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Sample records for actinomycete salinispora tropica

  1. Genome sequencing reveals complex secondary metabolome in themarine actinomycete Salinispora tropica

    Udwary, Daniel W.; Zeigler, Lisa; Asolkar, Ratnakar; Singan,Vasanth; Lapidus, Alla; Fenical, William; Jensen, Paul R.; Moore, BradleyS.

    2007-05-01

    Recent fermentation studies have identified actinomycetes ofthe marine-dwelling genus Salinispora as prolific natural productproducers. To further evaluate their biosynthetic potential, we analyzedall identifiable secondary natural product gene clusters from therecently sequenced 5,184,724 bp S. tropica CNB-440 circular genome. Ouranalysis shows that biosynthetic potential meets or exceeds that shown byprevious Streptomyces genome sequences as well as other naturalproduct-producing actinomycetes. The S. tropica genome features ninepolyketide synthase systems of every known formally classified family,non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and several hybrid clusters. While afew clusters appear to encode molecules previously identified inStreptomyces species,the majority of the 15 biosynthetic loci are novel.Specific chemical information about putative and observed natural productmolecules is presented and discussed. In addition, our bioinformaticanalysis was critical for the structure elucidation of the novelpolyenemacrolactam salinilactam A. This study demonstrates the potentialfor genomic analysis to complement and strengthen traditional naturalproduct isolation studies and firmly establishes the genus Salinispora asa rich source of novel drug-like molecules.

  2. Genome-scale reconstruction of Salinispora tropica CNB-440 metabolism to study strain-specific adaptation.

    Contador, C A; Rodríguez, V; Andrews, B A; Asenjo, J A

    2015-11-01

    The first manually curated genome-scale metabolic model for Salinispora tropica strain CNB-440 was constructed. The reconstruction enables characterization of the metabolic capabilities for understanding and modeling the cellular physiology of this actinobacterium. The iCC908 model was based on physiological and biochemical information of primary and specialised metabolism pathways. The reconstructed stoichiometric matrix consists of 1169 biochemical conversions, 204 transport reactions and 1317 metabolites. A total of 908 structural open reading frames (ORFs) were included in the reconstructed network. The number of gene functions included in the reconstructed network corresponds to 20% of all characterized ORFs in the S. tropica genome. The genome-scale metabolic model was used to study strain-specific capabilities in defined minimal media. iCC908 was used to analyze growth capabilities in 41 different minimal growth-supporting environments. These nutrient sources were evaluated experimentally to assess the accuracy of in silico growth simulations. The model predicted no auxotrophies for essential amino acids, which was corroborated experimentally. The strain is able to use 21 different carbon sources, 8 nitrogen sources and 4 sulfur sources from the nutrient sources tested. Experimental observation suggests that the cells may be able to store sulfur. False predictions provided opportunities to gain new insights into the physiology of this species, and to gap fill the missing knowledge. The incorporation of modifications led to increased accuracy in predicting the outcome of growth/no growth experiments from 76 to 93%. iCC908 can thus be used to define the metabolic capabilities of S. tropica and guide and enhance the production of specialised metabolites. PMID:26459337

  3. Bioactivity-guided genome mining reveals the lomaiviticin biosynthetic gene cluster in Salinispora tropica

    Kersten, Roland D.; Lane, Amy L.; Nett, Markus; Richter, Taylor K. S.; Duggan, Brendan M.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of genome sequences has become routine in guiding the discovery and identification of microbial natural products and their biosynthetic pathways. In silico prediction of molecular features, such as metabolic building blocks, physico-chemical properties or biological functions, from orphan gene clusters has opened up the characterization of many new chemo- and genotypes in genome mining approaches. Here, we guided our genome mining of two predicted enediyne pathways in Salinispora trop...

  4. Multilocus Sequence Typing Reveals Evidence of Homologous Recombination Linked to Antibiotic Resistance in the Genus Salinispora

    Freel, Kelle C.; Millán-Aguiñaga, Natalie; Jensen, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    The three closely related species that currently comprise the genus Salinispora were analyzed using a multilocus sequence typing approach targeting 48 strains derived from four geographic locations. Phylogenetic congruence and a well-supported concatenated tree provide strong support for the delineation of the three species as currently described and the basal relationship of Salinispora arenicola to the more recently diverged sister taxa S. tropica and S. pacifica. The phylogeny of the i...

  5. Marine actinomycetes: a new source of compounds against the human malaria parasite.

    Jacques Prudhomme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria continues to be a devastating parasitic disease that causes the death of 2 million individuals annually. The increase in multi-drug resistance together with the absence of an efficient vaccine hastens the need for speedy and comprehensive antimalarial drug discovery and development. Throughout history, traditional herbal remedies or natural products have been a reliable source of antimalarial agents, e.g. quinine and artemisinin. Today, one emerging source of small molecule drug leads is the world's oceans. Included among the source of marine natural products are marine microorganisms such as the recently described actinomycete. Members of the genus Salinispora have yielded a wealth of new secondary metabolites including salinosporamide A, a molecule currently advancing through clinical trials as an anticancer agent. Because of the biological activity of metabolites being isolated from marine microorganisms, our group became interested in exploring the potential efficacy of these compounds against the malaria parasite. METHODS: We screened 80 bacterial crude extracts for their activity against malaria growth. We established that the pure compound, salinosporamide A, produced by the marine actinomycete, Salinispora tropica, shows strong inhibitory activity against the erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle. Biochemical experiments support the likely inhibition of the parasite 20S proteasome. Crystal structure modeling of salinosporamide A and the parasite catalytic 20S subunit further confirm this hypothesis. Ultimately we showed that salinosporamide A protected mice against deadly malaria infection when administered at an extremely low dosage. CONCLUSION: These findings underline the potential of secondary metabolites, derived from marine microorganisms, to inhibit Plasmodium growth. More specifically, we highlight the effect of proteasome inhibitors such as salinosporamide A on in vitro and in vivo parasite development

  6. Comparative genomics reveals evidence of marine adaptation in Salinispora species

    Penn Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacteria represent a consistent component of most marine bacterial communities yet little is known about the mechanisms by which these Gram-positive bacteria adapt to life in the marine environment. Here we employed a phylogenomic approach to identify marine adaptation genes in marine Actinobacteria. The focus was on the obligate marine actinomycete genus Salinispora and the identification of marine adaptation genes that have been acquired from other marine bacteria. Results Functional annotation, comparative genomics, and evidence of a shared evolutionary history with bacteria from hyperosmotic environments were used to identify a pool of more than 50 marine adaptation genes. An Actinobacterial species tree was used to infer the likelihood of gene gain or loss in accounting for the distribution of each gene. Acquired marine adaptation genes were associated with electron transport, sodium and ABC transporters, and channels and pores. In addition, the loss of a mechanosensitive channel gene appears to have played a major role in the inability of Salinispora strains to grow following transfer to low osmotic strength media. Conclusions The marine Actinobacteria for which genome sequences are available are broadly distributed throughout the Actinobacterial phylogenetic tree and closely related to non-marine forms suggesting they have been independently introduced relatively recently into the marine environment. It appears that the acquisition of transporters in Salinispora spp. represents a major marine adaptation while gene loss is proposed to play a role in the inability of this genus to survive outside of the marine environment. This study reveals fundamental differences between marine adaptations in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and no common genetic basis for marine adaptation among the Actinobacteria analyzed.

  7. Marine actinomycetes from Madeira Archipelago preliminary taxonomic studies

    Ilda Santos Sanches

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The oceans cover 70 % of the Earth´s surface and harbor most of the planet´s biodiversity. However the microbiological component of this diversity remains relatively unexplored. Marine actinomycetes, are a robust resource of chemically prolific novelty. Producing structurally unique biological active secondary metabolites, generating a valuable source for innovative biotechnology and drug discovery[1,2]. As a consequence, the ecological role of actinomycetes and their marine ecosystems may no longer be neglected. It is crucial to move our research efforts into ocean regions for which we know little or nothing about the indigenous microbial diversity. The Portuguese Archipelago, Madeira is located in the Macaronesian Atlantic region, emerging from the African tectonic plate, found in the extreme south of the Tore-Madeira ridge, has a unique biogeography and biodiversity. These distinctive characteristics combined with the fact that Madeira have never been explored, as far as indigenous marine actinomycetes are concerned, makes it from the scientific point of view, the perfect target for our studies. From 662 marine sediment samples collected along Madeira Archipelago (Figure 1 during June of 2012, covering depths from 10-1310 m, a total of 421 actinomycete strains were isolated. In a previous study, an assemblage of 82 strains was selected for taxonomic identification, having into account representative morphological diversity characteristics of the actinomycetes, isolated from Madeira Archipelago. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, it was observed that the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora and Salinispora were predominant, 81% [3]. Additionally, in a recent study, our team selected 168 strains with Salinispora look-alike morphological features. From these 28 strains were identified as belonging to the seawater-obligate marine actinomycete genus Salinispora. Representing the first report of Salinispora spp. in the Macaronesian Atlantic Ocean

  8. Production and purification of a bioactive substance against multi-drug resistant human pathogens from the marine-sponge-derived Salinispora sp.

    Satyendra Singh; Pritesh Prasad; Ramesh Subramani; William Aalbersberg

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To isolate, purify, characterize, elucidate structure and evaluate bioactive compounds from the sponge-derived Salinispora sp. FS-0034. Methods: The symbiotic actinomycete strain FS-0034 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from the Fijian marine sponge Theonella sp. Based on colony morphology and obligatory requirement of seawater for growth, and mycelia morphological characteristics the isolate FS-0034 was identified as a Salinispora sp. The bioactive compound was identified by using various spectral analysis of ultraviolet, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, correlated spectroscopy and heteronuclear multiple bond coherence spectral data. A minimum inhibitory concentration assay were performed to evaluate the biological properties of the pure compound against multi-drug resistant pathogens. Results: Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the culture of Salinispora sp. FS-0034 by different chromatographic methods yielded the isolation of an antibacterial compound, which was identified as rifamycin W (compound 1). Rifamycin W was reported for its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, wild typeStaphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and displayed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 15.62, 7.80 and 250.00 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions:The present study reported the rifamycin W from sponge-associated Salinispora sp. and it exhibited appreciable antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens which indicated that sponge-associated Actinobacteria are significant sources of bioactive metabolites.

  9. Production and purification of a bioactive substance against multi-drug resistant human pathogens from the marine-sponge-derived Salinispora sp.

    Satyendra; Singh; Pritesh; Prasad; Ramesh; Subramani; William; Aalbersberg

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To isolate,purify,characterize,elucidate structure and evaluate bioactive compounds from the sponge-derived Salinispora sp.FS-0034.Methods:The symbiotic actinomycete strain FS-0034 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from the Fijian marine sponge Theonella sp.Based on colony morphology and obligatory requirement of seawater for growth,and mycelia morphological characteristics the isolate FS-0034 was identified as a Salinispora sp.The bioactive compound was identified by using various spectral analysis of ultraviolet,high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy,H nuclear magnetic resonance,correlated spectroscopy and heteronuclear multiple bond coherence spectral data.A minimum inhibitory concentration assay were performed to evaluate the biological properties of the pure compound against multi-drug resistant pathogens.Results:Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the culture of Salinispora sp.FS-0034 by different chromatographic methods yielded the isolation of an antibacterial compound,which was identified as rifamycin W(compound 1).Rifamycin W was reported for its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,wild type Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and displayed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 15.62,7.80 and 250.00 μg/mL,respectively.Conclusions:The present study reported the rifamycin W from sponge-associated Salinispora sp.and it exhibited appreciable antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens which indicated that sponge-associated Actinobacteria are significant sources of bioactive metabolites.

  10. Structures and comparative characterization of biosynthetic gene clusters for cyanosporasides, enediyne-derived natural products from marine actinomycetes

    Lane, Amy L.; Nam, Sang Jip; Fukuda, Takashi; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Kauffman, Christopher A.; Jensen, Paul R; Fenical, William; Moore, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanosporasides are marine bacterial natural products containing a chlorinated cyclopenta[a]indene core of suspected enediyne polyketide biosynthetic origin. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of novel cyanosporasides C–F (3–6) from the marine actinomycetesSalinispora pacifica” CNS-143 and Streptomyces sp. CNT-179, highlighted by the unprecedented C-2' N-acetylcysteamine functionalized hexose group of 6. Cloning, sequencing, and mutagenesis of homologous ~50 kb cyanosporas...

  11. Herbal extract targets in Leishmania tropica.

    Mohammad, Bassim I; Al Shammary, Maani N; Abdul Mageed, Roaa H; Yousif, Nasser Ghaly

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of some herbal extract such as phenolic compounds on the viability of Leishmania tropica promastigotes in vitro. Four tested chemical agents (caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), syringic acid (SA) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA)) were used in this study. The viability of Leishmania tropica promastigotes was investigated under five different concentrations (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg/ml) of each agent after (72 h). CA was the most active agent on the promastigotes viability after 72 h exposure to 30 mg/ml concentration so that the parasiticidal effect reach (53 × 10(4)) promastigote/ml. FA is the second agent in parasiticidal effect that parasiticidal effect reach to (50 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml), 4-HBA is the third agent in parasiticidal effect that reach to (48 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml), SA is the weakest agent in parasiticidal activity that reach to (44 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml). It can be concluded that (CA, FA, SA and 4-HBA) possess acidal effect on the Leishmania tropica promastigotes in vitro. PMID:26688631

  12. Leishmania tropica infection in golden jackals and red foxes, Israel.

    Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Kedem-Vaanunu, Noa; King, Roni; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Edery, Nir; Jaffe, Charles L; Baneth, Gad

    2010-12-01

    During a survey of wild canids, internal transcribed spacer 1 real-time PCR and high-resolution melt analysis identified Leishmania tropica in samples from jackals and foxes. Infection was most prevalent in ear and spleen samples. Jackals and foxes may play a role in the spread of zoonotic L. tropica. PMID:21122235

  13. Natural Products from Mangrove Actinomycetes

    Dong-Bo Xu; Wan-Wan Ye; Ying Han; Zi-Xin Deng; Kui Hong

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. The mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for natural product discovery and bioactivity survey. Diverse mangrove actinomycetes as promising and productive sources are worth being explored and uncovered. At the time of writing, we report 73 novel compounds and 49 known compounds isolated from mangrove actinomycetes including alkaloids, benzene derivatives, cyclopentenone derivatives, dilactones, macr...

  14. Bioactive compounds from marine actinomycetes

    Solanki, Renu; Khanna, Monisha; Lal, Rup

    2008-01-01

    Actinomycetes are one of the most efficient groups of secondary metabolite producers and are very important from an industrial point of view. Among its various genera, Streptomyces, Saccharopolyspora, Amycolatopsis, Micromonospora and Actinoplanes are the major producers of commercially important biomolecules. Several species have been isolated and screened from the soil in the past decades. Consequently the chance of isolating a novel actinomycete strain from a terrestrial habitat, which wou...

  15. A variety of rare actinomycetes in soils

    Actinomycetes are an integral part of a microbic complex of soil. Long time distribution actinomycetes in soils judged by quantity streptomyces, but working out of selective methods of allocation have allowed to reveal actinomycetes of rare sorts Saccharopolyspora, Nocardia etc. in soils to make their ecological characteristics

  16. Attenuation and Production of the Amphotericin B-Resistant Leishmania tropica Strain

    Khan, Imran; Khan, Momin; Umar, Muhammad Naveed; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Infections caused by Leishmania are becoming major public health problems on a global scale. Many species of Leishmania around the world are obtaining resistance levels of up to 15 folds, as estimated by the World Health Organization. Leishmania showing resistance is relatively difficult to observe and maintain in laboratory settings. Objectives The current study deals with the generation of Leishmania tropica strains that are resistant to amphotericin B (amp B). Materials and Methods The L. tropica strain was attenuated using continuous passaging 20 times. The infectivity of L. tropica was confirmed in BALB/c mice. The L. tropica resistant strain was produced in vitro using a continuous increase in drug pressure. The cross resistance of L. tropica to other drugs was also investigated. Results After 20 continuous passages, the BALB/c mice tested negative in the development of leishmaniasis. At a concentration of 0.1 µg/mL, L. tropica showed resistance to amp B. The newly developed promastigotes were 16 times more resistant compared to the resistance of the wild type promastigotes. The resistant L. tropica strain showed cross resistance to itraconazole and had a resistance index that was greater than five. The resistant strain displayed maximum stability for more than three months in the drug-free medium. Conclusions The resistant strain of L. tropica can be produced in laboratories using continuous drug pressure. The attenuated resistant strain has significant implications (both medically and academically) in the ability to overcome resistance.

  17. Discovering the recondite secondary metabolome spectrum of Salinispora species: a study of inter-species diversity.

    Utpal Bose

    Full Text Available Patterns of inter-species secondary metabolite production by bacteria can provide valuable information relating to species ecology and evolution. The complex nature of this chemical diversity has previously been probed via directed analyses of a small number of compounds, identified through targeted assays rather than more comprehensive biochemical profiling approaches such as metabolomics. Insights into ecological and evolutionary relationships within bacterial genera can be derived through comparative analysis of broader secondary metabolite patterns, and this can also eventually assist biodiscovery search strategies for new natural products. Here, we investigated the species-level chemical diversity of the two marine actinobacterial species Salinispora arenicola and Salinispora pacifica, isolated from sponges distributed across the Great Barrier Reef (GBR, via their secondary metabolite profiles using LC-MS-based metabolomics. The chemical profiles of these two species were obtained by UHPLC-QToF-MS based metabolic profiling. The resultant data were interrogated using multivariate data analysis methods to compare their (biochemical profiles. We found a high level of inter-species diversity in strains from these two bacterial species. We also found rifamycins and saliniketals were produced exclusively by S. arenicola species, as the main secondary metabolites differentiating the two species. Furthermore, the discovery of 57 candidate compounds greatly increases the small number of secondary metabolites previously known to be produced by these species. In addition, we report the production of rifamycin O and W, a key group of ansamycin compounds, in S. arenicola for the first time. Species of the marine actinobacteria harbour a much wider spectrum of secondary metabolites than suspected, and this knowledge may prove a rich field for biodiscovery as well as a database for understanding relationships between speciation, evolution and chemical

  18. Sequencing and Gene Expression Analysis of Leishmania tropica LACK Gene.

    Nour Hammoudeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania Homologue of receptors for Activated C Kinase (LACK antigen is a 36-kDa protein, which provokes a very early immune response against Leishmania infection. There are several reports on the expression of LACK through different life-cycle stages of genus Leishmania, but only a few of them have focused on L.tropica.The present study provides details of the cloning, DNA sequencing and gene expression of LACK in this parasite species. First, several local isolates of Leishmania parasites were typed in our laboratory using PCR technique to verify of Leishmania parasite species. After that, LACK gene was amplified and cloned into a vector for sequencing. Finally, the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigotes, was evaluated by Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR technique.The typing result confirmed that all our local isolates belong to L.tropica. LACK gene sequence was determined and high similarity was observed with the sequences of other Leishmania species. Furthermore, the expression of LACK gene in both promastigotes and amastigotes forms was confirmed.Overall, the data set the stage for future studies of the properties and immune role of LACK gene products.

  19. Diversity of Soil Actinomycetes in Yunnan, China

    Xu, L.; Li, Q.; Jiang, C

    1996-01-01

    Since 1978, about 4,200 soil samples have been collected from 22 selected areas of various vegetational and climatic types throughout the province of Yunnan. Actinomycetes of 29 genera were isolated by the methods employed. The correlations between diversity and climate were grouped into tropical, subtropical plateau, cool temperate mountain, and snowy mountain types. Actinomycete populations of the first two types were more complex than were the other ones. Correlations between actinomycete ...

  20. Antitumor compounds from marine actinomycetes.

    Salas, José A.; Carmen Méndez; Carlos Olano

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments used to combat cancer. A great number of antitumor compounds are natural products or their derivatives, mainly produced by microorganisms. In particular, actinomycetes are the producers of a large number of natural products with different biological activities, including antitumor properties. These antitumor compounds belong to several structural classes such as anthracyclines, enediynes, indolocarbazoles, isoprenoides, macrolides, non-ribosomal pept...

  1. In Vitro and In Vivo Antileishmanial Effects of Pistacia khinjuk against Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major

    Behrouz Ezatpour; Ebrahim Saedi Dezaki; Hossein Mahmoudvand; Mojgan Azadpour; Fatemeh Ezzatkhah

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks (Anacardiaceae) alcoholic extract and to compare its efficacy with a reference drug, meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime), against Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. This extract (0–100 µg/mL) was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of L. tropica (MRHO/IR/75/ER) and then tested on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in male BALB/c mice with ...

  2. Characterization of a Leishmania tropica antigen that detects immune responses in Desert Storm viscerotropic leishmaniasis patients.

    Dillon, D C; Day, C H; Whittle, J A; Magill, A J; Reed, S G

    1995-01-01

    A chronic debilitating parasitic infection, viscerotropic leishmaniasis (VTL), has been described in Operation Desert Storm veterans. Diagnosis of this disease, caused by Leishmania tropica, has been difficult due to low or absent specific immune responses in traditional assays. We report the cloning and characterization of two genomic fragments encoding portions of a single 210-kDa L. tropica protein useful for the diagnosis of VTL in U.S. military personnel. The recombinant proteins encoded...

  3. Actinomycetes and Fungi in Surface Waters and in Potable Water

    Niemi, R. Maarit; Knuth, Sisko; Lundström, Kenneth

    1982-01-01

    In Finnish lakes and rivers used as water supplies, mesophilic fungi and actinomycetes were common, whereas thermophilic fungi and actinomycetes were present only in low concentrations. Fungi and actinomycetes were more abundant in eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes than in oligotrophic lakes. River water contained more thermophilic actinomycetes and fungi and mesophilic actinomycetes than did lake water. Runoff from soil seemed to be an important factor contributing to the incidence of these mi...

  4. Therapeutically Active Biomolecules from Marine Actinomycetes

    Mani Jayaprakashvel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the past few centuries, the biological sources of terrestrial origin have been explored and exploited for bioactive metabolites. This has resulted in the stagnancy of discovering either novel compounds or compounds with novel bioactivities. Thus, researchers across the globe have started exploring our big Oceans, for the search of bioactive metabolites. During the past few decades, the research on bioactive metabolites from marine biological resources has geared up and among the sources marine actinomycetes are proved to be best. Marine actinomycetes, the filamentous bacteria from marine environment have been intensively studied for bioactive metabolites. The biological diversity of marine actinomycetes was found to be enormous, thanks to culture dependent and culture independent biodiversity approaches. This great diversity of marine actinomycetes has offered greater chemical diversity. The diverse chemical compounds of marine actinomycetes have been found to have various biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-malarial, anti-algal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory etc. These various bioactive metabolites of marine actinomycetes are having scope for developing as potent therapeutic agents. The potential of marine actinomycetes is rightly realized though the current biological wealth of these organisms isrelatively unexplored.

  5. Isolation of Cellulolytic Actinomycetes from Marine Sediments

    Veiga, Manuel; Esparis, Azucena; Fabregas, Jaime

    1983-01-01

    The cellulolytic activity of 36 actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments was investigated by the cellulose-azure method. Approximately 50% of the isolates exhibited various degrees of cellulolytic activity.

  6. Novel method for selective isolation of actinomycetes.

    Hirsch, C F; Christensen, D L

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for the selective isolation of actinomycetes from natural mixed microbial populations is described. A nutrient agar medium was overlaid with a 0.22- to 0.45-microns-pore cellulose ester membrane filter, and the surface of the filter was inoculated. During incubation, the branched mycelia of the actinomycetes penetrated the filter pores to the underlying agar medium, whereas growth of nonactinomycete bacteria was restricted to the filter surface. The membrane filter was removed...

  7. NOVEL BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM MANGROVE DERIVED ACTINOMYCETES

    Kumari Amrita; Jain Nitin; Subathra Devi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove is most productive and unexplored ecosystem that approximately covers one fourth of world coastline with high diversity of thriving organism. Recently the rate of isolation of novel bioactive compounds from microorganism living in mangrove forest has tremendously increased which is reflected in significant hasten for exploration of mangrove actinomycetes. Actinomycetes are group of bacteria which are extremely interesting as active producers of many primary and secondary metabolites....

  8. ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF FRESH WATER ACTINOMYCETES

    Gunda Madan Mohan; Singara Charya, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Fresh water systems represent a largely untapped source for isolation of novel microorganisms. Gram-positive actinomycetes are of special interest, since they are known to produce chemically diverse compounds with wide range of biological activities. Twenty four actinomycetes with distinct characteristics were isolated from three freshwater systems of Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh, India viz: Lower Manair Dam, Manakondur Pond and Kothapally Pond. These isolates were screened for their antagonist...

  9. Elicitation of secondary metabolism in actinomycetes

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Grkovic, Tanja; Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Quinn, Ronald J.; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Genomic sequence data have revealed the presence of a large fraction of putatively silent biosynthetic gene clusters in the genomes of actinomycetes that encode for secondary metabolites, which are not detected under standard fermentation conditions. This review focuses on the effects of biological (co-cultivation), chemical, as well as molecular elicitation on secondary metabolism in actinomycetes. Our review covers the literature until June 2014 and exemplifies the diversity of natural prod...

  10. Exposure of water consumers to mesophilic actinomycetes.

    Ojanen, T H; Katila, M. L.; Mäntyjärvi, R.; Seppänen, H.; Muittari, A; Kuusisto, P.; Virtanen, P.

    1983-01-01

    In autumn 1978 an epidemic of respiratory disease resembling allergic alveolitis occurred in a small Finnish community. The disease was caused by repeated exposures to tap water aerosol. The raw water of the community and the sand filters of the purification system were heavily contaminated with mesophilic actinomycetes. Fourteen different strains of actinomycetes were isolated. Exposed persons with and without symptoms as well as unexposed control persons were tested for antibodies against f...

  11. In vitro efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy against Leishmania tropica promastigotes and amastigotes

    KORU, Özgür; ÖZKOÇ, Soykan; ŞİMŞEK, Kemal; Mert, Gürkan; Ay, Hakan; TÖZ, Seray; TANYÜKSEL, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess the efficiency of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on L. tropica, which is the major causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkey. Materials and methods: The effects of HBO on Leishmania tropica promastigote and amastigote forms were studied at a pressure of 2.5 atmosphere absolute (ata). We examined the cytotoxic effect of HBO on promastigotes using the trypan blue exclusion test and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye-reduction a...

  12. ISOLATION AND DIVERSITY OF ACTINOMYCETES IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY

    Chesapeake Bay was investigated as a source of actinomycetes to creen for production of novel bioactive compounds. he presence of relatively large populations of actinoplanetes, chemotype IID actinomycetes in Chesapeake Bay sediment samples indicates that is an eminently suitable...

  13. Isolation and Diversity of Actinomycetes in the Chesapeake Bay †

    Takizawa, Masayuki; Colwell, Rita R.; Hill, Russell T.

    1993-01-01

    Chesapeake Bay was investigated as a source of actinomycetes to screen for production of novel bioactive compounds. The presence of relatively large populations of actinoplanetes (chemotype II/D actinomycetes) in Chesapeake Bay sediment samples indicates that it is an eminently suitable ecosystem from which to isolate actinomycetes for screening programs. Actinomycetes were isolated from sediment samples collected in Chesapeake Bay with an isolation medium containing nalidixic acid, which pro...

  14. Lipophosphoglycan and secreted acid phosphatase of Leishmania tropica share species-specific epitopes.

    Jaffe, C L; Perez, L; Schnur, L F

    1990-06-01

    Several species-specific monoclonal antibodies (T11, T13-T15) which only react with Leishmania tropica, recognize phosphorlated carbohydrate epitopes on lipophosphoglycan and the structurally related molecule, phosphoglycan, which is shed by promastigotes into spent culture medium. During immunoaffinity isolation of [32P]orthophosphate-labeled phosphoglycan on monoclonal antibody T15 conjugated to Sepharose 4B, a high-Mr component (approx. 200,000) was co-purified. The latter material is metabolically labeled with [35S]methionine and [3H]glucosamine. This glycoprotein was separated from phosphoglycan by chromatography on lentil lectin resin. The glycoprotein exhibited a L-tatrate-sensitive acid phosphatase activity, typical of secreted acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) from Leishmania. Monospecific antibodies to Leishmania donovani-secreted acid phosphatase selectively precipitated the L. tropica enzyme from immunoaffinity purified mixtures of the two antigens, and monoclonal antibodies to lipophosphoglycan precipitate the pure enzyme. Species-specific monoclonal antibodies to L. major lipophosphoglycan also recognized both L. tropica antigens. Treatment of the acid phosphatase with periodate or phosphodiesterase I abolished binding by the monoclonal antibodies to the pure enzyme. These results demonstrate that the two major secreted glycoconjugates of Leishmania tropica, the lipophosphoglycan and the acid phosphatase, share species-specific phosphorylated carbohydrate epitope(s). PMID:1697935

  15. Mapping the genes for susceptibility and response to Leishmania tropica in mouse

    Sohrabi, Yahya; Havelková, Helena; Kobets, Tetyana; Šíma, Matyáš; Volkova, Valeriya; Grekov, Igor; Jarošíková, T.; Kurey, Irina; Vojtíšková, Jarmila; Svobodová, M.; Demant, P.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 7 (2013), s. 1-17. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/08/1697; GA MŠk LH12049 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Leishmania tropica * gene controlling susceptibility * host-parasite interactions * leishmaniasis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.489, year: 2013

  16. LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Study of Marine Bacterial Secondary Metabolite and Antibiotic Production in Salinispora arenicola

    Utpal Bose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An LC-MS-based metabolomics approach was used to characterise the variation in secondary metabolite production due to changes in the salt content of the growth media as well as across different growth periods (incubation times. We used metabolomics as a tool to investigate the production of rifamycins (antibiotics and other secondary metabolites in the obligate marine actinobacterial species Salinispora arenicola, isolated from Great Barrier Reef (GBR sponges, at two defined salt concentrations and over three different incubation periods. The results indicated that a 14 day incubation period is optimal for the maximum production of rifamycin B, whereas rifamycin S and W achieve their maximum concentration at 29 days. A “chemical profile” link between the days of incubation and the salt concentration of the growth medium was shown to exist and reliably represents a critical point for selection of growth medium and harvest time.

  17. Actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of semidesert soils of Mongolia

    Norovsuren, Zh.; Zenova, G. M.; Mosina, L. V.

    2007-04-01

    The population density of actinomycetes in the desert-steppe soil, rhizosphere, and the above-ground parts of plants varies from tens to hundreds of thousands of colony-forming units (CFU) per gram of substrate. The actinomycetal complexes of the brown desert-steppe soil without plant roots are more diverse in their taxonomic composition than the actinomycetal complexes in the rhizosphere and the aboveground parts of plants. Additionally to representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, actinomycetes from the Nocardia, Saccharopolyspora, Thermomonospora, and Actinomadura genera were identified in the soil. The population density of actinomycetes in the rhizosphere and in the soil reached hundreds of thousand CFU/g; it considerably exceeded the population density of actinomycetes in the aboveground parts of plants. The maximum population density of actinomycetes was determined in the rhizosphere of Asparagus gobicus, Salsola pestifera, and Cleistogenes songorica.

  18. Isolation of actinomycetes from cervical specimens.

    Traynor, R M; Parratt, D; Duguid, H L; Duncan, I D

    1981-01-01

    Cervical smears from 30 women were examined. Fifteen of these had actinomycetes visible by direct smear examination and the organisms were isolated in 13. Of the remainder, all had negative smears and culture was similarly negative in 12, whilst in 3, the cultures were either positive (1) or suspicious (2).

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium Paraburkholderia tropica Strain P-31 Isolated from Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Rhizosphere.

    Kaur, Chandandeep; Selvakumar, Govindan; Ganeshamurthy, Arakalgud Nanjundiah

    2016-01-01

    We report the 8.9 Mb draft genome sequence of phosphate-solubilizing bacterium Paraburkholderia tropica strain P-31, isolated from pomegranate (Punica granatum) rhizosphere. The draft genome sequence of Paraburkholderia tropica strain P-31 consists of 8,881,246 bp with a G+C content of 64.7%, 8,039 protein-coding genes, and 49 RNAs. PMID:27540068

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Antileishmanial Effects of Pistacia khinjuk against Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major.

    Ezatpour, Behrouz; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Azadpour, Mojgan; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks (Anacardiaceae) alcoholic extract and to compare its efficacy with a reference drug, meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime), against Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. This extract (0-100 µg/mL) was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of L. tropica (MRHO/IR/75/ER) and then tested on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in male BALB/c mice with L. major to reproduce the antileishmanial activity topically. In vitro, P. khinjuk extract significantly (P vera extract had in vitro and in vivo effectiveness against L. major. Obtained findings also provide the scientific evidences that natural plants could be used in the traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of CL. PMID:25815025

  1. Disseminated Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania Tropica in a Puppy from Karaj, Central Iran

    M Mohebali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month old puppy with muco-cutaneous lesions in the chin, around lips and eyes was exam­ined physically and microscopically for leishmaniasis. Muco-cutaneous lesions containing a large num­ber of amastigotes of Leishmania spp. were observed. Amastigotes were also detected in liver and spleen of the puppy. The animal was positive with Dipstick rK39 kit and high level of anti-Leishmania antibodies was detected by direct agglutination test (DAT. DNA, Using PCR-RFLP technique extracted from cultured Leishmania promastigotes and L. tropica was identified. This is the first report of concurrent mucosal and visceral involvement of L. tropica in a puppy from Iran.

  2. In Vitro and In Vivo Antileishmanial Effects of Pistacia khinjuk against Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major

    Behrouz Ezatpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks (Anacardiaceae alcoholic extract and to compare its efficacy with a reference drug, meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime, against Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. This extract (0–100 µg/mL was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of L. tropica (MRHO/IR/75/ER and then tested on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in male BALB/c mice with L. major to reproduce the antileishmanial activity topically. In vitro, P. khinjuk extract significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the growth rate of promastigote (IC50 58.6±3.2 µg/mL and intramacrophage amastigotes (37.3±2.5 µg/mL of L. tropica as a dose-dependent response. In the in vivo assay, after 30 days of treatment, 75% recovery was observed in the infected mice treated with 30% extract. After treatment of the subgroups with the concentration of 20 and 30% of P. khinjuk extract, mean diameter of lesions was significantly (P<0.05 reduced. To conclude, the present investigation demonstrated that P. vera extract had in vitro and in vivo effectiveness against L. major. Obtained findings also provide the scientific evidences that natural plants could be used in the traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of CL.

  3. Characterization of a Leishmania tropica antigen that detects immune responses in Desert Storm viscerotropic leishmaniasis patients.

    Dillon, D C; Day, C H; Whittle, J A; Magill, A J; Reed, S G

    1995-08-15

    A chronic debilitating parasitic infection, viscerotropic leishmaniasis (VTL), has been described in Operation Desert Storm veterans. Diagnosis of this disease, caused by Leishmania tropica, has been difficult due to low or absent specific immune responses in traditional assays. We report the cloning and characterization of two genomic fragments encoding portions of a single 210-kDa L. tropica protein useful for the diagnosis of VTL in U.S. military personnel. The recombinant proteins encoded by these fragments, recombinant (r) Lt-1 and rLt-2, contain a 33-amino acid repeat that reacts with sera from Desert Storm VTL patients and with sera from L. tropica-infected patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Antibody reactivities to rLt-1 indicated a bias toward IgG2 in VTL patient sera. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from VTL patients produced interferon gamma, but not interleukin 4 or 10, in response to rLt-1. No cytokine production was observed in response to parasite lysate. The results indicate that specific leishmanial antigens may be used to detect immune responses in VTL patients with chronic infections. PMID:7644524

  4. Aerobic and microaerophilic actinomycetes of typical agropeat and peat soils

    Zenova, G. M.; Gryadunova, A. A.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2008-02-01

    A high number (from tens of thousands to millions of CFU/g of soil) of actinomycetes and a high diversity of genera were found in typical peat and agropeat soils. Agricultural use increases the number and diversity of the actinomycete complexes of the peat soils. In the peat soils, the actinomycete complex is represented by eight genera: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Saccharopolyspora, Saccharomonospora, and Microtetraspora. A considerable share of sporangial forms in the actinomycete complex of the peat soils not characteristic of the zonal soils was revealed. The number of actinomycetes that develop under aerobic conditions is smaller by 10-100 times than that of aerobic forms in the peat soils. Among the soil actinomycetes of the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, and Microtetraspora, the microaerophilic forms were found; among the Saccharopolyspora and Saccharomonospora, no microaerophilic representatives were revealed.

  5. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIBIOTICS FROM SOIL-ISOLATED ACTINOMYCETES

    Vengadesh prabhu K; Sundaramoorthi C; Gupta Saurabh; Karthick K; Tamilselvi N

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the soil samples were collected from various places in the Coimbatore, near drainage, mud and coloured soil where there were no plants around. Actinomycetes strains were isolated in specific medium using soyabean casein digest (SBCD) medium. These Actinomycetes were screened with regard to potential against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The purified Actinomycetes strains were performed in biochemical tests. Crowded plate technique was used for the isolation o...

  6. Distribution of actinomycetes in near-shore tropical marine sediments.

    Jensen, P R; Dwight, R; Fenical, W.

    1991-01-01

    Actinomycetes were isolated from near-shore marine sediments collected at 15 island locations throughout the Bahamas. A total of 289 actinomycete colonies were observed, and all but 6 could be assigned to the suprageneric groups actinoplanetes and streptomycetes. A bimodal distribution in the actinomycete population in relation to depth was recorded, with the maximum numbers occurring in the shallow and deep sampling sites. This distribution can be accounted for by a rapid decrease in strepto...

  7. Actinomycetes as host cells for production of recombinant proteins

    Tamura Tomohiro; Mitani Yasuo; Nakashima Nobutaka

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Actinomycetes (Actinobacteria) are highly attractive as cell factories or bioreactors for applications in industrial, agricultural, environmental, and pharmaceutical fields. Genome sequencing of several species of actinomycetes has paved the way for biochemical and structural analysis of important proteins and the production of such proteins as recombinants on a commercial scale. In this regard, there is a need for improved expression vectors that will be applicable to actinomycetes....

  8. SCREENING OF HMG CO A REDUCTASE INHIBITOR PRODUCING MARINE ACTINOMYCETES

    SRINU, PHANI BHUSHAN,MOGES, SRILAKSHMI, SANKAR, PRABHAKAR,LAKSHMINARAYANA

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was screening of 3-hydroxy-3- methyl glutaryl Co A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitor producing marine actinomycetes. A total of 65 morphologically different actinomycetes were screened for HMG CoA reductase inhibitor production in a two stage submerged fermentation and evaluated for HMG CoA reductase inhibitor activity by agar diffusion and thin layer chromatography technique using lovostatin as a control. Among 65 marine Actinomycete strains, only one strain pr...

  9. Fermentative production of carotenoids from marine actinomycetes

    B Ashokkumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In marine actinomycetes, carotenoid production occurs in constitutive, light-dependent or cryptic manner. The present work deals with the fermentative production of carotenoids from marine actinomycetes."nMaterials and Methods: Marine actinomycetes namely Streptomyces strain AQBMM35 was isolated from the marine sponge Mycale mytilorum collected from South West coast of India using ISP media. The Streptomyces isolates were characterized for their colony characteristics, morphological properties, physiological and biochemical properties and were tentatively identified. Fermentation of the strain under fluorescent white light was carried out for the production of carotenoids. UV spectrum, TLC and HPLC analysis were done for the confirmation of carotenoids."nResults: The characteristics studied strongly suggest that the strain AQBMM35 belongs to the genus Streptomyces sp. It has been found that Streptomyces strain (AQBMM35 fermenting under fluorescent white light produced carotenoids. Spectrophotometric analysis of the carotenoid fraction revealed a peak at 280 nm. TLC analysis of the carotenoid extract showed the presence of phytoene (Rf of 0.81. HPLC confirmed the production of phytoene when compared with standards."nConclusion: The fermenting sponge-associated Streptomyces isolate (AQBMM35 produced carotenoids namely phytoene. If this symbiotic Streptomyces strain, from which secondary metabolite like carotenoids are derived, can be cultured under light, then it can be used for mass production of precursor pigment and it can be used as an antioxidant and also as a food additive.

  10. Malate dehydrogenases from actinomycetes: structural comparison of Thermoactinomyces enzyme with other actinomycete and Bacillus enzymes.

    Smith, K.; Sundaram, T K; Kernick, M

    1984-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenases from bacteria belonging to the genus Thermoactinomyces are tetrameric, like those from Bacillus spp., and exhibit a high degree of structural homology to Bacillus malate dehydrogenase as judged by immunological cross-reactivity. Malate dehydrogenases from other actinomycetes are dimers and do not cross-react with antibodies to Bacillus malate dehydrogenase.

  11. ACTINOMYCETES: TOLERANCE AGAINST HEAVY METALS AND ANTIBIOTICS

    Smriti Singh, Shruti Pandey and Hotam Singh Chaudhary*

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals can be both, essential as well as toxic for living beings. Micronutrients such as, Co, Fe, Mn have important role to play in living systems whereas, Pb Cd etc. pose harmful effects even at low concentrations. When these heavy metals get accumulated within the tissues of the organisms at various levels of the ecological chain, they cause decrease in the biomass and biological diversity by affecting the growth, morphology and activity of the organisms. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil also causes soil contamination, which can be overcome with the help of bioremediation. A large group of soil bacteria belonging to the Actinomycetes species are exposed to heavy metals in a variety of ways; although, they show resistance to heavy metals. The species of actinomycetes possess resistance for antibiotic synthesis as well. This makes the actinomycetes suitable agents for bioremediation. In this experiment, a total of 20 isolates from Shivpuri region of Madhya Pradesh were tested for the metal tolerance against selected heavy metals. After this, the most tolerant strains were tested to check their antibiotic susceptibility. Metal tolerance was tested by agar well diffusion method and tube dilution method. Out of the 20 isolates, Ash1, Ash 2, Ash 4,Ash 6, Ash 7, Ash 8, Ash 9, Ash 10, Ash 11, Ash 12, Ash 13, Ash 15 were resistant at 10 mM conc. of CuSo4, but their growth was inhibited at higher concentrations of metal salts. Isolates Ash 10, Ash 11, Ash 12, Ash 13, Ash 19, Ash 20 were found to be resistant at 10mM conc. of ZnSO4, but they were also inhibited at higher concentrations. For different concentrations of Pb(CH3COO2 most of the isolates showed same level of tolerance.

  12. Leishmania tropica: the effect of darkness and light on biological activities in vitro.

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga Nehir

    2011-08-01

    Leishmania parasites can be exposed to effects of light in their vectors and hosts, at various periods. However, there is no information about the effects of light on Leishmania parasites. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of light on various cell parameters of Leishmania tropica, in vitro. All experiments were conducted on L. tropica promastigotes and amastigote-macrophage cultures, using flow cytometric analysis, MTT and phenol-sulfuric acid assay, DAPI and Giemsa. The results showed that the morphology of parasites has changed; the cell cycle has been affected and this caused parasites to remain at G0/G1 phase. Furthermore the proliferation, infectivity, glucose consumption and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activities of parasites were decreased. Thus, for the first time, in this study, the effects of light on biological activities of Leishmania parasites were shown. These new information about parasites' biology, would be very important to investigate the effects of light on the parasites in infected vectors and hosts. PMID:21510933

  13. Burkholderia tropica sp. nov., a novel nitrogen-fixing, plant-associated bacterium.

    Reis, V M; Estrada-de los Santos, P; Tenorio-Salgado, S; Vogel, J; Stoffels, M; Guyon, S; Mavingui, P; Baldani, V L D; Schmid, M; Baldani, J I; Balandreau, J; Hartmann, A; Caballero-Mellado, J

    2004-11-01

    In an ecological survey of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere and as endophytes of sugarcane, maize and teosinte plants in Brazil, Mexico and South Africa, a new phylogenetically homogeneous group of N(2)-fixing bacteria was identified within the genus Burkholderia. This polyphasic taxonomic study included microscopic and colony morphology, API 20NE tests and growth on different culture media at different pH and temperatures, as well as carbon source assimilation tests and whole-cell protein pattern analysis. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 99.2-99.9 % similarity within the novel species and 97.2 % similarity to the closest related species, Burkholderia sacchari. The novel species was composed of four distinct amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis groups. The DNA-DNA reassociation values within the novel species were greater than 70 % and less than 42 % for the closest related species, B. sacchari. Based on these results and on many phenotypic characteristics, a novel N(2)-fixing species is proposed for the genus Burkholderia, Burkholderia tropica sp. nov., with the type strain Ppe8(T) (=ATCC BAA-831(T)=LMG 22274(T)=DSM 15359(T)). B. tropica was isolated from plants grown in geographical regions with climates ranging from temperate subhumid to hot humid. PMID:15545451

  14. Host feeding preference of Phlebotomus guggisbergi, a vector of Leishmania tropica in Kenya.

    Johnson, R N; Ngumbi, P M; Mwanyumba, J P; Roberts, C R

    1993-07-01

    Recently the sandfly Phlebotomus guggisbergi was found to be a vector of Leishmania tropica causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Laikipia focus, Kenya, but extensive searches have shed no light on the identity of the rural reservoir host(s). In order to discover more about the biology of the vector, a host feeding preference study was conducted on wild sandflies in their natural cave environment over a 6-month period. Solid state Army miniature (SSAM) traps, without light bulb, were suspended over cages with potential hosts or an empty cage control. The animals tested included sheep, goat, dog, cat, hamster, rabbit, giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus), crested rat (Lophiomys imhausi) and rock hyrax (Procavia capensis), all of which (except hamsters) are normally found in the vicinity of the study site. Sandfly collections from traps baited with goat, sheep, cat, dog, rabbit, or wild rodent species were significantly higher than the control, whereas trap collections with hamster and rock hyrax were not significantly different from the control. Numbers of sandflies collected from the goat, sheep and cat were significantly greater than from the rabbit and rodents. The sex ratio also varied between collections: larger animals attracted a higher proportion of female P. guggisbergi than did the smaller animals (P > 0.05). Therefore greater emphasis should be placed on surveying larger animals to assess their status as reservoir hosts for L. tropica in Kenya. PMID:8369555

  15. Phylogenetic structure of Leishmania tropica in the new endemic focus Birjand in East Iran in comparison to other Iranian endemic regions.

    Karamian, Mehdi; Kuhls, Katrin; Hemmati, Mina; Ghatee, Mohammad Amin

    2016-06-01

    Iran has been identified being among the countries with the highest number of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases. South Khorasan province in East Iran is an emerging focus of CL. Species identification of sixty clinical samples by ITS1 PCR-RFLP presented evidence for the dominance of Leishmania tropica (90%) in this region. Analysis of the ITS1 sequence of 19 L. tropica isolates revealed seven closely related sequence types. In addition, ITS1 sequences available in GenBank from other Iranian regions were compiled for comparison with the studied isolates. Iranian L. tropica was distributed in two main clusters. All East Iranian sequence types were grouped with strains from foci from Southeast and Central regions in cluster A, showing highly similar sequences. The highest similarity was observed between most L. tropica from East and all isolates from Southeast regions and from Savojbolagh county in Central Iran. Southwest L. tropica was shown to be paraphyletic as the isolates were distributed in both clusters A and B. All Northeastern L. tropica were part of cluster B, however they showed significant heterogeneity and were distributed in different subclusters. Distribution of L. tropica populations was to some extent congruent with genetic lineages of Phlebotomus sergenti in Iran and may be an evidence for parasite-vector co-evolution. Southeast-East L. tropica was also similar to strains from Herat province in Afghanistan at the East border of Iran. This is the first comprehensive study on population structure of L. tropica in Iran that provides a guideline for appropriate sampling for further molecular based epidemiological studies. PMID:26899681

  16. Actinomycetes in garden soils of the city of Kirov

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Solov'eva, E. S.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.

    2013-05-01

    The population density, diversity, and structure of the actinomycetic complexes were studied in garden soils of the city of Kirov. The relationships between the structure of the complexes and the acidity, the concentrations of the mobile forms of heavy metals, and the soil humus content were analyzed. The specific features of the actinomycetic population in the garden soils of the city in comparison with the transport ecotopes and suburban territories were revealed. It was demonstrated that the actinomycetic complexes in the garden soils preserve their structural similarity with the actinomycetic complexes of the suburban forest parks despite certain changes in the composition of the dominant species and the relative abundance of the separate taxa. The obtained data indicate that the garden plots in the city contribute to the preservation of ecologically balanced ecosystems.

  17. Site-Specific Recombination Strategies for Engineering Actinomycete Genomes

    Herrmann, Simone; Siegl, Theresa; Luzhetska, Marta; Petzke, Lutz; Jilg, Caroline; Welle, Elisabeth; Erb, Annette; Leadlay, Peter F; Bechthold, Andreas; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using technologies based on site-specific recombination in actinomycetes was shown several years ago. Despite their huge potential, these technologies mostly have been used for simple marker removal from a chromosome. In this paper, we present different site-specific recombination strategies for genome engineering in several actinomycetes belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Saccharothrix. Two different systems based on Cre/loxP and Dre/rox have been ut...

  18. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    McNeil, M. M.; Brown, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medic...

  19. Antibiotic Drug Discovery from the New Marine Actinomycete Genus Marinomyces

    Fenical, William H.

    2007-01-01

    Actinomycetes are high G+C content Gram-positive bacteria with an unparalleled ability to produce diverse secondary metabolites. These bacteria, which are best known from soils, have been studied extensively by the pharmaceutical industry and account for a disproportionately large amount of the $25.3 billion annual global sales of microbially derived pharmaceuticals. In recent years however, the yield of new lead compounds from common soil-derived actinomycetes has diminished significantly,...

  20. ISOLATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL COMPOUND FROM MARINE SOIL ACTINOMYCETES

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial study revealed that the isolated marine soil actinomycetes by crowded plate method and was identified by MIDI Advance technology (gas chromatographic) method and Thus, the microbes were identified according to their fatty acid sequences. The actinomycetes species were identified as Streptomyces rimosus, Streptomyces fradiae, and Streptomyces griseoflavus and the antibacterial assay was carried out by well diffusion method. Out of these only Streptomyces rimosus having high a...

  1. Extremophilic and extremotolerant actinomycetes in different soil types

    Zenova, G. M.; Manucharova, N. A.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2011-04-01

    Problems on the resistance of soil actinomycetes to various environmental factors (pH, salinity, temperature, and moisture) are discussed. Actinomycetes as a special group of prokaryotes were revealed to have a greater range of tolerance to these factors than was thought earlier. The regularities of the distribution of extremophilic and extremotolerant actinomycetes developing in unusual for mycelial bacteria conditions, their structural-functional characteristics, and their taxonomic composition were determined. The predominance of acidophilic representatives of the Micromonospora genus in acid soils (typical peat, soddy-podzolic, and taiga podzol) and the haloalkaliphilic Streptomyces pluricilirescens and S. prunicolor species in desert saline soils are shown. The specific features of the actinomycete complexes on thermal fields of the weakly developed stratified volcanic soils are described. In these complexes, the thermophilic forms were represented only by species of the Micromonospora genus; and the mesophilic forms, by Microbispora species. In the periodically heated desert soils, among the thermophilic actinomycetes, representatives of rare Actinomadura, Saccharopolyspora and Streptosporangium genera along with Streptomyces species were indicated. The mechanisms of the resistance of the actinomycetes to the extreme environmental conditions are discussed.

  2. Detection of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica in domestic cats in the Ege Region of Turkey.

    Paşa, Serdar; Tetik Vardarlı, Aslı; Erol, Nural; Karakuş, Mehmet; Töz, Seray; Atasoy, Abidin; Balcıoğlu, İ Cüneyt; Emek Tuna, Gülten; Ermiş, Özge V; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Özbel, Yusuf

    2015-09-15

    Leishmaniosis is a group of diseases caused by different species of Leishmania parasites in mammalian species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in cats using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays targeting internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) and heat-shock protein 70 gene (Hsp70) regions with Leishmania species-specific primers and probes. Blood samples were collected from 147 cats (73 female; 74 male) in the endemic regions for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the western provinces of Turkey and analyzed using two RT-PCR assays. Additionally, Hsp70 RT-PCR products were sequenced. ELISA assays for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) were also carried out for 145 of the 147 samples. Overall, 13/147 (8.84%) cats were positive for Leishmania by RT-PCR (4 L. major and 9 L. tropica). FIV and FeLV antibody and/or antigen was detected in 4 and 5 cats among Leishmania DNA positives, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate and report the presence of L. major and L. tropica infections in a large group of domestic cats in Turkey. The results obtained indicate that species identification of Leishmania is essential for epidemiological understanding and that clinical signs alone are not indicative for leishmaniosis in cats, as it is in dogs. This study suggests that extensive research should be carried out in cat populations in order to fully understand the role of cats in the epidemiology of the disease. PMID:26277567

  3. Genetic diversity of Leishmania tropica strains isolated from clinical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural districts of Herat province, Western Afghanistan, based on ITS1-rDNA.

    Fakhar, Mahdi; Pazoki Ghohe, Hossein; Rasooli, Sayed Abobakar; Karamian, Mehdi; Mohib, Abdul Satar; Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Hajar; Pagheh, Abdol Sattar; Ghatee, Mohammad Amin

    2016-07-01

    Despite the high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan, there is a little information concerning epidemiological status of the disease and phylogenetic relationship and population structure of causative agents. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of CL cases and investigate the Leishmania tropica population structure in rural districts of Heart province in the West of Afghanistan in comparison to neighboring foci. Overall, 4189 clinically suspected CL cases from 177 villages (including 12 districts) in Herat province were enrolled in the referral laboratory of WHO sub-office in Herat city from January 2012 to December 2013. 3861 cases were confirmed as CL by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained slides. ITS1 PCR-RFLP analysis showed dominance of L. tropica (more than 98%) among 127 randomly chosen samples. Analysis of the ITS1 sequences revealed 4 sequence types among the 21 L. tropica isolates. Comparison of sequence types from Herat rural districts with the representatives of L. tropica from Iran, India, and Herat city showed two main population groups (cluster A and B). All isolates from Herat province, India and Southeast, East, and Central Iran were found exclusively in cluster A. The close proximity of West Afghanistan focus and Birjand county as the capital of Southern Khorasan province in East Iran can explain relatively equal to the genetic composition of L. tropica in these two neighboring regions. In addition, two populations were found among L. tropica isolates from Herat rural districts. Main population showed more similarity to some isolates from Birjand county in East Iran while minor population probably originated from the Southeast and East Iranian L. tropica. Recent study provided valuable information concerning the population structure of L. tropica and epidemiology of ACL in the West of Afghanistan, which could be the basis for molecular epidemiology studies in other regions of Afghanistan

  4. Moderately haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes in salt-affected soils

    Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Oborotov, G. V.

    2009-12-01

    It was found that the population density of actinomycetes in solonchaks and saline desert soils varied from hundreds to tens of thousands of colony-forming units (CFUs) per 1 g of soil depending on soil type and was by 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than the number of mycelial bacteria in main soil types. Actinomycetes grow actively in saline soils, and the length of their mycelium reaches 140 m per 1 g of soil. Domination of moderately halophilic, alkaliphilic, and haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes, which grow well under 5% NaCl and pH 8-9, is a specific feature of actinomycetal complexes in saline soils. Representatives of Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera were found among the haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes. Micromonospores demonstrated lower (than streptomycetes) adaptability to high salt concentrations. Investigation of the phylogenetic position of isolated dominant haloalkaliphilic strains of streptomycetes performed on the basis of sequencing of the gene 16S rRNA enabled identifying these strains as Streptomyces pluricolorescens and S. prunicolor.

  5. Antibacterial activity of some actinomycetes from Tamil Nadu, India

    Pachaiyappan Saravana Kumar; John Poonga Preetam Raj; Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To isolate novel actinomycetes and to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Methods:Three soil samples were collected from Vengodu (village) in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. Actinomycetes were isolated using serial dilution and plating method on actinomycetes isolation agar. Results: Totally 35 isolates were obtained on the basis of colony characteristics on actinomycetes isolation agar. All the isolates were screened for antibacterial activity by cross streak method. Medium and optimization of day were done for the potent strains using Nathan's agar well diffusion method. Isolation of bioactive compounds from significant active isolates was done by using different media. The most active isolate VAS 10 was identified as Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) using 16s rRNA sequence method. The hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol extracts of VAS 10 were tested against bacteria. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate;maximum zones of inhibition were observed against Enterococcus durans. The rRNA secondary structure and the restriction sites of Actinobacterium Loyola VAS 10 were predicted using Genebee and NEBCutter online tools respectively. Conclusions: The present study showed that among the isolated actinomycetes, Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) showed good antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria.

  6. ISOLATION OF ENDOPHYTIC ACTINOMYCETES FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS AND ITS MUTATIONAL EFFECT IN BIOCONTROL ACTIVITY

    Hema Shenpagam N.*, D. Kanchana Devi ** and Sinduja G.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the endophytic actinomycetes were collected from three medicinal plants Azadiracta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Phyllanthus amarus. Endophytic actinomycetes were isolated using different media like Starch casein agar, Starch casein nitrate agar, Actinomycetes isolation agar and Soyabean agar, while it showed more colonies in Starch casein agar. The endophytic actinomycetes were stained and biochemical tests were performed. Antimicrobial compound was purified from the filtr...

  7. Evaluation of antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the extracts of Berberis vulgaris and Nigella sativa against Leishmania tropica

    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem, and the alarming spread of parasite resistance underlines the importance of discovering new therapeutic products. The present study aims to investigate the in vitro antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the ethanolic extract of Berberis vulgaris fruits and chloroform extract of Nigella sativa seeds against Leishmania tropica. Methods: In this study, antileishmanial activity of B. vulgaris and N. sativa extracts on promastigote and amastigote stages of L. tropica in comparison to meglumine antimoniate (MA was evaluated, using MTT assay and macrophage model, respectively. MTT test was also used to assess the cytotoxicity of extracts on murine macrophages. The significance of differences was determined by analysis of variances (ANOVA and student’s t-test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that ethanolic extract of B. vulgaris (IC50 4.83 μg/ml and chloroform extract of N. sativa (IC50 7.83 μg/ml significantly reduced the viability of promastigotes of L. tropica in comparison to MA (IC50 11.26 μg/ml. Furthermore, extracts of B. vulgaris (IC50 24.03 μg/ml and N. sativa (IC50 30.21 μg/ml significantly decreased the growth rate of amastigotes in each macrophage as compared with positive control (p <0.05. Our findings also revealed that extracts of B. vulgaris and N. sativa had no significant cytotoxicity against murine macrophages. Conclusion: The B. vulgaris and N. sativa extracts exhibited an effective leishmanicidal activity against L. tropica on in vitro model. Further, works are required to evaluate the exact effect of these extracts on Leishmania species using a clinical setting.

  8. Evaluation of antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the extracts of Berberis vulgaris and Nigella sativa against Leishmania tropica

    Hossein Mahmoudvand; Fariba Sharififar; Monireh Sezavar Rahmat; Razieh Tavakoli; Ebrahim Saedi Dezaki; Sareh Jahanbakhsh; Iraj Sharifi

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem, and the alarming spread of parasite resistance underlines the importance of discovering new therapeutic products. The present study aims to investigate the in vitro antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the ethanolic extract of Berberis vulgaris fruits and chloroform extract of Nigella sativa seeds against Leishmania tropica. Methods: In this study, antileishmanial activity of B. vulgaris and N. sativa extracts...

  9. CRISPR-Cas9 Based Engineering of Actinomycetal Genomes

    Tong, Yaojun; Charusanti, Pep; Zhang, Lixin;

    2015-01-01

    facilitate the genetic manipulation of actinomycetes, we developed a highly efficient CRISPR-Cas9 system to delete gene(s) or gene cluster(s), implement precise gene replacements, and reversibly control gene expression in actinomycetes. We demonstrate our system by targeting two genes, actIORF1 (SCO5087) and...... actVB (SCO5092), from the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Our CRISPR-Cas9 system successfully inactivated the targeted genes. When no templates for homology-directed repair (HDR) were present, the site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Cas9....... Moreover, we developed a system to efficiently and reversibly control expression of target genes, deemed CRISPRi, based on a catalytically dead variant of Cas9 (dCas9). The CRISPR-Cas9 based system described here comprises a powerful and broadly applicable set of tools to manipulate actinomycetal genomes....

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of two wasps venom, Vespa tropica and Vespa affinis.

    Rungsa, Prapenpuksiri; Incamnoi, Paroonkorn; Sukprasert, Sophida; Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Klaynongsruang, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Patramanon, Rina; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Daduang, Sakda

    2016-09-01

    Vespid venom is composed of many bioactive compounds. The venom of the banded tiger wasp (Vespa affinis, or VA) and the great banded wasp (Vespa tropica, or VT)-which are locally found in the northeastern part of Thailand and are well known for their life-threatening venom potency-were comparatively studied in terms of potency, composition and biological activity. Clinical studies that included word-of-mouth information shared by traditional healers in local areas noted that the venom of VT is more potent than that of VA. Our previous study showed that the venom of VA is lower in potency (PD50 = 12.5 μg/g body weight) than that of VT (PD50 = 3 μg/g body weight). Analysis with the PAGE technique showed that these two venoms showed similar patterns of active proteins. Most protein spots were basic proteins at an isoelectric point (pI) ranging from 5 to 10, with molecular weights between 27 and 50 kDa. These spots were identified as hyaluronidase, phospholipase, antigen 5, dipeptidyl peptidase and albumin-like protein. The proportion of hyaluronidase was 2.5 times higher in VT than in VA. VT also showed higher hyaluronidase, phospholipase and dipeptidyl peptidase activities, suggesting that these components made VT venom more potent than VA venom. PMID:27288895

  11. ISOLATION OF ENDOPHYTIC ACTINOMYCETES FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS AND ITS MUTATIONAL EFFECT IN BIOCONTROL ACTIVITY

    Hema Shenpagam N.*, D. Kanchana Devi ** and Sinduja G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the endophytic actinomycetes were collected from three medicinal plants Azadiracta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Phyllanthus amarus. Endophytic actinomycetes were isolated using different media like Starch casein agar, Starch casein nitrate agar, Actinomycetes isolation agar and Soyabean agar, while it showed more colonies in Starch casein agar. The endophytic actinomycetes were stained and biochemical tests were performed. Antimicrobial compound was purified from the filtrate by ethanol extraction method. Antagonistic activities of endophytic actinomycetes isolates were tested against bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungi Rhizopus. For the selected isolates antibiotic resistance was checked using various antibiotic discs like Amoxycillin, Penicillin, Rifampicin and Ampicillin. The strains which showed efficient antibacterial activity were selected to study the effect of mutation by physical and chemical method. In this study, UV mutated endophytic actinomycetes increase antibiotic production than non-mutated endophytic Actinomycetes, whereas in chemical mutation it does not increase the antibiotic production.

  12. Competitive strategies differentiate closely related species of marine actinobacteria.

    Patin, Nastassia V; Duncan, Katherine R; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Jensen, Paul R

    2016-02-01

    Although competition, niche partitioning, and spatial isolation have been used to describe the ecology and evolution of macro-organisms, it is less clear to what extent these principles account for the extraordinary levels of bacterial diversity observed in nature. Ecological interactions among bacteria are particularly challenging to address due to methodological limitations and uncertainties over how to recognize fundamental units of diversity and link them to the functional traits and evolutionary processes that led to their divergence. Here we show that two closely related marine actinomycete species can be differentiated based on competitive strategies. Using a direct challenge assay to investigate inhibitory interactions with members of the bacterial community, we observed a temporal difference in the onset of inhibition. The majority of inhibitory activity exhibited by Salinispora arenicola occurred early in its growth cycle and was linked to antibiotic production. In contrast, most inhibition by Salinispora tropica occurred later in the growth cycle and was more commonly linked to nutrient depletion or other sources. Comparative genomics support these differences, with S. arenicola containing nearly twice the number of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters as S. tropica, indicating a greater potential for secondary metabolite production. In contrast, S. tropica is enriched in gene clusters associated with the acquisition of growth-limiting nutrients such as iron. Coupled with differences in growth rates, the results reveal that S. arenicola uses interference competition at the expense of growth, whereas S. tropica preferentially employs a strategy of exploitation competition. The results support the ecological divergence of two co-occurring and closely related species of marine bacteria by providing evidence they have evolved fundamentally different strategies to compete in marine sediments. PMID:26241505

  13. Comparing actinomycete and bacterial soil and sediment communities for metagenomics

    Hill, P.; Krištůfek, Václav; Feijoo, A. M.; Caballero, S.; van Elsas, D.

    Praha: Výzkumný ústav rostlinné výroby, Praha, 2005. s. 10. [Život v pode /6./. 01.02.2005-02.02.2005, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : actinomycete * bacterial soil and sediment communities * metagenomics Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. A New Degraded Sesquiterpene from Marine Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. 0616208

    Xiu Chao XIE; Wen Li MEI; You Xing ZHAO; Kui HONG; Hao Fu DAI

    2006-01-01

    A new degraded sesquiterpene was isolated from the marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. 0616208. Its structure was elucidated as (1α, 4aα, 5α, 7β, 8aβ)-5, 8a-dimethyl-decahydrona-phthalene-1, 4a, 7-triol on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  15. Antibiotics production by an actinomycete isolated from the termite gut.

    Matsui, Toru; Tanaka, Junichi; Namihira, Tomoyuki; Shinzato, Naoya

    2012-12-01

    As well as the search for new antibiotics, a new resource or strains for the known antibiotics is also important. Microbial symbionts in the gut of termites could be regarded as one of the feasible resource for such purpose. In this study, antibiotic-producing actinomycetes were screened from symbionts of the termite gut. 16SrRNA sequence analysis for the 10 isolates revealed that they belong to actinomycetes such as Streptomyces sp., Kitasatospora sp., and Mycobacterium sp. A culture broth from one of the isolate, namely strain CA1, belonging to the genera Streptomyces exhibited antagonistic activity against actinomycetes (Micrococcus spp.), gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus spp.), and yeast (Candida spp.). The structures of 2 compounds isolated from the culture broth of the strain CA1 were identified as those of actinomycin X2 and its analog, D. This study is the first to report that some symbionts of the termite gut are antibiotic-producing actinomycetes, and suggest that the termite gut is a feasible resource for bioprospecting. PMID:22359219

  16. Phlebotomus sergenti in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in Azilal province (High Atlas, Morocco: molecular detection and genotyping of Leishmania tropica, and feeding behavior.

    Malika Ajaoud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus sergenti is at least one of the confirmed vectors for the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica and distributed widely in Morocco. This form of leishmaniasis is considered largely as anthroponotic, although dogs were found infected with Leishmania tropica, suggestive of zoonosis in some rural areas.This survey aimed at (i studying the presence of Leishmania in field caught Phlebotomus sergenti, (ii investigating genetic diversity within Leishmania tropica and (iii identifying the host-blood feeding preferences of Phlebotomus sergenti. A total of 4,407 sand flies were collected in three rural areas of Azilal province, using CDC miniature light traps. Samples collected were found to consist of 13 species: Phlebotomus spp. and 3 Sergentomyia spp. The most abundant species was Phlebotomus sergenti, accounting for 45.75 % of the total. 965 female Phlebotomus sergenti were screened for the presence of Leishmania by ITS1-PCR-RFLP, giving a positive rate of 5.7% (55/965, all being identified as Leishmania tropica. Nucleotide heterogeneity of PCR-amplified ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 was noted. Analyses of 31 sequences obtained segregated them into 16 haplotypes, of which 7 contain superimposed peaks at certain nucleotide positions, suggestive of heterozygosity. Phlebotomus sergenti collected were found to feed on a large variety of vertebrate hosts, as determined by Cytochrome b sequencing of the DNA from the blood meals of 64 engorged females.Our findings supported the notion that Phlebotomus sergenti is the primary vector of Leishmania tropica in this focus, and that the latter is genetically very heterogeneous. Furthermore, our results might be suggestive of a certain level of heterozygosity in Leishmania tropica population. This finding, as well as the feeding of the vectors on different animals are of interest for further investigation.

  17. Genetic, serological and biochemical characterization of Leishmania tropica from foci in northern Palestine and discovery of zymodeme MON-307

    Azmi Kifaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL have been recorded in the Jenin District based on their clinical appearance. Here, their parasites have been characterized in depth. Methods Leishmanial parasites isolated from 12 human cases of CL from the Jenin District were cultured as promastigotes, whose DNA was extracted. The ITS1 sequence and the 7SL RNA gene were analysed as was the kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA sequence. Excreted factor (EF serotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE were also applied. Results This extensive characterization identified the strains as Leishmania tropica of two very distinct sub-types that parallel the two sub-groups discerned by multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT done previously. A high degree of congruity was displayed among the results generated by the different analytical methods that had examined various cellular components and exposed intra-specific heterogeneity among the 12 strains. Three of the ten strains subjected to MLEE constituted a new zymodeme, zymodeme MON-307, and seven belonged to the known zymodeme MON-137. Ten of the 15 enzymes in the profile of zymodeme MON-307 displayed different electrophoretic mobilities compared with the enzyme profile of the zymodeme MON-137. The closest profile to that of zymodeme MON-307 was that of the zymodeme MON-76 known from Syria. Strains of the zymodeme MON-307 were EF sub-serotype A2 and those of the zymodeme MON-137 were either A9 or A9B4. The sub-serotype B4 component appears, so far, to be unique to some strains of L. tropica of zymodeme MON-137. Strains of the zymodeme MON-137 displayed a distinctive fragment of 417 bp that was absent in those of zymodeme MON-307 when their kDNA was digested with the endonuclease RsaI. kDNA-RFLP after digestion with the endonuclease MboI facilitated a further level of differentiation that partially coincided with the geographical distribution of the human cases from which the strains

  18. Distribution of actinomycetes in oil contaminated ultisols of the Niger Delta (Nigeria)

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of actinomycetes in oil contaminated sandy loam ultisols of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was studied to aid in understanding the effect of hydrocarbons on indigenous microbial population in tropical soils. The average total counts of actinomycetes in all the oil samples analysed was 103 cfu/g. Higher counts of actinomycetes were observed during the dry season than during the wet season. The counts of hydrocarbonoclastic actinomycetes correlated positively with the total count of actinomycetes.The actinomycetes were generally restricted to the top soil(0-10 cm soil depth) although a seemingly deeper(down to 40 cm soil depth) distribution was noticed in the dry season. The isolates included oil degrading species of Actinoplanes, Norcadia,Streptomyces and Streptosporangium. Their high oil utilization ability indicates their positive potential and role in the bioremediation of oil-spilled soils.

  19. Competitive biosorption of thorium and uranium by actinomycetes

    The competitive biosorption of thorium and uranium by actinomycetes was examined. Of the actinomycetes tested, Streptomyces levoris showed the highest ability to sorb both thorium and uranium from aqueous systems. Thorium sorption was not affected by co-existed uranium, while uranium sorption was strongly hindered by co-existed thorium. The amounts of both thorium and uranium sorbed by Streptomyces levoris cells increased with an increase of the solution pH. Although the equilibrium isotherm of uranium biosorption is in similar manner as that of thorium biosorption, uranium was sorbed much faster than thorium. Biosorption isotherm of each metal ion could be well fitted by Langmuir isotherm taking the ionic charge of metal ions into account. The Langmuir isotherm for binary system did not explain completely the competitive biosorption of thorium and uranium by Streptomyces levoris. However, the results suggested that the ion species of both metals in the cells should be Th(OH)22+ and UO22+, respectively. (author)

  20. Actinomycetes for Marine Drug Discovery Isolated from Mangrove Soils and Plants in China

    Hong, Kui; Gao, An-Hui; Xie, Qing-Yi; Gao, Hao Gao; Zhuang, Ling; Lin, Hai-Peng; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Jia; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Goodfellow, Michael; Ruan, Ji-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is a largely unexplored source for actinomycetes with the potential to produce biologically active secondary metabolites. Consequently, we set out to isolate, characterize and screen actinomycetes from soil and plant material collected from eight mangrove sites in China. Over 2,000 actinomycetes were isolated and of these approximately 20%, 5%, and 10% inhibited the growth of Human Colon Tumor 116 cells, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, while 3%...

  1. MINIATURIZED FERMENTATION IN EPPENDORF TUBES FOR THE DETECTION OF ANTAGONISTIC ACTINOMYCETES

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes are recognized as a prolific source for bioactive metabolites. Screening adequate number of strains by appropriate high quality screening protocol determines success of drug discovery programs. To accomplish screening for antagonistic actinomycetes at higher rate, the fermentation stage of the initial screening needs to be miniaturized. The present study is attempted for miniaturized production of bioactive compounds from 40 actinomycetes isolated from less explored ecosystems. ...

  2. Terrestrial actinomycetes from diverse locations of Uttarakhnad, India: Isolation and screening for their antibacterial activity

    Vijay Kumar; Gajraj Singh Bisht; Omprakash Gusain

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Uttarakhand region is less explored, but possess a great biodiversity. This diversity can be explored for isolation and characterization of new actinomycetes strains for seeking antimicrobial molecules. It can therefore be predicted that novel bioactive metabolite producing actinomycetes can be discovered to combat multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens. Materials and Methods Variations in the viable count of actinomycetes were accessed in different altitudes. Actino...

  3. THE ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY OF ACTINOMYCETES OF STREPTOMYCES GENUS IN RELATION TO TRICHODERMA KONINGII

    Barbara Breza-Boruta; Zbigniew Paluszak

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of actinomycetes of genus Streptomyces on the growth of the antagonistic fungus Trichoderma koningii. 150 strains of Streptomyces spp. isolated from two potato cropping systems were used to the tests. Analyses were conducted experimentally in vitro on PDA medium with pH 6 and 7. The results obtained clearly indicate the inhibitory effect of actinomycetes on the fungus T. koningii. Of the tested population of actinomycetes only two strains did no...

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Medically Important Aerobic Actinomycetes in Soil of Iran (2006 - 2007)

    Aghamirian, Mohammad Reza; Ghiasian, Seyed Amir

    2009-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are a large group of soil-inhabiting bacteria that occur worldwide. Some of them are the main cause of two important diseases, nocardiosis and actinomycetoma. To identify the prevalence and geographic distribution of aerobic actinomycetes in soil of Qazvin province, a study was carried out during 2006-2007. In this study, the incidence and diversity of medically important aerobic actinomycetes was determined in 300 soil samples of different parts of Qazvin. The suspe...

  5. An N-acyl homolog of mycothiol is produced in marine actinomycetes

    Newton, Gerald L.; Fahey, Robert C.; Jensen, Paul R.; Fenical, William; MacMillan, John B

    2008-01-01

    Marine actinomycetes have generated much recent interest as a potentially valuable source of novel antibiotics. Like terrestrial actinomycetes the marine actinomycetes are shown here to produce mycothiol as their protective thiol. However, a novel thiol, U25, was produced by MAR2 strain CNQ703 upon progression into stationary phase when secondary metabolite production occurs and became the dominant thiol. MSH and U25 were maintained in a reduced state during early stationary phase but become ...

  6. Actinomycetes from Red Sea Sponges: Sources for Chemical and Phylogenetic Diversity

    Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen; Chen Yang; Hannes Horn; Dina Hajjar; Timothy Ravasi; Ute Hentschel

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges collected off Fsar Reef (Saudi Arabia) was investigated in the present study. Forty-seven actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were assigned to 10 different actinomycete genera. Eight putatively novel species belonging to genera Kocuria, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other 16S rRNA gene sequen...

  7. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea

    M. Sreevidya; Gopalakrishnan, S.; H. Kudapa; Varshney, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures f...

  8. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ACTINOMYCETES AGAINST MDR WOUND BACTERIAL ISOLATES

    L.Ashokkumar; Balagurunathan, R.; P. Palanivel; D. Jegadeeshkumar

    2012-01-01

    A total of five different actinomycete isolates were recovered from mine soil samples collected from Salem, Tamilnadu. These were then assessed for their antibacterial activity against five multidrug resistance bacterial wound isolates. All five isolates of actinomycete exhibited antagonistic activity. The zone of inhibition ranged between 11-25 mm. Among the 5 isolates of actinomycetes A5 isolate has highest antibacterial activity against S.aureus and E.coli. Out of five bacterial isolates P...

  9. Isolation, Phylogenetic Analysis and Anti-infective Activity Screening of Marine Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes

    Safwat Ahmed; Ute Hentschel; Mona Radwan; Abou-El-Ela, Soad H.; Amro Hanora; Pimentel-Elardo, Sheila M.; Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial actinomycetes are noteworthy producers of a multitude of antibiotics, however the marine representatives are much less studied in this regard. In this study, 90 actinomycetes were isolated from 11 different species of marine sponges that had been collected from offshore Ras Mohamed (Egypt) and from Rovinj (Croatia). Phylogenetic characterization of the isolates based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing supported their assignment to 18 different actinomycete genera representing seven diffe...

  10. Comparison of methods for isolation and enumeration of thermophilic actinomycetes from dust.

    Treuhaft, M W; Arden Jones, M P

    1982-01-01

    Thermophilic actinomycetes are the primary sensitizing agents in farmer's lung disease. We compared dilution pour-plate and spread-plate methods for their usefulness in enumerating thermophilic actinomycetes in moldy silage dust and evaluated the ability of a nonquantitative gravity settling technique to recover thermophilic actinomycetes from moldy silage. Spread plates and pour plates yielded similar estimates of total thermophiles. Higher counts were observed on spread plates (P less than ...

  11. Diversity of Aquatic Actinomycetes in Lakes of the Middle Plateau, Yunnan, China

    Jiang, C; Xu, L.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 749 sediment and water samples were collected from 12 lakes of the Middle Plateau of Yunnan from 1983 to 1993. The diversity and biological characteristics of the aquatic actinomycetes in these lakes were studied. Sixteen genera of actinomycetes were isolated from these samples. Micromonospores assumed a notable dominance (from 39 to 89%) in the actinomycete populations of these lake sediments. Streptomycetes were the second most abundant organisms. The diversity and counts of acti...

  12. Isolation and characterization of marine-derived actinomycetes with cytotoxic activity from the Red Sea coast

    Mohamed Saleh Abdelfattah; Mohammed Ismail Youssef Elmallah; Usama Wahid Hawas; Lamia Taha Abou El-Kassema; Mennat Allah Gamal Eid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of different actinomycetes species isolated from the Red Sea coast in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. Methods: Forty actinomycetes strains were isolated from different sediments and seawater samples collected from the Red Sea coast in Egypt. Actinomycetes were recognized by morphological and microscopic examinations. Cell viability and cytotoxicity induced by the crude extracts on breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 were assessed using meth...

  13. Evaluation of the antileishmanial and cytotoxic effects of various extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) on Leishmania tropica.

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Sepahvand, Peyman; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh; Azadpour, Mozhgan

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Treatment of CL by pentavalent antimony compounds remains a challenge because of limited efficacy, toxic side effects and drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of garlic extracts against promastigote forms of Leishmania tropica and murine macrophages was evaluated by colorimetric cell viability (MTT) assay. The results revealed that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of garlic were effective in inhibiting promastigote growth of L. tropica with IC50 (50 % inhibitory concentrations) values 12.3 and 19.2 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, methanolic and aqueous extracts of garlic showed low cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50 % of cells) values 291.4 and 348.2 µg/ml, respectively. Findings of present study were the first step in the search for new antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in volunteer human subjects. PMID:27413315

  14. Ecological features of rare actinomycetes genera in soils of Azerbaijan

    A. R. Abushova; S. A. Gasanova; M. A. Kasimzade

    2010-01-01

    The results of the research of rare species of actinomycetes in some soils of Azerbaijan were studied. On the selective media the representatives of Streptomyces, Streptosporangium, Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Saccharopolyspora and Saccharomonospora were revealed. Species of Streptomyces and Micromonospora dominate in mountain-wood ecosystems (60 %.). It was established that among streptomyces species of Cinereus section of Violaceus series; Helvolo-Flavus sections of Helvolus...

  15. Molecular insights on the biosynthesis of antitumour compounds by actinomycetes

    Olano Álvarez, Carlos; Méndez Fernández, María del Carmen; Salas Fernández, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Summary Natural products are traditionally the main source of drug leads. In particular, many antitumour compounds are either natural products or derived from them. However, the search for novel antitumour drugs active against untreatable tumours, with fewer side‐effects or with enhanced therapeutic efficiency, is a priority goal in cancer chemotherapy. Microorganisms, particularly actinomycetes, are prolific producers of bioactive compounds, including antitumour drugs, produced as secondary ...

  16. A novel taxonomic marker that discriminates between morphologically complex actinomycetes

    Girard, Geneviève; Traag, Bjørn A; Sangal, Vartul; Mascini, Nadine; Hoskisson, Paul; Goodfellow, Michael; van Wezel, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    In the era when large whole genome bacterial datasets are generated routinely, rapid and accurate molecular systematics is becoming increasingly important. However, 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing does not always offer sufficient resolution to discriminate between closely related genera. The SsgA-like proteins are developmental regulatory proteins in sporulating actinomycetes, whereby SsgB actively recruits FtsZ during sporulation-specific cell division. Here, we present a novel method to classi...

  17. Lactose-reversible coaggregation between oral actinomycetes and Streptococcus sanguis.

    Kolenbrander, P. E.; Williams, B L

    1981-01-01

    Freshly isolated strains of oral actinomycetes were obtained from human dental plaque and were tested for the ability to coaggregate with common laboratory stock strains of Streptococcus sanguis. Strains belonging to the genera Actinomyces, Arachnia, Bifidobacterium, and Bacterionema were isolated. Only members of the genus Actinomyces coaggregated with the streptococci, and only Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii exhibited lactose-reversible interactions. A total of 61 strains, ...

  18. Degradation of Lignin-Related Compounds by Actinomycetes

    Ball, A.S.; Betts, W. B.; McCarthy, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence for activity against the lignin fraction of straw was produced for a range of actinomycete strains. Decolorization of the polymeric dye Poly R and oxidation of veratryl alcohol, indicators of ligninolytic activity in white rot fungi, and utilization of fractionated Kraft lignin and low-molecular-weight methoxylated aromatic compounds were the criteria used. The relationships between these activities and the solubilization of native lignin are discussed.

  19. Actinomycetes in Karstic caves of northern Spain (Altamira and Tito Bustillo).

    Groth, I; Vettermann, R; Schuetze, B; Schumann, P; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    1999-05-01

    A variety of isolation procedures were carried out to study the involvement of bacteria in the colonisation and biodeterioration of Spanish caves with paleolithic rock art (Altamira and Tito Bustillo). The applied techniques mainly aimed to isolate heterotrophic bacteria such as streptomycetes, nocardioform and coryneform actinomycetes, and other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results demonstrated that actinomycetes were the most abundant gram-positive bacteria in the caves. Actinomycetes revealed a great taxonomic diversity with the predominant isolates belonging to the genus Streptomyces. Members of the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Nocardioides, Amycolatopsis, Saccharothrix, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and coccoid actinomycetes (family Micrococcaceae) were also found. PMID:10353805

  20. The structural-functional organization of thermotolerant complexes of actinomycetes in desert and volcanic soils

    Zenova, G. M.; Kurapova, A. I.; Lysenko, A. M.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2009-05-01

    It has been found that the number of thermotolerant actinomycetes in strongly heated soils of deserts and volcanic regions is comparable to or exceeds the number of mesophilic actinomycetes. Among the latter group, streptomyces usually predominate; among thermotolerant actinomycetes, representatives of the Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Saccharopolyspora, Microtetraspora, and Microbispora genera are identified. Thermotolerant actinomycetes display the full cycle of their development in these soils. The method of fluorescent in situ hybridization has made it possible to determine that mycelial forms predominate among the metabolically active representatives of Actinobacteria; their portion increases with the rise in the temperature of soil incubation.

  1. [Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from vermicompost].

    Wang, Xue-jun; Yan, Shuang-lin; Min, Chang-li; Yang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, actinomycetes were isolated from vermicompost by tablet coating method. Antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes were measured by the agar block method. Strains with high activity were identified based on morphology and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that 26 strains of actinomycetes were isolated, 16 of them had antimicrobial activities to the test strains which accounts for 61.54% of all strains. Among the 16 strains, the strain QYF12 and QYF22 had higher antimicrobial activity to Micrococcus luteus, with a formed inhibition zone of 27 mm and 31 mm, respectively. While the strain QYF26 had higher antimicrobial activity to Bacillus subtilis, and the inhibition zone diameter was 21 mm. Based on the identification of strains with high activity, the strain QYF12 was identified as Streptomyces chartreusis, the strain QYF22 was S. ossamyceticus and the strain QYF26 was S. gancidicus. This study provided a theoretical basis for further separate antibacterial product used for biological control. PMID:26137678

  2. ISOLATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL AND DEGRADATIVE POTENTIAL OF ACTINOMYCETES

    Padma Singh* and Vani Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Does the soil Actinomycetes have Antimicrobial and Petrol degradation potential? It is an intriguing question. Actinomycetes are continues to be a subject of study with reference to their Antimicrobial and degradative potential. However studies have been done is limited. Our object was to study its Antimicrobial activity in wide spectrum and to study its degradation potential on Petrol. Approach: In this study we have isolated total 5 Actinomycetes from the Ganga river bed. All the isolates later purified and identified by various Morphological and Biochemical test. Here Nocardia was subjected to antimicrobial test against Streptococcus, Mucor and Aspergillus and it was also subjected to degradation test against Petrol. Result: The 5 isolates are Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Micromono sporangium and 2 different strain of Nocardia (Na1 and Na2. The 2 strains of Nocardia are active against Streptococcus (Na1 29.6mm, Na2 26.6mm, Mucor (Na1 12.5mm, Na2 22.5mm and Aspergillus (Na1 50%, Na2 60%. They also degrade Petrol very effectively, decrease in total organic carbon of the medium was observed during the degradation of petrol. Conclusion: Our observation provides us with evidence that these agents can be used for the production of new antibiotics and as the agent to control the environment pollution.

  3. The vectorial competence of Phlebotomus sergenti is specific for Leishmania tropica and is controlled by species-specific, lipophosphoglycan-mediated midgut attachment.

    Kamhawi, S; Modi, G B; Pimenta, P F; Rowton, E; Sacks, D L

    2000-07-01

    The vectorial competence of Phlebotomus sergenti for 3 Old World species of Leishmania, L. tropica, L. major and L. donovani, was investigated in vivo and by in vitro midgut binding assays using living promastigotes and purified lipophosphoglycan (LPG). P. sergenti consistently showed a high specificity for L. tropica strains, which were able to develop mature, potentially transmissible infections. The loss of infection with L. major and L. donovani correlated with the excretion of the digested bloodmeal. These strains were able to produce sustained infections in the midguts of their appropriate vectors, P. papatasi and P. argentipes, respectively. In in vitro binding assays, a significantly higher number of L. tropica procyclic promastigotes attached to the midgut lining of P. sergenti, compared to those of L. major and L. donovani (P phosphoglycan (PG) from L. tropica compared with PGs from L. major or L. donovani. The results provide further evidence that LPG structural polymorphisms are driven by the species diversity of molecules present on the sandfly midgut that function as parasite attachment sites. PMID:11085222

  4. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND CHROMIUM REDUCTION PATTERN AMONG ACTINOMYCETES

    Preeti Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes, one of the most important groups of microbes, exhibit many interesting activities such as degradation and transformation of organic and metal substrates together with production of antibiotics. With these bioactivities, actinomycetes would play an important role in the webs of the marine environment. The present study was designed to evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern, antibiotic producing potential and chromium resistance as well as chromium reduction potential of a range of actinomycetes isolated from marine environments. Actinomycetes were isolated from marine sediment samples obtained from St. Martin’s Island in Bangladesh. Antibiotic resistance among the selected isolates was studied against 10 different antibiotics by disc diffusion method and antibiotic producing potential was assessed by the perpendicular streak method. The isolates were screened for resistance towards heavy metal Cr(VI on culture plates supplemented with Cr(VI at concentrations ranging from 1-5 mM of Cr(VI. Highly resistant isolates were subjected to screening for Cr(VI reduction activity, which was estimated using the Cr(VI specific colorimetric reagent 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide. Out of the total 30 different selected isolates, 25 (83.33% showed resistance against more than three antibiotics and 6 (20% showed resistance to more than six antibiotics. Ninety three percent of the isolates showed MAR index greater than 0.2 and tolerance to Cr(VI at 1mM of initial Cr(VI. None of the isolates displayed antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested. Among the isolates tested for chromate reduction, two were most efficient showing complete reduction of 1mM Cr(VI within 24 h. These two isolates (SM-11, SM-20 were capable of reducing chromate even at high initial Cr(VI concentrations. Remarkably, the isolate SM-11 was found to reduce 82.67%, 44.34% of Cr(VI at 2.5mM, 5mM of initial Cr(VI concentrations respectively, within 72h of incubation. The

  5. Airway inflammation among compost workers exposed to actinomycetes spores

    Kari Kulvik Heldal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study the associations between exposure to bioaerosols and work-related symptoms, lung function and biomarkers of airway inflammation in compost workers. Materials and method. Personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 47 workers employed at five windrow plants (n=20 and five reactor plants (n=27. Samples were analyzed for endotoxins, bacteria, fungal and actinomycetes spores. Health examinations were performed on workers and 37 controls before and after work on the day exposure was measured. The examinations included symptoms recorded by questionnaire, lung function by spirometry and nasal dimensions by acoustic rhinometry (AR. The pneumoproteins CC16, SP-D and SP-A were measured in a blood sample drawn at the end of the day. Results. The levels of endotoxins (median 3 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–730 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] and actinomycetes spores (median 0.2 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–590 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] were significantly higher in reactor plants compared to windrow plants. However, windrow composting workers reported more symptoms than reactor composting workers, probably due to use of respiratory protection. Exposure-response relationships between actinomycetes spores exposure and respiratory effects, found as cough and nose irritation during a shift, was significantly increased (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.1–16, OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.5–25, respectively, p<0.05 among workers exposed to 0.02–0.3 × 10[sup]6[/sup] actinomycetes spores/m 3 , and FEV1/FVC% decreased cross shift (b=–3.2, SE=1.5%, p<0.01. Effects were weaker in the highest exposed group, but these workers used respiratory protection, frequently limiting their actual exposure. No relationships were found between exposure and pneumoprotein concentrations. Conclusions. The major agent in the aerosol generated at compost plants was actinomycetes spores which was associated with work related cough symptoms and work

  6. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI ACTINOMYCETES-ASOSIASI SPONS PENGHASIL ANTIBIOTIK KOLEKSI PULAU BARRANG LOMPO MAKASSAR

    Rante, Herlina

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes merupakan jenis mikroorganisme yang sangat penting sebagai penghasil metabolit sekunder untuk pengobatan. Senyawa bioaktif dari mikroba diperoleh melalui serangkaian penapisan untuk menghasilkan suatu senyawa antibakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisolasi dan mengindentifikasi bakteri actinomycetes dari spons yang berasal dari pulau Barranglompo Makassar dan mengisolasi dan mengidentifikasi senyawa antibakteri secara bioassay guided fractination Isolasi Ac...

  7. Bioactive Potential of Actinomycetes from Less Explored Ecosystems against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Other Nonmycobacterial Pathogens

    Manikkam, Radhakrishnan; Venugopal, Gopikrishnan; Subramaniam, Balaji; Ramasamy, Balagurunathan; Kumar, Vanaja

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive potential of actinomycetes isolated from certain less explored Indian ecosystems against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other nonmycobacterial pathogens was investigated. Actinomycetes were isolated from the soil samples collected from desert, coffee plantation, rubber forest, and hill area and their cultural and micromorphological characteristics were studied. Crude extracts were prepared by agar surface fermentation and tested against M. tuberculosis isolates by luciferase reporte...

  8. Screening of Actinomycetes From Lipar Area of Oman Sea to Investigate the Antibacterial Compounds

    Shams, MR; Shahnavaz; Ghazvini; Valinasab

    2015-01-01

    Background Actinomycetes are one of the most important sources for the production of antibacterial compounds. Marine environments, due to their unique characteristics, are considered a good option to search for bacteria with the capability of producing antimicrobial compounds. Objectives The purpose of this study was to isolate the actinomycetes producing antibacterial compounds. Materials and ...

  9. In Vitro Investigation of Antifungal Activities of Actinomycetes against Microsporum gypseum

    Naser Keikha

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: The findings of the present research show that terrigenous actinomycetes have an antifungal effect upon Microsporum gypseum. So, one hopes that-in future-rather than administering antifungal chemicals that have side-effects, dermatophytic infections can be cured by applying these actinomycetes.

  10. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ACTINOMYCETES AGAINST MDR WOUND BACTERIAL ISOLATES

    L.Ashokkumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of five different actinomycete isolates were recovered from mine soil samples collected from Salem, Tamilnadu. These were then assessed for their antibacterial activity against five multidrug resistance bacterial wound isolates. All five isolates of actinomycete exhibited antagonistic activity. The zone of inhibition ranged between 11-25 mm. Among the 5 isolates of actinomycetes A5 isolate has highest antibacterial activity against S.aureus and E.coli. Out of five bacterial isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly suppressed by actinomycetes followed by E.coli. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed on 14th day incubation. The result of primary screening reveals that most of the active actinomycetes isolates were active against gram positive bacteria (S.aureus than gram negative bacteria. The antibiotic profile of these isolates underlined their potential as a source of novel antibiotics.

  11. Caerulomycin A- An antifungal compound isolated from marine actinomycetes.

    Ambavane, V.; Tokdar, P.; Parab, R.; Sreekumar, E.S.; Mahajan, G.B.; Mishra, P.D.; DeSouza, L.; Ranadive, P.

    of the most successful ap- proaches is to screen microbial resources to extract novel antifungal antibiotics. Drug discovery from natural products has been traditionally focused on empirical exploitation of the most prolific microbial groups: actinomycetes... obtained from mass, IR and 1H NMR spectra (Figures 3-5). In 1H NMR spectra, the signals at δ 7.8 and 7.35 were assigned for protons attached at C-3 and C-5 respectively. Proton at unsaturated C-7 appeared at δ 8.13 due to nitrogen and OH group being...

  12. Therapeutic Potential of Biologically Reduced Silver Nanoparticles from Actinomycete Cultures

    Silver nanoparticles are applied in nanomedicine from time immemorial and are still used as powerful antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents. Antibiotics produced by actinomycetes are popular in almost all the therapeutic measures, and this study has proven that these microbes are also helpful in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with good surface and size characteristics. Silver can be synthesized by various chemical methodologies, and most of them have turned to be toxic. This study has been successful in isolating the microbes from polluted environment, and subjecting them to the reduction of silver nanoparticles, characterizing the nanoparticles by UV spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles produced were tested for their antimicrobial property, and the zone of inhibition was greater than those produced by their chemically synthesized counterparts. Actinomycetes, helpful in bioremediating heavy metals, are useful for the production of metallic nanoparticles. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles loaded with antibiotics prove to be better in killing the pathogens and have opened up new areas for developing nanobiotechnological research based on microbial applications.

  13. First report on naturalLeishmania infection ofPhlebotomus sergenti due Leishmania tropica by high resolution melting curve method in South-eastern Iran

    Aghaei Afshar A; Rassi Y; Sharifi I; Vatandoost H; Mollaie HR; Oshaghi MA; Abai MR; Rafizadeh S

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To identify the Leishmaniaspecies in infected sand flies byReal-timePCR coupled withHRM analysis.Methods:Real-timePCR coupled withHRM analysis targeting the first internal transcribed spacer(ITS1) of nuclear ribosomalDNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish Leishmania species in sand flies specimens.Results:Three out of115 females ofPhlebotomus sergenti(P. sergenti)(2.6%) were positive toLeishmania tropica(L. tropica). Conclusions:This is the first report onP. sergenti as the main and proven vector of anthroponitic cutaneous leishmaniasis inDehbakriCounty usingReal-timePCR coupled withHRM analysis. This method is rapid, sensitive and specific for diagnosing of parasites in infectedSand flies and ideal for large scale genotyping projects.

  14. New Dimensions of Research on Actinomycetes: Quest for Next Generation Antibiotics.

    Jose, Polpass Arul; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the discovery of streptomycin, the promise of natural products research on actinomycetes has been captivating researchers and offered an array of life-saving antibiotics. However, most of the actinomycetes have received a little attention of researchers beyond isolation and activity screening. Noticeable gaps in genomic information and associated biosynthetic potential of actinomycetes are mainly the reasons for this situation, which has led to a decline in the discovery rate of novel antibiotics. Recent insights gained from genome mining have revealed a massive existence of previously unrecognized biosynthetic potential in actinomycetes. Successive developments in next-generation sequencing, genome editing, analytical separation and high-resolution spectroscopic methods have reinvigorated interest on such actinomycetes and opened new avenues for the discovery of natural and natural-inspired antibiotics. This article describes the new dimensions that have driven the ongoing resurgence of research on actinomycetes with historical background since the commencement in 1940, for the attention of worldwide researchers. Coupled with increasing advancement in molecular and analytical tools and techniques, the discovery of next-generation antibiotics could be possible by revisiting the untapped potential of actinomycetes from different natural sources. PMID:27594853

  15. Diversity and Antagonistic Activity of Actinomycete Strains From Myristica Swamp Soils Against Human Pathogens

    Varghese Rlnoy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the present investigation Actinomycetes were isolated from the soils of Myristica swamps of southern Western Ghats and the antagonistic activity against different human bacterial pathogens was evaluated. Results of the present study revealed that Actinomycetes population in the soils of Myristica swamp was spatially and seasonally varied. Actinomycetes load was varied from 24×104 to 71×103, from 129×103 to 40×103 and from 31×104 to 84×103 in post monsoon, monsoon and pre monsoon respectively. A total of 23 Actinomycetes strains belonging to six genera were isolated from swamp soils. Identification of the isolates showed that most of the isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces (11, followed by Nocardia (6, Micromonospora (3, Pseudonocardia (1, Streptosporangium (1, and Nocardiopsis (1. Antagonistic studies revealed that 91.3% of Actinomycete isolates were active against one or more tested pathogens, of that 56.52% exhibited activity against Gram negative and 86.95% showed activity against Gram positive bacteria. 39.13% isolates were active against all the bacterial pathogens selected and its inhibition zone diameter was also high. 69.5% of Actinomycetes were exhibited antibacterial activity against Listeria followed by Bacillus cereus (65.21%, Staphylococcus (60.86%, Vibrio cholera (52.17%, Salmonella (52.17% and E. coli (39.13%. The results indicate that the Myristica swamp soils of Southern Western Ghats might be a remarkable reserve of Actinomycetes with potential antagonistic activity.

  16. Terrestrial actinomycetes from diverse locations of Uttarakhnad, India: Isolation and screening for their antibacterial activity.

    Vijay Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Uttarakhand region is less explored, but possess a great biodiversity. This diversity can be explored for isolation and characterization of new actinomycetes strains for seeking antimicrobial molecules. It can therefore be predicted that novel bioactive metabolite producing actinomycetes can be discovered to combat multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens.Variations in the viable count of actinomycetes were accessed in different altitudes. Actinomycetes were isolated, indentified and screened for their antibacterial activity.The highest viable counts of actinomycetes were recorded in valleys followed by mid hills and high hills. A total of 512 actinomycetes were isolated which were found to belong the 14 different genera of actinomycetes. Mainly the genus Streptomyces was dominant in all the soil samples. Out of 512 isolates recovered, 23.44% exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more tested bacterial pathogens. Of these 56.67% showed activity against Gram-positive bacteria, 26.67% against Gram-negative bacteria while 16.67% showed broad spectrum activity. Isolate DV1S and GR9a-5 showed highest antibacterial properties against several multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens and were identified using polyphasic approach. DV1S and GR9a-5 were found to be most closely related with S. massasporeus NBRC 12796(T and Nocardia nova JCM 6044(T respectively.The results of this study strongly support the idea that the viable count of actinomycetes varied greatly with altitude. The actinomycetes species isolated from valleys, mid hills and high hills possess significant capacity to produce compounds which are active against several drug resistant bacterial pathogens.

  17. Studies on Actinomycetal Resources under Extreme Environments in the West of China

    Li, W.

    2005-12-01

    s: Actinomycetes play a quite important role in natural ecological system and they are also profile producers of antibiotics, antitumor agents, enzymes, enzyme inhibitors and immunomodifiers. which have been widely applied in industry, agriculture, forestry and pharmaceutical industry. In the past, the research work on actinomycetes was mainly concentrated on that of common habitats. Actinomycetes resources under extreme environments (including extreme high and low temperature, extreme high or low pH, high salt concentration etc.) have received comparatively little attention from microbiologists. Actinomycetes are regarded as one kind of sideline microorganisms and those under extreme environments are better materials for biological evolution and phylogenetic development in research. There are much more unknown species and much more worth researching for actinomycetes under extreme environments. There are many extreme environmental resources in the west of China. For example, wide range snow-mountains, basified soil and lakes, widely distributed acid and alkaline hot-springs in Yunnan provinces; more than 73.3 million hektares basified soil and salt lakes in Xinjiang Province and many unusual environments in Qinghai Province and other western Provinces. They were mostly precious natural resources and were destroyed, relatively fewer can provided us with unique conditions for study on actinomycetal resources under extreme environments. In recent years, our main work was focusing on study of extremophilic actinomycetal resources in the west of China by using conventional cultivation-methods and culture-independent methods (PCR-clone and DGGE/TGGE, etc), Results showed that large amount of unknown microbial resources (including actinomycetal resources) existed in natural extreme environments. Additionally, lots of new taxa were isolated and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Further, we got some new compounds with different bioactivities from these

  18. Genetics of host response to Leishmania tropica in mice - different control of skin pathology, chemokine reaction, and iInvasion into spleen and liver

    Kobets, Tetyana; Havelková, Helena; Grekov, Igor; Volkova, Valeriya; Vojtíšková, Jarmila; Slapničková, Martina; Kurey, Irina; Sohrabi, Yahya; Svobodová, M.; Demant, P.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2012), e1667. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/08/1697; GA ČR GD310/08/H077; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : leishmaniasis * Leishmania tropica * Leishmania major Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.569, year: 2012

  19. New Benzoxazine Secondary Metabolites from an Arctic Actinomycete

    Kyuho Moon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new secondary metabolites, arcticoside (1 and C-1027 chromophore-V (2, were isolated along with C-1027 chromophore-III and fijiolides A and B (3–5 from a culture of an Arctic marine actinomycete Streptomyces strain. The chemical structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated through NMR, mass, UV, and IR spectroscopy. The hexose moieties in 1 were determined to be d-glucose from a combination of acid hydrolysis, derivatization, and gas chromatographic analyses. Arcticoside (1 and C-1027 chromophore-V (2, which have a benzoxazine ring, inhibited Candida albicans isocitrate lyase. Chromophore-V (2 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against breast carcinoma MDA-MB231 cells and colorectal carcinoma cells (line HCT-116, with IC50 values of 0.9 and 2.7 μM, respectively.

  20. Antiviral property of marine actinomycetes against white spot syndrome virus in penaeid shrimps

    Kumar, S.S.; Philip, R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Aquaculture farms, particularly in Southeast Asia are facing severe crisis due to increasing incidences of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Actinomycetes have provided many important bioactive compounds of high prophylactic and therapeutic value...

  1. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes of plants and organic horizons in tundra and taiga soils

    Dubrova, M. S.; Zenova, G. M.; Yakushev, A. V.; Manucharova, N. A.; Makarova, E. P.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2013-08-01

    It has been revealed that in organic horizons and plants of the tundra and taiga ecosystems under low temperatures, actinomycetal complexes form. The population density of psychrotolerant actinomycetes in organic horizons and plants reaches tens and hundreds of thousands CFU/g of substrate or soil, and decreases in the sequence litters > plants > soils > undecomposed plant remains > moss growths. The mycelium length of psychrotolerant actinomycetes reaches 220 m/g of substrate. Application of the FISH method has demonstrated that metabolically active psychrotolerant bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria constitute 30% of all metabolically active psychrotolerant representatives of the Bacterià domain of the prokaryotic microbial community of soils and plants. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes in tundra and taiga ecosystems possess antimicrobial properties.

  2. Specificity of actinomycetal complexes in urbanozems of the city of Kirov

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.; Shirokikh, A. A.

    2011-02-01

    The number and composition of the actinomycetal population was studied in urbanozems in the city of Kirov. It was shown that the total population of actinomycetes was an order of magnitude lower than that in the background territories, and the generic structure of the actinomycetal complex and the species composition of the streptomycetes were transformed under the influence of the urbanization factors. The obtained data were compared with the concentrations of the mobile forms of Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn in different ecotopes (industrial, traffic, and recreation zones). The increase of the relative portion of micromonosporic actinomycetes in comparison with the background (reference) soils was observed in the complexes of the industrial and transport ecotopes mostly contaminated with heavy metals. It was found that the antibiotic potential of the streptomycetes in the contaminated soils was lower than in the soils of the background territories.

  3. Marine actinomycetes as an emerging resource for the drug development pipelines.

    Zotchev, Sergey B

    2012-04-30

    Many representatives of the order Actinomycetales are prolific producers of thousands of biologically active secondary metabolites. Actinomycetes from terrestrial sources have been studied and screened since the 1950s, yielding many important anti-infective and anti-cancer drugs. However, frequent re-discovery of the same compounds in terrestrial actinomycetes have made them less attractive for screening programs in the recent years. At the same time, actinomycetes isolated from the marine environment currently receive considerable attention due to the structural diversity and unique biological activities of their secondary metabolites. This review highlights achievements and challenges in the isolation of marine actinomycetes, some examples of bioactive metabolites identified by conventional screening, and presents new developments in the field of genome mining and heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters leading to the discovery of novel compounds. PMID:21683100

  4. Isolation and identification of actinomycetes from a compost-amended soil with potential as biocontrol agents.

    Cuesta, Gonzalo; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Abad, Manuel; Fornes, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    The search for new biocontrol strategies to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic microorganisms has become widely widespread due to environmental concerns. Among actinomycetes, Streptomyces species have been extensively studied since they have been recognized as important sources of antibiotics. Actinomycete strains were isolated from a calcareous soil, 2 two-phase olive mill waste ('alperujo') composts, and the compost-amended soil by using selective media, and they were then co-cultured with 5 phytopathogenic fungi and 1 bacterium to perform an in vitro antagonism assay. Forty-nine actinomycete strains were isolated, 12 of them showing a great antagonistic activity towards the phytopathogenic microorganisms tested. Isolated strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phenotypic procedures. Eleven isolates concerned the genus Streptomyces and 1 actinomycete with chitinolytic activity belonged to the genus Lechevalieria. PMID:21190787

  5. Actinomycetes as the causative organism of osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease

    The case of a 17-year-old girl with sickle cell anaemia who presented with extensive osteomyelitis due to actinomycetes is reported. Osteomyelitis in the long bones due to actinomycosis is extremely rare. A review of the literature reveals only six cases in which actinomycetes have been isolated from lesions affecting a long bone. The occurence of this condition in sickle cell haemoglobinopathy has not been previously reported. (orig.)

  6. Isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from roots and leaves of maize (Zea mays L.)

    Araújo, Janete M.; da Silva, Adilson C.; João L. Azevedo

    2000-01-01

    Actinomycetes were isolated from surface sterilized leaves and roots of maize. A total of 53 isolates were obtained, 31 of them from leaves and 22 from roots. The genus Microbispora was the most frequently found followed by the genera Streptomyces and Streptosporangium. From the isolated actinomycetes, 43.4% showed antimicrobial activity against one or more tested bacteria and yeast.Microrganismos endofíticos são frequentemente encontrados no interior de plantas cultivadas. Embora vários tipo...

  7. Actinomycetes from the South China Sea sponges: isolation, diversity, and potential for aromatic polyketides discovery

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; He, Liming; Karthik, Loganathan; Li, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges often harbor dense and diverse microbial communities including actinobacteria. To date no comprehensive investigation has been performed on the culturable diversity of the actinomycetes associated with South China Sea sponges. Structurally novel aromatic polyketides were recently discovered from marine sponge-derived Streptomyces and Saccharopolyspora strains, suggesting that sponge-associated actinomycetes can serve as a new source of aromatic polyketides. In this study, a tot...

  8. Population densities and genetic diversity of actinomycetes associated to the rhizosphere of Theobroma cacao

    Tâmara R. Barreto; da Silva, Augusto C.M.; Soares, Ana Cristina F.; De Souza, Jorge T.

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the acknowledged importance of growth-promoting bacteria, only a reduced number of studies were conducted with these microorganisms on Theobroma cacao. The objectives of this work were to study the population densities and genetic diversity of actinomycetes associated with the rhizosphere of cacao as a first step in their application in plant growth promotion and biological control. The populations densities of actinomycetes in soil and cacao roots were similar, with mean values o...

  9. Isolation and in vitro selection of actinomycetes strains as potential probiotics for aquaculture

    Milagro García Bernal; Ángel Isidro Campa-Córdova; Pedro Enrique Saucedo; Marlen Casanova González; Ricardo Medina Marrero; José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to describe a series of in vitro tests that may aid the discovery of probiotic strains from actinomycetes. Materials and Methods: Actinomycetes were isolated from marine sediments using four different isolation media, followed by antimicrobial activity and toxicity assessment by the agar diffusion method and the hemolysis of human blood cells, respectively. Extracellular enzymatic production was monitored by the hydrolysis of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates....

  10. Identification of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in an antibiotic-producing actinomycete species

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Sosio, M.; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    the primary metabolic pathways of the poorly characterized antibiotic-producing actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727. Surprisingly, it was found that Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39272 predominantly metabolizes glucose via the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. This represents the first time that the ED pathway...... has been recognized as the main catabolic pathway in an actinomycete. The Nonomuraea genes encoding the key enzymes of the ED pathway were subsequently identified, sequenced and functionally described....

  11. Artificial Chromosomes to Explore and to Exploit Biosynthetic Capabilities of Actinomycetes

    Rosa Alduina; Giuseppe Gallo

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes are an important source of biologically active compounds, like antibiotics, antitumor agents, and immunosuppressors. Genome sequencing is revealing that this class of microorganisms has larger genomes relative to other bacteria and uses a considerable fraction of its coding capacity (5–10%) for the production of mostly cryptic secondary metabolites. To access actinomycetes biosynthetic capabilities or to improve the pharmacokinetic properties and production yields of these chemi...

  12. Harnessing the Potential of Halogenated Natural Product Biosynthesis by Mangrove-Derived Actinomycetes

    Xiang Xiao; Jun Xu; Min-Juan Xu; Shu-Jie Xie; Li Xu; Guang-Hui Ma; Xiao-Min Tang; Jing Xiao; Xue-Gong Li

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove-derived actinomycetes are promising sources of bioactive natural products. In this study, using homologous screening of the biosynthetic genes and anti-microorganism/tumor assaying, 163 strains of actinomycetes isolated from mangrove sediments were investigated for their potential to produce halogenated metabolites. The FADH2-dependent halogenase genes, identified in PCR-screening, were clustered in distinct clades in the phylogenetic analysis. The coexistence of either polyketide sy...

  13. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea.

    Sreevidya, M; Gopalakrishnan, S; Kudapa, H; Varshney, R K

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20°C to 40°C, pH range of 7-11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40) but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40), hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40), indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea. PMID:26887230

  14. Isolation and characterization of actinomycete antagonists of a fungal root pathogen.

    Crawford, D L; Lynch, J M; Whipps, J M; Ousley, M A

    1993-11-01

    By use of selective media, 267 actinomycete strains were isolated from four rhizosphere-associated and four non-rhizosphere-associated British soils. Organic media with low nutrient concentrations were found to be best for isolating diverse actinomycetes while avoiding contamination and overgrowth of isolation media by eubacteria and fungi. While all isolates grew well at pHs 6.5 to 8.0, a few were unable to grow at pH 6.0 and a significant number failed to grow at pH 5.5. Eighty-two selected isolates were screened for in vitro antagonism towards Pythium ultimum by use of a Difco cornmeal agar assay procedure. Five isolates were very strong antagonists of the fungus, four were strong antagonists, and ten others were weakly antagonistic. The remaining isolates showed no antagonism by this assay. Additional studies showed that several of the P. ultimum antagonists also strongly inhibited growth of other root-pathogenic fungi. Twelve isolates showing antifungal activity in the in vitro assay were also tested for their effects on the germination and short-term growth of lettuce plants in glasshouse pot studies in the absence of pathogens. None of the actinomycetes prevented seed germination, although half of the isolates retarded seed germination and outgrowth of the plants by 1 to 3 days. During 18-day growth experiments, biomass yields of some actinomycete-inoculated plants were reduced in comparison with untreated control plants, although all plants appeared healthy and well rooted. None of the actinomycetes significantly enhanced plant growth over these short-term experiments. For some, but not all, actinomycetes, some correlations between delayed seed germination and reduced 18-day plant biomass yields were seen. For others, plant biomass yields were not reduced despite an actinomycete-associated delay in seed germination and plant outgrowth. Preliminary glasshouse experiments indicated that some of the actinomycetes protect germinating lettuce seeds against

  15. Occurrence of Rhodococcus coprophilus and associated actinomycetes in feces, sewage, and freshwater.

    Mara, D. D.; Oragui, J I

    1981-01-01

    Freshwater, sewage, and fecal samples from various sources were examined for Rhodococcus coprophilus, associated actinomycetes, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci. Rhodococcus coprophilus was isolated consistently from feces of farm animals, poultry reared in proximity to farm animals, freshwater, and wastewater polluted with animal fecal wastes. It was not isolated from samples of human feces. The ratio of R. coprophilus total actinomycetes was higher in feces from cattle, sheep, ducks...

  16. Bioperspective of actinomycetes isolates from coastal soils: A new source of antimicrobial producers

    Rattanaporn Srivibool; Morakot Sukchotiratana

    2006-01-01

    Forty five soil samples were collected from four coastal islands on the east coast of Thailand: Chang, Hwai, Lao-yanai in Trat Province and Pai Islands in Chonburi Province. On 3 isolating media, Actinomycetes Isolation Agar, Starch Casein Agar and Glucose Asparagine Agar, 495 isolates of actinomycetes were found. Preliminary test to search for antimicrobial activity was done with Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 885, Staphylococus aureus TISTR 517 (ATCC 25923), Microc...

  17. Solid lipid nanoparticle loaded with paromomycin: in vivo efficacy against Leishmania tropica infection in BALB/c mice model.

    Heidari-Kharaji, Maryam; Taheri, Tahereh; Doroud, Delaram; Habibzadeh, Sima; Rafati, Sima

    2016-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted through the bite of an infected phlebotomine sand fly and caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. There is no available vaccine for leishmaniasis in human, and the current chemotherapy approaches are hampered by different clinical problems. Most of available drugs are confined to a limited number of toxic chemical compounds, which some parasite strains have evolved drug resistance against. Hence, drug discovery and production of a new anti leishmanial compound is essential. One promising strategy is using the nanoparticle delivery systems with the aim of accelerating the efficacy of the available treatments. In the present study, paromomycin sulfate (PM) was formulated in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and the in vivo efficacy was investigated against Leishmania tropica in BALB/c mice model. To do so, the increase in footpad thickness was measured and real-time PCR was performed to quantify the parasite load after infectious challenge. The level of nitric oxide and cytokines including interleukin-4 (IL-4) and gamma interferon (IFN -γ) were assessed. Altogether, the results show that PM loaded into SLN is significantly more effective than PM alone in inhibiting the parasite propagation and switching towards Th1 response. PMID:26960322

  18. Enrichment Method for the Isolation of Bioactive Actinomycetes From Mangrove Sediments of Andaman Islands, India

    Baskaran, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various pre-treatment methods and three different media were employed for the isolation of bioactive actinomycetes from mangrove sediments of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Sediments from four different sites of mangrove forest were collected and pre-treated by dry heat method, and the media were supplemented with cycloheximide 80 µg/mL and nalidixic acid 75 µg/mL. The mean actinomycetes population density in sediment samples were recorded as 22 CFU-10^-6/gm in KUA medium followed by 12 CFU-10^-6/gm in AIA medium and 8 CFU-10^-6/gm in SCA medium. A total of 42 actinomycetes were isolated, and all the isolates were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria on two different media. Among 42 isolates tested, 22 species were found to be antibacterial metabolite producer against test bacteria namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Particularly, the actinomycete strains such as A101, A102, A107, A116, A121, A125, A130, F101, F102, F104, F106, De101 and De102 significantly inhibited the growth of all bacteria which were tested. Of these strains, A107 was identified as Streptomyces spp. This strain had the maximum activity against all used pathogens on both medium. Hence, the isolation, characterization and studies of secondary metabolites of actinomycetes from mangrove sediments in Andaman and Nicobar Island could be a pathway for discovery of antibiotics from marine actinomycetes.

  19. Influence of moisture on the vital activity of actinomycetes in a cultivated low-moor peat soil

    Zenova, G. M.; Gryadunova, A. A.; Doroshenko, E. A.; Likhacheva, A. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.; Pochatkova, T. N.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2007-05-01

    It was found that the actinomycetal complex of a cultivated low-moor peat soil is characterized by a high population density and diversity of actinomycetes; representatives of eleven genera were isolated from this soil: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Saccharopolyspora, Microbispora, Microtetraspora, Streptosporangium, Nocardioides, Saccharomonospora, Kibdelosporangium, and Thermomonospora. Some genera were isolated from the soil under all the studied levels of soil moisture. The so-called rare (rarely occurring) genera (Saccharomonospora, Kibdelosporangium, and Thermomonospora) were isolated upon the low level of soil moisture, which ensured an absence of competition from the more abundant actinomycetes. Spores of all the studied actinomycetes could germinate under the low moisture level (a w = 0.67). The level of moisture a w = 0.98 was found to be optimal for the development of the actinomycetes. The complete cycle of the development of all the actinomycetes up to spore formation occurring was only observed under the high moisture level (a w = 0.98).

  20. Prophylactic immunization against experimental leishmaniasis. III. Protection against fatal Leishmania tropica infection induced by irradiated promastigotes involves Lyt-1+2- T cells that do not mediate cutaneous DTH

    Protective immunity against fatal L. tropica infection in genetically vulnerable BALB/c mice can be induced by prophylactic immunization with irradiated promastigotes even when heat-killed. Such immunity is adoptively transferable transiently into intact or durably into sub-lethally irradiated (200 or 550 rad) syngeneic recipients by splenic T but not B cells. The effector T cells are of the Lyt-1+2- phenotype, devoid of demonstrable cytotoxic activity. The immune splenic T cell population expresses specific helper activity for antibody synthesis. A causal role for helper T cells in this capacity, however, seems unlikely, because it was shown that antibody does not determine the protective immunity against L. tropica. The immunized donors show no detectable cutaneous DTH or its early memory recall in response to live or killed promastigotes or a soluble L. tropica antigen preparation. Spleen, lymph node, and peritoneal exudate cells from protectively immunized donors similarly fail to transfer DTH locally or systemically. These cells also lack demonstrable suppressive activity against the expression or induction of DTH to L. tropica. Thus, protection against L. tropica induced by prophylactic i.v. immunization with irradiated promastigotes appears to be conferred by Lyt-1+2- T cells that are distinguishable from T cells mediating either both DTH and T help, or cytotoxicity

  1. Prophylactic immunization against experimental leishmaniasis. III. Protection against fatal Leishmania tropica infection induced by irradiated promastigotes involves Lyt-1/sup +/2/sup -/ T cells that do not mediate cutaneous DTH

    Liew, F.Y.; Howard, J.G.; Hale, C.

    1984-01-01

    Protective immunity against fatal L. tropica infection in genetically vulnerable BALB/c mice can be induced by prophylactic immunization with irradiated promastigotes even when heat-killed. Such immunity is adoptively transferable transiently into intact or durably into sub-lethally irradiated (200 or 550 rad) syngeneic recipients by splenic T but not B cells. The effector T cells are of the Lyt-1/sup +/2/sup -/ phenotype, devoid of demonstrable cytotoxic activity. The immune splenic T cell population expresses specific helper activity for antibody synthesis. A causal role for helper T cells in this capacity, however, seems unlikely, because it was shown that antibody does not determine the protective immunity against L. tropica. The immunized donors show no detectable cutaneous DTH or its early memory recall in response to live or killed promastigotes or a soluble L. tropica antigen preparation. Spleen, lymph node, and peritoneal exudate cells from protectively immunized donors similarly fail to transfer DTH locally or systemically. These cells also lack demonstrable suppressive activity against the expression or induction of DTH to L. tropica. Thus, protection against L. tropica induced by prophylactic i.v. immunization with irradiated promastigotes appears to be conferred by Lyt-1/sup +/2/sup -/ T cells that are distinguishable from T cells mediating either both DTH and T help, or cytotoxicity.

  2. Enumerating actinomycetes in compost bioaerosols at source—Use of soil compost agar to address plate ‘mask

    Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, Gillian H; Tamer Vestlund, Asli; Aldred, David; Longhurst, Philip J.; Pollard, Simon J. T.

    2007-01-01

    Actinomycetes are the dominant bacteria isolated from bioaerosols sampled at composting facilities. Here, a novel method for the isolation of actinomycetes is reported, overcoming masking of conventional agar plates, as well as reducing analysis time and costs. Repeatable and reliable actinomycetes growth was best achieved using a soil compost media at an incubation temperature of 44 °C and 7 days’ incubation. The results are of particular value to waste management operators...

  3. Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) by actinomycetes isolated from TNT-contaminated and uncontaminated environments.

    Pasti-Grigsby, M B; Lewis, T A; Crawford, D. L.; Crawford, R L

    1996-01-01

    Actinomycete strains isolated from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated and uncontaminated environments were compared for TNT tolerance and abilities to transform TNT. Regardless of previous TNT exposure history, no significant differences in TNT tolerance were seen among strains. Selected strains did not significantly mineralize [14C]TNT. The actinomycetes did, however, transform TNT into reduced intermediates. The data indicate that, in actinomycete-rich aerobic environments like compos...

  4. Functional Gene-Guided Discovery of Type II Polyketides from Culturable Actinomycetes Associated with Soft Coral Scleronephthya sp

    Sun, Wei; Peng, Chongsheng; Zhao, Yunyu; Li, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Compared with the actinomycetes in stone corals, the phylogenetic diversity of soft coral-associated culturable actinomycetes is essentially unexplored. Meanwhile, the knowledge of the natural products from coral-associated actinomycetes is very limited. In this study, thirty-two strains were isolated from the tissue of the soft coral Scleronephthya sp. in the East China Sea, which were grouped into eight genera by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis: Micromonospora, Gordonia, Mycobacterium, Nocar...

  5. Diversity of Actinomycetes at Several Forest Types in Wanagama I Yogyakarta and Their Potency as a Producer of Antifungal Compound

    Reni Nurjasmi; Jaka Widada; Ngadiman N

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycetes are bacterial groups that produce many secondary metabolites, which different biological activities, such as antifungi, antibacteria, antivirus, antitumor, etc. Actinomycetes are widely distributed in soil and their diversity is influenced by type of forest. The aim of this study is to investigate diversity of actinomycetes in several forest types of Wanagama I forest in Yogyakarta and their potency as a producer of antifungal compound. Soil samples under the forest of Tectona g...

  6. Evaluation of a Possible Synergistic Effect of Meglumine Antimoniate with Paromomycin, Miltefosine or Allopurinol on in Vitro Susceptibility of Leishmania tropica Resistant Isolate

    Tahereh Rezaei Riabi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pentavalent antimonials are still the first choice treatment for leishma­niasis, but with low efficacy and resistance is emerging. In the present study, the effect of meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime combined with paromomy­cin, miltefosine or allopurinol on in vitro susceptibility of Leishmania tropica resistant isolate was evaluated.Method: The drugs were obtained from commercial sources and diluents of each drug in medium were prepared on the day of experiment. J774 A.1 murine macrophage cell lines were attached to the cultured on slide and incubated at 37 0C with 5% CO2 for 24 h. Then the stationary phase promastigotes were added to the cells and after 4 hrs of incubation different concentrations of MA, paromomycin, miltefosine or allopurinol were added and incubated for an additional of 72 h. Then the slides were dried and fixed with methanol, stained by Giemsa and studied under a light microscope. Drug activity was evaluated by assessing the macrophage infection rate and the number of amastigotes per infected macrophage was done by examin­ing 100 macrophages. The experiment was done in triplicates.Result: Various concentrations of MA along with paromomycin, miltefosine or allopurinol significantly inhibited (P<0.01 the proliferation of L. tropica amastigote stage in the macrophage cell line as compared with MA alone or positive control.Conclusion: Combination of Glucantime with paromomycin, miltefosine or allopuri­nol showed a synergistic effect on the clinical isolate of L. tropica in vitro. Use of combination therapy is a new hope and a logical basis for therapy of the pa­tients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Further investigations are needed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of these drugs on the CL patients.

  7. Characterization of a chitinase from the cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca.

    Gaber, Yasser; Mekasha, Sophanit; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-09-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a well-known cellulose-degrading actinomycete, which produces various glycoside hydrolases for this purpose. However, despite the presence of putative chitinase genes in its genome, T. fusca has not been reported to grow on chitin as sole carbon source. In this study, a gene encoding a putative membrane-anchored GH18 chitinase (Tfu0868) from T. fusca has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was produced as SUMO fusion protein and, upon removal of the SUMO domain, soluble pure TfChi18A was obtained with yields typically amounting to 150mg per litre of culture. The enzyme was found to be relatively thermostable (apparent Tm=57.5°C) but not particularly thermoactive, the optimum temperature being 40-45°C. TfChi18A bound to α- and β-chitin and degraded both these substrates. Interestingly, activity towards colloidal chitin was minimal and in this case, substrate inhibition was observed. TfChi18A also cleaved soluble chito-oligosaccharides and showed a clear preference for substrates having five sugars or more. While these results show that TfChi18A is a catalytically competent GH18 chitinase, the observed catalytic rates were low compared to those of well-studied GH18 chitinases. This suggests that TfChi18A is not a true chitinase and not likely to endow T. fusca with the ability to grow on chitin. PMID:27108953

  8. Actinomycetes from red sea sponges: Sources for chemical and phylogenetic diversity

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan

    2014-05-12

    The diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges collected off Fsar Reef (Saudi Arabia) was investigated in the present study. Forty-seven actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were assigned to 10 different actinomycete genera. Eight putatively novel species belonging to genera Kocuria, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the NCBI database. PCR-based screening for biosynthetic genes including type I and type II polyketide synthases (PKS-I, PKS-II) as well as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) showed that 20 actinomycete isolates encoded each at least one type of biosynthetic gene. The organic extracts of nine isolates displayed bioactivity against at least one of the test pathogens, which were Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, human parasites, as well as in a West Nile Virus protease enzymatic assay. These results emphasize that marine sponges are a prolific resource for novel bioactive actinomycetes with potential for drug discovery. 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  9. Actinomycetes from Red Sea Sponges: Sources for Chemical and Phylogenetic Diversity

    Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges collected off Fsar Reef (Saudi Arabia was investigated in the present study. Forty-seven actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were assigned to 10 different actinomycete genera. Eight putatively novel species belonging to genera Kocuria, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the NCBI database. PCR-based screening for biosynthetic genes including type I and type II polyketide synthases (PKS-I, PKS-II as well as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS showed that 20 actinomycete isolates encoded each at least one type of biosynthetic gene. The organic extracts of nine isolates displayed bioactivity against at least one of the test pathogens, which were Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, human parasites, as well as in a West Nile Virus protease enzymatic assay. These results emphasize that marine sponges are a prolific resource for novel bioactive actinomycetes with potential for drug discovery.

  10. Isolation of actinomycetes from mangrove and estuarine sediments of Cochin and screening for antimicrobial activity

    Emilda Rosmine

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and screen actinomycetes for antimicrobial activity from mangroves and estuarine soil samples of Cochin. Methods: In the present study, sediment samples collected from mangroves and various stations of Cochin estuary were pretreated and actinomycetes were isolated on different selective media. The isolates were screened for antibiotic activity by following disc diffusion assay (Kirby-Bauer method) against human pathogens, fish pathogens and Gram-positive bacteria. The isolates were identified based on their morphology. Results:Only 2 actinomycete isolates (ER7and ER10) of the 50 isolates screened had antimicrobial activities against one or more pathogens tested. ER7 isolate showed higher antimicrobial activity as compared to that of ER10 isolate. The maximum inhibition zone of crude extract from ER7 was 16.7 mm. The methanol extract of ER7 showed antimicrobial activity against all the pathogens tested with a maximum zone of 21.0 mm. The isolates with antimicrobial activity were found to belong to the genusStreptomyces. Conclusions:There is no significant report on bioactive actinomycetes from the present study areas. Potent antibiotics from the selected isolates could contribute to fight against several human and fish diseases. Further purification, structural elucidation and characterization are recommended to know the quality, novelty and commercial value of these antibiotics. Hence, the mangroves and estuary of Kochi show great promise for the discovery of bioactive actinomycetes.

  11. Phosphate solubilizing activities of Actinomycetes isolated from Waigeo, Raja Ampat islands, West Papua

    SRI WIDAWATI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes is a major microbial group observed in soil, and contributes to nutrient cycling. This study is intended to verify physiological characters and phosphate solubilizing ability of Actinomycetes isolated from soil of Raja Ampat, West Papua. Most of isolates (RCW16-9, RCW16-8, W5-6, RCW25-1, RCW26-5, W28-4, W3-1, W3-7, W17-7, and W10-1 belonged to Streptomyces genera. The isolates produce clear zone in Pivoskaya after 3 days incubation. The liquid growth of this isolate rapidly utilizes glucose, and after 24 days of incubation almost 95% glucose was consumed. Decrease of pH from 6.1 to 4.3 may stimulate dissolution of calcium phosphate, and about 21 mg/L-P was observed in bulk solution. An increase of phosphomonoesterase activity during incubation is concomitant with the release of orthophosphate into bulk solution. Acidity of cultures increased may stimulate solubilization of calcium phosphate. Most strains produce phosphomonoesterase enzyme, indicating that actinomycetes are important soil microbes responsible for mediation and stimulation of both inorganic and organic phosphate dissolution. Physiological and biomass growth character of phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes could be important taxonomic indicator for identifying and grouping soil actinomycetes.

  12. [Distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomycetes on northern slope of Taibai Mountain, Qinling].

    Zhu, Wen-Jie; Xue, Quan-Hong; Cao, Yan-Ru; Xue, Lei; Shen, Guang-Hui; Lai, Hang-Xian

    2011-11-01

    Twelve representative soil samples were collected from different altitudes on the northern slope of Taibai Mountain to study the distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomyces by using agar block method. There existed a great deal of soil antagonistic actinomyces in the study area. Among the 141 actinomycete strains isolated, 116 strains (82.3%) showed antagonism toward 12 target bacteria or fungi. The antagonistic strains at altitudes 800-1845, 3488, 3655, and 3670 m occupied 73.7% -86.8%, 81.3%, 78.9% and 82.3% of the total, respectively. 42.1% of the strains at altitudes 1200-2300 m and > 3400 m showed strong and broad spectrum antagonistic activity, suggesting that there was a great potential for the isolation of actinomycete strains with strong anti-biotic capability at these altitudes. 24.1% of the antagonistic actinomycetes showed antagonism against Staphyloccocus aureu, and 2.4%, 6.9% and 11.2% of them showed activity toward Verticillium dahliae in cotton, Phytophthora sp. in strawberry and Neonectria radiciccla in ginseng, respectively. This study showed that the soil actinomycete antagonistic potentiality (SAAP) could be used as a quantitative indicator to evaluate the potential of antagonistic actinomycete resources in soil. PMID:22303680

  13. SCREENING OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND GENES CODING POLYKETIDE SYNTHETASE AND NONRIBOSOMAL PEPTIDE SYNTHETASE OF ACTINOMYCETE ISOLATES

    Silvia Kovácsová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe antimicrobial activity using agar plate diffusion method and screening genes coding polyketide synthetase (PKS-I and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS from actinomycetes. A total of 105 actinomycete strains were isolated from arable soil. Antimicrobial activity was demonstrated at 54 strains against at least 1 of total 12 indicator organisms. Antifungal properties were recorded more often than antibacterial properties. The presence of PKS-I and NRPS genes were founded at 61 of total 105 strains. The number of strains with mentioned biosynthetic enzyme gene fragments matching the anticipated length were 19 (18% and 50 (47% respectively. Overall, five actinomycete strains carried all the biosynthetical genes, yet no antimicrobial activity was found against any of tested pathogens. On the other hand, twenty-one strains showed antimicrobial activity even though we were not able to amplify any of the PKS or NRPS genes from them. Combination of the two methods showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes isolated from arable soil, which indicate that actinomycetes are valuable reservoirs of novel bioactive compounds.

  14. Biosurfactant produced from Actinomycetes nocardiopsis A17: Characterization and its biological evaluation.

    Chakraborty, Samrat; Ghosh, Mandakini; Chakraborti, Srijita; Jana, Sougata; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Kokare, Chandrakant; Zhang, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    This investigation aims to isolate an Actinomycetes strain producing a biosurfactant from the unexplored region of industrial and coal mine areas. Actinomycetes are selected for this study as their novel chemistry was not exhausted and they have tremendous potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. The biosurfactant was characterized and further needed to be utilized for pharmaceutical dosage form. Isolation, purification, screening, and characterization of the Actinomycetes A17 were done followed by its fermentation in optimized conditions. The cell-free supernatant was used for the extraction of the biosurfactant and precipitated by cold acetone. The dried precipitate was purified by TLC and the emulsification index, surface tension and CMC were determined. The isolated strain with preferred results was identified as Actinomycetes nocardiopsis A17 with high foam-forming properties. It gives lipase, amylase, gelatinase, and protease activity. The emulsification index was found to be 93±0.8 with surface tension 66.67 dyne/cm at the lowest concentration and cmc 0.6 μg/ml. These biosurfactants were characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Therefore, it can be concluded that the biosurfactant produced by Actinomycetes nocardiopsis sp. strain A17 was found to have satisfactory results with high surface activity and emulsion-forming ability. PMID:25989147

  15. Screening of Actinomycetes From Lipar Area of Oman Sea to Investigate the Antibacterial Compounds

    Shams

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Actinomycetes are one of the most important sources for the production of antibacterial compounds. Marine environments, due to their unique characteristics, are considered a good option to search for bacteria with the capability of producing antimicrobial compounds. Objectives The purpose of this study was to isolate the actinomycetes producing antibacterial compounds. Materials and Methods A total of 35 actinomycetes were isolated from Oman Sea (Lipar Area. To investigate antibacterial activity, the isolated actinomycetes were assessed against reference and pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcu intermedius, Staphylococcu chromogenes, Staphylococcu saprophyticus, Bacillus cereus and methicillin-resistance Staphylococcu aureus, Pseudomonas, Listeria, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Acinetobacter, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using the cross streak method. Results Based on the morphological characterization, 35 isolated cases belonged to actinomycetes and %94 of them had the ability to produce antibacterial compounds. In the cross streak method, most of the isolated bacteria have antibacterial activity against reference S. aureus among Gram-positive bacteria and Acinetobacter among Gram-negative bacteria. Inhibition zone diameters were measured between 2-25 and 1-20 mm for Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, receptivity. Conclusions Preliminary results indicate that the native Iranian Actinobacteria could be considered a suitable option for screening of the new antibacterial compounds. Molecular research and antibacterial compound extraction against the aforementioned pathogenic strains are also being conducted.

  16. Amylase activity of aquatic actinomycetes isolated from the sediments of mangrove forests in south of Iran

    Farshid Kafilzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study amylase producing actinomycetes were isolated from the sediments of mangrove forests in the south of Iran and the rate of amylase activity was measured. The samples of sediments were collected from one hundred different places in mangrove forests of the south of Iran. Collected samples were diluted then they were purified on the starch (casein agar culture and Woodruff. After that they were examined in terms of amylase production on agar–starch culture. The activity of the produced amylase by the isolated aquatic actinomycetes was measured by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS method. The results showed that aquatic actinomycetes were isolated from 86 per 100 places in spring (86% and from 61 per 100 places in summer (61%. The highest rates of producing enzyme were related to isolated samples in spring (62.97 U/ml. Biochemical and Bergey’s book tests showed that the most isolated aquatic actinomycetes belonged to Streptomyces genus. As regards this, it is economical and easy to isolate the aquatic actinomycetes which produce amylase that is used in different industries in Iran from the sediments of mangrove forests of the south of Iran. So the isolated strains in this study can be suitable candidates for amylase production after genetic manipulation.

  17. Phylogenetic characterization of culturable actinomycetes associated with the mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera from Gulf of Mannar.

    Nithyanand, Paramasivam; Manju, Sivalingam; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is a virtually untapped source of novel actinomycete diversity and its metabolites. Investigating the diversity of actinomycetes in other marine macroorganisms, like seaweeds and sponges, have resulted in isolation of novel bioactive metabolites. Actinomycetes diversity associated with corals and their produced metabolites have not yet been explored. Hence, in this study we attempted to characterize the culturable actinomycetes population associated with the coral Acropora digitifera. Actinomycetes were isolated from the mucus of the coral wherein the actinomycetes count was much higher when compared with the surrounding seawater and sediment. Actinobacteria-specific 16S rRNA gene primers were used for identifying the isolates at the molecular level in addition to biochemical tests. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes revealed several polymorphic groups within the isolates. Sequencing and blast analysis of the isolates revealed that some isolates had only 96.7% similarity with its nearest match in GenBank indicating that they may be novel isolates at the species level. The isolated actinomycetes exhibited good antibacterial activity against various human pathogens. This study offers for the first time a prelude about the unexplored culturable actinomycetes diversity associated with a scleractinian coral and their bioactive capabilities. PMID:21105906

  18. Ecological and Taxonomic Features of Actinomycetal Complexes in Soils of the Lake Elton Basin

    Zenova, G. M.; Dubrova, M. S.; Kuznetsova, A. I.; Gracheva, T. A.; Manucharova, N. A.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2016-02-01

    In the sor (playa) solonchaks of chloride and sulfate-chloride salinity (the content of readily soluble salts is 0.9-1.0%) in the delta of the Khara River discharging into Lake Elton, the number of mycelial actinobacteria (actinomycetes) is low ((2-3) × 103 CFU/g of soil). At a distance from the water's edge, these soils are substituted for the light chestnut ones, for which an elevated number of actinomycetes (an order of magnitude higher than in the sor solonchaks) and a wider generic spectrum are characteristic. The actinomycetal complex is included the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, whereas in the sor solonchaks around the lake, representatives of Micromonospora were not found.

  19. Cellulolytic Actinomycetes isolated from soil in Bukit Duabelas National Park, Jambi

    ATIT KANTI

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of study was to investigate the enzymatic activities of cellulolytic Actinomycetes. The soil sample was collected from Bukit Duabelas National Park, Jambi. Actinomycetes was isolated by Casein Agar Medium, and its cellulolytic capacity was determined by measuring the activity of CMC-ase. Two isolates of cellulolytic Actinomycetes belonged to genus Streptomyces were isolated. The CMC-ase activity was 7.7 unit and 13.4 unit for isolate I and isolate II respectively. The Km of isolate I and isolate II were 1.356x 10-3 and 1.595x 10-3 (% b/v respectively. Vmaks of isolate I and II was 1.658 x10-4 and 6.166x 10-4 µg glukosa/mL enzyme /minute, respectively.

  20. Actinomycetal complexes in drained peat soils of the taiga zone upon pyrogenic succession

    Zenova, G. M.; Glushkova, N. A.; Bannikov, M. V.; Shvarov, A. P.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2008-04-01

    The number and diversity of actinomycetes in peat soils vary in dependence on the stage of pyrogenic succession. In the cultivated peat soil, the number of actinomycetes after fires decreases by three-four times, mainly at the expense of acidophilic and neutrophilic groups. An increase in the number of mycelial prokaryotes (at the expense of alkaliphilic forms) is seen on the fifth year of functioning of the pyrogenic peat soil. The species diversity of streptomycetes in peat soils also decreases after fires. An increase in the range of streptomycetal species at the expense of neutrophilic and alkaliphilic forms takes place on the fifth year of the pyrogenic succession. Parameters of the actinomycetal complex—the population density, species composition, and ecological features—are the criteria whose changes allow us to judge the state of peat soils in the course of their pyrogenic succession.

  1. A Search and Improvement of Actinomycetes Strains by Gamma Radiation for Biological Control of Plant Pathogen

    Two hundred isolates of actinomycetes isolate from soil sample in Sakaerat Bioshere Reserve and Suwanvajokkasikit Field Corps Research Station were tested the ability of actinomycetes on chitinase production and inhibition on the growth of 3 phyto pathogenic fung: Fusarium sporotrichiodes, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii, It was found that 7 isolates showed good tendency to control the growth of phyto pathogenic fungi in the with and with chitin. To increase the ability on antifungal activity the select show were mutant using gamma irradiation of radiance 173 isolates of mutant actinomycetes we found that only 35 isolates showed higher in inhibitory effect on three phyto pathogenic fungi tested. three isolate. Three isolates of mutant strains, SJ9I-15, SG4I-17 and SG4I-38 and two isolates of wild type strain which are SJ9 and SG4 were selected for controlling phyto pathogenic fungi in the green house.

  2. Exploration of Potential Actinomycetes from CIFOR Forest Origin as Antimicrobial, Antifungus, and Producing Extracellular Xylanase

    Sipriyadi Sipriyadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate and explore the actinomycetes of CIFOR forest origin as an antimicrobial and antifungal agent, to produce an extracellular xylanase, and to identify isolates based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Actinomycetes were isolated using Humic-acid Vitamin-B agar (HV media. Actinomycetes colonies that grow on the medium HV was subsequently purified by growing them on yeast malt agar (YMA media, then an antagonistic test of selected bacteria against Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Fusarium oxysporum, and Sclerotium sp was performed. Xylanase activity test was detected by observing a clear zone, followed by identification. Total of 35 isolates of actinomycetes isolated based on their colony morphology characteristics and diverse types of spore chains showed Streptomyces spp. of isolates CFR-06, CFR-15, CFR-17, CFR-18, and CFR-19 were able to inhibit the growth of Bacillus sp.. The highest inhibition zone has a diameter of 10.1 mm (isolate CFR-17. Isolates CFR-01 and CFR-15 were able to inhibit the growth of E. coli with the highest inhibition zone diameter of 5.1 mm (isolate CFR-15. Isolates CFR-29 and CFR-12 were able to inhibit the growth of F. oxysporum while isolate CFR-35 were able to inhibit the growth of Sclerotium sp.. Xylanase activity test showed that isolates CFR-12, CFR-20, CFR-22, CFR-24, CFR-25, CFR-30, CFR-33, CFR-34 have an ability to produce extracellular xylanase enzyme. Actinomycetes isolate (Xyl_22 as a potential xylanase enzyme producer was closely related with Streptomyces drozdowicii by the maximum similarity of 99%.How to CiteSipriyadi, S., Lestari, Y., Wahyudi, A., & Meryandini, A. (2016. Exploration Potential CIFOR Forest actinomycetes origin as Antimicrobial, Anti Fungus and Producing Enzymes Extracellular Xylanase. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1, 94-102.

  3. Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples of Sheopur (A city of central India

    Hotam S Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was isolation, purification, and characterization of actinomycetes from soil samples, having antimicrobial activity against 12 selected pathogenic strains. Soils samples were taken from different niche habitats of Sheopur district, Madhya Pradesh, India. These samples were serially diluted and plated on actinomycete isolation agar media. Potential colonies were screened, purified, and stored in glycerol stock. Isolates were morphologically and biochemically characterized. These isolates were subjected to extraction for production of the antibacterial compound. Antibacterial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the purified extract of isolates were evaluated. Totally 31 actinomycete isolates were tested for antagonistic activity against 12 pathogenic microorganisms. Isolates AS14, AS27, and AS28 were highly active, while AS1 showed less activity against the pathogenic microorganisms. Isolate AS7 exhibited the highest antagonistic activity against Bacillus cereus (24 mm and AS16 showed the highest activity against Enterococcus faecalis (21 mm. MIC was also determined for actinomycete isolates against all the tested microorganisms. MIC of actinomycete isolates was found to be 2.5 mg/ml against Shigella dysenteriae, Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and was 1.25 mg/ml for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. All actinomycetes isolates showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, while they showed less activity against S. dysenteriae. These isolates had antibacterial activity and could be used in the development of new antibiotics for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.

  4. Seroprevalence of Leishmania infection and molecular detection of Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum in stray cats of İzmir, Turkey.

    Can, Hüseyin; Döşkaya, Mert; Özdemir, H Gökhan; Şahar, Esra Atalay; Karakavuk, Muhammet; Pektaş, Bayram; Karakuş, Mehmet; Töz, Seray; Caner, Ayşe; Döşkaya, Aysu Değirmenci; İz, Sultan Gülce; Özbel, Yusuf; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2016-08-01

    Leishmaniasis caused by more than 20 species of genus Leishmania is transmitted by the bite of infected phlebotomine sand flies. The studies on Leishmania infection in cats is very few in Turkey and therefore we aimed to screen stray cats living in city of İzmir located in western Turkey using nested PCR targeting kinetoplast DNA and serological techniques (ELISA and IFA). Leishmania DNA positive samples were also studied by ITS1 real time PCR. Whole blood and serum samples were obtained from stray cats (n: 1101) living in different counties of İzmir. In serological assays, a serum sample was considered positive in 1:40 dilution in IFA and for ELISA a serum sample was accepted positive when the absorbance value (AV) exceeded the mean AV + Standard Deviation (SD) of the negative control serum samples. According to the results, the seropositivity rates were 10.8% (119/1101) and 15.2% (167/1101) by in house ELISA and IFA, respectively. Among serology coherent samples, the seropositivity rate was 11.1% (116/1047) as detected by both assays after discordant samples (n: 54) were discarded. Of the 1101 stray cats, six (0.54%) were positive by nested PCR while only one of these six samples was positive by ITS1 real time PCR. During PCR, three controls designated as Leishmania infantum, Leishmania tropica, and Leishmania major were used for species identification. According to nested PCR results, L. tropica was identified in two cats (no.76 and 95). In another cat (no. 269), there were two bands in which one of them was well-matched with L. infantum and the other band had ∼850 bp size which does not match with any controls. Remaining three cats (no. 86, 514, and 622) also had the ∼850 bp atypical band size. ITS1 real time PCR detected L. tropica in only one cat (no. 622) which showed an atypical band size in nested PCR. These results indicated that three cats with only one atypical band (no. 86, 514, and 622) and the cat with mixed infection (no. 269) were

  5. Crystallochemical transformation of phyllosilicates under the impact of cyanobacteria and actinomycetes

    Chizhikova, N. P.; Omarova, E. O.; Lobakova, E. S.; Zenova, G. M.; Manucharov, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of the crystallochemical structure of phyllosilicates (vermiculite and biotite) under the impact of growing cyanobacterial and actinomycetal associations, as well as monocultures of cyanobacteria and actinomycetes, has been studied. The character of the mineral transformation depends on their crystallochemical structure and the type of biota. The most significant changes take place in the contact zone between minerals and microbial associations; the effect of microbial monocultures is smaller. The transformation of biotite proceeds via the stage of ordered mica-vermiculite (smectite) neoformation (rectorite); the destruction of vermiculite has been identified.

  6. Draft genome sequences of three chemically rich actinomycetes isolated from Mediterranean sponges

    Horn, Hannes; Cheng, Cheng; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hentschel, Ute; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomic analysis has shown the chemical richness of the sponge-associated actinomycetes Streptomyces sp. SBT349, Nonomureae sp. SBT364, and Nocardiopsis sp. SBT366. The genomes of these actinomycetes were sequenced and the genomic potential for secondary metabolism was evaluated. Their draft genomes have sizes of 8.0, 10, and 5.8Mb having 687, 367, and 179 contigs with a GC content of 71.6, 70.7, and 72.7%, respectively. Moreover, antiSMASH 3.0 predicted 108, 149, and 75 secondary metabol...

  7. Phosphate solubilizing activities of Actinomycetes isolated from Waigeo, Raja Ampat islands, West Papua

    SRI WIDAWATI; ARIF NURKANTO; I Made Sudiana

    2008-01-01

    Actinomycetes is a major microbial group observed in soil, and contributes to nutrient cycling. This study is intended to verify physiological characters and phosphate solubilizing ability of Actinomycetes isolated from soil of Raja Ampat, West Papua. Most of isolates (RCW16-9, RCW16-8, W5-6, RCW25-1, RCW26-5, W28-4, W3-1, W3-7, W17-7, and W10-1) belonged to Streptomyces genera. The isolates produce clear zone in Pivoskaya after 3 days incubation. The liquid growth of this isolate rapidly uti...

  8. Screening of Antibacterial Producing Actinomycetes from Sediments of the Caspian Sea

    Mohseni, Mojtaba; Norouzi, Hamed; Hamedi, Javad; Roohi, Aboulghasem

    2013-01-01

    Actinomycetes are interesting as a main producer of secondary metabolites and industrial antibiotics from marine environments. A total of 44 strains of actinomycetes were isolated from Caspian Sea sediments at a depth of 5-10 m. Preliminary screening was done using cross-streak method against 2 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative pathogen bacteria. The most potent strains MN2, MN3, MN38, MN39, MN40, MN41, and MN44 were used to extract the antibacterial substances. The antibacterial activities w...

  9. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOACTIVE ACTINOMYCETES FROM SOIL IN AND AROUND NAGPUR

    Rita N. Wadetwar* and Arun T. Patil

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Fifteen soil samples were collected from different locations near Nagpur i.e. from Nagpur, Bhandara and Chandrapur. Air drying and pre-treatment of soil samples with CaCo3 (1%) were found to be most effective for isolation of actinomycetes. Five different selective media were used for the isolation of actinomycetes and the best growth was observed in yeast malt extract agar medium with 1 mg/ml cycloheximide as antifungal agent and by using double layer agar technique for isolation. ...

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Actinomycete Antagonists of a Fungal Root Pathogen †

    Crawford, Don L.; Lynch, James M.; Whipps, John M.; Ousley, Margaret A.

    1993-01-01

    By use of selective media, 267 actinomycete strains were isolated from four rhizosphere-associated and four non-rhizosphere-associated British soils. Organic media with low nutrient concentrations were found to be best for isolating diverse actinomycetes while avoiding contamination and overgrowth of isolation media by eubacteria and fungi. While all isolates grew well at pHs 6.5 to 8.0, a few were unable to grow at pH 6.0 and a significant number failed to grow at pH 5.5. Eighty-two selected...

  11. Actinomycetes bioactivos de sedimento marino de la costa central del Perú

    Jorge León

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo evaluamos la actividad antibacteriana y antifúngica de actinomycetes marinos sobre patógenos de origen clínico. Asimismo, fueron evaluadas la capacidad de producir enzimas extracelulares como carbohidrasas, lipasas y proteasas. Los Actinomycetes fueron aislados de sedimentos colectados entre setiembre a diciembre del 2005 de las Bahías de Ancón (Lima e Independencia (Ica de 34 y 100 m de profundidad. El aislamiento se realizó en Agar Caseína - Almidón (ACA y Agar Marino (AM con adición de Cicloheximide (10 μg/mL. Las evaluaciones antimicrobianas fueron realizadas frente a bacterias patógenas antibiótico-multirresistentes y hongos de origen clínico; en tanto, para evaluar su actividad multienzimática se utilizaron sustratos poliméricos diversos. Se aislaron un total de 62 actinomycetes, de los cuales 31 (50% mostraron actividad antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus, 36 (59% frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa y 23 (37% a ambos patógenos. Las cepas de actinomycetes I-400A y M10-77 identificadas en cada caso como Streptomyces y Thermoactinomyces fueron las que exhibieron mayor actividad inhibitoria frente a P. aeruginosa y S. aureus respectivamente. Asimismo, 13 actinomycetes (20,97% mostraron actividad antifúngica frente a cultivos de Candida albicans cepa 1511 y 17 (27,42% frente a Candida albicans cepa 1511MIC; sin embargo, ningún actinomycete presentó actividad inhibitoria frente a Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus y Trichophyton mentagrophytes. La mayoría de los actinomycetes mostraron tener actividad multienzimática capaz de hidrolizar compuestos poliméricos como el tween-80 (96%, la gelatina (95%, almidón (93%, lecitina (88% y la caseína (74%. Extractos del compuesto activo obtenidos de la cepa M10-77 con etil acetato rindieron notable actividad inhibitoria contra S. aureus. Se concluye que el sedimento marino es fuente de Actinomycetes con gran capacidad de producir sustancias

  12. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Leishmania tropica: Investiga¬tion of a Case Infected with Simultaneous Cutaneous and Viscero¬tropic Leishmaniasis by 2-Dimentional Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry

    Homa HAJJARAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Viscerotropic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica poses a significant prob­lem in the diagnosis and treatment management. Since differential gene expression is more im­portant in outcome of the infection, we employed proteomic approach to identify potential pro­teins involved in visceralization of L. tropica.Methods: The proteomes profiling of L. tropica isolated from cutaneous and visceral tissues of one host were compared by 2-DE/MS proteomics study. Moreover, the transcript level of some identified proteins was confirmed using real-time RT-PCR.Results: Of the 700 protein spots that were detected reproducibly on each gel, 135 were found to be differentially expressed (P≤ 0.05. Most of responsive proteins in visceral isolate changed in less abundant compared to cutaneous isolate. Among differentially expressed proteins, 56 proteins were confidently identified and classified according to the biological process. The larg­est groups consist of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and protein synthesis. Most of the identified proteins, which implicated in energy metabolism, cell signaling and virulence were down-regulated, whereas some proteins that have a role in protein folding, antioxidant defense and proteolysis were up-regulated in visceral form. Moreover, the transcript level of some identified proteins such as co-chaperon was confirmed using real-time RT-PCR.Conclusion: L. tropica probably uses different mechanisms for survival and multiplication in viscera to establish viscerotropic leishmaniasis. The current study provides some clues into the mechanisms underlying the dissemination of L. tropica.

  13. Glucose metabolism in the antibiotic producing actinomycete Nonomuraea sp ATCC 39727

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Bruheim, Per; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, producer of the glycopeptide A40926 that is used as precursor for the novel antibiotic dalbavancin, has an unusual carbon metabolism. Glucose is primarily metabolized via the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, although the energetically more favorable Embde...

  14. Isolation and identification of actinomycetes from a compost-amended soils biocontrol agents

    Compost capability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens has become an interesting subject as a strategy for reducing the adverse effects of massive fungicides application in the environmental. In this context, actinomycetes have received considerable attention as biocontrol agents, particularly Streptomyces species. (Author)

  15. Isolation and identification of actinomycetes from a compost-amended soils biocontrol agents

    Garcia de la Fuente, R.; Cuesta, G.; Fornes, F.; Abad, M.

    2009-07-01

    Compost capability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens has become an interesting subject as a strategy for reducing the adverse effects of massive fungicides application in the environmental. In this context, actinomycetes have received considerable attention as biocontrol agents, particularly Streptomyces species. (Author)

  16. Screening of chitinolytic actinomycetes for biological control of Sclerotium rolfsii stem rot disease of chilli

    Pranee Pattanapipitpaisal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and eighty three strains were isolated from rhizoshere-associated soils, from Ubon Ratchathani andSrisaket province, using Enrichment Media for isolation of Chitinase-producing Actinomycetes agar (EMCA agar. All strainswere screened for chitinolytic activity and sixty eight strains gave significant clear zone on EMCA agar plates. The selectedchitinolytic strains were assayed for in vitro antagonism against Sclerotium rolfsii using cornmeal agar (CMA agar assayprocedure and the result showed that thirteen isolates have remarkable inhibiting the growth of the fungus and the top fiveantagonistic actinomycetes were PACCH 277, PACCH129, PACCH225, PACCH24 and PACCH246, respectively. The resultindicated that these actinomycetes produce chitinase which catalyze the degradation of chitin, resulting in inhibition of S.rolfsii growth. Their abilities to control the disease development were tested for in vivo biocontrol assay on chilli seedlings.Two out of thirteen candidate, PACCH24 and PACCH225, antagonists reduced the disease development at 90%. It wassuggested that the ability to inhibit the growth of pathogen in vitro was not related to the disease reduction in vivo. Thestrain PACCH24 was further identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus according to morphological characteristic, cell walland cellular sugar analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing. The study implies a novel chitinolytic actinomycete which could bedeveloped to be a biological agent which would be included as a complement with organic fertilizers in order to control stemrot disease and promote growth of chilli.

  17. Effect of gamma radiation on the survival of fungal and actinomycetal florae contaminating medicinal plants

    This study evaluates the effect of gamma radiation on the viability of fungi and actinomycetes that contaminate medicinal plants. The relationship between the total lipids of some fungi and actinomycetes and their sensitivity to gamma radiation is also investigated. The data reveal that the viable counts of these florae decrease approximately exponentially with the radiation dose, the effective dose for the elimination of these microorganisms being about 5 kGy for all the medicinal plants under study. Response of pure cultures of fungi and actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plants to increasing absorbed doses of gamma radiation indicate that an increase in radioresistance is in the following order: Streptomyces rimosus, Fusarium solani, Nocardia kuroishii. F. oxysporum, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. ochraceus. The total lipid contents of molds and actinomycetes have been reported to be increased by increasing the radio-resistance of microorganisms, and hence there is a relationship between the radio-sensitivity of microorganisms and the total lipid mass of flora mycelia. (Author)

  18. Anthracimycin, a potent anthrax antibiotic from a marine-derived actinomycete.

    Jang, Kyoung Hwa; Nam, Sang-Jip; Locke, Jeffrey B; Kauffman, Christopher A; Beatty, Deanna S; Paul, Lauren A; Fenical, William

    2013-07-22

    Licensed to kill: A new antibiotic, anthracimycin (see scheme), produced by a marine-derived actinomycete in saline culture, shows significant activity toward Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax infections. Chlorination of anthracimycin gives a dichloro derivative that retains activity against Gram-positive bacteria, such as anthrax, but also shows activity against selected Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23776159

  19. Investigation of antileishmanial activities of Tio2@Ag nanoparticles on biological properties of L. tropica and L. infantum parasites, in vitro.

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Bagirova, Melahat; Baydar, Serap Yesilkir; Ates, Sezen Canim; Kaya, Figen; Kaya, Cengiz; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is a public health problem which is caused by protozoon parasites belonging to Leishmania species. The disease threatens approximately 350 million people in 98 countries all over the world. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) and Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) are the mostly commonly seen forms of the disease. Treatment of the disease has remained insufficient since current antileishmanial drugs have several disadvantages such as toxicity, costliness and drug-resistance. Therefore, there is an immediate need to search for new antileishmanial compounds. TiO2@Ag nanoparticles (TiAg-Nps) have been demonstrated as promising antimicrobial agents since they provide inhibition of several types of bacteria. The basic antimicrobial mechanism of TiAg-Nps is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Even though Leishmania parasites are sensitive to ROS, there is no study in literature indicating antileishmanial activities of TiAg-Nps. Herein, in this study, TiAg-Nps are shown to possess antileishmanial effects on Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum parasites by inhibiting their biological properties such as viability, metabolic activity, and survival within host cells both in the dark and under visible light. The results indicate that TiAg-Nps decreased viability values of L. tropica, and L. infantum promastigotes 3- and 10-fold, respectively, in the dark, while these rates diminished approximately 20-fold for each species in the presence of visible light, in contrast to control. On the other hand, non-visible light-exposed TiAg-Nps inhibited survival of amastigotes nearly 2- and 2.5-fold; while visible light-exposed TiAg-Nps inhibited 4- and 4.5-fold for L. tropica and L. infantum parasites, respectively. Consequently, it was determined that non-visible light-exposed TiAg-Nps were more effective against L. infantum parasites while visible light-exposed TiAg-Nps exhibited nearly the same antileishmanial effect against both species. Therefore, we think that a

  20. Enumerating actinomycetes in compost bioaerosols at source—Use of soil compost agar to address plate 'masking'

    Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, G. H.; Tamer Vestlund, A.; Aldred, D.; Longhurst, P. J.; Pollard, S. J. T.

    Actinomycetes are the dominant bacteria isolated from bioaerosols sampled at composting facilities. Here, a novel method for the isolation of actinomycetes is reported, overcoming masking of conventional agar plates, as well as reducing analysis time and costs. Repeatable and reliable actinomycetes growth was best achieved using a soil compost media at an incubation temperature of 44 °C and 7 days' incubation. The results are of particular value to waste management operators and their advisors undertaking regulatory risk assessments that support environmental approvals for compost facilities.

  1. A mixed community of actinomycetes produce multiple antibiotics for the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus

    Barke Jörg

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attine ants live in an intensely studied tripartite mutualism with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, which provides food to the ants, and with antibiotic-producing actinomycete bacteria. One hypothesis suggests that bacteria from the genus Pseudonocardia are the sole, co-evolved mutualists of attine ants and are transmitted vertically by the queens. A recent study identified a Pseudonocardia-produced antifungal, named dentigerumycin, associated with the lower attine Apterostigma dentigerum consistent with the idea that co-evolved Pseudonocardia make novel antibiotics. An alternative possibility is that attine ants sample actinomycete bacteria from the soil, selecting and maintaining those species that make useful antibiotics. Consistent with this idea, a Streptomyces species associated with the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus was recently shown to produce the well-known antifungal candicidin. Candicidin production is widespread in environmental isolates of Streptomyces, so this could either be an environmental contaminant or evidence of recruitment of useful actinomycetes from the environment. It should be noted that the two possibilities for actinomycete acquisition are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Results In order to test these possibilities we isolated bacteria from a geographically distinct population of A. octospinosus and identified a candicidin-producing Streptomyces species, which suggests that they are common mutualists of attine ants, most probably recruited from the environment. We also identified a Pseudonocardia species in the same ant colony that produces an unusual polyene antifungal, providing evidence for co-evolution of Pseudonocardia with A. octospinosus. Conclusions Our results show that a combination of co-evolution and environmental sampling results in the diversity of actinomycete symbionts and antibiotics associated with attine ants.

  2. AcEST: BP914542 [AcEST

    Full Text Available nooxygenase OS=Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (strain K279a) GN=kmo PE=3 SV=1 Lengt...urenine 3-monooxygenase OS=Salinispora tropica (strain ATCC BAA-916 / DSM 44818 / CNB-440) GN=kmo PE=3 SV=1 ...355 >sp|A8LVF4|KMO_SALAI Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase OS=Salinispora arenicola (strain CNS-205) GN=kmo PE=3 SV

  3. Specificity of the mutualistic association between actinomycete bacteria and two sympatric species of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants

    Poulsen, M; Cafaro, M; Boomsma, J J;

    2005-01-01

    Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants maintain two highly specialized, vertically transmitted mutualistic ectosymbionts: basidiomycete fungi that are cultivated for food in underground gardens and actinomycete Pseudonocardia bacteria that are reared on the cuticle to produce antibiotics that suppress...

  4. Diversity of Actinomycetes at Several Forest Types in Wanagama I Yogyakarta and Their Potency as a Producer of Antifungal Compound

    Reni Nurjasmi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes are bacterial groups that produce many secondary metabolites, which different biological activities, such as antifungi, antibacteria, antivirus, antitumor, etc. Actinomycetes are widely distributed in soil and their diversity is influenced by type of forest. The aim of this study is to investigate diversity of actinomycetes in several forest types of Wanagama I forest in Yogyakarta and their potency as a producer of antifungal compound. Soil samples under the forest of Tectona grandis, Swietenia macrophylla King, Bamboosa vulgaris, Melaleuca leucadendron, and Gliricidia maculata were used as sources of soil bacteria. Bacteria and actinomycetes communities were analyzed through culture-independent approach by RISA and nested-PCR RISA using actinomycetes spesific primer (F243, respectively. Through culture-dependent approach, isolated actinomycetes diversity were analyzed by identification of morphology (colony and cell, genetic (BOX element by rep-PCR, and secondary metabolites (thin layer chromatography. In addition, isolates were assayed for their antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus. The presence of Polyketide Synthase-I (PKS-I and NonRibosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS genes were amplified by PCR to study their correlation with antifungal activity of the actinomycete isolates. The results showed that types of forest influence diversity of rhizobacteria especially actinomycetes. According to culture-independent approach, relatively, com-

munity of rhizobacteria from the highest were soil under the forest of B. vulgaris, G. maculata, T. grandis, S.macrophylla King, and M. leucadendron, respectively. Meanwhile, community of actinomycetes from the highest were soil under the forest of G. maculata, B. vulgaris, M. leucadendron, S. macrophylla King, and T. grandis, respec- tively. Fourty-three morphologically different isolates were found by using

  • Identification of soil actinomycetes in bukit bangkirai fire forest east kalimantan and its potention as cellulolitic and phosphate solubilizing

    ARIF NURKANTO

    2007-01-01

    Some actinomycetes which were isolated from Bukit Bangkirai fire forest in East Kalimantan have been identified. Those isoates were also characterized for its cellulolitic and phosphate solubilizing ability. Identification was based on Miyadoh (1997) and Holt (1994) methods. Actinomycetes could be identified by microscopic observation on spores, chain spore, hypha, aerial hypha and its pigmentation. The cellulolitic ability was observed by clear zone ratio in CMC medium and phosphate solubil...

  • Succession of Actinomycetes During Composting Proccess of Dairy-Farm Waste Investigated by Culture-Dependent and Independent Approaches

    Mukhlissul Faatih; Jaka Widada; Ngadiman N

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic, thermophilic, and maturation phases were recognized in composting proccess. Temperaturechanges influence the microbial communities in compost within composting proccess. Actinomycetes account for alarger part of compost microbial population. The aim of this research was to study succession of actinomycetescommunity during composting of dairy-farm waste investigated by culture-dependent and independentapproaches.In culture-independent method, the succession of actinomycetes communi...

  • Phylogenetic appraisal of antagonistic, slow growing actinomycetes isolated from hypersaline inland solar salterns at Sambhar salt Lake, India

    SolomonRobinsonDavidJebakumar

    2013-01-01

    Inland solar salterns established in the vicinity of Sambhar Lake are extreme saline environments with high salinity and alkalinity. In view of the fact that microbes inhabiting such extreme saline environments flourish the contemporary bioprospecting, it was aimed to selectively isolate slow growing and rare actinomycetes from the unexplored solar salterns. A total of 14 slow growing actinomycetes were selectively isolated from three composite soil samples of inland solar salterns. Among the...

  • Use of the BioMerieux ID 32C yeast identification system for identification of aerobic actinomycetes of medical importance.

    Muir, D B; Pritchard, R C

    1997-01-01

    The BioMerieux ID 32C Yeast Identification System was examined to determine its usefulness as a rapid method for the identification of medically important aerobic actinomycetes. More than 290 strains were tested by this method and the results were compared to those obtained by conventional methods. It was found that aerobic actinomycetes could be differentiated to species level in 7 days by the ID 32C system.

  • In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants

    Ajit Kumar Passari; Vineet Kumar Mishra; Vijai Kumar Gupta; Mukesh Kumar Yadav; Ratul Saikia; Bhim Pratap Singh

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using...

  • Inhibition of norsolorinic acid accumulation to Aspergillus parasiticus by marine actinomycetes

    Yan, Peisheng; Shi, Cuijuan; Shen, Jihong; Wang, Kai; Gao, Xiujun; Li, Ping

    2014-11-01

    Thirty-six strains of marine actinomycetes were isolated from a sample of marine sediment collected from the Yellow Sea and evaluated in terms of their inhibitory activity on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and the production of norsolorinic acid using dual culture plate assay and agar diffusion methods. Among them, three strains showed strong antifungal activity and were subsequently identified as Streptomyces sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The supernatant from the fermentation of the MA01 strain was extracted sequentially with chloroform and ethyl acetate, and the activities of the extracts were determined by tip culture assay. The assay results show that both extracts inhibited mycelium growth and toxin production, and the inhibitory activities of the extracts increased as their concentrations increased. The results of this study suggest that marine actinomycetes are biologically important for the control of mycotoxins, and that these bacteria could be used as novel biopesticides against mycotoxins.

  • Isolation and partial characterization of actinomycetes with antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant bacteria

    Smriti Singh; Pramod Kumar; N Gopalan; Bhuvnesh Shrivastava; RC Kuhad; Hotam Singh Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To isolate strains of Actinomycetes from different locations of Gwalior to evaluate its antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant pathogenic strains. Method: Soil samples collected from different niche habitats of Gwalior were serially diluted and plated on selective media. Potential colonies were further purified and stored in agar slants and glycerol stocks. Isolates were biochemically characterized and purified isolates were test against pathogenic microorganisms for screening. Isolates with antagonistic properties were inoculated in production media and secondary metabolites or antimicrobial products were extracted. Result: The seven actinomycetes strains showing maximum antibacterial activity were isolated further characterized based on their colony characteristics and biochemical analyses. The isolates were screened for their secondary metabolites activity on three human pathogenic bacteria are Escherichia coli (E. coli), Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE). Discussion: The strain MITS 1005 was found to be more active against the test bacteria.

  • Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04852-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available :none) Pseudomonas putida KT2440 comple... 44 3e-09 U89512_1( U89512 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thali.................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N ( BJ430523 ) Dictyostelium discoid...re E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CP001574_342( CP001574 |pid:none) Micromonas s... 49 8e-13 CP000667_124( CP000667 |pid:none) Salinispora tropica CNB-440, com... 60 8e-13 (Q7RYE5) RecName: F...:none) Bacillus cereus subsp. cytotoxi... 42 2e-08 CP000667_2358( CP000667 |pid:none) Salinispora tropica

  • Mutational analysis of primary alcohol metabolism in the methylotrophic actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica

    Hektor, Harm J.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    1996-01-01

    Mutants of the methylotrophic actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica unable to grow on methanol as carbon source were isolated and characterized. Mutants specifically affected in methanol utilization were deficient in formaldehyde assimilation. Mutants blocked in the first step of primary alcohol oxidation (C1-C4) had lost activity of the tetrazolium-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, a three-component enzyme complex. This complex, or individual components, thus play a crucial role in utilizati...

  • Isolation and screening of phytotoxin producing actinomycetes and determination of phytotoxin effect spectrum of selected strains

    Reyhan khayatmaher; Mohammad Ali Amoozegar; Shimasadat Seyedmahdi; Javad Hamedi; Mohammad Reza Naghavi; Faranak Foroozanfar; Ali Mohammad Latifi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Actinomycetes are well-known phytotoxin producing microorganisms. Nowadays the use of microbial herbicides versus traditional chemicals draws a great deal of attention as they do not cause any environmental problems.Materials and Methods: Actbacterial strains of 40 rhizospheric and phyllospheric samples were isolated. Primary screening was implemented on radish and cress seeds on GAP¬Agar. Then, bioassay of cell¬free broth of strains with more than 70% inhibitory effect on the s...

  • Bioleaching of Rare Earth Elements and Uranium From Sinai Soil, Egypt Using Actinomycetes

    Maha Amin Hewedy, Abeer Ahmed Rushdy, and Noha Mohammed Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The use of microorganisms in the recovery of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) and Uranium (U) from low grade ores provides an appropriate eco-friendly alternative to chemical methods used in extraction and/or removal of metals from soils, with a higher efficiency, less destruction to the environment, and lower cost from a commercial view especially given that high-grade mineral resources that can be used in the chemical extraction of metals are being depleted. The feasibility of using actinomycetes...

  • Actinobase: Database on molecular diversity, phylogeny and biocatalytic potential of salt tolerant alkaliphilic actinomycetes

    Sharma, Amit K; Gohel, Sangeeta; Singh, Satya P.

    2012-01-01

    Actinobase is a relational database of molecular diversity, phylogeny and biocatalytic potential of haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes. The main objective of this data base is to provide easy access to range of information, data storage, comparison and analysis apart from reduced data redundancy, data entry, storage, retrieval costs and improve data security. Information related to habitat, cell morphology, Gram reaction, biochemical characterization and molecular features would allow researchers...

  • Characterizing contrasting soils and sediments with semispecific actinomycete r-DNA PCR primers

    Hill, P.; Krištůfek, Václav; Caballero, S.; Kroetsch, D. J.; Rauch, Ota

    České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology AS CR, 2004, s. 88-92. ISBN 80-86525-03-1. [Present methods for investigation of microbial community biodiversity in soils and substrates. Methodological workshop /9./. České Budějovice (CZ), 02.03.2004-03.03.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : contrasting soils * sediments * semispecific actinomycete r-DNA PCR primers Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  • Using actinomycete-specific PCR primers to characterize the bacterial communities of wormcasts

    Hill, P.; Krištůfek, Václav; Feijoo, A. M.; Gallego, G.

    České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology ASCR, 2005, s. 25-29. ISBN 80-86525-04-X. [Contributions to soil Zoology in Central Europe I. Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /7./. České Budějovice (CZ), 14.04.2003-16.04.2003] Grant ostatní: CIAT(XX) SL18 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : actinomycetes * Colombia * earthworms Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  • Investigation of physiologically active products obtained from carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes

    Charged particles such as carbon-ions are superior to X-rays or gamma-rays in the physical and biological characteristics. The propose research project is aimed to provide new insights on antibiotic development. Carbon-ion exposure reduced cell growth. Product(s) from carbon-ion irradiated microorganera suppressed growth of human leukemia cells. We suggested that carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes produce antitumor active product(s) for leukemia cells. (author)

  • Prevalence of viridans streptococci exhibiting lactose-inhibitable coaggregation with oral actinomycetes.

    Kolenbrander, P E; Williams, B L

    1983-01-01

    Fresh oral isolates from human dental plaque were selected on the basis of their spherical morphology. In a double-blind experiment, their species identity and ability to coaggregate with human oral Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii were determined. Of the 110 isolates characterized, 30 were identified as either Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus-constellatus, or Veillonella parvula; none of these coaggregated with the actinomycetes. The remaining 80 isolates were ide...

    1. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF GLYCEROL ON HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION OF MEADOW GRASS BY CELLULOLYTIC ACTINOMYCETES

      Sultanova, L.; Zorin, V.; Petukhova, N.; Sharaeva, A.; Mikhailova, T.; Fedorova, V.

      2011-01-01

      It has been shown that pre-treatment of meadow grass with saline water solutions containing 220 % of glycerol (temperature 120 oC, pressure 98 kPa, time 1 hour) and further washing of lignocelluloses substrate by water lead to significant increase of microorganisms growth, yield of reducing substances and KMC-cellulase activity of extracellular enzymes during the period of cellulolytic actinomycetes cultivation.

    2. Isolation, taxonomy, and antagonistic properties of halophilic actinomycetes in Saharan soils of Algeria.

      Meklat, Atika; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed

      2011-09-01

      The diversity of a population of 52 halophilic actinomycetes was evaluated by a polyphasic approach, which showed the presence of members of the Actinopolyspora, Nocardiopsis, Saccharomonospora, Streptomonospora, and Saccharopolyspora genera. One strain was considered to be a new member of the last genus, and several other strains seemed to be new species. Furthermore, 50% of strains were active against a broad range of indicators and contained genes encoding polyketide synthetases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. PMID:21764956

    3. Isolation, Taxonomy, and Antagonistic Properties of Halophilic Actinomycetes in Saharan Soils of Algeria ▿

      Meklat, Atika; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed

      2011-01-01

      The diversity of a population of 52 halophilic actinomycetes was evaluated by a polyphasic approach, which showed the presence of members of the Actinopolyspora, Nocardiopsis, Saccharomonospora, Streptomonospora, and Saccharopolyspora genera. One strain was considered to be a new member of the last genus, and several other strains seemed to be new species. Furthermore, 50% of strains were active against a broad range of indicators and contained genes encoding polyketide synthetases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. PMID:21764956

    4. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes.

      Hagemeyer, O; Bünger, J; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Drath, C; Merget, R; Brüning, Th; Broding, H C

      2013-01-01

      Exposures to molds and bacteria (especially actinomycetes) at workplaces are common in garbage workers, but allergic respiratory diseases due to these microorganisms have been described rarely. The aim of our study was a detailed analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. From 2002 to 2011 four cases of occupational respiratory diseases related to garbage handling were identified in our institute (IPA). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in three subjects (cases 1-3, one smoker, two non-smokers), occupational asthma (OA) was diagnosed in one subject (case 4, smoker), but could not be excluded completely in case 2. Cases 1 and 2 worked in composting sites, while cases 3 and 4 worked in packaging recycling plants. Exposure periods were 2-4 years. Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Specific IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were detected exclusively in case 4. Diagnoses of HP were essentially based on symptoms and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. OA was confirmed by bronchial provocation test with Aspergillus fumigatus in case 4. In conclusion, occupational HP and OA due to molds occur rarely in garbage workers. Technical prevention measures are insufficient and the diagnosis of HP is often inconclusive. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools including bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination. PMID:23835992

    5. Changes in the structure of the rhizosphere complex of actinomycetes in the ontogenesis of winter rye

      Shirokikh, I. G.; Merzaeva, O. V.; Zenova, G. M.

      2006-06-01

      Changes in the taxonomic structure of actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of winter rye ( Secale cereale L.) growing on acid soddy-podzolic soil were studied. During the first stages of ontogenesis of winter rye, the rhizosphere complex of mycelial prokaryotes was characterized by a relatively level generic structure (with respect to the indices of abundance and frequency of particular genera), low values of the species diversity, and low domination frequency of the species from the Streptomyces genus. The numbers and species diversity of the streptomycetes increased during the further growth of the winter rye, so that streptomycetes became a dominant group in the complex of the rhizosphere actinomycetes. According to the two-way ANOVA, the population density of the Micromonospora and the Streptosporangium genera in the rhizosphere was mainly dictated by the winter rye variety, whereas the population density of the streptomycetes depended on the particular stage of the winter rye development. The differences between the actinomycetal complexes characteristic of different varieties of winter rye at the early stages of its development was leveled by the end of the winter rye growth.

    6. Actinomycete complexes in soils of industrial and residential zones in the city of Kirov

      Shirokikh, I. G.; Solov'eva, E. S.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.

      2014-02-01

      The number, diversity, and structure of the actinomycetal complexes in the soils of the industrial and residential zones of the city of Kirov are considered. The total content of mobile cadmium, zinc, lead, iron, and nickel in the soils of the industrial biotopes was 1.8 and 6.0 times higher than their concentration in the soils of the residential and background zones, respectively. In the heavy metal (HM)-polluted soils, the share of actinomycetes in the total number of prokaryotes and the relative abundance of the micromono-spores in the actinomycetal complex were much higher and the species diversity of the streptomycetes was lower than these characteristics in the soils of the residential zone. The differences in the composition of the mycelial prokaryote complexes appear to be related to the selective resistance of some of their representatives to heavy metals. The possibility to select the strains resistant to HMs and suitable for use in the bioremediation of polluted soils is considered.

    7. Bioperspective of actinomycetes isolates from coastal soils: A new source of antimicrobial producers

      Rattanaporn Srivibool

      2006-05-01

      Full Text Available Forty five soil samples were collected from four coastal islands on the east coast of Thailand: Chang, Hwai, Lao-yanai in Trat Province and Pai Islands in Chonburi Province. On 3 isolating media, Actinomycetes Isolation Agar, Starch Casein Agar and Glucose Asparagine Agar, 495 isolates of actinomycetes were found. Preliminary test to search for antimicrobial activity was done with Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 885, Staphylococus aureus TISTR 517 (ATCC 25923, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa TISTR 781 and Escherichia coli TISTR 887 (ATCC 25922. Fifty-eight actinomycetes were found to be antimicrobial-producing strains. From the morphological determination, cell wall diaminopimelic acid and sugars in whole-cell hydrolysate studies, among the 58 strains, Streptomyces sp. and Actinomadura sp. were the predominant genera. The other antibiotic active strains were Micromonospora sp., Microbispora sp., Nocardia sp., Pseudonocardia sp., Saccharomonospora sp., Streptoalloteichus sp. and Streptoverticillium sp. Most of them could inhibit gram-positive bacteria, especially M. luteus TISTR 884, and 8 strains (4 strains of Actinomadura, 2 strains of Micromonospora, 1 strain of Microbispora, and 1 strain of Streptomyces could inhibit both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    8. Anticancer property of sediment actinomycetes against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines

      Ravikumar S; Fredimoses M; Gnanadesigan M

      2012-01-01

      Objective: To investigate the anticancer property of marine sediment actinomycetes against two different breast cancer cell lines. Methods:In vitro anticancer activity was carried out against breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines. Partial sequences of the 16s rRNA gene, phylogenetic tree construction, multiple sequence analysis and secondary structure analysis were also carried out with the actinomycetes isolates. Results: Of the selected five actinomycete isolates, ACT01 and ACT02 showed the IC50 value with (10.13±0.92) and (22.34±5.82)μg/mL concentrations, respectively for MCF-7 cell line at 48 h, but ACT01 showed the minimum (18.54±2.49 μg/mL) level of IC50 value with MDA-MB-231 cell line. Further, the 16s rRNA partial sequences of ACT01, ACT02, ACT03, ACT04 and ACT05 isolates were also deposited in NCBI data bank with the accession numbers of GQ478246, GQ478247, GQ478248, GQ478249 and GQ478250, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that, the isolates of ACT02 and ACT03 were represented in group I and III, respectively, but ACT01 and ACT02 were represented in group II. The multiple sequence alignment of the actinomycete isolates showed that, the maximum identical conserved regions were identified with the nucleotide regions of 125 to 221st base pairs, 65 to 119th base pairs and 55, 48 and 31st base pairs. Secondary structure prediction of the 16s rRNA showed that, the maximum free energy was consumed with ACT03 isolate (-45.4 kkal/mol) and the minimum free energy was consumed with ACT04 isolate (-57.6 kkal/mol). Conclusions:The actinomycete isolates of ACT01 and ACT02 (GQ478246 and GQ478247) which are isolated from sediment sample can be further used as anticancer agents against breast cancer cell lines.

    9. The biodegradation of layered silicates under the influence of cyanobacterial-actinomycetes associations

      Ivanova, Ekaterina

      2013-04-01

      The weathering of sheet silicates is well known to be related to local and global geochemical cycles. Content and composition of clay minerals in soil determine the sorption properties of the soil horizons, water-holding capacity of the soil, stickiness, plasticity, etc. Microorganisms have a diverse range of mechanisms of minerals' structure transformation (acid- and alkali formation, biosorption, complexing, etc). One of the methods is an ability of exopolysaccharide-formation, in particular the formation of mucus, common to many bacteria, including cyanobacteria. Mucous covers cyanobacteria are the specific econiches for other bacteria, including actinomycetes. The objective was to analyze the structural changes of clay minerals under the influence of the cyanobacterial-actinomycetes associative growth. The objects of the study were: 1) the experimental symbiotic association, consisting of free-living heterocyst-formative cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis Kutz. ATCC 294132 and actinomycete Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus FR837630, 2) rock samples obtained from the Museum of the Soil Science Department of the Lomonosov Moscow State University: kaolinite, consisting of kaolin (96%) Al4 (OH) 8 [Si4O10]; mixed with hydromica, chlorite and quartz; vermiculite, consisting of vermiculite (Ca, Mg, ...)*(Mg, Fe)3(OH)2[(Si, Al)4O10]*4H2O and trioctahedral mica (biotite). The mineralogical compositions of the rocks were determined by the universal X-ray Diffractometer Carl Zeiss Yena. The operationg regime was kept constant (30 kv, 40 mA). The cultivation of the association of actinomycete S. cyanoefuscatus and cyanobacterium A. variabilis caused a reduction in the intensity of kaolinite and hydromica reflexes. However, since both (mica and kaolinite) components have a rigid structure, the significant structural transformation of the minerals was not revealed. Another pattern was observed in the experiment, where the rock sample of vermiculite was used as the mineral

    10. Succession of Actinomycetes During Composting Proccess of Dairy-Farm Waste Investigated by Culture-Dependent and Independent Approaches

      Mukhlissul Faatih1

      2015-11-01

      Full Text Available Mesophilic, thermophilic, and maturation phases were recognized in composting proccess. Temperaturechanges influence the microbial communities in compost within composting proccess. Actinomycetes account for alarger part of compost microbial population. The aim of this research was to study succession of actinomycetescommunity during composting of dairy-farm waste investigated by culture-dependent and independentapproaches.In culture-independent method, the succession of actinomycetes community was analyzed by nestedpolymerasechain reaction of ribosomal intergenic spacer (nested-PCR RISA using spesific primer F243 and primerR23S followed by a second PCR using primers F968 and R23S. In culture-dependent method actinomycetes fromcompost were isolated on selective media, starch-nitrate medium and humic-acid + vitamins medium. DNA ofactinomycetes was extracted and amplified by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR using primer BOXA1R. Thebanding patterns were used to generate dendrograms by UPGMA clustering with NTSYS program. Microcosmcontaining sterile rice-straw and water which is inoculated with each actinomycetes isolates was used for examiningthe ability of each isolate in rice-straw degradation.The experiment results showed that succession of both bacteria and actinomycetes was occured withincomposting proccess of dairy-farm waste. Analysed by culture-independent method revealed that the highestcommunity of compost’s bacteria was on mesophilic, thermophilic, and maturation phases, respectively. WhereasPCR-nested RISA resulted the highest population of actinomycetes was on thermophilic, maturation, and mesophilicphases, respectively. By culture-dependent method was obtained 29 actinomycetes isolates from mesophilic phase,23 isolates from thermophilic phase, and 19 isolates from maturation phase. Genetic diversity analysis of the obtainedisolates showed the presence of phylogenetic grouping on each phase of composting proccess. This result

    11. ANALISIS KELAYAKAN TEKNIS DAN FINANSIAL DARI INVESTASI PENGADAAN TRAY DRYER BERBAHAN BAKAR BIOMASSA PADA USAHA ARANG TEMPURUNG KELAPA BERBASIS EKSPOR (Studi Kasus di Tropica Nucifera Industry – Yogyakarta

      Fanny Widadie

      2013-11-01

      Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to assess the technical and financial feasibility of procurement investment Tray Dryer fueled biomass to operations of coconut shell charcoal briquette in PT. Tropica Nucifera Industry. The result showed that investment-Tray Dryer on cocnut shell charcoal briquette bussiness was highly feasibile both the technical and financial aspects. The technical aspect was seen that the quantity-production capabilities of coconut shell charcoal briquettes using a dryer-Tray Dryer could be increased 15 percent compared the previous consdition-used of solar energy. While the quality of the charcoal briquettes produced from Tray Dryer was a much butter quality, moisture content (6.39%; ash (2.65%; carbon-bound (85.83%, compared to using sunlight, water content (15.89; ash (2.57% and carbon-bound (77.32%.The financial aspects of procurement Tray Dryer investment that its value was more feasible than previous, nothing Tray Dryer. Coconut shell charcoal briquet enterprises without using Tray Dryer was feasible to be done with NPV 1,058,928.12, IRR 63%, Payback Period 1 year and 9 moths, Net B/C 2.25 and analysis of swicthcing value reached 20 percent. And after the business using Tray Drayer, the financial analysis was much more feasible with NPV 2,285,500,498.12, IRR 113%, Payback Period 11 months, Net B/C 3.5 and analysis of switching value reached 50 percent.

    12. SELEKSI DAN PEMANFAATAN ACTINOMYCETES SEBAGAI MIKROBA ANTAGONIS YANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN TERHADAP Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense SECARA IN VITRO

      I MADE SUDARMA

      2015-06-01

      Full Text Available A total of 119 different actinomycete isolate were recovered from banana crop habitats with and without Fusarium wilt disease symptom. These were than assessed for their antagonist ability against Fusarium oxysporum £sp. cubense (Foe in vitro. Results indicated that four of all actinomycete isolate active against Foe. The four of actinomycete isolates were Streptomyces sp. l (AAo4, Streptomyces sp.2 (AAo32 , Streptomyces sp.3 (AAo33 and Streptomyces sp. 4 (AAo35. It was can inhibit the Foe mycelium growth, 79,63%, 72,22%, 78,89% and 72,22% respectively. After tested with the 3 times replication, the four Streptomyces spp. isolate effective to control the Foe that attack Bali banana cultivars, such as Susu, Saba, Raja and Ketip.

    13. Lignin-solubilizing ability of actinomycetes isolated from termite (Termitidae) gut

      The lignocellulose-degrading abilities of 11 novel actinomycete strains isolated from termite gut were determined and compared with that of the well-characterized actinomycete, Streptomyces viridosporus T7A. Lignocellulose bioconversion was followed by (i) monitoring the degradation of [14C]lignin- and [14C]cellulose-labeled phloem of Abies concolor to 14CO2 and 14C-labeled water-soluble products, (ii) determining lignocellulose, lignin, and carbohydrate losses resulting from growth on a lignocellulose substrate prepared from corn stalks (Zea mays), and (iii) quantifying production of a water-soluble lignin degradation intermediate (acid-precipitable polymeric lignin). Of the assays used, total lignocellulose weight loss was most useful in determining overall bioconversion ability but not in identifying the best lignin-solubilizing strains. A screening procedure based on 14CO2 evolution from [14C-lignin]lignocellulose combined with measurement of acid-precipitable polymeric lignin yield was the most effective in identifying lignin-solubilizing strains. For the termite gut strains, the pH of the medium showed no increase after 3 weeks of growth on lignocellulose. This is markedly different from the pattern observed with S. viridosporus T7A, which raises the medium pH considerably. Production of extracellular peroxidases by the 11 strains and S. viridosporus T7A was followed for 5 days in liquid cultures. On the basis of an increase of specific peroxidase activity in the presence of lignocellulose in the medium, the actinomycetes could be placed into the same three groups

    14. Isolation and characterization of potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

      Gebreselema Gebreyohannes; Feleke Moges; Samuel Sahile; Nagappan Raja

      2013-01-01

      To isolate, evaluate and characterize potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 31 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains by primary screening. In the primary screening, 11 promising isolates were identified and subjected to solid state and submerged state fermentation methods to produce crude extracts. The fermented biomass was extracted by organic solvent extraction method and tested against bacterial strains by disc and agar well diffusion methods. The isolates were characterized by using morphological, physiological and biochemical methods. Results: The result obtained from agar well diffusion method was better than disc diffusion method. The crude extract showed higher inhibition zone against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. One-way analysis of variance confirmed most of the crude extracts were statistically significant at 95% confidence interval. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of crude extracts were 1.65 mg/mL and 3.30 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, and 1.84 mg/mL and 3.80 mg/mL against Escherichia coli respectively. The growth of aerial and substrate mycelium varied in different culture media used. Most of the isolates were able to hydrolysis starch and urea; able to survive at 5% concentration of sodium chloride; optimum temperature for their growth was 30 °C. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that freshwater actinomycetes of Lake Tana appear to have immense potential as a source of antibacterial compounds.

    15. Purification and characterization of protease enzyme from actinomycetes and its cytotoxic effect on cancer cell line (A549)

      C Balachandran; V Duraipandiyan; S Ignacimuthu

      2012-01-01

      Objective: To isolate active actinomycetes from soil samples of Northern Himalayas and study their culture characterization, protease production and cytotoxic effects on cancer cell line (A549). Methods: Forty six strains of actinomycetes were isolated from the soil collected from Northern Himalayas, India. Isolation of actinomycetes was performed by serial dilution plate technique. Forty six isolated actinomycetes cultures were grown in ISP 2 medium to study the morphology and biochemical characteristics. Isolated strains were studied for protease enzyme production in skim milk agar medium with solubilising capacity. Seven isolates were studied for melanin pigmentation and different NaCl concentration. Effects of environmental conditions influencing protease enzyme production of seven isolated strains were also studied at different pH, temperature and metal ions (β-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, iodoacetamide, MgSO4, CaCl2 and EDTA). The seven isolates were also studied for lytic enzyme activity using different bacteria and yeast such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Enterococcus feacalis (E. feacalis), Escherishia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans), Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Results: Isolates ERIA-31 and ERIA-33 produced more protease enzyme activity in modified nutrient agar media compared to other actinomycetes cultures. ERIA-31 and ERIA-33 were tested for cytotoxic effect in human adenocarcinoma cancer cell line (A549). IC50 for ERIA-31 was 57.04 μg/mL and IC50 for ERIA-33 was 55.07 μg/mL. Conclusion: Actinomycete being a protease producing bacteria has the potential for use in industrial purpose, pharmaceuticals, cytotoxic agent and its proteolytic activity. Isolates of ERIA-31 and ERIA-33 produced significant amount of protease enzymes.

    16. Investigation of physiologically active products obtained from carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes

      Charged particles such as carbon-ions are superior to X-rays or gamma-rays in the physical and biological characteristics. The propose research project is aimed to provide new insights on antibiotic development. Mutants were prepared by heavy ion irradiation, examined the effect of physiologically active substances produced. Product(s) from carbon-ion irradiated microorganera suppressed growth of human cololectal cancer cells and breast cancer cells. We suggested that carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes produce antitumor active product(s) for cololectal and breast cancer cells. (author)

    17. Investigation of physiologically active products obtained from carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes

      Charged particles such as carbon-ions are superior to X-rays or gamma-rays in the physical and biological characteristics. The propose research project is aimed to provide new insights on antibiotic development. Product(s) from carbon-ion irradiated microorganera suppressed growth of human leukemia cells and mammary tumor cells. This product(s) induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells. We suggested that carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes produce antitumor active product(s) for leukemia cells and mammary tumor cells. (author)

    18. Application of TLC in the Screening of Acarbose-producing Actinomycetes

      Fei Ren; Long Chen; Qunyi Tong

      2014-01-01

      Acarbose is widely used in medicine, such as the treatment of diabetes and obesity. A simple Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)-scanning technique was developed for the rapid and accurate analysis of acarbose in a large number of fermentation broths of actinomycetes to screen for acarbose producer. The linearity of the acarbose in this way was good within the range from 2 to 10 μg (r2 = 0.9997). This technique didn’t need expensive instrument and complex procedure for the detection of acarbose i...

    19. EXPLORATION OF ACTINOMYCETES ENDOPHYTICALLY ASSOCIATED WITH PIPER NIGRUM FOR POTENTIAL BIOACTIVITY

      Jasim B.

      2015-02-01

      Full Text Available Piper nigrum is well known for its metabolite richness. So endophytic microorganisms that reside within such environments can be expected to have promising biosynthetic potential. The current study identified three endophytic actinomycetes with broad bioactivity which can have applications in natural product related pharmacological research. The Verrucosispora sp identified in the study was found to have promising anticancer and antimicrobial activities and Streptomyces sp. was found to have antioxidant activity. The results obtained are supported by many previous reports and this suggests the isolates obtained in the study to have the possible presence of potential known or novel compounds with broad spectrum of activity.

    20. Antimicrobial potential of Halophilic actinomycetes against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens.

      Aslam, Sana; Sajid, Imran

      2016-03-01

      A collection of forty halophilic actinomycetes isolated from water and mud samples of the saline lake at Kalar Kahar, salt range, Pakistan, was screened to investigate their antimicrobial potential against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens. The isolates exhibited significant tolerance to alkaline conditions and grew well at pH 9-11. The taxonomic status of the isolated strains was determined by morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed that majority of the isolates (90%) belong to the genus Streptomyces. Most of the isolates exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activity up to 20mm zone of inhibition against MDR ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter spp. Additionally the isolates showed moderate to high cytotoxicity in the range of 40 to 80% larval mortality against Artemia salina in a micro well cytotoxicity assay. The chemical screening or the so called metabolic fingerprinting of the methanolic extracts of each isolate, by thin layer chromatography (TLC) using various staining reagents and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), indicated an impressive diversity of the compounds produced by these strains. The study reveals that these halophilic actinomycetes are a promising source of bioactive compounds. The preparative scale fermentation, isolation, purification and structure elucidation of the compounds produced by them may yield novel antimicrobial or chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27087086

    1. Viability of fungal and actinomycetal spores after microwave radiation of building materials.

      Górny, Rafał L; Mainelis, Gediminas; Wlazło, Agnieszka; Niesler, Anna; Lis, Danuta O; Marzec, Stanisław; Siwińska, Ewa; Łudzeń-Izbińska, Beata; Harkawy, Aleksander; Kasznia-Kocot, Joanna

      2007-01-01

      The effects of microwave radiation on viability of fungal and actinomycetal spores growing on agar (medium optimal for growth) as well as on wooden panel and drywall (common building construction/finishing materials) were studied. All materials were incubated at high (97-99%) and low (32-33%) relative humidity to mimic "wet" and "dry" environmental conditions. Two microwave power densities (10 and 60 mW/cm2) and three times of exposure (5, 30, and 60 min) were tested to find the most effective parameters of radiation which could be applied to non-invasive reduction or cleaning of building materials from microbial contaminants. Additionally, a control of the surface temperature during the experiments allowed differentiation between thermal and microwave effect of such radiation. The results showed that the viability of studied microorganisms differed depending on their strains, growth conditions, power density of microwave radiation, time of exposure, and varied according to the applied combination of the two latter elements. The effect of radiation resulting in a decrease of spore viability on "wet" wooden panel and drywall was generally observed at 60 min exposure. Shorter exposure times decreased the viability of fungal spores only, while in actinomycetes colonizing the studied building materials, such radiation caused an opposite (supporting growth) effect. PMID:18247470

    2. Antimethicilin resistance agents from marine actinomycetes from soil sediments of Lagos Lagoon

      Davies Olabisi Flora; Adeleye Isaac Adeyemi; Wang Peng George

      2015-01-01

      Objective:To evaluate theisolation of actinomycetes strains with potential for producing antimicrobials with high methicilin resistance capability. Methods: The soil samples were collected from four different locations of Lagos lagoon. TheActinomycetes were isolated from the samples by serial dilution using spread plate method. Isolates were selected based on their cultural characteristics as well as their Gram reaction and phenotypically and molecularly characterizedStreptomyces sp. Isolates were inoculated in starch casein and Kuster’s broth media and secondary metabolites were screened for antimicrobial activity against the following microorganisms: methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus aureusATCC29213,Escherichia coliATCC 29522, Pseudomonas aeruginosaATCC27853,Candida albicans,Enterococcus faecalisATCC 29212. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated fromHIV patients were also used (Staphylococcus warneri,Staphylococcus xylosus andStaphylococcus epidermidis). The antimicrobial metabolites of the isolates were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results:Extracts from isolatesULS12 andULS13 showed antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistantStaphylococcus aureus whileULK3 inhibitedCandida albicans only. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometerdata analysis showed the antibiotic profile of these isolates. Conclusions: The isolatesULS12 andULS13 were found to display the highest antimicrobial activity against the test organisms and could be a potential source of new antibiotics.

    3. Endophytic Actinomycetes: A Novel Source of Potential Acyl Homoserine Lactone Degrading Enzymes

      Surang Chankhamhaengdecha

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Several Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria employ N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (HSL quorum sensing (QS system to control their virulence traits. Degradation of acyl-HSL signal molecules by quorum quenching enzyme (QQE results in a loss of pathogenicity in QS-dependent organisms. The QQE activity of actinomycetes in rhizospheric soil and inside plant tissue was explored in order to obtain novel strains with high HSL-degrading activity. Among 344 rhizospheric and 132 endophytic isolates, 127 (36.9% and 68 (51.5% of them, respectively, possessed the QQE activity. The highest HSL-degrading activity was at 151.30±3.1 nmole/h/mL from an endophytic actinomycetes isolate, LPC029. The isolate was identified as Streptomyces based on 16S  rRNA gene sequence similarity. The QQE from LPC029 revealed HSL-acylase activity that was able to cleave an amide bond of acyl-side chain in HSL substrate as determined by HPLC. LPC029 HSL-acylase showed broad substrate specificity from C6- to C12-HSL in which C10HSL is the most favorable substrate for this enzyme. In an in vitro pathogenicity assay, the partially purified HSL-acylase efficiently suppressed soft rot of potato caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum as demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HSL-acylase activity derived from an endophytic Streptomyces.

    4. Development of actinomycetes in brown semidesert soil under low water pressure

      Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.; Gracheva, T. A.; Lapygina, E. E.; Napol'skaya, K. R.; Sydnitsyna, A. E.

      2012-07-01

      Under laboratory conditions, the spores of a xerotolerant Streptomyces odorifera strain germinated in brown semidesert soil even at extremely low soil water pressure ( P = -96.4 MPa, -964 atm, a w 0.50); the plantlets increased in length and formed mycelium, on which a new generation of spores was produced (a complete development cycle of the actinomycetes—from a spore to the formation of new spores—passed). The duration of the first cycles of the actinomycetes' development varied from 13 days at P = -27 atm to 57 days at P = -964 atm and was directly proportional to the absolute value of the soil water pressure ( P). In the first cycles of the actinomycetes' development, the rate of increase of the concentration of the germinated spores and mycelium, as well as the logarithms of the mycelium-to-germinated spore concentration ratios, was inversely proportional to the logarithm of P. These relationships indicated that the energy state of the water determined its availability to soil biota and, hence, the activity of its physiological and biochemical processes.

    5. Phosphatic precipitates associated with actinomycetes in speleothems from Grand Cayman, British West Indies

      Jones, Brian

      2009-07-01

      Calcitic speleothems from a cave located on the north central coast of Grand Cayman commonly include corrosion surfaces that developed when calcite precipitation ceased and corrosion mediated by condensates became the operative process. Dissolution features associated with these surfaces, including etched crystal surfaces, microcavities, and solution-widened boundaries between crystals, are commonly occupied by microbes and microbial mats that have been replaced by calcium phosphate and/or coated with calcium phosphate. No mineralized microbes were found in the calcite crystals that form the speleothems. The morphology of the mineralized hyphae (eight morphotypes) and spores (nine morphotypes) are indicative of actinomycetes, a group of microbes that are ideally adapted to life in oligotrophic cave environs. Superb preservation of the delicate hyphae, aerial hyphae, and delicate ornamentation on the hyphae and spores indicate that the microbes underwent rapid mineralized while close to their original life positions. Although these actinomycetes were extremely susceptible to replacement by calcium phosphate, there is no evidence that they directly or indirectly controlled precipitation. Nevertheless, the association between the P-rich precipitates and microbes shows that the use of phosphorus as a proxy for seasonal climate changes in paleoclimate analyses must be treated with caution.

    6. Structural and functional properties of actinomycetal communities in chernozems and saline soils of Ukraine

      Grishko, V. N.; Syshchikova, O. V.

      2010-02-01

      In the profiles of ordinary and southern chernozems, the total numbers of amylolytic microorganisms and actinomycetes decreased with the depth by 2.4-4.2 and 3.4 times, respectively; in the profiles of solonetz and solonchak soils, by 4.2-5.3 and 4.8 times, respectively. In the genetic horizons of the ordinary and southern chernozems, the share of actinomycetes amounted to 29-30% of the total population of microorganisms; in the saline soils, it increases with the depth from 23 to 43%. In the chernozems, Streptomyces violaceomaculatus (Roseus section), St. sporoherbeus (Azureus), St. aerionidulus (Cinereus), St. enduracidicus (Cinereus), and St. grisinus (Cinereus) predominated; in the saline soils, St. violaceomaculatus and St. aerionidulus prevailed. In the ordinary chernozem, the Berger-Parker index was 1.5 times higher than in the southern chernozem. High similarity was found between the streptomycete communities in the chernozems (the Sorensen coefficient was 0.78). In the solonetzes, the species richness of the streptomycetes was higher by 1.7 times than in the solonchaks. In the chernozems, the similarity of the streptomycete communities was higher than in the solonchaks (0.78 and 0.60, respectively).

    7. Screening of Marine Actinomycetes from Segara Anakan for Natural Pigment and Hydrolytic Activities

      Asnani, A.; Ryandini, D.; Suwandri

      2016-02-01

      Marine actinomycetes have become sources of great interest to natural product chemistry due to their new chemical entities and bioactive metabolites. Since April 2010, we have screened actinobacteria from five sites that represent different ecosystems of Segara Anakan lagoon. In this present study we focus on specific isolates, K-2C which covers 1) actinomycetes identification based on morphology observation and 16S rRNA gene; 2) fermentation and isolation of pigment; 3) structure determination of pigment; and 4) hydrolytic enzymes characterization; Methodologies relevant to the studies were implemented accordingly. The results indicated that K-2C was likely Streptomyces fradiae strain RSU15, and the best fermentation medium should contain starch and casein with 21 days of incubation. The isolate has extracellular as well as intracellular pigments. Isolated pigments gave purple color with λmax of 529.00 nm. The pigment was structurally characterized. Interestingly, Streptomyces K-2C was able to produce potential hydrolytic enzymes such as amylase, cellulase, protease, lipase, urease, and nitrate reductase.

    8. Antimethicilin resistance agents from marine actinomycetes from soil sediments of Lagos Lagoon

      Davies Olabisi Flora

      2015-03-01

      Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the isolation of actinomycetes strains with potential for producing antimicrobials with high methicilin resistance capability. Methods: The soil samples were collected from four different locations of Lagos lagoon. The Actinomycetes were isolated from the samples by serial dilution using spread plate method. Isolates were selected based on their cultural characteristics as well as their Gram reaction and phenotypically and molecularly characterized Streptomyces sp. Isolates were inoculated in starch casein and Kuster’s broth media and secondary metabolites were screened for antimicrobial activity against the following microorganisms: methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 29522, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from HIV patients were also used (Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The antimicrobial metabolites of the isolates were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results: Extracts from isolates ULS12 and ULS13 showed antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus while ULK3 inhibited Candida albicans only. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer data analysis showed the antibiotic profile of these isolates. Conclusions: The isolates ULS12 and ULS13 were found to display the highest antimicrobial activity against the test organisms and could be a potential source of new antibiotics.

    9. Azalomycin F4a 2-ethylpentyl ester, a new macrocyclic lactone, from mangrove actinomycete Streptomyces sp.211726

      Gan Jun Yuan; Kui Hong; Hai Peng Lin; Jia Li

      2010-01-01

      Azalomycin F4a 2-ethylpentyl ester,a new 36-membered macrocyclic lactone antibiotic,was isolated from mangrove actinomycete Streptomyces sp.211726.Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.The compound showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity and moderate cytotoxicity against human colon tumor cell HCT-116.

    10. Distribution and generic composition of culturable marine actinomycetes from the sediments of Indian continental slope of Bay of Bengal

      Das, Surajit; Lyla, P. S.; Ajmal Khan, S.

      2008-05-01

      Actinomycetes population from continental slope sediment of the Bay of Bengal was studied. Samples were collected during two voyages of FORV Sagar Sampada in 2004 (May-June) and 2005 (July) respectively from 11 transects (each transect had ca. 200 m, 500 m, and 1 000 m depth stations). The physicochemical parameters of overlying water, and sediment samples were also recorded. The actinomycete population ranged from 5.17 to 51.94 CFU/g dry sediment weight and 9.38 to 45.22 CFU/g dry sediment weight during the two cruises respectively. No actinomycete colony was isolated from stations in 1 000 m depth. Two-way analysis of variance showed significant variation among stations (ANOVA two-way, P0.05). Three actinomycetes genera were identified. Streptomyces was found to be the dominating one in both the cruises, followed by Micromonospora, and Actinomyces. The spore of Streptomyces isolates showed the abundance in spiral spore chain. Spore surface was smooth. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the influencing physico-chemical factors were sediment pH, sediment temperature, TOC, porosity, salinity, and pressure. The media used in the present study was prepared with seawater. Thus, they may represent an autochthonous marine flora and deny the theory of land runoff carriage into the sea for adaptation to the salinity of the seawater and sediments.

    11. Isolation, screening and characterization of Uranium microremediable actinomycetes from fallen leaves of Azadirachta indica in Western Ghats

      The aim of this study was to isolate and screen the actinomycetes from fallen leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) in Western Ghats, India that has the capacity to microremediate radioactive waste Uranium. The influence of different temperature and pH on Uranium removal was also studied

    12. In vitro Antimicrobial Assay of Actinomycetes in Rice AgainstXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and as Potential Plant Growth Promoter

      Erneeza Mohd Hata

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to invitro assay the antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes in rice against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and as potential plant growth promoter. A total of 92 actinomycete strains were isolated from different rice plant components and field locations. Of these, only 21.74% showed antagonistic activity against the Xoc pathogen. Molecular identification via 16s rRNA amplification revealed that 60% of the active antagonistic strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Isolates that demonstrated the highest antagonistic activity were also able to produce hydrolytic enzymes and plant growth-promoting hormones. Combination of preliminary screening based on in vitro antagonistic, hydrolytic enzyme and plant growth hormone activity facilitated the best selection of actinomycete candidates as evidenced by strains classification using cluster analysis (Ward's Method. Results from the preliminary screening showed that actinomycetes, especially Streptomycetes, could offer a promising source for both biocontrol and plant growth-promotion agents against BLS disease in rice.

    13. Actinomycetes Mycetoma

      Sumati Hogade; Metgud, S. C.; Swoorooparani

      2011-01-01

      Mycetoma is a chronic infection, frequently seen in tropical and sub-tropical countries and is considered as an occupational disease. Nocardia species though it can infect immunocompetent individuals, it most commonly affects immunocompromised patients. A 50-year-old male, farmer presented to our hospital with serosanguineous discharging swelling over the dorsum of right foot. We have isolated Nocardia asteroides from the tissue sample. Speciation of this isolate was carried out based on phen...

    14. Components in Antineoplastic Actinomycete Strain(N2010-37)of Bottom Mud in Mangrove

      ZHOU Zhong-liu; JIN Bei; YIN Wen-qing; FU Chun-yan; FENG Hua-fen

      2011-01-01

      Objective To study the antitumor components from an actinomycete strain(N2010-37)of bottom mud in Zhanjiang Mangrove,South China Sea.Methods The components were isolated and purified by chromatographic techniques and recrystallization,and the structures were identified by spectral methods together with physicochemical analyses.The antitumor effects of these components were tested in vitro by MTT method.Results Three compounds were identified including two anthrones and one novel lactone.They are(3S,4R,7R,8R,9S)-3,8-dihydroxy-4,7,9-trimethyl-2,6-cyclononanediolacetone(1),2-hydroxy-l-methoxy-3-methylanthraquinone(2),and 1,6,8-thihydroxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone(3).Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound,and compounds 1 and 3 show the favorablecytotoxic activities against human chronic granulocytic leukemia cell line K562 strain by MTT method in vitro.

    15. In vitro Susceptibility of Alternaria solani to Several Iranian Soil Actinomycetes

      F. Sharifi

      2006-01-01

      Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. are of the most attractive sources of biologically active compounds. In the recent decades, they have attracted high interests as biocontrol agents. In search of finding such principles, in vitro suppression of Alternaria solani was studied by use of Streptomyces antagonists. A. solani was sensitive to several species mainly Streptomyces plicatus, S. olivaceus and two unidentified actinomycetes. Activity versus time was monitored in S. olivaceus in solid and shaked cultures. Ongoing goals of this research include isolation, characterization and identification of the active metabolites. Future goals include identification of active genes for use in development of recombinant DNAs in transgenic hosts bearing elevated resistance to infections by Alternaria sp.

    16. Nocardia kroppenstedtii sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a lung transplant patient with a pulmonary infection.

      Jones, Amanda L

      2014-03-01

      A novel actinomycete, strain N1286(T), isolated from a lung transplant patient with a pulmonary infection, was provisionally assigned to the genus Nocardia. The strain had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties typical of members of the genus Nocardia and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Nocardia 16S rRNA gene tree. Isolate N1286(T) was most closely related to Nocardia farcinica DSM 43665(T) (99.8% gene sequence similarity) but could be distinguished from the latter by the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness. These strains were also distinguishable on the basis of a broad range of phenotypic properties. It is concluded that strain N1286(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nocardia for which the name Nocardia kroppenstedtii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is N1286(T) ( = DSM 45810(T) = NCTC 13617(T)).

    17. Structural-functional specificity of the complexes of psychrotolerant soil actinomycetes

      Zenova, G. M.; Dubrova, M. S.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

      2010-04-01

      The active growth and development of psychrotolerant actinomycetes take place in peat and podzolic soils of the tundra and taiga at temperatures below 10°C. The population density of psychrotolerant mycelial prokaryotes in these soils reaches thousands and tens of thousands of CFU/g of soil, and the length of their mycelium is up to 380 m/g of soil. The application of fluorescent in situ hybridization (the FISH method) demonstrated that the metabolically active psychrotolerant representatives of the phylogenetic group of Actinobacteria comprise up to 30% of the total number of bacteria in prokaryotic microbial communities of oligotrophic peat bog and podzolic soils. The portion of metabolically active mycelial actinobacteria exceeds the portion of unicellular actinobacteria. Psychrotolerant streptomycetes isolated from peat bog soils possess pectinolytic, amylolytic, and antagonistic activities at low temperatures (5°C).

    18. ISOLEMENT DES SOUCHES D’ACTINOMYCETES PRODUCTRICES DE NOUVELLES MOLECULES ANTIFONGIQUES

      N. CHERAITI

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available Twenty two strains of actinomycetes were isolated from four samples of Oubeira lake fresh waters of El Kala region (East of Algeria. The antifungal activity was tested against one filamentous fungus: Aspergillus niger (strain supplied by the mycology laboratory of IBN SINA hospital of Annaba. We have utilized two methods in order to study the antifungal activity: culture in liquid medium and double layer method by testing four different media: ISPI, ISPII, GYEA and Bennett.Among the twenty two isolates, only two strains showed an activity against the target strain. It concerns strains Act sp5 and Act sp10. The activity of strain Act sp5 was very important with an inhibition zone diameter equals at 60 mm on GYEA medium.

    19. [Secondary metabolites from a deep-sea-derived actinomycete Micrococcus sp. R21].

      Peng, Kun; Su, Rui-qiang; Zhang, Gai-yun; Cheng, Xuan-xuan; Yang, Quan; Liu, Yong-hong; Yang, Xian-wen

      2015-06-01

      To investigate cytotoxic secondary metabolites of Micrococcus sp. R21, an actinomycete isolated from a deep-sea sediment (-6 310 m; 142 degrees 19. 9' E, 10 degrees 54. 6' N) of the Western Pacific Ocean, column chromatography was introduced over silica gel, ODS, and Sephadex LH-20. As a result, eight compounds were obtained. By mainly detailed analysis of the NMR data, their structures were elucidated as cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-leu) (1), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Gly) (2), cyclo( L-Pro-L-Ala) (3), cyclo( D-Pro-L-Leu) (4), N-β-acetyltryptamine (5), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (6), and phenylacetic acid (7). Compound 1 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against RAW264. 7 cells with IC50 value of 9.1 μmol x L(-1). PMID:26591527

    20. Nocardia pigrifrangens sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a contaminated agar plate.

      Wang, Liming; Zhang, Yamei; Huang, Ying; Maldonado, Luis A; Liu, Zhiheng; Goodfellow, Michael

      2004-09-01

      A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic position of an actinomycete strain isolated from a contaminated agar plate. The strain, designated 7031T, had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of the genus Nocardia. An almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence determined for the strain was aligned with available sequences for nocardiae, and phylogenetic trees were inferred using three tree-generating algorithms. Strain 7031T clustered with the type strains of Nocardia carnea and Nocardia flavorosea, showing low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to these species (97.2 and 97.5 %, respectively). The strain was also distinguished from the closest species by a range of phenotypic properties. It is proposed that the strain be recognized as a novel species of Nocardia, Nocardia pigrifrangens sp. nov., the type strain of which is 7031T (= AS 4.1808T = JCM 11884T). PMID:15388728

    1. Antimicrobial Activities of Some Actinomycetes Isolated from Different Rhizospheric Soils in Tunisia.

      Trabelsi, Ines; Oves, Daniel; Manteca, Angel; Genilloud, Olga; Altalhi, Abdullah; Nour, Mohamed

      2016-08-01

      Fifty four isolates of actinomycetes were collected from four different rhizospheric soils: 18 strains from palm tree bark and soil, 12 strains from an olive field soil, 9 strains from a coastal forest, and 15 strains from an agriculture soil situated in the Algerian-Tunisian border (Oum Tboul). Based on morphological and cultural characters, the isolates were classified as Streptomyces (42 strains), Micromonospora (4 strains), Pseudonocardia (1 strain), Actinomadura (1 strain), Nocardia (1 strain), and non-Streptomyces (5 strains). More than half of the isolates inhibited at least one tested pathogenic microorganisms in liquid culture. In addition, antimicrobial activities of some strains were tested on solid culture. Several bioactive compounds were identified by liquid chromatography joined with low-resolution mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) and analysed by MEDINA's database and by the dictionary of natural products Chapman & Hall. An interesting chlorinated compound with the molecular formula C20H37ClN2O4, produced by three different strains (SF1, SF2, and SF5), was subject of an attempted purification. However, it was demonstrated using confocal microscopy and LC/MS high resolution that this compound is produced only on solid culture. These three potential antimicrobial isolates showed high similarity with Streptomyces thinghirensis and Streptomyces lienomycini, in terms of morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences (bootstrap 97 %). All these findings prove the high antimicrobial diversity of the studied soils. The potential of the selected and other relatively unexplored extreme environments constitute a source of interesting actinomycete strains producing several biologically active secondary metabolites. PMID:27139253

    2. Himalomycin A and cycloheximide-producing marine actinomycete from Lagos Lagoon soil sediment

      Davies Olabisi Flora; Adeleye IsaacAdeyemi; Wang Peng George

      2015-01-01

      Objective: To isolate and screen Actinomycetes from Lagos Lagoon soil sediments for antibiotic production. Methods: Soil samples were collected from four different locations of Lagos Lagoon and were dried for 2 weeks. Actinomycetes were isolated by serial dilution using spread plate method on starch casein and Kuster’s agar supplemented with 80 μg/mL cycloheximide to prevent fungal growth. The plates were incubated at 28 °C for 1-2 weeks. Isolates were selected based on their cultural characteristics as well as their Gram’s reaction and subcultured on same media for isolation and incubated at 28 °C for 3 days. Pure cultures were maintained on nutrient agar slants at 4 °C. Thereafter, they were inoculated into starch casein and Kuster’s broth media and incubated at 28 °C for 8 days. The resulting crude extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity against the following microorganisms: methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 29522, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from HIV patients were also used (Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Extraction of secondary metabolites was carried out and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results: All the isolates displayed varying antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test organisms. Himalomycin A was identified in the extract from isolate ULS7. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer data analysis showed the antibiotic profile of these isolates. Conclusions: The isolate ULS7 was found to display the highest antimicrobial activity against the test organisms.

    3. SCREENING, ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTIC(S FROM MARINE ACTINOMYCETES

      Attimarad S L

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available As marine environmental conditions are extremely different from terrestrial ones, it is surmised that marine actinomycetes might produce novel bioactive compounds. Hence marine sediments, collected from the coastal areas of Gokharna and Muradeshwara of Karnataka state, were screened. Seventeen isolates were obtained on starch-casein agar media by soil dilution technique. However, only six isolates namely SUN-A2, SUN-A3, SUN-A4, SUN-A5, SUN-A7 and SUN-A15 showed significant antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Further studies were carried out with the most active SUN-A2. Optimization of media, temperature and pH by shake flask fermentation indicated starch-casein, 28o C and pH 7 to be suitable for SUN-A2. The production of antibiotics began after 24 h reached maximum at 72 h and maintained at the same level up to 120 h. Ethyl acetate was used to extract antibacterial compounds from the culture filtrate. TLC was done on silica gel using ethyl acetate: methanol (6:4 and direct bioautography showed the presence of two active substance, one with Rf 0.8 more active than the other with Rf 0.4. Further purification is done by column chromatography using a mixture of dicholoromethane and ethyl acetate. The findings from this investigation reveal that the strain SUN-A2 in order exhibited superior antimicrobial activity to other sediment isolates of actinomycetes.

    4. Antibiotic Producing Potentials of Three Freshwater Actinomycetes Isolated from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

      Timothy Sibanda

      2010-07-01

      Full Text Available Crude extracts of three actinomycetes species belonging to Saccharopolyspora (TR 046 and TR 039 and Actinosynnema (TR 024 genera were screened for antibacterial activities against a panel of several bacterial strains. The extracts showed antibacterial activities against both gram-negative and gram-positive test bacteria with inhibition zones ranging from 8 to 28 mm (TR 046; 8 to15 mm (TR 039; and 10 to 13 mm (TR 024. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.078 to 10 mg/mL (TR 046; 5 to >10 mg/mL (TR 039; and 1.25 to 5 mg/mL (TR 024. Time-kill studies revealed that crude extract of TR 046 showed strong bactericidal activity against Bacillus pumilus (ATCC14884, reducing the bacterial load by 104 cfu/mL and 102 cfu/mL at 4× MIC and 2× MIC, respectively, after 6 h of exposure. Similarly, against Proteus vulgaris (CSIR 0030, crude extract of TR 046 achieved a 0.9log10 and 0.13log10 cfu/mL reduction at 5 mg/mL (4× MIC and 1.25 mg/mL (2× MIC after 12 h of exposure. The extract was however weakly bactericidal against two environmental bacterial strains (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis; and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 19582: the extract showed bacteriostatic activities at all concentrations tested. These freshwater actinomycetes appear to have immense potential as a source of new antibacterial compound(s.

    5. Influence of mode of storage and drying of fodder on thermophilic actinomycete aerocontamination in dairy farms of the Doubs region of France.

      Dalphin, J.C.; Pernet, D; Reboux, G; Martinez, J.; Dubiez, A.; Barale, T; Depierre, A

      1991-01-01

      Airborne contamination by thermophilic actinomycetes, micromycetes and Gram negative bacteria was determined on 34 dairy farms and related to fodder drying and storage methods. Eighteen farms had a barn drying system, eight with additional heating; the remaining 16 had traditional fodder storage methods. Three air samples were obtained for each farm with a six stage Andersen sampler. The thermophilic actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces and the dominant micromycetes as Aspergillus sp...

    6. Clear felling and burning effects on soil nitrogen transforming bacteria and actinomycetes population in Chittagong University campus, Bangladesh

      S.M.Sirajul Haque; Rahima Ferdoshi; Sohag Miah; M.Nural Anwar

      2012-01-01

      The effect of forests clear felling and associated burning on the population of soil nitrogen transforming bacteria and actinomycetes are reported at three pair sites of Chittagong University campus,Bangladesh in monsoon tropical climate.Clear felled area or burnt site and 15-21 year mixed plantation of native and exotic species,situated side by side on low hill having Typic Dystrochrepts soil was represented at each pair site.At all the three pair sites,clear felled area or burnt site showed very significantly (p≤0.001) lower population of actinomycetes,Rhizobium,Nitrosomonas,Nitrobacter and ammonifying as well as denitrifying bacteria compared to their adjacent mixed plantation.From environmental consideration,this finding has implication in managing natural ecosystem.

    7. Structural changes of actinomycete communities along primary succession process on non-reclaimed post-mining sites

      Chroňáková, Alica; Krištůfek, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Tichý, Martin

      Lyon : Microbial- ecology Organisation , 2005. s. 94. [Bageco /8./. 26.06.2005-29.06.2005, Lyon] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1259 Grant ostatní: GAJU(CZ) GAJU/54/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : actinomycete communities * primary succession process * non-reclaimed post-mining sites Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour

    8. Structural and Functional Characterizations of SsgB, a Conserved Activator of Developmental Cell Division in Morphologically Complex Actinomycetes

      Xu, Qingping; Traag, Bjørn A.; Willemse, Joost; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Minor, Wladek; Mommaas, A. Mieke; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Wang, Shuren; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; van Wezel, Gilles P.; (Leiden-MC); (SLAC); (Scripps); (UV); (UCSD); (Burnham)

      2010-01-20

      SsgA-like proteins (SALPs) are a family of homologous cell division-related proteins that occur exclusively in morphologically complex actinomycetes. We show that SsgB, a subfamily of SALPs, is the archetypal SALP that is functionally conserved in all sporulating actinomycetes. Sporulation-specific cell division of Streptomyces coelicolor ssgB mutants is restored by introduction of distant ssgB orthologues from other actinomycetes. Interestingly, the number of septa (and spores) of the complemented null mutants is dictated by the specific ssgB orthologue that is expressed. The crystal structure of the SsgB from Thermobifida fusca was determined at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution and represents the first structure for this family. The structure revealed similarities to a class of eukaryotic 'whirly' single-stranded DNA/RNA-binding proteins. However, the electro-negative surface of the SALPs suggests that neither SsgB nor any of the other SALPs are likely to interact with nucleotide substrates. Instead, we show that a conserved hydrophobic surface is likely to be important for SALP function and suggest that proteins are the likely binding partners.

    9. Degradative crystal–chemical transformations of clay minerals under the influence of cyanobacterium-actinomycetal symbiotic associations

      Ekaterina Ivanova

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and actinomycetes are essential components of soil microbial community and play an active role in ash elements leaching from minerals of the parent rock. Content and composition of clay minerals in soil determine the sorption properties of the soil horizons, water-holding capacity of the soil, stickiness, plasticity, etc. The transformative effect of cyanobacterial–actinomycetes associations on the structure of clay minerals – kaolinite, vermiculite, montmorillonite, biotite and muscovite – was observed, with the greatest structural lattice transformation revealed under the influence of association in comparison with monocultures of cyanobacterium and actinomycete. The range of the transformative effect depended both on the type of biota (component composition of association and on the crystal–chemical parameters of the mineral itself (trioctahedral mica – biotite, was more prone to microbial degradation than the dioctahedral – muscovite. The formation of the swelling phase – the product of biotite transformation into the mica–vermicullite mixed-layered formation was revealed as a result of association cultivation. Crystal chemical transformation of vermiculite was accompanied by the removal of potassium (К, magnesium (Mg and aluminum (Al from the crystal lattice. The study of such prokaryotic communities existed even in the early stages of the Earth's history helps to understand the causes and nature of the transformations undergone by the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere of the planet.contribution of treatments on structure induces and model parameters are discussed in the paper.

    10. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the endophytic actinomycete R18(6) against multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria.

      Carvalho, Tiele; Van Der Sand, Sueli

      2016-03-01

      Endophytic actinomycetes are promising sources of antimicrobial substances. This study evaluates the activity of metabolites produced by the endophytic actinomycete R18(6) against Gram-negative bacteria multiresistant to antimicrobials. R18(6) isolate was grown in submerged cultures under different conditions: carbon source, temperature, pH and incubation time to optimize antimicrobials production. The actinomycete grown in base medium supplemented with 1% glucose, pH 6.5 and incubation at 30 ºC for 96 h with shaking at 100 rpm, exhibited the highest activity against the used Gram-negative bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the crude extract produced by the microorganism varied between 1/32 and 1/256. It had bactericide or bacteriostatic activity, depending on the Gram-negative organism. The active extract was stable at high temperatures, and unstable in medium containing proteolytic enzymes. Micromorphology of R18(6) was investigated by optical and scan microscopy, revealing that it was morphologically similar to the genusStreptomyces. PMID:26871499

    11. Inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus and cancer cells by marine actinomycete strains

      Li, Ping; Yan, Peisheng

      2014-12-01

      Ten actinomycete strains isolated from the Yellow Sea off China's coasts were identified as belonging to two genera by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis: Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis. Six Streptomyces strains (MA10, 2SHXF01-3, MA35, MA05-2, MA05-2-1 and MA08-1) and one Nocardiopsis strain (MA03) were predicted to have the potential to produce aromatic polyketides based on the analysis of the KSα (ketoacyl-synthase) gene in the type II PKS (polyketides synthase) gene cluster. Four strains (MA03, MA01, MA10 and MA05-2) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth (inhibition rate >50%) and subsequent aflatoxin production (inhibition rate >75%) of the mutant aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus NFRI-95. The ethyl acetate extracts of the broth of these four strains displayed significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth, and the IC50 values were calculated (MA03: 0.275 mg mL-1, MA01: 0.106 mg mL-1, MA10: 1.345 mg mL-1 and MA05-2: 1.362 mg mL-1). Five strains (2SHXF01-3, MA03, MA05-2, MA01 and MA08-1) were selected based on their high cytotoxic activities. The ethyl acetate extract of the Nocardiopsis strain MA03 was particularly noted for its high antitumor activity against human carcinomas of the cervix (HeLa), lung (A549), kidney (Caki-1) and liver (HepG2) (IC50: 2.890, 1.981, 3.032 and 2.603 μg mL-1, respectively). The extract also remarkably inhibited colony formation of HeLa cells at an extremely low concentration (0.5 μg mL-1). This study highlights that marine-derived actinomycetes are a huge resource of compounds for the biological control of aflatoxin contamination and the development of novel drugs for human carcinomas.

    12. Pesquisas sobre a imunidade da Framboesia tropica no homem: observações feitas em 33 superinoculações e 7 reinoculações

      F. Nery Guimarães

      1946-03-01

      em germes. 5 Existe na framboesia trópica uma verdadeira imunidade além de uma simples resistência á superinoculação devido a presença da infecção ativa ou latente. Com efeito, pacientes tratados em determinado período da molestia e curados clinica e sorologicamente, mostraram resistência parcial á reinoculação, reagindo de modo semelhante a outros do mesmo período de molestia e não tratados. 6 A imunidade na framboesia tropica se manifesta seja como uma resistência á superinoculação ou reinoculação seja como uma modificação da lesão boubatica inicial, seja, finalmente, como uma resistência á generalização da doença. 7 Os resultados das esperiências sugerem que as diferentes manifestações cutaneas da molestia são condicionadas até certo ponto pelo estado imunitario do organismo infectado. 8 Os diferentes gráus de imunidade, encontrados na framboesia trópica, estão até certo ponto relacionados com o tempo de doença. Porém, são atingidos mais ou menos ràpidamente, segundo o organismo infectado e, talvez segundo a virulência do treponema, do mesmo modo como os chamados "secundarismo" e 'terciarismo" da doença.The following conclusions are drawn from the results of the 40 experiments described above: 1 From the 2nd to the 8th month there is a great resistance to super-infection. a Such resistance seems to be independent of the presence of cutaneous lesions and occurred even in cases with only the initial lesion. b Within this period, resistance disappears with treatment: patients treated and reinoculated acquire yaws in the normal time. This fact suggests that this resistance is conditioned by the presence of an active or latent infection, being not a true immunity (an immunity in its classical conception. c When homovirus is used, resistance lasted about one year of the disease. 2 From the 10th month to the 4th year of the disease, there is a partial resistance, which manifests itself by two modes, according to the nature of

    13. Identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease

      Mungsuntisuk Isada

      2011-04-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Colletotrichum is one of the most widespread and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi worldwide. Various species of Colletotrichum are the causative agents of anthracnose disease in plants, which is a severe problem to agricultural crops particularly in Thailand. These phytopathogens are usually controlled using chemicals; however, the use of these agents can lead to environmental pollution. Potential non-chemical control strategies for anthracnose disease include the use of bacteria capable of producing anti-fungal compounds such as actinomycetes spp., that comprise a large group of filamentous, Gram positive bacteria from soil. The aim of this study was to isolate actinomycetes capable of inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum spp, and to analyze the diversity of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soil. Results A total of 304 actinomycetes were isolated and tested for their inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides strains DoA d0762 and DoA c1060 and Colletotrichum capsici strain DoA c1511 which cause anthracnose disease as well as the non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain IFO 10217. Most isolates (222 out of 304, 73.0% were active against at least one indicator fungus or yeast. Fifty four (17.8% were active against three anthracnose fungi and 17 (5.6% could inhibit the growth of all three fungi and S. cerevisiae used in the test. Detailed analysis on 30 selected isolates from an orchard at Chanthaburi using the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the isolates (87% belong to the genus Streptomyces sp., while one each belongs to Saccharopolyspora (strain SB-2 and Nocardiopsis (strain CM-2 and two to Nocardia (strains BP-3 and LK-1. Strains LC-1, LC-4, JF-1, SC-1 and MG-1 exerted high inhibitory activity against all three anthracnose fungi and yeast. In addition, the organic solvent extracts prepared from these five strains inhibited conidial growth of the three

    14. Actinorugispora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from Daucus carota.

      Liu, Min-Jiao; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Xiong, Zhi; Park, Dong-Jin; Hozzein, Wael N; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun

      2015-08-01

      An actinomycete strain, designated YIM 690008T, was isolated from Daucus carota collected from South Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The strain grew well on most media tested and no diffusible pigment was produced. The aerial mycelium formed wrinkled single spores and short spore chains, some of which were branched. The whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, mannose, ribose, galactose and rhamnose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H4), MK-10(H6), MK-10(H8) and MK-10(H2). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, some unknown phospholipids, glycolipids and polar lipids. The major fatty acids were i-C16 : 0, ai-C17 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolate belongs to the family Nocardiopsaceae. However, based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, it was concluded that strain YIM 690008T represents a novel genus and novel species of the family Nocardiopsaceae, for which the name Actinorugispora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain YIM 690008T = DSM 46770T = JCM 30099T = KCTC 29480T) is proposed. PMID:25948617

    15. Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

      Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Sun, Pengyu; Liu, Chongxi; Cao, Tingting; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhao, Shanshan; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

      2016-06-01

      A novel single spore-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Gz5(T), was isolated from a soil sample from Gama, Chad. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of this strain. The diamino acid present in the cell wall is meso-diaminopimelic acid. Glucose, mannose and madurose occur in whole cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified glycolipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). The predominant cellular fatty acids were found to be C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and C18:0 10-methyl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) belongs to the genus Actinomadura and is closely related to Actinomadura oligospora JCM 10648(T) (ATCC 43269(T); 98.3 % similarity). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness and some different phenotypic characteristics allowed the strain to be distinguished from its close relatives. Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) represents a novel species of the genus of Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz5(T) (= CGMCC 4.7301(T) = DSM 100815(T)). PMID:27010208

    16. Hydrophobic nature and effects of culture conditions on biofilm formation by the cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca

      Almaris N. Alonso

      2015-09-01

      Full Text Available Thermobifida fusca produces a firmly attached biofilm on nutritive and non-nutritive surfaces, such as cellulose, glass, plastic, metal and Teflon®. The ability to bind to surfaces has been suggested as a competitive advantage for microbes in soil environments. Results of previous investigations indicated that a Gram-positive cellulolytic soil bacteria, Cellulomonas uda, a facultative aerobe, specifically adhered to nutritive surfaces forming biofilms, but cells did not colonize non-nutritive surfaces. Cell surface hydrophobicity has been implicated in the interactions between bacteria and the adhesion to surfaces. It was recently described that the cellulolytic actinomycete T. fusca cells hydrophobicity was measured and compared to the cellulolytic soil bacteria C. uda. Also, T. fusca biofilm formation on non-nutritive surface, such as polyvinyl chloride, was examined by testing various culture ingredients to determine a possible trigger mechanism for biofilm formation. Experimental results showed that partitioning of bacterial cells to various hydrocarbons was higher in T. fusca cells than in C. uda. The results of this study suggest that the attachment to multiple surfaces by T. fusca could depend on nutrient availability, pH, salt concentrations, and the higher hydrophobic nature of bacterial cells. Possibly, these characteristics may confer T. fusca a selective advantage to compete and survive among the many environments it thrives.

    17. Diversity and bioactivity of actinomycetes from marine sediments of the Yellow Sea

      Zhang, Shumin; Ye, Liang; Tang, Xuexi

      2012-03-01

      Among the 116 actinomycetes collected from marine sediments of the Yellow Sea, 56 grew slowly and appeared after 2-3 weeks of incubation. Among the 56 strains, only 3 required seawater (SW) for growth, and 21 grew well in the medium prepared with SW rather than distilled water (DW), while the remaining 32 grew well either with SW or with DW. Six representatives with different morphological characteristics, including 1 SW-requiring strain and 5 well-growing with SW strains, were selected for phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene. Two strains belong to Micrococcaceae and Nocardiopsaceae respectively. The other 4 strains belong to the family of Streptomycetaceae. In the analyzed 6 strains, one was related to Nocardiopsis spp. and the other three were related to Streptomyces spp., representing new taxa. Bioactivity testing of fermentation products from 3 SW-requiring strains and 21 well-growing with SW strains revealed that 17 strains possessed remarkable activities against gram-positive pathogen or/and tumor cells, suggesting that they were prolific resources for natural drug discovery.

    18. Genome Sequence and Analysis of the Soil Cellulolytic ActinomyceteThermobifida fusca

      Lykidis, Athanasios; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Anderson, Iain; Land, Miriam; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Martinez, Michele; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Richardson, Paul; Wilson,David B.; Kyrpides, Nikos

      2007-02-01

      Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic soilbacterium that belongs to Actinobacteria. 3 It is a major degrader ofplant cell walls and has been used as a model organism for the study of 4secreted, thermostable cellulases. The complete genome sequence showedthat T. fusca has a 5 single circular chromosome of 3642249 bp predictedto encode 3117 proteins and 65 RNA6 species with a coding densityof 85percent. Genome analysis revealed the existence of 29 putative 7glycoside hydrolases in addition to the previously identified cellulasesand xylanases. The 8 glycosyl hydrolases include enzymes predicted toexhibit mainly dextran/starch and xylan 9 degrading functions. T. fuscapossesses two protein secretion systems: the sec general secretion 10system and the twin-arginine translocation system. Several of thesecreted cellulases have 11 sequence signatures indicating theirsecretion may be mediated by the twin-arginine12 translocation system. T.fusca has extensive transport systems for import of carbohydrates 13coupled to transcriptional regulators controlling the expression of thetransporters and14 glycosylhydrolases. In addition to providing anoverview of the physiology of a soil 15 actinomycete, this study presentsinsights on the transcriptional regulation and secretion of16 cellulaseswhich may facilitate the industrial exploitation of thesesystems.

    19. Antibiotic pigment from desert soil actinomycetes; biological activity, purification and chemical screening

      Selvameenal L

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available An actinomycete strain, Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. ossamyceticus (strain D10 was isolated from Thar Desert soil, Rajasthan during the year 2006 and found to produce a yellow color pigment with antibiotic activity. Crude pigment was produced from strain D10 by solid state fermentation using wheat bran medium followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The antimicrobial activity of the crude pigment was evaluated against drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended spectrum b-lactamase producing cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella sp. About 420 mg of crude pigment was produced per 10 g of wheat bran medium. In the disc diffusion method the crude ethyl acetate extract showed a minimum of 10 mm inhibition against Klebsiella sp. and maximum of 19 mm of inhibition against Escherichia coli. The crude pigment was partially purified using thin layer chromatography with the solvent system chloroform:methanol (30:70 and the Rf value was calculated as 0.768. Antimicrobial activity of the partially purified compound from thin layer chromatography was determined using the bioautography method. The purified pigment showed minimum of 15 mm inhibition against Klebsiella sp. and a maximum of 23 mm of inhibition against vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the disc diffusion method. Based on the results of chemical screening, the pigment was tentatively identified as group of sugar containing molecules.

    20. Biogenic gold nanotriangles from Saccharomonospora sp., an endophytic actinomycetes of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

      Verma, Vijay C.; Anand, Swechha; Ulrichs, Christian; Singh, Santosh K.

      2013-04-01

      Microbial biofabrication is emerging as eco-friendly, simpler, and reproducible alternative to chemical synthesis of metals and semiconductor nanoparticles, allowing generation of rare geometrical forms such as nanotriangles and nanoprisms. Highly confined nanostructures like triangles/prisms are interesting class of nanoparticles due to their unique optical properties exploitable in biomedical diagnostics and biosensors. Here, we report for the first time a single-step biological protocol for the synthesis of gold nanotriangles using extract of endophytic actinomycetes Saccharomonospora sp., isolated from surface sterilized root tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss., when incubated with an aqueous solution of chloroaurate ions (AuCl- 4/1 mM). Thin, flat occasionally prismatic gold nanotriangles were produced when aqueous chloroaurate ions reacted with the cell-free extract as well as with the biomass of endophytic Saccharomonospora. It was evidenced from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis that proteins of 42 and 50 kD were involved in biosynthesis as well as in stabilization of the nanoparticles. The particle growth process was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy, and the morphological characterization was carried out by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy together with X-ray powder diffractions. Although the exact mechanism for this shape-oriented synthesis is not clear so far, the possibility of achieving nanoparticle shape control in a microbial system is exciting.

    1. The loop structure of Actinomycete glycoside hydrolase family 5 mannanases governs substrate recognition.

      Kumagai, Yuya; Yamashita, Keitaro; Tagami, Takayoshi; Uraji, Misugi; Wan, Kun; Okuyama, Masayuki; Yao, Min; Kimura, Atsuo; Hatanaka, Tadashi

      2015-10-01

      Endo-β-1,4-mannanases from Streptomyces thermolilacinus (StMan) and Thermobifida fusca (TfMan) demonstrated different substrate specificities. StMan hydrolyzed galactosylmannooligosaccharide (GGM5; 6(III) ,6(IV) -α-d-galactosyl mannopentaose) to GGM3 and M2, whereas TfMan hydrolyzed GGM5 to GGM4 and M1. To determine the region involved in the substrate specificity, we constructed chimeric enzymes of StMan and TfMan and evaluated their substrate specificities. Moreover, the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of StMan (StMandC) and the complex structure of the inactive mutant StE273AdC with M6 were solved at resolutions of 1.60 and 1.50 Å, respectively. Structural comparisons of StMandC and the catalytic domain of TfMan lead to the identification of a subsite around -1 in StMandC that could accommodate a galactose branch. These findings demonstrate that the two loops (loop7 and loop8) are responsible for substrate recognition in GH5 actinomycete mannanases. In particular, Trp281 in loop7 of StMan, which is located in a narrow and deep cleft, plays an important role in its affinity toward linear substrates. Asp310 in loop8 of StMan specifically bound to the galactosyl unit in the -1 subsite. PMID:26257335

    2. Phytoactinopolyspora alkaliphila sp. nov., an alkaliphilic actinomycete isolated from a saline-alkaline soil.

      Zhang, Yong-Guang; Lu, Xin-Hua; Ding, Yan-Bo; Zhou, Xing-Kui; Li, Li; Guo, Jian-Wei; Wang, Hong-Fei; Duan, Yan-Qing; Li, Wen-Jun

      2016-05-01

      An alkaliphilic, filamentous actinomycete, designated EGI 80629T, was isolated from a soil sample of Xinjiang, north-west China. Strain EGI 80629T grew at pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 9.0-10.0) and in the presence of 0-13.0 % NaCl (optimum 3.0-5.0 %). The isolate formed fragmented substrate mycelia, and aerial hyphae with short spore chains with rod-like spores. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the isolate contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, and mannose and rhamnose as diagnostic sugars. The major fatty acids identified were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4), while the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two phosphatidylinositol mannosides, five unknown phospholipids, three unknown phosphoglycolipids, one unknown glycolipid, four unknown polar lipids and one unknown aminophospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 67.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain EGI 80629T clustered with the genus Phytoactinopolyspora. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain EGI 80629T and Phytoactinopolyspora endophytica EGI 60009T was 96.8 %. Based on morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain EGI 80629T represents a novel species of the genus Phytoactinopolyspora, for which the name Phytoactinopolyspora alkaliphila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EGI 80629T ( = CGMCC 4.7225T = KCTC 39701T). PMID:26920762

    3. Diketopiperazine Derivatives from the Marine-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. FXJ7.328

      Weiming Zhu

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available Five new diketopiperazine derivatives, (3Z,6E-1-N-methyl-3-benzy lidene-6-(2S-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (1, (3Z,6E-1-N-methyl-3-benzylidene-6-(2R-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (2, (3Z,6Z-3- (4-hydroxybenzylidene-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (3, (3Z,6Z-3-((1H-imidazol-5-yl-methylene-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (4, and (3Z,6S-3-benzylidene-6-(2S-but-2-ylpiperazine-2,5-dione (5, were isolated from the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. FXJ7.328. The structures of 1–5 were determined by spectroscopic analysis, CD exciton chirality, the modified Mosher’s, Marfey’s and the C3 Marfey’s methods. Compound 3 showed modest antivirus activity against influenza A (H1N1 virus with an IC50 value of 41.5 ± 4.5 μM. In addition, compound 6 and 7 displayed potent anti-H1N1 activity with IC50 value of 28.9 ± 2.2 and 6.8 ± 1.5 μM, respectively. Due to the lack of corresponding data in the literature, the 13C NMR data of (3Z,6S-3-benzylidene-6-isobutylpiperazine-2,5-dione (6 were also reported here for the first time.

    4. Rare actinomycetes Nocardia caishijiensis and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans as endophytes, their bioactivity and metabolites evaluation.

      Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie

      2016-04-01

      Two strains identified as Nocardia caishijiensis (SORS 64b) and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans (AGLS 2) were isolated as endophytes from Sonchus oleraceus and Ageratum conyzoides respectively. The analysis of their extracts revealed them to be strongly bioactive. The N. caishijiensis extract gave an LC50 of 570 μg/ml(-1) in the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay and an EC50 of 0.552 μg/ml(-1) in the DPPH antioxidant assay. Antimicrobial activity was observed against Methicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (14 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 706003 (13 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (11 mm) and Candida tropicalis (20 mm). For the extract of P. carboxydivorans the EC50 was 0.670 μg/ml(-1) and it was observed to be more bioactive against Bacillus subtilis DSM 10 ATCC 6051 (21 mm), C. tropicalis (20 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (17 mm), MRSA (17 mm), E. coli K12 (W1130) (16 mm) and Chlorella vulgaris (10 mm). The genotoxicity testing revealed a 20 mm zone of inhibition against the polA mutant strain E. coli K-12 AB 3027 suggesting damage to the DNA and polA genes. The TLC and bioautography screening revealed a diversity of active bands of medium polar and nonpolar compounds. Metabolite analysis by HPLC-DAD via UV/vis spectral screening suggested the possibility of stenothricin and bagremycin A in the mycelium extract of N. caishijiensis respectively. In the broth and mycelium extract of P. carboxydivorans borrelidin was suggested along with α-pyrone. The HPLC-MS revealed bioactive long chained amide derivatives such as 7-Octadecenamide, 9, 12 octadecandienamide. This study reports the rare actinomycetes N. caishijiensis and P. carboxydivorans as endophytes and evaluates their bioactive metabolites. PMID:26946375

    5. Streptomyces formicae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the head of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

      Bai, Lu; Liu, Chongxi; Guo, Lifeng; Piao, Chenyu; Li, Zhilei; Li, Jiansong; Jia, Feiyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

      2016-02-01

      During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain 1H-GS9(T), was isolated from the head of a Camponotus japonicus Mayr ant, which were collected from Northeast Agricultural University (Harbin, Heilongjiang, China). Strain 1H-GS9(T) was characterised using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 1H-GS9(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarities to Streptomyces scopuliridis DSM 41917(T) (98.8 %) and Streptomyces mauvecolor JCM 5002(T) (98.6 %). However, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it forms a monophyletic clade with Streptomyces kurssanovii JCM 4388(T) (98.6 %), Streptomyces xantholiticus JCM 4282(T) (98.6 %) and Streptomyces peucetius JCM 9920(T) (98.5 %). Thus, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 1H-GS9(T) and the above-mentioned five strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 1H-GS9(T) could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces formicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-GS9(T) (=CGMCC 4.7277(T) = DSM 100524(T)). PMID:26608172

    6. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants.

      Ajit Kumar Passari

      Full Text Available Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using DNA based fingerprinting, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC and BOX repetitive elements. Genetic relatedness based on both ERIC and BOX-PCR generates specific patterns corresponding to particular genotypes. Exponentially grown antagonistic isolates were used to evaluate phosphate solubilization, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, chitinase, indole-3-acetic acid production, as well as antifungal activities. Out of 22 isolates, the amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA ranging between 10-32 μg/ml was produced by 20 isolates and all isolates were positive for ammonia production ranging between 5.2 to 54 mg/ml. Among 22 isolates tested, the amount of hydroxamate-type siderophores were produced by 16 isolates ranging between 5.2 to 36.4 μg/ml, while catechols-type siderophores produced by 5 isolates ranging from 3.2 to 5.4 μg/ml. Fourteen isolates showed the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous ranging from 3.2 to 32.6 mg/100ml. Chitinase and HCN production was shown by 19 and 15 different isolates, respectively. In addition, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM and chitinase (chiC were successively amplified from 20 and 19 isolates respectively. The two potential strains Streptomyces sp. (BPSAC34 and Leifsonia xyli (BPSAC24 were tested in vivo and improved a range of growth parameters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L. under greenhouse conditions. This study is the first published report that actinomycetes can be isolated as endophytes from

    7. Isolation, screening and characterization of uranium microremediable actinomycetes from fallen leaves of Azadirachta indica in Western Ghats

      Microremediation of harmful radioactive waste such as uranium has been carried out by the endophytic actinomycetes strains isolated from the unnoticed fallen leaves of commonly available medicinal plant Azadirachta indica, which are considered as unique source. Among six actinobacteria isolates, one microbe (A5) effectively removed uranium in 12 h at temperature 30 deg C and pH 8-9. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis support the classification of the isolate A5 as a new strain which was named as Streptomyces sp. MINIYAA7 (Genbank accession number KF909129). (author)

    8. Complete genome sequence of Kibdelosporangium phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T), a plant growth promoting endophytic actinomycete isolated from oil-seed plant Jatropha curcas L.

      Qin, Sheng; Feng, Wei-Wei; Xing, Ke; Bai, Juan-Luan; Yuan, Bo; Liu, Wei-Jie; Jiang, Ji-Hong

      2015-12-20

      Kibdelosporangium phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T) is a plant growth promoting endophytic actinomycete isolated from the oil-seed plant Jatropha curcas L. collected from dry-hot valley, in Sichuan, China. The complete genome sequence of this actinomycete consists of one chromosome (11,759,770bp) with no plasmid. From the genome, we identified gene clusters responsible for polyketide and nonribosomal peptide synthesis of natural products, and genes related to the plant growth promoting, such as zeatin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) and siderophore. The complete genome information may be useful to understand the beneficial interactions between K. phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T) and host plants. PMID:26516119

    9. Cytotoxicity of actinomycetes associated with the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei (Millar, 1977, endemic of northeastern coast of Brazil

      Paula C Jimenez

      2013-04-01

      Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that the crude extract of the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei, endemic from northeasttern Brazil, strongly hinders growth of tumor cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis due to tryptophan derivatives, which are commonly found in bacteria. This study presents a bioactivity-guided screening among actinomycetes, associated with E. vannamei, aiming at recognizing active principles with biological relevance. Twenty strains of actinomycetes, designated as EVA 0101 through 0120, were isolated from colonies of E. vannamei among which 11 were selected for cytotoxicity evaluation. The extracts from EVA 0102, 0103, 0106, 0109 and 0113 were the most active, and were further studied for IC50 determination and chemical analysis by ¹H NMR. IC50 values obtained ranged from 3.62 µg mL-1 (for EVA 0109 in leukemia cells to 84.65 µg/mL (for EVA 0106 in melanoma cells. All active extracts exhibited the same TLC and spectroscopic profiles, suggesting the presence of quinones and other related secondary metabolites. Furthermore, these strains were identified and compared based on their respective 16S rRNA sequences. The results herein identified the five strains as Micromonospora spp. while phylogenetic analysis suggests that they are possibly two different Micromonospora species producing the cytotoxic compounds.

    10. Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov., a thermophilic actinomycete isolated from soil of a sugar cane field.

      Wu, Hao; Liu, Bin; Pan, Shangli

      2016-05-01

      A novel thermophilic actinomycete, designated strain T3T, was isolated from a soil sample of a sugar cane field. The strain grew at 25-60 °C (optimum 37-50 °C), at pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum 7.0-9.0) and with 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-7 %). The aerial mycelium was white and the vegetative mycelium was colourless to pale yellow. The substrate mycelium fragmented into rod-shaped elements after 4-5 days at 50 °C. The aerial mycelium formed flexuous chains of 5-20 spores per chain; the oval-shaped spores had spiny surfaces and were non-motile. The organism contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars consisted of arabinose, galactose and ribose. The cellular fatty acid profile consisted mainly of anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The quinone system was composed predominantly of MK-9(H4). The phospholipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipids. The DNA G+C content of strain T3T was 71.3 mol%. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of members of the genus Saccharopolyspora. In the 16S rRNA gene tree of Saccharopolyspora it formed a distinct phyletic line and was related most closely to Saccharopolyspora thermophila 216T. However, the phenotypic characteristics of strain T3T were significantly different from those of S. thermophila 216T and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a low level of relatedness (28.6-32.3 %) between them. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain T3T represents a novel species in the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = DSM 46801T = CGMCC 4.7206T). PMID:26882893

    11. XML In Vitro Comparison of MIC Crude Extracts of Active Actinomycetes Isolated with Terbinafine, Griseofulvin Ketoconazole and Fluconazole against Microsporum Canis, Microsporum Gypseum and Trichophyton Mentagrophytes

      Keikha, N. (MSc

      2015-05-01

      Full Text Available Background and Objective: Dermatophytes are the fungi that have the ability to attack the keratinized tissues such as the skin, hair and nails. Infections caused by these organisms are named dermatophytosis. We aimed to compare Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Crude extracts of Active Actinomycete Isolates with Terbinafine, Griseofulvin, Ketoconazole and Fluconazole Drugs against Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Material and Methods: In this experimental study, in order to find MIC by actionmycete, 100 isolates were studied and then crude extracts of the active actinomycete isolates were prepared in sterile conditions. Finally, the crude extracts obtained at different concentrations were used to obtain the MIC of Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Moreover, various concentrations of the drugs such as terbinafine, griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole in solvent Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO were prepared and their growth inhibitory effect was evaluated and then compared with the results obtained from the crude extract of active actinomycete isolates. Results: the crude extracts obtained from active Actioiomycetes isolates and the drugs such as terbinafine, griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole, in a dose-dependent manner, could inhibit the growth of Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton Mentagrophytes. Conclusion: compared to MIC of Crude extract of active actinomycete isolates, Terbinafine has a significant effect on the growth inhibition in all of the fungal Dermatophytes and then griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are in the next rank, respectively.

    12. CCACB - Culture Collection of Actinomycetes of the Institute of Soil Biology České Budějovice, Czech Republic

      Krištůfek, Václav; Chroňáková, Alica; Němec, Jan

      Osnabrück: University Osnabrück, 2009. s. 137. [Biology of Streptomycetes. 07.10.2009-11.10.2009, Münster] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Culture Collection of Actinomycetes * Institute of Soil Biology * České Budějovice Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

    13. CCACB - Culture Collection of Actinomycetes of the Institute of Soil Biology České Budějovice, Czech Republic

      Krištůfek, Václav; Chroňáková, Alica; Petrásek, Jiří; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Elhottová, Dana

      Praha: Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 2014. s. 157-158. ISBN 978-80-7080-887-0. [BioTech 2014 & 6 th Czech-Swiss Symposium with Exhibition. 11.06.2014-14.06.2014, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : CCACB * soil actinomycetes * depository Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

    14. Complete Genome Sequence of Micromonospora Strain L5, a Potential Plant-Growth-Regulating Actinomycete, Originally Isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia Root Nodules

      Hirsch, A. M.; Alvarado, J.; Bruce, D.; Chertkov, O.; De Hoff, P. L.; Detter, J. C.; Fujishige, N. A.; Goodwin, L. A.; Han, J.; Han, S.; Ivanova, N.; Land, M. L.; Lum, M. R.; Milani-Nejad, N.; Nolan, M.; Pati, A.; Pitluck, S.; Tran, S. S.; Woyke, T.; Valdes, M.

      2013-08-29

      Micromonospora species live in diverse environments and exhibit a broad range of functions including antibiotic production, biocontrol, and ability to degrade complex polysaccharides. To learn more about these versatile actinomycetes, we sequenced the genome of strain L5, originally isolated from root nodules of an actinorhizal plant growing in Mexico.

    15. Comparative analysis of oligonucleotide primers for high-throughput screening of genes encoding adenylation domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases in actinomycetes

      Bakal, Tomáš; Goo, K.-S.; Najmanová, Lucie; Plháčková, Kamila; Kadlčík, Stanislav; Ulanová, Dana

      2015-01-01

      Roč. 108, č. 5 (2015), s. 1267-1274. ISSN 0003-6072 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Nonribosomal peptide synthetase * Adenylation domain * Actinomycetes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2014

    16. Characterization of three amidinotransferases involved in the biosynthesis of ketomemicins.

      Ogasawara, Yasushi; Fujimori, Michiko; Kawata, Junpei; Dairi, Tohru

      2016-08-01

      We recently reported a novel class of amide bond forming enzymes (peptide ligases) involved in the biosynthesis of pheganomycins, resorcinomycins and ketomemicins. This class of enzymes exclusively utilizes Nα-amidino amino acids as the N-terminal substrate. In this Letter, we characterized three new amidinotransferases involved in the biosynthesis of ketomemicins and showed that l-arginine was the amidino-acceptor of amidinotransferases in both the Micromonospora sp. and Streptomyces mobaraensis clusters, while the Salinispora tropica enzyme recognized l-valine. Unexpectedly, the S. tropica enzyme accepted several different amino acids as amidino acceptors in addition to l-valine. Accordingly, we re-investigated the specific metabolites governed by the gene cluster of S. tropica and identified several minor congeners of ketomemicin C with different N-terminal amidino-amino acids. These results indicate that the amidinotransferase of S. tropica is promiscuous and could be useful to generate new ketomemicin-type natural products. PMID:27289319

    17. Metagenomic of Actinomycetes Based on 16S rRNA and nifH Genes in Soil and Roots of Four Indonesian Rice Cultivars Using PCR-DGGE

      Mahyarudin

      2015-07-01

      Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the metagenomic of actinomycetes based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA and bacterial nifH genes in soil and roots of four rice cultivars. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile based on 16S rRNA gene showed that the diversity of actinomycetes in roots was higher than soil samples. The profile also showed that the diversity of actinomycetes was similar in four varieties of rice plant and three types of agroecosystem. The profile was partially sequenced and compared to GenBank database indicating their identity with closely related microbes. The blast results showed that 17 bands were closely related ranging from 93% to 100% of maximum identity with five genera of actinomycetes, which is Geodermatophilus, Actinokineospora, Actinoplanes, Streptomyces and Kocuria. Our study found that Streptomyces species in soil and roots of rice plants were more varied than other genera, with a dominance of Streptomyces alboniger and Streptomyces acidiscabies in almost all the samples. Bacterial community analyses based on nifH gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that diversity of bacteria in soils which have nifH gene was higher than that in rice plant roots. The profile also showed that the diversity of those bacteria was similar in four varieties of rice plant and three types of agroecosystem. Five bands were closely related with nifH gene from uncultured bacterium clone J50, uncultured bacterium clone clod-38, and uncultured bacterium clone BG2.37 with maximum identity 99%, 98%, and 92%, respectively. The diversity analysis based on 16S rRNA gene differed from nifH gene and may not correlate with each other. The findings indicated the diversity of actinomycetes and several bacterial genomes analyzed here have an ability to fix nitrogen in soil and roots of rice plant.

    18. Isolation, abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants and screening for their in vitro antimicrobial biosynthetic potential.

      Passari, Ajit K; Mishra, Vineet K; Saikia, Ratul; Gupta, Vijai K; Singh, Bhim P

      2015-01-01

      Microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are of interest as the producers of important bioactive compounds. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 42 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from different organs of seven selected medicinal plants. The highest number of isolates (n = 22, 52.3%) of actinomycetes was isolated from roots, followed by stems (n = 9, 21.4%), leaves (n = 6, 14.2%), flowers (n = 3, 7.1%), and petioles (n = 2, 4.7%). The genus Streptomyces was the most dominant among the isolates (66.6%) in both the locations (Dampa TRF and Phawngpuii NP, Mizoram, India). From a total of 42 isolates, 22 isolates were selected for further studies based on their ability to inhibit one of the tested human bacterial or fungal pathogen. Selected isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and subsequently the isolates were grouped to four different genera; Streptomyces, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and Leifsonia. Antibiotic sensitivity assay was performed to understand the responsible antimicrobials present in the isolates showing the antimicrobial activities and revealed that the isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Further, antimicrobial properties and antibiotic sensitivity assay in combination with the results of amplification of biosynthetic genes polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) showed that the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the selected medicinal plants have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This is the first report of the isolation of Brevibacterium sp., Microbacterium sp., and Leifsonia xyli from endophytic environments of medicinal plants, Mirabilis jalapa and Clerodendrum colebrookianum. Our results emphasize that endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants are an unexplored resource for the discovery of biologically active

    19. Isolation, abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants and screening for their in vitro antimicrobial biosynthetic potential

      Ajit Kumar Passari

      2015-04-01

      Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are of interest as the producers of important bioactive compounds. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 42 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from different organs of seven selected medicinal plants. The highest number of isolates (n=22, 52.3% of actinomycetes was isolated from roots, followed by stems (n=9, 21.4%, leaves (n=6, 14.2%, flowers (n=3, 7.1% and petioles (n=2, 4.7%. The genus Streptomyces was the most dominant among the isolates (66.6% in both the locations (Dampa TRF and Phawngpuii NP, Mizoram, India. From a total of 42 isolates, 22 isolates were selected for further studies based on their ability to inhibit one of the tested human bacterial or fungal pathogen. Selected isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and subsequently the isolates were grouped to four different genera; Streptomyces, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium and Leifsonia. Antibiotic sensitivity assay was performed to understand the responsible antimicrobials present in the isolates showing the antimicrobial activities and revealed that the isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Further, antimicrobial properties and antibiotic sensitivity assay in combination with the results of amplification of biosynthetic genes polyketide synthase (PKS-I and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS showed that the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the selected medicinal plants have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This is the first report of the isolation of Brevibacterium sp., Microbacterium sp. and Leifsonia xyli from endophytic environments of medicinal plants, Mirabilis jalapa and Clerodendrum colebrookianum. Our results emphasize that endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants are an unexplored resource for the discovery of biologically active

    20. Cultivable actinomycetes from rhizosphere of birch (Betula pendula) growing on a coal mine dump in Silets, Ukraine.

      Ostash, Bohdan; Gren, Tetiana; Hrubskyy, Yaroslav; Tistechok, Stepan; Beshley, Stepan; Baranov, Volodymyr; Fedorenko, Victor

      2014-08-01

      Five actinomycete strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of birch, one of a few native tree forms capable of thriving on the upper level of a coal mine dump near the village of Silets (Lvivska region, Ukraine). No such strains were isolated from surrounding gangue, or from nearby grass Calamagrostis epigeios. Using 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis of cell wall aminoacids, four of these strains were shown to belong to genus Streptomyces and one to be Amycolatopsis. The isolates were able to produce siderophores and antibacterial compounds. In comparison to the reference strain Streptomyces coelicolor M145, certain rhizospheric isolates displayed somewhat increased survival in the presence of copper, iron(III), or chromium(VI) salts. The Amycolatopsis isolate was also shown to accumulate significant quantities of heavy metals from waste extracts. Possible roles of the described strains in coal mine dump ecology are discussed. PMID:23686352

    1. Investigations into the biosynthesis of salinosporamide A : new insights on PKS extender units and the origin of a nonproteinogenic amino acid

      Liu, Yuan

      2010-01-01

      Salinosporamide A, a highly bioactive [beta]-lactone from the marine bacterium Salinispora tropica, originates from three biosynthetic building blocks, namely acetate, chloroethylmalonyl-CoA, and the nonproteinogenic amino acid cyclohexenylalanine. The unexpected and unprecedented pathway to chloroethylmalonyl-CoA was illuminated by a multidisciplinary approach involving genetics, organic synthesis, and protein biochemistry, where S-adenosyl-L- methionine (SAM) is converted to chloroethylmalo...

    2. XML In Vitro Comparison of MIC Crude Extracts of Active Actinomycetes Isolated with Terbinafine, Griseofulvin Ketoconazole and Fluconazole against Microsporum Canis, Microsporum Gypseum and Trichophyton Mentagrophytes

      Keikha, N. (MSc; Ayatollahi Mousavi, SA. (PhD; Nakhaei, AR. (PhD; Amanloo, S. (MSc); Shah idi Benjar, GH. (PhD); Amiri , S . (MSc)

      2015-01-01

      Background and Objective: Dermatophytes are the fungi that have the ability to attack the keratinized tissues such as the skin, hair and nails. Infections caused by these organisms are named dermatophytosis. We aimed to compare Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Crude extracts of Active Actinomycete Isolates with Terbinafine, Griseofulvin, Ketoconazole and Fluconazole Drugs against Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Material and Methods: In this exp...

    3. Degradation of Textile Dye Reactive Navy – Blue Rx (Reactive blue–59) by an Isolated Actinomycete Streptomyces krainskii SUK – 5

      Mane, U. V.; Gurav, P. N.; Deshmukh, A.M.; Govindwar, S. P.

      2008-01-01

      The isolated Actinomycete, Streptomyces krainskii, SUK -5 was found to decolorize and degrade textile dye Reactive blue–59.This azo dye was decolorized and degraded completely by Streptomyces krainskii SUK–5 at 24 h in shaking condition in the nutrient medium at pH 8. Induction in the activity of Lignin Peroxidase,and NADH-DCIP Reductase and MR reductase represents their role in degradation .The biodegradation was monitored by TLC, UV vis spectroscopy, FTIR. and GCMS analysis. Microbial and p...

    4. A novel alkaloid from marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces xinghaiensis with broad-spectrum antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.

      Wence Jiao

      Full Text Available Due to the increasing emergence of drug-resistant bacteria and tumor cell lines, novel antibiotics with antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are urgently needed. Marine actinobacteria are rich sources of novel antibiotics, and here we report the discovery of a novel alkaloid, xinghaiamine A, from a marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces xinghaiensis NRRL B24674(T. Xinghaiamine A was purified from the fermentation broth, and its structure was elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR spectrum as well as mass spectrometry. Xinghaiamine A was identified to be a novel alkaloid with highly symmetric structure on the basis of sulfoxide functional group, and sulfoxide containing compound has so far never been reported in microorganisms. Biological assays revealed that xinghaiamine A exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activities to both Gram-negative persistent hospital pathogens (e.g. Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli and Gram-positive ones, which include Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. In addition, xinghaiamine A also exhibited potent cytotoxic activity to human cancer cell lines of MCF-7 and U-937 with the IC50 of 0.6 and 0.5 µM, respectively.

    5. Genetic transformation of marine Actinomycete sp. Isolate M048 and expression of a recombinant plasmid carrying the apc gene

      HOU Yanhua; LI Fuchao; QIN Song; WANG Quanfu

      2006-01-01

      Optimal conditions for protoplasts formation of marine Actinomycete sp. isolate M048 were described, dense and disperse mycelia were cultured in SGGP medium, 0.5% glycine, lysozyme exposure (2 mg/cm3, 37 ℃, 40 min), and the concentration of sucrose in protoplast buffer was 0.4 mol/dm3 for keeping the balance of osmotic pressure. Using PEG-mediated protoplasts transformation, the transformation frequency was 89 transformants per microgramme of pIJ702. Meanwhile, an effective transformation procedure was established based on intergeneric conjugation from E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002) using shuttle vectors pPM801, pPM803 and a(ψ)C31-derived integration vector pIJ8600 containing oriT and attP fragments. Transformation frequencies were 5.30×10-4±0.26×10-4, 8.92×10-4±0.19×10-4 and 6.38×10-5±0.41×10-5, respectively. Further, the heterologous expression of the allophycocyanin gene (apc) in the strain M048 was used to demonstrate this transformation system. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis confirmed the expression of recombinant APC (rAPC).

    6. Biological Control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Causal Agent of Sunflower Head and Stem Rot Disease, by Use of Soil borne Actinomycetes Isolates

      F. Baniasadi

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available Problem statement: High level of biosafety and non adverse effects on the environment of biocontrol strategies of pest management, are priorities of tomorrow's world agriculture. Actinomycetes are active biocontrol agents due to their antagonistic properties against wide range of plant pathogens particularly fungi. Fungal pathogens are liable for a big part of damages in agriculture economy. Approach: In the present research antifungal bioactivity of 50 isolates of Actinomycetes collected from soils of Kerman province of Iran was investigated against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib., the causal agent of stem rot in sunflower, through agar disc method and dual culture bioassays. The Streptomyces isolate No. 363 was propagated in submerged cultures and active crude was prepared upon which several biological characterizations performed. Greenhouse studies were achieved to confirm laboratory results. Results: Among the tested Streptomyces isolates, 10 isolates revealed antagonistic properties in dual culture procedure from which isolate No. 363 showed highest bioactivity. The active metabolite of Streptomyces isolate No. 363 was polar and well soluble in H2O. Using agar-disc method, progressive growth of the pathogen was highly reduced by the antagonist through exhibiting ability to constitute fungus-free zones of inhibitions. The results indicated that isolate No. 363 was a proper candidate for field biocontrol studies. Conclusion: Results may open a horizon for production of resistant transgenic plants having antifungal properties originated from biologically active Streptomyces spp. recognition and production of effective metabolite(s of Streptomyces spp. which was responsible for antifungal activities will be our commercial goal due to rich reserves of soil borne Actinomycetes in Iran.

    7. Utilization of Agro-industrial Wastes for the Simultaneous Production of Amylase and Xylanase by Thermophilic Actinomycetes

      Renu Singh

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL: K2HPO4(0.1, (NH42SO4(0.1, NaCl (0.1, MgSO4(0.1 at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB > corn cob (CC > wheat bran (WB > wheat straw (WS > sugarcane bagasse (SB and rice bran (RB > wheat bran (WB > wheat straw (WS > sugarcane bagasse (SB > corn cob (CC, respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio.

    8. Optimizing water treatment practices for the removal of actinomycetes and earthy odor in water of Bovilla reservoir

      ADELA KULLAJ

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available Bovilla reservoir, which is situated 15 km North-East of Tirana the capital city of Albania is one of the major hidrotechnical works of this country. This reservoir is a warm monomictic water body and stratifies higher in the summer season. The predominant trophic state of Bovilla reservoir is oligotrophy. From autumn 2001 this reservoir repeatedly manifests an unpleasant taste and odor which is defined as musty- earthy. Taste and odor control has become an important issue for drinking water suppliers worldwide. Consumers react very sensitively to changes in the organoleptic quality of their drinking water. The reason is that odor compounds present a very low threshold of perception (10–20 ng/L. Bovilla water treatment plant treats 1800 L/s raw water taken from Bovilla reservoir, using oxidation, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection process. In cases of bad odor powdered activated carbon (PAC is added at the rapid mix section. Throughout the monitoring period were done: quality and sensory analysis of raw water on a weekly frequency, analysis of treated water after coagulation, laboratory scale experiments using different doses of chemicals, applying optimized doses in full scale and PAC adsorption experiments. The aims of this study were: to predict the PAC doses required to treat water of Bovilla reservoir containing bad taste and odor, to establish the removal efficiency of taste and odor by three types of activated carbons with different iodine number and to assess the impact of NaOCl and other chemical in the treatment process of the plant in removing actinomycetes and bad odor. Results have shown that traditional treatment processes are usually inadequate in removing taste and odor and optimization of plant practices is required. Powdered activated carbon (PAC can effectively remove taste and odor when the correct dose is applied.

    9. Micromonospora taraxaci sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete isolated from dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.).

      Zhao, Junwei; Guo, Lifeng; He, Hairong; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; Li, Chuang; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

      2014-10-01

      A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-P5(T), was isolated from dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.). Strain NEAU-P5(T) showed closest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Micromonospora chokoriensis 2-19/6(T) (99.5%), and phylogenetically clustered with Micromonospora violae NEAU-zh8(T) (99.3%), M. saelicesensis Lupac 09(T) (99.0%), M. lupini Lupac 14N(T) (98.8%), M. zeae NEAU-gq9(T) (98.4%), M. jinlongensis NEAU-GRX11(T) (98.3%) and M. zamorensis CR38(T) (97.9%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene sequence also indicated that the isolate clustered with the above type strains except M. violae NEAU-zh8(T). The cell-wall peptidoglycan consisted of meso-diaminopimelic acid and glycine. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H2). The phospholipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The major fatty acids were C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and C(17:0). Furthermore, some physiological and biochemical properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from members of closely related species. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-P5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora taraxaci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-P5(T) (=CGMCC 4.7098(T) = DSM 45885(T)). PMID:25082023

    10. Degradation of Textile Dye Reactive Navy – Blue Rx (Reactive blue–59 by an Isolated Actinomycete Streptomyces krainskii SUK – 5

      Mane, U. V.

      2008-01-01

      Full Text Available The isolated Actinomycete, Streptomyces krainskii, SUK -5 was found to decolorize and degrade textile dye Reactive blue–59.This azo dye was decolorized and degraded completely by Streptomyces krainskii SUK–5 at 24 h in shaking condition in the nutrient medium at pH 8. Induction in the activity of Lignin Peroxidase,and NADH-DCIP Reductase and MR reductase represents their role in degradation .The biodegradation was monitored by TLC, UV vis spectroscopy, FTIR. and GCMS analysis. Microbial and phytotoxicity studies of the product were carried out.

    11. Diversity of foam producing nocardioform actinomycetes isolated from biological foam from activated sludge plants in Comunidad Valenciana; Diversidad de actinomicetos nocardioformes productores de espumas biologicas aislados de plantas depuradoras de aguas residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana

      Soler, A.; Alonso, J.L.; Cuesta, G.

      2009-07-01

      The formation of biological foams in activated sludge systems is one of the most important problems of solid separation in wastewater treatment plants. Nocardioform actinomycetes are the most important filamentous bacteria responsible of foam formation. This group of microorganisms has hydrophobic cellular surfaces due to the mycolic acids. These foams interfere in wastewater treatment process because retain many suspended solids, block conductions and produce overflowing in the digesters and corridors. To identify correctly the nocardioform actinomycetes we have to do poli phasic taxonomy that includes 16S rDNA sequences analysis, determinate several chemo taxonomic markers and some phenotypic tests. (Author) 18 refs.

    12. 嗜盐嗜碱放线菌的研究进展与展望%Research on Progress of Halophilic Basophilic Actinomycetes

      加苏尔·阿不都克里木; 旭格拉; 塔衣尔; 阿不都克里木·热依木; 木尼热木·阿力木江; 迪丽拜尔·托合提

      2015-01-01

      Haloalkaliphilic extremophiles were survied in saline alkali soil. Halophilic basophilic Actinomycetes with the genetic characteristics and the special supersedes way, produced a variety of secondary me⁃tabolites, was one of microbial resources with great application prospect. This paper mainly reviewed Halophilic ba⁃sophilic Actinomycetes Resources, standard classification, distribution, system science, development and utilization prospects.%嗜盐嗜碱极端微生物主要分布于地球上的盐碱土壤中,嗜盐嗜碱放线菌适应并长期生存这一特殊极端环境,已具备独特的遗传特性和新陈代谢途径,能够产生具有开发利用价值的多种次生代谢产物,是一类极具应用前景的微生物资源。文章主要综述了嗜盐嗜碱放线菌的资源、分类标准、分布、系统学及其发展趋势、开发利用前景。

    13. Determination of the Residual Anthracene Concentration in Cultures of Haloalkalitolerant Actinomycetes by Excitation Fluorescence, Emission Fluorescence, and Synchronous Fluorescence: Comparative Study

      Reyna del Carmen Lara-Severino

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are compounds that can be quantified by fluorescence due to their high quantum yield. Haloalkalitolerant bacteria tolerate wide concentration ranges of NaCl and pH. They are potentially useful in the PAHs bioremediation of saline environments. However, it is known that salinity of the sample affects fluorescence signal regardless of the method. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study based on the sensitivity, linearity, and detection limits of the excitation, emission, and synchronous fluorescence methods, during the quantification of the residual anthracene concentration from the following haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes cultures Kocuria rosea, Kocuria palustris, Microbacterium testaceum, and 4 strains of Nocardia farcinica, in order to establish the proper fluorescence method to study the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinobacteria. The study demonstrated statistical differences among the strains and among the fluorescence methods regarding the anthracene residual concentration. The results showed that excitation and emission fluorescence methods performed very similarly but sensitivity in excitation fluorescence is slightly higher. Synchronous fluorescence using Δλ=150 nm is not the most convenient method. Therefore we propose the excitation fluorescence as the fluorescence method to be used in the study of the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes.

    14. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

      Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.;

      2002-01-01

      Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and...

    15. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

      Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.; Molin, Søren; Wilkins, K.

      2002-01-01

      Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and ident...

    16. Identification and preliminary characterization of non-polyene antibiotics secreted by new strain of actinomycete isolated from sebkha of Kenadsa, Algeria

      Omar; Messaoudi; Mourad; Bendahou; Ibrahim; Benamar; Djamal-Elddine; Abdelwouhid

      2015-01-01

      Objective: To study the antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes isolated from sabkha of Kenadsa and identification of the isolate interesting. Methods: Eighteen strains were isolated, using four culture media from sebkha of Kenadsa(Bechar, Southwestern Algeria). Screening of antimicrobial activity consisted of two steps: in primary screening, antibacterial activity was determined by using the agar plug method against test strains; in secondary screening, better isolate which showed a good activity in the first screening was selected to extract antimicrobial substances. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were evaluated by using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Partial characterization of antimicrobial products was performed on the basis of chemical revelations, UV-vis spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. The identification of isolate interesting was performed through morphological, chemical, biochemical and physiological characteristics. Results: All isolates showed antimicrobial activity against at least one microorganism test. One isolate, LAM143 cG 3, was selected for its broad spectrum and high antimicrobial activity. The isolate LAM143 c G3 was identified as Spirillospora sp. The comparison between the species of this genus(Spirillospora rubra and Spirillospora albida) and our isolate indicated the existence of several physiological and biochemical differences which led us to suppose that this was a new member of this genus. Primary characterization of antimicrobial substances produced by the isolate LAM143 c G3 indicated the presence of amines and phenols. The UV–vis spectrum suggested a non-polyenic nature of substances secreted by our isolate, while infrared confirmed the presence of amine groups.Conclusions: The result of the present study revealed that sebkha of Kenadsa was rich in rare actinomycetes, that secreted interesting antimicrobial substance.

    17. Description of Kibdelosporangium banguiense sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil of the forest of Pama, on the plateau of Bangui, Central African Republic.

      Pascual, Javier; González, Ignacio; Estévez, Mar; Benito, Patricia; Trujillo, Martha E; Genilloud, Olga

      2016-05-01

      A novel actinomycete strain F-240,109(T) from the MEDINA collection was isolated from a soil sample collected in the forest of Pama, on the plateau of Bangui, Central African Republic. The strain was identified according to its 16S rRNA gene sequence as a new member of the genus Kibdelosporangium, being closely related to Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. aridum (98.6 % sequence similarity), Kibledosporangium phytohabitans (98.3 %), Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. largum (97.7 %), Kibdelosporangium philippinense (97.6 %) and Kibledosporangium lantanae (96.9 %). In order to resolve its precise taxonomic status, the strain was characterised through a polyphasic approach. The strain is a Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile and catalase-positive actinomycete characterised by formation of extensively branched substrate mycelia and sparse brownish grey aerial mycelia with sporangium-like globular structures. The chemotaxonomic characterisation of strain F-240,109(T) corroborated its affiliation into the genus Kibdelosporangium. The peptidoglycan contains meso-diaminopimelic acid; the major menaquinone is MK-9(H4); the phospholipid profile contains high amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid; and the predominant cellular fatty acid methyl esters are iso-C16:0, iso-C14:0, iso-C15:0 and 2OH iso-C16:0. However, some key phenotypic differences regarding to its close relatives and DNA-DNA hybridization values indicate that strain F-240,109(T) represents a novel Kibdelosporangium species, for which the name Kibdelosporangium banguiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain F-240,109(T) (=DSM 46670(T), =LMG 28181(T)). PMID:26936255

    18. Genome-wide analysis of the role of GlnR in Streptomyces venezuelae provides new insights into global nitrogen regulation in actinomycetes

      Bibb Mervyn J

      2011-04-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background GlnR is an atypical response regulator found in actinomycetes that modulates the transcription of genes in response to changes in nitrogen availability. We applied a global in vivo approach to identify the GlnR regulon of Streptomyces venezuelae, which, unlike many actinomycetes, grows in a diffuse manner that is suitable for physiological studies. Conditions were defined that facilitated analysis of GlnR-dependent induction of gene expression in response to rapid nitrogen starvation. Microarray analysis identified global transcriptional differences between glnR+ and glnR mutant strains under varying nitrogen conditions. To differentiate between direct and indirect regulatory effects of GlnR, chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP using antibodies specific to a FLAG-tagged GlnR protein, coupled with microarray analysis (ChIP-chip, was used to identify GlnR binding sites throughout the S. venezuelae genome. Results GlnR bound to its target sites in both transcriptionally active and apparently inactive forms. Thirty-six GlnR binding sites were identified by ChIP-chip analysis allowing derivation of a consensus GlnR-binding site for S. venezuelae. GlnR-binding regions were associated with genes involved in primary nitrogen metabolism, secondary metabolism, the synthesis of catabolic enzymes and a number of transport-related functions. Conclusions The GlnR regulon of S. venezuelae is extensive and impacts on many facets of the organism's biology. GlnR can apparently bind to its target sites in both transcriptionally active and inactive forms.

    19. Identification and characterization of a new erythromycin biosynthetic gene cluster in Actinopolyspora erythraea YIM90600, a novel erythronolide-producing halophilic actinomycete isolated from salt field.

      Dandan Chen

      Full Text Available Erythromycins (Ers are clinically potent macrolide antibiotics in treating pathogenic bacterial infections. Microorganisms capable of producing Ers, represented by Saccharopolyspora erythraea, are mainly soil-dwelling actinomycetes. So far, Actinopolyspora erythraea YIM90600, a halophilic actinomycete isolated from Baicheng salt field, is the only known Er-producing extremophile. In this study, we have reported the draft genome sequence of Ac. erythraea YIM90600, genome mining of which has revealed a new Er biosynthetic gene cluster encoding several novel Er metabolites. This Er gene cluster shares high identity and similarity with the one of Sa. erythraea NRRL2338, except for two absent genes, eryBI and eryG. By correlating genotype and chemotype, the biosynthetic pathways of 3'-demethyl-erythromycin C, erythronolide H (EH and erythronolide I have been proposed. The formation of EH is supposed to be sequentially biosynthesized via C-6/C-18 epoxidation and C-14 hydroxylation from 6-deoxyerythronolide B. Although an in vitro enzymatic activity assay has provided limited evidence for the involvement of the cytochrome P450 oxidase EryFAc (derived from Ac. erythraea YIM90600 in the catalysis of a two-step oxidation, resulting in an epoxy moiety, the attempt to construct an EH-producing Sa. erythraea mutant via gene complementation was not successful. Characterization of EryKAc (derived from Ac. erythraea YIM90600 in vitro has confirmed its unique role as a C-12 hydroxylase, rather than a C-14 hydroxylase of the erythronolide. Genomic characterization of the halophile Ac. erythraea YIM90600 will assist us to explore the great potential of extremophiles, and promote the understanding of EH formation, which will shed new insights into the biosynthesis of Er metabolites.

    20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16411-1 [Dicty_cDB

      Full Text Available 001654_2804( CP001654 |pid:none) Dickeya dadantii Ech703, comple... 330 e-110 CP000088_198( CP000088 |pid:none) Thermobifida fusca...:none) Proteus mirabilis strain HI4320,... 329 e-111 DQ387867_3( DQ387867 |pid:none) Methanohal...E... 323 e-107 AP008232_584( AP008232 |pid:none) Sodalis glossinidius str. 'morsi... 331 e-107 CP000850_119( CP000850 |pid:none) Sali...nispora arenicola CNS-205, c... 302 e-107 FM178379_666( FM178379 |pid:none) Aliivibrio salmonicida...Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301, ... 323 e-107 CP000667_121( CP000667 |pid:none) Salinispora tropica CNB-440,

    1. 生防放线菌TGNBSA5的鉴定及其活性物质的研究%Identification of a Bioactive Endophytic Actinomycete TGNBSA5 and Study on Its Active Substances

      黄以超; 颜霞; 王建华; 高小宁; 王惠; 黄丽丽

      2012-01-01

      Endophytic actinomycete TGNBSA5, isolated from Arctium lappa stem, has strong inhibitory activity against Pseudotnonas syringae pv, actinidiae (Psa). In order to exploit the bio-control application of the actinomycete, physiological and biochemical characterization, morphological, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were conducted to identify the strain. Meanwhile, after further fermentation of the strain, bioactive compounds were isolated and purified by ethyl acetate extraction, chro-matographic technology, and HPLC detection. The result showed that the endophytic actinomycete was classified as Streptomyces sporovirgulis. NMR and UV spectra analysis indicated that one of the bioactive compounds was benzyl alcohol. It is the first time that the endophytic actinomycete Streptomyces sporovirguiis be isolated from plant. The clarification of the bioactive benzyl alcohol provides theoretical basis for the development of this actinomycete and the bio-control of kiwifruit canker disease as well.%牛蒡内生放线菌TGNBSA5对猕猴桃溃疡病菌有较好拮抗作用.为开发该生防菌的生物防治价值,采用生理生化活性测定、形态观察及16S rDNA序列分析,并经发酵培养后,发酵液采用乙酸乙酯萃取、柱层析和薄层层析、HPLC检测等方法分离纯化抑菌活性组分.结果表明,该内生放线菌为链霉菌属的孢杆链霉菌( Streptomyces sporovirgulis),经紫外和NMR鉴定活性组分之一为苯甲醇.孢杆链霉菌为第一次从植物中分离获得,且活性组分苯甲醇的明确将为猕猴桃溃疡病的防治提供理论依据.

    2. An actinomycete isolate from solitary wasp mud nest having strong antibacterial activity and kills the Candida cells due the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss

      Vijay eKumar

      2014-08-01

      Full Text Available An actinomycetes strain designated as MN 2(6 was isolated from the solitary wasp mud nest. The isolate was identified using polyphasic taxonomy. It produced the extensive branched brown substrate and white aerial hyphae that changed into grayish black. The aerial mycelia produced the spiral spore chains with rugose spore surface. The growth was observed between temperature range of 27-37°C, pH 8-10 and below salt concentration of 6% (w/v. The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic relationship showed that strain MN 2(6 lies in clade with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NRRL 2387T, Streptomyces sporocinereus NBRC 100766T and Streptomyces demainii NRRL B-1478T with which it shares a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.3%. The strain MN 2(6 can be differentiated from type strains based on phenotypic characteristics. The strain MN 2(6 showed most promising activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacilli and Candida species suggesting broad-spectrum characteristics of the active metabolite. Evaluation of anti-candidal activity of the metabolite of strain MN 2(6 by scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed changed external morphology of yeast. It kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss. However, further studies are required to elucidate the structure of the active metabolite produced by the isolate MN 2(6

    3. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off and promotion of tomato plant growth by endophytic actinomycetes isolated from native plants of Algerian Sahara.

      Goudjal, Yacine; Toumatia, Omrane; Yekkour, Amine; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Mathieu, Florence; Zitouni, Abdelghani

      2014-01-20

      Thirty-four endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from the roots of native plants of the Algerian Sahara. Morphological and chemical studies showed that twenty-nine isolates belonged to the Streptomyces genus and five were non-Streptomyces. All isolates were screened for their in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. The six that had the greatest pathogen inhibitory capacities were subsequently tested for their in vivo biocontrol potential on R. solani damping-off in sterilized and non-sterilized soils, and for their plant-growth promoting activities on tomato seedlings. In both soils, coating tomato seeds with antagonistic isolates significantly reduced (Pdamping-off of tomato seedlings. Among the isolates tested, the strains CA-2 and AA-2 exhibited the same disease incidence reduction as thioperoxydicarbonic diamide, tetramethylthiram (TMTD) and no significant differences (Pseed-treated seedlings compared to the control. The taxonomic position based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies indicated that the strains CA-2 and AA-2 were related to Streptomyces mutabilis NBRC 12800(T) (100% of similarity) and Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus JCM 4364(T) (100% of similarity), respectively. PMID:23920229

    4. Microbispora sp. LGMB259 endophytic actinomycete isolated from Vochysia divergens (Pantanal, Brazil) producing β-carbolines and indoles with biological activity.

      Savi, Daiani C; Shaaban, Khaled A; Vargas, Nathalia; Ponomareva, Larissa V; Possiede, Yvelise M; Thorson, Jon S; Glienke, Chirlei; Rohr, Jürgen

      2015-03-01

      Endophytic actinomycetes encompass bacterial groups that are well known for the production of a diverse range of secondary metabolites. Vochysia divergens is a medicinal plant, common in the "Pantanal" region (Brazil) and was focus of many investigations, but never regarding its community of endophytic symbionts. During a screening program, an endophytic strain isolated from the V. divergens, was investigated for its potential to show biological activity. The strain was characterized as Microbispora sp. LGMB259 by spore morphology and molecular analyze using nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Strain LGMB259 was cultivated in R5A medium producing metabolites with significant antibacterial activity. The strain produced 4 chemically related β-carbolines, and 3 Indoles. Compound 1-vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid displayed potent activity against the Gram-positive bacterial strains Micrococcus luteus NRRL B-2618 and Kocuria rosea B-1106, and was highly active against two human cancer cell lines, namely the prostate cancer cell line PC3 and the non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, with IC50 values of 9.45 and 24.67 µM, respectively. 1-Vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid also showed moderate activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC204508, as well as the phytopathogenic fungi Phyllosticta citricarpa LGMB06 and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides FDC83. PMID:25385358

    5. Switching antibiotics production on and off in actinomycetes by an IclR family transcriptional regulator from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952.

      Chaudhary, Amit Kumar; Singh, Bijay; Maharjan, Sushila; Jha, Amit Kumar; Kim, Byung-Gee; Sohng, Jae Kyung

      2014-08-01

      Doxorubicin, produced by Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952, is tightly regulated by dnrO, dnrN, and dnrI regulators. Genome mining of S. peucetius revealed the presence of the IclR (doxR) type family of transcription regulator mediating the signal-dependent expression of operons at the nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster. Overexpression of doxR in native strain strongly repressed the drug production. Furthermore, it also had a negative effect on the regulatory system of doxorubicin, wherein the transcript of dnrI was reduced to the maximum level in comparision with the other two. Interestingly, the overexpression of the same gene also had strong inhibitory effects on the production of actinorhodin (blue pigment) and undecylprodigiosin (red pigment) in Streptomyces coelicolor M145, herboxidiene production in Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC 49982, and spinosyn production in Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRRL 18395, respectively. Moreover, DoxR exhibited pleiotropic effects on the production of blue and red pigments in S. coelicolor when grown in different agar media, wherein the production of blue pigment was inhibited in R2YE medium and the red pigment was inhibited in YEME medium. However, the production of both blue and red pigments from S. coelicolor harboring doxR was halted in ISP2 medium, whereas S. coelicolor produced both pigmented antibiotics in the same plate. These consequences demonstrate that the on and off production of these antibiotics was not due to salt stress or media compositions, but was selectively controlled in actinomycetes. PMID:24786531

    6. 秦岭太白山北坡土壤拮抗性放线菌分布及特性%Distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomycetes on northern slope of Taibai Mountain, Qinling

      朱文杰; 薛泉宏; 曹艳茹; 薛磊; 申光辉; 来航线

      2011-01-01

      Twelve representative soil samples were collected from different altitudes on the northern slope of Taibai Mountain to study the distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomyces by using agar block method. There existed a great deal of soil antagonistic actinomyces in the study area. Among the 141 actinomycete strains isolated, 116 strains (82. 3% ) showed antagonism toward 12 target bacteria or fungi. The antagonistic strains at altitudes 800-1845, 3488, 3655, and 3670 m occupied 73.7% -86.8% , 81.3% , 78.9% and 82.3% of the total, respectively. 42. 1% of the strains at altitudes 1200-2300 m and >3400 m showed strong and broad spectrum antagonistic activity, suggesting that there was a great potential for the isolation of actinomycete strains with strong anti-biotic capability at these altitudes. 24. 1 % of the antagonistic actinomycetes showed antagonism against Staphyloccocus aureu, and 2.4% , 6.9% and 11. 2% of them showed activity toward Verticillium dahliae in cotton, Phytophthora sp. In strawberry and Neonectria radkiccla in ginseng, respectively. This study showed that the soil actinomycete antagonistic potentiality (SAAP) could be used as a quantitative indicator to evaluate the potential of antagonistic actinomycete resources in soil.%以太白山北坡12个不同海拔高度的代表性土样为研究对象,采用皿内琼脂块法筛选拮抗性放线茵.结果表明:在太白山北坡不同海拔高度土壤中生存着大量拮抗性放线菌,在分离出的141株放线菌中,有82.3%的放线菌对21种靶标菌有拮抗作用.其中,海拔800~1845、3488、3655和3670 m土壤中的拮抗性放线菌分别占其总数73.7%~86.8%、81.3%、78.9%及82.3%,在海拔1200~2300及3400 m以上土壤中分离到的广谱强拮抗性放线菌占其总数的42.1%.在拮抗性放线菌中,对金黄色葡萄球菌有强拮抗性的放线菌占拮抗菌总数的24.1%,对棉花黄萎病、草莓疫霉及人参

    7. Screening of Rhizospheric Actinomycetes for Various In-vitro and In-vivo Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) Traits and for Agroactive Compounds.

      Anwar, Sumaira; Ali, Basharat; Sajid, Imran

      2016-01-01

      In this study 98 rhizospheric actinomycetes were isolated from different wheat and tomato fields, Punjab, Pakistan. The isolates were characterized morphologically, biochemically, and genetically and were subjected to a comprehensive in vitro screening for various plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. About 30% of the isolates screened were found to be the promising PGP rhizobacteria (PGPRs), which exhibited maximum genetic similarity (up to 98-99%) with different species of the genus Streptomyces by using16S rRNA gene sequencing. The most active indole acetic acid (IAA) producer Streptomyces nobilis WA-3, Streptomyces Kunmingenesis WC-3, and Streptomyces enissocaesilis TA-3 produce 79.5, 79.23, and 69.26 μg/ml IAA respectively at 500 μg/ml L-tryptophan. The highest concentration of soluble phosphate was produced by Streptomyces sp. WA-1 (72.13 mg/100 ml) and S. djakartensis TB-4 (70.36 mg/100 ml). All rhizobacterial isolates were positive for siderophore, ammonia, and hydrogen cyanide production. Strain S. mutabilis WD-3 showed highest concentration of ACC-deaminase (1.9 mmol /l). For in-vivo screening, seed germination, and plant growth experiment were conducted by inoculating wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds with the six selected isolates. Significant increases in shoot length was observed with S. nobilis WA-3 (65%), increased root length was recorded in case of S. nobilis WA-3 (81%) as compared to water treated control plants. Maximum increases in plant fresh weight were recorded with S. nobilis WA-3 (84%), increased plant dry weight was recorded in case of S. nobilis WA-3 (85%) as compared to water treated control plants. In case of number of leaves, significant increase was recorded with S. nobilis WA-3 (27%) and significant increase in case of number of roots were recorded in case of strain S. nobilis WA-3 (30%) as compared to control plants. Over all the study revealed that these rhizospheric PGP Streptomyces are good candidates to be developed as

    8. Metabolomics of the Bio-Degradation Process of Aflatoxin B1 by Actinomycetes at an Initial pH of 6.0

      Manal Eshelli

      2015-02-01

      Full Text Available Contamination of food and feed by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a cause of serious economic and health problems. Different processes have been used to degrade AFB1. In this study, biological degradation of AFB1 was carried out using three Actinomycete species, Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277, Streptomyces lividans TK 24, and S. aureofaciens ATCC 10762, in liquid cultures. Biodegradation of AFB1 was optimised under a range of temperatures from 25 to 40 °C and pH values of 4.0 to 8.0. An initial concentration of 20 µg/mL of AFB1 was used in this study. The amount of AFB1 remaining was measured against time by thin layer chromatography (TLC and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, coupled with UV and mass spectrometry (LC-MS. All species were able to degrade the AFB1, and no significant difference was found between them. AFB1 remained in the liquid culture for R. erythropolis, S. lividans and S. aureofaciens were 0.81 µg/mL, 2.41 µg/mL and 2.78 µg/mL respectively, at the end of the first 24 h. Degradation occurred at all incubation temperatures and the pH with the optimal conditions for R. erythropolis was achieved at 30 °C and pH 6, whereas for S. lividans and S. aureofaciens the optimum conditions for degradation were 30 °C and pH 5. Analysis of the degradative route indicated that each microorganism has a different way of degrading AFB1. The metabolites produced by R. erythropolis were significantly different from the other two microorganisms. Products of degradation were identified through metabolomic studies by utilizing high-resolution mass spectral data. Mass spectrometric analysis indicated that the degradation of AFB1 was associated with the appearance of a range of lower molecular weight compounds. The pathway of degradation or chemical alteration of AFB1 was followed by means of high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (HR-FTMS analysis as well as through the MS2 fragmentation to unravel the degradative pathway for

    9. 放线菌剂与腐植酸钾对魔芋抗病促生效果研究%Study of Combined Application of Actinomycetes Biocontrol Agents and Potassium Humate on Disease Resistance and Growth-promoting Effect of Amorphophallus Konjac

      张忠良; 刘列平; 何斐

      2014-01-01

      分别以不施菌剂、不施腐植酸钾为对照,采用小区试验,探讨生防放线菌剂与腐植酸钾配施条件下二者对魔芋的防病促生作用。试验结果表明:(1)​当腐植酸钾与3号放线菌配施时,具有较强的防病促生作用。30克/株、60克/株、90克/株腐植酸钾分别配施3号菌剂时,与不施腐植酸钾对照相比,魔芋病害相对防效、增产率及增长系数分别提高了9.8%~41.6%、17.1%~76.3%和20.1%~64.2%。其中,60克/株腐植酸钾配施3号菌剂时效果最明显。(2)​当放线菌剂与腐植酸钾配施时,具有较强的防病促生作用。1、2、3号放线菌剂与60克/株腐植酸钾配施,与不施菌剂对照相比,魔芋病害相对防效、增产率及增长系数分别提高了11.7%~89.7%、33.3%~150.9%和38.5%~175.0%。其中2、3号放线菌剂与60克/株腐植酸钾配施处理效果较好。研究表明,腐植酸钾与放线菌剂配施能促进魔芋生长,提高魔芋产量,降低发病率。%With no actinomycetes and potassium humate treatments as control(CK), the effect of actinomycetes and potassium humate on disease resistance and growth-promoting of Amorphophallus konjac in the plot trials were evalu-ated. Results showed that:(1) Combined application of potassium humate and actinomycetes No.3 had strong disease resistance and growth-promoting effect. Under 30, 60, 90 gram per plant of potassium humate combined with actinomy-cetes No.3 treatment, biocontrol effect increased by 9.8%~41.6%, yield increased by 17.1%~76.3%and growth factor increased by 20.1%~64.2% compared with the group without potassium humate. Among which, the combined ap-plication of 60 gram per plant of potassium humate and actinomycetes No.3 had the most obvious effect. (2) Combined application of actinomycetes and potassium humate had signiifcant anti-disease and growth-promoting effect. Three kind of actinomycetes combined with 60 gram per plant of potassium

    10. 青岛泊子盐场放线菌多样性及其功能酶的筛选%Biodiversity of actinomycetes from Pozi saltern in Qingdao and the screening for functional enzymes

      常显波; 刘文正; 张晓华

      2015-01-01

      In this study ,15 actinomycetes were isolated using three different media (M1~M3 ) from a salt pond of Qingdao .Bioinformatics analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences from the isolates revealed they belonged to three genera (Streptomyces ,Nocardiopsis and a novel genus) ,with Streptomyces being the dominant genus .The strain CXB832 were 95 .4 % and 94 .9 % homologous to the two standard strains of bacteria ,and therefore was candidates for a new genus on the basis of phenotypic ,chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic distinctiveness .The type of medium and temperature showed significant effects on the number and diversity of actinomycetes recovered .Starch casein medium was the most effective media to isolate actinomycetes species at 37℃ .12 ,3 ,2 and 1 of 15 isolates produces amylase ,lipase ,caseinase and cellulose ,respectively .%采用平板涂布法利用3种培养基从青岛即墨市田横镇泊子盐场盐池底泥样中共分离纯化出15株放线菌,对分离菌株进行16S rRNA基因测序分析。发现这15株放线菌分属于链霉菌属( Streptomyces )、拟诺卡氏菌属(Nocardiopsis)和1个新属,其中 Streptomyces属为优势菌属;菌株CXB832与 Nocardiopsis arabia DSM 45083T和 Haloacti-nospora albus DSM 45015T最接近,同源性分别为95.4%和94.9%,根据其表型和分子特征可以初步判定该菌株为放线菌新属。培养基及培养温度对盐池环境中放线菌的分离效果均有影响,利用淀粉酪素培养基在37℃分离的放线菌种类和数量较多。在15株放线菌中,分别有12株、3株、2株和1株放线菌产淀粉酶、酯酶、蛋白酶和纤维素酶。

    11. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

      Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

      2011-01-01

      All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation fo...

    12. Efecto rizosférico de Parmelia sp y Solanum lixioides sobre actinomicetos y ensayos de antibiosis in vitro Rhizozpheric effect of Parmelia sp and Solanum lixioides on actinomycetes and their in vitro antimicrobial activity

      Zárate Lyda

      1999-11-01

      Full Text Available

      La presencia de actinomicetos en muestras de suelo alrededor de raíces y rizoides de Parmelia sp y de Solanum lixioides fue investigado. 5e evaluó el efecto rizosférico del liquen Parmelia sp sobre poblaciones de actinomicetos con un R/5 ~ 2.5, mientras el radio R/5 resultante en S.lixioides fue <1. En los ensayos de antibiosis los mejores resultados se obtuvieron al modificar el medio de cultivo, o medio mínimo de Hopwood (1967, con relación a medio estándar. Se determinó el espectro de actividad antibiótica de 9 aislamientos, sobre organismos Gram positivos: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis y Gram negativos: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Los aislamientos A-2, A-4, A-5 YA-6 presentaron un amplio espectro de actividad antimicrobiana sobre E. coli, B. subtilis y K. pneumoniae. A-11, presentó una antibiosis selectiva y en grado alto sobre P. aeruginosa.

      The occurrence of actinomycetes from rhizospheric soils of Parmelia sp and Solanum lixioides was investigated. The rhizospheric effect from Parmelia sp (Lichen upon actinomycetes isolates was evaluated and was (R/5 ~ 2.5, while by the solanaceae the resultant ratio R/5 was <1. For the antibiosis assays the better results were obtained by moditying the culture médium (Hopwood minimun medium, 1967. The antimicrobial activity from nine isolates against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined. A-2, A-4, A-S and A-6 isolates showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, while A-'Il showed a selective antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa.

    13. Efficacy of fermenting liquor of one antagonistic actinomycete on experimental colibacillosis in chicken%一株拮抗放线菌发酵液对试验性鸡大肠杆菌病的疗效试验

      傅艳萍; 孙斌; 来航线; 王晶钰

      2009-01-01

      对一株具有抑菌效果的放线菌发酵液用于治疗鸡大肠杆菌病的疗效进行了研究.采用人工感染诱发鸡大肠杆菌病造模,分别以放线菌发酵液与氟苯尼考进行预防和治疗试验.结果显示,放线菌发酵液治疗组与氟苯尼考低剂量(5 mg/kg)组的大肠杆菌病治疗效果相当,差异不显著;放线菌发酵液预防组与感染对照组在死亡率、治愈率和增重方面差异显著.证实,试验所用的放线菌发酵液可用于治疗和预防人工诱发的O_(89)血清型鸡大肠杆菌病.%Avian colibacillosis induced by the experimental infection method was treated and prevented using the fermenting liquor of antagonistic actinomycetes and florfenieol. The fermenting liquor treatment group (5 mg/kg) had similar therapeutic effect to the low dose of florfenicol group,and the difference be-tween the two groups was not significant(P>0.05). The difference between the fermenting liquor preven-tion group and the infection control group was significant in mortality,cure rate,and weight gain. The re-sults showed that this fermenting liquor of actinomycete could treat and prevent O_(89) serotype avian coliba-cillosis induced by experimental infection.

    14. Identification and evaluation of physiologically active root endophytic actinomycetes from mangrove plants in Hainan Province%红树植物根内生放线茵的分离鉴定及其生理活性的评价

      唐依莉; 谢修超; 洪葵

      2012-01-01

      A total of 138 root endophytic actinomycete strains were successfully isolated using 1/10ATCC 172 medium from the roots of 18 mangrove plants and 3 semi-mangrove plants in Hainan Province. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates showed that the isolates belonged to members of the genera Jishengella, Micromonospora and Streptomycetes. Bioactivity tests were carried out on all the isolated endophytic actinomycete fermentation liquids. Of all the isolates forty strains showed citotoxities to hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 cell, and twenty seven strains were active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 9551 (MRSA). The strains isolated from the mangroves showed no bioactivity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Sodium chloride tolerance test for 88 isolates indicated that 77 isolates were halo-tolerant or halophilic, 2 isolates of which exhibited the highest tolerance to p(NaCI) = 150 g ·L-1 and 54 isolates grew well on the medium containing p (NaCl) =33 g ·L-1.%采集海南文昌清澜港头苑村红树林保护区的18种红树植物和3种半红树植物的根部样品,用1/10ATCC172培养基共分离到138株内生放线菌。经初步鉴定,分离到的138株内生放线菌分别属于继生菌属、小单胞菌属和链霉菌属3个属。对分离到的内生放线菌进行体外细胞毒活性和抗菌活性检测,结果表明,对肝癌SMMC-7721细胞有细胞毒活性的菌株有40株,抗MRSA活性的菌株有27株,所有测试菌株均未检测到抗白色念珠菌活性。对88株菌进行耐盐性检测,77株菌表现出耐盐或嗜盐特征,其中2株最高耐盐质量浓度ρ(NaCl)=150g·L-1,54株菌可在含有P(NaCl)=33g·L-1的培养基上生长良好。

    15. Potencialidade de um actinomiceto de rizosfera de tomateiro como agente de biocontrole de doenças Potenciality of an actinomycete from tomato rhizosphere as a biocontrol agent for tomato diseases

      Renato Carrer Filho

      2009-09-01

      Full Text Available Um actinomiceto (Streptomyces setonii, isolado 'UFV-RD1', obtido de rizosfera de planta sadia de tomateiro, foi selecionado dentre outros 117, como promissor agente de biocontrole de enfermidades da cultura. Em testes de antagonismo in vitro contra patógenos do tomateiro, o isolado 'UFV-RD1' foi incapaz de inibir o crescimento de bactérias (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria mas inibiu a germinação de conídios de alguns fungos (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans, Corynespora cassiicola, Stemphylium solani. Em ensaios de biocontrole experimental in vivo, em casa de vegetação, o actinomiceto foi efetivo em reduzir a severidade de sintomas no caso de patógenos fúngicos e bacterianos testados como desafiantes. A campo, quando A. solani e P. infestans ocorreram naturalmente, as plantas originárias de sementes microbiolizadas com propágulos da estirpe 'UFV-RD1' exibiram sintomas menos severos que as plantas controle para o caso da pinta preta. O agente de biocontrole é promissor para futuros protocolos de manejo integrado, como forma de reduzir a quantidade de defensivos utilizados.An actinomycete (Streptomyces setonii, isolate 'UFV-RD1', isolated from the rhizosphere of a healthy tomato plant was selected out of 117 as a promising biocontrol agent for tomato diseases. In in vitro antagonism tests against tomato pathogens, the isolate 'UFV-RD1' was unable to inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria but inhibited conidium germination of fungi (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans, Corynespora cassiicola, Stemphylium solani. Experimental biocontrol assays in a greenhouse indicated that the actinomycete was effective for reducing symptom severity in the case of bacteria and fungi tested

    16. 产抗生素南极海洋放线菌的筛选及培养条件优化%Screening and Optimization of Culture Conditions of Antarctic Marine Actinomycete Producing Antibiotics

      彭彬; 孙超

      2013-01-01

      对32株南极海洋放线菌进行抑菌活性实验,筛选出3株具有一定抑菌活性的放线菌,分别命名为GD-F1、GD-F2和GD-F3,其中GD-F2的抑菌活性较高;探讨了碳源、氮源、pH值等条件对GD-F2产抗生素的影响,确定GD-F2产抗生素的最佳培养条件为:碳源为可溶性淀粉、氮源为大豆粉或酵母膏、用天然海水和蒸馏水各一半配制培养基、无机盐浓度为改良高氏一号培养基的一半、pH值为7.0,为南极海洋放线菌的机理研究和应用奠定了基础.%The antibiotic activity of 32 strains of antarctic marine Actinomycete were tested and 3 strains GD-F1,GD-F2,GD-F3 with antibiotic activity were screened,among which strain GD-F2 had the highest antibiotic activity. The culture conditions for strain GD-F2 were obtained as follows; with soluble starch as carbon source,with bean powder or yeast extract as nitrogen source,the medium with pH value of 7. 0 was made with natural sea water-distilled water(1: 1) ,the concentrations of inorganic salts were half of those of improved Gao No. 1 culture medium. This study will lay the foundation for adaptation mechanism research and biotechnologi-cal application of antarctic marine Actinomycete.

    17. Estudio de actinomicetos marinos aislados de la costa central del Perú y su actividad antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus Meticilina Resistentes y Enterococcus faecalis Vancomicina Resistentes Study of marine actinomycetes isolated from the central coast of Peru and their antibacterial activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis

      Jorge León

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar el potencial antimicrobiano de actinomicetos marinos frente a cepas S. aureus meticilino-resistentes (MRSA y E. faecalis vancomicina-resistentes (VRE. Materiales y métodos. En dos medios de cultivo se sembraron 29 cepas de actinomicetos aislados de sedimento marino. Se evaluó la capacidad inhibitoria mediante pruebas de antagonismo in vitro para MRSA y VRE. Se procesó los extractos orgánicos de tres actinomicetos seleccionados para determinar la Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI del compuesto activo. Resultados. La mayoría de los actinomicetos aislados correspondieron a un grupo homogéneo de blanco-grisáceos (62% con buen nivel de crecimiento en agar marino. Los porcentajes inhibitorios fueron superiores a 85% para ambos patógenos con halos de inhibición mayores a 69 y 78 mm de diámetro para MRSA y VRE respectivamente. Los extractos diclorometánicos de tres de los actinomicetos aislados (I-400A, B1-T61, M10-77 mostraron gran potencial inhibitorio de ambos patógenos, siendo M10-77 la cepa de actinomiceto de mayor actividad antibiótica frente a S. aureus ATCC 43300 resistente a meticilina y E. faecalis ATCC 51299 resistente a vancomicina con una Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI de 7,9 y 31,7 μg/ mL respectivamente. El análisis filogenético de la cepa M10- 77 presenta un 99% de similaridad con la especie marina Streptomyces erythrogriseus. Conclusiones. El sedimento marino de la costa central del Perú es fuente promisorio de cepas de actinomicetos con gran capacidad de producir compuestos bioactivos capaces de inhibir patógenos tipificados como multidrogo-resistentes tales como S. aureus meticilino resistentes y E. faecalis vancomicina resistentes.Objectives. To determine the antimicrobial potential of marine actinomycetes against drug-resistant pathogens represented by strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE. Materials and

    18. Antimicrobial Activity and Stability of Fermentation Liquid from Actinomycete H50 Strain%放线菌H50发酵液抑菌活性及其稳定性测定

      黄剑; 李天华; 崔艺久; 白洪志; 韩梅

      2012-01-01

      The strain of H50 was isolated from the soil in the lab.By identification, the strain was regarded as streptomyces. taking 12 epiphyte,3 bacteria as object, by means of mycelium growth rate and cup-plate method, the antimicrobial activity ot bioassay was studied. The stability of the fermentation broths in different conditions was measured. The antimicrobial tests showed that the inhibition rate of all the 12 strains were considerable and 6 of them reached 50%.It showed strongest inhibition efitvt against Bacillus subtills (12.3 mm).Organize method tests showed that inhibition rate of fermentation broths of the strain H50 to Sclerotinia sclerotiomm and Botrytis cinerea was 98.3% and 94.9% , respectively. Through the research of stability of the fermentation broths of actinomycete strain H50 to heat, acid, alkali and light we found that it had a stable activity to heat.acid and UV,but unstable to alkali.Antimierobial spectrum of actinomycete strain H50 was wide. Antimicrobial activity of the fermentation broths was stable and worth to be developed.%将沈阳农业大学微生物研究室分离的1株放线菌H50[链霉菌属(Streptomyces)]分别以植物病原菌真菌12株、细菌3株为供试菌,采用菌丝生长速率法和管碟法测定H50发酵液的抑菌活性以及发酵液的稳定性.发酵液的抑菌活性测定结果表明:H50发酵液对12株供试病原真菌均具有不同程度抑制作用,对其中6种病原真菌菌丝生长抑制率达50%以上,对油菜菌核病菌和黄瓜灰霉病菌的抑制率分别为98.3%和94.9%;H50发酵液对3种供试病原细菌中的枯草芽孢杆菌的抑制作用最强,抑菌圈直径为12.3mm.发酵液的稳定性检测结果表明:发酵液在80℃处理后抑菌活性开始下降,发酵液在pH值4.0~8.0条件下抑菌活性稳定,可见该菌株的代谢产物具有广谱抑菌活性和较强的热、酸、紫外光稳定性,具有潜在的开发价值.

    19. Optimization of medium components and culture conditions of algicidal actinomycetes BS01%高效溶藻放线茵BS01发酵培养基及发酵条件优化

      傅丽君; 安新丽; 李东; 许丽霞; 田蕴; 郑天凌

      2011-01-01

      从漳江口红树林区采集的沉积物样品中分离到1株放线菌菌株BS01 Brevibacterium sp.,其胞外活性产物对塔玛亚历山大藻Alexandrium tamarense具有明显的溶藻作用.采用单因素及均匀设计,通过摇瓶培养对BS01产溶藻活性物质的发酵培养基及发酵条件进行优化.结果表明,在可溶性淀粉为碳源、硝酸钠为氮源、装液量为40%、起始pH值为7.5、培养温度为28℃、转速为150r·min-1、振荡培养时间为48h的条件时,BS01发酵产物的杀藻活性最强.通过均匀设计进行最佳发酵培养基及培养条件优化的结果为:可溶性淀粉为20g·L-1,硝酸钠为0.5g·L-1,pH为7.7,温度为27.2℃.研究结果为杀藻活性物质高效提取及杀藻机制研究奠定了基础.%A strain of actinomycetes BS01 capable of lysing the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense was isolated from mangrove area of Zhangjiangkou in Fujian province. The medium components and cultural conditions for algicidal activity of actinomycete strain BS01 were optimized by single-factor and uniform tests in shake-flask. The initial pH, fermentation temperature, fermentation time, and inoculum were optimized through single-factor tests. Results showed that BS01 exhibited the best algicidal activity by using soluble starch as carbon source, sodium nitrate as nitrogen source, initial pH at 7.7, temperature at 27.2℃, and shaking at 150r.min-1 in 100mL of 250mL conical flask for 48h. The optimal fermentation parameters of BS01 were: soluble starch 20g·L-1, sodium nitrate 0.5g.L-1, pH value 7.7, and temperature 27.2℃by using uniform design experiments.

    20. 柳珊瑚Anthogorgiacaerulea相关可培养共生放线菌多样性及其生物毒活性研究%Diversity and Biotoxicity of Culturable Actinomycetes Associated with the Gorgonian Anthogorgia caerulea

      杨小梅; 李菲; 胡丽琴; 周文红; 覃媚; 高程海

      2014-01-01

      【目的】研究斜阳岛附近海域柳珊瑚Anthogorgiacaerulea可培养共生放线菌多样性及其发酵液代谢产物的生物毒活性。【方法】采用纯培养法和基于16 S rRNA基因序列的系统发育分析对从广西斜阳岛附近海域采集的柳珊瑚Anthogorgiacaerulea可培养共生放线菌多样性进行研究,利用卤虫致死法测试其生物毒活性。【结果】从柳珊瑚Anthogorgiacaerulea中分离获得相关可培养放线菌23株,采用16S rRNA基因序列的系统发育分析后发现,这些菌株属于2个亚纲9个科9个属23种。绝大部分菌株都具有一定的生物毒活性,其中10株菌株有较强生物毒活性,1株有显著毒活性。【结论】广西斜阳岛附近海域柳珊瑚Anthogorgia caerulea中存在较为丰富的放线菌多样性,部分菌株具有较强的生物毒活性。%[Objective]To investigate the diversity and biotoxicity of culturable actinomycetes isolated from GorgonianAnthogorgia caerulea collected at the Xieyang island.[Methods]Cul-tivated marine bacteria were isolated from Gorgonian Anthogorgia caerulea collected at the Xieyang island by using conventional culture-dependent method,and then investigate their di-versity by using phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons.Ac-tivities of the crude extract of strains isolated were tested through brine shrimp lethality.[Results]We isolated 23 bacterial strains from the sample in media(2216E,NA and ISP2 ) supplement with seawater.On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics,we selected 23 strains to perform a phyloenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that there were 2 subclass,9 family,9 genus and 23 species.Activity results showed that the crude extract of 1 0 strains showed obvious brine shrimp lethality.[Conclu-sion]Gorgonian Anthogorgia caerulea collected at the Xieyang island showed high diversity of actinomycetes,and some of them showed obvi

    1. Actinomycetes Strains Screening for Xanthan- degrading and Study on Ferment Conditions for Enzyme Producing%产黄原胶降解酶放线菌筛选及发酵工艺研究

      古丽·艾合买提; 穆斯塔帕·克地尔; 唐娴

      2011-01-01

      [Objective] Xanthan is a kind of extracellular polysaccharose (EPS) produced by a plant pathogen of Xanthomonas campestris . It has a main chain structure similar to cellulose and is difficult to degrade, and can be -widely used for thickening agent, suspending agent, emulsifying agent and stabilizing agent as biogel with its special physical properties. However, it can also cause black rotten disease for crucifer. The purpose of this program is to obtain oligosaccharide produced by biodegradation of xanthan which used for biochemical to control black rotten disease by screening actinomycetes strains for xanthan - degrading. [ Method ] The program was carried out by screening actinomycetes strains from natural soil based on xanthan - degrading ability, identifying by 16S rRNA analysis, selecting mutants by ultraviolet mutation for higher enzyme activity, and studying on ferment conditions for enzyme producing by one factor and orthogonal tests. [Result]A strain of Streptomyces sp has been obtained, and the xanthan - degrading enzyme activity of its fermentation liquid reached 200 IU/L after culture medium and ferment conditions optimization.%[目的]黄原胶是植物致病菌野油菜黄单胞菌所分泌的胞外多糖,其主链类似纤维素很难降解,可作为生物胶用于增稠剂、悬浮剂、乳化剂和稳定剂,还能引起十字花科植物黑腐病.筛选分离对黄原胶有显著降解作用的放线菌,以生物方法降解黄原胶,降解产物黄原胶寡糖可有效防治黑腐病,具有开发为生物农药的潜力.[方法]从自然土壤样品中进行分离筛选、纯化、16S rRNA鉴定及诱变选育,获得高效降解黄原胶放线菌菌株,通过发酵工艺研究,确定最适产酶条件.[结果]优化产酶培养基配方为:蔗糖3%,( NH4 )2SO4 0.5%,KNO31%,酵母膏0.1%.菌株发酵产酶培养条件为:发酵温度28℃,pH7.5,500mL瓶装量为150 mL,底物浓度0.5%,接种量为5%.[结论]获得一株高效

    2. Growth Promotion and Disease Control Effect Determination of Endophytic Actinomycetes from Medicago sativa%首蓿内生拮抗放线菌的促生防病作用研究

      王燕; 张绒仙

      2011-01-01

      [ Objective ] The research aimed to screen antagonistic endophytic actinomycetes from Medicago sativa. [ Method ] Growth promotion and disease control effect determination has been done by using Mx1, Mx3 and Mx5, which wcre isolated from the healthy Medicago sativa[ Result ] The result that the comparative control of Mx3 extracts could be 56.56%, 44.67% to Botrytis cinerea and Gaeumannomyces graminis var.tritici, respectively; the control effect of Mx3 extract was higher than it' s suspension. Mx3 extract had good effect on plant height and leaf quantity of tomato growing in the greenhouse; its growth-promoting abihty on wheat and cucumber was higher than water control. [ Conclusion ] Mx3 could promote growth of root, bud on both tomato and wheat, but it could restrain the growth of cucumber root.%[目的]从首蓿内生放线菌中筛选拮抗菌株.[方法]采用已从健康首蓿组织中分离得到的内生放线菌Mx1、Mx3、Mx5进行温室促生防病测定.[结果]菌株Mx3的发酵液对番茄灰霉病的防效可达56.56%,对小麦全蚀病的防效为44.67%;发酵液对2种病害的防效都明显高于菌悬液.对温室番茄株高、叶片数生长影响最明显;对小麦、黄瓜的促生均高于对照.[结论]菌株Mx3促生效果最好,其发酵液的防病效果明显优于菌悬液.

    3. Screening and Identification of Actinomycetes Antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum and Phomopsis asparagi%香蕉枯萎病菌和芦笋茎枯病菌的拮抗放线菌筛选与鉴定

      杜宜新; 石妞妞; 阮宏椿; 甘林; 杨秀娟; 陈福如

      2013-01-01

      从江西井冈山地区采集的土壤样品中分离获得76株放线菌,通过对峙培养法筛选出菌株S15对香蕉枯萎病菌 Fusarium oxysporum、芦笋茎枯病菌 Phomopsis asparagi 有强抑制作用,该菌培养滤液对稻瘟病菌Magnaporthe oryzae、番茄灰霉病菌 Botrytis cinerea、大豆炭疽病菌 Colletotrichum truncatum、水稻纹枯病菌Rhizoctonia solani、柑橘炭疽病菌Colletotrichum gloeosporioides、香蕉黑星病菌Cladosporium cucumerinum、番茄早疫病菌 A lternaria solani、黄瓜炭疽病菌 Colletotrichum orbiculare、玉米大斑病菌 Setosphaeria turcica等多种重要的植物病原真菌也均有较强的抑制作用,拮抗谱较宽。根据其形态特征、培养特性、生理生化特性和16S rDNA序列同源性分析,S15被鉴定为链霉菌属波卓链霉菌 Streptomyces bottropensis。%Seventy-six strains of actinomycete were isolated from the soil in Jinggangshan area in Jiangxi province . S15 was found to be strongly antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum and Phomopsis asparagi .The inhibition effect of S15fermentationfiltratewassignificantagainst Magnaportheoryzae,Botrytiscinerea,Colletotrichumtruncatum, Rhizoctonia solani , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , Cladosporium cucumerinum , A lternaria solani , Colletotrichum orbiculare and Setosphaeria turcica . According to its morphology , cultural characteristics , physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence ,S15 were identified to be Streptomyces bottropensis .

    4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12539-1 [Dicty_cDB

      Full Text Available AP006861_737( AP006861 |pid:none) Chlamydophila felis Fe/C-56 DNA,... 38 0.76 CU638744_458( CU638744 |pid:none) Podospo..._3927( CP000667 |pid:none) Salinispora tropica CNB-440, co... 36 2.9 AP006861_730( AP006861 |pid:none) Chlamydophila feli...CP000686 |pid:none) Roseiflexus sp. RS-1, complete ... 46 0.004 AP006861_723( AP006861 |pid:none) Chlamydophila feli...P006861_722( AP006861 |pid:none) Chlamydophila felis Fe/C-56 DNA,... 44 0.018 AE0...|pid:none) Chlamydia trachomatis strain TW-3 ... 41 0.090 AP006861_721( AP006861 |pid:none) Chlamydophila feli

    5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03504-1 [Dicty_cDB

      Full Text Available cName: Full=Protoheme IX farnesyltransferase; ... 40 0.030 CP000561_1922( CP000561 |pid:none) Pyrobaculum calid...A clone ZM... 66 3e-18 BC158428_1( BC158428 |pid:none) Xenopus tropicalis hypothetical pr... 68 3e-18 BC124463_1( BC124463 |pid...; ... 47 2e-04 CP000667_3040( CP000667 |pid:none) Salinispora tropica CNB-440, co...P008232_663( AP008232 |pid:none) Sodalis glossinidius str. 'morsi... 37 0.20 CP001391_393( CP001391 |pid:non...equences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value Contig-U03504-1 (Contig-U03504-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Conti

    6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04187-1 [Dicty_cDB

      Full Text Available :none) Pelobacter propionicus DSM 2379,... 49 3e-04 CP000561_238( CP000561 |pid:none) Pyrobaculum calidifo...none) Rattus norvegicus nudix (nucleosid... 52 4e-05 BC075099_1( BC075099 |pid:none) Xenopus tropicalis nudi...:none) Legionella pneumophila str. Par... 44 0.015 BC087815_1( BC087815 |pid:none) Xenopus tropicalis hypothetical...opsis thaliana genomic DNA,... 170 8e-41 AC149079_1( AC149079 |pid:none) Medicago trunca... c... 51 7e-05 CP000667_3777( CP000667 |pid:none) Salinispora tropica CNB-440, co... 51 7e-05 AE009949_399( AE009949 |pid

    7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16470-1 [Dicty_cDB

      Full Text Available ... 497 e-145 CP000930_1292( CP000930 |pid:none) Heliobacterium modesticaldum Ic... 497 e-145 (Q7V8B1) RecNa...CC 15444,... 477 e-136 AP008232_584( AP008232 |pid:none) Sodalis glossinidius str. 'morsi... 476 e-136 (Q9JY...:none) Stenotrophomonas maltophilia R5... 481 e-134 CP000282_2544( CP000282 |pid:none) Saccharophagus degrada...954205_488( CR954205 |pid:none) Ostreococcus tauri strain OTTH05... 449 e-128 CP000667_121( CP000667 |pid:none) Salinispora tropica... CNB-440, com... 444 e-128 FM178379_666( FM178379 |pid:none) Aliivibrio salmonicida L

    8. 番茄灰霉病菌拮抗放线菌的筛选、鉴定及其活性评价%Screening,Identification and Inhibitory Activity of an Actinomycete Strain and against Botrytis cinerea

      徐大勇; 李志栋; 李峰; 徐顶泉; 吴旺丽

      2012-01-01

      从安徽省寿县农田土壤中分离筛选到1株对番茄灰霉病菌Botrytis cinerea有强拮抗作用的放线菌菌株HNU-1。根据菌体形态特征、培养特征、细胞壁组分、生理生化特性和16S rRNA基因序列分析,将该菌株鉴定为吸水链霉菌Streptomyces hygroscopicus。菌株HNU-1发酵滤液可抑制灰霉病菌菌丝生长和分生孢子萌发,且浓度越高,抑制能力越强;当发酵滤液稀释6.67倍时则完全抑制灰霉病菌菌丝生长和分生孢子萌发。盆栽试验结果表明,菌株HNU-1发酵滤液6.67倍稀释液对番茄灰霉病的预防与治疗效果分别为87.8%和77.9%,均显著高于50%多菌灵可湿性粉剂500倍稀释液。%An actinomycete strain HNU-1,isolated from a farmland soil in Shou county,Anhui province,exhibited antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea.Based on characteristics,in morphology,physiological,biochemica and 16S rRNA gene sequences,the strain was identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus.Culture filtrate of the strain could inhibit mycelium growth and spore germination of B.cinerea,and resulted in more inhibition as the concentration of the culture filtrate increased.Mycelium growth and spore germination of B.cinerea was completely inhibited by 6.67-fold dilution of the culture filtrate.Pot experiments demonstrated that prevention and cure efficiencies of 6.67-fold dilution of the culture filtrate against tomato gray mould were 87.8% and 77.9%,respectively,significantly superior to those of 500-fold dilution of 50% Badistan.

    9. 放线菌制剂对人参生长及根域土壤微生物区系的影响%Effects of actinomycetes agent on ginseng growth and rhizosphere soil microflora

      张鸿雁; 薛泉宏; 申光辉; 王东胜

      2013-01-01

      Taking the ginseng in Xiao Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China as test object,this paper studied the effects of applying Streptomyces pactum (Act12) on ginseng growth and on the soil microflora in root zone and root surface.After treated with Act12,the yield and quality of ginseng' s medicinal part improved,the induced enzyme activities in leaves and the root activity increased,and the numbers and proportions of soil bacteria and actinomycetes increased significantly while those of soil fungi decreased.Compared with the control,the soil microflora in treatment Act12 changed.The numbers of the dominant bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens,Pseudomonas koreensis,and Microbacterium oxydans were much higher in root zone soil and root surface soil,and the pathogen Plectosphaerella cucumerina decreased in root zone soil and disappeared in root surface soil.These results suggested that the addition of Act12 could improve the soil microflora,enhance the resistance and root activity of ginseng plant,and increase the ginseng yield and its quality.%以小兴安岭地区人参为研究对象,探索放线菌制剂对人参的促生效应及对人参根区、根表土壤微生物区系的影响.结果表明:经放线菌制剂Streptomyces pactum(Act12)处理后,人参药用部分产量增加,品质改善;叶片诱导酶活性提高,根系活力增强;土壤中细菌、放线菌的数量和比例显著增加,真菌的数量和比例减少.与对照相比,土壤微生物区系结构改变:优势菌荧光假单胞菌、韩国假单胞菌和氧化微杆菌在根区、根表土壤中的数量大幅提高;病原真菌烟色织孢霉在根区土壤中减少,在根表土壤中消失.表明施用放线菌制剂Act12能够改善土壤微生物区系,提高人参植株的抗性和根系活力,增加产量并改善品质.

    10. Cyclic dipeptides in actinomycete Brevibacterium sp.associated with sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka: isolation and identification%仿刺参共附生放线菌Brevibacterium sp.中的环二肽成分的分离和鉴定

      宫俊; 汤华; 耿婉丽; 刘宝姝; 孙鹏; 李玲; 李志勇; 张文

      2012-01-01

      Objective To investigate the secondary metabolites of actinomycete Brevibacterium sp. associated with the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka. Methods The ethyl acetate extract of the actinomycete was purified by repeated column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to obtain pure compounds; and the compound structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis (nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR; mass spectrometry, MS) and the results were compared with the previously reported data. Results Seven compounds were isolated: cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) (1), cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Met) (2), cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Tyr) (3), cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Val) (4), cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Pro) (5), cyclo-(L-Val-Gly) (6), and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu) (7). Conclusion This is the first report on the secondary metabolites of microorganisms associated with the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka, and all the seven compounds have been reported from the actinomycete Brevibacterium sp. for the first time.%目的 对仿刺参共附生放线菌Brevibacterium sp.的次生代谢产物进行研究.方法 运用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱色谱、高效液相色谱(HPLC)等现代色谱技术对放线菌的乙酸乙酯提取物进行分离纯化,在核磁共振(NMR)、质谱(MS)等现代波谱技术及与文献比对的基础上对其结构进行鉴定.结果 共分离得到7个环二肽类化合物,分别鉴定为:环-(L-脯氨酸-L-苯丙氨酸)(1)、环-(L-脯氨酸-L-甲硫氨酸)(2)、环-(L-脯氨酸-L-酪氨酸)(3)、环-(L-脯氨酸-L-缬氨酸)(4)、环-(L-脯氨酸-L-脯氨酸)(5)、环(L-缬氨酸-甘氨酸)(6)、环-(L-脯氨酸-L-亮氨酸)(7).结论 本研究是对仿刺参共附生微生物次生代谢产物研究的首次报道,这7个化合物均为首次从放线菌Brevibacterium sp.中分离得到.

    11. ACTINOMYCETES OF SEWAGE-TREATMENT PLANTS

      In some activated sludge sewage treatment plants a thick foam rich in Nocardia may be formed at the surface of the secondary aeration and settling tanks. It had previously been observed that the supernatant from anaerobic digesters contained suspended solids which were toxic for ...

    12. Actinomycetes: A Source of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes

      Anita Saini; Neeraj K. Aggarwal; Anuja Sharma; Anita Yadav

      2015-01-01

      Lignocellulose is the most abundant biomass on earth. Agricultural, forest, and agroindustrial activities generate tons of lignocellulosic wastes annually, which present readily procurable, economically affordable, and renewable feedstock for various lignocelluloses based applications. Lignocelluloses are the focus of present decade researchers globally, in an attempt to develop technologies based on natural biomass for reducing dependence on expensive and exhaustible substrates. Lignocellulo...

    13. Therapeutically Active Biomolecules from Marine Actinomycetes

      Mani Jayaprakashvel

      2012-01-01

      For the past few centuries, the biological sources of terrestrial origin have been explored and exploited for bioactive metabolites. This has resulted in the stagnancy of discovering either novel compounds or compounds with novel bioactivities. Thus, researchers across the globe have started exploring our big Oceans, for the search of bioactive metabolites. During the past few decades, the research on bioactive metabolites from marine biological resources has geared up and among the sources m...

    14. Efecto Antagónico in vitro de Actinomicetos Aislados de Purines de Chipaca (Bidens pilosa L. Frente a Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary In vitro Antagonistic Effect of Actinomycetes Isolated from Chipaca (Bidens pilosa L. Purins Against Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary

      Yudy Astrid Fonseca Ardila

      2011-12-01

      Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto inhibidor de los actinomicetos presentes en purines o extractos fermentados de plantas de chipaca (Bidens pilosa L., sobre el crecimiento de Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary, causante del tizón tardío de la papa. Se elaboraron cuatro purines de flores, raíces, hojas-tallos y su mezcla. De estos purines se obtuvieron 25 aislamientos de actinomicetos, cada uno de los cuales se enfrentó con P. infestans en placas de medio de cultivo, utilizando la técnica de anillos de Gauze y estableciendo las concentraciones iniciales de esporas mediante conteos microscópicos en cámara de Neubauer. Los actinomicetos no crecieron en el purin de flores debido, posiblemente, a que en él no se utiliza suelo rizosférico o porque su pH (9 es mayor que el rango normal de crecimiento de estos microorganismos ( pH 6 -; 8. Se evidenció inhibición del crecimiento del oomycete por parte de 8 aislamientos de actinomicetos con porcentajes de inhibición entre 33,3 - 77,8%, provenientes de los purines de raíces, tallos-hojas y mezcla de partes de la planta. La mayor inhibición se obtuvo en los aislamientos AC001, AC010, AC011 y AC025 con conteos de 0,4, 6,0, 3,0, y 3,6 x10(5 esporas mL-1.Purins or liquid fermented extracts of chipaca (Bidens pilosa L. were prepared to establish the inhibitory effect of the actinomycetes found in such biopharmaceutical preparations on the growth of Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary, the causative of potato late blight disease. Four purins made from flowers, roots, leaf-steams and a mixture of them were prepared; 25 actinomycete isolates were obtained from these purins and their ability to resist challenge by P. infestans was ascertained in medium plates using the ring Gauze technique and establishing initial concentrations of spores by microscopic counting in Neubauer chamber. Actinomycetes did not grow in flower purin as rhizosphere soil was not used in its preparation or because this particular pH (9

    15. Produção de biomassa de erva-cidreira [Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br.] sob adubação com composto de capim elefante inoculado e sem inoculação de actinomicetos Biomass production of Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br. under fertilization with compost inoculated elephant grass and without inoculation of actinomycetes

      E.V.G. Gama

      2012-01-01

      and inoculated with the actinomycete Streptomyces genus, AC16, AC26, AC92 and AC103. The compounds were placed in polyethylene bags containing 10.0 kg of soil added in a proportion equivalent to 20 t ha-1 and re-apply after the first harvest. The harvests of the shoots were taken at 75 and 165 days after transplantation. The roots were harvested after the second harvest. Dealing with organic fertilization promoted the average increase in biomass production of lemon grass 184, 83, 125, 115 and 122% for the dry stem biomass (MSPA in the first harvest, second harvest of MSPA, total shoot biomass (MSTPA, dry biomass of the root (MSR and the total crop biomass (MST, respectively, compared with the control, but no effect of inoculation of actinomycetes in compost. Under the conditions of this study was conducted, it was concluded that the organic compound fertilizer with elephant grass positively influenced the production of dry biomass of L. alba, but the injection of the compounds of the actinomycetes, without influence.

    16. Isolation and biocontrol potential of bacteria and actinomycetes from soils suppressive to Rhizoctonia bare-patch disease in South Australia%南澳大利亚丝核菌抑病土中细菌与放线菌的分离及其对病害的生物防治作用

      杨合同; Maarten RYDER; 唐文华

      2005-01-01

      Bacteria and actinomycetes were quantitatively isolated from a soil collected from Avon, South Australia, which is suppressive to wheat bare-patch disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 8. The percentage of isolates antagonistic to R. solani AG-8 isolate 21 was measured from the total population of bacteria and actinomycetes. Heat treatment (60℃, 10min.), a process previously shown to remove the suppressive qualities of this soil, significantly reduced the counts of total bacteria and actinomycetes on agar plates, but did not reduce the percentage of antagonists. Nine isolates were chosen from 2700 isolates, based on their strong inhibition of R. solani AG-8 isolate 21, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) isolate 8, Fusarium graminearum isolate Fg, Verticillium dahliae isolate Vd5, Bipolaris sorokiniana isolate Bs, Pythium irregulare isolate BH40, and Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 isolate 1664 causing damping-off of cotton. Seven of the nine antagonistic isolates were either chitinase-or endoglucanase-positive, with strong chitinase production appearing to be associated with strong biocontrol activity.The nine antagonistic isolates were identified as Bacillus megaterium (isolate Ap25), B. subtilis (isolate Ap113), Streptomyces spp. (isolate Ap117), Bacillus coagulans (isolate Ap123), Streptoverticillium reticulum (isolate Ap89), Cellulomonas flavigena (isolate Ap75) or were actinomycetes (isolates Ap116, Ap111 and Ap139).B. megaterium Ap25 and B. subtilis Ap113 were the most effective in disease reduction and seedling growth promotion.These two isolates were inhibitory in vitro to a beneficial Trichoderma pseudokoningii isolate A5MH, which was isolated from the same soil sample, but did not significantly reduce the efficacy of A5MH in disease control and seedling growth promotion.%从南澳大利亚埃文采集的土壤样品中计数分离了细菌和放线菌,该土壤对Rhizoctonia solani 融合群8引起的小麦根腐病具有抑制作

    17. Intra- and interspecific polymorphisms ofLeishmania donovani andL. tropica minicircle DNA

      Dobner, P; Löscher, Thomas; Rinder, H

      1994-01-01

      A pair of degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers (LEI-1, TCG GAT CC[C,T] [G,C]TG GGT AGG GGC GT; LEI-2, ACG GAT CC[G,C] [G,C][A,C]C TAT [A,T]TT ACA CC) defining a 0.15-kb segment ofLeishmania minicircle DNA was constructed. These primers amplified not only inter- but also intraspecifically polymorphic sequences. Individual sequences revealed a higher intraspecific than interspecific divergence. It is concluded that individual sequences are of limited relevance for species determin...

    18. Genomic islands predict functional adaptation in marine actinobacteria

      Penn, Kevin; Jenkins, Caroline; Nett, Markus; Udwary, Daniel; Gontang, Erin; McGlinchey, Ryan; Foster, Brian; Lapidus, Alla; Podell, Sheila; Allen, Eric; Moore, Bradley; Jensen, Paul

      2009-04-01

      Linking functional traits to bacterial phylogeny remains a fundamental but elusive goal of microbial ecology 1. Without this information, it becomes impossible to resolve meaningful units of diversity and the mechanisms by which bacteria interact with each other and adapt to environmental change. Ecological adaptations among bacterial populations have been linked to genomic islands, strain-specific regions of DNA that house functionally adaptive traits 2. In the case of environmental bacteria, these traits are largely inferred from bioinformatic or gene expression analyses 2, thus leaving few examples in which the functions of island genes have been experimentally characterized. Here we report the complete genome sequences of Salinispora tropica and S. arenicola, the first cultured, obligate marine Actinobacteria 3. These two species inhabit benthic marine environments and dedicate 8-10percent of their genomes to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Despite a close phylogenetic relationship, 25 of 37 secondary metabolic pathways are species-specific and located within 21 genomic islands, thus providing new evidence linking secondary metabolism to ecological adaptation. Species-specific differences are also observed in CRISPR sequences, suggesting that variations in phage immunity provide fitness advantages that contribute to the cosmopolitan distribution of S. arenicola 4. The two Salinispora genomes have evolved by complex processes that include the duplication and acquisition of secondary metabolite genes, the products of which provide immediate opportunities for molecular diversification and ecological adaptation. Evidence that secondary metabolic pathways are exchanged by Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) yet are fixed among globally distributed populations 5 supports a functional role for their products and suggests that pathway acquisition represents a previously unrecognized force driving bacterial diversification

    19. The function of lexical motifs in the organization of the Actinomycetes 5S rRNAs A função dos motivos léxicos na organização do 5S rRNAs de Actinomicetes

      Sandra M Rodrigues-Subacius

      2007-09-01

      Full Text Available This work shows results obtained by employing the linguistic method to identify biologically meaningful sites in Actinomycetes 5S rRNAs. The approach adopted identifies triplet-words, along the base sequence of 5S rRNA, located mainly at the alpha and beta domains of the 5S secondary structure. There are triplet-words representing universal protein binding sites that include important prokaryote signatures, and sites strategically located in critical regions related to the formation of the 5S ribonucleoproteins (RNP complex. In those sites, where the GC pressure promoted substitutions, the analysis demonstrates that alterations did not affect their biological significance. Sites formed by GGY (or more rarely GGR, continued to play an important role as ribosomal proteins rpL18 and rpL5 protein receptors. The data suggest that instead of increasing the molecular variability, expected for the diversity in species and habitats occupied for the group, GC pressure functioned as a reducer mechanism for the inter-specific diversity.Neste trabalho são apresentados resultados obtidos empleando o método linguístico para identificar sítios no 5S rRNAs de actinomicetes com significado biológico. A abordagem identificou palavras-tripletes, junto com a sequência de bases do 5S rRNAs, localizados principalmente nos domínios alfa e beta da estrutura secundária. Entre eles, existem palavras-tripletes que representam sítios de ligação de proteínas universais, que incluem importantes assinaturas procarióticas, além de sítios estrategicamente colocados em regiões críticas relacionados com a formação do complexo 5S ribonucleoproteína (RNP. Nestes sítios, onde a pressão GC promove substituições, as alterações não afetaram seu significado biológico. Sítios formados por GGY (ou mais raramente GER, jogam um papel importante como receptores de proteínas ribossomicas rpL18 e rpL5. Os dados também sugerem que ao contrário de aumentar a

    20. Memrane bioenergetics of the actinomycete Nonomuraca sp. ATCC 39727

      Palese, L. L.; Gaballo, A.; Dobrová, Zuzana; Labonia, N.; Abbrescia, A.; Scacco, S.; Micelli, L.; Papa, S.

      Milano, 2003, s. 159. [Joint Symposia with the British Biochemical Society /SIB 2003./. Milano (IT), 15.09.2003-18.09.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : nadh * atcc * omya Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

    1. Hyoscyamine-producing marine Actinomycetes from Lagos Lagoon sediment

      Davies; Olabisi; Flora; Adeleye; Isaac; Adeyemi; Wang; Peng; George

      2015-01-01

      Objective:To isolate and screen Actinoniycetes from Lagos Lagoon soil sediments for production of bioactive metabolites.Methods:Sediment samples were collected from four different locations of Lagos Lagoon and were dried for 2 weeks after which the Actinoniycetes were isolated by serial dilution using the spread plate method on starch casein and Kuster’s agar supplemented with 80 ug/mL cycloheximide to prevent fungal growth.The plates were incubated at 28 C for 1-2 weeks.Isolates were selected based on their colonial characteristics as well as their Gram’s reaction and subciiltured using the same media for isolation until pure cultures were obtained and incubated at 28 C for 3 d.Thereafter,they were inoculated into starch casein and Kuster’s broth media and incubated for 8 d.The secondary metabolites were screened for antimicrobial activity against the following microorganisms:methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213.Escherichia coli ATCC 29522.Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853.Candida albicans and Enterocolitis faecal is ATCC 29212.Coagulasenegative staphylococci isolated from HIV patients were also used(Staphylococcus warneri.Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus epidennidis).The antimicrobial metabolites of the Actinoniycetes isolates were identified using gas chromatography(GC).Results:Crude extracts of isolates showed antimicrobial activity against some of the test organisms.The GC data analysis showed the antibiotic profile of these isolates.Conclusions:Analysis of the crude extracts of the isolates using GC method,revealed the presence of antibiotics including an anticholinergic hyoscyamine among other conclusions.

    2. Identification of endophytic actinomycete St24 tomato plants from and its application in bio-control of gray mold disease%番茄内生菌St24的鉴定及其对灰霉病的生防作用

      王美琴; 马林; 韩巨才; 刘慧平; 贺运春

      2012-01-01

      从番茄植株根茎部分离到l株有抑菌活性的植物内生放线菌菌株St24,对其分类地位以及对灰霉病菌的防治效果进行研究.结果表明:菌株St24为酒红链霉菌.St24发酵液经石油醚萃取得到的粗提物对多种病原菌有抑制作用,其中对灰霉病菌的抑制作用最强,抑制菌丝生长的EC50为11.78 mg ·L-1.粗提物处理灰霉菌后,菌丝量减少,菌丝体皱缩、断裂、原生质外渗,菌体细胞表面有许多瘤状畸形.处理后的灰霉病菌培养液在260 nm处比对照多出现一吸收峰,说明粗提物对病原菌的细胞膜透性有影响.经盆栽试验,St24发酵液对番茄灰霉病有保护和治疗的作用,100 mg·L-1粗提物叶面喷雾的保护作用效果最好,24 h后防效达到94.3%,120 h后为85.4%.%An endophytic actinomycete strain St24 with acaricidal activity was isolated from the root-stem junction of tomato plants, with the taxonomic position of the strain and its control effect against gray mold disease investigated. The St24 was identified as Streptomyces vinaceus, and its broth' s petroleum ether extracts could inhibit a variety of pathogens. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on Botrytis cinerea was the strongest, with the EC50 of inhibiting B. cinerea mycelia growth being 11. 78 mg · L-1. After treated with the extracts, the amount of the mycelia decreased, and the mycelia became crenate or broken, with the protoplast extravasated and the tuberculate malformation appeared. The B. cinerea culture treated with the extracts showed the maximum absorption at 260 nm, which was absent in the control, indicating that the St24 extracts increased the pathogens cell membrane permeability. Pot experiment showed that the extracts could protect tomato plants against B. cinerea. Foliar spraying the extracts at 100 mg · L-1 had the best protective effect, with the controlling effect reached 94.3% after 24 h and 85.4% after 120 h.

    3. Guavinella tropica n. gen., n. sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of the bigmouth sleeper, Gobiomorus dormitor (Perciformes: Eleotridae), from Mexico

      Mendoza-Franco, E. F.; Scholz, Tomáš; Cabanas-Carranza, G.

      2003-01-01

      Roč. 70, č. 1 (2003), s. 26-31. ISSN 1525-2647 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Monogenea * Dactylogyridae * fish parasite Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.575, year: 2003

    4. Evaluation of organelle changes in promastigotes of unresponsive leishmania tropica to meglumine antimoniate in comparison with sensitive and standard isolates by electron microscopy

      Mitra Bahreini

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available Background: The control of leishmaniasis faces serious challenges because of resistance to the first-line antimonial drugs. We aimed to evaluate the differences in organelle changes of cultivated promastigotes obtained from skin lesions of sensitive and unresponsive isolates to meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime by electron microscopy. Material and Methods: This study was done in Bam city, southeastern Iran, in which the incidence of disease has sharply increased since the earthquake in 2003. The samples were taken from 66 patients who were referred to the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL treatment center in Bam. A questionnaire was completed for each individual, recording their demographic characteristics and CL status. The scraping smears provided from the edge of active lesions with sterile blades were fixed with methanol, stained by Giemsa, and examined under a compound light microscope for amastigote form simultaneously. To prepare the specimens for transmission electron imaging, promastigotes were centrifuged and resuspened. Results: Transmission electron microscopic study of the cultivated promastigotes revealed that there were alterations in the organelles and structures of sensitive isolates compared with unresponsive and standard ones. Organelles and structures such as mitochondria, kinetoplast, microtubules, cytoplasmic vacuoles, plasma membrane and vesicles were studied. The alterations such as disintegration of kinetoplast into thin filaments and condensation of kinetoplast DNA core, changes in size, number and location of vesicles and microtubules were observed. We noted intense cytoplasmic vacuolization, and considerable swelling of mitochondria. Conclusion: The significance and relevance of these changes might help understand drug resistance patterns and help localize the best target site for inactivating the organism.

    5. Identification of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in an antibiotic-producing actinomycete species

      Gunnarsson, Nina; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Sosio, M.; Nielsen, Jens

      2004-01-01

      The metabolic network of the central carbon metabolism represents the backbone of cellular metabolism and provides the precursors and cofactors required for synthesis of secondary metabolites. It is therefore pivotal to map the operating metabolic network in the central carbon metabolism in order...... to design metabolic engineering strategies towards construction of more efficient producers of specific metabolites. In this context, methods that allow rapid and reliable mapping of the central carbon metabolism are valuable. In the present study, a C-13 labelling-based method was used to identify...

    6. Sannastatin, a novel toxic macrolactam polyketide glycoside produced by actinomycete Streptomyces sannanensis.

      Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Gao, Jin-Ming; Zhang, An-Ling; Laatsch, Hartmut

      2011-07-01

      A new rare 20-membered macrocyclic lactam incorporating a diene conjugated olefin, designated sannastatin (1), together with the known structurally related vicenistatin (2), has been isolated from the cultures of Streptomyces sannanensis, a bacteria found in the feces of Ailuropoda melanoleuca. The structure of the new compound was established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D- and 2D-NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed significant growth inhibitory activity against the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. PMID:21640585

    7. Actinopolyspora salinaria sp. nov., a halophilic actinomycete isolated from solar saltern soil.

      Duangmal, Kannika; Suksaard, Paweena; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Mingma, Ratchanee; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Takahashi, Yoko

      2016-04-01

      The taxonomic position of the halophilic actinobacterial strain, HS05-03T, isolated from solar saltern soil, was determined using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the strain showed that it formed a distinct evolutionary lineage in the genus Actinopolyspora. The organism was most closely related to the type strains of the species Actinopolyspora xinjiangensis (98.0 % similarity), Actinopolyspora righensis (97.9 % similarity), Actinopolyspora lacussalsi (97.9 % similarity) and Actinopolyspora erythraea (97.8 % similarity). The whole-organism hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose, galactose and ribose. The predominant menaquinones were found to be MK-9(H4) and MK-10(H4). The acyl type of the peptidoglycan was N-acetyl. The diagnostic phospholipid detected was phosphatidylcholine. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 69.9 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain HS05-03T and the type strains of the most closely related species were below the 70 % threshold. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic data, it is proposed that strain HS05-03T represents a novel species of the genus Actinopolyspora, with the name Actinopolyspora salinaria sp. nov. The type strain is HS05-03T ( = BCC 51286T = NBRC 109078T). PMID:26812900

    8. Identification and antifungal activity of an actinomycete strain against Alternaria spp.

      Fen Gao

      2014-10-01

      Full Text Available Alternaria alternata (Fries Keissler is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for tobacco brown spot disease. This study aims to evaluate the antifungal activity of strain 163 against A. alternata and clarify its taxonomic status. The evaluation of the antifungal activity of strain 163 and its bacteria-free filtrate of fermentation broth was done through measuring the diameters of inhibition zones, and testing the antimicrobial spectrum and the inhibition effect on mycelial growth in vitro. The biocontrol activity of the bacteria-free filtrate in vivo was evaluated by using detached tobacco leaves method and assaying the inhibition rate to disease incidence in growth chamber. A polyphasic approach was taken in the identification of strain 163. The bacterial strain 163 showed inhibitory effect in vitro against A. alternata. The bacteria-free filtrate of the strain 163 fermentation broth showed a 56.7% inhibition rate in a detached leaf assay. In growth chamber conditions, it showed greater biocontrol activity when applied before plants being inoculated with A. alternata than after, the inhibition rate being 46.05%. Investigations into the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical properties of strain 163 found it to be most similar to Streptomyces microflavus. Its classification into cell wall type I and sugar type C further confirmed its Streptomyces characteristics. Construction of a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA verified that strain 163 was most closely related to Streptomyces microflavus. From polyphasic taxonomical analysis, strain 163 was found to be identical to S. microflavus.

    9. Isolation and properties of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from thermophilic actinomycete Thermomonospora curvata

      Spížek, Jaroslav; Vaněk, Zdenko; Tichý, Pavel

      Tübingen : Universität Tübingen, 1994 - (Fiedler, H.), s. 66 [International Conference on Microbial Secondary Metabolism . Interlaken (CH), 05.10.1994-08.10.1994] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/93/0600

    10. Streptomonospora tuzyakensis sp. nov., a halophilic actinomycete isolated from saline soil.

      Tatar, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Inan, Kadriye; Cetin, Demet; Belduz, Ali Osman; Sahin, Nevzat

      2016-01-01

      A novel actinobacterium, designated strain BN506(T), was isolated from soil collected from Tuz (Salt) Lake, Konya, Turkey, and was characterised to determine its taxonomic position. The isolate was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic properties associated with members of the genus Streptomonospora. The isolate was found to grow optimally at 37 °C and in the presence of 10 % (w/v) NaCl but not in the absence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on an almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that isolate is closely related to members of the genus Streptomonospora and forms a distinct phyletic line in the Streptomonospora phylogenetic tree. Strain BN506(T) is closely related to Streptomonospora halophila YIM 91355(T) (98.1 % sequence similarity). Sequence similarities with other type strains of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 98.0 %. The cell wall of the novel strain was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. Whole cell hydrolysates were found to contain galactose, glucose and ribose. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-10(H8) (57.0 %). The polar lipids detected were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The major fatty acids were found to be anteiso-C17:0, iso-C16:0 and 10 methyl C18:0. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data, strain BN506(T) was identified as a member of a novel species of the genus Streptomonospora, for which the name Streptomonospora tuzyakensis sp. nov. (type strain BN506(T) = DSM 45930(T) = KCTC 29210(T)) is proposed. PMID:26459342

    11. Metabolic engineering of antibiotic factories: New tools for antibiotic production in actinomycetes

      Weber, Tilmann; Charusanti, Pep; Musiol-Kroll, Ewa Maria;

      2015-01-01

      -resistant pathogens and the development of new technologies to find and produce such compounds have again attracted interest in this field. Based on improvements in whole-genome sequencing, novel methods have been developed to identify the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters by genome mining, to clone...... them, and to express them in heterologous hosts in much higher throughput than before. These technologies now enable metabolic engineering approaches to optimize production yields and to directly manipulate the pathways to generate modified products....

    12. Biosynthetic investigations of ansamycin natural products from marine-derived actinomycetes

      Wilson, Micheal Christopher

      2011-01-01

      Ansamycin polyketides from actinobacteria include the potent antibiotic and anticancer agents rifamycin SV, ansamitocin P-3, and geldanamycin. These natural product macrolactams are characterized by an mC₇N structural unit derived from the aromatic acid 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoate, which is carboxy extended by multimodular polyketide synthases utilizing primarily acetate and propionate building blocks prior to macrolactam cyclization. Herein, I report a multidisciplinary investigation of the bi...

    13. Geodermatophilus poikilotrophi sp. nov.: a multitolerant actinomycete isolated from dolomitic marble.

      del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Maria; Hofner, Benjamin; Göker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Hezbri, Karima; Gtari, Maher; Schumann, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Peter

      2014-01-01

      A novel Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic actinobacterium, tolerant to mitomycin C, heavy metals, metalloids, hydrogen peroxide, desiccation, and ionizing- and UV-radiation, designated G18T, was isolated from dolomitic marble collected from outcrops in Samara (Namibia). The growth range was 15-35°C, at pH 5.5-9.5 and in presence of 1% NaCl, forming greenish-black coloured colonies on GYM Streptomyces agar. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for other representatives of the genus Geodermatophilus. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diaminoacid. The main phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and small amount of diphosphatidylglycerol. MK-9(H4) was the dominant menaquinone and galactose was detected as diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acids were branched-chain saturated acids iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0 and the unsaturated C17:1 ω8c and C16:1 ω7c. The 16S rRNA gene showed 97.4-99.1% sequence identity with the other representatives of genus Geodermatophilus. Based on phenotypic results and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain G18T is proposed to represent a novel species, Geodermatophilus poikilotrophi. Type strain is G18T (=DSM 44209T=CCUG 63018T). The INSDC accession number is HF970583. The novel R software package lethal was used to compute the lethal doses with confidence intervals resulting from tolerance experiments. PMID:25114928

    14. Complete genome sequence of the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

      Bentley, S D; Chater, K F; Cerdeño-Tárraga, A-M; Challis, G L; Thomson, N R; James, K D; Harris, D E; Quail, M A; Kieser, H; Harper, D; Bateman, A; Brown, S; Chandra, G; Chen, C W; Collins, M; Cronin, A; Fraser, A; Goble, A; Hidalgo, J; Hornsby, T; Howarth, S; Huang, C-H; Kieser, T; Larke, L; Murphy, L; Oliver, K; O'Neil, S; Rabbinowitsch, E; Rajandream, M-A; Rutherford, K; Rutter, S; Seeger, K; Saunders, D; Sharp, S; Squares, R; Squares, S; Taylor, K; Warren, T; Wietzorrek, A; Woodward, J; Barrell, B G; Parkhill, J; Hopwood, D A

      2002-05-01

      Streptomyces coelicolor is a representative of the group of soil-dwelling, filamentous bacteria responsible for producing most natural antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Here we report the 8,667,507 base pair linear chromosome of this organism, containing the largest number of genes so far discovered in a bacterium. The 7,825 predicted genes include more than 20 clusters coding for known or predicted secondary metabolites. The genome contains an unprecedented proportion of regulatory genes, predominantly those likely to be involved in responses to external stimuli and stresses, and many duplicated gene sets that may represent 'tissue-specific' isoforms operating in different phases of colonial development, a unique situation for a bacterium. An ancient synteny was revealed between the central 'core' of the chromosome and the whole chromosome of pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The genome sequence will greatly increase our understanding of microbial life in the soil as well as aiding the generation of new drug candidates by genetic engineering. PMID:12000953

    15. Optimization of the Fermentation Process of Actinomycete Strain Hhs.015T

      Xinxuan Wang

      2010-01-01

      inoculation volume of 15.8%. The antimicrobial activity was increased by 20% by optimizing the environmental parameters. The results obtained allow an efficient production of components with antimicrobial activity by strain Hhs.015T on a large scale at low costs.

    16. Halogenated volatiles from the fungus Geniculosporium and the actinomycete Streptomyces chartreusis

      Tao Wang

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available Two unidentified chlorinated volatiles X and Y were detected in headspace extracts of the fungus Geniculosporium. Their mass spectra pointed to the structures of a chlorodimethoxybenzene for X and a dichlorodimethoxybenzene for Y. The mass spectra of some constitutional isomers for X and Y were included in our databases and proved to be very similar, thus preventing a full structural assignment. For unambiguous structure elucidation all possible constitutional isomers for X and Y were obtained by synthesis or from commercial suppliers. Comparison of mass spectra and GC retention times rigorously established the structures of the two chlorinated volatiles. Chlorinated volatiles are not very widespread, but brominated or even iodinated volatiles are even more rare. Surprisingly, headspace extracts from Streptomyces chartreusis contained methyl 2-iodobenzoate, a new natural product that adds to the small family of iodinated natural products.

    17. Characterization of plasma membrane respiratory chain and ATPase on the actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727

      Palese, L.; Gaballo, A.; Dobrová, Zuzana; Labonia, N.; Abbrescia, A.; Scacco, S.; Micelli, L.; Papa, S.

      2003-01-01

      Roč. 228, č. 2 (2003), s. 233-239. ISSN 0378-1097 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cytochrome * respiration * oxidase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.932, year: 2003

    18. Four new antibacterial xanthones from the marine-derived actinomycetes Streptomyces caelestis

      Liu, Ling-Li

      2012-11-20

      Four new polycyclic antibiotics, citreamicin ? A (1), citreamicin ? B (2), citreaglycon A (3), and dehydrocitreaglycon A (4), were isolated from marine-derived Streptomyces caelestis. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectra. All four compounds displayed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtillis. Citreamicin ? A (1), citreamicin ? B (2) and citreaglycon A (3) also exhibited low MIC values of 0.25, 0.25, and 8.0 ?g/mL, respectively, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300. 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

    19. A Genomic, Transcriptomic and Proteomic Look at the GE2270 Producer Planobispora rosea, an Uncommon Actinomycete.

      Arianna Tocchetti

      Full Text Available We report the genome sequence of Planobispora rosea ATCC 53733, a mycelium-forming soil-dweller belonging to one of the lesser studied genera of Actinobacteria and producing the thiopeptide GE2270. The P. rosea genome presents considerable convergence in gene organization and function with other members in the family Streptosporangiaceae, with a significant number (44% of shared orthologs. Patterns of gene expression in P. rosea cultures during exponential and stationary phase have been analyzed using whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing and by proteome analysis. Among the differentially abundant proteins, those involved in protein metabolism are particularly represented, including the GE2270-insensitive EF-Tu. Two proteins from the pbt cluster, directing GE2270 biosynthesis, slightly increase their abundance values over time. While GE2270 production starts during the exponential phase, most pbt genes, as analyzed by qRT-PCR, are down-regulated. The exception is represented by pbtA, encoding the precursor peptide of the ribosomally synthesized GE2270, whose expression reached the highest level at the entry into stationary phase.

    20. Phylogenetic diversity of actinomycetes cultured from coastal multipond solar saltern in Tuticorin, India

      Jose, Polpass Arul; Jebakumar, Solomon Robinson David

      2012-01-01

      Background Hypersaline solar salterns are extreme environments in many tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. In India, there are several coastal solar salterns along with the coastal line of the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea and inland solar salterns around Sambhar saltlake, from which sodium chloride is obtained for human consumption and industrial needs. Studies on characterization of such coastal and inland solar salterns are scarce and both the bacterial and archaeal dive...

    1. Cure from the cave: volcanic cave actinomycetes and their potential in drug discovery

      Cheeptham N.

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Volcanic caves have been little studied for their potential as sources of novel microbial species and bioactive compounds with new scaffolds. We present the f irst study of volcanic cave microbiology from Canada and suggest that this habitat has great potential for the isolation of novel bioactive substances. Sample locat ions were plot ted on a contour map that was compiled in ArcView 3.2. Over 400 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Helmcken Falls cave in Wells Gray Provincial Park, British Columbia. From our preliminary screen, of 400 isolates tested, 1% showed activity against extended spectrum ß-lactamase E. coli, 1.75% against Escherichia coli, 2.25% against Acinetobacter baumannii, and 26.50% against Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, 10.25% showed activity against Micrococcus luteus, 2% against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 9.25% against Mycobacterium smegmatis, 6.25% Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 7.5% against Candida albicans. Chemical and physical characteristics of three rock wall samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy and f lame atomic absorption spectrometry. Calcium (Ca, iron (Fe, and aluminum (Al were the most abundant components while magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, and barium (Ba were second most abundant with cadmium (Cd and potassium (K were the least abundant in our samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the presence of microscopic life forms in all three rock wall samples. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 82 isolates revealed that 65 (79.3% of the strains belong to the Streptomyces genus and 5 (6.1% were members of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Nocardia and Erwinia genera. Interestingly, twelve (14.6% of the 16S rRNA sequences showed similarity to unidentif ied ribosomal RNA sequences in the library databases, the sequences of these isolates need to be further investigated using the EzTaxon-e database (http://eztaxon-e. ezbiocloud.net/ to determine whether or not these are novel species. Nevertheless, this suggests the possibility that they could be unstudied or rare bacteria. The Helmcken Falls cave microbiome possesses a great diversity of microbes with the potential for studies of novel microbial interactions and the isolation of new types of antimicrobial agents.

    2. Degradation and induction specificity in actinomycetes that degrade p-nitrophenol.

      1993-01-01

      We have isolated two soil bacteria (identified as Arthrobacter aurescens TW17 and Nocardia sp. strain TW2) capable of degrading p-nitrophenol (PNP) and numerous other phenolic compounds. A. aurescens TW17 contains a large plasmid which correlated with the PNP degradation phenotype. Degradation of PNP by A. aurescens TW17 was induced by preexposure to PNP, 4-nitrocatechol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, or m-nitrophenol, whereas PNP degradation by Nocardia sp. strain TW2 was induced by PNP, 4-nitroca...

    3. Discovery of phosphonic acid natural products by mining the genomes of 10,000 actinomycetes

      Although natural products have been a particularly rich source of human medicines, the rate at which new molecules are being discovered is declining precipitously. Based on the large number of natural product biosynthetic genes in microbial genomes, many have suggested “genome mining” as an approach...

    4. Actinomycetes: A Repertory of Green Catalysts with a Potential Revenue Resource

      Divya Prakash; Neelu Nawani; Mansi Prakash; Manish Bodas; Abul Mandal; Madhukar Khetmalas; Balasaheb Kapadnis

      2013-01-01

      Biocatalysis, one of the oldest technologies, is becoming a favorable alternative to chemical processes and a vital part of green technology. It is an important revenue generating industry due to a global market projected at $7 billion in 2013 with a growth of 6.7% for enzymes alone. Some microbes are important sources of enzymes and are preferred over sources of plant and animal origin. As a result, more than 50% of the industrial enzymes are obtained from bacteria. The constant search for n...

    5. Two Antimycin A Analogues from Marine-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces lusitanus

      Peiyuan Qian

      2012-03-01

      Full Text Available Two new antimycin A analogues, antimycin B1 and B2 (1–2, were isolated from a spent broth of a marine-derived bacterium, Streptomyces lusitanus. The structures of 1 and 2 were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. The isolated compounds were tested for their anti-bacterial potency. Compound 1 was found to be inactive against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus, and Loktanella hongkongensis. Compound 2 showed antibacterial activities against S. aureus and L. hongkongensis with MIC values of 32.0 and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively.

    6. Streptomyces xinjiangensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from Lop Nur region.

      Cheng, Cong; Li, Yu-Qian; Asem, Mipeshwaree Devi; Lu, Chun-Yan; Shi, Xiao-Han; Chu, Xiao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Di An, Deng-; Li, Wen-Jun

      2016-10-01

      A novel actinobacterial strain, designated LPA192(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Lop Nur, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China. A polyphasic approach was used to investigate the taxonomic position of strain LPA192(T). The isolate showed morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. Peptidoglycan was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H4). Polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. Major cellular fatty acids consist of C16:0, anteiso-C15:0 and C18:1 ω9c. The sugar in whole-cell hydrolysates was mannose. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain LPA192(T) is closely related to Streptomyces tanashiensis LMG 20274(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces gulbargensis DAS131(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces nashvillensis NBRC 13064(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces roseolus NBRC 12816(T) (99.2 %) and Streptomyces filamentosus NBRC 12767(T) (99.1 %) while showing below 98.5 % sequencing similarities with other validly published Streptomyces species. However, DNA-DNA relatedness values between LPA192(T) and the closely related type strains were below 40 %, which are much lower than 70 % threshold value for species delineation. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain LPA192(T) was 69.3 mol %. Based on the differences in genotypic and phenotypic characteristics from the closely related strains, strain LPA192(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPA192(T) (=KCTC 39601(T) = CGMCC 4.7288(T)). PMID:27209413

    7. Comparative analysis of mycobacterium and related actinomycetes yields insight into the evolution of mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis

      McGuire Abigail

      2012-03-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequence of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb strain H37Rv has been available for over a decade, but the biology of the pathogen remains poorly understood. Genome sequences from other Mtb strains and closely related bacteria present an opportunity to apply the power of comparative genomics to understand the evolution of Mtb pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative analysis using 31 genomes from the Tuberculosis Database (TBDB.org, including 8 strains of Mtb and M. bovis, 11 additional Mycobacteria, 4 Corynebacteria, 2 Streptomyces, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, Nocardia farcinia, Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bifidobacterium longum. Results Our results highlight the functional importance of lipid metabolism and its regulation, and reveal variation between the evolutionary profiles of genes implicated in saturated and unsaturated fatty acid metabolism. It also suggests that DNA repair and molybdopterin cofactors are important in pathogenic Mycobacteria. By analyzing sequence conservation and gene expression data, we identify nearly 400 conserved noncoding regions. These include 37 predicted promoter regulatory motifs, of which 14 correspond to previously validated motifs, as well as 50 potential noncoding RNAs, of which we experimentally confirm the expression of four. Conclusions Our analysis of protein evolution highlights gene families that are associated with the adaptation of environmental Mycobacteria to obligate pathogenesis. These families include fatty acid metabolism, DNA repair, and molybdopterin biosynthesis. Our analysis reinforces recent findings suggesting that small noncoding RNAs are more common in Mycobacteria than previously expected. Our data provide a foundation for understanding the genome and biology of Mtb in a comparative context, and are available online and through TBDB.org.

    8. Selection of a Thermophilic Alkalitolerant Actinomycete and Conditions for CMCase Production

      QI Yun; ZHAO Lin; LIAO Yinzhang; TAN Xin

      2005-01-01

      Five thermophilic strains that can degrade cellulose were isolated from the compost of a waste management in Guangzhou, China. Since one of them degraded cellulose effectively, it was chosen as the study strain. Based on its morphology, spores′ susceptibility to heat, cell wall composition and other characteristics, the organism was classified as Thermomonospora fusca. Conditions for production of carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase) were examined. The optimal temperature and pH value for enzyme production were 50 ℃ and 10.5, respectively. Cellulosic materials and easily metabolisable carbohydrates served as carbon sources for the growth of the strain. Only cotton, avicel,carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) acted as potent inducers for the production of cellulases by this strain. Despite excellent growth on easily metabolisable carbohydrates, only constitutive levels of cellulases were produced. The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for CMCase production were cotton and soybean respectively. The high thermostability, wide pH stability, and cheap nitrogen source show well potential use for composting treatment and commercial detergents.

    9. Isolation and molecular identification of actinomycetes from mycetoma patients in Sudan

      Mogahid M Elhassan

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Introduction: In order to minimize chance of amputation due to actinomycetoma, it is important to correctly identify the causative agents. Microscopic examination of grains is not definite and further confirmatory diagnostic tests are needed. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of actinomycetoma and to explore the usefulness of strb1 gene in the diagnosis of the disease. Materials & Methods: The present study is a prospective cross-section laboratory-based study in which clinical samples (n = 100 from patients with mycetoma lesions were collected. The samples were cultured on Lowenstein Jensen and glucose yeast extract agar media. Grown colonies were initially identified using Gram′s stain, Ziehl Neelsen stain, and selected biochemical reactions. Confirmation was done by the analysis of polymerase chain reaction amplified strb1 gene. Results: Actinomycetoma was represented by a high ratio (12% among the study population. Nine out of the 12 isolates (75% were found to belong to the genus Streptomyces; whereas three isolates (25% were identified as Nocardia spp. on the basis of phenotypic and mycolic acid contents. Conclusion: It could be concluded that actinomycetoma exists with significant prevalence (12% among patients investigated in the present study. Streptomyces is the most important etiological agent of actinomycetoma compared to Nocardia.

    10. Crystal structure of the caseinolytic protease gene regulator, a transcriptional activator in actinomycetes.

      Russo, Santina; Schweitzer, Jens-Eric; Polen, Tino; Bott, Michael; Pohl, Ehmke

      2009-02-20

      Human pathogens of the genera Corynebacterium and Mycobacterium possess the transcriptional activator ClgR (clp gene regulator) which in Corynebacterium glutamicum has been shown to regulate the expression of the ClpCP protease genes. ClgR specifically binds to pseudo-palindromic operator regions upstream of clpC and clpP1P2. Here, we present the first crystal structure of a ClgR protein from C. glutamicum. The structure was determined from two different crystal forms to resolutions of 1.75 and 2.05 A, respectively. ClgR folds into a five-helix bundle with a helix-turn-helix motif typical for DNA-binding proteins. Upon dimerization the two DNA-recognition helices are arranged opposite to each other at the protein surface in a distance of approximately 30 A, which suggests that they bind into two adjacent major grooves of B-DNA in an anti-parallel manner. A binding pocket is situated at a strategic position in the dimer interface and could possess a regulatory role altering the positions of the DNA-binding helices. PMID:19019826

    11. Characterization of Actinomycetes and Trichoderma spp. for cellulase production utilizing crude substrates by response surface methodology

      Pirzadah, Tanveer; Garg, Shashank; Singh, Joginder; Vyas, Ashish; Kumar, Manish; Gaur, Naseem; Bala, Madhu; Rehman, Reiaz; Varma, Ajit; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Manoj

      2014-01-01

      Laboratory bench scaling was done and an average of 1.85 fold increase by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) optimization was obtained. It was found that the predicted value (4.96 IU/ml) obtained by RSM is in close accordance with observed activity 5.14 IU/ml. Endoglucanases are mainly induced by CMC while Wheat bran (natural substrate) exoglucanase is more active when induced by avicel and cellulose. Addition of substrate beyond a level caused inhibition of cellulase production. The molecula...

    12. Tetrazolium-dye-linked alcohol dehydrogenase of the methylotrophic actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica is a three-component complex

      Bystrykh, LV; GOVORUKHINA, NI; Dijkhuizen, L.; Duine, JA; Govorukhina, Natalya I.; Duine, Johannis A.

      1997-01-01

      Tetrazolium-dye-linked alcohol dehydrogenase (TD-ADH) of Amycolatopsis methanolica could be resolved into three protein components, which have been purified. Each of the components has the ability to reconstitute TD-ADH activity when combined with the other two. Component I is identical to the previously characterized methanol :N:N'-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline oxidoreductase (MNO), a decameric protein with 50-kDa subunits, each carrying a tightly bound NADPH. Component 2 is a high molecular mas...

    13. Construction of expression vectors for metabolic engineering of the vanillin-producing actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

      Fleige, Christian; Steinbüchel, Alexander

      2014-01-01

      Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 is able to synthesize the important flavoring agent vanillin from cheap natural substrates. The bacterium is therefore of great interest for the industry and used for the fermentative production of vanillin. In order to improve the production of natural vanillin with Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116, the strain has been genetically engineered to optimize the metabolic flux towards the desired product. Extensive metabolic engineering was hitherto hampered, due to the lack of genetic tools like functional promoters and expression vectors. In this study, we report the establishment of a plasmid-based gene expression system for Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 that allows a further manipulation of the genotype. Four new Escherichia coli-Amycolatopsis shuttle vectors harboring different promoter elements were constructed, and the functionality of these regulatory elements was proven by the expression of the reporter gene gusA, encoding a β-glucuronidase. Glucuronidase activity was detected in all plasmid-harboring strains, and remarkable differences in the expression strength of the reporter gene depending on the used promoter were observed. The new expression vectors will promote the further genetic engineering of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 to get insight into the metabolic network and to improve the strain for a more efficient industrial use. PMID:24743982

    14. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of novel polyene type antimicrobial metabolite producing actinomycetes from marine sediments:Bay of Bengal India

      Valan; Arasu; M; Asha; KRT; Duraipandiyan; V; Ignacimuthu; S; Agastian; P

      2012-01-01

      Objective:To isolate and indentify the promising antimicrobial metabolite producing Streptomyces strains from marine sediment samples from Andraprudesh coast of India.Methods:Antagonistic aetinomycetes were isolated by starch casein agar medium and modified nutrient agar medium with 1%glucose used as a base for primary screening.Significant antimicrobial metabolite producing strains were selected and identified by using biochemical and 16S rDNA level.Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the organic extracts were done by using broth micro dilution method.Results:Among the 210 actinomyeetes,64.3%exhibited activity against Gram positive bacteria,48.5%showed activity towards Cram negative bacteria,38.8%exhibited both Cram positive and negative bacteria and 80.85%isolates revealed significant antifungal activity.However,five isolates AP-5,AP-18,AP-41 and AP-70 showed significant antimicrobial activity.The analysis of cell wall hydrolysates showed the presence of LL-diaminopimelic acid and glycine in all the isolates.Sequencing analysis indicated that the isolates shared 98.5%-99.8%sequence identity to the 16S rDNA gene sequences of the Streptomyces taxons.The antimicrobial substances were extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate from spent medium in which strains were cultivated at 30X for five days.The antimicrobial activity was assessed using broth micro dilution technique.Each of the culture extracts from these five strains showed a typical polyenelike property.The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations of ethyl acetate extracts against Escherichia coli and Cumularia lunula were 67.5 and 125.0μg/mL,respectively.Conclusions:It can be concluded that hexane and ethyl acetate soluble extracellular products of novel isolates are effective against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    15. Induced production of cytochalasans in co-culture of marine fungus Aspergillus flavipes and actinomycete Streptomyces sp.

      Yu, Liyan; Ding, Wanjing; Ma, Zhongjun

      2016-08-01

      Abstarct Secondary metabolites profiles of co-culture of Aspergillus flavipes and Streptomyces sp. that isolated from the same habitat showed an induced production of a series of cytochalasans (five aspochalasins and rosellichalasin, determined by MS and NMR analysis). These cytochalasans were found to be produced by A. flavipes in LC-MS comparison analysis, and biological activity assays revealed that they were able to cause cytotoxic effects against Streptomyces sp. within a wide range of concentrations without causing any effect to the producer A. flavipes, which favoured the producer in competition. Further induction mechanism study applying membrane-separated culture and morphology study with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that the successful induction of active secondary metabolites required microbial physical contact. PMID:26783945

    16. Changes in Actinomycetes community structure under the influence of Bt transgenic brinjal crop in a tropical agroecosystem

      Singh, Amit Kishore; Singh, Major; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

      2013-01-01

      Background The global area under brinjal cultivation is expected to be 1.85 million hectare with total fruit production about 32 million metric tons (MTs). Brinjal cultivars are susceptible to a variety of stresses that significantly limit productivity. The most important biotic stress is caused by the Brinjal fruit and shoot Borer (FSB) forcing farmers to deploy high doses of insecticides; a matter of serious health concern. Therefore, to control the adverse effect of insecticides on the env...

    17. An analysis of the sponge Acanthostrongylophora igens’ microbiome yields an actinomycete that produces the natural product manzamine A

      Amanda Leigh Waters

      2014-10-01

      Full Text Available Sponges have generated significant interest as a source of bioactive and elaborate secondary metabolites that hold promise for the development of novel therapeutics for the control of an array of human diseases. However, research and development of marine natural products can often be hampered by the difficulty associated with obtaining a stable and sustainable production source. Herein we report the first successful characterization and utilization of the microbiome of a marine invertebrate to identify a sustainable production source for an important natural product scaffold. Through molecular-microbial community analysis, optimization of fermentation conditions and MALDI-MS imaging, we provide the first report of a sponge-associated bacterium (Micromonospora sp. that produces the manzamine class of antimalarials from the Indo-Pacific sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens (Thiele, 1899 (Class Demospongiae, Order Haplosclerida, Family Petrosiidae. These findings suggest that a general strategy of analysis of the macroorganism’s microbiome could significantly transform the field of natural products drug discovery by gaining access to not only novel drug leads, but the potential for sustainable production sources and biosynthetic genes at the same time.

    18. Transformation of the Methylotrophic Actinomycete Amycolatopis methanolica with Plasmid DNA : Stimulatory Effect of a pMEA300-Encoded Gene

      Vrijbloed, J.W.; Madoń, J.; Dijkhuizen, L.

      1995-01-01

      Amycolatopsis methanolica contains a 13.29-kb plasmid (pMEA300) present both in the free state and integrated at a unique genomic location. A pMEA300-free derivative (strain WV1) was selected, allowing further analysis of pMEA300-encoded functions. Whole cells of strain WV1 could be transformed at h

    19. Evolution of cyclizing 5-aminolevulinate synthases in the biosynthesis of actinomycete secondary metabolites: outcomes for genetic screening techniques

      Petříčková, Kateřina; Chroňáková, Alica; Zelenka, Tomáš; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Petříček, Miroslav; Krištůfek, Václav

      2015-01-01

      Roč. 6, AUG 2015 (2015). ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12191 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : 5-aminolevulinate synthase * C5N unit * Streptomyces Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.989, year: 2014

    20. A flexible mathematical model platform for studying branching networks: experimentally validated using the model actinomycete, Streptomyces coelicolor.

      Leena Nieminen

      Full Text Available Branching networks are ubiquitous in nature and their growth often responds to environmental cues dynamically. Using the antibiotic-producing soil bacterium Streptomyces as a model we have developed a flexible mathematical model platform for the study of branched biological networks. Streptomyces form large aggregates in liquid culture that can impair industrial antibiotic fermentations. Understanding the features of these could aid improvement of such processes. The model requires relatively few experimental values for parameterisation, yet delivers realistic simulations of Streptomyces pellet and is able to predict features, such as the density of hyphae, the number of growing tips and the location of antibiotic production within a pellet in response to pellet size and external nutrient supply. The model is scalable and will find utility in a range of branched biological networks such as angiogenesis, plant root growth and fungal hyphal networks.

    1. Optimizing water treatment practices for the removal of actinomycetes and earthy odor in water of Bovilla reservoir

      ADELA KULLAJ; MARGARITA HYSKO

      2014-01-01

      Bovilla reservoir, which is situated 15 km North-East of Tirana the capital city of Albania is one of the major hidrotechnical works of this country. This reservoir is a warm monomictic water body and stratifies higher in the summer season. The predominant trophic state of Bovilla reservoir is oligotrophy. From autumn 2001 this reservoir repeatedly manifests an unpleasant taste and odor which is defined as musty- earthy. Taste and odor control has become an important issue for drinking water ...

    2. Molecular Identification of Leishmania Species Causing Cutaneous Leishmaniasis In Mashhad area, Iran

      Mohammad Karimian Shirazi

      2014-08-01

      Results: In first step of PCR, all of sampled were positive for Leishmania spp and in second step Leishmania tropica and L.major were detected in 94% and 6% in positive –PCR amplicon , respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results, Leishmania tropica is more prevalent than L.major in Mashhad area

    3. Bacterial Type I Glutamine Synthetase of the Rifamycin SV Producing Actinomycete, Amycolatopsis mediterranei U32, is the Only Enzyme Responsible for Glutamine Synthesis under Physiological Conditions

      Wen-Tao PENG; Jin WANG; Ting WU; Jian-Qiang HUANG; Jui-Shen CHIAO; Guo-Ping ZHAO

      2006-01-01

      The structural gene for glutamine synthetase, glnA, from Amycolatopsis mediterranei U32 was cloned via screening a genomic library using the analog gene from Streptomyces coelicolor. The clone was functionally verified by complementing for glutamine requirement of an Escherichia coli glnA null mutant under the control of a lac promoter. Sequence analysis showed an open reading frame encoding a protein of466 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence bears significant homologies to other bacterial type I glutamine synthetases, specifically, 71% and 72% identical to the enzymes of S. coelicolor and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. Disruption of this glnA gene in A. mediterranei U32 led to glutamine auxotrophy with no detectable glutamine synthetase activity in vivo. In contrast, the cloned glnA+ gene can complement for both phenotypes in trans. It thus suggested that in A. mediterranei U32, the glnA gene encoding glutamine synthetase is uniquely responsible for in vivo glutamine synthesis under our laboratory defined physiological conditions.

    4. Comparative In Vitro Activities of XRP 2868, Pristinamycin, Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, Vancomycin, Daptomycin, Linezolid, Clarithromycin, Telithromycin, Clindamycin, and Ampicillin against Anaerobic Gram-Positive Species, Actinomycetes, and Lactobacilli

      Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.; Bryskier, Andre

      2005-01-01

      A comparative study of the in vitro activities of XRP 2868, a new oral streptogramin, against 266 anaerobic gram-positive clinical isolates using the agar dilution method showed that the XRP 2868 MICs for 95% (254 of 266) of isolates were ≤0.5 μg/ml. XRP 2868 MICs for only two strains, one being Clostridium clostridioforme (MIC, 16 μg/ml) and the other being Clostridium difficile (MIC, 32 μg/ml), were >2 μg/ml. Depending on its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, XRP 2868 has potential for...

    5. Identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease

      Mungsuntisuk Isada; Intra Bungonsiri; Nihira Takuya; Igarashi Yasuhiro; Panbangred Watanalai

      2011-01-01

      Abstract Background Colletotrichum is one of the most widespread and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi worldwide. Various species of Colletotrichum are the causative agents of anthracnose disease in plants, which is a severe problem to agricultural crops particularly in Thailand. These phytopathogens are usually controlled using chemicals; however, the use of these agents can lead to environmental pollution. Potential non-chemical control strategies for anthracnose disease include the...

    6. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Rhodococcus erythropolis Strain P27, a Highly Radiation-Resistant Actinomycete from Antarctica

      Gouvêa Taketani, Rodrigo; Domingues Zucchi, Tiago; Soares de Melo, Itamar; Mendes, Rodrigo

      2013-01-01

      Here, we report the draft genome sequence of radiation-resistant Rhodococcus erythropolis strain P27, isolated from leaves of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (Poaceae) in the Admiralty Bay area, Antarctica.

    7. Comparative analysis of oligonucleotide primers for high-throughput screening of genes encoding adenylation domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases in actinomycetes

      Vopálenská, I.; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Z.

      2015-01-01

      Roč. 72, OCT 2015 (2015), s. 160-167. ISSN 0956-5663 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011461; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Yeast biosensor * Copper ion detection * Purine synthesis pathway Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 6.409, year: 2014

    8. Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from vermicompost%蚯蚓粪中放线菌分离及其抗菌活性研究

      汪学军; 闫双林; 闵长莉; 杨艳

      2015-01-01

      采用平板涂布法分离蚯蚓粪中的放线菌,采用琼脂块法初步研究了蚯蚓粪中放线菌的抗菌活性,通过形态观察、生理生化特性和16S rDNA基因序列分析对抗菌活性较强的菌株进行鉴定.实验结果表明,从蚯蚓粪中共分离到放线菌26株,其中16株对指示菌株有抗菌活性,占分离放线菌总数的61.54%;菌株QYF12,QYF22对藤黄八叠球菌Micrococcus luteus具有较强的拮抗作用,其抑菌圈直径分别为27,31 mm;菌株QYF26对枯草芽孢杆菌的抗菌活性较强,抑菌圈直径为21 mm.菌种鉴定结果表明,菌株QYF12为教酒链霉菌Streptomyces chartreusis,QYF22为吸水链霉菌奥萨霉素亚种S.ossamyceticus,QYF26为灭癌素链霉菌S.gancidicus,该研究为下一步分离抗菌物质用于生物防治提供了理论依据.

    9. Determination of the Residual Anthracene Concentration in Cultures of Haloalkalitolerant Actinomycetes by Excitation Fluorescence, Emission Fluorescence, and Synchronous Fluorescence: Comparative Study

      Reyna del Carmen Lara-Severino; Miguel Ángel Camacho-López; Jessica Marlene García-Macedo; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo M.; Sandoval-Trujillo, Ángel H.; Keila Isaac-Olive; Ninfa Ramírez-Durán

      2016-01-01

      Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds that can be quantified by fluorescence due to their high quantum yield. Haloalkalitolerant bacteria tolerate wide concentration ranges of NaCl and pH. They are potentially useful in the PAHs bioremediation of saline environments. However, it is known that salinity of the sample affects fluorescence signal regardless of the method. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study based on the sensitivity, linearity, and detec...

    10. 内生拮抗放线菌防治番茄灰霉病的研究%Study on Control Tomato Botrytis cinerea by Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes

      辛春艳; 张丽萍; 谢莉; 程辉彩; 张根伟; 李书生

      2009-01-01

      从番茄植物组织内分离到一株对番茄灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea)有拮抗作用的放线菌株No.37,此菌株产生的抗菌物质能显著抑制番茄灰霉病菌的菌丝生长和孢子萌发,对盆栽番茄幼苗的预防保护作用和治疗作用分别达到89.7%和80.3%,10倍稀释液的田间防治效果达到84.1%.

    11. 一株高效抑藻放线菌的分离筛选及鉴定%Isolation and Identification of a High Algicidal Actinomycete

      郑小伟; 黄丽萍; 张帮周; 张金龙; 杨小茹; 郑天凌

      2012-01-01

      521 strains were isolated from mangrove sediments in the Yunxiao Mangrove National Nature Reserve, Fujian, China. 27 algicidal isolates were screened based on the analysis of fluorescence intensity of Phaeocystis globosa. The strain named O3-26, which showed the highest algcidal activity (96. 71%) against P. globosa among these 27 algicidal isolates, was studied in this article. The test of algicidal spectrum illustrated O3-26 showing a algicidal characteristic of algae species specificity, with high algicidal effects on Dunaliella salina and Chlorella autotrophica , no algicidal effects on Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Skeletonema costatum. Observed by scanning electron microscope, O3-26 has spiral sporothrix and barbed spores. This strain can grow well in most of the medium in this article,and produce soluble pigment in nutrient agar. The physiological tests demonstrated that O3-26 owns a wide range of carbon sources,but it can not be grown on raffinose medium as sole carbon source. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity,the strain O3-26 was shown to be related most closely to Streptomyces gancidicus 154152 (99%). Although some differences from S. gancidicus were tested from physiological and biochemical experiments, 03-26 was still indentificated as S. gancidicus by comparison on morphological,physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis.%从福建云霄国家红树林自然保护区滩涂沉积物样品中,共分离获得521株纯培养物.通过检测球形棕囊藻(Phaeocystis globosa)荧光强度计算抑藻率,从521株菌中筛选到27株具有抑藻活性的菌株.在27株抑藻菌中,菌株O3-26对球形棕囊藻具有最高的抑藻率(高达96.71%).菌株O3-26的抑藻谱实验显示,该菌株抑藻活性表现出一定的种属特异性,对硅藻门(Bacillariophyta)的三角褐指藻(Phaeodactylum tricornutum)和中肋骨条藻(Skeletonema costatum)2株测试藻株没有抑制作用,而对绿藻门(Chlorophyta)盐生杜氏藻(Dunaliella salina)和自养小球藻(Chlorella autotrophica)2株藻株具有较强抑藻作用.扫描电镜观察显示,该菌株孢子丝直至螺旋状且孢子表面带刺.生理生化实验显示,该菌株在所得到的大多数培养基上生长良好,在营养琼脂培养基中可以产生水溶性色素;不能在棉子糖作为唯一碳源的培养基上生长.16S rRNA基因相似性分析表明,菌株O3-26属于链霉菌属(Streptomyces),并与灭癌素链霉菌(Streptomyces gancidicus) 15412菌株具有最高的同源性(99%).生理生化实验表明,二者之间生理特征存在一定差异.综合形态特征、生理特征以及系统发育分析的结果,鉴定该菌株为灭癌素链霉菌.

    12. Targeted genome editing in the rare actinomycete Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 by using the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

      Wolf, Timo; Gren, Tetiana; Thieme, Eric; Wibberg, Daniel; Zemke, Till; Pühler, Alfred; Kalinowski, Jörn

      2016-08-10

      The application of genome editing technologies, like CRISPR/Cas9 for industrially relevant microorganisms, is becoming increasingly important. Compared to other methods of genetic engineering the decisive factor is that CRISPR/Cas9 is relatively easy to apply and thus time and effort can be significantly reduced in organisms, which are otherwise genetically difficult to access. Because of its many advantages and opportunities, we adopted the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110, the producer of the diabetes type II drug acarbose. The functionality of genome editing was successfully shown by the scarless and antibiotic marker-free deletion of the gene encoding the tyrosinase MelC, which catalyzes the formation of the dark pigment eumelanin in the wild type strain. The generated ΔmelC2 mutant of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 no longer produces this pigment and therefore the supernatant does not darken. Furthermore, it was shown that the plasmid containing the gene for the Cas9 protein was removed by increasing the temperature due to its temperature-sensitive replication. The precision of the intended mutation was proven and possible off-target effects caused by the genome editing system were ruled out by genome sequencing of several mutants. PMID:27262504

    13. 1株湿地稀有放线菌的多相分类鉴定%Polyphasic Taxonomy of a Rare Marine Actinomycetes

      唐树戈; 张柳; 于基成; 刘秋; 齐小辉

      2014-01-01

      Strain S402003 was isolated from marine sediment collected from Yalu River in Dandong, Liaoning Province. Based on the polyphasic studies, including the morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics, chemotaxonomy and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the results showed that strain S402003 had lipase activity and was capable to reduce nitrate, belongs to the mild salt-tolerant and basophilic bacteria. It was primarily identified as Brevibacterium linens with the similarity 98.834%.%从鸭绿江滨海湿地样品中分离得到1株稀有海洋放线菌S402003,通过形态观察、培养特征、生理生化特征、化学组分鉴定以及16S rRNA基因序列分析对其进行多相分类鉴定。结果表明:该菌株具有脂酶活性,能还原硝酸盐,属于轻度耐盐、嗜碱菌。该菌株属于Brevibacterium linens,相似性为98.834%。

    14. Elucidating the molecular physiology of lantibiotic NAI-107 production in Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024

      Gallo, Giuseppe; Renzone, Giovanni; Palazzotto, Emilia;

      2016-01-01

      The filamentous actinomycete Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024 produces the lantibiotic NAI-107, which is an antibiotic peptide effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. In actinomycetes, antibiotic production is often associated with a physiological differentiation program controlle...

    15. Comparative effiacy of marine Streptomyces formulation versus ciproflxacin ophthalmic solution for treating Staphylococcus aureus-induced conjunctivitis in animal model

      Femina Wahaab; Kalidass Subramaniam; Morris Jawahar

      2016-01-01

      Objective: To report the efficacy of marine actinomycetes in controlling Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-induced conjunctivitis in experimental rabbit. Methods: The ethyl acetate extracts of the best isolates of actinomycetes from the soil samples of Rameswaram coastal regions, Tamil Nadu, India, were concentrated and re-constituted in buffer and used as actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension in this study. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension wa...

    16. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine GENERAL

      2013-01-01

      <正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropica)Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and aims to set up an academic communicating plaflorm for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine

    17. Ancistrotanzanine C and related 5,1 '- and 7,3 '-coupled naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids from Ancistrocladus tanzaniensis

      Bringmann, G.; Dreyer, M.; Faber, J.H.; Dalsgaard, Petur; Steerk, D.; Jaroszewski, J.W.; Ndangalasi, H.; Mbago, F.; Brun, R.; Christensen, S.B.

      2004-01-01

      from this newly discovered plant species. The structural elucidation was achieved by chemical, spectroscopic, and chiroptical methods. The biological activities of the alkaloids against the pathogens causing malaria tropica, leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, and African sleeping sickness were evaluated....

    18. Community monitoring of carbon stocks for REDD+

      Brofeldt, Søren; Theilade, Ida; Burgess, Neil David;

      2014-01-01

      Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) is a potentially powerful international policy mechanism that many tropica...

    19. First Report on Natural Infection of Phlebotomus sergenti with Leishmania Promastigotes in the Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus in Southeastern Tunisia

      Tabbabi, Ahmed; Bousslimi, Nadia; Rhim, Adel; Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

      2011-01-01

      During September 2010, 133 female sand flies were caught inside houses of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the focus for this disease in southeastern Tunisia and subsequently dissected. One specimen was positive for Leishmania protozoa. This sand fly species was identified as Phlebotomus sergenti, and the parasite was identified as L. tropica. This is the first report of P. sergenti involvement in transmission of L. tropica in Tunisia.

    20. Identification and Characterization of glnA Promoter and its Corresponding Trans-regulatory Protein GlnR in the Rifamycin SV Producing Actinomycete,Amycolatopsis mediterranei U32

      Hao YU; Wen-Tao PENG; Yang LIU; Ting WU; Yu-Feng YAO; Ming-Xue CUI; Wei-Hong JIANG; Guo-Ping ZHAO

      2006-01-01

      The genetic requirements for the transcription of glnA, encoding the major glutamine synthetase in a rifamycin SV-producing Amycolatopsis mediterranei strain, U32, were investigated. Primer extension experiments showed that the promoter of U32 glnA (pglnA) was likely to have two transcription initiation sites: P1 and P2, located 157 and 45 nucleotides (nt) upstream of the translational start codon, respectively. Gel mobility shift and DNase Ⅰ footprinting analyses revealed a 30 bp cis-element located at 45 to 75 nt downstream of P1, or 38 to 68 nt upstream of P2. The sequence of the cis-element displayed high similarity to the corresponding regions of pglnA from Streptomyces coelicolor and S. roseosporus. With xylE as a reporter gene, the expression levels of U32 pglnA and its deletion derivatives under different nitrogen-source conditions were analyzed by detecting the catechol dioxygenase activities in S. lividans TK54, S. coelicolor J508 and S. coelicolor FS10 (glnR mutant). These in vivo studies showed that the activation of U32 pglnA in S. coelicolor required GlnR, and its binding to the U32 pglnA was further confirmed by the gel mobility shift assay. Cloning and heterologous expression of the U32 glnR allowed us to detect the in vitro interaction between the U32 GlnR and the corresponding pglnA cis-element. Further evidence shown by in vivo glnR inactivation and complementation indicated that GlnR is essential for the active transcription of glnA in U32.

    1. Atividade de enzimas associadas ao estado de indução em mudas de cacaueiro expostas a dois actinomicetos residentes de filoplano Activity of enzymes associates of induced resistance on cocoa seedlings exposed of two actinomycetes phylloplane residents

      Dirceu Macagnan

      2008-02-01

      Full Text Available Dois antagonistas selecionados para o biocontrole da vassoura-de-bruxa do cacaueiro foram avaliados quanto à capacidade em ativar mecanismos de defesa de plantas contra patógenos. Para tanto, mudas seminais de cacaueiro "comum" foram cultivadas em casa-de-vegetação por 30 dias e expostas aos antagonistas aplicados a mudas de cacaueiro por atomização, individualmente e em associação. O primeiro par de folhas das mudas dos diferentes tratamentos foi coletado aos dois, quatro, 12 e 24 dias após a exposição aos antagonistas. Foi quantificada a atividade de peroxidases, polifenoloxidases, quitinases e beta-1,3-glucanases no material coletado. Observou-se um aumento na atividade de peroxidases e polifenoloxidases nos primeiros dias após a exposição das mudas, especialmente ao isolado Ac26. Não foi observado efeito aditivo ou sinergístico nas mudas expostas aos dois isolados simultaneamente.Two antagonists selected for the biocontrol of cocoa witches' broom were investigated for their ability in triggering increases in the activity of enzymes associated to induced resistance. In a greenhouse, thirty days old cocoa seedlings were exposed t antagonists by spraying a propagule suspension of every antagonist or a mixture of them. At two, four 12 and 24 days exposing plants to the antagonists, the first leaf pair of every plant was excised and used for quantifying the activity of peroxidases, poly-phenol-oxidases, chitinases and beta-1,3-glucanases. There were increases in activity of peroxidases, poly-phenol-oxidases, mainly in the case of isolate Ac26. Additive or synergistic effects were not observed as a consequence of exposing plants to both antagonists together.

    2. 堆肥放线菌DF02分离及对番茄灰霉病生防作用%Isolation of Actinomycete DF02 from Composting and Its Application in Biological Control of Botrytis cinerea

      汪学军; 闵长莉; 杨艳

      2015-01-01

      目的:从堆肥样品中分离具有生防作用的放线菌,并对其进行菌种鉴定及对番茄灰霉病菌(Botrytis cinerea)的盆栽防治效果进行研究.方法:采用稀释涂布法分离堆肥样品中的放线菌,采用混菌法和牛津杯法研究堆肥样品中放线菌的抑菌活性,根据形态观察、生理生化特性和16S rDNA分析对抗菌活性较强的菌株进行菌种鉴定,并研究该菌株的盆栽防治效果.结果:从堆肥样品中共分离到放线菌31株,有3株放线菌对指示菌株具有抑制作用;其中放线菌DF02菌株对供试菌中的5种植物病原真菌均有拮抗作用,且对番茄灰霉病菌的抑制作用较强;盆栽试验结果显示,DF02菌株发酵液上清对番茄灰霉病的保护效果和治疗效果分别是58.47%和53.83%;分类地位研究表明,DF02菌株与Streptomyces neopeptinius最接近,初步将其鉴定为Streptomyces neopeptinius.结论:DF02是一株具有研究开发潜力的生防放线菌菌株,本研究结果为番茄灰霉病的生物防治提供了实验依据.

    3. Bioactive metabolite and taxonomic identification of actinomycete strain HCCB01128%放线菌HCCB01128的活性代谢产物及菌株鉴定

      符浩; 杨志钧; 金文翔; 陈代杰

      2012-01-01

      Objective To study the metabolites of stain HCCB01128. Methods The strain HCCB01128 was preliminarily identified to species level by phylogenetic analysis combined with morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical characteristics. The metabolites from the culture broth of HCCB01128 were extracted by macroporous resin and purified by HPLC. The structure of compound 1128-1 was determined by 'H and 13C NMR analysis. The antitumor activities of the crude extract and compound 1128-1 were detected by MTT method. Results and Conclusion The 16S rRNA of strain HCCB01128 shared 99.51% similarity to Streptomyces diastatochromogenes. Compound 1128 showed apparent activities against tumor cells, and was identified as Aurodox. To our knowledge, this is firstly reported on isolation of Aurodox from Streptomyces diastatochromogenes.%目的 研究放线菌HCCB01128产生的抗肿瘤活性次级代谢产物.方法 利用系统发育、形态特征和生理生化特性分析的方法对菌株HCCB01128进行初步鉴定.大孔吸附树脂吸附HCCB01128发酵液,反相色谱对菌株次级代谢产物进行分离和纯化.通过质谱、核磁共振氢谱(1H)、碳谱(13C)等分析对化合物1128-1进行结构鉴定.MTT法检测HCCB01128代谢粗提物的肿瘤细胞毒性.结果与结论 菌株HCCB01128的16S rRNA与淀粉酶产色链霉菌Streptomyces diastatochromogenes的16S rRNA具有99.51%的相似性.其发酵初提物具有较强的抗肿瘤活性;经纯化鉴定其中一种活性化合物为Aurodox.本文首次报道从淀粉酶产色链霉菌中分离到Aurodox.

    4. Mycelial actinobacteria in salt-affected soils of arid territories of Ukraine and Russia

      Grishko, V. N.; Syshchikova, O. V.; Zenova, G. M.; Kozhevin, P. A.; Dubrova, M. S.; Lubsanova, D. A.; Chernov, I. Yu.

      2015-01-01

      A high population density (up to hundreds of thousands or millions CFU/g soil) of mycelial bacteria (actinomycetes) is determined in salt-affected soils of arid territories of Ukraine, Russia, and Turkmenistan. Of all the studied soils, the lowest amounts of actinomycetes (thousands and tens of thousands CFU/g soil) are isolated from sor (playa) and soda solonchaks developed on the bottoms of drying salt lakes in Buryatia and in the Amu Darya Delta. Actinomycetes of the Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Nocardiopsis genera were recorded in the studied soils. It is found that conditions of preincubation greatly affect the activity of substrate consumption by the cultures of actinomycetes. This could be attributed to changes in the metabolism of actinomycetes as a mechanism of their adaptation to the increased osmotic pressure of the medium. The alkali tolerance of halotolerant actinomycetes isolated from the salt-affected soils is experimentally proved.

    5. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts From Marine Streptomyces Isolated From Mangrove Sediments of Tanzania

      Eva Mathias Sosovele; Thomas Jacob Lyimo; Ken Matengo Hosea

      2012-01-01

      This study was undertaken to isolate Actinomycetes from mangrove sediments of Tanzania and evaluate their potential for production of bioactive metabolites. Starch cacein agar medium was used to isolate the actinomycetes. Extraction of Actinomycetes using ethyl acetate (1:1), afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity test. A total of three isolates (ACTN 1, ACTN 2 and ACTN 3) were obtained by using culture medium selective for Actinom...

    6. Microhabitats within Venomous Cone Snails Contain Diverse Actinobacteria▿ †

      Peraud, Olivier; Biggs, Jason S.; Hughen, Ronald W.; Alan R. Light; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Baldomero M. Olivera; Schmidt, Eric W.

      2009-01-01

      Actinomycetes can be symbionts in diverse organisms, including both plants and animals. Some actinomycetes benefit their host by producing small molecule secondary metabolites; the resulting symbioses are often developmentally complex. Actinomycetes associated with three cone snails were studied. Cone snails are venomous tropical marine gastropods which have been extensively examined because of their production of peptide-based neurological toxins, but no microbiological studies have been rep...

    7. Habitat‑specific type I polyketide synthases in soils and street sediments

      Hill, Patrick; Piel, Jörn; Aris‑Brosou, Stéphane; Krištůfek, Václav; Boddy, Christopher N.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

      2014-01-01

      Actinomycetes produce many pharmaceutically useful compounds through type I polyketide biosynthetic pathways. Soil has traditionally been an important source for these actinomycete-derived pharmaceuticals. As the rate of antibiotic discovery has decreased and the incidence of antibiotic resistance has increased, researchers have looked for alternatives to soil for bioprospecting. Street sediment, where actinomycetes make up a larger fraction of the bacterial population than in soil, is one su...

    8. ACTINOMYCES NAESLUNDII IN PATIENTS WITH HEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES

      S. H. Rasa J. V Yusefi; F. Agha-Khani; M. Ghazanfari; R. Tohidi; F. A. Nakhjavani; F. Daee-Ghazvini; Mobedi, I

      2006-01-01

      Mycotic infections have been commonly encountered in patients with hematological malignancies. The current study seeks the prevalence of actinomycete infection in patients suffering from blood cells malignancies. A hundred and fifty patients with some kinds of blood cells dyscrasia who underwent the bone marrow aspiration were recruited. In addition to the diagnostic work up, samples were examined for the presence of actinomycete infections. Twenty one samples were positive for actinomycete i...

    9. Pseudascarophis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae parasitic in the Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectatrix (Perciformes: Kyphosidae from southeastern Brazil

      Felipe Bisaggio Pereira

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available A new species of Pseudascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae found in the stomach of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus (Kyphosidae, off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described. The new species can be differentiated from the other congeners by the presence of lateral alae, distinct but inconspicuous cephalic papillae at the anterior end, three pairs of precloacal and one pair of adcloacal papillae in males, egg morphology and morphometry of glandular oesophagus and spicules. Pseudascarophis tropica is transferred to Ascarophis as Ascarophis tropica (Solov'eva comb. n. due to its ambiguous diagnosis.

    10. A Novel Method Isolated Microorganisms in Soil Granule

      Liu Bao-ping; Xiang Wen-sheng; Wang Hong-yan; Fu Shi-cong

      2012-01-01

      A novel method isolated microorganisms in soil granule was built. The key steps included: repeated elutriation of soil by sterilized water, inoculation on the plates with the elutriated sediments, incubation of the plates and isolation of the actinomycetes by using selected culture medium. We formulated that most microflora included the dominant actinomycetes in the soil were carried away with the sterilized water in the elutriation procedure, some rare actinomycetes and few other microflora included bacteria were remained in the elutriated sediments, the other microflora were excluded to grew into colonies on the plates by using selective culture medium for actinomycetes in the elutriated sediments. Results showed the supposition. Non-streptomycete actinomycetes were isolated both from black soil samples from Chinese northeast area and compost samples from Chinese central area. Soil fungi in granule were isolated by using the selective conditions to favor fungi. The results showed that the method was effective

    11. The genetic architecture of climatic adaptation in tropical cattle

      Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world in the future. Tropical cattle production, an important mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by conditions of heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropica...

    12. A study on the zooplankton of the Burhabalanga Estuary, Orissa Coast

      Ramaiah, Neelam; Chatterji, A.; Madhupratap, M.

      the stations during October 1991 as a result of a mysid swarm. Copepoda was generally the most abundant group. The copepods Pseudodiaptomus bowmani, P. sewelli, Acartia tropica and A. bowmani are recorded for the first time from the east coast of India....

    13. Imported malaria in children: A national surveillance in the Netherlands and a review of European studies

      G.J.A. Driessen (Gertjan); R. Pereira (Rob Rodrigues); B.J. Brabin (Bernard John); N.G. Hartwig (Nico)

      2008-01-01

      textabstractBackground: Falciparum malaria or malaria tropica is one of the leading causes of childhood mortality worldwide. Malaria-related deaths occur mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, where an estimated 365 million clinical cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occur each year. In Europe, imported

    14. Phylogenetic position of Leishmania isolates from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

      Khan, Nazma Habib; Messenger, Louisa A; Wahid, Sobia; Sutherland, Colin J

      2016-08-01

      Several species of the genus Leishmania are causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pakistan. This study aimed to determine phylogenetic placement of Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan (34 Leishmania tropica, 3 Leishmania infantum), in-relation to species from other geographical areas using gene sequences encoding cytochrome b (cytb) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2). Based on cytochrome b sequence analysis, L. tropica strains from Pakistan and other geographical regions were differentiated into two genotype groups, A and B. Within the province, five distinct L. tropica genotypes were recognized; two in group A, three in group B. Two L. infantum isolates from the province were closely associated with both Afro-Eurasian and American species of the Leishmania donovani complex, including Leishmania chagasi, L. infantum and L. donovani from Sudan and Ethiopia; while a third L. infantum isolate could not be differentiated from visceralizing Kenyan and Indian L. donovani. We observed apposite phylogenetic placement of CL-causing L. tropica and L. infantum from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Affinities ascribed to Leishmania spp. From the region are valuable in tracing potential importation of leishmaniasis. PMID:27233810

    15. AcEST: DK954019 [AcEST

      Full Text Available pus tropica... 33 0.89 sp|Q9AS36|CCL11_ORYSJ Cyclin-L1-1 OS=Oryza sativa subsp. j...CFGPSFLLCFF--SWADCGLIG 543 GR FKESLKLLEADI HANT+A PRE +GACLQMR+ + P+ L F W DC L G Sbjct: 11 GRSFKESLKLLEADIHHANTLASDFPREYDGACL...ontig ID - Sequence ATCTTCGGTCTCTGCTACACCGTAGTCTGCATCTTCCTGCCCTTTTGCAGGCTAGCCCTA GCTTTAATGGATTTTGGGGCTCCCTCCTGTTTCAATCCTGCGTTCC...TGCTGCTCATAGTG TCGCGCGGCTGTATCGTGAGAAAGACCTTCACCCCCTTTACTTGACGCCTGCGTTTGCTG TTTTCTTTTTTCT...GCGTATCTGTCTCTTTCTTGATTCCTTCCTTTTCTGTGGTAAACCTC TCTGGATTTGTTTTGCCACCCTGTTTCTCTCCC

    16. Evaluation of Streptomyces strains isolated from herbal vermicompost for their plant growth-promotion traits in rice.

      Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Vadlamudi, Srinivas; Bandikinda, Prakash; Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Rupela, Om; Kudapa, Himabindu; Katta, Krishnamohan; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

      2014-01-20

      Six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180, isolated from six different herbal vermi-composts were characterized for in vitro plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties and further evaluated in the field for PGP activity in rice. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced siderophores; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced chitinase; CAI-13, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced lipase; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced protease; and CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced ß-1-3-glucanase whereas all the six actinomycetes produced cellulase, hydrocyanic acid and indole acetic acid (IAA). The actinomycetes were able to grow in NaCl concentrations of up to 8%, at pH values between 7 and 11, temperatures between 20 and 40 °C and compatible with fungicide bavistin at field application levels. In the rice field, the actinomycetes significantly enhanced tiller numbers, panicle numbers, filled grain numbers and weight, stover yield, grain yield, total dry matter, root length, volume and dry weight over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere, the actinomycetes also significantly enhanced total nitrogen, available phosphorous, % organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and dehydrogenase activity over the un-inoculated control. Sequences of 16S rDNA gene of the actinomycetes matched with different Streptomyces species in BLAST analysis. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-85 and CAI-93 were found superior over other actinomycetes in terms of PGP properties, root development and crop productivity. qRT-PCR analysis on selected plant growth promoting genes of actinomycetes revealed the up-regulation of IAA genes only in CAI-85 and CAI-93. PMID:24113511

    17. Deep sea as a source of novel-anticancer drugs: update on discovery and preclinical/clinical evaluation in a systems medicine perspective

      Russo, Patrizia; Del Bufalo, Alessandra; Fini, Massimo

      2015-01-01

      The deep-sea habitat is a source of very potent marine-derived agents that may inhibit the growth of human cancer cells “in vitro” and “in vivo”. Salinosporamide-A, Marizomib, by Salinispora species is a proteasome inhibitor with promising anticancer activity (Phase I/II trials). Different deep-sea-derived drugs are under preclinical evaluation. Cancer is a complex disease that may be represented by network medicine. A simple consequence is the change of the concept of target entity from a si...

    18. Deep sea as a source of novel-anticancer drugs: update on discovery and preclinical/clinical evaluation in a systems medicine perspective.

      Russo, Patrizia; Del Bufalo, Alessandra; Fini, Massimo

      2015-01-01

      The deep-sea habitat is a source of very potent marine-derived agents that may inhibit the growth of human cancer cells "in vitro" and "in vivo". Salinosporamide-A, Marizomib, by Salinispora species is a proteasome inhibitor with promising anticancer activity (Phase I/II trials). Different deep-sea-derived drugs are under preclinical evaluation. Cancer is a complex disease that may be represented by network medicine. A simple consequence is the change of the concept of target entity from a single protein to a whole molecular pathway and or cellular network. Deep-sea-derived drugs fit well to this new concept. PMID:26600744

    19. Deep sea as a source of novel-anticancer drugs

      Russo, Patrizia; Del Bufalo, Alessandra; Fini, Massimo

      2015-01-01

      The deep-sea habitat is a source of very potent marine-derived agents that may inhibit the growth of human cancer cells “in vitro” and “in vivo”. Salinosporamide-A, Marizomib, by Salinispora species is a proteasome inhibitor with promising anticancer activity (Phase I/II trials). Different deep-sea-derived drugs are under preclinical evaluation. Cancer is a complex disease that may be represented by network medicine. A simple consequence is the change of the concept of target entity from a si...

    20. 放线菌Act12与腐植酸钾配施对丹参生长及其根域微生态的影响%Effects of combined application of actinomycetes Act12 bio-control agents and potassium humate on growth and microbial flora in rooting zone of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge

      段佳丽; 薛泉宏; 舒志明; 王东胜; 何斐

      2015-01-01

      探讨生防放线菌菌剂与腐植酸钾配施对丹参生长及其根域微生态的影响.以常规移栽处理为对照,研究小区试验中放线菌菌剂与腐植酸钾不同配施比例下对丹参生长、产量及抗根结线虫侵染的影响;并采用稀释平皿涂抹法测定丹参根区土壤、根表土壤、根外土壤及根系中细菌(B)、真菌(F)与放线菌(A)的数量,同时对优势细菌、真菌和放线菌进行了分子生物学鉴定,研究放线菌菌剂与腐植酸钾配施处理下丹参根域微生态变化.研究结果表明:①配施能增强菌剂对丹参的促生效果.菌剂与腐植酸钾配施T20处理丹参出苗率较对照提高8.7%,收获时的死亡率较对照减少39.0%;茎叶鲜质量、根鲜质量、单株根鲜质量、根干质量以及单株根干质量分别较对照增加6.1%、28.6%、11.1%、36.3%以及9.0%.②可以调整丹参植株根域土壤微生态平衡,降低有害微生物数量,增加有益微生物数量,改善微生物区系.在丹参根表土壤中,菌剂与腐植酸钾配施处理B/A值较对照降低78.4%,A/F值较对照增加95.0%.在丹参根系内,菌剂与腐植酸钾配施处理细菌数量较对照增加195.0%,未检测到真菌和放线菌存在.③在放线菌处理丹参根区、根表土壤中,有6株优势菌可能对丹参生长及抗病有益:3株优势细菌分别为硝基愈疮木胶节杆菌(Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus)、放射型根瘤菌(Rhizobium radiobacter)和弗雷德里克斯堡假单胞菌(Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis);3株优势放线菌分别为淀粉酶产色链霉菌(Streptomyces diastatochromogenes)、砖红链霉菌(S.lateritius)和卡伍尔链霉菌(S.cavourensis).有2株优势菌疑为有害微生物:优势细菌为耐寒短杆菌(Brevibacterium frigoritolerans),优势放线菌为肿痂链霉菌(S.turgidiscabies).这2种菌对其他作物的有害作用已有报道.④对丹参根结线虫侵染有强烈抑制作用,可使田间根结线虫侵染率降低49.3%.生防放线菌与腐植酸钾配施处理后能明显促进丹参生长,提高丹参产量及抗病虫能力,调节丹参根域微生态平衡.

    1. 放线菌WZ1-5019的鉴定及其发酵液对香蕉黑星病的田间防治效果试验%The Identification of Actinomycetes Strain WZ1-5019 and the Field Control Effect Tests of the Fermented Liquid on Banana Freckle Disease

      廖东奇; 曾涛; 马婷; 曾会才

      2011-01-01

      放线菌WZ1-5019菌株是从海南五指山原始森林土壤中分离筛选得到的一株对香蕉黑星病菌具有强烈抑制作用的生防菌,其发酵液无菌滤液亦对香蕉黑星病菌具有较强抑菌活性.根据形态观察、培养特征、生理生化鉴定及16S rDNA序列分析,初步鉴定为链霉菌属中的Streptomyces costaricanus.香蕉黑星病是香蕉的重要病害之一,至今尚无生物农药用于香蕉黑星病的防治,本试验采用链霉菌WZ1-5019菌株发酵液进行香蕉黑星病田间防治试验,结果表明,施用链霉菌WZ 1-5019菌株发酵液3次后,对香蕉黑星病的平均防治效果达81.68%,显著优于30%爱苗乳油1 500倍液防效(59.96%)和10%世高水分散粒剂1 500倍液防效(53.58%),具有开发成香蕉黑星病生物农药的前景.%The Actinomyceles strain WZ1-5019 is a biological control agent which has strong inhibitory effects on Macrophoma musae from the virgin forest soil of Five-finger Mountain Natural Reserve of Hainan Province, China. Moreover, its filtrate of fermentation liquid has strong inhibitory effects on Macrophoma musae. Based on the results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the strain WZ1 -5019 was placed within the genus Streptomyces and classified as the species Streplomyces costaricanus. Banana freckle disease is one of the main diseases of Musa, there is no a biological pesticide reported for the controlling of banana freckle disease to date. The results of the present tests in fields showed that the filtrate of fermentation liquid of the Streptomyces strain WZ1-5019 for 3 times had exerted an average control effect up to 81.68% against banana freckle disease, significantly better than that treated with 30% Armure EC 1 500 times dilution (59.96%) and 10% difenoconazole 1 500 times dilution (53.58%), and thus had application potential to be used as a biological pesticide against banana freckle disease.

    2. Biodiversity of Trichoderma spp.in TUB culture collection

      Szakacs G

      2004-01-01

      @@ Culture collection of the Technical University of Budapest (TUB) comprises approx. 2800microorganisms with special emphasis on lignocellulose degrading fungi and actinomycetes. For isolation and screening programs, 460 soils are stored at + 5 ℃.

    3. Isolation of Endophytic Streptomyces Strains from Surface-Sterilized Roots

      Sardi, P.; Saracchi, M.; Quaroni, S.; Petrolini, B.; Borgonovi, G. E.; Merli, S.

      1992-01-01

      When the roots of 28 plant species were surface sterilized and incubated on agar medium, endophytic actinomycetes in the root cortex were observed by direct microscopic observation and pure culture techniques.

    4. Identification of Rhodococcus fascians cytokinins and their modus operandi to reshape the plant

      Pertry, I.; Václavíková, Kateřina; Depuydt, S.; Galuszka, P.; Spíchal, Lukáš; Temmerman, W.; Stes, E.; Schmülling, T.; Kakimoto, T.; Van Montagu, M. C. E.; Strnad, Miroslav; Holsters, M.; Tarkowski, Petr; Vereecke, D.

      2009-01-01

      Roč. 106, č. 3 (2009), s. 929-934. ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : phytopathogen * actinomycete * phytohormone Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.432, year: 2009

    5. Differentiation-dependent charge heterogeneity of EF-Tu in Streptomyces

      Nguyen, Liem Duy; Novotná, Jana; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Weiser, Jaroslav

      Vancouver: The University of British Columbia, 2001. s. 122. [International Symposium on the Biology of Actinomycetes /12./. 05.08.2001-09.08.2001, Vancouver] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

    6. Genetic control of biosynthesis of licosamide antibiotics in streptomycetes

      Janata, Jiří; Koběrská, Markéta; Chalupská, Dominika; Holá, Klára; Jelínková, Markéta; Kopecký, Jan; Najmanová, Lucie; Novotná, Jitka; Spížek, Jaroslav

      Munster, 2003, s. 63. [Biology of Streptomycetes and Related Actinomycetes /2003./. Munster (DE), 27.02.2003-03.03.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : ndl * rt pcr Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

    7. Detection of the Streptomyces coelicolor brgA mutation leading to benzamide resistance and abolishment of differentiation

      Petříček, Miroslav; Kieser, H.; Hopwood, D. A.; Ochi, K.

      SissiHeraklion: Hellenic Society of Biological Sciences, 1999. s. 118. [International Symposium on the Biology of Actinomycetes .. 24.10.1999-28.10.1999, Sissi-Heraklion] Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

    8. Developmental changes in S.coelicolor expression patterns-Analysis and public accessibility of a proteome database

      Vohradský, Jiří; Janda, Ivan; Li, X. M.; Novotná, Jana; Langen, H.; Weiser, Jaroslav; Thompson, C. J.

      Vol. 13. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 2001. s. 71. [International Symposium on the Biology of Actinomycetes /12./. 05.08.2001-09.08.2001, Vancouver] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

    9. Global systematic mutagenesis and-omics for inference of genetic networks

      Vohradský, Jiří

      Munster, 2003, s. 24. [Biology of streptomycetes and related actinomycetes . Munster (DE), 27.02.2003-03.03.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : mutagenesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

    10. REFORESTATION AND SEEDLING SYMBIONTS

      Tree seedlings are dependent on symbiotic associations with microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes for normal growth and development. itrogen fixing leguminous and non-leguminous trees form symbiotic relationships with Rhizobium (bacteria) and Frankia (actino...

    11. ACTINOMYCES NAESLUNDII IN PATIENTS WITH HEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES

      S. H. Rasa J. V Yusefi

      2006-09-01

      Full Text Available Mycotic infections have been commonly encountered in patients with hematological malignancies. The current study seeks the prevalence of actinomycete infection in patients suffering from blood cells malignancies. A hundred and fifty patients with some kinds of blood cells dyscrasia who underwent the bone marrow aspiration were recruited. In addition to the diagnostic work up, samples were examined for the presence of actinomycete infections. Twenty one samples were positive for actinomycete infections. All of them were infected by Actinomyces naeslundii. All the positive patients were categorized in malignant groups, acute myelocytic leukemia, chronic myelocytic leukemia, and lymphoma and myelodysplastic syndrome. High incidence of actinomycete infections in the present study population was interesting. These results can also be suggestive of a pre-malignancy role for the actinomycosis.

    12. Systems Biology Approaches to Understand Natural Products Biosynthesis

      Licona-Cassani, Cuauhtemoc; Cruz-Morales, Pablo; Manteca, Angel; Barona-Gomez, Francisco; Nielsen, Lars K; Marcellin, Esteban

      2015-01-01

      Actinomycetes populate soils and aquatic sediments that impose biotic and abiotic challenges for their survival. As a result, actinomycetes metabolism and genomes have evolved to produce an overwhelming diversity of specialized molecules. Polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, post-translationally modified peptides, lactams, and terpenes are well-known bioactive natural products with enormous industrial potential. Accessing such biological diversity has proven difficult due to the complex regul...

    13. Systems biology approaches to understand natural products biosynthesis

      Cuauhtemoc eLicona-Cassani; Pablo Cruz Morales; Angel eManteca; Francisco eBarona-Gomez; Lars Keld Nielsen; Esteban eMarcellin

      2015-01-01

      Actinomycetes populate soils and aquatic sediments which impose biotic and abiotic challenges for their survival. As a result, actinomycetes metabolism and genomes have evolved to produce an overwhelming diversity of specialized molecules. Polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, post-translationally modified peptides, lactams and terpenes are well known bioactive natural products with enormous industrial potential. Accessing such biological diversity has proven difficult due to the complex regul...

    14. Interaction specificity between leaf-cutting ants and vertically transmitted Pseudonocardia bacteria

      Breum Andersen, Sandra; Yek, Sze Huei; Nash, David R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

      2015-01-01

      Background The obligate mutualism between fungus-growing ants and microbial symbionts offers excellent opportunities to study the specificity and stability of multi-species interactions. In addition to cultivating fungus gardens, these ants have domesticated actinomycete bacteria to defend gardens against the fungal parasite Escovopsis and possibly other pathogens. Panamanian Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ants primarily associate with actinomycetes of the genus Pseudonocardia. Colonies a...

    15. Elucidating the molecular physiology of lantibiotic NAI-107 production in Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024

      Gallo, Giuseppe; Renzone, Giovanni; Palazzotto, Emilia; Monciardini, Paolo; Arena, Simona; Faddetta, Teresa; Giardina, Anna; Alduina, Rosa; Weber, Tilmann; Sangiorgi, Fabio; Russo, Alessandro; Spinelli, Giovanni; Sosio, Margherita; Scaloni, Andrea; Puglia, Anna Maria

      2016-01-01

      Background The filamentous actinomycete Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024 produces the lantibiotic NAI-107, which is an antibiotic peptide effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. In actinomycetes, antibiotic production is often associated with a physiological differentiation program controlled by a complex regulatory and metabolic network that may be elucidated by the integration of genomic, proteomic and bioinformatic tools. Accordingly, an extensive evaluation of the proteomi...

    16. Habitat-specific type I polyketide synthases in soils and street sediments.

      Hill, Patrick; Piel, Jörn; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Krištůfek, Václav; Boddy, Christopher N; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

      2014-01-01

      Actinomycetes produce many pharmaceutically useful compounds through type I polyketide biosynthetic pathways. Soil has traditionally been an important source for these actinomycete-derived pharmaceuticals. As the rate of antibiotic discovery has decreased and the incidence of antibiotic resistance has increased, researchers have looked for alternatives to soil for bioprospecting. Street sediment, where actinomycetes make up a larger fraction of the bacterial population than in soil, is one such alternative environment. To determine if these differences in actinomycetal community structure are reflected in type I polyketide synthases (PKSI) distribution, environmental DNA from soils and street sediments was characterized by sequencing amplicons of PKSI-specific PCR primers. Amplicons covered two domains: the last 80 amino acids of the ketosynthase (KS) domain and the first 240 amino acids of the acyltransferase (AT) domain. One hundred and ninety clones from ten contrasting soils from six regions and nine street sediments from six cities were sequenced. Twenty-five clones from two earthworm-affected samples were also sequenced. UniFrac lineage-specific analysis identified two clades that clustered with actinomycetal GenBank matches that were street sediment-specific, one similar to the PKSI segment of the mycobactin siderophore involved in mycobacterial virulence. A clade of soil-specific sequences clustered with GenBank matches from the ambruticin and jerangolid pathways of Sorangium cellulosum. All three of these clades were found in sites >700 km apart. Street sediments are enriched in actinomycetal PKSIs. Non-actinomycetal PKSI pathways may be more chemically diverse than actinomycetal PKSIs. Common soil and street sediment PKIs are globally distributed. PMID:24241933

    17. MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF ANTAGONISTIC STREPTOMYCES SPP. AGAINST BOTRYTIS ALLII, THE AGENT OF ONION GRAY MOLD USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) MARKERS

      Jorjandi, M.; A. Baghizadeh

      2014-01-01

      As an aim in sustainable agriculture, biological control of plant diseases has received intensive attention mainly as a response to public concern about the use of chemical fungicides in the environment. Soil Actinomycetes particularly Streptomyces spp. enhance soil fertility and have antagonistic activity against wide range of plant pathogens. To investigate for biocontrol means against the pathogen, 30 isolates of Actinomycetes have been isolated from agricultural soils of Kerman province o...

    18. Channel-forming proteins in the cell wall of amino acid-producing Corynebacteria

      Hünten, Peter

      2005-01-01

      Corynebacterium glutamicum is together with C. callunae and C. efficiens a member of the diverse group of mycolic-acid containing actinomycetes, the mycolata. These bacteria are potent producer of glutamate, lysine and other amino acids on industrial scale. The cell walls of most actinomycetes contain besides an arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex large amounts of mycolic acids. This three-layer envelope is called MAP (mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan) complex and it represents a secon...

    19. Unlocking Streptomyces spp. for Use as Sustainable Industrial Production Platforms by Morphological Engineering†

      Van Wezel, G.P.; Krabben, P.; Traag, B.A.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Kerste, R.; Vijgenboom, E; Heijnen, J.J.; Kraal, B

      2006-01-01

      Filamentous actinomycetes are commercially widely used as producers of natural products (in particular antibiotics) and of industrial enzymes. However, the mycelial lifestyle of actinomycetes, resulting in highly viscous broths and unfavorable pellet formation, has been a major bottleneck in their commercialization. Here we describe the successful morphological engineering of industrially important streptomycetes through controlled expression of the morphogene ssgA. This led to improved growt...

    20. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts From Marine Streptomyces Isolated From Mangrove Sediments of Tanzania

      Eva Mathias Sosovele

      2012-04-01

      Full Text Available This study was undertaken to isolate Actinomycetes from mangrove sediments of Tanzania and evaluate their potential for production of bioactive metabolites. Starch cacein agar medium was used to isolate the actinomycetes. Extraction of Actinomycetes using ethyl acetate (1:1, afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity test. A total of three isolates (ACTN 1, ACTN 2 and ACTN 3 were obtained by using culture medium selective for Actinomycetes. Actinomycetes specific primers; S-C-Act-235-S-20 and S-C-Act-878-A-19 were used to identify two isolates as Streptomyces sp and one as actinomycetes sp. The strongest activity against bacterium (Bacillus subtillis and fungus (Candida albicans was exhibited by crude extracts of Streptomyces sp (ACTN 2 and ACTN 3. Crude extracts of all three isolates exhibited non- cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 250 - 446 μg/ml respectively. These results provide evidence that the mangrove sediments streptomycetes could be promising sources for antimicrobial bioactive agents.

    1. [Pollution characteristics of microbial aerosols generated from a municipal sewage treatment plant].

      Qiu, Xiong-Hui; Li, Yan-Peng; Niu, Tie-Jun; Li, Mei-Ling; Ma, Zhi-Hui; Miao, Ying; Wang, Xiang-Jun

      2012-07-01

      To characterize the pollution characteristics of microbial aerosols emitted from municipal sewage treatment plants, microbial aerosols were sampled with an Andersen 6-stage impactor at different treatment units of a Xi'an sewage treatment plant between June 2011 and July 2011. The plate-culture and colony-counting methods were employed to determine the concentrations, particle size distributions and median diameters of the airborne bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The results showed that the highest concentrations of bacteria (7 866 CFU x m(-3) +/- 960 CFU x m(-3)) and actinomycetes (2 139 CFU x m(-3) +/- 227 CFU x m(-3)) were found in the sludge-dewatering house while the highest fungi concentration (2156 CFU x m(-3) +/- 119 CFU x m(-3)) in the oxidation ditch. The airborne bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes all showed a skewed distribution in particle size. The peaks of bacteria and fungi were in the size range of 2.1-3.3 microm, whereas the peak of airborne actinomycetes was between 1. 1-2.1 microm in size. In general, the order of the median diameters of different microbial aerosols generated from the sewage treatment plant was airborne bacteria > airborne fungi > airborne actinomycetes. In addition, the spatial variation characteristics of microbial aerosols showed that the larger the particle size of the microorganism, the faster the reducing rate of the aerosol concentration. The variations in the reducing rate of concentration with particle sizes can be ordered as airborne bacteria > airborne fungi > airborne actinomycetes. PMID:23002590

    2. Differential inhibition of macrophage microbicidal activity by liposomes.

      Gilbreath, M J; Swartz, G M; Alving, C R; Nacy, C A; Hoover, D L; Meltzer, M S

      1985-01-01

      In vitro culture of murine resident peritoneal macrophages with lymphokine (LK)-rich leukocyte culture fluids induces enhanced microbicidal activity against amastigotes of the protozoan parasite Leishmania tropica. Macrophages infected with Leishmania and treated with LKs after infection acquire the capacity to kill the intracellular parasite within 72 h. When compared with control macrophage cultures treated with medium lacking LKs, 80 to 90% fewer macrophages treated with LKs contained amas...

    3. Plate tectonics drive tropical reef biodiversity dynamics

      Leprieur, Fabien; Descombes, Patrice; Gaboriau, Théo; Cowman, Peter F.; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Carlos J Melián; de Santana, Charles N.; Heine, Christian; Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R.; Pellissier, Loïc

      2016-01-01

      The Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana strongly modified the global distribution of shallow tropical seas reshaping the geographic configuration of marine basins. However, the links between tropical reef availability, plate tectonic processes and marine biodiversity distribution patterns are still unknown. Here, we show that a spatial diversification model constrained by absolute plate motions for the past 140 million years predicts the emergence and movement of diversity hotspots on tropica...

    4. In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae and Its Main Component, Berberine against Different Leishmania Species.

      Hossein Mahmoudvand

      2014-03-01

      Full Text Available Leishmaniasis has been identified as a major public health problem in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The present study was aimed to investigate antileishmanial effects of various extracts of Berberis vulgaris also its active compoenent, berberine against Leishmania tropica and L. infantum species on in vitro experiments.In this study in vitro antileishmanial activity of various extracts of B. vulgaris also its active compoenent, berberine against promastigote and amastigote stages of L. tropica and L. infantum was evaluated, using MTT assay and in a macrophage model, respectively. Furthermore, infectivity rate and cytotoxicity effects of B. vulgaris and berberine in murine macrophage cells were investigated.The findings of optical density (OD and IC50 indicated that B. vulgaris particulary berberine significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the growth rate of promastigote stage of L.tropica and L.infantum in comparison to meglumine antimoniate (MA. In addition, B. vulgaris and berberine significantly (P<0.05 decreased the mean number of amastigotes in each macrophage as compared with positive control. In the evaluation of cytotoxicity effects, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages. Results also showed that when parasites were pre-incubated with B. vulgaris their ability to infect murine macrophages was significantly decreased.B.vulgaris particularly berberine exhibited potent in vitro leishmanicidal effects against L. tropica and L.infantum. Further works are required to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of B.vulgaris on Leishmania species using clinical settings.

    5. Antileishmanial effect of silver nanoparticles and their enhanced antiparasitic activity under ultraviolet light

      Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Bagirova, Malahat; Ustundag, Cem B; Kaya, Cengiz; Kaya, Figen; Rafailovich, Miriam

      2011-01-01

      Leishmaniasis is a protozoan vector-borne disease and is one of the biggest health problems of the world. Antileishmanial drugs have disadvantages such as toxicity and the recent development of resistance. One of the best-known mechanisms of the antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) is the production of reactive oxygen species to which Leishmania parasites are very sensitive. So far no information about the effects of Ag-NPs on Leishmania tropica parasites, the causative agen...

    6. Modelling ecological change over half a century in a subtropical estuary: impacts of climate change, land-use, urbanization and freshwater extraction

      Condie, Scott A.; Hayes, Donna; Elizabeth A. Fulton; Savina, Marie

      2012-01-01

      The Clarence River Estuary is the largest estuary in southeast Australia, with an extensive floodplain encompassing multiple river channels and a large coastal lagoon. It is the focus of major commercial and recreational fisheries and there is pressure to divert its freshwater inputs for agricultural and domestic uses. We used a spatial biogeochemical model to simulate the variability and evolution of this system on timescales from days to decades over the past half century. Like most tropica...

    7. Genetic analysis of clinical isolates of Leishmania major from Isfahan, Iran

      Gilda Eslami, Rasoul Salehi, Sharifeh Khosravi & Monir Doudi

      2012-01-01

      Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis is a geographically widespread severe disease which includes visceralleishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). There are 350 million people at risk in over 80 countries.In the Old World, CL is usually caused by Leishmania major, L. tropica, and L. aetiopica complex of which 90%of cases occur in Afghanistan, Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Brazil and Peru. Recently, Eslami et al(2011) reported a novel TRYP6 gene encoding tryparedoxin...

    8. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Leishmania Species Among Suspected Patients of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Using ITS-r DNA in Fars Province

      O Dehnam

      2012-10-01

      Full Text Available Introduction: Fars province is one of the most important foci of leishmaniasis that includes two types of cutaneous (urban and rural forms and visceral leishmaniasis in sympatry. To study leishmaniasis among suspected patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis in 5 counties of Shiraz, Firouz abad, GhirـKarzin, Farashband and Larestan, both microscopic and molecular analysis were carried out in the present study. Methods: The samples were smeared on the microscopic slides and were also stained by Giemsa. All smears were examined under a light microscope and the positive smears were scored for amastigote frequency. DNA was extracted from stained smears and Leishmania DNA was detected by amplification of ITS1ـ5.8sـITS2 fragments. Amplicons were analyzed using electrophoresis in 1.5 % agarose gel containing ethidium bromide. Results: Among 34 studied patients, 29 cases (%85 were positive in microscopic and 32 (%94 in molecular analysis using standard PCR. All examined samples were infected with L.major except one (%3 that was infected with L.tropica. Most lesions due to L.major were located on the feet, whereas ulcer due to L.tropica was on the forehead. Conclusions: Preparing stained smears from active lesions of suspected patients (microscopic analysis removes the problem of Leishmania preservation and transition to culture media. Also, intergenic variations in amplified fragment of ITS-rDNA cause to produce fragments with different length and based on this difference, we can identify L. major and L. tropica separately. Using microscopic and molecular methods in present study confirmed presence of L.major and L.tropica as the causative agents of CL in studied regions of Fars.

    9. Responding to climate change and the global land crisis: REDD+, market transformation and low-emissions rural development

      Nepstad, Daniel C.; Boyd, William; Stickler, Claudia M.; Bezerra, Tathiana; Azevedo, Andrea A.

      2013-01-01

      Climate change and rapidly escalating global demand for food, fuel, fibre and feed present seemingly contradictory challenges to humanity. Can greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land-use, more than one-fourth of the global total, decline as growth in land-based production accelerates? This review examines the status of two major international initiatives that are designed to address different aspects of this challenge. REDD+ is an emerging policy framework for providing incentives to tropica...

    10. Causes of pediatric visceral leishmaniasis in southeastern iran.

      Ali Hosseininasab; Iraj Sharifi; Mohammad Hossein Daei; Mehdi Zarean; Mahsa Dadkhah

      2014-01-01

      Leishmania infantum is the most frequent cause of visceral leishmaniasis and L. tropica has been rarely linked to the disease in Iran. In this study, bone marrow aspirates were collected from 10 child patients, suspected with visceral leishmaniasis referred to the Pediatric Wards of Kerman Medical Hospitals, Kerman, Iran during 2002–2011. Leishmania species were identified by using nested PCR in all slides. The PCR samples from nine patients indicated L. infantum as principal causative agent ...

    11. An overview of a diagnostic and epidemiologic reappraisal of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran

      Mahin Farahmand; Hossein Nahrevanian; Hasti Atashi Shirazi; Sabah Naeimi; Zahra Farzanehnejad

      2011-01-01

      Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a widespread tropical infection which has a high incidence rate in Iran. Leishmania tropica, the causative agent of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), and Leishmania major, which causes zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), are endemic in various parts of Iran with a high incidence rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reappraisal of the diagnosis and epidemiology of CL in Iran, by different clinical, parasitological and molecular assays a...

    12. Detailed regional predictions of N2O and NO emissions from a tropical highland rainforest

      K. Butterbach-Bahl

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Tropical forest soils are a significant source for the greenhouse gas N2O as well as for NO, a precursor of tropospheric ozone. However, current estimates are uncertain due to the limited number of field measurements. Furthermore, there is considerable spatial and temporal variability of N2O and NO emissions due to the variation of environmental conditions such as soil properties, vegetation characteristics and meteorology. In this study we used a process-based model (ForestDNDC-tropica to estimate N2O and NO emissions from tropical highland forest (Nyungwe soils in southwestern Rwanda. To extend the model inputs to regional scale, ForestDNDC-tropica was linked to an exceptionally large legacy soil dataset. There was agreement between N2O and NO measurements and the model predictions though the ForestDNDC-tropica resulted in considerable lower emissions for few sites. Low similarity was specifically found for acidic soil with high clay content and reduced metals, indicating that chemo-denitrification processes on acidic soils might be under-represented in the current ForestDNDC-tropica model. The results showed that soil bulk density and pH are the most influential factors driving spatial variations in soil N2O and NO emissions for tropical forest soils. The area investigated (1113 km2 was estimated to emit ca. 439 ± 50 t N2O-N yr−1 (2.8–5.5 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1 and 244 ± 16 t NO-N yr−1 (0.8–5.1 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Consistent with less detailed studies, we confirm that tropical highland rainforest soils are a major source of atmospheric N2O and NO.

    13. The identification of malaria in paleopathology-An in-depth assessment of the strategies to detect malaria in ancient remains.

      Bianucci, Raffaella; Araujo, Adauto; Pusch, Carsten M; Nerlich, Andreas G

      2015-12-01

      The comprehensive analyses of human remains from various places and time periods, either by immunological or molecular approaches, provide circumstantial evidence that malaria tropica haunted humankind at least since dynastic ancient Egypt. Here we summarize the "actual state-of-the-art" of these bio-molecular investigations and offer a solid basis for the discussion of the paleopathology of malaria in human history. PMID:26366472

    14. Determining the age of tropical tunas in the Indian Ocean from otolith microstructures

      Sardenne, Fany; Dortel, Emmanuelle; Le Croizier, G.; Million, J.; Labonne, Maylis; Leroy, B.; Bodin, Nathalie; Chassot, Emmanuel

      2015-01-01

      The Indian Ocean Tuna Tagging Program (IOTTP) provided a unique opportunity to assess the viability of estimating the age of tropical tunas from the micro-structural features of otoliths. Here, we analyzed the length measurements and micro-increment counts collected for 506 sagittal otoliths, of which 343 were chemically marked with oxytetracycline, for bigeye (Thunnus obesus), skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Our results show that the otoliths of tropica...

    15. Tropical forests are both evolutionary cradles and museums of leaf beetle diversity

      McKenna, Duane D.; Farrell, Brian D.

      2006-01-01

      The high extant species diversity of tropical lineages of organisms is usually portrayed as a relatively recent and rapid development or as a consequence of the gradual accumulation or preservation of species over time. These explanations have led to alternative views of tropical forests as evolutionary “cradles” or “museums” of diversity, depending on the organisms under study. However, biogeographic and fossil evidence implies that the evolutionary histories of diversification among tropica...

    16. Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oil and Methanolic Extract of Myrtus communis L.

      MAHMOUDVAND, Hossein; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh; Sharififar, Fariba; SHARIFI, Iraj; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi

      2015-01-01

      Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated usin...

    17. Rapid Healing of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by High-Frequency Electrocauterization and Hydrogel Wound Care with or without DAC N-055: A Randomized Controlled Phase IIa Trial in Kabul

      Ahmad Fawad Jebran; Ulrike Schleicher; Reto Steiner; Pia Wentker; Farouq Mahfuz; Hans-Christian Stahl; Faquir Mohammad Amin; Christian Bogdan; Kurt-Wilhelm Stahl

      2014-01-01

      Background Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania (L.) tropica infection is a chronic, frequently disfiguring skin disease with limited therapeutic options. In endemic countries healing of ulcerative lesions is often delayed by bacterial and/or fungal infections. Here, we studied a novel therapeutic concept to prevent superinfections, accelerate wound closure, and improve the cosmetic outcome of ACL. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2004 to 2008 we performed a two-arm...

    18. ATIBALA: AN OVERVIEW

      S. B. GAIKWAD, G. KRISHNA MOHAN

      2013-01-01

      Abutilon indicum is known as „Atibala‟ in Sanskrit. Literally, „Ati‟ means very and „Bala‟ means powerful, referring to the properties of this plant as very powerful. A. indicum is a hairy herb or under shrub distributed throughout the tropica. In traditional systems of medicine, various plant parts such as roots, leaves, flowers, bark, seeds, and stems have been used as antioxidant, demulcent, laxative, diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiulcer. The present review is therefore an...

    19. Cutaneous leishmaniasis responds to daylight-activated photodynamic therapy

      Enk, C D; Nasereddin, A; Alper, R;

      2015-01-01

      as outcome measures. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with CL (11 Leishmania major and 20 Leishmania tropica) underwent DA-PDT. Fourteen patients were treated in the hospital garden under professional supervision and 17 patients underwent DA-PDT as a self-administered treatment modality at home. Following...... to a self-administered protocol, suggesting that DA-PDT can be adopted even in technologically deprived countries where the majority of Leishmania infections are encountered....

    20. Detection of Leishmania donovani and L. tropicain Ethiopian wild rodents

      Kassahun, A.; Sádlová, J.; Dvořák, V.; Košťálová, T.; Rohoušová, I.; Frynta, D.; Aghová, Tatiana; Yasur-Landau, D.; Lemma, W.; Hailu, A.; Baneth, G.; Warburg, A.; Volf, P.; Votýpka, J.

      2015-01-01

      Roč. 145, May 2015 (2015), s. 39-44. ISSN 0001-706X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0983 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Leishmania donovani * Leishmania tropica * Phlebotomine sand fly * Rodents * kDNA * ITS1 Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.270, year: 2014

    1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10742-1 [Dicty_cDB

      Full Text Available 27_1( BC074227 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis NIMA-family kinase ... 66 6e-09 CP000667_1178( CP000667 |pid:none) Salinispora tropic...2_14( AC141322 |pid:none) Medicago truncatula clone mth2-8e... 59 7e-07 CU633895_104( CU633895 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic...5 8e-06 CU633865_185( CU633865 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 55 8e-06 BC069844_1( BC069844 ...|pid:none) Cryptosporidium parvum chromosom... 46 0.005 CU640366_1228( CU640366 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic...ilvllkldlklifntfvt fiisl*sim*ny*klgvkliliv*lilkhylilinyq*kfnqn*iq*rkni Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Fram

    2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09095-1 [Dicty_cDB

      Full Text Available e) Oryza sativa subsp. japonica cyclo... 52 7e-08 (Q6ZIX2) RecName: Full=Cycloartenol-C-24-methyltransferas...e biosynthesis methyltransferas... 42 0.003 DQ229829_1( DQ229829 |pid:none) Helianthus annuus culti...00850_1240( CP000850 |pid:none) Salinispora arenicola CNS-205, ... 57 3e-07 (Q9P3R1) RecName: Full=Sterol 24-C-methyltransferas....... 42 0.008 (A7GN50) RecName: Full=Menaquinone biosynthesis methyltransferas... 42 0.008 AF042333_1( AF042333 |pid...l=Menaquinone biosynthesis methyltransferas... 41 0.018 CR940353_737( CR940353 |pid:none) Theileria annulata stra

    3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12971-1 [Dicty_cDB

      Full Text Available :none) Salinispora arenicola CNS-205, ... 46 5e-04 AE014299_1044( AE014299 |pid:none) Shewanella oneide...:none) Streptococcus mutans UA159, com... 50 2e-05 AP006841_673( AP006841 |pid:none) Bacteroides fragi...nsis MR-1, com... 46 5e-04 CP000447_3218( CP000447 |pid:none) Shewanella frigidimarina NCIMB ... 45 6e...:none) Helicoverpa armigera midgut aminop... 67 3e-10 AF020389_1( AF020389 |pid:none) Plutella xylostella...e-10 EU568874_1( EU568874 |pid:none) Helicoverpa armigera note Bt-Cry1A... 66 4e-10 AF109692_1( AF109692 |pid:none) Plutella

    4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09944-1 [Dicty_cDB

      Full Text Available 0... 87 1e-15 CP000283_3097( CP000283 |pid:none) Rhodopseudomonas palustris BisB... 87 1e-15 F87753( F87753 )prote... AF279106_17( AF279106 |pid:none) Uncultured marine gamma proteobac... 80 1e-13 CP000667_284( CP000667 |pid:none) Salinispora tro...0.26 (Q8Y4F5) RecName: Full=UvrABC system protein B; Short=P... 39 0.44 CP001175_106( CP001175 |pid:none) Listeria mo...colum subsp. cap... 36 2.9 A42771( A42771 )reticulocyte-binding protein 1 - Plasmodium vivax 36 2.9 ...mucosum ATC... 76 2e-12 AM408590_3069( AM408590 |pid:none) Mycobacterium bovis BCG Pasteu

    5. Functional gene-based discovery of phenazines from the actinobacteria associated with marine sponges in the South China Sea.

      Karuppiah, Valliappan; Li, Yingxin; Sun, Wei; Feng, Guofang; Li, Zhiyong

      2015-07-01

      Phenazines represent a large group of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds produced by the diverse group of bacteria including actinobacteria. In this study, a total of 197 actinobacterial strains were isolated from seven different marine sponge species in the South China Sea using five different culture media. Eighty-seven morphologically different actinobacterial strains were selected and grouped into 13 genera, including Actinoalloteichus, Kocuria, Micrococcus, Micromonospora, Mycobacterium, Nocardiopsis, Prauserella, Rhodococcus, Saccharopolyspora, Salinispora, Serinicoccus, and Streptomyces by the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene. Based on the screening of phzE genes, ten strains, including five Streptomyces, two Nocardiopsis, one Salinispora, one Micrococcus, and one Serinicoccus were found to be potential for phenazine production. The level of phzE gene expression was highly expressed in Nocardiopsis sp. 13-33-15, 13-12-13, and Serinicoccus sp. 13-12-4 on the fifth day of fermentation. Finally, 1,6-dihydroxy phenazine (1) from Nocardiopsis sp. 13-33-15 and 13-12-13, and 1,6-dimethoxy phenazine (2) from Nocardiopsis sp. 13-33-15 were isolated and identified successfully based on ESI-MS and NMR analysis. The compounds 1 and 2 showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus mycoides SJ14, Staphylococcus aureus SJ51, Escherichia coli SJ42, and Micrococcus luteus SJ47. This study suggests that the integrated approach of gene screening and chemical analysis is an effective strategy to find the target compounds and lays the basis for the production of phenazine from the sponge-associated actinobacteria. PMID:25820602

    6. Screening of Alkaline Protease-Producing Streptomyces diastaticus and Optimization of Enzyme Production

      Elham Dawoodi

      2014-12-01

      Full Text Available Background and Aim: Alkaline proteases are used in pharmaceutical, film and photography, silk production and food, leather and detergent industries. Actinomycetes are gram positive bacteria that produce different enzymes such as proteases. The aims of this research were isolation of native alkaline protease-producing Actinomycete spp. from different soil samples as well as optimizing the conditions for enzyme production. Materials and Methods: The different soil samples were collected from different locations of the provinces of Khouzestan, Chahar Mahalo Bakhtiari and Isfahan, Iran. After determining of the best alkaline protease producing species using Lowry method, the optimization of alkaline protease was performed. Results: The alkaline protease producing Actinomycete spp. was isolated from soil. The most enzyme activity was measured in S.diastaticus. The best concentration of sucrose as the carbon source for the highest production of alkaline protease was 10 g/l. The optimum pH and temperature for the alkaline protease production by S. diastaticus were 10 and 30°C respectively. The maximum activity of alkaline protease was measured at 200 rpm as the best aeration speed. Conclusions: This is the first report of alkaline protease production by Streptomyces diastaticus in Iran. The accomplished examinations in this research confirmed the previous theories of alkaline protease production by Actinomycetes relatively. Regarding the immense applications of alkaline proteases in several industries and isolation of a native alkaline protease producing Actinomycete, The production potential of this enzyme in our country could be accessible in the near future.

    7. Systems biology approaches to understand natural products biosynthesis

      Cuauhtemoc eLicona-Cassani

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available Actinomycetes populate soils and aquatic sediments which impose biotic and abiotic challenges for their survival. As a result, actinomycetes metabolism and genomes have evolved to produce an overwhelming diversity of specialized molecules. Polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, post-translationally modified peptides, lactams and terpenes are well known bioactive natural products with enormous industrial potential. Accessing such biological diversity has proven difficult due to the complex regulation of cellular metabolism in actinomycetes and to the sparse knowledge of their physiology. The past decade, however, has seen the development of omics technologies that have significantly contributed to our better understanding of their biology. Key observations have contributed towards a shift in the exploitation of actinomycetes biology, such as using their full genomic potential, activating entire pathways through key metabolic elicitors and pathway engineering to improve biosynthesis. Here, we review recent efforts devoted to achieving enhanced discovery, activation and manipulation of natural product biosynthetic pathways in model actinomycetes using genome-scale biological datasets.

    8. Isolation and characterization of a Nocardiopsis sp. from honeybee guts.

      Patil, Preeti B; Zeng, Yu; Coursey, Tami; Houston, Preston; Miller, Iain; Chen, Shawn

      2010-11-01

      Although actinomycetes are the plant-associated environmental bacteria best known for producing thousands of antibiotics, their presence in the guts of flower-feeding honeybees has rarely been reported. Here, we report on the selective isolation of actinomycetes from the gut microbiota of healthy honeybees, and their inhibitory activity against honeybee indigenous bacteria. More than 70% of the sampled honeybees (N>40) in a season carried at least one CFU of actinomycete. The isolates from bees of one location produced inhibitory bioactivities that were almost exclusively against several bee indigenous Bacillus strains and Gram-positive human pathogens but not Escherichia coli. An antibiotic-producing actinomycete closely related to Nocardiopsis alba was isolated from the guts in every season of the year. A DNA fragment encoding a homologous gene (phzD) involved in phenazine biosynthesis was identified in the isolate. Expression of the phzD detected by reverse transcription-PCR can explain the survival of this organism in anaerobic environments as some redox-active extracellular phenazines are commonly regarded as respiratory electron acceptors. The results raise important questions concerning the roles of the antibiotic-producing actinomycetes and the phenazine-like molecules in honeybee guts and honey. PMID:20846361

    9. Streptomyces noursei var saccharicus: An Antibiotic Producer from Soils

      P Ellaiah

      2014-08-01

      Full Text Available During our continuous search for antibiotic producing actinomycetes, a variant of Streptomyces species was isolated from soils of Andhra Pradesh in India. The morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characters were studied, compared to known species and identified as a new variant of Streptomyces noursei and designated as Streptomyces noursei var saccharicus. The antibiotic activity of the strain was tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi and yeasts. INTRODUCTION Since the isolation of actinomycin in 1940 and streptomycin in 1944 by Waksman, the actinomycetes have received tremendous attention of the scientists. Soils, composts and fodders are common sources of actinomycetes. Waksman [1] recognized a few natural substrates as ideal sources for the isolation of actinomycetes and other streptomycetes. The nature of a Streptomyces colony is an important property in characterizing a culture. Krainsky [2] used the structure, size, shape and texture of the colony as one of the major diagnostic criteria. According to Pridham and Lyons [3] and International Subcommittee [4], the best way to handle streptomycete classification nomenclature and identification is through application of the genus-species-subspecies concept. The majority of antibiotic producing actinomycetes found in these species led to growing economic importance of these organisms which resulted in the isolation and description of numerous new species. It is reported that the only genus Streptomyces, the member of Actinomycetales accounts for approximately 93% producing secondary metabolites [5]. The present communication deals with the isolation and characterization of an antibiotic producer from soils.

    10. Comparative efifcacy of marineStreptomyces formulation versus ciprolfoxacin ophthalmic solution for treatingStaphylococcus aureus-induced conjunctivitis in animal model

      Femina Wahaab; Kalidass Subramaniam; Morris Jawahar

      2016-01-01

      Objective:To report the efficacy of marine actinomycetes in controllingStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-induced conjunctivitis in experimental rabbit. Methods: The ethyl acetate extracts of the best isolates of actinomycetes from the soil samples of Rameswaram coastal regions, Tamil Nadu, India, were concentrated and re-constituted in buffer and used as actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension in this study. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension was analysed in controllingS. aureus-induced conjunctivitis in rabbit in comparison with that of ciprofloxacin. Results:Among the four best isolates, theRAM25C4isolate had the highest antimicrobial activity in the secondary screening. Shelf life studies indicated that the activity can be retained for 75 days when it was stored at 8°C and the optimum temperature for storage was between –20°°C and 30°°C. The animal model studies indicated that there was a profound anti-conjunctivitis effect. The actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension had better activity than ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution. Conclusions:This is the first time to report thatStreptomyces bacillaris strainRAM25C4 has antimicrobial effect in controlling ophthalmic pathogenS. aureus underin vitro condition and thein vivo anti-inflammatory activity in controllingS. aureus-induced conjunctivitis.

    11. Isolation and characterization of actinobacteria from Yalujiang coastal wetland, North China

      Jicheng; Yu; Liu; Zhang; Qiu; Liu; Xiaohui; Qi; Ying; Ji; Beom; Seok; Kim

      2015-01-01

      Objective: To evaluate various types of samples from the different marine environments as sources of actinomycetes from the Yalujiang coastal wetland, North China, and to screen their antimicrobial properties. Further, the identified actinomycetes were characterized based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics.Methods: Eight different production media were used to isolate actinomycets from different stations of marine soil sediments in Yalujiang coastal wetland and the genotypic positions were established by 16 S r DNA.Results: A total of 172 actinomycetal isolates were obtained from 13 samples using five media. The most effective culture media in the isolation of actinobacteria were Gause’s Synthetic agar and Starch-casein agar. Among 172 isolates, 46 isolates(26.74%) showed antibacterial activity, 70.93% belonged to the genus Streptomyces, others were Micromonospora spp. and Rhodococcus spp. Out of the 46 isolates, two cultures were further supported by morphological characterization analysis.Conclusions: This is the first report about actinomycetes isolated from Yalujiang coastal wetland and it seems that the promising isolates from the unusual/unexplored wetland may prove to be an important step in the development of microbial natural product research.

    12. Seasonal changes in microbial community structure and nutrients content in rhizospheric soil of Aegle marmelos tree

      Shital M. Patel

      2010-12-01

      Full Text Available A preliminary investigation was carried out on dominance of different types of microbial communities at different monsoon seasons in rhizospheric soils of Aegle marmelos tree. Nutrients content of soil were also determined simultaneously to correlate with the microbial population. Results show that the rhizosphere of Aegle marmelos contains gram-negative bacteria, Rhizobium, Azotobacter,Actinomycetes and Yeast and major plant nutrients and their count as well as dominance changes with moisture content in rhizosphere.Except actinomycetes all the microorganisms were found highest duringmonsoon season whereas in post-monsoon season Actinomycetes were dominant. Amount of water in rhizosphere soil also affects soil chemical properties. Soil pH, organic carbon, C:N ratio, available nitrogen and available phosphorus were recorded maximum in monsoon, whereas electrical conductivity and total nitrogen content were found maximum in post-monsoon.

    13. Interaction specificity between leaf-cutting ants and vertically transmitted Pseudonocardia bacteria

      Breum Andersen, Sandra; Yek, Sze Huei; Nash, David R.;

      2015-01-01

      Background: The obligate mutualism between fungus-growing ants and microbial symbionts offers excellent opportunities to study the specificity and stability of multi-species interactions. In addition to cultivating fungus gardens, these ants have domesticated actinomycete bacteria to defend garde...... mutual co-adaptation within a single ant population.......Background: The obligate mutualism between fungus-growing ants and microbial symbionts offers excellent opportunities to study the specificity and stability of multi-species interactions. In addition to cultivating fungus gardens, these ants have domesticated actinomycete bacteria to defend gardens...... against the fungal parasite Escovopsis and possibly other pathogens. Panamanian Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ants primarily associate with actinomycetes of the genus Pseudonocardia. Colonies are inoculated with one of two vertically transmitted phylotypes (Ps1 or Ps2), and maintain the same...

    14. Biosurfactant and Heavy Metal Resistance Activity of Streptomyces spp. Isolated from Saltpan Soil

      Lakshmipathy Deepika

      2010-06-01

      Full Text Available Actinomycetes were isolated from the marine soil samples collected at the Ennore saltpan and were screened for biosurfactant and heavy metal resistance activity. Biosurfactant activity was evaluated by haemolysis, drop collapsing test and lipase production. Similarly heavy metal resistance was determined by tube method and agar diffusion method. Among them, two actinomycetes isolates VITDDK1 and VITDDK2 exhibited significant biosurfactant and heavy metal resistance activity. Based on the Hideo Nonomura’s key for classification of actinomycetes, the isolate VITDDK1 was similar to Streptomyces orientalis and VITDDK2 to Streptomyces aureomonopodiales. However molecular phylogeny based on neighbour-joining method showed 99% similarity of VITDDK1 with Streptomyces sp. A403Ydz-QZ and 93% similarity of VITDDK2 with Streptomyces sp. strain 346.

    15. Non-specific association between filamentous bacteria and fungus-growing ants.

      Kost, Christian; Lakatos, Tanja; Böttcher, Ingo; Arendholz, Wolf-Rüdiger; Redenbach, Matthias; Wirth, Rainer

      2007-10-01

      Fungus-growing ants and their fungal cultivar form a highly evolved mutualism that is negatively affected by the specialized parasitic fungus Escovopsis. Filamentous Pseudonocardia bacteria occurring on the cuticle of attine ants have been proposed to form a mutualistic interaction with these ants in which they are vertically transmitted (i.e. from parent to offspring colonies). Given a strictly vertical transmission of Pseudonocardia, the evolutionary theory predicts a reduced genetic variability of symbionts among ant lineages. The aim of this study was to verify whether actinomycetes, which occur on Acromyrmex octospinosus leaf-cutting ants, meet this expectation by comparing their genotypic variability with restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Multiple actinomycete strains could be isolated from both individual ant workers and colonies (one to seven strains per colony). The colony specificity of actinomycete communities was high: Only 15% of all strains were isolated from more than one colony, and just 5% were present in both populations investigated. Partial sequencing of 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid of two of the isolated strains assigned both of them to the genus Streptomyces. Actinomycetes could also be isolated from workers of the two non-attine ant species Myrmica rugulosa and Lasius flavus. Sixty-two percent of the strains derived from attine ants and 80% of the strains isolated from non-attine ants inhibited the growth of Escovopsis. Our data suggest that the association between attine ants and their actinomycete symbionts is less specific then previously thought. Soil-dwelling actinomycetes may have been dynamically recruited from the environment (horizontal transmission), probably reflecting an adaptation to a diverse community of microbial pathogens. PMID:17541536

    16. Accumulation of radiocesium in wild mushrooms collected from a Japanese forest and cesium uptake by microorganisms isolated from the mushroom-growing soils

      Mushrooms and soils samples collected from a sub-alpine forest of Mt. Fuji in Japan were measured for 137Cs and stable Cs. The ranges of 137Cs specific activities and stable Cs concentrations in the mushrooms were 291-7950 Bq kg-1 dry weight and 4.69-58.1 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Both 137Cs specific activities and stable Cs concentrations in the mushrooms were higher than those in common agricultural plants. The 137Cs specific activities and stable Cs concentrations in the soils were 3.18-149 Bq kg-1 dry weight and 0.618-2.18 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The appearance frequencies of filamentous actinomycetes and planktonic bacteria from the soils decreased according to increasing Cs contents in the medium. No relationship was observed between the appearance frequencies of those and the stable Cs concentrations in the soils. The filamentous actinomycetes from any soil sample could not grow in the presence of 25 mM Cs, although the planktonic bacteria from the soil samples could grow with up to 50 mM Cs in YM agar. In addition, the planktonic bacteria from approximately 70% of the soil samples could grow even in the presence of 100 mM Cs. Filamentous actinomycetes were more sensitive to Cs than planktonic bacteria. In in vitro experiments, Cs uptake by these strains of filamentous actinomycetes and planktonic bacteria was high in the presence of 5 mM CsCl and the strains accumulated Cs, the same as in mushrooms. Our results indicate that filamentous actinomycetes in the soils have higher sensitivity to Cs than planktonic bacteria, and several strains of filamentous actinomycetes have a high Cs accumulation in the presence of 5 mM Cs

    17. Accumulation of radiocesium in wild mushrooms collected from a Japanese forest and cesium uptake by microorganisms isolated from the mushroom-growing soils

      Kuwahara, Chikako [Chemistry Division, Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Chigasaki-shi, Kanagawa 253-0087 (Japan)]. E-mail: chika_kuwahara.u79v@pref.kanagawa.jp; Fukumoto, Atsushi [Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Ohsone, Ayako [Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Furuya, Nobutaka [Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Shibata, Hisashi [Yamanashi Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Masuho-cho, Yamanashi 400-0515 (Japan); Sugiyama, Hideo [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8638 (Japan); Kato, Fumio [Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan)

      2005-06-01

      Mushrooms and soils samples collected from a sub-alpine forest of Mt. Fuji in Japan were measured for {sup 137}Cs and stable Cs. The ranges of {sup 137}Cs specific activities and stable Cs concentrations in the mushrooms were 291-7950 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight and 4.69-58.1 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight, respectively. Both {sup 137}Cs specific activities and stable Cs concentrations in the mushrooms were higher than those in common agricultural plants. The {sup 137}Cs specific activities and stable Cs concentrations in the soils were 3.18-149 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight and 0.618-2.18 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight, respectively. The appearance frequencies of filamentous actinomycetes and planktonic bacteria from the soils decreased according to increasing Cs contents in the medium. No relationship was observed between the appearance frequencies of those and the stable Cs concentrations in the soils. The filamentous actinomycetes from any soil sample could not grow in the presence of 25 mM Cs, although the planktonic bacteria from the soil samples could grow with up to 50 mM Cs in YM agar. In addition, the planktonic bacteria from approximately 70% of the soil samples could grow even in the presence of 100 mM Cs. Filamentous actinomycetes were more sensitive to Cs than planktonic bacteria. In in vitro experiments, Cs uptake by these strains of filamentous actinomycetes and planktonic bacteria was high in the presence of 5 mM CsCl and the strains accumulated Cs, the same as in mushrooms. Our results indicate that filamentous actinomycetes in the soils have higher sensitivity to Cs than planktonic bacteria, and several strains of filamentous actinomycetes have a high Cs accumulation in the presence of 5 mM Cs.

    18. Ensaio para detectar bergapteno na casca e no caule de Brosimum gaudichaudii Trec através da produção de melanina em actinomicetos

      M.L.P. Neves

      2002-01-01

      Full Text Available Plant extracts containing furocoumarins compounds were identified by using melanin producer strains of Nocardiopis sp (DAUFPE-361 and non producer strains of Streptomyces sp (DAUFPE-87. Ethanol, methanol and acetone extracted compounds from conduru (Brosimum gaudichaudii bark and stem were evaporated and added to tubes containing ISP7 medium (tyrosine agar. This medium was inoculated with spore suspension (10(6-10(7 CFU prepared from the different actinomycetes strains. The ethanol fraction (pH 9.0 from both bark and stem induced pigmentation in actinomycetes melanin non producer strains and increased the pigmentation in producer strains indicating presence of furocoumarins in the correspondent plant extracts.

    19. Primary Screeningof Substanceswith Potential Antitumor Activity

      А.Kh. Khasenova; Sh.Zh.Daurenbekova

      2015-01-01

      A primary screening of antitumor substances was carried out among strains of actinomycetes isolated from the samples of natural substrates of arid zones in the Ile-Balkhash region. Antitumor properties of actinomycetes against Staphylococcus aureus209Р(S. aureus 209P) and its mutants UF-2 and UF-3 were studied using the agar block technique. The diameter of growth inhibition zone was measured after incubation of the test microorganisms at a temperature of 37 °C for 24 hours. 16...

    20. Antileishmanial effect of silver nanoparticles and their enhanced antiparasitic activity under ultraviolet light.

      Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Bagirova, Malahat; Ustundag, Cem B; Kaya, Cengiz; Kaya, Figen; Rafailovich, Miriam

      2011-01-01

      Leishmaniasis is a protozoan vector-borne disease and is one of the biggest health problems of the world. Antileishmanial drugs have disadvantages such as toxicity and the recent development of resistance. One of the best-known mechanisms of the antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) is the production of reactive oxygen species to which Leishmania parasites are very sensitive. So far no information about the effects of Ag-NPs on Leishmania tropica parasites, the causative agent of leishmaniasis, exists in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ag-NPs on biological parameters of L. tropica such as morphology, metabolic activity, proliferation, infectivity, and survival in host cells, in vitro. Consequently, parasite morphology and infectivity were impaired in comparison with the control. Also, enhanced effects of Ag-NPs were demonstrated on the morphology and infectivity of parasites under ultraviolet (UV) light. Ag-NPs demonstrated significant antileishmanial effects by inhibiting the proliferation and metabolic activity of promastigotes by 1.5- to threefold, respectively, in the dark, and 2- to 6.5-fold, respectively, under UV light. Of note, Ag-NPs inhibited the survival of amastigotes in host cells, and this effect was more significant in the presence of UV light. Thus, for the first time the antileishmanial effects of Ag-NPs on L. tropica parasites were demonstrated along with the enhanced antimicrobial activity of Ag-NPs under UV light. Determination of the antileishmanial effects of Ag-NPs is very important for the further development of new compounds containing nanoparticles in leishmaniasis treatment. PMID:22114501

    1. Antileishmanial effect of silver nanoparticles and their enhanced antiparasitic activity under ultraviolet light

      Allahverdiyev AM

      2011-11-01

      Full Text Available Adil M Allahverdiyev1, Emrah Sefik Abamor1, Malahat Bagirova1, Cem B Ustundag2, Cengiz Kaya2, Figen Kaya2, Miriam Rafailovich3 1Department of Bioengineering; 2Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Esenler, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA Abstract: Leishmaniasis is a protozoan vector-borne disease and is one of the biggest health problems of the world. Antileishmanial drugs have disadvantages such as toxicity and the recent development of resistance. One of the best-known mechanisms of the antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs is the production of reactive oxygen species to which Leishmania parasites are very sensitive. So far no information about the effects of Ag-NPs on Leishmania tropica parasites, the causative agent of leishmaniasis, exists in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ag-NPs on biological parameters of L. tropica such as morphology, metabolic activity, proliferation, infectivity, and survival in host cells, in vitro. Consequently, parasite morphology and infectivity were impaired in comparison with the control. Also, enhanced effects of Ag-NPs were demonstrated on the morphology and infectivity of parasites under ultraviolet (UV light. Ag-NPs demonstrated significant antileishmanial effects by inhibiting the proliferation and metabolic activity of promastigotes by 1.5- to threefold, respectively, in the dark, and 2- to 6.5-fold, respectively, under UV light. Of note, Ag-NPs inhibited the survival of amastigotes in host cells, and this effect was more significant in the presence of UV light. Thus, for the first time the antileishmanial effects of Ag-NPs on L. tropica parasites were demonstrated along with the enhanced antimicrobial activity of Ag-NPs under UV light. Determination of the antileishmanial effects of Ag-NPs is very important for the further

    2. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations of Leishmania Strains Isolated from Patients with Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniases in Fars Province, South of Iran

      Sarkari, Bahador; Ahmadpour, Niloofar Bavarsad; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein; Mirjalali, Hamed; Akhoundi, Mohammad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Hajjaran, Homa

      2016-01-01

      Background: Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases are present in Fars Province in the south of Iran. The current study aimed to evaluate the inter- and intragenic diversities of Leishmania species isolated from patients with leishmaniasis in Fars Province, using PCR-based analyses and DNA sequencing of the N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase (nagt) gene. Methods: Clinical samples were taken from the skin lesions of 120 individuals with clinical suspicion of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) referred to the major health centers of Shiraz. Along with microscopic examination, a part of each sample was used for in vitro cultivation. DNA was extracted from the cultured parasites and the nagt gene was PCR-amplified. For RFLP analysis, the PCR product of the nagt gene was digested with the Acc1 restriction enzyme. Moreover, the PCR products of 23 isolates were sequenced and analyzed, using MEGA5. Results: From the 120 patients with clinical suspicion of CL, 110 (91.7%) cases were found to be positive by direct microscopy while 77 (64.1%) of the cultures were positive. Digestion of the PCR product with the Acc1 restriction enzyme detected L. major in 57 out of the 77 (74.1%) and L. tropica, in 20 out of the 77 (25.9%) cases with CL. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the Leishmania isolates into 3 main clades, representing L. major, L. infantum, and L. tropica, encompassing 2, 2, and 2 haplotypes, respectively. Within the clades, the L. tropica intraspecies divergence was more pronounced in L. major. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that the causative agent of CL in Fars Province was mainly L. majorz and that there was considerable heterogeneity between the Leishmania species and also within the L. major isolates.

    3. Molecular Diagnosis of Clinical Isolates of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Using ITS1 and KDNA Genes and Genetic Polymorphism of Leishmania in Kashan, Iran

      Hadi Ghasemloo

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a common skin disease caused by leishmania parasite. An accurate diagnosis of parasites species is possible using molecular techniques. This study was carried out to compare internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and kinetoplast deoxyribonucleic acid (KDNA genes for identifying Leishmania species by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, furthermore, genetic diversity of isolates was studied. This research examined 130 patients who were suspected of cutaneous leishmaniasis and referred to Kashan's health centers from 2011-2014. After DNA extraction from serosity, PCR were performed using ITS1 and KDNA primers. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis was diagnosed by the observation of 320 bp band in the ITS1-PCR. The PCR products were digested with restriction enzyme HaeIII and then leishmania species were identified by patterns of enzymatic digestion. The diagnostic criteria of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL in KDNA-PCR were based on the observation of 760 and 650 bp for Leishmaniasis tropica and Leishmaniasis major, respectively. Twelve isolates of leishmania were sequenced and the phylogenetic tree was traced using the results of sequencing by Mega 4 software. Out of 130 suspected patients to CL, 70 (53.8% and 98 (75.4% isolates were positive by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP of ITS1 and KDNA, respectively. Using ITS1 PCR, 60 samples (85.7% and 10 samples (14.3% were identified as L. tropica and L. major, respectively, ITS1-PCR had 25.3% false negative, compare to microscopy. While, microscopy had false negative in 13 cases compare to KDNA-PCR. Due to the lower sensitivity of the PCR-RFLP of ITS1, KDNA-PCR is recommended for diagnosis of CL. The L. tropica and L. major are the causative agents of CL.

    4. ATIBALA: AN OVERVIEW

      S. B. GAIKWAD, G. KRISHNA MOHAN

      2013-09-01

      Full Text Available Abutilon indicum is known as „Atibala‟ in Sanskrit. Literally, „Ati‟ means very and „Bala‟ means powerful, referring to the properties of this plant as very powerful. A. indicum is a hairy herb or under shrub distributed throughout the tropica. In traditional systems of medicine, various plant parts such as roots, leaves, flowers, bark, seeds, and stems have been used as antioxidant, demulcent, laxative, diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiulcer. The present review is therefore an effort to give the detailed survey of literature on its pharamcognosy, phytochemistry as well as traditional and pharmacological uses.

    5. Seed borne mycoflora of castor bean (ricinus communis l.) from pakistan

      Castor bean seeds were analyzed by using ISTA (International seed testing association) for the detection of seed borne mycoflora. Thirty one fungal species belonging to 15 genera were isolated from 12 samples of castor bean seeds collected from different areas of Pakistan. Fusarium solani, Alternaria alternata, Cephaliophora tropica were most predominant fungal species isolated while the saprophytic fungi like A. niger, A. flavus were common in all samples of castor bean seed tested. Blotter method was considered to be better technique which gave maximum number of fungi followed by agar plate and deep freezing methods. (author)

    6. Leishmaniasis isoleret til larynx som årsag til kronisk laryngitis

      Kaltoft, Mikkel; Munch-Petersen, Helga Richert; Møller, Henrik

      2010-01-01

      Mucosal leishmaniasis is uncommon outside Central and South America, where it is commonly caused by Leishmania (L.) braziliensis. We present a case of isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis detected in a 78-year-old male, who presented with chronic hoarseness. Histologic examination of biopsies taken...... from the larynx showed L. amastigotes. An L.-specific indirect fluorescent antibody test was positive. Polymerase chain reaction showed infection with L. donovani, L. infantum or L. tropica, species which do not normally cause isolated mucosal infection. This is the first reported case from Scandinavia....

    7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04954-1 [Dicty_cDB

      Full Text Available h DNA sequence *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS... 46 4e-04 4 ( CU695344 ) Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis....068 5 ( CL049135 ) CH216-69G3_Sp6.1 CH216 Xenopus (Silurana) tropica... 46 0.068 2 ( BX936310 ) Zebrafish D...208 ) Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group) genomic DN... 44 0.089 2 ( FP074878 ) Zebrafish DNA sequence **...4954-1Q.Seq.d (579 letters) Database: CSM 6905 sequences; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequences producing significa.....................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits)

    8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05712-1 [Dicty_cDB

      Full Text Available .. 46 2.1 1 ( BX248130 ) Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone CH211-236E5 in ... 46 2.1 1 ( AJ621744 ) Gallus g...id:none) Lateolabrax japonicus vesicle-asso... 42 0.029 BC061396_1( BC061396 |pid:none) Xenopus tropica...rs) Database: CSM 6905 sequences; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequences producing significa...................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bi...NZB_UP_064_D11_14MAY2004_089 Brassica napus BNZB... 46 2.1 1 ( DR869616 ) JGI_CABG10702.fwd NIH_XGC_tropSto1

    9. [A case of thoracic actinomycosis].

      Denisova, O A; Cherniavskaia, G M; Beloborodova, É I; Topol'nitskiĭ, E B; Iakimenko, Iu V; Chernogoriuk, G É; Beloborodova, E V; Strezh, Iu A; Vil'danova, L R

      2014-01-01

      A case of thoracic actinomycosis manifest as round shadow in the lung is described. Diagnosis was based on the presence of actinomycetes in a transthoracic lung biopsy sample. Treatment for 3 months resulted in recovery. No relapse was documented during 1 year follow-up period. PMID:25265662

    10. The role of soil microorganisms in the process of stabilization and anti-degradation in arid ecosystems

      Layskhanov Sh.U.

      2015-01-01

      In the article the main microorganisms (actinomycetes, microscopical fungi, spore forming bacteria or bacilli, azotobacters, nitrifiers and denitrifiers, cyanobacteria) living in the soil of desert area and their role in ecosystem are described. Their functions in anti-degradation processes as formation of microenvironments in resources islands and formation of soil crust are identified.

    11. Systems Biology Approaches to Understand Natural Products Biosynthesis

      Licona-Cassani, Cuauhtemoc; Cruz-Morales, Pablo; Manteca, Angel; Barona-Gomez, Francisco; Nielsen, Lars K.; Marcellin, Esteban

      2015-01-01

      Actinomycetes populate soils and aquatic sediments that impose biotic and abiotic challenges for their survival. As a result, actinomycetes metabolism and genomes have evolved to produce an overwhelming diversity of specialized molecules. Polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, post-translationally modified peptides, lactams, and terpenes are well-known bioactive natural products with enormous industrial potential. Accessing such biological diversity has proven difficult due to the complex regulation of cellular metabolism in actinomycetes and to the sparse knowledge of their physiology. The past decade, however, has seen the development of omics technologies that have significantly contributed to our better understanding of their biology. Key observations have contributed toward a shift in the exploitation of actinomycete’s biology, such as using their full genomic potential, activating entire pathways through key metabolic elicitors and pathway engineering to improve biosynthesis. Here, we review recent efforts devoted to achieving enhanced discovery, activation, and manipulation of natural product biosynthetic pathways in model actinomycetes using genome-scale biological datasets. PMID:26697425

    12. Radionuclides of foods in Japan and uptake of radio/stable elements by terrestrial food, microorganism

      According to our recent investigation from 2000 to 2003, radiocesium concentrations of foods in Japan imported from various foreign countries were low levels (137Cs concentrations. And also, we obtained the data that wild mushrooms collected from four points of Japanese forests in 2002 had been still contaminated by 137Cs (137Cs to mushrooms is both a direct path way from soil and an indirect path way from the cells of soil microorganisms. We performed the culture experiments of the saprophytic edible mushroom (Pleurotus otsreatus) mycelia and one of the representative soil microorganisms isolated from wild mushroom substrata, using several stable elements. On the isolation of soil microorganisms from mushroom substrata, the appearance frequencies of planktonic bacteria and filamentous actinomycetes were affected by pH of isolation medium. Cs tolerance of the planktonic bacteria and the filamentous actinomycetes showed considerable difference; as far as tested 13 soil samples, planktonic bacteria being able to grow in the presence of 50 mM CsCl were present in all the samples at a higher density but no filamentous actinomycetes could grow in the presence of 50 mM. Accumulation of Cs in filamentous actinomycetes (Streptomyces sp. K202) were two to eight times higher than those in bacteria when they were incubated in the presence of 5 mM CsCl. (author)

    13. Selective Isolation and Rapid Identification of Members of the Genus Micromonospora▿ †

      Qiu, Danheng; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

      2008-01-01

      Improved methods for selective isolation of diverse actinomycetes of the genus Micromonospora and a genus-specific nested PCR for rapid identification of putative Micromonospora isolates were developed. The robustness of both the isolation and the identification approach was underpinned by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    14. Vanillin Catabolism in Rhodococcus jostii RHA1

      Chen, Hao-Ping; Chow, Mindy; Liu, Chi-Chun; Lau, Alice; Liu, Jie; Eltis, Lindsay D.

      2012-01-01

      Genes encoding vanillin dehydrogenase (vdh) and vanillate O-demethylase (vanAB) were identified in Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 using gene disruption and enzyme activities. During growth on vanillin or vanillate, vanA was highly upregulated while vdh was not. This study contributes to our understanding of lignin degradation by RHA1 and other actinomycetes.

    15. Contents of heavy metals and micro-flora in some soils of Mt. Stara Planina

      Belanović Snežana; Knežević Milan; Miličić Bogić M.; Đorović Miroljub

      2004-01-01

      This paper presents the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Pb) under forest and grass cover (pasture) in studied soils of Mt. Stara Planina, locality Javor. Microbiological analysis includes the total contents of microorganisms, actinomycetes and fungi, as well as the content of physiological groups of microorganisms important for the decomposition and transformation of organic matter.

    16. Macrolide resistance of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis comlex

      Buriánková, Karolína; Doucet-Populaire, F.; Weiser, Jaroslav; Dorson, O.; Gondran, A.

      Munster, 2003, s. 50. [Biology streptomycetes and related actinomycetes. Munster (DE), 27.02.2003-03.03.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/03/1014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : macrolide * mycobacterium * tuberculosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

    17. Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain BMG5.12, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from Tunisian Soils.

      Nouioui, Imen; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Cantor, Michael N; Chen, Amy; Detter, J Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Goodwin, Lynne; Gtari, Maher; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Hua, Susan Xinyu; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Mikhailova, Natalia; Nordberg, Henrik P; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Sen, Arnab; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Wei, Chia-Lin; Woyke, Tanja; Tisa, Louis S

      2013-01-01

      Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain BMG5.12, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from Tunisian soils with the ability to infect Elaeagnus angustifolia and Myrica gale. PMID:23846272

    18. Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain CcI6, a Salt-Tolerant Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodule of Casuarina cunninghamiana.

      Mansour, Samira R; Oshone, Rediet; Hurst, Sheldon G; Morris, Krystalynne; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S

      2014-01-01

      Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a 5.57-Mbp draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain CcI6, a salt-tolerant nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Casurina cunninghamiana grown in Egyptian soils. PMID:24435877

    19. Draft genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida.

      Sen, Arnab; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Deshpande, Shweta; Detter, Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Ghodbhane-Gtari, Faten; Goodwin, Lynne; Gtari, Maher; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Land, Miriam L; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Nouioui, Imen; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Santos, Catarina L; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Tavares, Fernando; Teshima, Hazuki; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Wishart, Jessie; Tisa, Louis S

      2013-01-01

      Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida. PMID:23516220

    20. Draft Genome sequence of Frankia sp. Strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida

      Sen, Arnab [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Beauchemin, Nicholas [University of New Hampshire; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Furnholm, Teal [University of New Hampshire; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten [University of New Hampshire; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gtari, Maher [University of New Hampshire; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nouioui, Imen [University of Tunis-El Manar, Tunisia; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Santos, Catarina [Instiuto Celular e Aplicada, Portugal; Sur, Saubashya [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tavares, Fernando [Instiuto Celular e Aplicada, Portugal; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thakur, Subarna [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Wall, Luis [University of Quilmes, Argentina; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wishart, Jessie [University of New Hampshire; Tisa, Louis S. [University of New Hampshire

      2013-01-01

      Members of actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. stain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida.