cells probably reflec...

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, June 2001)

    DOE/NV

    2001-06-12

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located near Area 3 on the TTR approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 409 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS RG-24-001-RGCR, Battery Dump Site; CAS TA-53-001-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit (referred to as Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.1); CAS TA-53-002-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit (referred to as Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.2). This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 409. The CADD/CR have been combined into one report based on sample data collected during the field investigation performed in November 2000. Analysis of the data generated from these investigation activities indicates preliminary action levels were not exceeded for total volatile organic compounds, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, TCLP semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (except arsenic), TCLP RCRA metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline- and diesel-range organics, isotopic uranium, and gamma-emitting radionuclides (except thorium-234) for any of the soil samples collected. Concentrations of arsenic were detected above the preliminary action level in all samples; however, the concentrations are considered representative of ambient conditions at the site. Thorium-234 was tentatively identified in one sample; however, the concentration is considered no greater than background. The NNSA/NV's final determination is that CAU 409 shows no evidence

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 375 comprises three corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 25-23-22, Contaminated Soils Site; (2) 25-34-06, Test Cell A Bunker; and (3) 30-45-01, U-30a, b, c, d, e Craters. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 375 based on the implementation of corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at CAS 25-23-22, no further action at CAS 25-34-06, and closure in place with administrative controls and removal of potential source material (PSM) at CAS 30-45-01. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 28, 2010, through April 4, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 375 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were assumed to be present within the default contamination boundaries at CASs 25-23-22 and 30-45-01. No contaminants were identified at CAS 25-34-06, and no corrective action is necessary. Potential source material in the form of lead plate, lead-acid batteries, and oil within an abandoned transformer were identified at CAS 30-45-01, and corrective actions were undertaken that

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Plutonium (Pu) and Depleted Uranium (DU) Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Cactus Spring Ranch on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, CAU 485 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-39-001-TAGR. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 485. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the preliminary assessment investigation (PAI) performed in January and February 1998 showed no evidence of contamination at the site. In the past, this CAU included holding pens which housed sheep and burros used to test inhalation uptake from atmospheric releases of Pu and DU, and the animals were sacrificed after the tests. Specifically, the investigation focused on data to determine: if surface activities of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides were present; if potential contaminants of concern (COCs) such as Pu and DU were present; and if plutonium was present in the soil and dung at levels significantly above background levels. Investigation results concluded that surface radiological activities of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides were within range of typical background levels. Evaluation of process knowledge determined plutonium to be the only potential COC, but soil and dung samples tested were not positive for plutonium-238 and only two samples had positive concentrations of plutonium 239/240 (subsequent plutonium alpha spectroscopy results demonstrated that there was no plutonium contamination in the Cactus Spring surface soil or dung). Therefore, the DOE/NV recommended that no corrective action was required at CAU 485; further, no Corrective Action

  3. Kinetics of the Action of Na2SeO3 on Bacillus subtilis Growth as Studied by Microcalorimetry

    LIU,Yi(刘义); LIANG,Hui-Gang(梁慧刚); CAO,Jin-Li(曹金莉); ZHAO,Ru-Ming(赵儒铭); SHEN,Ping(沈萍); QU,Song-Sheng(屈松生); YU,Zi-Niu(喻子牛)

    2002-01-01

    Microcalorimetric bioassay for acute cellular toxicity is based on metabolic heat production from cultured cells. The biological response to toxicants is the inhibition of the heat production rate in cells, and toxicity is expressed as the concentration of toxicant that is 50% effective in this inhihition (IC50). In this paper, the effect of Na2SeO3 on Bacillus subtilis growth was investigated at 37 ℃ by microcalorimetry. The relation ship between growth rate constants (k) and concentration of Na2SeO3 (c) shows a logarithmic normal distribution, and IC50 is 20.3 μg/mL. All these thermokinetic information is readily obtained by an LKB 2277-204 heat conduction mi crocalorimeter. Microcalorimetry is a quantitative, inexpen sive, and versatile method for toxicology research.

  4. Compendium of ORD and OSWER documents relevant to RCRA corrective action

    Throughout the past decade, several offices within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been involved in hazardous waste management technologies research, remedial action at chemically contaminated sites, and regulatory development for permitting hazardous waste management facilities. The primary offices involved in these activities include the Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). During this period, substantial knowledge and experience have been gained relevant to the a placability of remedial action technologies in various environmental setting

  5. Towards Optimal Spectral and Spatial Documentation of Cultural Heritage. Cosch - AN Interdisciplinary Action in the Cost Framework

    Boochs, F.; Bentkowska-Kafel, A.; Degringy, C.; Hautta-Kasari, M.; Rizvic, S.; Sitnik, R.; Tremeau, A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces the aims and early activities of Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage (COSCH), an interdisciplinary European network of experts in the latest optical measuring techniques and electronic imaging applied to documentation of artefacts. COSCH is a forum open to organisations, institutions and companies interested in collaboration within the emerging field of precise spectral and spatial imaging techniques, in physical and chemical sciences applied to cultural heritage objects, as well as in research and applications to conservation and art-historical analysis of such objects. COSCH started in November 2012. Funded by COST, an intergovernmental framework for European Cooperation in Science and Technology, COSCH networking activities enable knowledge exchange and coordination of nationally-funded research on a European level with occasional contribution of experts from other countries. Funding has been made available for four years (2012-2016). Participation is open to researchers across a wide range of disciplines, including computer scientists and museum professionals, art historians and academics in heritage-related fields. COSCH is a trans-domain Action (TD1201) of the COST Domain Materials, Physics and Nanosciences (MPNS) which facilitates and promotes innovation in material science. The work of COSCH is defined in the Memorandum of Understanding between the COST Office and the Chairman of COSCH. The Memorandum is available from http://www.cost.eu/domains_actions/mpns/Actions/TD1201 alongside the latest progress report and other documents. The scientific work draws on earlier and current research of the participants and is organised around the following areas: spectral and spatial object documentation; algorithms and procedures; analysis and restoration of surfaces and objects of material culture; visualisation of cultural heritage objects and its dissemination. Up-to-date information about COSCH activities, including its scientific and

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Rev. No.: 0, April 2002

    IT Coroporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-04-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) approximately 235 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 405 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-05-002-SW03, Septic Waste System (aka: Septic Waste System [SWS] 3); 03-05-002-SW04, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 4); 03-05-002-SW07, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 7). The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU, and this report provides specific information necessary to support this recommendation. The CAU consists of three leachfields and associated collection systems that were installed in or near Area 3 for wastewater disposal. These systems were used until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990. Historically, operations within various buildin gs in and near Area 3 of the TTR generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters. There is a potential that contaminants of concern (COCs) were present in the wastewaters and were disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. The justification for closure of this CAU without further action is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities. Closure activities were performed at these CASs between January 14 and February 2, 2002, and included the removal and proper disposal of media containing regulated constituents and proper closure of septic tanks. No further action is appropriate because all necessary activities have been completed. No use restrictions are required to be imposed for these sites since the investigation showed no evidence of COCs identified in the soil for CAU 405.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, is the only CAS in CAU 529 and is located in Area 25 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Site 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, was divided into nine parcels because of the large area impacted by past operations and the complexity of the source areas. The CAS was subdivided into separate parcels based on separate and distinct releases as determined and approved in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process and Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). Table 1-1 summarizes the suspected sources for the nine parcels. Corrective Action Site 25-23-17 is comprised of the following nine parcels: (1) Parcel A, Kiwi Transient Nuclear Test (TNT) 16,000-foot (ft) Arc Area (Kiwi TNT); (2) Parcel B, Phoebus 1A Test 8,000-ft Arc Area (Phoebus); (3) Parcel C, Topopah Wash at Test Cell C (TCC); (4) Parcel D, Buried Contaminated Soil Area (BCSA) l; (5) Parcel E, BCSA 2; (6) Parcel F, Borrow Pit Burial Site (BPBS); (7) Parcel G, Drain/Outfall Discharges; (8) Parcel H, Contaminated Soil Storage Area (CSSA); and (9) Parcel J, Main Stream/Drainage Channels.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Mark Krauss

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this CADD/CAP is to present the corrective action alternatives (CAAs) evaluated for CAU 547, provide justification for selection of the recommended alternative, and describe the plan for implementing the selected alternative. Corrective Action Unit 547 consists of the following three corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly; (2) CAS 03-99-19, Gas Sampling Assembly; and(3) CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly. The gas sampling assemblies consist of inactive process piping, equipment, and instrumentation that were left in place after completion of underground safety experiments. The purpose of these safety experiments was to confirm that a nuclear explosion would not occur in the case of an accidental detonation of the high-explosive component of the device. The gas sampling assemblies allowed for the direct sampling of the gases and particulates produced by the safety experiments. Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 is located in Area 2 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and is associated with the Mullet safety experiment conducted in emplacement borehole U2ag on October 17, 1963. Corrective Action Site 03-99-19 is located in Area 3 of the NNSS and is associated with the Tejon safety experiment conducted in emplacement borehole U3cg on May 17, 1963. Corrective Action Site 09-99-06 is located in Area 9 of the NNSS and is associated with the Player safety experiment conducted in emplacement borehole U9cc on August 27, 1964. The CAU 547 CASs were investigated in accordance with the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAU 547. Existing radiological survey data and historical knowledge of

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various locations and

  11. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This IM/IRAP/EA identifies and evaluates interim remedial actions for removal of residual free-phase VOC contamination from three different subsurface environments at OU2. The term ''residual'' refers to the non-aqueous phase contamination remaining in the soil matrix (by capillary force) subsequent to the passage of non-aqueous or free-phase liquid through the subsurface. In addition to the proposed actions, this IM/IRAP/EA presents an assessment of the No Action Alternative. This document also considers an interim remedial action for the removal of radionuclides from beneath the 903 Pad

  12. Acid Rain: Federal Policy Action 1983-1985. A Guide to Government Documents and Commercial Sources.

    Lovenburg, Susan, Comp.

    The problems associated with acid rain as well as strategies on what to do and how to do it are addressed in this resource guide. The first section identifies and describes the U.S. agencies and congressional committees which play a role in acid rain research, legislation, and regulation. Actions already taken by the executive and legislative…

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Matthews, Patrick [Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-02-01

    CAU 573 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 05-23-02, GMX Alpha Contaminated Area • 05-45-01, Atmospheric Test Site - Hamilton These two CASs include the release at the Hamilton weapons-related tower test and a series of 29 atmospheric experiments conducted at GMX. The two CASs are located in two distinctly separate areas within Area 5. To facilitate site investigation and data quality objective (DQO) decisions, all identified releases (i.e., CAS components) were organized into study groups. The reporting of investigation results and the evaluation of DQO decisions are at the release level. The corrective action alternatives (CAAs) were evaluated at the FFACO CAS level. The purpose of this CADD/CAP is to evaluate potential CAAs, provide the rationale for the selection of recommended CAAs, and provide the plan for implementation of the recommended CAA for CAU 573. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 2015 through November 2015, as set forth in the CAU 573 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the contaminants of concern. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 573 revealed the following: • Radiological contamination within CAU 573 does not exceed the FALs (based on the Occasional Use Area exposure scenario). • Chemical contamination within CAU 573 does not exceed the FALs. • Potential source material—including lead plates, lead bricks, and lead-shielded cables—was removed during the investigation and requires no additional corrective action.

  14. Toxicity and mode of action of insecticidal Cry1A proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in an insect cell line, CF-1.

    Portugal, Leivi; Gringorten, J Lawrence; Caputo, Guido F; Soberón, Mario; Muñoz-Garay, Carlos; Bravo, Alejandra

    2014-03-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are insecticidal proteins used to control insect pests. The interaction of Cry toxins with the midgut of susceptible insects is a dynamic process involving activation of the toxin, binding to midgut receptors in the apical epithelium and conformational changes in the toxin molecule, leading to pore formation and cell lysis. An understanding of the molecular events underlying toxin mode of action is essential for the continued use of Cry toxins. In this work, we examined the mechanism of action of Cry1A toxins in the lepidopteran cell line CF-1, using native Cry1Ab and mutant forms of this protein that interfer with different steps in the mechanism of action, specifically, receptor binding, oligomerization or pore formation. These mutants lost activity against both Manduca sexta larvae and CF-1 cells. We also analyzed a mutation created in domain I of Cry1Ab, in which helix α-1 and part of helix α-2 were deleted (Cry1AbMod). Cry1AbMod is able to oligomerize in the absence of toxin receptors, and although it shows reduced activity against some susceptible insects, it kills insect pests that have developed resistance to native Cry1Ab. Cry1AbMod showed enhanced toxicity to CF-1, suggesting that oligomerization of native Cry1Ab may be a limiting step in its activity against CF-1 cells. The toxicity of Cry1Ac and Cry1AcMod were also analyzed. Our results suggest that some of the steps in the mode of action of Cry1A toxins are conserved in vivo in insect midgut cells and in vitro in an established cell line, CF-1. PMID:24189038

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    NNSA/NV

    2002-09-16

    This corrective action decision document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 271, Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Located on the NTS approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 271 consists of fifteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CASs consist of 13 septic systems, a radioactive leachfield, and a contaminated reservoir. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended CAA for each CAS within CAU 271. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 29, 2001, through February 22, 2002, and April 29, 2002, through June 25, 2002. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels and regulatory disposal limits to determine contaminants of concern (COC) for each CAS. It was determined that contaminants of concern included hydrocarbon-contaminated media, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radiologically-contaminated media. Three corrective action objectives were identified for these CASs, and subsequently three CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Areas 25, 26, and 27 of the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Clean Closure, and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 2, Clean Closure, was chosen as the preferred CAA for all but two of the CASs (25-04-04 and 27-05-02) because Nevada Administrative Control 444.818 requires clean closure of the septic tanks involved with these CASs. Alternative 3, Closure in Place, was chosen for the final two CASs because the short-term risks of

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    This corrective action decision document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 271, Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Located on the NTS approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 271 consists of fifteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CASs consist of 13 septic systems, a radioactive leachfield, and a contaminated reservoir. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended CAA for each CAS within CAU 271. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 29, 2001, through February 22, 2002, and April 29, 2002, through June 25, 2002. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels and regulatory disposal limits to determine contaminants of concern (COC) for each CAS. It was determined that contaminants of concern included hydrocarbon-contaminated media, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radiologically-contaminated media. Three corrective action objectives were identified for these CASs, and subsequently three CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Areas 25, 26, and 27 of the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Clean Closure, and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 2, Clean Closure, was chosen as the preferred CAA for all but two of the CASs (25-04-04 and 27-05-02) because Nevada Administrative Control 444.818 requires clean closure of the septic tanks involved with these CASs. Alternative 3, Closure in Place, was chosen for the final two CASs because the short-term risks of

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Evenson, Grant

    2005-07-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 554, Area 23 Release Site, located in Mercury at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): (1) CAS 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 554 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18 through May 5, 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Records of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 554 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) established in the CAU 554 CAIP for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and trichloroethene (TCE). Specifically: (1) The soil beneath and laterally outward from former underground storage tanks at CAS 23-02-08 contains TPH-diesel-range organics (DRO) above the PAL of 100 milligrams per kilogram, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 400

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 140 consists of nine corrective action sites (CASs). Investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002, with additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Results obtained from the investigation activities and sampling indicated that only 3 of the 9 CASs at CAU 140 had COCs identified. Following a review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the NTS, the following preferred alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action - six CASs (05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05-35-01, 05-99-04, and 22-99-04); (2) Clean Closure - one CAS (05-08-01), and (3) Closure-in-Place - two CASs (05-23-01 and 23-17-01). These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 140.

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Grant Evenson

    2006-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151, Septic Systems and Discharge Area, at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, according to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 151 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for each of the eight CASs within CAU 151. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from September 12 through November 18, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 151 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. Additional confirmation sampling was performed on December 9, 2005; January 10, 2006; and February 13, 2006. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the contaminants of concern for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified contaminants of concern at two of the eight CASs in CAU 151 and required the evaluation of CAAs. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 151 revealed the following: (1) Soils at CASs 02-05-01, 12-04-01, 12-04-02, 12-04-03, 12-47-01, 18-03-01, 18-99-09, and Lagoons B through G of CAS 12-03-01 do not contain contamination at concentrations exceeding the FALs. (2) Lagoon A of CAS 12-03-01 has arsenic above FALs in shallow subsurface soils. (3) One of the two tanks of CAS 12-04-01, System No.1, has polychlorinated biphenyls (aroclor-1254), trichloroethane, and cesium-137 above FALs in the sludge. Both CAS 12-04-01, System

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 104: Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Patrick Matthews

    2012-10-01

    CAU 104 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 07-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-7C • 07-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T7-1 • 07-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site • 07-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T7-5a • 07-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site - Dog (T-S) • 07-23-08, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (T-S) • 07-23-09, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (T-S) • 07-23-10, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie • 07-23-11, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie • 07-23-12, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (Bus) • 07-23-13, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (Buster) • 07-23-14, Atmospheric Test Site - Ruth • 07-23-15, Atmospheric Test Site T7-4 • 07-23-16, Atmospheric Test Site B7-b • 07-23-17, Atmospheric Test Site - Climax These 15 CASs include releases from 30 atmospheric tests conducted in the approximately 1 square mile of CAU 104. Because releases associated with the CASs included in this CAU overlap and are not separate and distinguishable, these CASs are addressed jointly at the CAU level. The purpose of this CADD/CAP is to evaluate potential corrective action alternatives (CAAs), provide the rationale for the selection of recommended CAAs, and provide the plan for implementation of the recommended CAA for CAU 104. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 4, 2011, through May 3, 2012, as set forth in the CAU 104 Corrective Action Investigation Plan.

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, in Areas 2, 3, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (1996, as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 545 is comprised of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): • 02-09-01, Mud Disposal Area • 03-08-03, Mud Disposal Site • 03-17-01, Waste Consolidation Site 3B • 03-23-02, Waste Disposal Site • 03-23-05, Europium Disposal Site • 03-99-14, Radioactive Material Disposal Area • 09-23-02, U-9y Drilling Mud Disposal Crater • 20-19-01, Waste Disposal Site While all eight CASs are addressed in this CADD/CR, sufficient information was available for the following three CASs; therefore, a field investigation was not conducted at these sites: • For CAS 03-08-03, though the potential for subsidence of the craters was judged to be extremely unlikely, the data quality objective (DQO) meeting participants agreed that sufficient information existed about disposal and releases at the site and that a corrective action of close in place with a use restriction is recommended. Sampling in the craters was not considered necessary. • For CAS 03-23-02, there were no potential releases of hazardous or radioactive contaminants identified. Therefore, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 545 concluded that: “Sufficient information exists to conclude that this CAS does not exist as originally identified. Therefore, there is no environmental concern associated with CAS 03-23-02.” This CAS is closed with no further action. • For CAS 03-23-05, existing information about the two buried sources and lead pig was considered to be

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 482: Area 15 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds Nevada Test Site

    This Corrective Action Decision Document /Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 482 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 482 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and one adjacent area: CAS 15-06-01, U15e Muckpile; CAS 15-06-02, U15a Muckpile; CAS 15-38-01, Area 15 U15a/e Ponds; and Drainage below the U15a Muckpile. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure with no further corrective action, by placing use restrictions on the three CASs and the adjacent area of CAU 482. To support this recommendation, a corrective action investigation (CAI) was performed in September 2002. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to determine appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 482 dataset from the CAI was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Tier 2 FALS were determined for the hazardous constituents of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-diesel-range organics (DRO) and the radionuclides americium (Am)-241, cesium (Cs)-137, plutonium (Pu)-238, and Pu-239. The Tier 2 FALs were calculated for the radionuclides using site-specific information. The hazardous constituents of TPH-DRO were compared to the PALs

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 482: Area 15 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds Nevada Test Site

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-09-30

    This Corrective Action Decision Document /Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 482 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 482 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and one adjacent area: CAS 15-06-01, U15e Muckpile; CAS 15-06-02, U15a Muckpile; CAS 15-38-01, Area 15 U15a/e Ponds; and Drainage below the U15a Muckpile. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure with no further corrective action, by placing use restrictions on the three CASs and the adjacent area of CAU 482. To support this recommendation, a corrective action investigation (CAI) was performed in September 2002. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to determine appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 482 dataset from the CAI was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Tier 2 FALS were determined for the hazardous constituents of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-diesel-range organics (DRO) and the radionuclides americium (Am)-241, cesium (Cs)-137, plutonium (Pu)-238, and Pu-239. The Tier 2 FALs were calculated for the radionuclides using site-specific information. The hazardous constituents of TPH-DRO were compared to the PALs

  5. Biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial action of lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by heavy metal tolerant strain Bacillus cereus NK1.

    Sriram, Muthu Irulappan; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Deepak, Venkataraman; Gracerosepat, Raja; Srisakthi, Kandasamy; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2011-07-01

    Biosurfactants are worthful microbial amphiphilic molecules with efficient surface-active and biological properties applicable to several industries and processes. Among them lipopeptides represent a class of microbial surfactants with increasing scientific, therapeutic and biotechnological interests. A heavy metal tolerant Bacillus strain has been isolated and the biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial activity of biosurfactant produced by the strain have been studied. Biosurfactant production was confirmed by the conventional screening methods including hemolytic activity, drop collapsing test, oil displacement test, emulsification and lipase production assays. The biosurfactant produced by this strain was a lipopeptide and exhibited strong surface activity. The biosurfactant has been characterized using FTIR, TLC and HPLC. The minimum active dose of this biosurfactant when compared with the other chemical surfactants was found as 0.150±0.06 μg. The critical micelle concentration was found to be 45 mg/l. The biosurfactant was found to be stable and active over a wide range of pH, temperature and NaCl concentration. It was also able to emulsify a wide range of hydrocarbons and oils thereby extending its application for the bioremediation of oil contaminated sites. The biosurfactant exhibited significant reduction in biofilm formation by pathogens and showed potent antimicrobial activity against various gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. Agar diffusion assay for heavy metal resistance showed that the isolate was resistant to ferrous, lead and zinc. Considering the biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial property of biosurfactant, it can be utilized as a potential therapeutic molecule for numerous microbial infections. The heavy metal resistance of the strain can also be harnessed as an invaluable biological tool for in situ bioremediation. PMID:21458961

  6. Comment and response document for the final remedial action plan site design for stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

    This document consists of comments and responses; the reviewers are the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Colorado Dept. of Public Health and Environment, and the remedial action contractor (RAC)

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-04-20

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons, and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Referred to as CAU 230/320, both CAUs are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comprise two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 22-03-01 (Sewage Lagoons) and 22-99-01 (Strainer Box). The Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site also includes a buried Imhoff Tank, sludge bed, and associated sewer piping. A September 1999 corrective action investigation identified the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels at this CAU (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics). During this same investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to subsurface debris and contaminated soil. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 22 of the NTS, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Excavation and Removal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Alternative 3 was chosen on technical merit as the preferred alternative for CAU 230/320. This alternative was judged to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the buried debris and contaminated soils at both of the CASs within Area 22.

  8. Comment and response document for the final remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 2

    This document for the final remedial action plan and site design has been prepared for US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Division as part of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action plan. Comments and responses are included for the site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

  9. Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus biopesticides production.

    el-Bendary, Magda A

    2006-01-01

    The long residual action and toxicity of the chemical insecticides have brought about serious environmental problems such as the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in many species of vectors, mammalian toxicity, and accumulation of pesticide residues in the food chain. All these problems have highlighted the need for alternative biological control agents. Entomo-pathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) are two safe biological control agents. They have attracted considerable interest as possible replacements for the chemical insecticides. Although microbial insecticides based on Bt and Bs are available for use, their high cost makes large-scale application impracticable in developing countries. This review focuses on the economic production of these two microorganisms by submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation using agro-industrial by-products and other wastes. PMID:16598830

  10. Bacillus coagulans

    ... and, as a result, is often misclassified as lactic acid bacteria such as lactobacillus. In fact, some commercial products ... sporogenes or "spore-forming lactic acid bacterium." Unlike lactic acid bacteria such as lactobacillus or bifidobacteria, Bacillus coagulans forms ...

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NTS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative analysis of the

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NTS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-11-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NNSS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NNSS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    CAU 561 comprises 10 CASs: (1) 01-19-01, Waste Dump; (2) 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area; (3) 03-19-02, Debris Pile; (4) 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile; (5) 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump; (6) 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site; (7) 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches ; (8) 25-08-02, Waste Dump; (9) 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump; and (10) 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 561 with no further corrective action. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the DQO process: (1) Determine whether COCs are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: (1) No contamination exceeding FALs was identified at CASs 01-19-01, 03-19-02, 05-62-01, 12-23-09, and 22-19-06. (2) The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area at CAS 02-08-02 contains arsenic and lead above the FALs of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area also contains melted lead slag (potential source material (PSM)). The soil within the waste piles contains polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) above the FALs. The contamination within the burn area is spread throughout the area, as it was not feasible to remove all the PSM (melted lead), while at the waste piles, the contamination is confined to the piles. (3) The surface and subsurface soils within Trenches 3 and 5 at CAS 23-21-04 contain arsenic and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above the FALs of 23 mg/kg and 0.74 mg/kg, respectively. The soil was removed from both trenches, and the soil that remains at this CAS does not contain contamination exceeding the FALs. Lead bricks and

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Mark Krauss

    2011-08-01

    CAU 561 comprises 10 CASs: (1) 01-19-01, Waste Dump; (2) 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area; (3) 03-19-02, Debris Pile; (4) 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile; (5) 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump; (6) 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site; (7) 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches ; (8) 25-08-02, Waste Dump; (9) 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump; and (10) 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 561 with no further corrective action. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the DQO process: (1) Determine whether COCs are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: (1) No contamination exceeding FALs was identified at CASs 01-19-01, 03-19-02, 05-62-01, 12-23-09, and 22-19-06. (2) The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area at CAS 02-08-02 contains arsenic and lead above the FALs of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area also contains melted lead slag (potential source material [PSM]). The soil within the waste piles contains polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) above the FALs. The contamination within the burn area is spread throughout the area, as it was not feasible to remove all the PSM (melted lead), while at the waste piles, the contamination is confined to the piles. (3) The surface and subsurface soils within Trenches 3 and 5 at CAS 23-21-04 contain arsenic and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above the FALs of 23 mg/kg and 0.74 mg/kg, respectively. The soil was removed from both trenches, and the soil that remains at this CAS does not contain contamination exceeding the FALs. Lead bricks and

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Sites, Nevada with ROTC 1, Errata Sheet, Revision 0, January 2007

    Grant Evenson

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the seven CASs within CAU 139. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from June 26 through September 27, 2006, as set forth in the CAU 139 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP).

  18. Transcriptional responses of Bacillus cereus towards challenges with the polysaccharide chitosan

    Hilde Mellegård; Ákos T Kovács; Toril Lindbäck; Christensen, Bjørn E.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Granum, Per E.

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of the polysaccharide chitosan towards different bacterial species has been extensively documented. The response mechanisms of bacteria exposed to this biopolymer and the exact molecular mechanism of action, however, have hardly been investigated. This paper reports the transcriptome profiling using DNA microarrays of the type-strain of Bacillus cereus (ATCC 14579) exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of two water-soluble chitosan preparations with defined chemic...

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 569: Area 3 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Sloop, Christy

    2013-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 569: Area 3 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 569 comprises the following nine corrective action sites (CASs): • 03-23-09, T-3 Contamination Area • 03-23-10, T-3A Contamination Area • 03-23-11, T-3B Contamination Area • 03-23-12, T-3S Contamination Area • 03-23-13, T-3T Contamination Area • 03-23-14, T-3V Contamination Area • 03-23-15, S-3G Contamination Area • 03-23-16, S-3H Contamination Area • 03-23-21, Pike Contamination Area The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 569 based on the implementation of the corrective actions listed in Table ES-2.

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Patrick Matthews

    2012-09-01

    CAU 366 comprises six corrective action sites (CASs): • 11-08-01, Contaminated Waste Dump #1 • 11-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump #2 • 11-23-01, Radioactively Contaminated Area A • 11-23-02, Radioactively Contaminated Area B • 11-23-03, Radioactively Contaminated Area C • 11-23-04, Radioactively Contaminated Area D The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of corrective action alternatives (CAA) for the six CASs within CAU 366. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 12, 2011, to May 14, 2012, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites.

  1. Addendum to: Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, DOE/NV-977

    None

    2008-01-01

    The environmental remediation closure process for the nuclear test at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) has progressed from the approved Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) to this addendum. The closure process required the installation of three monitoring/validation (MV) wells and validation analysis of the flow and transport model. The model validation analysis led to the conclusion that the hydraulic heads simulated by the flow model did not adequately predict observed heads at the MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3 validation points (wells and piezometers). The observed heads from screened intervals near the test horizon were higher than the model predicted and are believed to be the result of detonation-related effects that have persisted since the nuclear test. These effects, which include elevated heads out from the detonation zone and lower heads in the immediate vicinity of the detonation, are seen at other nuclear tests and typically dissipate within a few years. These effects were not included in the initial head distribution of the model. The head variations at CNTA are believed to have persisted due to the very low permeability of the material at the detonation level.

  2. 76 FR 38166 - Registration Review; Pesticide Dockets Opened for Review and Comment and Other Docket Actions

    2011-06-29

    ...-HQ-OPP-2011-0482 Eric Miederhoff, (703) 347-8028, miederhoff.eric@epa.gov . Bacillus cereus, 6053... AGENCY Registration Review; Pesticide Dockets Opened for Review and Comment and Other Docket Actions... review dockets for the pesticides listed in the table in Unit III.A. With this document, EPA is...

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins are versatile proteins with multiple modes of action: two distinct pre-pores are involved in toxicity

    Gómez, Isabel; Sánchez, Jorge; Muñoz-Garay, Carlos; Matus, Violeta; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis are insecticidal PFTs (pore-forming toxins). In the present study, we show that two distinct functional pre-pores of Cry1Ab are formed after binding of the protoxin or the protease-activated toxin to the cadherin receptor, but before membrane insertion. Both pre-pores actively induce pore formation, although with different characteristics, and contribute to the insecticidal activity. We also analysed the oligomerization of the mutant Cry1AbMod protein....

  4. Bacillus anthracis

    BOSERET, GÉRALDINE; Linden, Annick; Mainil, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    The literature describes several methods for detection of Bacillus anthracis based on application of specific bacteriophages. The following methods of pahoinpitely are used to identify the causative agent of anthrax: the reaction of bacteriophage titer growth (RBTG), the reaction of phage adsorption (RPA), fagoterapii method (FTM) and fluorescentserological method (FSM). The essence of RBTG consists in the following: if there is the researchform of bacteria presents in the test material, then...

  5. Bacillus anthracis

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 and the subsequent anthrax outbreaks have shown that the West needs to be prepared for an increasing number of terrorist attacks, which may include the use of biological warfare. Bacillus anthracis has long been considered a potential biological warfare agent, and this review will discuss the history of its use as such. It will also cover the biology of this organism and the clinical features of the three disease forms that it can produce: cutaneous, gastrointe...

  6. Crossmapping of Nursing Problem and Action Statements in Telephone Nursing Consultation Documentations with International Classification for Nursing Practice

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study is to cross-map telephone nursing consultation documentations with International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP; ver. 1.0 concepts). Methods The narrative telephone nursing consultation documentations of 170 ophthalmology nursing unit patients were analyzed. The nursing statements were examined and cross-mapped with the Korean version of the ICNP ver. 1.0. If all the concepts of a statement were mapped to ICNP concepts, it was classified as 'completely mapped'...

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-08-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of recommended corrective action alternatives (CAAs) to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU)168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 25 and 26 at the NTS in Nevada, CAU 168 is comprised of twelve Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Review of data collected during the corrective action investigation, as well as consideration of current and future operations in Areas 25 and 26 of the NTS, led the way to the development of three CAAs for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Close in Place with Administrative Controls. As a result of this evaluation, a combination of all three CAAs is recommended for this CAU. Alternative 1 was the preferred CAA for three CASs, Alternative 2 was the preferred CAA for six CASs (and nearly all of one other CAS), and Alternative 3 was the preferred CAA for two CASs (and a portion of one other CAS) to complete the closure at the CAU 168 sites. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and elimination of potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at CAU 168.

  8. Genomics of Bacillus Species

    Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

  9. Anti-methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Compound Isolation from Halophilic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MHB1 and Determination of Its Mode of Action Using Electron Microscope and Flow Cytometry Analysis.

    Jeyanthi, Venkadapathi; Velusamy, Palaniyandi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to purify, characterize and evaluate the antibacterial activity of bioactive compound against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The anti-MRSA compound was produced by a halophilic bacterial strain designated as MHB1. The MHB1 strain exhibited 99 % similarity to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. The culture conditions of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MHB1 were optimized using nutritional and environmental parameters for enhanced anti-MRSA compound production. The pure bioactive compound was isolated using silica gel column chromatography and Semi-preparative High-performance liquid chromatography (Semi-preparative HPLC). The Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proton NMR ((1)H NMR) analysis indicated the phenolic nature of the compound. The molecular mass of the purified compound was 507 Da as revealed by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The compound inhibited the growth of MRSA with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62.5 µg mL(-1). MRSA bacteria exposed to 4× MIC of the compound and the cell viability was determined using flow cytometric analysis. Scanning electron microscope and Transmission electron microscope analysis was used to determine the ultrastructural changes in bacteria. This is the first report on isolation of anti-MRSA compound from halophilic B. amyloliquefaciens MHB1 and could act as a promising biocontrol agent. PMID:27570306

  10. When Soda Is a Social Justice Issue: Design and Documentation of a Participatory Action Research Project with Youth

    Noonan, James

    2015-01-01

    Schools are increasingly seen as having a promising role to play in reducing adverse health and wellness outcomes among young people. This paper uses a collaborative action research approach to examine the effects of one school's efforts to change its students' eating habits by implementing a "junk-food free campus." By engaging school…

  11. 78 FR 56719 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    2013-09-13

    ...: Action Level'' that appeared in the Federal Register of July 15, 2013 (78 FR 42086). The draft guidance...-1639. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of July 15, 2013 (78 FR 42086... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple...

  12. MaqFACS (Macaque Facial Action Coding System) can be used to document facial movements in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    Julle-Danière, Églantine; Micheletta, Jérôme; Whitehouse, Jamie; Joly, Marine; Gass, Carolin; Burrows, Anne M.; Waller, Bridget M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and non-human primates exhibit facial movements or displays to communicate with one another. The evolution of form and function of those displays could be better understood through multispecies comparisons. Anatomically based coding systems (Facial Action Coding Systems: FACS) are developed to enable such comparisons because they are standardized and systematic and aid identification of homologous expressions underpinned by similar muscle contractions. To date, FACS has been developed f...

  13. Recent USNRC actions to improve power plant construction quality assurance and their implications on NUSS quality assurance documents

    US experience in nuclear power plant design and construction has ranged from the highly successful to the unacceptable because of the wide variety of organizations involved. As a result of this experience NRC and the US Congress have concluded that, at least for some plants, substantial improvement in quality assurance practices must occur. Recently this varied experience has been analysed by means of case studies at seven nuclear power plant projects in order to better define what factors contribute to successful QA programmes as well as what factors cause quality assurance problems, as a prelude to determining what actions need to be taken to apply necessary corrective actions. Since many of the NUSS QA standards closely correspond to US QA standards, conclusions resulting from these studies with regard to the adequacy of or any required changes to the US QA standards will generally have a direct bearing on the NUSS QA standards. A significant study finding by the NRC staff is that the regulatory basis for quality assurance in the USA, Appendix B to 10CFR Part 50, is sound. Based on recent NRC actions, it can also be concluded that the US QA standards are also sound. By inference, the same conclusion can be made with regard to the NUSS QA standards. The NRC staff concluded that the root cause for the breakdown occurring in some projects' QA programmes was the failure or inability of some utility management to implement a QA programme effectively. Such breakdowns were indicative of larger breakdowns in the overall management control of the projects. Regulatory inspection of QA activities needs to recognize the importance of management capability for effective implementation of the QA programme and to adequately assess this capability. (author)

  14. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document for the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This MIRA is to be conducted to provide information that will aid in the selection and design of final remedial actions at OU2 that will address removal of suspected free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination. The Plan involves investigating the removal of residual free-phase VOCs by in situ vacuum-enhanced vapor extraction technology at 3 suspected VOC source areas within OU2. VOC-contaminated vapors extracted from the subsurface would be treated by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and discharged. The Plan also includes water table depression, when applicable at the test sites, to investigate the performance of vapor extraction technology in the saturated zone. The Plan provides for treatment of any contaminated ground water recovered during the IM/IRA at existing RFP treatment facilities. The proposed MVIRA Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2, '' dated 20 March 1992. Information concerning the proposed Subsurface IM/IRA was presented during a DOE Quarterly Review meeting held on 07 April 1992 and a public meeting held on 07 May 1992, at the Marriott Hotel in Golden, Colorado. The Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to date to DOE during the public comment period

  15. Cadherin is involved in the action of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Qiu, Lin; Hou, Leilei; Zhang, Boyao; Liu, Lang; Li, Bo; Deng, Pan; Ma, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoping; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Chen, Lizhen; Lei, Chaoliang

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins are effective against some insect pests in sprays and transgenic crops, although the evolution of resistance could threaten the long-term efficacy of such Bt use. One strategy to delay resistance to Bt crops is to "pyramid" two or more Bt proteins that bind to distinct receptor proteins within the insect midgut. The most common Bt pyramid in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) employs Cry1Ac with Cry2Ab to target several key lepidopteran pests, including the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), which is a serious migratory pest of many vegetable crops and is increasingly important in cotton in China. While cadherin and aminopeptidase-N are key receptors of Cry1 toxins in many lepidopterans including S. exigua, the receptor for Cry2A toxins remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that a heterologous expressed peptide corresponding to cadherin repeat 7 to the membrane proximal extracellular domain (CR7-MPED) in the S. exigua cadherin 1b (SeCad1b) binds Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa. Moreover, SeCad1b transcription was suppressed in S. exigua larvae by oral RNA interference and susceptibility to Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa was significantly reduced. These results indicate that SeCad1b plays important functional roles of both Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa, having major implications for resistance management for S. exigua in Bt crops. PMID:25754522

  16. Phase II Documentation Overview of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    Greg Ruskauff

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject to assess and evaluate radiologic groundwater contamination resulting from underground nuclear testing at the NTS. These activities are overseen by the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended March 2010). For Frenchman Flat, the UGTA Subproject addresses media contaminated by the underground nuclear tests, which is limited to geologic formations within the saturated zone or 100 meters (m) or less above the water table. Transport in groundwater is judged to be the primary mechanism of migration for the subsurface contamination away from the Frenchman Flat underground nuclear tests. The intent of the UGTA Subproject is to assess the risk to the public from the groundwater contamination produced as a result of nuclear testing. The primary method used to assess this risk is the development of models of flow and contaminant transport to forecast the extent of potentially contaminated groundwater for the next 1,000 years, establish restrictions to groundwater usage, and implement a monitoring program to verify protectiveness. For the UGTA Subproject, contaminated groundwater is that which exceeds the radiological standards of the Safe Drinking Water Act (CFR, 2009) the State of Nevada’s groundwater quality standard to protect human health and the environment. Contaminant forecasts are expected to be uncertain, and groundwater monitoring will be used in combination with land-use control to build confidence in model results and reduce risk to the public. Modeling forecasts of contaminant transport will provide the basis for negotiating a compliance boundary for the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). This compliance boundary represents a regulatory-based distinction between groundwater contaminated or not contaminated by underground testing. Transport modeling simulations

  17. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document for South Walnut Creek Basin (Operable Unit No. 2)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This IM/IRA is to be conducted to minimize the release from these areas of hazardous substances that pose a potential threat to the public health and environment. The Plan involved the collection of contaminated surface water at specific locations, treatment by chemical precipitation, cross-flow membrane filtration and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, and surface discharge of treated water. Information for the initial configuration of the Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2'' (IM/IRAP) dated 26 September 1990. Information concerning the proposed Surface Water IM/IRA was presented during a public meeting held from 7 to 10 p.m., Tuesday, 23 October 1990, at the Westminster City Park Recreation Center in Westminster, Colorado. This Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to DOE during the public comment period which ended 24 November 1990. There were a number of technical comments on the plan that DOE has addressed herein. It is noted that several major issues were raised by the comments. Regardless of the estimated low risk to the public from construction and water transport activities, the popular sentiment of the public, based on comments received, is strong concern over worker and public health risks from these activities. In the light of public and municipal concerns, DOE proposes to eliminate from this IM/IRA the interbasin transfer of Woman Creek seepage to the South Walnut Creek drainage and to address collection and treatment of contaminated South Walnut Creek and Woman Creek surface water under two separate IM/IRAs

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bacillus subtilis [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis Bacillus subtilis Bacillus_subtilis_L.png Bacillus_subtilis_NL.png Bacillus..._subtilis_S.png Bacillus_subtilis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus...+subtilis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus

  19. 芽孢乳酸菌的作用机制及在水产养殖中应用前景%Lactic Acid Bacillus Mechanism of Action and Application Prospects in Aquaculture

    苏琳; 黄权

    2012-01-01

    芽孢乳酸菌是一种内生孢子的活菌制剂,与其他益生菌相比具有更好的抗逆性、稳定性、耐热性、易保存等特性。芽孢乳酸菌既可以产乳酸又能产生芽孢,具有乳酸菌和芽孢杆菌的双重优势。因此,芽孢乳酸菌是一种优质的微生态制剂,能够在水产养殖中有更好的应用前景。本文主要是对芽孢乳酸菌在水产养殖的应用及其机制做综述,并对芽孢乳酸菌发展前景及存在的问题作探讨。%Lactic acid bacillus is an endogenous spores live bacteria preparations, compared with other probiotics has better resistance, stability, heat resistance, easy to save and other features. Lactic acid bacillus can produce lactic acid and produce spores, has the dual advantage of Lactobacillus and Bacillus. Therefore, the lactic acid bacillus is a high quality micro ecol- ogical preparation, there are better prospect for application in aquaculture. This paper is mainly on lactic acid bacillus in aquaculture applications and mechanisms to review, and discussion of lactic acid bacillus development prospects and the existing problems.

  20. BacillusRegNet

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard;

    2014-01-01

    interactions. There is a need to develop new platform technologies that can be applied to the investigation of whole-genome datasets in an efficient and cost-effective manner. One such approach is the transfer of existing knowledge from well-studied organisms to closely-related organisms. In this paper, we...... associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  1. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Tuba City, Arizona: Phase 2, Construction, Subcontract documents: Appendix E, final report. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    1989-08-01

    This appendix discusses Phase II construction and subcontract documents uranium mill site near Tuba City, Arizona. It contains the bid schedule, special conditions, specifications, and subcontract drawings.

  2. INFCE plenary conference documents

    This document consists of the reports to the First INFCE Plenary Conference (November 1978) by the Working Groups a Plenary Conference of its actions and decisions, the Communique of the Final INFCE Plenary Conference (February 1980), and a list of all documents in the IAEA depository for INFCE

  3. Summit documents; Documents du sommet

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers three declarations about the non-proliferation of massive destruction weapons, made by the G8 organization participants during their last summit held in Evian (France): declaration about the enforcement and respect of the non-proliferation measures implemented by the IAEA and by the conventions for chemical and biological weapons; declaration about the protection of radioactive sources against diversion (regulatory control, inventory, control of sources export etc..); warranty about the security of radioactive sources (G8 approach, sustain of the IAEA action, sustain to the most vulnerable states, control mechanisms, political commitment of states, implementation of the recommendations of the international conference about the security and safety of radiation sources, held in Vienna (Austria) on March 2003. (J.S.)

  4. Integrated Documents

    Sawitzki, Günther

    2000-01-01

    An introduction to integrated documents in statistics. Integrated documents allow a seamless integration of interactive statistics and data analysis components in 'life' documents while keeping the full computational power needed for simulation or resampling.

  5. Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis—One Species on the Basis of Genetic Evidence

    Helgason, Erlendur; Økstad, Ole Andreas; Dominique A. Caugant; Johansen, Henning A.; Fouet, Agnes; Mock, Michéle; Hegna, Ida; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2000-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are members of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, demonstrating widely different phenotypes and pathological effects. B. anthracis causes the acute fatal disease anthrax and is a potential biological weapon due to its high toxicity. B. thuringiensis produces intracellular protein crystals toxic to a wide number of insect larvae and is the most commonly used biological pesticide worldwide. B. cereus is a probably ubiquitous so...

  6. Inactivation of Spores of Bacillus anthracis Sterne, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis by Chlorination

    Rice, E W; Adcock, N. J.; Sivaganesan, M; Rose, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    Three species of Bacillus were evaluated as potential surrogates for Bacillus anthracis for determining the sporicidal activity of chlorination as commonly used in drinking water treatment. Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis were found to be an appropriate surrogate for spores of B. anthracis for use in chlorine inactivation studies.

  7. Efficiently mobil. The action program for mobility management. Program documentation 2008-2010; effizient mobil. Das Aktionsprogramm fuer Mobilitaetsmanagement. Programmdokumentation 2008-2010

    Haendschke, Stefan; Kraehe, Melanie (comps.)

    2010-12-15

    An enhancement of the energy efficiency has to enable a satisfaction of needs with less energy expenditure. For this, mobility management is a prime example. This will provide a contribution to energy saving and climate protection. The contribution under consideration documents the results and a collection of possible measures for mobility management.

  8. Comparison of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus

    Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related, spore forming soil bacteria. B. thuringiensis produces insecticidal crystal proteins during sporulation and these toxins are the most important biopesticides in the world today. Genomes of the B. thuringiensis and B. cereus strains were analysed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis after treatment of the DNA with the restriction enzyme NotI. The NotI fingerprint patterns varied both within the B. thuringiensis and the B. cereus strains. The size of the fragments varied between 15 and 1350 kb. When physical maps of the B. thuringiensis and B. cereus strains were compared, B. thuringiensis appeared to be as closely related to B. cereus as the B. cereus strains were to each other. Nine out of 12 B. thuringiensis strains and 18 out of 25 B. cereus strains produced enterotoxins. The close relationship between B. thuringiensis and B. cereus should be taken into consideration when B. thuringiensis is used as a biopesticide. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  9. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp plantarum and ‘Bacillus oryzicola’ are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  10. Biodiversity in Bacillus cereus

    Pielaat A; Fricker M; Nauta MJ; Leusden FM van; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have been performed by different partners to identify variability in properties of Bacillus cereus strains that contribute to the extent of their virulence as part of an EU project. To this end, 100 B. cereus strains were selected and screened for biological properties, such as toxin pro

  11. Molecular physiology of weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis

    Brul, S.; Beilen, van, J.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which weak organic acid (WOA) preservatives inhibit growth of microorganisms may differ between different WOAs and these differences are not well understood. The aim of this thesis has been to obtain a better understanding of the mode of action of these preservatives by which they inhibit the growth of spore-forming bacteria (more specifically Bacillus subtilis).

  12. Documenting localities

    Cox, Richard J

    1996-01-01

    Now in paperback! Documenting Localities is the first effort to summarize the past decade of renewed discussion about archival appraisal theory and methodology and to provide a practical guide for the documentation of localities.This book discusses the continuing importance of the locality in American historical research and archival practice, traditional methods archivists have used to document localities, and case studies in documenting localities. These chapters draw on a wide range of writings from archivists, historians, material culture specialists, historic preservationists

  13. What is trammeling action?

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this short document is to provide guidelines and examples to clarify what is and is not a trammeling action. This document does not discuss how to...

  14. Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates

    Hill, Karen K.; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Okinaka, Richard T.; Asay, Michelle; Blair, Heather; Bliss, Katherine A.; Laker, Mariam; Pardington, Paige E.; Richardson, Amber P.; Tonks, Melinda; Beecher, Douglas J.; Kemp, John D.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Wong, Amy C. Lee; Keim, Paul

    2004-01-01

    DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates representing 36 serovars or subspecies were from the U.S. D...

  15. Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis

    Han, Cliff S.; Xie, Gary; Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, Michael R.; Bhotika, Smriti S.; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Doggett, Norman A.; Fawcett, John J.; Glavina, Tijana

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria of the B. cereus sensu lato group. While independently derived strains of B. anthracis reveal conspicuous sequence homogeneity, environmental isolates of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis exhibit extensive genetic diversity. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of the genomes of two members of the B. cereus group, B. thuringiensis 97-27 subsp. konkukian sero...

  16. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/ Environmental and Decision Document, South Walnut Creek Basin, Operable Unit No.2

    Water quality investigations have identified the presence of volatile organic compound (VOC) and radionuclide contamination of surface water at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). The subject interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses contaminated surface water in a portion of the South Walnut Creek drainage basin located within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU 2). There is no immediate threat to public health and the environment posed by this surface water contamination. The affected surface water is contained within the plant boundary by existing detention ponds, and is treated prior to discharge for removal of volatile contaminants and suspended particulates to which radionuclides, if present, are likely to absorb. However, there is a potential threat and the Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing this Surface Water IM/IRAP at the request of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Implementation of the Surface Water IM/IRA will enhance the DOE's efforts towards containing and managing contaminated surface water, and will mitigate downgradient migration of contaminants. Another factor in implementing this IM/IRA is the length of time it will take to complete the investigations and engineering studies necessary to determine the final remedy for OU 2. 44 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs

  17. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided. PMID:27030978

  18. 76 FR 14289 - Bacillus thuringiensis

    2011-03-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 174 Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab Protein in Corn; Temporary Exemption From the... permissible level for residues of Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein in corn. The temporary tolerance... Register of January 21, 2011 (76 FR 3885) (FRL-8855- 4), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section...

  19. 75 FR 34040 - Bacillus thuringiensis

    2010-06-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 174 Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab Protein in Corn; Temporary Exemption from the... Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein in corn under the FFDCA. The temporary tolerance exemption expires...) 305-5805. II. Background and Statutory Findings In the Federal Register of September 30, 2009 (74...

  20. Termination Documentation

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  1. DM Documentation

    Sick, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    An overview of resources for the science community to learn about, and interact with, LSST Data Management. This talk highlights the LSST Community Forum, https://community.lsst.org, as well as Data Management Technical Notes and software documentation projects.

  2. Maury Documentation

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supporting documentation for the Maury Collection of marine observations. Includes explanations from Maury himself, as well as guides and descriptions by the U.S....

  3. Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C and Sphingomyelinase Activities in Bacteria of the Bacillus cereus Group

    Pomerantsev, A. P.; Kalnin, K. V.; Osorio, M.; Leppla, S H

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is nonhemolytic, even though it is closely related to the highly hemolytic Bacillus cereus. Hemolysis by B. cereus results largely from the action of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and sphingomyelinase (SPH), encoded by the plc and sph genes, respectively. In B. cereus, these genes are organized in an operon regulated by the global regulator PlcR. B. anthracis contains a highly similar cereolysin operon, but it is transcriptionally silent because the ...

  4. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes with Bacillus subtilis

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D'Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch, Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-...

  5. Genotypic Diversity among Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis Strains

    Carlson, Cathrine Rein; Caugant, Dominique A; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four strains of Bacillus cereus were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and compared with 12 Bacillus thuringiensis strains. In addition, the 36 strains were examined for variation in 15 chromosomal genes encoding enzymes (by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis [MEE]). The genome of each strain had a distinct NotI restriction enzyme digestion profile by PFGE, and the 36 strains could be assigned to 27 multilocus genotypes by MEE. However, neither PFGE nor MEE analysis co...

  6. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  7. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.;

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were...... predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to...... cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from...

  8. [Bacillus thuringiensis: a biotechnology model].

    Sanchis, V; Lereclus, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper is on the different biotechnological approaches that have been used to improve Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for the control of agricultural insect pests and have contributed to the successful use of this biological control agent; it describes how a better knowledge of the high diversity of Bt strains and toxins genes together with the development of efficient host-vector systems has made it possible to overcome a number of the problems associated with Bt based insect control measures. First we present an overview of the biology of Bt and of the mode of action of its insecticidal toxins. We then describe some of the progress that has been made in furthering our knowledge of the genetics of Bt and of its insecticidal toxin genes and in the understanding of their regulation. The paper then deals with the use of recombinant DNA technology to develop new Bt strains for more effective pest control or to introduce the genes encoding partial-endotoxins directly into plants to produce insect-resistant trangenic plants. Several examples describing how biotechnology has been used to increase the production of insecticidal proteins in Bt or their persistence in the field by protecting them against UV degradation are presented and discussed. Finally, based on our knowledge of the mechanism of transposition of the Bt transposon Tn4430, we describe the construction of a new generation of recombinant strains of Bt, from which antibiotic resistance genes and other non-Bt DNA sequences were selectively eliminated, using a new generation of site-specific recombination vectors. In the future, continuing improvement of first generation products and research into new sources of resistance is essential to ensure the long-term control of insect pests. Chimeric toxins could also be produced so as to increase toxin activity or direct resistance towards a particular type of insect. The search for new insecticidal toxins, in Bt or other microorganisms, may also provide new weapons

  9. Novel Routes for Improving Biocontrol Activity of Bacillus Based Bioinoculants

    Wu, Liming; Wu, Hui-Jun; Qiao, Junqing; Gao, XueWen; Borriss, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Biocontrol (BC) formulations prepared from plant-growth-promoting bacteria are increasingly applied in sustainable agriculture. Especially inoculants prepared from endospore-forming Bacillus strains have been proven as efficient and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides due to their long shelf life, which is comparable with that of agrochemicals. However, these formulations of the first generation are sometimes hampered in their action and do not fulfill in each case the e...

  10. Cytolytic Toxin and Related Genes in Bacillus thuringiensis

    QI Dong-lai; LI Yi-dan; GAO Ji-guo

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a ubiquitous gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that forms parasporal crystal during the stationary phase of its growth cycle. These crystal proteins, including Cry and Cyt protein, are toxic to certain insects. Lately, some problems about Cyt classification, structural characteristic, action mechanism and resistance to Cyt toxin are becoming new hotspots. We review the progress of above problems in several foreign labs.

  11. Midgut bacteria required for Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal activity

    Broderick, Nichole A.; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Handelsman, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely applied biological insecticide and is used to manage insects that affect forestry and agriculture and transmit human and animal pathogens. This ubiquitous spore-forming bacterium kills insect larvae largely through the action of insecticidal crystal proteins and is commonly deployed as a direct bacterial spray. Moreover, plants engineered with the cry genes encoding the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins are the most widely cultivated transgenic crops....

  12. Genome Differences That Distinguish Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

    Radnedge, Lyndsay; Agron, Peter G.; Hill, Karen K.; Jackson, Paul J.; Ticknor, Lawrence O; Keim, Paul; Andersen, Gary L.

    2003-01-01

    The three species of the group 1 bacilli, Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis, are genetically very closely related. All inhabit soil habitats but exhibit different phenotypes. B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and is phylogenetically monomorphic, while B. cereus and B. thuringiensis are genetically more diverse. An amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis described here demonstrates genetic diversity among a collection of non-anthrax-causing Bacillus speci...

  13. Documenting Spreadsheets

    Payette, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses spreadsheets documentation and new means to achieve this end by using Excel's built-in "Comment" function. By structuring comments, they can be used as an essential tool to fully explain spreadsheet. This will greatly facilitate spreadsheet change control, risk management and auditing. It will fill a crucial gap in corporate governance by adding essential information that can be managed in order to satisfy internal controls and accountability standards.

  14. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the na...

  15. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the natu...

  16. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the natur...

  17. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted.   CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat a...

  18. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ Management- CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management - CB - MB - FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2007 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of em¬pl...

  19. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ Management- CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management - CB - MB - FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2007 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of employment and ...

  20. N-terminal amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase: comparison with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Enzymes.

    Kuhn, H; Fietzek, P P; Lampen, J. O.

    1982-01-01

    The thermostable, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was immunologically cross-reactive with the thermolabile, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences showed extensive homology with each other, but not with the saccharifying alpha-amylases of Bacillus subtilis.

  1. Study of Thermokinetic Properties of Sodium Selenite on Bacillus thuringiensis Cry B by Microcalorimetry

    LI,Xi; LIU,Yi; ZHAO,Ru-Ming; YU,Zi-Niu; QU Song-Sheng

    2001-01-01

    By using an LKB2277 Bioactivity Monitor, the power-time curves of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry B at 28℃ effected by Na2SeO3 were determined. Some paarameters, such as growh rate constant k, inhibitory ratio I, the maximum heat production rate Pmax, heat output Q, were obtained. Considering both the growth rate constant k and heat output Q, it was found that a low concentration of Na2SeO3 had a promoting action on the growth of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry B, but a high concentration of Na2SeO3 had an inhibitory action.

  2. Technical approach document

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs

  3. Technical approach document

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  4. Otimização das condições de cultivo para a produção de amilases pelo termofílico Bacillus sp. e hidrólise de amidos pela ação da enzima Optimization of culture conditions for the production of amylases by thermophilic Bacillus sp. and hydrolysis of starches by the action of the enzymes

    Raquel Vieira de Carvalho; Thamy Lívia Ribeiro Corrêa; Júlia Caroline Matos da Silva; Alexandre Pio Viana; Meire Lelis Leal Martins

    2008-01-01

    A otimização das condições de cultivo para a produção de α-amilase por um termofílico Bacillus sp. cepa SMIA-2 foi realizada. Além disso, a hidrólise enzimática do amido, proveniente de várias fontes tais como batata, mandioca e milho, foi também investigada. A produção de α-amilase por Bacillus sp. SMIA-2, cultivado em meio líquido contendo amido (5 g.L-1) como fonte de carbono e suplementado com 0,5 g.L-1 de proteínas do soro de leite e 2 g.L-1 de peptona, alcançou o máximo em 32 ...

  5. Relation between various phospholipase actions on human red cell membranes and the interfacial phospholipid pressure in monolayers

    Demel, R.A.; Geurts van Kessel, W.S.M.; Zwaal, R.F.A.; Roelofsen, B.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1975-01-01

    The action of purified phospholipases on monomolecular films of various interfacial pressures is compared with the action on erythrocyte membranes. The phospholipases which cannot hydrolyse phospholipids of the intact erythrocyte membrane, phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus, phospholipase A2 from

  6. Phages preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: past, present and future.

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-07-01

    Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here. PMID:25010767

  7. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    Annika Gillis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteriophages (phages have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here.

  8. Novel routes for improving biocontrol activity of Bacillus based bioinoculants

    Liming eWu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol formulations prepared from plant-growth-promoting bacteria are increasingly applied in sustainable agriculture. Especially inoculants prepared from endospore-forming Bacillus strains have been proven as efficient and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides due to their long shelf life, which is comparable with that of agrochemicals. However, these formulations of the first generation are sometimes hampered in their action and do not fulfill in each case the expectations of the appliers. In this review we use the well-known plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens type strain FZB42 as example for the successful application of different techniques offered today by comparative, evolutionary and functional genomics, site-directed mutagenesis and strain construction including marker removal, for paving the way for preparing a novel generation of biocontrol agents.

  9. RPII Action Plan

    This document outlines RPII's committments under the Public Service Action Plan 2010 to 2014, otherwise known as the Croke Park Agreement. The document describes the proposed changes to the workplan, the benefits arising from the changes and the timeframe for implementing the committments

  10. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the ICMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS Management – CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management – CB – MB – FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through Indico. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2008 Annual Reviews are posted in Indico. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral student upon completion of their theses.  Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of employment and name of their first employer. The Notes, Conference Reports and Theses published si...

  11. Omega documentation

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

  12. Omega documentation

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Plant Probiotic Bacillus Strains.

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Park, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of four Bacillus strains that exhibit plant probiotic activities. Three of them are the type strains of Bacillus endophyticus, "Bacillus gaemokensis," and Bacillus trypoxylicola, and the other, Bacillus sp. strain KCTC 13219, should be reclassified into a species belonging to the genus Lysinibacillus. PMID:27174273

  14. Environmental Persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis Spores

    Wood, Joseph P.; Meyer, Kathryn M.; Kelly, Thomas J.; Choi, Young W.; Rogers, James V.; Riggs, Karen B.; Willenberg, Zachary J.

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data for how the viability of biological agents may degrade over time in different environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores on outdoor materials with and without exposure to simulated sunlight, using ultraviolet (UV)-A/B radiation. Spores were inoculated onto glass, wood, concrete, and topsoil and recovered after periods of 2, 14, 28, and 56 days. Recovery and inactivation kinetics for the two species were assessed for each surface material and UV exposure condition. Results suggest that with exposure to UV, decay of spore viability for both Bacillus species occurs in two phases, with an initial rapid decay, followed by a slower inactivation period. The exception was with topsoil, in which there was minimal loss of spore viability in soil over 56 days, with or without UV exposure. The greatest loss in viable spore recovery occurred on glass with UV exposure, with nearly a four log10 reduction after just two days. In most cases, B. subtilis had a slower rate of decay than B. anthracis, although less B. subtilis was recovered initially. PMID:26372011

  15. Bacillus subtilis Deoxyribonucleic Acid Gyrase

    Sugino, A; Bott, K F

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis 168 was shown to contain a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) gyrase activity which closely resembled those of the enzymes isolated from Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus in its enzymatic requirements, substrate specificity, and sensitivity to several antibiotics. The enzyme was purified from the wild type and nalidixic acid-resistant and novobiocin-resistant mutants of B. subtilis and was functionally characterized in vitro. The genetic loci nalA and novA but not novB were s...

  16. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    Annika Gillis; Jacques Mahillon

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages inf...

  17. Bacillus cereus, a volatile human pathogen.

    Bottone, Edward J

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely distributed environmentally. While B. cereus is associated mainly with food poisoning, it is being increasingly reported to be a cause of serious and potentially fatal non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. The pathogenicity of B. cereus, whether intestinal or nonintestinal, is intimately associated with the production of tissue-destructive exoenzymes. Among these secreted toxins are four hemolysins, three distinct phospholipases, an emesis-inducing toxin, and proteases. The major hurdle in evaluating B. cereus when isolated from a clinical specimen is overcoming its stigma as an insignificant contaminant. Outside its notoriety in association with food poisoning and severe eye infections, this bacterium has been incriminated in a multitude of other clinical conditions such as anthrax-like progressive pneumonia, fulminant sepsis, and devastating central nervous system infections, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals, intravenous drug abusers, and neonates. Its role in nosocomial acquired bacteremia and wound infections in postsurgical patients has also been well defined, especially when intravascular devices such as catheters are inserted. Primary cutaneous infections mimicking clostridial gas gangrene induced subsequent to trauma have also been well documented. B. cereus produces a potent beta-lactamase conferring marked resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrobials noted to be effective in the empirical management of a B. cereus infection while awaiting antimicrobial susceptibility results for the isolate include ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. PMID:20375358

  18. Physical map of the Bacillus cereus chromosome.

    Kolstø, A B; Grønstad, A; Oppegaard, H

    1990-01-01

    A physical map of the Bacillus cereus chromosome has been constructed by aligning 11 NotI fragments, ranging in size from 200 to 1,300 kilobases. The size of the chromosome is about 5.7 megabases. This is the first Bacillus genome of which a complete physical map has been described.

  19. Plasmid-mediated transformation in Bacillus megaterium.

    Brown, B. J.; Carlton, B C

    1980-01-01

    A transformation system was developed for Bacillus megaterium by using antibiotic resistance plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid molecules derived from Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Lysozyme-generated protoplasts of B. megaterium allowed uptake of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid in the presence of polyethylene glycol. Transformants expressed the antibiotic resistance determinants present on the plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid, and reisolated plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid yielded restrictio...

  20. What sets Bacillus anthracis apart from other Bacillus species?

    Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Tourasse, Nicolas J; Økstad, Ole Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the cause of anthrax, and two large plasmids are essential for toxicity: pXO1, which contains the toxin genes, and pXO2, which encodes a capsule. B. anthracis forms a highly monomorphic lineage within the B. cereus group, but strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. cereus exist that are genetically closely related to the B. anthracis cluster. During the past five years B. cereus strains that contain the pXO1 virulence plasmid were discovered, and strains with both pXO1 and pXO2 have been isolated from great apes in Africa. Therefore, the presence of pXO1 and pXO2 no longer principally separates B. anthracis from other Bacilli. The B. anthracis lineage carries a specific mutation in the global regulator PlcR, which controls the transcription of secreted virulence factors in B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Coevolution of the B. anthracis chromosome with its plasmids may be the basis for the successful development and uniqueness of the B. anthracis lineage. PMID:19514852

  1. 48 CFR 13.106-3 - Award and documentation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Award and documentation... documentation. (a) Basis for award. Before making award, the contracting officer must determine that the... requirement. The file shall be documented to support the final action taken. (b) File documentation...

  2. Phase I Flow and Transport Model Document for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1 with ROTCs 1 and 2

    Andrews, Robert

    2013-09-01

    The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 97, Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, in the northeast part of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) requires environmental corrective action activities to assess contamination resulting from underground nuclear testing. These activities are necessary to comply with the UGTA corrective action strategy (referred to as the UGTA strategy). The corrective action investigation phase of the UGTA strategy requires the development of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models whose purpose is to identify the lateral and vertical extent of contaminant migration over the next 1,000 years. In particular, the goal is to calculate the contaminant boundary, which is defined as a probabilistic model-forecast perimeter and a lower hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) boundary that delineate the possible extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear testing. Because of structural uncertainty in the contaminant boundary, a range of potential contaminant boundaries was forecast, resulting in an ensemble of contaminant boundaries. The contaminant boundary extent is determined by the volume of groundwater that has at least a 5 percent chance of exceeding the radiological standards of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (CFR, 2012).

  3. Document Management on Display.

    Grimshaw, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes some of the products displayed at the United Kingdom's largest document management, imaging and workflow exhibition (Document 97, Birmingham, England, October 7-9, 1997). Includes recognition technologies; document delivery; scanning; document warehousing; document management and retrieval software; workflow systems; Internet software;…

  4. Otimização das condições de cultivo para a produção de amilases pelo termofílico Bacillus sp. e hidrólise de amidos pela ação da enzima Optimization of culture conditions for the production of amylases by thermophilic Bacillus sp. and hydrolysis of starches by the action of the enzymes

    Raquel Vieira de Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A otimização das condições de cultivo para a produção de α-amilase por um termofílico Bacillus sp. cepa SMIA-2 foi realizada. Além disso, a hidrólise enzimática do amido, proveniente de várias fontes tais como batata, mandioca e milho, foi também investigada. A produção de α-amilase por Bacillus sp. SMIA-2, cultivado em meio líquido contendo amido (5 g.L-1 como fonte de carbono e suplementado com 0,5 g.L-1 de proteínas do soro de leite e 2 g.L-1 de peptona, alcançou o máximo em 32 horas com níveis de 37 U.mL-1. O microrganismo foi capaz de utilizar diversas fontes de carbono, porém a atividade da amilase variou com cada fonte. O amido foi a melhor fonte de carbono para a secreção da amilase, enquanto a sacarose, lactose, maltose, galactose e glicose não foram muito efetivas. Uma redução na concentração de amido de até 2,5 g.L-1 no meio de cultura melhorou o crescimento do organismo e a atividade enzimática. Em altas concentrações de amido, a produção da enzima foi comparativamente menor. Em relação às fontes de nitrogênio orgânico e inorgânico, a peptona (2 g.L-1 foi considerada a melhor. Considerando a quantidade de proteínas do soro de leite no meio de cultivo, a concentração de 0,25 g.L-1 foi considerada a mais efetiva para a secreção da α-amilase pelo microrganismo. A produção máxima da atividade enzimática foi observada a 50 °C e pH 8,5. A enzima foi capaz de degradar todos os amidos testados. A hidrólise do amido de batata resultou num alto rendimento de açúcares redutores em comparação às outras fontes de amido. Amido solúvel e amido de mandioca ocuparam, respectivamente, a segunda e terceira posição em relação à liberação dos açúcares redutores, enquanto que a amilase estudada mostrou apenas uma ligeira afinidade pelo amido de milho. Com o aumento da temperatura da reação para 70 °C, a hidrólise dos substratos, com exceção do amido solúvel, resultou em maiores

  5. Exploiting Document Level Semantics in Document Clustering

    Muhammad Rafi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Document clustering is an unsupervised machine learning method that separates a large subject heterogeneous collection (Corpus into smaller, more manageable, subject homogeneous collections (clusters. Traditional method of document clustering works around extracting textual features like: terms, sequences, and phrases from documents. These features are independent of each other and do not cater meaning behind these word in the clustering process. In order to perform semantic viable clustering, we believe that the problem of document clustering has two main components: (1 to represent the document in such a form that it inherently captures semantics of the text. This may also help to reduce dimensionality of the document and (2 to define a similarity measure based on the lexical, syntactic and semantic features such that it assigns higher numerical values to document pairs which have higher syntactic and semantic relationship. In this paper, we propose a representation of document by extracting three different types of features from a given document. These are lexical , syntactic and semantic features. A meta-descriptor for each document is proposed using these three features: first lexical, then syntactic and in the last semantic. A document to document similarity matrix is produced where each entry of this matrix contains a three value vector for each lexical , syntactic and semantic . The main contributions from this research are (i A document level descriptor using three different features for text like: lexical, syntactic and semantics. (ii we propose a similarity function using these three, and (iii we define a new candidate clustering algorithm using three component of similarity measure to guide the clustering process in a direction that produce more semantic rich clusters. We performed an extensive series of experiments on standard text mining data sets with external clustering evaluations like: FMeasure and Purity, and have obtained

  6. Generic safety documentation model

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  7. Generic safety documentation model

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ''core'' upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information

  8. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis study of Bacillus sphaericus

    Viviane Zahner

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE has been used in the study of some Bacillus species. In this work we applied MLEE and numerical analysis in the study of the Bacillus sphaericus group. B. sphaericus can be distinguished from other entomopathogenic Bacillus by a unique allele (NP-4. Within the species, all insect pathogens were recovered in the same phenetic cluster and all of these strains have the same band position (electrophoresis migration on the agarose gel (ADH-2. The entomopathogenic group of B. sphaericus seems to be a clonal population, having two widespread frequent genotypes (zymovar 59 and zymovar 119.

  9. EXAFS investigation of uranium(VI) complexes formed at Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sphaericus surfaces

    Uranium(VI) complex formation at vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sphaericus was studied using uranium LII-edge and LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. A comparison of the measured equatorial U-O distances and other EXAFS structural parameters of uranyl species formed at the Bacillus strains with those of the uranyl structure family indicates that the uranium is predominantly bound as uranyl complexes with phosphoryl residues. (orig.)

  10. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker Specific for the Bacillus cereus Group Is Diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara; Frova, Giuseppe; Gallo, Romina; Mori, Elena; Fani, Renato; Sorlini, Claudia

    1999-01-01

    Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. mycoides was identified. This fragment included a pu...

  11. The introduction of integrated pest management in the Ethiopian horticultural sector : Bacillus thuringiensis strains and its toxicity

    Belder, den E.; Elderson, J.

    2012-01-01

    1 Introduction As hazards of conventional broad acting pesticides are documented, researchers, poli cymakers and growers look for pesticides that are toxic only to the target pest, have no impact on other such as beneficial species, and have fewer environmental effects. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) i

  12. A comparison of the RCRA Corrective Action and CERCLA Remedial Action Processes

    Traceski, Thomas T.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a comprehensive side-by-side comparison of the RCRA corrective action and the CERCLA remedial action processes. On the even-numbered pages a discussion of the RCRA corrective action process is presented and on the odd-numbered pages a comparative discussion of the CERCLA remedial action process can be found. Because the two programs have a difference structure, there is not always a direct correlation between the two throughout the document. This document serves as an informative reference for Departmental and contractor personnel responsible for oversight or implementation of RCRA corrective action and CERCLA remedial action activities at DOE environmental restoration sites.

  13. The CssRS two-component regulatory system controls a general secretion stress response in Bacillus subtilis

    Westers, Helga; Westers, L; Darmon, E.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Quax, Wim; Zanen, Geeske

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus species are valuable producers of industrial enzymes and biopharmaceuticals, because they can secrete large quantities of high-quality proteins directly into the growth medium. This requires the concerted action of quality control factors, such as folding catalysts and 'cleaning proteases'.

  14. Reduction of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxicity Against Helicoverpa armigera by a Soluble Toxin-Binding Cadherin Fragment

    A cadherin-like protein has been identified as a putative receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac toxin in Helicoverpa armigera and plays a key role in Bt insecticidal action. In this study, we produced a fragment from this H. armigera Cry1Ac toxin-binding cadherin that included the predict...

  15. Automated document analysis system

    Black, Jeffrey D.; Dietzel, Robert; Hartnett, David

    2002-08-01

    A software application has been developed to aid law enforcement and government intelligence gathering organizations in the translation and analysis of foreign language documents with potential intelligence content. The Automated Document Analysis System (ADAS) provides the capability to search (data or text mine) documents in English and the most commonly encountered foreign languages, including Arabic. Hardcopy documents are scanned by a high-speed scanner and are optical character recognized (OCR). Documents obtained in an electronic format bypass the OCR and are copied directly to a working directory. For translation and analysis, the script and the language of the documents are first determined. If the document is not in English, the document is machine translated to English. The documents are searched for keywords and key features in either the native language or translated English. The user can quickly review the document to determine if it has any intelligence content and whether detailed, verbatim human translation is required. The documents and document content are cataloged for potential future analysis. The system allows non-linguists to evaluate foreign language documents and allows for the quick analysis of a large quantity of documents. All document processing can be performed manually or automatically on a single document or a batch of documents.

  16. Microbial Transformation of Quercetin by Bacillus cereus

    Rao, Koppaka V.; Weisner, Nghe T.

    1981-01-01

    Biotransformation of quercetin was examined with a number of bacterial cultures. In the presence of a bacterial culture (Bacillus cereus), quercetin was transformed into two crystalline products, identified as protocatechuic acid and quercetin-3-glucoside (isoquercitrin).

  17. Triple fixation of Bacillus subtilis dormant spores.

    Kozuka, S; Tochikubo, K

    1983-01-01

    A triple-fixation method with a sequential application of 5% glutaraldehyde, 1% osmium tetroxide, and 2% potassium permanganate gave superior preservation of the ultrastructure of Bacillus subtilis dormant spores with a thick spore coat.

  18. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis by Gamma irradiation

    N. Natalia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of Bacillus anthracis as a biological weapon heighlightened awareness of the need for validated methods for the inactivation of B. anthracis spores. Ionizing radiation is capable of causing a variety of chemical changes and biological effects on bacteria which can be due both to direct interactions with critical cell components and to indirect actions on bacteria by molecular entities formed as a result of radiolysis of other molecules in the bacterial cell. This study determined the gamma irradiation dose for inactivating B. anthracis spores and its biological effects on the bacterial characteristics. Gamma irradiation was conducted at the IRKA irradiator at the National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jakarta and cobalt-60 was used as the source of ionizing radiation (capacity of ca. 134,044 Kci. Freeze dried culture of B. anthracis in glass ampoules was irradiated using variable doses of 30, 20 and 10 KGy. Viability, biochemical and protease enzyme characteristics of B. anthracis were evaluated before and after irradiation. The ability of B. anthracis to degrade gelatin, haemoglobin and bovine immunoglobulin G was also tested. The results showed that ionizing radiation was able to inactivate or kill 11,05 x 108 cfu B. anthracis by 95.37%, 99.58% and 99.99 at respective doses of 10, 20 and 30 KGy. Bacterial spores appear to be less susceptible to irradiation than the vegetative cells, because of their specific structure. The survive spores irradiated at 30kGy shows some biochemical characteristic changes. The survivors failed to degrade methyl -D-glucopyranoside and arbutine. The ability of B. anthracis protease to degrade gelatin, haemoglobin and bovine immunoglobulin G was not affected by irradiation. These findings showed that a gamma irradiation at 30 KGy effectively inactivates B. anthracis spores without changing the protease activities.

  19. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  20. Bacillus cereus as a nongastrointestinal pathogen

    Pavani G.

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Bacillus cereus to cause systemic infections is of serious concern. Apart from Gastrointestinal infections, it causes respiratory tract infections, nosocomial infections, eye infections, CNS infections, cutaneous infections, endocarditis, osteomyelitis and urinary tract infections. The potential of this bacterium to cause life threatening infections has increased. Trauma is an important predisposing factor for Bacillus cereus infections. The maintenance of skin and mucous mem...

  1. Narrow terahertz attenuation signatures in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Zhang, Weidong; Brown, Elliott R; Viveros, Leamon; Burris, Kellie P; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-10-01

    Terahertz absorption signatures from culture-cultivated Bacillus thuringiensis were measured with a THz photomixing spectrometer operating from 400 to 1200 GHz. We observe two distinct signatures centered at ∼955 and 1015 GHz, and attribute them to the optically coupled particle vibrational resonance (surface phonon-polariton) of Bacillus spores. This demonstrates the potential of the THz attenuation signatures as "fingerprints" for label-free biomolecular detection. PMID:23821459

  2. Isolation and genetic characterizations of Bacillus megaterium cobalamin biosynthesis-deficient mutants.

    Wolf, J B; Brey, R N

    1986-01-01

    Ethanolamine is deaminated by the action of ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.7), an adenosylcobalamin-dependent enzyme. Consequently, to grow on ethanolamine as a sole nitrogen source, Bacillus megaterium requires vitamin B12. Identification of B. megaterium mutants deficient for growth on ethanolamine as the sole nitrogen source yielded a total of 34 vitamin B12 auxotrophs. The vitamin B12 auxotrophs were divided into two major phenotypic groups: Cob mutants, which could use cobinamide o...

  3. Cloning and characterization of the beta-amylase gene from Bacillus polymyxa.

    Friedberg, F; Rhodes, C.

    1986-01-01

    The gene for beta-amylase was isolated from Bacillus polymyxa by molecular cloning in B. subtilis. B. subtilis cells containing this gene express and secrete an amylase which resembles the B. polymyxa beta-amylase and barley beta-amylase in terms of the products it generates during carbohydrate hydrolysis. Starch hydrolysis with this beta-amylase produces maltose, not glucose, whereas maltotriose and cycloheptaose are resistant to the action of this beta-amylase. The enzyme has a molecular we...

  4. On the effect of N-methyl-bis (3-mesyloxypropyl) amine hydroxychloride on Bacillus subtilis cells.

    Shimi, I R; Shoukry, S

    1975-06-01

    N-Methyl-bis (3-mesyloxypropyl)amine hydrochloride is now in use as an antitumer drug. In view of its activity against some bacteria the present work was conducted to study its mode of action of Bacillus subtilis. The compound was found to induce irreversible damage to bacterial DNA whereas its effect on RNA was temporary and depending on maintenance of effective concentrations of the compound. PMID:168172

  5. Towards document engineering

    Quint, Vincent; Nanard, M.; André, Jacques

    1990-01-01

    This article compares methods and techniques used in software engineering with the ones used for handling electronic documents. It shows the common features in both domains, but also the differences and it proposes an approach which extends the field of document manipulation to document engineering. It shows also in what respect document engineering is different from software engineering. Therefore specific techniques must be developped for building integrated environments for document engine...

  6. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SUBSP. plantarum PROBIOTIC STRAINS AS PROTEASE PRODUCERS

    E. V. Маtseliukh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteases from probiotic strains of the genus Bacillus, just like the antibiotics, bacteriocins and other hydrolytic enzymes, are one of the main factors that determine their biological activity. The aim of this work was to study the synthesis and biochemical properties of proteases from two strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5139 and UCM B-5140 that included in the probiotic Endosporin. The cultivation of strains was carried out in flasks under rotating for two days. The influence of physico-chemical parameters of the reaction medium on proteolytic activity was studied on partially purified protease preparations. Lytic activity was determined by turbidimetric method. On the second day of cultivation B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM В-5139 and UCM В-5140 synthesized the metal-dependent peptidase and serine protease, respectively. The optimum conditions of their action were the following: temperature 37–40 °C and pH 6.5–7.0. Isolated proteases are able to lyse the living cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Thus we demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5140 and UCM B-5139, included in the probiotic veterinary preparation Endosporin, produced proteolytic enzymes that hydrolyze the native insoluble proteins (elastin, fibrin and collagen. These enzymes belong to the group of neutral metal-dependent and serine proteases. They are active under physiological conditions against gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The application of these proteases in biotechnology is considered.

  7. Action Research for Poverty Alleviation

    D. Rajasekhar

    2002-01-01

    This paper documents the process adopted in an action research project for poverty alleviation undertaken in two project areas of NGOs. After describing the process adopted to initiate action research, the paper discusses the methods conducted to acquire knowledge on processes generating poverty, and strategies adopted to alleviate poverty both by the poor and local organisations. Methods adopted to translate the knowledge into action are also discussed. Conclusions are provided at the end.

  8. A Spontaneous Translational Fusion of Bacillus cereus PlcR and PapR Activates Transcription of PlcR-Dependent Genes in Bacillus anthracis via Binding with a Specific Palindromic Sequence

    Pomerantsev, Andrei P; Pomerantseva, Olga M.; Stephen H Leppla

    2004-01-01

    Transformation of Bacillus anthracis with plasmid pUTE29-plcR-papR carrying the native Bacillus cereus plcR-papR gene cluster did not activate expression of B. anthracis hemolysin genes, even though these are expected to be responsive to activation by the global regulator PlcR. To further characterize the action of PlcR, we examined approximately 3,000 B. anthracis transformants containing pUTE29-plcR-papR and found a single hemolytic colony. The hemolytic strain contained a plasmid having a ...

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions.