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Sample records for actinosynnema mirum type

  1. Complete genome sequence of Actinosynnema mirum type strain (101T)

    Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Chen, Feng; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Chertkov, Olga; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Chain, Patrick; Tindall, Brian; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Actinosynnema mirum Hasegawa et al. 1978 is the type species of the genus, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its central phylogenetic location in the Actino-synnemataceae, a rapidly growing family within the actinobacterial suborder Pseudo-nocardineae. A. mirum is characterized by its motile spores borne on synnemata and as a producer of nocardicin antibiotics. It is capable of growing aerobically and under a moderate CO2 atmosphere. The strain is a Gram-positive, aerial and substrate mycelium producing bacterium, originally isolated from a grass blade collected from the Raritan River, New Jersey. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Actinosynnemataceae, and only the second sequence from the actinobacterial suborder Pseudonocardineae. The 8,248,144 bp long single replicon genome with its 7100 protein-coding and 77 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  2. An integrative expression vector for Actinosynnema pretiosum

    Song Ruth

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Actinomycete Actinosynnema pretiosum ssp. auranticum has commercial importance due to its production of ansamitocin P-3 (AP-3, a potent antitumor agent. One way to increase AP-3 production would be to constitutively express selected genes so as to relieve bottlenecks in the biosynthetic pathway; however, an integrative expression vector for A. pretiosum is lacking. The aim of this study was to construct a vector for heterologous gene expression in A. pretiosum. Results A series of integrative expression vectors have been made with the following features: the IS117 transposase from Streptomyces coelicolor, the constitutive ermE* promoter from Saccharopolyspora erythraea, different ribosome-binding site (RBS sequences and xylE as a translational reporter. Positive E. coli clones and A. pretiosum transconjugants were assayed by catechol. pAP42, containing an E. coli consensus RBS, and pAP43, containing an asm19 RBS, gave strong and moderate gene expression, respectively. In addition, an operon construct capable of multi-gene expression was created. Plasmid integration sites in transconjugants were investigated and four different sites were observed. Although the most common integration site was within a putative ORF with sequence similarity to NADH-flavin reductase, AP-3 levels and cell growth of transconjugants were unaffected. Conclusion A set of integrative vectors for constitutive gene expression in A. pretiosum has been constructed. Gene translation is easily determined by colorimetric assay on an agar plate. The vectors are suitable for studies relating to AP-3 biosynthesis as they do not affect AP-3 production.

  3. Constitutive overexpression of asm18 increases the production and diversity of maytansinoids in Actinosynnema pretiosum.

    Li, Shanren; Lu, Chunhua; Chang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yuemao

    2016-03-01

    Ansamitocins isolated from Actinosynnema pretiosum, potent antitumor compounds, belong to the family of maytansinoids, and the antibody-maytansinoid conjugates are currently under different phases of clinical trials. The clinical applications of ansamitocins have stimulated extensive studies to improve their production yields. In this study, we investigated the function of a pathway-specific S treptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) family regulator, Asm18, and observed that ectopic overexpression of the asm18 gene increased the production of N-demethyl-4,5-desepoxy-maytansinol (2) to 50 mg/L in the HGF052 + pJTU824-asm18 strain, an increase by 4.7-fold compared to that of the control strain HGF052 + pJTU824. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the overexpression of the asm18 gene selectively increased the transcription levels of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the starter unit (asm43), polyketide assembly (asmA), post-PKS modification (asm21), as well as the transcription levels of the regulatory gene (asm8), which is a specific LAL-type activator in ansamitocin biosynthesis. With the increase of fermentation titre, seven ansamitocin analogs (1-7) including three new ones (1, 5, and 6) and maytansinol (7) were isolated from the HGF052 + pJTU824-asm18 strain. Our results not only pave the way for further improving the production of ansamitocin analogs but also indicate that the post-PKS modifications of ansamitocin biosynthesis are flexible, which brings a potential of producing maytansinol, the most fascinating intermediate for the synthesis of antibody-maytansinoid conjugates, by optimizing the HGF052 and/or HGF052 + pJTU824-asm18 strains. PMID:26572523

  4. Effects of modulation of pentose-phosphate pathway on biosynthesis of ansamitocins in Actinosynnema pretiosum.

    Fan, Yuxiang; Hu, Fengxian; Wei, Liujing; Bai, Linquan; Hua, Qiang

    2016-07-20

    Ansamitocins, produced by Actinosynnema pretiosum, are a group of maytansinoid antibiotics that block the assembly of tubulin into functional microtubules. The precursors of ansamitocin biosynthesis are generally derived from the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In this study, central carbon flux distributions were analyzed by (13)C-based flux analysis to reveal the contribution of individual central carbon metabolism pathways. To direct more carbon flux into ansamitocin biosynthesis, pentose phosphate (PP) pathway only and the combination of PP pathway and Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway were weakened, respectively. Ansamitocin P-3 (AP-3) productions by both kinds of pathways weakened mutant strains were significantly enhanced in chemically defined medium. In order to draw metabolic flux to the biosynthesis of ansamitocins more efficiently, heterologous phosphoglucomutase was subsequently overexpressed based on a mutant strain with combinational regulation of PP pathway and ED pathway. More fluxes were successfully directed into the UDP-glucose synthetic pathway and the AP-3 production was further improved in this case, reaching approximately 185mg/L in fermentation medium. It was demonstrated that eliminating the bypass pathways and favoring the precursor synthetic pathway could effectively improve ansamitocin production by A. pretiosum, suggesting a promising role of metabolic strategy in improving secondary metabolite production. PMID:27173582

  5. Genome sequencing and annotation of Amycolatopsis vancoresmycina strain DSM 44592T

    Navjot Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the 9.0-Mb draft genome of Amycolatopsis vancoresmycina strain DSM 44592T, isolated from Indian soil sample; produces antibiotic vancoresmycin. Draft genome of strain DSM44592T consists of 9,037,069 bp with a G+C content of 71.79% and 8340 predicted protein coding genes and 57 RNAs. RAST annotation indicates that strains Streptomyces sp. AA4 (score 521, Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 (score 400 and Actinosynnema mirum DSM 43827 (score 372 are the closest neighbors of the strain DSM 44592T.

  6. Genomics of aerobic cellulose utilization systems in actinobacteria.

    Iain Anderson

    Full Text Available Cellulose degrading enzymes have important functions in the biotechnology industry, including the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobes including Clostridium species organize cellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases into large complexes known as cellulosomes. In contrast, aerobic actinobacteria utilize systems comprised of independently acting enzymes, often with carbohydrate binding domains. Numerous actinobacterial genomes have become available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA project. We identified putative cellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to families GH5, GH6, GH8, GH9, GH12, GH48, and GH51 in the genomes of eleven members of the actinobacteria. The eleven organisms were tested in several assays for cellulose degradation, and eight of the organisms showed evidence of cellulase activity. The three with the highest cellulase activity were Actinosynnema mirum, Cellulomonas flavigena, and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica. Cellobiose is known to induce cellulolytic enzymes in the model organism Thermobifida fusca, but only Nocardiopsis dassonvillei showed higher cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose. In T. fusca, cellulases and a putative cellobiose ABC transporter are regulated by the transcriptional regulator CelR. Nine organisms appear to use the CelR site or a closely related binding site to regulate an ABC transporter. In some, CelR also regulates cellulases, while cellulases are controlled by different regulatory sites in three organisms. Mining of genome data for cellulose degradative enzymes followed by experimental verification successfully identified several actinobacteria species which were not previously known to degrade cellulose as cellulolytic organisms.

  7. Session Types = Intersection Types + Union Types

    Padovani, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We propose a semantically grounded theory of session types which relies on intersection and union types. We argue that intersection and union types are natural candidates for modeling branching points in session types and we show that the resulting theory overcomes some important defects of related behavioral theories. In particular, intersections and unions provide a native solution to the problem of computing joins and meets of session types. Also, the subtyping relation turns out to be a pre-congruence, while this is not always the case in related behavioral theories.

  8. Blood Types

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  9. Type inference for correspondence types

    Hüttel, Hans; Gordon, Andy; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    We present a correspondence type/effect system for authenticity in a π-calculus with polarized channels, dependent pair types and effect terms and show how one may, given a process P and an a priori type environment E, generate constraints that are formulae in the Alternating Least Fixed......-Point (ALFP) logic. We then show how a reasonable model of the generated constraints yields a type/effect assignment such that P becomes well-typed with respect to E if and only if this is possible. The formulae generated satisfy a finite model property; a system of constraints is satisfiable if and only if...... it has a finite model. As a consequence, we obtain the result that type/effect inference in our system is polynomial-time decidable....

  10. Inductive types in homotopy type theory

    Awodey, Steve; Gambino, Nicola; Sojakova, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Homotopy type theory is an interpretation of Martin-L\\"of's constructive type theory into abstract homotopy theory. There results a link between constructive mathematics and algebraic topology, providing topological semantics for intensional systems of type theory as well as a computational approach to algebraic topology via type theory-based proof assistants such as Coq. The present work investigates inductive types in this setting. Modified rules for inductive types, including types of well...

  11. Guarded dependent type theory with coinductive types

    Bizjak, Aleš; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge; Clouston, Ranald; Birkedal, Lars; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers

    We present guarded dependent type theory, gDTT, an extensional dependent type theory with a later' modality and clock quantifiers for programming and proving with guarded recursive and coinductive types. The later modality is used to ensure the productivity of recursive definitions in a modular......, type based, way. Clock quantifiers are used for controlled elimination of the later modality and for encoding coinductive types using guarded recursive types. Key to the development of gDTT are novel type and term formers involving what we call delayed substitutions’. These generalise the applicative...... functor rules for the later modality considered in earlier work, and are crucial for programming and proving with dependent types. We show soundness of the type theory with respect to a denotational model....

  12. Basilar-Type Migraine

    ... Home > Basilar-Type Migraine Print Email Basilar-Type Migraine ACHE Newsletter Sign up for our newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Basilar-Type Migraine Key Points: A migraine-type defined by the ...

  13. Types of Blood Donations

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  14. Blood Type Game

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  15. Type Inference with Inequalities

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    Type inference can be phrased as constraint-solving over types. We consider an implicitly typed language equipped with recursive types, multiple inheritance, 1st order parametric polymorphism, and assignments. Type correctness is expressed as satisfiability of a possibly infinite collection of (m...... can be solved by means of nondeterministic finite automata; unusually, the two problems have different complexities: polynomial vs. exponential time....

  16. Facts about Type 2

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  17. Facts about Type 2

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  18. Facts about Type 2

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  19. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald;

    2016-01-01

    types. This further expands the foundations of CTT as a basis for formalisation in mathematics and computer science. We present examples to demonstrate the expressivity of our type theory, all of which have been checked using a prototype type-checker implementation, and present semantics in a presheaf......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning with...... coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  20. Type checking with open type functions

    Schrijvers, Tom; Jones, Simon Peyton; Chakravarty, Manual; Sulzmann, Martin

    We report on an extension of Haskell with open type-level functions and equality constraints that unifies earlier work on GADTs, functional dependencies, and associated types. The contribution of the paper is that we identify and characterise the key technical challenge of entailment checking; and...

  1. Types of intersections.

    2015-01-01

    There are many types of intersections in the Netherlands. In an inherently safe road traffic system, however, the number of intersection types needs to be limited, depending on the road types that intersect. The desired types of intersections do not always correspond with the recommendations in the design manuals. The conflicts and the differences in mass and speed determine that may occur determine which type of intersections is required. Where conflicts are unavoidable, it is important to l...

  2. Compositional data types

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Building on Wouter Swierstra's Data types à la carte, we present a comprehensive Haskell library of compositional data types suitable for practical applications. In this framework, data types and functions on them can be defined in a modular fashion. We extend the existing work by implementing a......-cut fusion style deforestation which yields considerable speedups. We demonstrate our framework in the setting of compiler construction, and moreover, we compare compositional data types with generic programming techniques and show that both are comparable in run-time performance and expressivity while our...... approach allows for stricter types. We substantiate this conclusion by lifting compositional data types to mutually recursive data types and generalised algebraic data types. Lastly, we compare the run-time performance of our techniques with traditional implementations over algebraic data types. The...

  3. Multiparty Symmetric Sum Types

    Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes with the......This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...

  4. Facts about Type 2

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  5. Facts about Type 2

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  6. Types of Hemolytic Anemia

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Hemolytic Anemia There are many types of hemolytic anemia. The ... the condition, but you develop it. Inherited Hemolytic Anemias With inherited hemolytic anemias, one or more of ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

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  8. Facts about Type 2

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  9. Facts about Type 2

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  10. Types of chemotherapy

    Chemotherapy is the use of medicine to treat cancer. Chemotherapy kills cancer cells. It may be used to ... people are treated with a single type of chemotherapy. But often, people get more than one type ...

  11. Types of Breast Cancers

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  12. Facts about Type 2

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  13. Facts about Type 2

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  14. Facts about Type 2

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  15. Facts about Type 2

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  16. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  17. Facts about Type 2

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  18. Facts about Type 2

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  19. Facts about Type 2

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  20. Types of chemotherapy

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  1. Facts about Type 2

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  2. Facts about Type 2

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  3. Examining Office Type Preference

    Rolfö, Linda; Eklund, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Office types and their environmental features influence performance and job satisfaction. Yet employees’ opinions are seldom considered when choosing office type. This paper suggests a method that investigates employees’ office type preferences and motives behind the preferences. The method proved to be quick and simple and provided a flow of current to preferred office type. A majority preferred the quiet cell office for its privacy while the open office was considered having a noisy and dis...

  4. Topologies on types: connections

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Xiong, Siyang

    2008-01-01

    For different purposes, economists may use different topologies on types. We char- acterize the relationship among these various topologies. First, we show that for any general types, convergence in the uniform-weak topology implies convergence in both the strategic topology and the uniform strategic topology. Second, we explicitly con- struct a type which is not the limit of any finite types under the uniform strategic topology, showing that the uniform strategic topology is strictly fi ner ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

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  6. Diabetes Type 2

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, obese, have a family ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

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  8. Osteogenesis imperfecta type V

    Rauch, Frank; Moffatt, Pierre; Cheung, Moira;

    2013-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type V is an autosomal dominant bone fragility disorder that we had described a decade ago. Recent research has shown that OI type V is caused by a recurrent c.-14C>T mutation in IFITM5. In the present study, we assessed all patients diagnosed with OI type V at our in...

  9. Facts about Type 2

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  10. Diabetes, Type 1

    Riazi, Afsane; Bradley, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the role of psychological stress in Type 1 diabetes. Studies relating to stress and Type 1 diabetes onset and control, as well as the evidence relating to stress management training in people with Type 1 diabetes are discussed.

  11. Facts about Type 2

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  12. Multiparty Symmetric Sum Types

    Lasse Nielsen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs. Processes using the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient implementation of a prototypical tool for CPGs which automatically translates the original CPG specifications from a representation called the Process Matrix to symmetric sum types, type checks programs and executes them.

  13. Improving Precision of Types

    Winther, Johnni

    crucial to the quality of these automated checks, and in this thesis we present three different improvements to the precision of types in three different aspects of the Java programming language. First we show how to extend the type system in Java with a new type which enables the detection of unintended......Types in programming languages provide a powerful tool for the programmer to document the code so that a large aspect of the intent can not only be presented to fellow programmers but also be checked automatically by compilers. The precision with which types model the behavior of programs is...... mixing of unrelated types. Secondly, we present an improvement of the type checking algorithm in Java which enables the compiler to detect and ease the use of a common programming idiom called guarded casts. Thirdly, we present an improvement of the precision with which classes generated by a parser...

  14. Guarded Type Promotion

    Winther, Johnni

    2011-01-01

    In Java, explicit casts are ubiquitous since they bridge the gap between compile-time and runtime type safety. Since casts potentially throw a ClassCastException, many programmers use a defensive programming style of guarded casts. In this programming style casts are protected by a preceding...... conditional using the instanceof operator and thus the cast type is redundantly mentioned twice. We propose a new typing rule for Java called Guarded Type Promotion aimed at eliminating the need for the explicit casts when guarded. This new typing rule is backward compatible and has been fully implemented in...... a Java 6 compiler. Through our extensive testing of real-life code we show that guarded casts account for approximately one fourth of all casts and that Guarded Type Promotion can eliminate the need for 95 percent of these guarded casts....

  15. Super Greedy Type Algorithms

    Liu, Entao; Temlyakov, Vladimir N.

    2010-01-01

    We study greedy-type algorithms such that at a greedy step we pick several dictionary elements contrary to a single dictionary element in standard greedy-type algorithms. We call such greedy algorithms {\\it super greedy algorithms}. The idea of picking several elements at a greedy step of the algorithm is not new. Recently, we observed the following new phenomenon. For incoherent dictionaries these new type of algorithms (super greedy algorithms) provide the same (in the sense of order) upper...

  16. Mastering TypeScript

    Rozentals, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a JavaScript developer aiming to learn TypeScript, or an experienced TypeScript developer wanting to take your skills to the next level, this book is for you. From basic to advanced language constructs, test-driven development, and object-oriented techniques, you will learn how to get the most out of the TypeScript language.

  17. Facts about Type 2

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  18. Types of Foreign Aid

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction; a...... residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  19. Type II universal spacetimes

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  20. TypeScript revealed

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... 2383) Give by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A ... 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. ...

  2. Haemophilus Influenzae Type b

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Haemophilus Influenzae type b Page Content Article Body If you’re like many parents, you may have been unfamiliar with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections until your pediatrician recommended a vaccine ...

  3. Diabetes Type 1

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if you don’t need medications at first, you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 ...

  5. Beyond Type D personality

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M;

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  6. Types of Blood Transfusions

    ... Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » Blood Transfusion » Types of Blood Transfusions Explore Blood Transfusion What Is... ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Blood Transfusions Blood is transfused either as whole blood ( ...

  7. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  8. Giftedness and Psychological Type.

    Hawkins, John

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of the psychological types, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), of 966 students at a public residential magnet high school for academically talented students with other gifted and traditional high school students found both magnet school students and gifted students showed a particular MBTI distribution. (DB)

  9. Types Of Christian Tourism

    Cornelia Petroman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christian tourism is asub-type of tourism where pilgrims travel alone or in group as missionaries orpilgrims or to spend their free time to recollect; it attracts a large numberof travellers. Christian tourism can be practiced by religious young people,missionaries, participants to religious convents, amateurs of religiouscruises, religious camps, visitors of religious attractions, religiousadventurers. Christian tourism can be considered a sub-type of religioustourism because of the large number of people involved in this type of tourismworldwide. Christian tourism as a sub-category of religious tourism coversthree main sub-types: traditional pilgrimage practiced by most world religions,missionary travel to different areas in the world, and confessional voyage. Thestructure of hospitality industry is common to all types of tourism but, fortraditional pilgrimage, there must be special places for the pilgrims to sleep,eat and pray, because they belong, in most cases, to the medium-income touristcategory.

  10. Liquid lithium control type LMFBR type reactor

    In a liquid lithium control type LMFBR type reactor, a fuel exchange device passing through the center of a stationary lid and capable of reaching a predetermined position of the reactor core is disposed. A control mechanism having a case in parallel with a reactor core shaft and a shrinkable sealed cylinder in the case is disposed in the outer circumferential region of the reactor core, and a tank for liquid lithium is connected to the sealed cylinder, and the pressure in the case is controlled by supplying or discharging coolants. Coolants in the reactor container are sucked and injected into the case. The sealed cylinder is shortened axially to attain balance of the pressure between the inner side and the outer side of the cylinder, and a portion of the liquid lithium is pulled out and recycled to a tank. Neutron absorbers rise by so much, to attain the same condition as in the case that control rods are drawn out. The pressure in the case can be optionally determined by a control device, and axial dimension of the sealed cylinder can be determined optionally. Then, a rotational plug for loading a fuel exchange device and control rod drives are not necessary to extremely simplify the structure of reactor upper structures. (N.H.)

  11. Type-II Leptogenesis

    Kim, Jihn E

    2016-01-01

    I will talk on our new theory on baryogenesis through type-II leptogenesis which is different from the well-known type-I leptogenesis. I will comment on the Jarlskog phases, $\\delta_{\\rm CKM}$ and $\\delta_{\\rm PMNS}$, in the CKM and PMNS matrices. In the type-II leptogenesis, the PMNS phase is used for Sakharov's condition on the global quantum number generation in the Universe. For this to be effective, the SU(2)$\\times$U(1) gauge symmetry must be broken during the leptogenesis epoch.

  12. Parametric Compositional Data Types

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we have illustrated the benefits that compositional data types (CDTs) offer for implementing languages and in general for dealing with abstract syntax trees (ASTs). Based on Swierstra's data types \\'a la carte, CDTs are implemented as a Haskell library that enables the definition...... of recursive data types and functions on them in a modular and extendable fashion. Although CDTs provide a powerful tool for analysing and manipulating ASTs, they lack a convenient representation of variable binders. In this paper we remedy this deficiency by combining the framework of CDTs with Chlipala...

  13. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    Tøraasen, Lisa Vangen; Al-Sultan, Zainab

    2014-01-01

    Hvert år blir rundt 600 nordmenn diagnostisert med sykdommen diabetes type 1, og Norge er et av landene i verden med størst andel av barnediabetes. I dag er det 15 000- 20 000 personer i Norge som har diabetes type 1, og antall barn som får diabetes har fordoblet seg de siste 30 årene (Diabetesforbundet, 2014). Problemstillingen vår gikk ut på hvordan sykepleiere kan veilede og undervise ungdom med nyoppdaget diabetes type på sykehus. Ut i fra litteraturstudiet har vi arbeidet oss frem for å ...

  14. P-type ATPases.

    Palmgren, Michael G; Nissen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    P-type ATPases form a large superfamily of cation and lipid pumps. They are remarkably simple with only a single catalytic subunit and carry out large domain motions during transport. The atomic structure of P-type ATPases in different conformations, together with ample mutagenesis evidence, has provided detailed insights into the pumping mechanism by these biological nanomachines. Phylogenetically, P-type ATPases are divided into five subfamilies, P1-P5. These subfamilies differ with respect to transported ligands and the way they are regulated. PMID:21351879

  15. Type 2 diabetes models

    Gram, Dorte Xenia

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with type 2 diabetes in vivo models and techniques suitable for testing new anti-diabetic compounds. In particular, the testing of TRP antagonist for beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes is considered. There are many choices of both in vitro techniques and in vivo models......, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin resistance in vivo and should, thus, be sufficient to demonstrate preclinical proof of concept of a TRP antagonist in type 2 diabetes in rodents. The experiments are suggestions and could be replaced or supplemented by others....

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being ... 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Generation of Brilliant Researchers Our Research Foundation Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical ... Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy Living Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Shop Diabetes » Close nonprofit software

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... prediabetes, and no one is excused. Take the test. Know where you stand. More from diabetes.org ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Find your leading role for type 2 diabetes management. Living W/ Diabetes: It's Women's Health Month - 2016- ... With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment ... seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know ... Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Destination Races Do- ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... to Stop Diabetes Awareness Programs Hispanic Heritage Month African American Programs Latino Programs Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians ... others. Type 2 diabetes is more common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Tour de Cure event near you. More from diabetes.org Learn More: Special Book Promotion: Behind the ... Tips? - 2016-04-consumer-guide.html Living W/ Diabetes Need Type 2 Tips? Enroll in our free ...

  6. Tissue types (image)

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  8. Type 1 diabetes

    Green, Anders; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2001-01-01

    Prediction of Type 1 diabetes at individual level is relevant for any possible intervention before clinical disease develops. Currently available markers of Type 1 diabetes include genetic specificities and immune markers, in addition to a positive family history. This chapter reviews the measures...... and methods of importance in predicting Type 1 diabetes. Based on numerical examples it is demonstrated that available markers have a low level of performance, even when combined. Even so, combined marker information may allow for the identification of the large majority of the general population who...... is at very low disease risk. The impact at population level of predicting Type 1 diabetes varies between societies because the performance of markers depends on levels of disease risk and distribution of markers within a population. The incorporation of the influence of non-genetic etiological factors may...

  9. Types of Diabetes

    ... Help for Diabetes Care Diabetes Statistics Types of Diabetes Learn about Diabetes You can learn how to take care of ... to take care of your diabetes. What is diabetes? Diabetes is when your blood glucose, also called ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 ... Call to Congress Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Cost of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How Grant Money is ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk ... Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk ...

  15. Types of Hearing Aids

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I ... levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ... Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes ... CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At ... 1995-2016. American Diabetes Association. All rights reserved. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our Terms ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Drive ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program We Can Help Center for Information Legal Assistance Success ... Congress The Cost of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent ...

  3. Type 1 diabetes

    ... in an injection to get the best blood glucose control. Other types of insulin should never be mixed. ... disease, or yeast infections (in women). Keeping your blood sugar under good control can help prevent these conditions. Talk with your ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... Find your leading role for type 2 diabetes management. » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes news, research ...

  5. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  6. Types of Heart Failure

    ... failure. Drug treatments are different for the two types. Systolic failure: The left ventricle loses its ability to contract normally. The heart can't pump with enough force to push enough blood into circulation. Diastolic failure ( ...

  7. Description of vegetation types

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Find your leading role for type 2 diabetes management. » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes news, research ... Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health ... type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Destination Races Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Volunteer Center American Diabetes ... Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License ... Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Diabetes Camp Learning at ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... Find your leading role for type 2 diabetes management. Living W/ Diabetes: It's Women's Health Month - 2016- ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... 2 Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 ... quick recipes and healthy tips on Recipes for Healthy Living. More from diabetes.org Learn More: Special Book ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type ... time Give monthly Give in honor Give in memory Donate Now Why Give? Nearly 30 million battle ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's ... going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program We Can Help Center for Information Legal Assistance Success Stories Drive ... cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and better ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Diabetes Camp Learning at Camp Find a Camp Apply for Camp ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Earl Jones. Take the Quiz Find your leading role for type 2 diabetes management. Living W/ Diabetes: ... Call to Congress Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... donate en -- Donate Today - 2016-08-donation-en.html Donate Today Diabetes touches everyone, and finding a ... urgent. Donate We Can Help - we-can-help.html Chat Online Chat Closed engagement en -- Need Type ...

  5. Are You Still Typing?

    Smith, Irene; Yoder, Sharon

    1996-01-01

    Discusses word processing and desktop publishing and offers suggestions for creating documents that look more professional, including proportional type size, spacing, the use of punctuation marks, italics, tabs and margins, and paragraph styles. (LRW)

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Please Join Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical ... Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Living With Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ... starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... to Stop Diabetes Awareness Programs Hispanic Heritage Month African American Programs Latino Programs Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and ... others. Type 2 diabetes is more common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, ...

  9. Types Of Christian Tourism

    Cornelia Petroman

    2015-01-01

    Christian tourism is asub-type of tourism where pilgrims travel alone or in group as missionaries orpilgrims or to spend their free time to recollect; it attracts a large numberof travellers. Christian tourism can be practiced by religious young people,missionaries, participants to religious convents, amateurs of religiouscruises, religious camps, visitors of religious attractions, religiousadventurers. Christian tourism can be considered a sub-type of religioustourism because of the large nu...

  10. Dentin dysplasia type I

    Singh, Aarti; Gupta, Sangesh; Yuwanati, Monal Bhaurao; Mhaske, Shubhangi

    2013-01-01

    Dentin dysplasia type I is a rare hereditary disturbance of dentin formation characterised clinically by nearly normal appearing crowns and hypermobility of teeth that affects one in every 100 000 individuals and manifests in both primary and permanent dentitions. Radiographic analysis shows obliteration of all pulp chambers, short, blunted, and malformed roots, and periapical radiolucencies of non-carious teeth. This paper presents three cases demonstrating classic features of type I dentin ...

  11. Neurofibromatosis type 2

    Asthagiri, Ashok R.; Parry, Dilys M.; Butman, John A; Kim, H. Jeffrey; Tsilou, Ekaterini T.; Zhuang, Zhengping; Lonser, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 is an autosomal-dominant multiple neoplasia syndrome that results from mutations in the NF2 tumour suppressor gene located on chromosome 22q. It has a frequency of one in 25 000 livebirths and nearly 100% penetrance by 60 years of age. Half of patients inherit a germline mutation from an affected parent and the remainder acquire a de novo mutation for neurofibromatosis type 2. Patients develop nervous system tumours (schwannomas, meningiomas, ependymomas, astrocytomas...

  12. Type extension trees

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts of...... attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  13. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    Hillaris, Alexander; Nindos, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts which extend to the hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type IV IP bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprised 48 Interplanetary type IV bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES in the 13.825 MHz?20 KHz frequency range. The dynamic spec tra of the RSTN, DAM, ARTEMIS-IV, CULGOORA, Hiraiso and IZMIRAN Radio-spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona; these were supplemented with SXR ?ux recordings from GOES and CME data from LASCO. Positional information for the coronal bursts were obtained by the Nan\\c{c}ay radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs and SXR ?ares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact; their duration was on average 106 min. This type of events were, mostly, associated with M and X class ?ares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs; 32 of these events had CME...

  14. Congenital fiber type disproportion.

    Kissiedu, Juliana; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Type I muscle fiber atrophy in childhood can be encountered in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. Congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) is one such condition which presents as a nonprogressive muscle weakness. The diagnosis is often made after excluding other differential diagnostic considerations. We present a 2-year-9-month-old full term boy who presented at 2 months with an inability to turn his head to the right. Over the next couple of years, he showed signs of muscle weakness, broad based gait and a positive Gower's sign. He had normal levels of creatine kinase and normal electromyography. A biopsy of the vastus lateralis showed a marked variation in muscle fiber type. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-ase stains highlighted a marked type I muscle atrophy with rare scattered atrophic type II muscle fibers. No abnormalities were observed on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or cytochrome oxidase stained sections. Ragged red fibers were not present on the trichrome stain. Abnormalities of glycogen or lipid deposition were not observed on the periodic acid-Schiff or Oil-Red-O stains. Immunostaining for muscular dystrophy associated proteins showed normal staining. Ultrastructural examination showed a normal arrangement of myofilaments, and a normal number and morphology for mitochondria. A diagnosis of CFTD was made after excluding other causes of type I atrophy including congenital myopathy. The lack of specific clinical and genetic disorder associated with CFTD suggests that it is a spectrum of a disease process and represents a diagnosis of exclusion. PMID:26526626

  15. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  16. Standardized molecular typing.

    Müller, F M; Lischewski, A; Harmsen, D; Hacker, J

    1999-01-01

    Molecular typing methods are useful tools in molecular mycology. The results of these biotyping procedures may help to identify pathogenic strains in order to detect sources of nosocomial infection and for the investigation of epidemiological relationships. With respect to the facultative pathogen, Candida albicans, various methods such as pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), DNA fingerprinting methods and hybridization with repetitive DNA elements have been described as useful tools in molecular epidemiology. The previously described hybridization method with the Candida albicans specific CARE-2 probe and subsequent rehybridization with a molecular size marker is a standardized reproducible typing method for comparison of results obtained in different laboratories. In a larger epidemiological study conducted at the University Hospital of Würzburg analysing clinical C. albicans isolates, we were able to describe relationships between sequential patient isolates. These findings demonstrate that standardized molecular typing methods are a powerful tool in molecular mycology studies. PMID:10865907

  17. Types of Nuclear Reactors

    The presentation is based on the following areas: Types of Nuclear Reactors, coolant, moderator, neutron spectrum, fuel type, pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR) reactor pressurized heavy water (PHWR), gas-cooled reactor, RBMK , Nuclear Electricity Generation,Challenges in Nuclear Technology Deployment,EPR, APR1400, A P 1000, A PWR, ATMEA 1, VVER-1000, A PWR, VVER 1200, Boiling Water Reactor, A BWR, A BWR -II, ESBUR, Ke ren, AREVA, Heavy Water Reactor, Candu 6, Acr-1000, HWR, Bw, Iris, CAREM NuCcale, Smart, KLT-HOS, Westinghouse small modular Reactor, Gas Cooled Reactors, PBMR.

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals ... and every 23 seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ...

  19. Making Type Inference Practical

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Oxhøj, Nicholas; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    We present the implementation of a type inference algorithm for untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. The algorithm significantly improves our previous one, presented at OOPSLA'91, since it can handle collection classes, such as List, in a useful way. Abo...... for object-oriented languages practical....

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... can’t make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ... may be starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... first, you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home Find Your Local Office ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  4. Chemistry of Blood Type

    Coleman, William F.

    2005-01-01

    The molecule of December 2005 comes from the paper by Rose, Palcic and Evans on structural factors determining the blood type. The structure was previously reported by Palcic and Evans and is presented without the water molecule that is determined in the crystal structure.

  5. Type IV collagen

    Type IV collagen is a highly specialized form of collagen found only in basement membranes. It is one of the major components of all basement membranes together with the glycoproteins laminin, nidogen, entactin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Basement membranes are ubiquitous, thin, sheetlike structures found frequently under epithelial and endothelial cell linings but also surrounding many cell types such as muscle, nerve, and fat. They function as a selective filtration barrier for macromolecules, for example, in the kidney, blood--brain barrier, and placenta, but also separate extracellular matrix from epithelial or endothelial cell layers as in gut, skin, cornea, lung, and blood vessels. Indications that basement membranes contained a collagen came from X-ray studies of intact basement membranes as early as 1951. Later, hydroxyproline and then hydroxylysine were detected in amino acid compositions of whole basement membranes. Because of the insolubility of basement membrane components, attempts were made to solubilize the collagen using Pronase, a method that had proved useful for type I collagen. The material that was isolated and characterized was clearly different from the other interstitial collagens known at that time, i.e., α1(I), α1(II), and α1(III). Basement membrane collagen was therefore designated type IV collagen

  6. TypeScript essentials

    Nance, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The book introduces the TypeScript language and its features to anyone looking to develop rich web applications. Whether you are new to web development or are an experienced engineer with strong JavaScript skills, this book will get you writing code quickly. A basic understanding of JavaScript and its language features are necessary for this book.

  7. A Hilbert type inequality

    G. D. Handley

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we obtain a new inequality of Hilbert type for a finite number of nonnegative sequences of real numbers from which we can recover as a special case an inequality due to Pachpatte. We also obtain an integral variant of the inequality.

  8. TWO TYPES OF EDUCATION

    卫子辰

    2015-01-01

    <正>The education has a significant impact not only on individuals but also on the nation.There are two types of education,one is student-central,and the other keeps a watchful eye on the marks.Which one is better on earth?The following is my viewpoint.

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking ... Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- Diabetes Must Be Stopped - 2016-06-donation-en.html Diabetes Must ...

  10. Types of OI

    ... function, increase peak bone mass, and develop muscle strength. Physical therapy, early intervention programs, and as much exercise ... and function, increase peak bone mass and muscle strength, and employ as much exercise and physical activity as possible. Type IV: People with OI ...

  11. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif;

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular...

  12. Simply—typed Underdeterminism

    EwenDenney

    1998-01-01

    An extension of the simply-typed lambda calculus with constructs for expressing a notion called underdeterminism is studied.This allows us to interpret notions of stud and skeleton used in top-down program development.We axionatise a simple notion of program refinement,and give a semantics,for which the calculus is proved sound and complete.

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to ... normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up ...

  14. Modular Session Types for Objects

    Gay, Simon J; Ravara, António; Vasconcelos, Vasco Thudichum

    2012-01-01

    Session types allow communication protocols to be specified type-theoretically so that protocol implementations can be verified by static type checking. We extend previous work on session types for distributed object-oriented languages in three ways. (1) We attach a session type to a class definition, to specify the possible sequences of method calls. (2) We allow a session type implementation to be modularized, i.e. partitioned into separately-callable methods. (3) We treat session-typed communication channels as objects, integrating their session types with the session types of classes. The result is an elegant unification of communication channels and their session types, distributed OO programming, and a form of typestate supporting non-uniform objects, i.e. objects that dynamically change the set of available methods. We define syntax, operational semantics, a sound type system, and a sound and complete type checking algorithm for a small distributed OO language with structural subtyping. Static typing g...

  15. All types naive and canny

    HEIFETZ , Aviad; Kets, Willemien

    2012-01-01

    This paper constructs a type space that contains all types with a finite depth of reasoning, as well as all types with an infinite depth of reasoning - in particular those types for whom finite-depth types are conceivable, or think that infnite-depth types are conceivable in the mind of other players, etcetera. We prove that this type space is uni- versal with respect to the class of type spaces that include types with a finite or infinite depth of reasoning. In particular, we show that it co...

  16. Action Type Deontic Logic

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning ar...... benchmarks. Finally, possibilities for further research are indicated. In the appendix, decidability of the satisfiability of formulas is proved via a technique known from monadic First Order Logic....

  17. TYPES OF SHARES

    TĂNASE Alin-Eliodor; Traian-Ovidiu CALOTĂ

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on equity instruments. There are presented the characteristics of ordinary and preference shares. There are described the types and characteristics of preference shares such as:cumulative preference shares, participating preference shares,convertible preference shares, callable preference shares and redeemable preference shares. Treasury shares are also described. The accounting records are based on IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation. There are presented the condi...

  18. Human adenovirus type identification

    Banik U; Adhikary AK

    2015-01-01

    Urmila Banik,1 Arun Kumar Adhikary21Unit of Pathology, 2Unit of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, AIMST University, Bedong, Kedah, MalaysiaThe published paper in your journal entitling “Human adenovirus type 8 epidemic keratoconjunctivitis with large corneal epithelial full-layer detachment: an endemic outbreak with uncommon manifestations” has come into our attention.1 The article provides interesting clinical presentation of corneal epithelial layer detachment among 25%...

  19. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  20. Novel Bracing Type Against Seismic Loading: KX Type

    Kutuk, M.; Gov, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a new bracing system is proposed which is named as KX type. Element removal method is used to obtain this new bracing. KX type optimized bracing is compared with V, and K type bracings under seismic loading. Maximum deformation value is used as performance indicator to compare effectiveness of V, K, and proposed KX type bracings to resist seismic loads. The proposed KX type bracing, yielded 99.72%, 93% and 88% reduced deformation with respect to unbraced, K type, and V type bra...

  1. Mosaic neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Liang, Christine; Schaffer, Julie V

    2008-01-01

    A 24-year-old man presented with numerous lentigines and multiple cafe-au-lait macules on both sides of the face, neck, and trunk as well as on the proximal area of the upper extremities and in the axillae. The pigmented lesions had a Blaschko-linear distribution on the upper trunk and were limited to the left side of the abdomen, with a sharp demarcation at the midline. Multiple, cutaneous neurofibromas were found on the trunk, and ophthalmologic examination showed a Lisch nodule in the left iris. The clinical findings and their widespread but segmental distribution were consistent with a diagnosis of mosaic neurofibromatosis type 1. PMID:18627742

  2. Square Source Type Diagram

    Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density

  3. Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

    Trydal, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Hvert år får rundt 300 barn og 600 voksne diabetes mellitus type 1, og til sammen har rundt 28 000 personer denne sykdommen i Norge i dag. Det er en kronisk metabolsk sykdom, med en absolutt insulinmangel. Gjennom litteratur og forskning er det vist, at for å forebygge senkomplikasjoner, trenger pasienten informasjon, undervisning og praktisk veiledning når det gjelder medisinering, kosthold og fysisk aktivitet, og motivering til å mestre sykdommen. I praksis vil sykepleier spille en aktiv ro...

  4. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis

    Zen Yoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of

  5. Invariant types in NIP theories

    Simon, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We study invariant types in NIP theories. Amongst other things: we prove a definable version of the (p,q)-theorem in theories of small or medium directionality; we construct a canonical retraction from the space of M-invariant types to that of M-finitely satisfiable types; we show some amalgamation results for invariant types and list a number of open questions.

  6. Type 1 narcolepsy

    Degn, Matilda; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with unintentional sleep attacks and cataplexy. The disorder is caused by a loss of hypocretinergic neurons in the brain. The specific loss of these neurons in narcolepsy is thought to result from an autoimmune...... attack, and this is supported by evidence of both environmental and genetic factors pointing toward an involvement of the immune system. However, definitive proof of an autoimmune etiology is still missing. Several different immune-mediated disorders targeting neurons are known, and many of these are...... believed to be caused by autoreactive CD8(+) T cells. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on CD8(+) T cell-mediated neuronal damage on the basis of our understanding of other autoimmune disorders and experimental studies. We identify major histocompatibility complex class I presentation of...

  7. Enteroendocrine cell types revisited

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Lund, Mari L;

    2013-01-01

    The GI-tract is profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells scattered throughout the gut mucosa. A large number of recently generated transgenic reporter mice have allowed for direct characterization of biochemical and cell...... biological properties of these previously highly elusive enteroendocrine cells. In particular the surprisingly broad co-expression of six functionally related hormones in the intestinal enteroendocrine cells indicates that it should be possible to control not only the hormone secretion but also the type and...... number of enteroendocrine cells. However, this will require a more deep understanding of the factors controlling differentiation, gene expression and specification of the enteroendocrine cells during their weekly renewal from progenitor cells in the crypts of the mucosa....

  8. Pragmatic phenomenological types.

    Goranson, Ted; Cardier, Beth; Devlin, Keith

    2015-12-01

    We approach a well-known problem: how to relate component physical processes in biological systems to governing imperatives in multiple system levels. The intent is to further practical tools that can be used in the clinical context. An example proposes a formal type system that would support this kind of reasoning, including in machines. Our example is based on a model of the connection between a quality of mind associated with creativity and neuropsychiatric dynamics: constructing narrative as a form of conscious introspection, which allows the manipulation of one's own driving imperatives. In this context, general creativity is indicated by an ability to manage multiple heterogeneous worldviews simultaneously in a developing narrative. 'Narrative' in this context is framed as the organizing concept behind rational linearization that can be applied to metaphysics as well as modeling perceptive dynamics. Introspection is framed as the phenomenological 'tip' that allows a perceiver to be within experience or outside it, reflecting on and modifying it. What distinguishes the approach is the rooting in well founded but disparate disciplines: phenomenology, ontic virtuality, two-sorted geometric logics, functional reactive programming, multi-level ontologies and narrative cognition. This paper advances the work by proposing a type strategy within a two-sorted reasoning system that supports cross-ontology structure. The paper describes influences on this approach, and presents an example that involves phenotype classes and monitored creativity enhanced by both soft methods and transcranial direct-current stimulation. The proposed solution integrates pragmatic phenomenology, situation theory, narratology and functional programming in one framework. PMID:26196088

  9. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present...... a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...

  10. Type Inference for Bimorphic Recursion

    Tatsuta, Makoto; 10.4204/EPTCS.54.8

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes bimorphic recursion, which is restricted polymorphic recursion such that every recursive call in the body of a function definition has the same type. Bimorphic recursion allows us to assign two different types to a recursively defined function: one is for its recursive calls and the other is for its calls outside its definition. Bimorphic recursion in this paper can be nested. This paper shows bimorphic recursion has principal types and decidable type inference. Hence bimorphic recursion gives us flexible typing for recursion with decidable type inference. This paper also shows that its typability becomes undecidable because of nesting of recursions when one removes the instantiation property from the bimorphic recursion.

  11. Pressure tube type reactor

    Heretofore, a pressure tube type reactor has a problem in that the evaluation for the reactor core performance is complicate and no sufficient consideration is made for the economical property, to increase the size of a calandria tank and make the cost expensive. Then, in the present invention, the inner diameter of a pressure tube is set to greater than 50% of the lattice gap in a square lattice like arrangement, and the difference between the inner and the outer diameters of the calandria tube is set smaller than 20% of the lattice gap. Further, the inner diameter of the pressure tube is set to greater than 40% and the difference between the inner and the outer diameters of the calandria tube is set smaller than 30% of the lattice gap in a triangle lattice arrangement. Then, heavy water-to-fuel volume ratio can be determined appropriately and the value for the coolant void coefficient is made more negative side, to improve the self controllability inherent to the reactor. In particular, when 72 to 90 fuel rods are arranged per one pressure tube, the power density per one fuel rod is can be increased by about twice. Accordingly, the number of the pressure tubes can be reduced about to one-half, thereby enabling to remarkably decrease the diameter of the reactor core and to reduce the size of the calandria, which is economical. (N.H.)

  12. Neurofibromatosis Type II

    Akram Kasiri Ghahi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 is an inherited disease which is mainly characterized by the development of multiple schwannomas and meningiomas.  Incidence of the disease is about 1 in 60,000. Affected individuals inevitably develop schwannomas, typically affecting both auditory-vestibular nerve which lead in hearing loss and deafness. The majority of patients present with hearing loss, which is usually unilateral at onset and may be accompanied or preceded by tinnitus. Vestibular schwannomas may also cause dizziness or imbalance as a first symptom. Nausea, vomiting or true vertigo are rare symptoms, except in late-stage disease. NF II is caused by a defect in the gene that normally gives rise to a product called Merlin or Schwannomin, located on chromosome 22. Diagnosis is based on clinical and neuroimaging studies. Presymptomatic genetic testing is an integral part of the management of NF2 families. Prenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is possible.

  13. Neurofibromatosis type 2.

    Evans, D G R

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the NF2 tumor suppressor gene NF2 on chromosome 22. Around 1 in 33000 people are born with an NF2 mutation although more than one-third of the 60% of de novo cases are not conceived with the mutation but this develops later in embryogenesis (mosaics). NF2 has a substantial effect on life expectancy and individuals with a constitutional truncating mutation have the worst prognosis. The vast majority of people with NF2 will develop bilateral vestibular schwannomas with many developing schwannomas on other cranial, spinal and peripheral nerves. Cranial and spinal meningiomas and intraspinal low grade indolent ependymomas are the other major tumor features. Cutaneous features can be subtle with only 70% having evidence of intracutaneous plaque-like schwannomas or subcutaneous lesions on peripheral nerves. Café-au-lait patches are more frequent than in the general population but in only around 1% will meet NIH criteria for NF1. PMID:26564072

  14. BWR type reactor

    In a coolant circulation in BWR type reactors, since the mixed stream of steam fluid undergoes a great resistance, the pressure loss due to the flow rate distribution when the coolants flow from the upper plenum into the stand pipe is increased upon passing stand pipe. Also in the spontaneous recycling reactor, pressure loss is still left upon passing the swirling blade of a gas-liquid separator. In view of the above, a plurality of vertical members each having a lower end opened to a gas-liquid two phase boundary and an upper end directly suspended from a steam dryer to the gas-liquid separator. The liquid droplets from the 2-phase boundary heated in the reactor core and formed into a mixed gas-liquid 2-phase stream is directed in the vertical direction accompanied with the steam. The liquid droplets spontaneously fallen by gravity from greater ones successively and the droplets in the steam abutted against the vertical member are fallen as a liquid membrane. Thus, the gas-liquid separation is conducted, the dry steam is directly flown into the steam dryer, thereby capable of providing a gas-liquid separator having gas-liquid separation performance with lower loss than usual. (N.H.)

  15. Natural convection type reactor

    In a natural convection type nuclear reactor, recycling flow rate of coolants is increased and the amount of entrained bubbles are increased as the driving force is increased, so that bubbles are not separated completely even if a stagnation region is disposed. Then, a space opened only at the upper portion is disposed at the outer circumference of the upper end of a riser for storing overflown coolants temporarily. The flow of coolants incorporating steam bubbles uprising in the riser turns into the horizontal direction at the upper end of the riser wall and flows into the coolant reservoir. In the coolant reservoir, since the momentum of the coolants is lost and the flow is stagnated, the bubbles are easily released to the upper space. Coolants, after releasing the bubbles, further overflow and descend in the downcomer. Then, the bubbles can be separated undergoing no influence of the driving force caused as the sum of the uprising force in the riser and the water head pressure in the downcomer, to prevent increase of carry under due to increase of the driving force. (N.H.)

  16. BWR type nuclear reactor

    Purpose: To simplify the structure of an emergency core cooling system while suppressing the flow out of coolants upon rapture accidents in a coolant recycling device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: Recirculation pumps are located at a position higher than the reactor core in a pressure vessel, and the lower plenum is bisected vertically by a partition plate. Further, a gas-liquid separator is surrounded with a wall and the water level at the outer side of the wall is made higher than the water level in the inside of the wall. In this structure, coolants are introduced from the upper chamber in the lower plenum into the reactor core, and the steams generated in the reactor core are separated in the gas-liquid separator, whereby the separated liquid is introduced as coolants by way of the inner chamber into the lower chamber of the lower plenum and further sent by way of the outer chamber into the reactor core. Consequently, idle rotation of the recycling pumps due to the flow-in of saturated water is prevented and loss of coolants in the reactor core can also be prevented upon raptures in the pipeway and the driving section of the pump connected to the pressure vessel and in the bottom of the pressure vessel. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. FBR type reactor

    The present invention provides an FBR type reactor in which the combustion of reactor core fuels is controlled by reflectors, and the position of a reflector driving device can be controlled even during shut down of the reactor. Namely, the reflector driving device is attracted to the outer wall surface of a reactor core barrel by electromagnetic attraction force. An inertia body is disposed vertically movably to the upper portion of the reflector driving device. Magnetic repulsive coils generate instantaneous magnetic repulsive force between the inertia body and the reflector driving device. With such a constitution, the reflector driving device can be driven by using magnetic repulsion of the electromagnetic repulsive coils and inertia of the inertia body. As a result, not only the reflectors can be elevated at an ultraslow speed during normal reactor operation, but also fine position adjustment for the reflector driving device, as well as fine position adjustment of the reflectors required upon restart of the reactor can be conducted by lowering the reflector driving device during shut down of the reactor. (I.S.)

  18. Miniaturized stirling type cooler

    This patent describes a cryogenic Stirling type cooler system, an axially extending casing, a compressor unit located within the casing and including a crankshaft extending transversely of the casing axis, an expander and expander connecting rod arranged co-axially in and with the casing the casing including a cover having an axis in coaxial relation with the crankshaft, the casing and cover forming a sealed housing for the compressor unit and crankshaft. The cover consists of a cup-shaped non-magnetic partition, a drive for the compressor unit comprising a D.C. brushless motor including a stator, a rotor and driving electronics. The rotor located within the cover in the sealed housing and coupled directly to the crankshaft, the crankshaft connected to the expander and compressor connecting rods, the stator located outwardly of an encircling the cover in co-axial relation with the rotor. The drive electronics located outwardly of the casing, whereby the rotor is located within the sealed housing in driving engagement with the crankshaft while the stator is located outside the sealed housing for driving the rotor so that the rotor supplies rotational movement to the crankshaft which is converted by the crankshaft cam for driving the expander and compressor connecting rod

  19. Natural convection type reactor

    In a natural convection type nuclear reactor, a reactor core is disposed such that the top of the reactor core is always situated in a flooded position even if pipelines connected to the pressure vessel are ruptured and the level at the inside of the reactor vessel is reduced due to flashing. Further, a lower dry well situated below the pressure vessel is disposed such that it is in communication with a through hole to a pressure suppression chamber situated therearound and the reactor core is situated at the level lower than that of the through hole. If pipelines connected to the pressure vessel are ruptured to cause loss of water, although the water level is lowered after the end of the flashing, the reactor core is always flooded till the operation of a pressure accummulation water injection system to prevent the top of the reactor core even from temporary exposure. Further, injected water is discharged to the outside of the pressure vessel, transferred to the lower dry well, and flows through the through hole to the pressure control chamber and cools the surface of the reactor pressure vessel from the outside. Accordingly, the reactor core is cooled to surely and efficiently remove the after-heat. (N.H.)

  20. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    ... Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Organ Type and Waiting Time Most candidates, except those with living donors, wait ... organ needed How does organ type affect waiting times? Heart Allocation Physicians assign a status code to ...

  1. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik;

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...... lectins. The system grouped all 45 strains into 13 lectin reaction patterns, leaving no strain untypeable due to autoagglutination. Lectin types were both stable and reproducible....

  2. Muscle Fiber Types and Training.

    Karp, Jason R.

    2001-01-01

    The specific types of fibers that make up individual muscles greatly influence how people will adapt to their training programs. This paper explains the complexities of skeletal muscles, focusing on types of muscle fibers (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), recruitment of muscle fibers to perform a motor task, and determining fiber type. Implications…

  3. Computing effects for correspondence types

    Hüttel, Hans

    We show that type and effect inference is possible for a type and  effect system for authenticity using non-injective correspondences, opponent  types and a spi-calculus with symmetric encryption. We do this by a general  account of how effects can be computed given knowledge of how and where they...

  4. Some Characteristic Quantities Associated with Homogeneous -Type and -Type Functions

    Cho Yeol Je

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Several characteristic quantities associated with homogeneous -type and -type functions are introduced and studied in this paper. Further, the concepts of -property and -property for a couple of functions are introduced and some quantities for a pair of homogeneous functions having -property and -property are obtained, respectively. As an application, a bound for the solution of the homogeneous complementarity problem with a -type function is derived.

  5. Type System in Programming Languages

    蒋慧; 林东; 等

    2001-01-01

    Type system provides a precise description of a programming language,This is a prerequisite for the implementation and use of language.It also conducts mechanical and transparent type-checking on programs to prevent the occurrence of execution error during the running of programs.So,it can be said that,on the one hand.type system works as a formal tool to do mathematical analysis of language;on the other hand,it is a formal method for rigorously and precisely designing and implementing language.In this paper,some basic concepts of type system are discussed first.And then,the implementation of a graph-rewriting-based functional language-SClean's type system is given in details,It is hoped that the proposed method of using and implementing type system is of practical usefulness.

  6. Type System in Programming Languages

    JIANG Hui; ZHANG Xingyuan; LIN Dong; XIE Xiren

    2001-01-01

    Type system provides a precise description of a programming lan guage. This is a prerequisite for the implementation and use of language. It also conducts mechanical and transparent type-checking on programs to prevent the oc currence of execution error during the running of programs. So, it can be said that, on the one hand, type system works as a formal tool to do mathematical analysis of language; on the other hand, it is a formal method for rigorously and precisely designing and implementing language. In this paper, some basic concepts of type system are discussed first. And then, the implementation of a graph-rewriting-based functional language - SClean's type system is given in details. It is hoped that the proposed method of using and implementing type system is of practical usefulness.

  7. Types for BioAmbients

    Capecchi, Sara; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.7

    2010-01-01

    The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues). Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  8. Types for BioAmbients

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  9. Efficient Auctions and Interdependent Types

    Dirk Bergemann; Stephen Morris; Satoru Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    We consider the efficient allocation of a single good with interdependent values in a quasi-linear environment. We present an approach to modelling interdependent preferences distinguishing between "payoff types" and "belief types" and report a characterization of when the efficient allocation can be partially Bayesian implemented on a finite type space. The characterization can be used to unify a number of sufficient conditions for efficient partial implementation in this classical auction s...

  10. Inductive types in constructive languages

    Bruin, Peter Johan de

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation deals with constructive languages: languages for the formal expression of mathematical constructions. The concept of construction does not only encompass computations, as expressed in programming languages,but also propositions and proofs, as expressed in a mathematical logic, and in particular the construction of structured mathematical objects like sequences and trees. Types may be conceived of as classes of such objects, and inductive types are types whose objects are gen...

  11. Clostridium perfringens Type C Enterotoxemia

    Niilo, Leo

    1988-01-01

    Forms of enteric disease caused by Clostridium perfringens type C are critically reviewed with emphasis on practical aspects and recent research findings. Available data indicate that more animal species may be fatally infected by type C of this organism than by any other type of C. perfringens. Fatal cases have been recorded in pigs, cattle, sheep, horses and humans. Newborn animals are typically the most susceptible, possibly related to aspects of bacterial colonization, intestinal digestiv...

  12. Type-II Weyl Semimetals

    Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Fermions in nature come in several types: Dirac, Majorana and Weyl are theoretically thought to form a complete list. Even though Majorana and Weyl fermions have for decades remained experimentally elusive, condensed matter has recently emerged as fertile ground for their discovery as low energy excitations of realistic materials. Here we show the existence of yet another particle - a new type of Weyl fermion - that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new type of We...

  13. Equations of the mixed type

    Bitsadze, A V

    1963-01-01

    Equations of the Mixed Type compiles a series of lectures on certain fundamental questions in the theory of equations of mixed type. This book investigates the series of problems concerning linear partial differential equations of the second order in two variables, and possessing the property that the type of the equation changes either on the boundary of or inside the considered domain. Topics covered include general remarks on linear partial differential equations of mixed type; study of the solutions of second order hyperbolic equations with initial conditions given along the lines of parab

  14. Object-Oriented Type Inference

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1991-01-01

    We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op-timizing......We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op...

  15. Type-safe pattern combinators

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  16. A Type System for Tom

    Claude Kirchner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Extending a given language with new dedicated features is a general and quite used approach to make the programming language more adapted to problems. Being closer to the application, this leads to less programming flaws and easier maintenance. But of course one would still like to perform program analysis on these kinds of extended languages, in particular type checking and inference. In this case one has to make the typing of the extended features compatible with the ones in the starting language. The Tom programming language is a typical example of such a situation as it consists of an extension of Java that adds pattern matching, more particularly associative pattern matching, and reduction strategies. This paper presents a type system with subtyping for Tom, that is compatible with Java's type system, and that performs both type checking and type inference. We propose an algorithm that checks if all patterns of a Tom program are well-typed. In addition, we propose an algorithm based on equality and subtyping constraints that infers types of variables occurring in a pattern. Both algorithms are exemplified and the proposed type system is showed to be sound and complete.

  17. Safety Analysis versus Type Inference with Partial Types

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    Safety analysis is an algorithm for determining if a term in an untyped lambda calculus with constants is safe, i.e., if it does not cause an error during evaluation. This ambition is also shared by algorithms for type inference. Safety analysis and type inference are based on rather different...... perspectives, however. Safety analysis is global in that it can only analyze a complete program. In contrast, type inference is local in that it can analyze pieces of a program in isolation. In this paper we prove that safety analysis is sound, relative to both a strict and a lazy operational semantics. We...... also prove that safety analysis accepts strictly more safe lambda terms than does type inference for simple types. The latter result demonstrates that global program analysis can be more precise than local ones....

  18. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  19. Interpretations of Recursive Type Definitions

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1992-01-01

    A system of hierarchical imperative types is extended to allow infinite values. The general structure of value assignments to types in the context of a hierarchy is considered, and it is shown that both a minimal and a maximal value assignment exist. We give two different characterizations of int...

  20. Linear contextual modal type theory

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...

  1. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    World-class sandstone-type uranium deposits are defined as epigenetic concentrations of uranium minerals occurring as uneven impregnations and minor massive replacements primarily in fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic sandstone formations. The main purpose of this introductory paper is to define, classify, and introduce to the general geologic setting for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  2. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of...

  3. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia;

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types...... the way we interpret @i in propositional and first-order hybrid logic. This means: interpret @iαa , where αa is an expression of any type a , as an expression of type a that rigidly returns the value that αa receives at the i-world. The axiomatization and completeness proofs are generalizations of those...... found in propositional and first-order hybrid logic, and (as is usual inhybrid logic) we automatically obtain a wide range of completeness results for stronger logics and languages. Our approach is deliberately low-tech. We don’t, for example, make use of Montague’s intensional type s, or Fitting...

  4. Types for DSP Assembler Programs

    Larsen, Ken

    2006-01-01

    of a block of memory, thus enabling type checking of programs that directly manage and reuse memory. I show that both the baseline type system and the extended type system can be used to give type annotations to handwritten DSP assembler code, and that these annotations precisely and succinctly......In this dissertation I present my thesis: A high-level type system is a good aid for developing signal processing programs in handwritten Digital Signal Processor (DSP) assembler code. The problem behind the thesis is that it if often necessary to programing software for embedded systems in...... assembler language. However, programming in assembler causes numerous problems, such as memory corruption, for instance. To test the thesis I define a model assembler language called Featherweight DSP which captures some of the essential features of a real custom DSP used in the industrial partner's digital...

  5. Drug Evaluations: Type I vs. Type II Errors

    Intriligator, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    Drug testing in the United States is currently biased toward the minimization of "Type I" error, that is, toward minimizing the chance of approving drugs that are unsafe or ineffective. This regulatory focus of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ignores the potential for committing the alternative "Type II" error, that is, the error of not approving drugs that are, in fact, safe and effective. Such Type II errors can result in the loss of significant benefits to society when the sale of d...

  6. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

    Horvat Branka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt. Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13 differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene. While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system.

  7. Groundwater types in Southeast Srem

    Gregorić Enike

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The region of Southeast Srem is rich in ground waters, which is of great significance to agricultural production. The objective of this paper was to designate the zones of different groundwater types from the aspect of recharge, based on the analysis of groundwater regimes in the study area. A very complex groundwater regime in Southeast Srem, which depends on a great number of natural and some anthropogenic factors, makes it difficult to designate clearly the zones of the three main types of groundwater regime. Still, the boundaries of the zones of groundwater regime types were defined based on the results of correlation analysis of the basic factors affecting the groundwater regime. Zone I includes the climatic type of groundwater. Its fluctuation corresponds to the vertical factors of water balance (precipitation and evaporation and it is not affected by the river water level. This zone extends North and East of the line Putinci, Golubinci, Stara Pazova, Batajnica, Dobanovci, mainly in the area of the loess plateau. Within the zone, groundwater is at a relatively great depth. Only exceptionally, in the valleys, it appears almost on the surface. Zone II includes the climatic-hydrological groundwater type, which is the transition between the climatic type and the hydrological type. The fluctuation of groundwater regime is affected both by the effect of vertical balance factors, and by the effect of watercourses. Climatic-hydrological groundwater type covers the central and the lowest part of the study area and the South part of the middle terrace. Zone III is classified as the hydrological groundwater type and it covers the riparian areas along the Sava and the Danube. The aquifer is hydraulically connected with the river Sava.

  8. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    In principle termination analysis is easy: find a well-founded ordering and prove that calls decrease with respect to the ordering. We show how to embed termination information into a polymorphic type system for an eager higher-order functional language allowing multiple-argument functions and...... algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one...

  9. Types and Forms of Tourism

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For the study of tourism, the most suitable method from the geographic point of view is typify it, because it allows the delimitation oftourist areas. Tourist areas are characterized by a specific type of travel or by a reunion of some types that may vary dynamically over time. Thetypes of tourism result mainly from the different motivations of the journey, i.e. the purpose of doing. Each type of tourism is distinguished by suchspecific purpose and it is specific to those regions where fixed purpose can be achieved by the existence of some specific facilities.

  10. User Types in Online Applications

    Ion IVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Online applications are presented in the context of information society. Online applications characteristics are analyzed. Quality characteristics are presented in relation to online applications users. Types of users for AVIO application are presented. Use cases for AVIO application are identified. The limitations of AVIO application are defined. Types of users in online applications are identified. The threedimensional matrix of access to the online application resources is built. The user type-oriented database is structured. Access management of the fields related to the database tables is analyzed. The classification of online applications users is done.

  11. The simply typed rewriting calculus

    Cirstea, Horatiu; Kirchner, Claude

    2000-01-01

    The rewriting calculus is a rule construction and application framework. As such it embeds in a uniform way term rewriting and lambda-calculus. Since rule application is an explicit object of the calculus, it allows us also to handle the set of results explicitly. We present a simply typed version of the rewriting calculus. With a good choice of the type system, we show that the calculus is type preserving and terminating, i.e. verifies the subject reduction and strong normalization properties.

  12. Diabetes Type 2 Prevention Tips

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is a compilation of easy tips to prevent type 2 diabetes. They were compiled from several documents produced by the National Diabetes Education Program...

  13. Diabetes type 2 - meal planning

    ... ency/article/007429.htm Diabetes type 2 - meal planning To use the sharing features on this page, ... foods have carbohydrates. This will help with meal planning so that you can keep your blood sugar ...

  14. Definitions and Types of Pain

    ... 2016 Definitions and Types of Pain Defining Pain Pain is a perception that signals the individual that tissue damage has ... in the body that are involved in the perception of pain are called "nociception." Basic and clinical research during ...

  15. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  16. Type analysis mining induced tremors

    Buben, Jiří; Vencovský, Miloš; Klos, Pavel

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 2000, 16 (118) (2000), s. 33-43. ISSN 1211-1910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : rockburst * cross correlation * type analysis Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  17. Forest Cover Types - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays general forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images...

  18. Minimal type II seesaw model

    We propose a minimal type II seesaw model by introducing only one right-handed neutrino besides the SU(2)L triplet Higgs to the standard model. In the usual type II seesaw models with several right-handed neutrinos, the contributions of the right-handed neutrinos and the triplet Higgs to the CP asymmetry, which stems from the decay of the lightest right-handed neutrino, are proportional to their respective contributions to the light neutrino mass matrix. However, in our minimal type II seesaw model, this CP asymmetry is just given by the one-loop vertex correction involving the triplet Higgs, even though the contribution of the triplet Higgs does not dominate the light neutrino masses. For illustration, the Fritzsch-type lepton mass matrices are considered

  19. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    ... for an organ due to the shortage of donor organs. Because each candidate's situation is unique, waiting times ... distance between donor and recipient size of the donor organ in relation to the recipient type of organ ...

  20. Types and qualities of knowledge

    Jong, de Ton; Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G.M.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the general importance of the concepts of type and quality of knowledge for theory, research and practice in the field of learning and instruction. Declarative and procedural knowledge as popular examples; Characteristics; Levels.

  1. Mucolipidosis Type IV: an Update

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyo; Gustafson, Ann Marie; Sidransky, Ellen; Goldin, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a neurodevelopmental as well as neurodegenerative disorder with severe psychomotor developmental delay, progressive visual impairment, and achlorydria. It is characterized by the presence of lysosomal inclusions in many cell types in patients. MLIV is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in MCOLN1, which encodes for mucolipin-1, a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel family. Although approximately 70-80% of patients iden...

  2. Osteoarthropathy in mucopolysaccharidosis type II

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS type II, Hunter syndrome) is a rare (~ 1/1500.000), X-linked inherited disorder (affects boys) due to deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate sulfatase (Xq.28). The complex clinical picture includes osteoarthropathy with a tendency to flexion stiffness and disability. In our country, the specific diagnosis and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), are recently available in the Center for Genetic Pathology Cluj. Objectives Assessment of clinical...

  3. Herpes simplex type 2 pneumonia

    Edenilson Eduardo Calore

    2002-01-01

    Extensive reviews of pulmonary infections in AIDS have reported few herpetic infections. Generally these infections are due to Herpes simplex type 1. Pneumonia due to herpes type 2 is extremely rare. We describe a 40 year-old HIV positive woman who complained of fever, cough and dyspnea for seven years. She had signs of heart failure and the appearance of her genital vesicles was highly suggestive of genital herpes. Echocardiography showed marked pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hype...

  4. Text Type and Translation Strategy

    刘福娟

    2015-01-01

    Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.

  5. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    Moment distributions of phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions are shown to remain within their respective classes. We provide a probabilistic phase-type representation for the former case and an alternative representation, with an analytically appealing form, for the latter. First order...... moment distributions are of special interest in areas like demography and economics, and we calculate explicit formulas for the Lorenz curve and Gini index used in these disciplines....

  6. Hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes

    Amiel, S A; Dixon, T.; Mann, R.; Jameson, K

    2008-01-01

    The primary cause of hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes is diabetes medication—in particular, those which raise insulin levels independently of blood glucose, such as sulphonylureas (SUs) and exogenous insulin. The risk of hypoglycaemia is increased in older patients, those with longer diabetes duration, lesser insulin reserve and perhaps in the drive for strict glycaemic control. Differing definitions, data collection methods, drug type/regimen and patient populations make comparing rates of h...

  7. Computational semantics in type theory

    Ranta, Aarne

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to show how Montague-style grammars can be completely formalized and thereby declaratively implemented by using the Grammatical Framework GF. The implementation covers the fundamental operations of Montague’s PTQ model: the construction of analysis trees, the linearization of trees into strings, and the interpretation of trees as logical formulas. Moreover, a parsing algorithm is derived from the grammar. Given that GF is a constructive type theory with dependent types, the te...

  8. Research into basic rocks types

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has carried out research into basic rock types in Finland. The research programme has been implemented in parallel with the preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal in 1991-1993. The program contained two main objectives: firstly, to study the properties of the basic rock types and compare those with the other rock types under the investigation; secondly, to carry out an inventory of rock formations consisting of basic rock types and suitable in question for final disposal. A study of environmental factors important to know regarding the final disposal was made of formations identified. In total 159 formations exceeding the size of 4 km2 were identified in the inventory. Of these formations 97 were intrusive igneous rock types and 62 originally extrusive volcanic rock types. Deposits consisting of ore minerals, industrial minerals or building stones related to these formations were studied. Environmental factors like natural resources, protected areas or potential for restrictions in land use were also studied

  9. Delaying or Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    ... Care Diabetes Statistics Delaying or Preventing Type 2 Diabetes What is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset diabetes, ... for some, taking aspirin daily. Can type 2 diabetes be delayed or prevented? Yes. The results of ...

  10. Pomegranate and type 2 diabetes.

    Banihani, Saleem; Swedan, Samer; Alguraan, Ziyad

    2013-05-01

    Over the last decade, various studies have linked pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn), a fruit native to the Middle East, with type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment. This review focuses on current laboratory and clinical research related to the effects of pomegranate fractions (peels, flowers, and seeds) and some of their active components on biochemical and metabolic variables associated with the pathologic markers of type 2 diabetes. This review systematically presents findings from cell culture and animal studies as well as clinical human research. One key mechanism by which pomegranate fractions affect the type 2 diabetic condition is by reducing oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. This reduction may occur by directly neutralizing the generated reactive oxygen species, increasing certain antioxidant enzyme activities, inducing metal chelation activity, reducing resistin formation, and inhibiting or activating certain transcriptional factors, such as nuclear factor κB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Fasting blood glucose levels were decreased significantly by punicic acid, methanolic seed extract, and pomegranate peel extract. Known compounds in pomegranate, such as punicalagin and ellagic, gallic, oleanolic, ursolic, and uallic acids, have been identified as having anti-diabetic actions. Furthermore, the juice sugar fraction was found to have unique antioxidant polyphenols (tannins and anthocyanins), which could be beneficial to control conditions in type 2 diabetes. These findings provide evidence for the anti-diabetic activity of pomegranate fruit; however, before pomegranate or any of its extracts can be medically recommended for the management of type 2 diabetes, controlled, clinical studies, are needed. PMID:23684435

  11. Ionization box type radiation detector

    An ionization box for monitoring radiation rays, a first amplification circuit of a multi-stage amplification circuit employing a MOS type FET as an initial stage amplification device, a second amplification circuit employing a junction type FET as an initial stage amplification device, a first change-over switch for switching ionization current depending on input signals, a second change-over switch for switching output signals, and a signal level discrimination circuit are constituted integrally. When radiation dose rate is low, the ionization current is inputted to the first amplification circuit and outputted as a radiation ray monitor signal and, when the radiation dose rate is increased to higher than a predetermined value, the ionization current is inputted to the second amplification circuit and outputted as a radiation ray monitor signal. That is, monitoring accuracy is high when the ionization current is low since the MOS type FET of high input impedance is used. If the ionization current is higher than a predetermined value, there is no worry that the detection becomes impossible since the junction type FET having less worry of causing characteristic change due to high radiation dose rate is used. Accordingly, ionization box type monitor at a high monitoring reliability can be obtained. (N.H.)

  12. Different collagen types define two types of idiopathic epiretinal membranes

    Kritzenberger, Michaela; Junglas, Benjamin; Framme, Carsten; Helbig, Horst; Gabel, Veit-Peter; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Tamm, Ernst R.; Hillenkamp, Jost

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To identify differences in extracellular matrix contents between idiopathic epiretinal membranes (IEM) of cellophane macular reflex (CMRM) or preretinal macular fibrosis (PMFM) type. Methods and results: IEM were analyzed by light and quantitative transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Substantial differences between CMRM and PMFM were observed regarding the nature of extracellular fibrils. In CMRM, the fibrils were thin with...

  13. Quantization via Linear homotopy types

    Schreiber, Urs

    2014-01-01

    In the foundational logical framework of homotopy-type theory we discuss a natural formalization of secondary integral transforms in stable geometric homotopy theory. We observe that this yields a process of non-perturbative cohomological quantization of local pre-quantum field theory; and show that quantum anomaly cancellation amounts to realizing this as the boundary of a field theory that is given by genuine (primary) integral transforms, hence by linear polynomial functors. Recalling that traditional linear logic has semantics in symmetric monoidal categories and serves to formalize quantum mechanics, what we consider is its refinement to linear homotopy-type theory with semantics in stable infinity-categories of bundles of stable homotopy types (generalized cohomology theories) formalizing Lagrangian quantum field theory, following Nuiten and closely related to recent work by Haugseng and Hopkins-Lurie. For the reader interested in technical problems of quantization we provide non-perturbative quantizati...

  14. Glucagon and type 2 diabetes

    Lund, Asger; Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel;

    2014-01-01

    In normal physiology, glucagon from pancreatic alpha cells plays an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis via its regulatory effect on hepatic glucose production. Patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from fasting and postprandial hyperglucagonemia, which stimulate hepatic glucose...... production and, thus, contribute to the hyperglycemia characterizing these patients. Although this has been known for years, research focusing on alpha cell (patho)physiology has historically been dwarfed by research on beta cells and insulin. Today the mechanisms behind type 2 diabetic hyperglucagonemia...... or antagonization of the glucagon receptor constitutes potentially effective treatment strategies for patients with type 2 diabetes. In this review, we focus on the regulation of glucagon secretion by the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GIP. Furthermore, potential advantages and limitations...

  15. Type idéal

    Paugam, Serge

    2014-01-01

    L’usage de types idéaux constitue pour Max Weber une démarche sociologique fondamentale. Le type idéal est pour lui un moyen de comprendre le sens que les individus donnent à leurs expériences vécues, ce qui conduit à mettre ces dernières en relation avec l’organisation de la société à un moment historique de son évolution. Définir un type idéal ne signifie pas repérer sa forme majoritaire d’un point de vue statistique, mais discerner à partir des formes historiques des sociétés contemporaine...

  16. On Simulating Type Ia Supernovae

    Type Ia supernovae are bright stellar explosions distinguished by standardizable light curves that allow for their use as distance indicators for cosmological studies. Despite their highly successful use in this capacity, the progenitors of these events are incompletely understood. We describe simulating type Ia supernovae in the paradigm of a thermonuclear runaway occurring in a massive white dwarf star. We describe the multi-scale physical processes that realistic models must incorporate and the numerical models for these that we employ. In particular, we describe a flame-capturing scheme that addresses the problem of turbulent thermonuclear combustion on unresolved scales. We present the results of our study of the systematics of type Ia supernovae including trends in brightness following from properties of the host galaxy that agree with observations. We also present performance results from simulations on leadership-class architectures.

  17. Clostridium perfringens Type C Enterotoxemia.

    Niilo, L

    1988-08-01

    Forms of enteric disease caused by Clostridium perfringens type C are critically reviewed with emphasis on practical aspects and recent research findings. Available data indicate that more animal species may be fatally infected by type C of this organism than by any other type of C. perfringens. Fatal cases have been recorded in pigs, cattle, sheep, horses and humans. Newborn animals are typically the most susceptible, possibly related to aspects of bacterial colonization, intestinal digestive functions, and to some other, unexplained, factors. Both beta toxin and the bacterial cells are required to initiate pathogenesis at the tips of jejunal villi, and subsequent massive adherence of these cells to necrotic mucosa is a characteristic feature. Although major lesions occur in the intestine, death is due to toxemia. The disease can be effectively controlled by vaccination of the dam. Epizootiology of this disease is a possible area for further studies. PMID:17423103

  18. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    In this paper we prove that the class of distributions on the positive reals with a rational Laplace transform, also known as matrix-exponential distributions, is closed under formation of moment distributions. In particular, the results are hence valid for the well known class of phase-type dist......In this paper we prove that the class of distributions on the positive reals with a rational Laplace transform, also known as matrix-exponential distributions, is closed under formation of moment distributions. In particular, the results are hence valid for the well known class of phase......-type distributions. We construct representations for moment distributions based on a general matrix-exponential distribution which turns out to be a generalization of the moment distributions based on exponential distributions. For moment distributions based on phase{type distributions we find an appropriate...

  19. Type-II Weyl semimetals

    Soluyanov, Alexey; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Quansheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, Andrei

    The Dirac equation of quantum field theory gives rise to massless Weyl fermions that respect Lorentz invariance. In condensed matter these fermions are realized as low energy excitations in Weyl semimetals. In these materials a topologically protected linear crossing of two bands, called a Weyl point, occurs at the Fermi level resulting in a point-like Fermi surface. Lorentz invariance, however, can be violated in condensed matter, and here we generalize the Dirac equation accordingly to obtain a fundamentally new kind of Weyl fermions. In particular, we report on a novel type of Weyl semimetal, with a new type of Weyl point that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets. This node, although still a protected crossing, has an open, not point-like, Fermi surface, resulting in physical properties very different from that of standard Weyl points. We show that an established material, WTe2, is an example of this novel type of topological semimetals.

  20. NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE I: CASE REPORT

    Neha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : Neurofibromatosis (NF is a term that has been applied to a variety of related syndromes, characterized by neuro ectodermal tumors arising within multiple organs and autosomal-dominant inheritance. Neurofibromatosis type I(NF-1, known as well as Recklinghausen’s disease, we have presented a case report of 10 year old boy with complain of scalp swelling on right postero-lateral aspect of scalp with multiple flat, hypo pigmented macule on back, neck. On radiology work up including MRI there were multiple plexiform neuroibromas, multiple non-neoplastic hamartomatous lesion suggestive of neurofibromatosis type.

  1. Models for Type I supernovae

    Two rather disjoint scenarios for Type I supernovae are presented. One is based upon mass accretion by a white dwarf in a binary system. The second involves a star having some 8 to 10 times the mass of the sun which may or may not be a solitary star. Despite the apparent dissimilarities in the models it may be that each occurs to some extent in nature for they both share the possibility of producing substantial quantities of 56Ni and explosions in stars devoid of hydrogen envelopes. These are believed to be two properties that must be shared by any viable Type I model

  2. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  3. Novel type-I compactifications

    We argue that there are two distinct classes of type I compactification to four dimensions on any space. These two classes are distinguished in a mysterious way by the presence (or absence) of a discrete 6-form potential. In simple examples, duality suggests that the new class of compactifications have reduced numbers of moduli. We also point out analogous discrete choices in M, F and type II compactifications, including some with G2 holonomy. These choices often result in spaces with frozen singularities. (author)

  4. Discrete Hilbert-Type Inequalities

    Yang, Bicheng

    2011-01-01

    Discrete Hilbert-type inequalities including Hilbert's inequality are important in mathematical analysis and its applications. In 1998, the author presented an extension of Hilbert's integral inequality with an independent parameter. In 2004, some new extensions of Hilbert's inequality were presented by introducing two pairs of conjugate exponents and additional independent parameters. Since then, a number of new discrete Hilbert-type inequalities have arisen. In this book, the author explains how to use the way of weight coefficients and introduce specific parameters to build new discrete Hil

  5. Blood metals concentration in type 1 and type 2 diabetics.

    Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice; Peruzzu, Angela; Tolu, Francesco; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Oggiano, Riccardo; Madeddu, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms for the onset of diabetes and the development of diabetic complications remain under extensive investigations. One of these mechanisms is abnormal homeostasis of metals, as either deficiency or excess of metals, can contribute to certain diabetic outcomes. Therefore, this paper will report the blood levels of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 192, mean age 48.8 years, mean disease duration 20.6 years), type 2 diabetes (n = 68, mean age 68.4 years, mean disease duration 10.2 years), and in control subjects (n = 59, mean age 57.2 years), and discuss the results indicating their possible role in diabetes. The metal concentrations were measured by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-induced acid digestion of blood samples. The accuracy was checked using a blood-based certified reference material, and recoveries of all elements were in the range of 92-101 % of certified values. Type 1 diabetes was found to be associated with Cr (p = 0.02), Mn (p < 0.001), Ni (p < 0.001), Pb (p = 0.02), and Zn (p < 0.001) deficiency, and type 2 diabetes with Cr (p = 0.014), Mn (p < 0.001), and Ni (p < 0.001) deficiency. These deficiencies were appreciated also subdividing the understudied patients for gender and age groups. Furthermore, in type 1 diabetes, there was a positive correlation between Pb and age (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.400) and Pb and BMI (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.309), while a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.002, ρ = -0.218). In type 2 diabetes, there was a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.017, ρ = -0.294) and Fe and BMI (p = 0.026, ρ = -0.301). Thus, these elements may play a role in both forms of diabetes and combined mineral supplementations could have beneficial effects. PMID:24222606

  6. Magnesium and type 2 diabetes

    Mario; Barbagallo; Ligia; J; Dominguez

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with both extracellular and intracellular magnesium(Mg) deficits. A chronic latent Mg deficit or an overt clinical hypomagnesemia is common in patients with type 2 diabetes, especially in those with poorly controlled glycemic profiles. Insulinand glucose are important regulators of Mg metabolism. Intracellular Mg plays a key role in regulating insulin action, insulin-mediated-glucose-uptake and vascular tone. Reduced intracellular Mg concentrations result in a defective tyrosine-kinase activity, postreceptorial impairment in insulin action and worsening of insulin resistance in diabetic patients. A low Mg intake and an increased Mg urinary loss appear the most important mechanisms that may favor Mg depletion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Low dietary Mg intake has been related to the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Benefits of Mg supplementation on metabolic profiles in diabetic patients have been found in most, but not all clinical studies and larger prospective studies are needed to support the potential role of dietary Mg supplementation as a possible public health strategy in diabetes risk. The aim of this review is to revise current evidence on the mechanisms of Mg deficiency in diabetes and on the possible role of Mg supplementation in the prevention and management of the disease.

  7. Type Inference of Turbo Pascal

    Hougaard, Ole Ildsgaard; Schwartzbach, Michael I; Askari, Hosein

    1995-01-01

    Type inference is generally thought of as being an exclusive property of the functional programming paradigm. We argue that such a feature may be of significant benefit for also standard imperative languages. We present a working tool (available by WWW) providing these benefits for a full version...

  8. Outcome in tyrosinaemia type II.

    Barr, D G; Kirk, J. M.; Laing, S C

    1991-01-01

    Tyrosinaemia type II was diagnosed in a boy with failure to thrive and in his sister on neonatal screening. On diet the outcome, at 12 and 10 years respectively, has been excellent in respect of oculocutaneous sequelae, growth, and psychomotor development, contrasting with the generally unfavourable outcome in most reported cases.

  9. High conversion burner type reactor

    Purpose: To simply and easily dismantle and reassemble densified fuel assemblies taken out of a high conversion ratio area thereby improve the neutron and fuel economy. Constitution: The burner portion for the purpose of fuel combustion is divided into a first burner region in adjacent with the high conversion ratio area at the center of the reactor core, and a second burner region formed to the outer circumference thereof and two types of fuels are charged therein. Densified fuel assemblies charged in the high conversion ratio area are separatably formed as fuel assemblies for use in the two types of burners. In this way, dense fuel assembly is separated into two types of fuel assemblies for use in burner of different number and arranging density of fuel elements which can be directly charged to the burner portion and facilitate the dismantling and reassembling of the fuel assemblies. Further, since the two types of fuel assemblies are charged in the burner portion, utilization factor for the neutron fuels can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis -NPS 2 Type

    Das Jayanta Kumar

    2004-01-01

    A case of bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis or EHK) with some unusual features is described. It was diagnosed in a 6 month old girl with no family history of either EHK or focal lesions suggestive of mosaicism. The girl probably had EHK type NPS-2; but non-involvement of face and lack of foul body odor set the case apart.