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Sample records for actinomycete acrocarpospora sp

  1. A New Degraded Sesquiterpene from Marine Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. 0616208

    Xiu Chao XIE; Wen Li MEI; You Xing ZHAO; Kui HONG; Hao Fu DAI

    2006-01-01

    A new degraded sesquiterpene was isolated from the marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. 0616208. Its structure was elucidated as (1α, 4aα, 5α, 7β, 8aβ)-5, 8a-dimethyl-decahydrona-phthalene-1, 4a, 7-triol on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  2. Functional Gene-Guided Discovery of Type II Polyketides from Culturable Actinomycetes Associated with Soft Coral Scleronephthya sp

    Sun, Wei; Peng, Chongsheng; Zhao, Yunyu; Li, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Compared with the actinomycetes in stone corals, the phylogenetic diversity of soft coral-associated culturable actinomycetes is essentially unexplored. Meanwhile, the knowledge of the natural products from coral-associated actinomycetes is very limited. In this study, thirty-two strains were isolated from the tissue of the soft coral Scleronephthya sp. in the East China Sea, which were grouped into eight genera by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis: Micromonospora, Gordonia, Mycobacterium, Nocar...

  3. Glucose metabolism in the antibiotic producing actinomycete Nonomuraea sp ATCC 39727

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Bruheim, Per; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, producer of the glycopeptide A40926 that is used as precursor for the novel antibiotic dalbavancin, has an unusual carbon metabolism. Glucose is primarily metabolized via the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, although the energetically more favorable Embde...

  4. SELEKSI DAN PEMANFAATAN ACTINOMYCETES SEBAGAI MIKROBA ANTAGONIS YANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN TERHADAP Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense SECARA IN VITRO

    I MADE SUDARMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 119 different actinomycete isolate were recovered from banana crop habitats with and without Fusarium wilt disease symptom. These were than assessed for their antagonist ability against Fusarium oxysporum £sp. cubense (Foe in vitro. Results indicated that four of all actinomycete isolate active against Foe. The four of actinomycete isolates were Streptomyces sp. l (AAo4, Streptomyces sp.2 (AAo32 , Streptomyces sp.3 (AAo33 and Streptomyces sp. 4 (AAo35. It was can inhibit the Foe mycelium growth, 79,63%, 72,22%, 78,89% and 72,22% respectively. After tested with the 3 times replication, the four Streptomyces spp. isolate effective to control the Foe that attack Bali banana cultivars, such as Susu, Saba, Raja and Ketip.

  5. Azalomycin F4a 2-ethylpentyl ester, a new macrocyclic lactone, from mangrove actinomycete Streptomyces sp.211726

    Gan Jun Yuan; Kui Hong; Hai Peng Lin; Jia Li

    2010-01-01

    Azalomycin F4a 2-ethylpentyl ester,a new 36-membered macrocyclic lactone antibiotic,was isolated from mangrove actinomycete Streptomyces sp.211726.Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.The compound showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity and moderate cytotoxicity against human colon tumor cell HCT-116.

  6. Nocardia kroppenstedtii sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a lung transplant patient with a pulmonary infection.

    Jones, Amanda L

    2014-03-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain N1286(T), isolated from a lung transplant patient with a pulmonary infection, was provisionally assigned to the genus Nocardia. The strain had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties typical of members of the genus Nocardia and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Nocardia 16S rRNA gene tree. Isolate N1286(T) was most closely related to Nocardia farcinica DSM 43665(T) (99.8% gene sequence similarity) but could be distinguished from the latter by the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness. These strains were also distinguishable on the basis of a broad range of phenotypic properties. It is concluded that strain N1286(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nocardia for which the name Nocardia kroppenstedtii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is N1286(T) ( = DSM 45810(T) = NCTC 13617(T)).

  7. [Secondary metabolites from a deep-sea-derived actinomycete Micrococcus sp. R21].

    Peng, Kun; Su, Rui-qiang; Zhang, Gai-yun; Cheng, Xuan-xuan; Yang, Quan; Liu, Yong-hong; Yang, Xian-wen

    2015-06-01

    To investigate cytotoxic secondary metabolites of Micrococcus sp. R21, an actinomycete isolated from a deep-sea sediment (-6 310 m; 142 degrees 19. 9' E, 10 degrees 54. 6' N) of the Western Pacific Ocean, column chromatography was introduced over silica gel, ODS, and Sephadex LH-20. As a result, eight compounds were obtained. By mainly detailed analysis of the NMR data, their structures were elucidated as cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-leu) (1), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Gly) (2), cyclo( L-Pro-L-Ala) (3), cyclo( D-Pro-L-Leu) (4), N-β-acetyltryptamine (5), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (6), and phenylacetic acid (7). Compound 1 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against RAW264. 7 cells with IC50 value of 9.1 μmol x L(-1). PMID:26591527

  8. Nocardia pigrifrangens sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a contaminated agar plate.

    Wang, Liming; Zhang, Yamei; Huang, Ying; Maldonado, Luis A; Liu, Zhiheng; Goodfellow, Michael

    2004-09-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic position of an actinomycete strain isolated from a contaminated agar plate. The strain, designated 7031T, had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of the genus Nocardia. An almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence determined for the strain was aligned with available sequences for nocardiae, and phylogenetic trees were inferred using three tree-generating algorithms. Strain 7031T clustered with the type strains of Nocardia carnea and Nocardia flavorosea, showing low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to these species (97.2 and 97.5 %, respectively). The strain was also distinguished from the closest species by a range of phenotypic properties. It is proposed that the strain be recognized as a novel species of Nocardia, Nocardia pigrifrangens sp. nov., the type strain of which is 7031T (= AS 4.1808T = JCM 11884T). PMID:15388728

  9. Actinorugispora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from Daucus carota.

    Liu, Min-Jiao; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Xiong, Zhi; Park, Dong-Jin; Hozzein, Wael N; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-08-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated YIM 690008T, was isolated from Daucus carota collected from South Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The strain grew well on most media tested and no diffusible pigment was produced. The aerial mycelium formed wrinkled single spores and short spore chains, some of which were branched. The whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, mannose, ribose, galactose and rhamnose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H4), MK-10(H6), MK-10(H8) and MK-10(H2). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, some unknown phospholipids, glycolipids and polar lipids. The major fatty acids were i-C16 : 0, ai-C17 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolate belongs to the family Nocardiopsaceae. However, based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, it was concluded that strain YIM 690008T represents a novel genus and novel species of the family Nocardiopsaceae, for which the name Actinorugispora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain YIM 690008T = DSM 46770T = JCM 30099T = KCTC 29480T) is proposed. PMID:25948617

  10. Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Sun, Pengyu; Liu, Chongxi; Cao, Tingting; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhao, Shanshan; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-06-01

    A novel single spore-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Gz5(T), was isolated from a soil sample from Gama, Chad. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of this strain. The diamino acid present in the cell wall is meso-diaminopimelic acid. Glucose, mannose and madurose occur in whole cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified glycolipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). The predominant cellular fatty acids were found to be C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and C18:0 10-methyl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) belongs to the genus Actinomadura and is closely related to Actinomadura oligospora JCM 10648(T) (ATCC 43269(T); 98.3 % similarity). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness and some different phenotypic characteristics allowed the strain to be distinguished from its close relatives. Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) represents a novel species of the genus of Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz5(T) (= CGMCC 4.7301(T) = DSM 100815(T)). PMID:27010208

  11. Biogenic gold nanotriangles from Saccharomonospora sp., an endophytic actinomycetes of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Verma, Vijay C.; Anand, Swechha; Ulrichs, Christian; Singh, Santosh K.

    2013-04-01

    Microbial biofabrication is emerging as eco-friendly, simpler, and reproducible alternative to chemical synthesis of metals and semiconductor nanoparticles, allowing generation of rare geometrical forms such as nanotriangles and nanoprisms. Highly confined nanostructures like triangles/prisms are interesting class of nanoparticles due to their unique optical properties exploitable in biomedical diagnostics and biosensors. Here, we report for the first time a single-step biological protocol for the synthesis of gold nanotriangles using extract of endophytic actinomycetes Saccharomonospora sp., isolated from surface sterilized root tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss., when incubated with an aqueous solution of chloroaurate ions (AuCl- 4/1 mM). Thin, flat occasionally prismatic gold nanotriangles were produced when aqueous chloroaurate ions reacted with the cell-free extract as well as with the biomass of endophytic Saccharomonospora. It was evidenced from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis that proteins of 42 and 50 kD were involved in biosynthesis as well as in stabilization of the nanoparticles. The particle growth process was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy, and the morphological characterization was carried out by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy together with X-ray powder diffractions. Although the exact mechanism for this shape-oriented synthesis is not clear so far, the possibility of achieving nanoparticle shape control in a microbial system is exciting.

  12. Phytoactinopolyspora alkaliphila sp. nov., an alkaliphilic actinomycete isolated from a saline-alkaline soil.

    Zhang, Yong-Guang; Lu, Xin-Hua; Ding, Yan-Bo; Zhou, Xing-Kui; Li, Li; Guo, Jian-Wei; Wang, Hong-Fei; Duan, Yan-Qing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-05-01

    An alkaliphilic, filamentous actinomycete, designated EGI 80629T, was isolated from a soil sample of Xinjiang, north-west China. Strain EGI 80629T grew at pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 9.0-10.0) and in the presence of 0-13.0 % NaCl (optimum 3.0-5.0 %). The isolate formed fragmented substrate mycelia, and aerial hyphae with short spore chains with rod-like spores. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the isolate contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, and mannose and rhamnose as diagnostic sugars. The major fatty acids identified were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4), while the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two phosphatidylinositol mannosides, five unknown phospholipids, three unknown phosphoglycolipids, one unknown glycolipid, four unknown polar lipids and one unknown aminophospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 67.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain EGI 80629T clustered with the genus Phytoactinopolyspora. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain EGI 80629T and Phytoactinopolyspora endophytica EGI 60009T was 96.8 %. Based on morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain EGI 80629T represents a novel species of the genus Phytoactinopolyspora, for which the name Phytoactinopolyspora alkaliphila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EGI 80629T ( = CGMCC 4.7225T = KCTC 39701T). PMID:26920762

  13. Diketopiperazine Derivatives from the Marine-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. FXJ7.328

    Weiming Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Five new diketopiperazine derivatives, (3Z,6E-1-N-methyl-3-benzy lidene-6-(2S-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (1, (3Z,6E-1-N-methyl-3-benzylidene-6-(2R-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (2, (3Z,6Z-3- (4-hydroxybenzylidene-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (3, (3Z,6Z-3-((1H-imidazol-5-yl-methylene-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (4, and (3Z,6S-3-benzylidene-6-(2S-but-2-ylpiperazine-2,5-dione (5, were isolated from the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. FXJ7.328. The structures of 1–5 were determined by spectroscopic analysis, CD exciton chirality, the modified Mosher’s, Marfey’s and the C3 Marfey’s methods. Compound 3 showed modest antivirus activity against influenza A (H1N1 virus with an IC50 value of 41.5 ± 4.5 μM. In addition, compound 6 and 7 displayed potent anti-H1N1 activity with IC50 value of 28.9 ± 2.2 and 6.8 ± 1.5 μM, respectively. Due to the lack of corresponding data in the literature, the 13C NMR data of (3Z,6S-3-benzylidene-6-isobutylpiperazine-2,5-dione (6 were also reported here for the first time.

  14. Streptomyces formicae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the head of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

    Bai, Lu; Liu, Chongxi; Guo, Lifeng; Piao, Chenyu; Li, Zhilei; Li, Jiansong; Jia, Feiyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-02-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain 1H-GS9(T), was isolated from the head of a Camponotus japonicus Mayr ant, which were collected from Northeast Agricultural University (Harbin, Heilongjiang, China). Strain 1H-GS9(T) was characterised using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 1H-GS9(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarities to Streptomyces scopuliridis DSM 41917(T) (98.8 %) and Streptomyces mauvecolor JCM 5002(T) (98.6 %). However, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it forms a monophyletic clade with Streptomyces kurssanovii JCM 4388(T) (98.6 %), Streptomyces xantholiticus JCM 4282(T) (98.6 %) and Streptomyces peucetius JCM 9920(T) (98.5 %). Thus, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 1H-GS9(T) and the above-mentioned five strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 1H-GS9(T) could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces formicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-GS9(T) (=CGMCC 4.7277(T) = DSM 100524(T)). PMID:26608172

  15. Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov., a thermophilic actinomycete isolated from soil of a sugar cane field.

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Bin; Pan, Shangli

    2016-05-01

    A novel thermophilic actinomycete, designated strain T3T, was isolated from a soil sample of a sugar cane field. The strain grew at 25-60 °C (optimum 37-50 °C), at pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum 7.0-9.0) and with 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-7 %). The aerial mycelium was white and the vegetative mycelium was colourless to pale yellow. The substrate mycelium fragmented into rod-shaped elements after 4-5 days at 50 °C. The aerial mycelium formed flexuous chains of 5-20 spores per chain; the oval-shaped spores had spiny surfaces and were non-motile. The organism contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars consisted of arabinose, galactose and ribose. The cellular fatty acid profile consisted mainly of anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The quinone system was composed predominantly of MK-9(H4). The phospholipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipids. The DNA G+C content of strain T3T was 71.3 mol%. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of members of the genus Saccharopolyspora. In the 16S rRNA gene tree of Saccharopolyspora it formed a distinct phyletic line and was related most closely to Saccharopolyspora thermophila 216T. However, the phenotypic characteristics of strain T3T were significantly different from those of S. thermophila 216T and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a low level of relatedness (28.6-32.3 %) between them. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain T3T represents a novel species in the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = DSM 46801T = CGMCC 4.7206T). PMID:26882893

  16. Genetic transformation of marine Actinomycete sp. Isolate M048 and expression of a recombinant plasmid carrying the apc gene

    HOU Yanhua; LI Fuchao; QIN Song; WANG Quanfu

    2006-01-01

    Optimal conditions for protoplasts formation of marine Actinomycete sp. isolate M048 were described, dense and disperse mycelia were cultured in SGGP medium, 0.5% glycine, lysozyme exposure (2 mg/cm3, 37 ℃, 40 min), and the concentration of sucrose in protoplast buffer was 0.4 mol/dm3 for keeping the balance of osmotic pressure. Using PEG-mediated protoplasts transformation, the transformation frequency was 89 transformants per microgramme of pIJ702. Meanwhile, an effective transformation procedure was established based on intergeneric conjugation from E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002) using shuttle vectors pPM801, pPM803 and a(ψ)C31-derived integration vector pIJ8600 containing oriT and attP fragments. Transformation frequencies were 5.30×10-4±0.26×10-4, 8.92×10-4±0.19×10-4 and 6.38×10-5±0.41×10-5, respectively. Further, the heterologous expression of the allophycocyanin gene (apc) in the strain M048 was used to demonstrate this transformation system. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis confirmed the expression of recombinant APC (rAPC).

  17. Micromonospora taraxaci sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete isolated from dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.).

    Zhao, Junwei; Guo, Lifeng; He, Hairong; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; Li, Chuang; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2014-10-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-P5(T), was isolated from dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.). Strain NEAU-P5(T) showed closest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Micromonospora chokoriensis 2-19/6(T) (99.5%), and phylogenetically clustered with Micromonospora violae NEAU-zh8(T) (99.3%), M. saelicesensis Lupac 09(T) (99.0%), M. lupini Lupac 14N(T) (98.8%), M. zeae NEAU-gq9(T) (98.4%), M. jinlongensis NEAU-GRX11(T) (98.3%) and M. zamorensis CR38(T) (97.9%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene sequence also indicated that the isolate clustered with the above type strains except M. violae NEAU-zh8(T). The cell-wall peptidoglycan consisted of meso-diaminopimelic acid and glycine. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H2). The phospholipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The major fatty acids were C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and C(17:0). Furthermore, some physiological and biochemical properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from members of closely related species. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-P5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora taraxaci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-P5(T) (=CGMCC 4.7098(T) = DSM 45885(T)). PMID:25082023

  18. Actinopolyspora salinaria sp. nov., a halophilic actinomycete isolated from solar saltern soil.

    Duangmal, Kannika; Suksaard, Paweena; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Mingma, Ratchanee; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Takahashi, Yoko

    2016-04-01

    The taxonomic position of the halophilic actinobacterial strain, HS05-03T, isolated from solar saltern soil, was determined using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the strain showed that it formed a distinct evolutionary lineage in the genus Actinopolyspora. The organism was most closely related to the type strains of the species Actinopolyspora xinjiangensis (98.0 % similarity), Actinopolyspora righensis (97.9 % similarity), Actinopolyspora lacussalsi (97.9 % similarity) and Actinopolyspora erythraea (97.8 % similarity). The whole-organism hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose, galactose and ribose. The predominant menaquinones were found to be MK-9(H4) and MK-10(H4). The acyl type of the peptidoglycan was N-acetyl. The diagnostic phospholipid detected was phosphatidylcholine. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 69.9 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain HS05-03T and the type strains of the most closely related species were below the 70 % threshold. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic data, it is proposed that strain HS05-03T represents a novel species of the genus Actinopolyspora, with the name Actinopolyspora salinaria sp. nov. The type strain is HS05-03T ( = BCC 51286T = NBRC 109078T). PMID:26812900

  19. Streptomonospora tuzyakensis sp. nov., a halophilic actinomycete isolated from saline soil.

    Tatar, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Inan, Kadriye; Cetin, Demet; Belduz, Ali Osman; Sahin, Nevzat

    2016-01-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated strain BN506(T), was isolated from soil collected from Tuz (Salt) Lake, Konya, Turkey, and was characterised to determine its taxonomic position. The isolate was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic properties associated with members of the genus Streptomonospora. The isolate was found to grow optimally at 37 °C and in the presence of 10 % (w/v) NaCl but not in the absence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on an almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that isolate is closely related to members of the genus Streptomonospora and forms a distinct phyletic line in the Streptomonospora phylogenetic tree. Strain BN506(T) is closely related to Streptomonospora halophila YIM 91355(T) (98.1 % sequence similarity). Sequence similarities with other type strains of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 98.0 %. The cell wall of the novel strain was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. Whole cell hydrolysates were found to contain galactose, glucose and ribose. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-10(H8) (57.0 %). The polar lipids detected were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The major fatty acids were found to be anteiso-C17:0, iso-C16:0 and 10 methyl C18:0. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data, strain BN506(T) was identified as a member of a novel species of the genus Streptomonospora, for which the name Streptomonospora tuzyakensis sp. nov. (type strain BN506(T) = DSM 45930(T) = KCTC 29210(T)) is proposed. PMID:26459342

  20. Streptomyces xinjiangensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from Lop Nur region.

    Cheng, Cong; Li, Yu-Qian; Asem, Mipeshwaree Devi; Lu, Chun-Yan; Shi, Xiao-Han; Chu, Xiao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Di An, Deng-; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-10-01

    A novel actinobacterial strain, designated LPA192(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Lop Nur, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China. A polyphasic approach was used to investigate the taxonomic position of strain LPA192(T). The isolate showed morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. Peptidoglycan was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H4). Polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. Major cellular fatty acids consist of C16:0, anteiso-C15:0 and C18:1 ω9c. The sugar in whole-cell hydrolysates was mannose. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain LPA192(T) is closely related to Streptomyces tanashiensis LMG 20274(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces gulbargensis DAS131(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces nashvillensis NBRC 13064(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces roseolus NBRC 12816(T) (99.2 %) and Streptomyces filamentosus NBRC 12767(T) (99.1 %) while showing below 98.5 % sequencing similarities with other validly published Streptomyces species. However, DNA-DNA relatedness values between LPA192(T) and the closely related type strains were below 40 %, which are much lower than 70 % threshold value for species delineation. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain LPA192(T) was 69.3 mol %. Based on the differences in genotypic and phenotypic characteristics from the closely related strains, strain LPA192(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPA192(T) (=KCTC 39601(T) = CGMCC 4.7288(T)). PMID:27209413

  1. Efecto rizosférico de Parmelia sp y Solanum lixioides sobre actinomicetos y ensayos de antibiosis in vitro Rhizozpheric effect of Parmelia sp and Solanum lixioides on actinomycetes and their in vitro antimicrobial activity

    Zárate Lyda

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available

    La presencia de actinomicetos en muestras de suelo alrededor de raíces y rizoides de Parmelia sp y de Solanum lixioides fue investigado. 5e evaluó el efecto rizosférico del liquen Parmelia sp sobre poblaciones de actinomicetos con un R/5 ~ 2.5, mientras el radio R/5 resultante en S.lixioides fue <1. En los ensayos de antibiosis los mejores resultados se obtuvieron al modificar el medio de cultivo, o medio mínimo de Hopwood (1967, con relación a medio estándar. Se determinó el espectro de actividad antibiótica de 9 aislamientos, sobre organismos Gram positivos: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis y Gram negativos: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Los aislamientos A-2, A-4, A-5 YA-6 presentaron un amplio espectro de actividad antimicrobiana sobre E. coli, B. subtilis y K. pneumoniae. A-11, presentó una antibiosis selectiva y en grado alto sobre P. aeruginosa.

    The occurrence of actinomycetes from rhizospheric soils of Parmelia sp and Solanum lixioides was investigated. The rhizospheric effect from Parmelia sp (Lichen upon actinomycetes isolates was evaluated and was (R/5 ~ 2.5, while by the solanaceae the resultant ratio R/5 was <1. For the antibiosis assays the better results were obtained by moditying the culture médium (Hopwood minimun medium, 1967. The antimicrobial activity from nine isolates against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined. A-2, A-4, A-S and A-6 isolates showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, while A-'Il showed a selective antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa.

  2. Description of Kibdelosporangium banguiense sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil of the forest of Pama, on the plateau of Bangui, Central African Republic.

    Pascual, Javier; González, Ignacio; Estévez, Mar; Benito, Patricia; Trujillo, Martha E; Genilloud, Olga

    2016-05-01

    A novel actinomycete strain F-240,109(T) from the MEDINA collection was isolated from a soil sample collected in the forest of Pama, on the plateau of Bangui, Central African Republic. The strain was identified according to its 16S rRNA gene sequence as a new member of the genus Kibdelosporangium, being closely related to Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. aridum (98.6 % sequence similarity), Kibledosporangium phytohabitans (98.3 %), Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. largum (97.7 %), Kibdelosporangium philippinense (97.6 %) and Kibledosporangium lantanae (96.9 %). In order to resolve its precise taxonomic status, the strain was characterised through a polyphasic approach. The strain is a Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile and catalase-positive actinomycete characterised by formation of extensively branched substrate mycelia and sparse brownish grey aerial mycelia with sporangium-like globular structures. The chemotaxonomic characterisation of strain F-240,109(T) corroborated its affiliation into the genus Kibdelosporangium. The peptidoglycan contains meso-diaminopimelic acid; the major menaquinone is MK-9(H4); the phospholipid profile contains high amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid; and the predominant cellular fatty acid methyl esters are iso-C16:0, iso-C14:0, iso-C15:0 and 2OH iso-C16:0. However, some key phenotypic differences regarding to its close relatives and DNA-DNA hybridization values indicate that strain F-240,109(T) represents a novel Kibdelosporangium species, for which the name Kibdelosporangium banguiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain F-240,109(T) (=DSM 46670(T), =LMG 28181(T)). PMID:26936255

  3. Microbispora sp. LGMB259 endophytic actinomycete isolated from Vochysia divergens (Pantanal, Brazil) producing β-carbolines and indoles with biological activity.

    Savi, Daiani C; Shaaban, Khaled A; Vargas, Nathalia; Ponomareva, Larissa V; Possiede, Yvelise M; Thorson, Jon S; Glienke, Chirlei; Rohr, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes encompass bacterial groups that are well known for the production of a diverse range of secondary metabolites. Vochysia divergens is a medicinal plant, common in the "Pantanal" region (Brazil) and was focus of many investigations, but never regarding its community of endophytic symbionts. During a screening program, an endophytic strain isolated from the V. divergens, was investigated for its potential to show biological activity. The strain was characterized as Microbispora sp. LGMB259 by spore morphology and molecular analyze using nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Strain LGMB259 was cultivated in R5A medium producing metabolites with significant antibacterial activity. The strain produced 4 chemically related β-carbolines, and 3 Indoles. Compound 1-vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid displayed potent activity against the Gram-positive bacterial strains Micrococcus luteus NRRL B-2618 and Kocuria rosea B-1106, and was highly active against two human cancer cell lines, namely the prostate cancer cell line PC3 and the non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, with IC50 values of 9.45 and 24.67 µM, respectively. 1-Vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid also showed moderate activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC204508, as well as the phytopathogenic fungi Phyllosticta citricarpa LGMB06 and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides FDC83. PMID:25385358

  4. Construction of expression vectors for metabolic engineering of the vanillin-producing actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    Fleige, Christian; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 is able to synthesize the important flavoring agent vanillin from cheap natural substrates. The bacterium is therefore of great interest for the industry and used for the fermentative production of vanillin. In order to improve the production of natural vanillin with Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116, the strain has been genetically engineered to optimize the metabolic flux towards the desired product. Extensive metabolic engineering was hitherto hampered, due to the lack of genetic tools like functional promoters and expression vectors. In this study, we report the establishment of a plasmid-based gene expression system for Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 that allows a further manipulation of the genotype. Four new Escherichia coli-Amycolatopsis shuttle vectors harboring different promoter elements were constructed, and the functionality of these regulatory elements was proven by the expression of the reporter gene gusA, encoding a β-glucuronidase. Glucuronidase activity was detected in all plasmid-harboring strains, and remarkable differences in the expression strength of the reporter gene depending on the used promoter were observed. The new expression vectors will promote the further genetic engineering of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 to get insight into the metabolic network and to improve the strain for a more efficient industrial use. PMID:24743982

  5. Induced production of cytochalasans in co-culture of marine fungus Aspergillus flavipes and actinomycete Streptomyces sp.

    Yu, Liyan; Ding, Wanjing; Ma, Zhongjun

    2016-08-01

    Abstarct Secondary metabolites profiles of co-culture of Aspergillus flavipes and Streptomyces sp. that isolated from the same habitat showed an induced production of a series of cytochalasans (five aspochalasins and rosellichalasin, determined by MS and NMR analysis). These cytochalasans were found to be produced by A. flavipes in LC-MS comparison analysis, and biological activity assays revealed that they were able to cause cytotoxic effects against Streptomyces sp. within a wide range of concentrations without causing any effect to the producer A. flavipes, which favoured the producer in competition. Further induction mechanism study applying membrane-separated culture and morphology study with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that the successful induction of active secondary metabolites required microbial physical contact. PMID:26783945

  6. Cyclic dipeptides in actinomycete Brevibacterium sp.associated with sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka: isolation and identification%仿刺参共附生放线菌Brevibacterium sp.中的环二肽成分的分离和鉴定

    宫俊; 汤华; 耿婉丽; 刘宝姝; 孙鹏; 李玲; 李志勇; 张文

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the secondary metabolites of actinomycete Brevibacterium sp. associated with the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka. Methods The ethyl acetate extract of the actinomycete was purified by repeated column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to obtain pure compounds; and the compound structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis (nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR; mass spectrometry, MS) and the results were compared with the previously reported data. Results Seven compounds were isolated: cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) (1), cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Met) (2), cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Tyr) (3), cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Val) (4), cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Pro) (5), cyclo-(L-Val-Gly) (6), and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu) (7). Conclusion This is the first report on the secondary metabolites of microorganisms associated with the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka, and all the seven compounds have been reported from the actinomycete Brevibacterium sp. for the first time.%目的 对仿刺参共附生放线菌Brevibacterium sp.的次生代谢产物进行研究.方法 运用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱色谱、高效液相色谱(HPLC)等现代色谱技术对放线菌的乙酸乙酯提取物进行分离纯化,在核磁共振(NMR)、质谱(MS)等现代波谱技术及与文献比对的基础上对其结构进行鉴定.结果 共分离得到7个环二肽类化合物,分别鉴定为:环-(L-脯氨酸-L-苯丙氨酸)(1)、环-(L-脯氨酸-L-甲硫氨酸)(2)、环-(L-脯氨酸-L-酪氨酸)(3)、环-(L-脯氨酸-L-缬氨酸)(4)、环-(L-脯氨酸-L-脯氨酸)(5)、环(L-缬氨酸-甘氨酸)(6)、环-(L-脯氨酸-L-亮氨酸)(7).结论 本研究是对仿刺参共附生微生物次生代谢产物研究的首次报道,这7个化合物均为首次从放线菌Brevibacterium sp.中分离得到.

  7. Identification of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in an antibiotic-producing actinomycete species

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Sosio, M.; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    the primary metabolic pathways of the poorly characterized antibiotic-producing actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727. Surprisingly, it was found that Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39272 predominantly metabolizes glucose via the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. This represents the first time that the ED pathway...... has been recognized as the main catabolic pathway in an actinomycete. The Nonomuraea genes encoding the key enzymes of the ED pathway were subsequently identified, sequenced and functionally described....

  8. Fermentative production of carotenoids from marine actinomycetes

    B Ashokkumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In marine actinomycetes, carotenoid production occurs in constitutive, light-dependent or cryptic manner. The present work deals with the fermentative production of carotenoids from marine actinomycetes."nMaterials and Methods: Marine actinomycetes namely Streptomyces strain AQBMM35 was isolated from the marine sponge Mycale mytilorum collected from South West coast of India using ISP media. The Streptomyces isolates were characterized for their colony characteristics, morphological properties, physiological and biochemical properties and were tentatively identified. Fermentation of the strain under fluorescent white light was carried out for the production of carotenoids. UV spectrum, TLC and HPLC analysis were done for the confirmation of carotenoids."nResults: The characteristics studied strongly suggest that the strain AQBMM35 belongs to the genus Streptomyces sp. It has been found that Streptomyces strain (AQBMM35 fermenting under fluorescent white light produced carotenoids. Spectrophotometric analysis of the carotenoid fraction revealed a peak at 280 nm. TLC analysis of the carotenoid extract showed the presence of phytoene (Rf of 0.81. HPLC confirmed the production of phytoene when compared with standards."nConclusion: The fermenting sponge-associated Streptomyces isolate (AQBMM35 produced carotenoids namely phytoene. If this symbiotic Streptomyces strain, from which secondary metabolite like carotenoids are derived, can be cultured under light, then it can be used for mass production of precursor pigment and it can be used as an antioxidant and also as a food additive.

  9. Targeted genome editing in the rare actinomycete Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 by using the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    Wolf, Timo; Gren, Tetiana; Thieme, Eric; Wibberg, Daniel; Zemke, Till; Pühler, Alfred; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2016-08-10

    The application of genome editing technologies, like CRISPR/Cas9 for industrially relevant microorganisms, is becoming increasingly important. Compared to other methods of genetic engineering the decisive factor is that CRISPR/Cas9 is relatively easy to apply and thus time and effort can be significantly reduced in organisms, which are otherwise genetically difficult to access. Because of its many advantages and opportunities, we adopted the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110, the producer of the diabetes type II drug acarbose. The functionality of genome editing was successfully shown by the scarless and antibiotic marker-free deletion of the gene encoding the tyrosinase MelC, which catalyzes the formation of the dark pigment eumelanin in the wild type strain. The generated ΔmelC2 mutant of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 no longer produces this pigment and therefore the supernatant does not darken. Furthermore, it was shown that the plasmid containing the gene for the Cas9 protein was removed by increasing the temperature due to its temperature-sensitive replication. The precision of the intended mutation was proven and possible off-target effects caused by the genome editing system were ruled out by genome sequencing of several mutants. PMID:27262504

  10. Antibiotics production by an actinomycete isolated from the termite gut.

    Matsui, Toru; Tanaka, Junichi; Namihira, Tomoyuki; Shinzato, Naoya

    2012-12-01

    As well as the search for new antibiotics, a new resource or strains for the known antibiotics is also important. Microbial symbionts in the gut of termites could be regarded as one of the feasible resource for such purpose. In this study, antibiotic-producing actinomycetes were screened from symbionts of the termite gut. 16SrRNA sequence analysis for the 10 isolates revealed that they belong to actinomycetes such as Streptomyces sp., Kitasatospora sp., and Mycobacterium sp. A culture broth from one of the isolate, namely strain CA1, belonging to the genera Streptomyces exhibited antagonistic activity against actinomycetes (Micrococcus spp.), gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus spp.), and yeast (Candida spp.). The structures of 2 compounds isolated from the culture broth of the strain CA1 were identified as those of actinomycin X2 and its analog, D. This study is the first to report that some symbionts of the termite gut are antibiotic-producing actinomycetes, and suggest that the termite gut is a feasible resource for bioprospecting. PMID:22359219

  11. Natural Products from Mangrove Actinomycetes

    Dong-Bo Xu; Wan-Wan Ye; Ying Han; Zi-Xin Deng; Kui Hong

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. The mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for natural product discovery and bioactivity survey. Diverse mangrove actinomycetes as promising and productive sources are worth being explored and uncovered. At the time of writing, we report 73 novel compounds and 49 known compounds isolated from mangrove actinomycetes including alkaloids, benzene derivatives, cyclopentenone derivatives, dilactones, macr...

  12. Bioactive compounds from marine actinomycetes

    Solanki, Renu; Khanna, Monisha; Lal, Rup

    2008-01-01

    Actinomycetes are one of the most efficient groups of secondary metabolite producers and are very important from an industrial point of view. Among its various genera, Streptomyces, Saccharopolyspora, Amycolatopsis, Micromonospora and Actinoplanes are the major producers of commercially important biomolecules. Several species have been isolated and screened from the soil in the past decades. Consequently the chance of isolating a novel actinomycete strain from a terrestrial habitat, which wou...

  13. Draft genome sequences of three chemically rich actinomycetes isolated from Mediterranean sponges

    Horn, Hannes; Cheng, Cheng; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hentschel, Ute; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomic analysis has shown the chemical richness of the sponge-associated actinomycetes Streptomyces sp. SBT349, Nonomureae sp. SBT364, and Nocardiopsis sp. SBT366. The genomes of these actinomycetes were sequenced and the genomic potential for secondary metabolism was evaluated. Their draft genomes have sizes of 8.0, 10, and 5.8Mb having 687, 367, and 179 contigs with a GC content of 71.6, 70.7, and 72.7%, respectively. Moreover, antiSMASH 3.0 predicted 108, 149, and 75 secondary metabol...

  14. A variety of rare actinomycetes in soils

    Actinomycetes are an integral part of a microbic complex of soil. Long time distribution actinomycetes in soils judged by quantity streptomyces, but working out of selective methods of allocation have allowed to reveal actinomycetes of rare sorts Saccharopolyspora, Nocardia etc. in soils to make their ecological characteristics

  15. Bioperspective of actinomycetes isolates from coastal soils: A new source of antimicrobial producers

    Rattanaporn Srivibool

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Forty five soil samples were collected from four coastal islands on the east coast of Thailand: Chang, Hwai, Lao-yanai in Trat Province and Pai Islands in Chonburi Province. On 3 isolating media, Actinomycetes Isolation Agar, Starch Casein Agar and Glucose Asparagine Agar, 495 isolates of actinomycetes were found. Preliminary test to search for antimicrobial activity was done with Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 885, Staphylococus aureus TISTR 517 (ATCC 25923, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa TISTR 781 and Escherichia coli TISTR 887 (ATCC 25922. Fifty-eight actinomycetes were found to be antimicrobial-producing strains. From the morphological determination, cell wall diaminopimelic acid and sugars in whole-cell hydrolysate studies, among the 58 strains, Streptomyces sp. and Actinomadura sp. were the predominant genera. The other antibiotic active strains were Micromonospora sp., Microbispora sp., Nocardia sp., Pseudonocardia sp., Saccharomonospora sp., Streptoalloteichus sp. and Streptoverticillium sp. Most of them could inhibit gram-positive bacteria, especially M. luteus TISTR 884, and 8 strains (4 strains of Actinomadura, 2 strains of Micromonospora, 1 strain of Microbispora, and 1 strain of Streptomyces could inhibit both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

  16. Exploration of Potential Actinomycetes from CIFOR Forest Origin as Antimicrobial, Antifungus, and Producing Extracellular Xylanase

    Sipriyadi Sipriyadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate and explore the actinomycetes of CIFOR forest origin as an antimicrobial and antifungal agent, to produce an extracellular xylanase, and to identify isolates based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Actinomycetes were isolated using Humic-acid Vitamin-B agar (HV media. Actinomycetes colonies that grow on the medium HV was subsequently purified by growing them on yeast malt agar (YMA media, then an antagonistic test of selected bacteria against Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Fusarium oxysporum, and Sclerotium sp was performed. Xylanase activity test was detected by observing a clear zone, followed by identification. Total of 35 isolates of actinomycetes isolated based on their colony morphology characteristics and diverse types of spore chains showed Streptomyces spp. of isolates CFR-06, CFR-15, CFR-17, CFR-18, and CFR-19 were able to inhibit the growth of Bacillus sp.. The highest inhibition zone has a diameter of 10.1 mm (isolate CFR-17. Isolates CFR-01 and CFR-15 were able to inhibit the growth of E. coli with the highest inhibition zone diameter of 5.1 mm (isolate CFR-15. Isolates CFR-29 and CFR-12 were able to inhibit the growth of F. oxysporum while isolate CFR-35 were able to inhibit the growth of Sclerotium sp.. Xylanase activity test showed that isolates CFR-12, CFR-20, CFR-22, CFR-24, CFR-25, CFR-30, CFR-33, CFR-34 have an ability to produce extracellular xylanase enzyme. Actinomycetes isolate (Xyl_22 as a potential xylanase enzyme producer was closely related with Streptomyces drozdowicii by the maximum similarity of 99%.How to CiteSipriyadi, S., Lestari, Y., Wahyudi, A., & Meryandini, A. (2016. Exploration Potential CIFOR Forest actinomycetes origin as Antimicrobial, Anti Fungus and Producing Enzymes Extracellular Xylanase. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1, 94-102.

  17. Diversity of Soil Actinomycetes in Yunnan, China

    Xu, L.; Li, Q.; Jiang, C

    1996-01-01

    Since 1978, about 4,200 soil samples have been collected from 22 selected areas of various vegetational and climatic types throughout the province of Yunnan. Actinomycetes of 29 genera were isolated by the methods employed. The correlations between diversity and climate were grouped into tropical, subtropical plateau, cool temperate mountain, and snowy mountain types. Actinomycete populations of the first two types were more complex than were the other ones. Correlations between actinomycete ...

  18. Antitumor compounds from marine actinomycetes.

    Salas, José A.; Carmen Méndez; Carlos Olano

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments used to combat cancer. A great number of antitumor compounds are natural products or their derivatives, mainly produced by microorganisms. In particular, actinomycetes are the producers of a large number of natural products with different biological activities, including antitumor properties. These antitumor compounds belong to several structural classes such as anthracyclines, enediynes, indolocarbazoles, isoprenoides, macrolides, non-ribosomal pept...

  19. Airway inflammation among compost workers exposed to actinomycetes spores

    Kari Kulvik Heldal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study the associations between exposure to bioaerosols and work-related symptoms, lung function and biomarkers of airway inflammation in compost workers. Materials and method. Personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 47 workers employed at five windrow plants (n=20 and five reactor plants (n=27. Samples were analyzed for endotoxins, bacteria, fungal and actinomycetes spores. Health examinations were performed on workers and 37 controls before and after work on the day exposure was measured. The examinations included symptoms recorded by questionnaire, lung function by spirometry and nasal dimensions by acoustic rhinometry (AR. The pneumoproteins CC16, SP-D and SP-A were measured in a blood sample drawn at the end of the day. Results. The levels of endotoxins (median 3 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–730 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] and actinomycetes spores (median 0.2 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–590 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] were significantly higher in reactor plants compared to windrow plants. However, windrow composting workers reported more symptoms than reactor composting workers, probably due to use of respiratory protection. Exposure-response relationships between actinomycetes spores exposure and respiratory effects, found as cough and nose irritation during a shift, was significantly increased (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.1–16, OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.5–25, respectively, p<0.05 among workers exposed to 0.02–0.3 × 10[sup]6[/sup] actinomycetes spores/m 3 , and FEV1/FVC% decreased cross shift (b=–3.2, SE=1.5%, p<0.01. Effects were weaker in the highest exposed group, but these workers used respiratory protection, frequently limiting their actual exposure. No relationships were found between exposure and pneumoprotein concentrations. Conclusions. The major agent in the aerosol generated at compost plants was actinomycetes spores which was associated with work related cough symptoms and work

  20. [Distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomycetes on northern slope of Taibai Mountain, Qinling].

    Zhu, Wen-Jie; Xue, Quan-Hong; Cao, Yan-Ru; Xue, Lei; Shen, Guang-Hui; Lai, Hang-Xian

    2011-11-01

    Twelve representative soil samples were collected from different altitudes on the northern slope of Taibai Mountain to study the distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomyces by using agar block method. There existed a great deal of soil antagonistic actinomyces in the study area. Among the 141 actinomycete strains isolated, 116 strains (82.3%) showed antagonism toward 12 target bacteria or fungi. The antagonistic strains at altitudes 800-1845, 3488, 3655, and 3670 m occupied 73.7% -86.8%, 81.3%, 78.9% and 82.3% of the total, respectively. 42.1% of the strains at altitudes 1200-2300 m and > 3400 m showed strong and broad spectrum antagonistic activity, suggesting that there was a great potential for the isolation of actinomycete strains with strong anti-biotic capability at these altitudes. 24.1% of the antagonistic actinomycetes showed antagonism against Staphyloccocus aureu, and 2.4%, 6.9% and 11.2% of them showed activity toward Verticillium dahliae in cotton, Phytophthora sp. in strawberry and Neonectria radiciccla in ginseng, respectively. This study showed that the soil actinomycete antagonistic potentiality (SAAP) could be used as a quantitative indicator to evaluate the potential of antagonistic actinomycete resources in soil. PMID:22303680

  1. Biosurfactant produced from Actinomycetes nocardiopsis A17: Characterization and its biological evaluation.

    Chakraborty, Samrat; Ghosh, Mandakini; Chakraborti, Srijita; Jana, Sougata; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Kokare, Chandrakant; Zhang, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    This investigation aims to isolate an Actinomycetes strain producing a biosurfactant from the unexplored region of industrial and coal mine areas. Actinomycetes are selected for this study as their novel chemistry was not exhausted and they have tremendous potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. The biosurfactant was characterized and further needed to be utilized for pharmaceutical dosage form. Isolation, purification, screening, and characterization of the Actinomycetes A17 were done followed by its fermentation in optimized conditions. The cell-free supernatant was used for the extraction of the biosurfactant and precipitated by cold acetone. The dried precipitate was purified by TLC and the emulsification index, surface tension and CMC were determined. The isolated strain with preferred results was identified as Actinomycetes nocardiopsis A17 with high foam-forming properties. It gives lipase, amylase, gelatinase, and protease activity. The emulsification index was found to be 93±0.8 with surface tension 66.67 dyne/cm at the lowest concentration and cmc 0.6 μg/ml. These biosurfactants were characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Therefore, it can be concluded that the biosurfactant produced by Actinomycetes nocardiopsis sp. strain A17 was found to have satisfactory results with high surface activity and emulsion-forming ability. PMID:25989147

  2. Actinomycetes and Fungi in Surface Waters and in Potable Water

    Niemi, R. Maarit; Knuth, Sisko; Lundström, Kenneth

    1982-01-01

    In Finnish lakes and rivers used as water supplies, mesophilic fungi and actinomycetes were common, whereas thermophilic fungi and actinomycetes were present only in low concentrations. Fungi and actinomycetes were more abundant in eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes than in oligotrophic lakes. River water contained more thermophilic actinomycetes and fungi and mesophilic actinomycetes than did lake water. Runoff from soil seemed to be an important factor contributing to the incidence of these mi...

  3. Therapeutically Active Biomolecules from Marine Actinomycetes

    Mani Jayaprakashvel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the past few centuries, the biological sources of terrestrial origin have been explored and exploited for bioactive metabolites. This has resulted in the stagnancy of discovering either novel compounds or compounds with novel bioactivities. Thus, researchers across the globe have started exploring our big Oceans, for the search of bioactive metabolites. During the past few decades, the research on bioactive metabolites from marine biological resources has geared up and among the sources marine actinomycetes are proved to be best. Marine actinomycetes, the filamentous bacteria from marine environment have been intensively studied for bioactive metabolites. The biological diversity of marine actinomycetes was found to be enormous, thanks to culture dependent and culture independent biodiversity approaches. This great diversity of marine actinomycetes has offered greater chemical diversity. The diverse chemical compounds of marine actinomycetes have been found to have various biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-malarial, anti-algal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory etc. These various bioactive metabolites of marine actinomycetes are having scope for developing as potent therapeutic agents. The potential of marine actinomycetes is rightly realized though the current biological wealth of these organisms isrelatively unexplored.

  4. Influence of mode of storage and drying of fodder on thermophilic actinomycete aerocontamination in dairy farms of the Doubs region of France.

    Dalphin, J.C.; Pernet, D; Reboux, G; Martinez, J.; Dubiez, A.; Barale, T; Depierre, A

    1991-01-01

    Airborne contamination by thermophilic actinomycetes, micromycetes and Gram negative bacteria was determined on 34 dairy farms and related to fodder drying and storage methods. Eighteen farms had a barn drying system, eight with additional heating; the remaining 16 had traditional fodder storage methods. Three air samples were obtained for each farm with a six stage Andersen sampler. The thermophilic actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces and the dominant micromycetes as Aspergillus sp...

  5. Isolation of Cellulolytic Actinomycetes from Marine Sediments

    Veiga, Manuel; Esparis, Azucena; Fabregas, Jaime

    1983-01-01

    The cellulolytic activity of 36 actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments was investigated by the cellulose-azure method. Approximately 50% of the isolates exhibited various degrees of cellulolytic activity.

  6. Novel method for selective isolation of actinomycetes.

    Hirsch, C F; Christensen, D L

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for the selective isolation of actinomycetes from natural mixed microbial populations is described. A nutrient agar medium was overlaid with a 0.22- to 0.45-microns-pore cellulose ester membrane filter, and the surface of the filter was inoculated. During incubation, the branched mycelia of the actinomycetes penetrated the filter pores to the underlying agar medium, whereas growth of nonactinomycete bacteria was restricted to the filter surface. The membrane filter was removed...

  7. NOVEL BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM MANGROVE DERIVED ACTINOMYCETES

    Kumari Amrita; Jain Nitin; Subathra Devi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove is most productive and unexplored ecosystem that approximately covers one fourth of world coastline with high diversity of thriving organism. Recently the rate of isolation of novel bioactive compounds from microorganism living in mangrove forest has tremendously increased which is reflected in significant hasten for exploration of mangrove actinomycetes. Actinomycetes are group of bacteria which are extremely interesting as active producers of many primary and secondary metabolites....

  8. ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF FRESH WATER ACTINOMYCETES

    Gunda Madan Mohan; Singara Charya, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Fresh water systems represent a largely untapped source for isolation of novel microorganisms. Gram-positive actinomycetes are of special interest, since they are known to produce chemically diverse compounds with wide range of biological activities. Twenty four actinomycetes with distinct characteristics were isolated from three freshwater systems of Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh, India viz: Lower Manair Dam, Manakondur Pond and Kothapally Pond. These isolates were screened for their antagonist...

  9. Elicitation of secondary metabolism in actinomycetes

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Grkovic, Tanja; Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Quinn, Ronald J.; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Genomic sequence data have revealed the presence of a large fraction of putatively silent biosynthetic gene clusters in the genomes of actinomycetes that encode for secondary metabolites, which are not detected under standard fermentation conditions. This review focuses on the effects of biological (co-cultivation), chemical, as well as molecular elicitation on secondary metabolism in actinomycetes. Our review covers the literature until June 2014 and exemplifies the diversity of natural prod...

  10. Exposure of water consumers to mesophilic actinomycetes.

    Ojanen, T H; Katila, M. L.; Mäntyjärvi, R.; Seppänen, H.; Muittari, A; Kuusisto, P.; Virtanen, P.

    1983-01-01

    In autumn 1978 an epidemic of respiratory disease resembling allergic alveolitis occurred in a small Finnish community. The disease was caused by repeated exposures to tap water aerosol. The raw water of the community and the sand filters of the purification system were heavily contaminated with mesophilic actinomycetes. Fourteen different strains of actinomycetes were isolated. Exposed persons with and without symptoms as well as unexposed control persons were tested for antibodies against f...

  11. ISOLATION AND DIVERSITY OF ACTINOMYCETES IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY

    Chesapeake Bay was investigated as a source of actinomycetes to creen for production of novel bioactive compounds. he presence of relatively large populations of actinoplanetes, chemotype IID actinomycetes in Chesapeake Bay sediment samples indicates that is an eminently suitable...

  12. Isolation and Diversity of Actinomycetes in the Chesapeake Bay †

    Takizawa, Masayuki; Colwell, Rita R.; Hill, Russell T.

    1993-01-01

    Chesapeake Bay was investigated as a source of actinomycetes to screen for production of novel bioactive compounds. The presence of relatively large populations of actinoplanetes (chemotype II/D actinomycetes) in Chesapeake Bay sediment samples indicates that it is an eminently suitable ecosystem from which to isolate actinomycetes for screening programs. Actinomycetes were isolated from sediment samples collected in Chesapeake Bay with an isolation medium containing nalidixic acid, which pro...

  13. EXPLORATION OF ACTINOMYCETES ENDOPHYTICALLY ASSOCIATED WITH PIPER NIGRUM FOR POTENTIAL BIOACTIVITY

    Jasim B.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Piper nigrum is well known for its metabolite richness. So endophytic microorganisms that reside within such environments can be expected to have promising biosynthetic potential. The current study identified three endophytic actinomycetes with broad bioactivity which can have applications in natural product related pharmacological research. The Verrucosispora sp identified in the study was found to have promising anticancer and antimicrobial activities and Streptomyces sp. was found to have antioxidant activity. The results obtained are supported by many previous reports and this suggests the isolates obtained in the study to have the possible presence of potential known or novel compounds with broad spectrum of activity.

  14. Actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of semidesert soils of Mongolia

    Norovsuren, Zh.; Zenova, G. M.; Mosina, L. V.

    2007-04-01

    The population density of actinomycetes in the desert-steppe soil, rhizosphere, and the above-ground parts of plants varies from tens to hundreds of thousands of colony-forming units (CFU) per gram of substrate. The actinomycetal complexes of the brown desert-steppe soil without plant roots are more diverse in their taxonomic composition than the actinomycetal complexes in the rhizosphere and the aboveground parts of plants. Additionally to representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, actinomycetes from the Nocardia, Saccharopolyspora, Thermomonospora, and Actinomadura genera were identified in the soil. The population density of actinomycetes in the rhizosphere and in the soil reached hundreds of thousand CFU/g; it considerably exceeded the population density of actinomycetes in the aboveground parts of plants. The maximum population density of actinomycetes was determined in the rhizosphere of Asparagus gobicus, Salsola pestifera, and Cleistogenes songorica.

  15. Isolation of actinomycetes from cervical specimens.

    Traynor, R M; Parratt, D; Duguid, H L; Duncan, I D

    1981-01-01

    Cervical smears from 30 women were examined. Fifteen of these had actinomycetes visible by direct smear examination and the organisms were isolated in 13. Of the remainder, all had negative smears and culture was similarly negative in 12, whilst in 3, the cultures were either positive (1) or suspicious (2).

  16. Inhibition of norsolorinic acid accumulation to Aspergillus parasiticus by marine actinomycetes

    Yan, Peisheng; Shi, Cuijuan; Shen, Jihong; Wang, Kai; Gao, Xiujun; Li, Ping

    2014-11-01

    Thirty-six strains of marine actinomycetes were isolated from a sample of marine sediment collected from the Yellow Sea and evaluated in terms of their inhibitory activity on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and the production of norsolorinic acid using dual culture plate assay and agar diffusion methods. Among them, three strains showed strong antifungal activity and were subsequently identified as Streptomyces sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The supernatant from the fermentation of the MA01 strain was extracted sequentially with chloroform and ethyl acetate, and the activities of the extracts were determined by tip culture assay. The assay results show that both extracts inhibited mycelium growth and toxin production, and the inhibitory activities of the extracts increased as their concentrations increased. The results of this study suggest that marine actinomycetes are biologically important for the control of mycotoxins, and that these bacteria could be used as novel biopesticides against mycotoxins.

  17. Aerobic and microaerophilic actinomycetes of typical agropeat and peat soils

    Zenova, G. M.; Gryadunova, A. A.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2008-02-01

    A high number (from tens of thousands to millions of CFU/g of soil) of actinomycetes and a high diversity of genera were found in typical peat and agropeat soils. Agricultural use increases the number and diversity of the actinomycete complexes of the peat soils. In the peat soils, the actinomycete complex is represented by eight genera: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Saccharopolyspora, Saccharomonospora, and Microtetraspora. A considerable share of sporangial forms in the actinomycete complex of the peat soils not characteristic of the zonal soils was revealed. The number of actinomycetes that develop under aerobic conditions is smaller by 10-100 times than that of aerobic forms in the peat soils. Among the soil actinomycetes of the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, and Microtetraspora, the microaerophilic forms were found; among the Saccharopolyspora and Saccharomonospora, no microaerophilic representatives were revealed.

  18. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIBIOTICS FROM SOIL-ISOLATED ACTINOMYCETES

    Vengadesh prabhu K; Sundaramoorthi C; Gupta Saurabh; Karthick K; Tamilselvi N

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the soil samples were collected from various places in the Coimbatore, near drainage, mud and coloured soil where there were no plants around. Actinomycetes strains were isolated in specific medium using soyabean casein digest (SBCD) medium. These Actinomycetes were screened with regard to potential against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The purified Actinomycetes strains were performed in biochemical tests. Crowded plate technique was used for the isolation o...

  19. Distribution of actinomycetes in near-shore tropical marine sediments.

    Jensen, P R; Dwight, R; Fenical, W.

    1991-01-01

    Actinomycetes were isolated from near-shore marine sediments collected at 15 island locations throughout the Bahamas. A total of 289 actinomycete colonies were observed, and all but 6 could be assigned to the suprageneric groups actinoplanetes and streptomycetes. A bimodal distribution in the actinomycete population in relation to depth was recorded, with the maximum numbers occurring in the shallow and deep sampling sites. This distribution can be accounted for by a rapid decrease in strepto...

  20. Actinomycetes as host cells for production of recombinant proteins

    Tamura Tomohiro; Mitani Yasuo; Nakashima Nobutaka

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Actinomycetes (Actinobacteria) are highly attractive as cell factories or bioreactors for applications in industrial, agricultural, environmental, and pharmaceutical fields. Genome sequencing of several species of actinomycetes has paved the way for biochemical and structural analysis of important proteins and the production of such proteins as recombinants on a commercial scale. In this regard, there is a need for improved expression vectors that will be applicable to actinomycetes....

  1. SCREENING OF HMG CO A REDUCTASE INHIBITOR PRODUCING MARINE ACTINOMYCETES

    SRINU, PHANI BHUSHAN,MOGES, SRILAKSHMI, SANKAR, PRABHAKAR,LAKSHMINARAYANA

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was screening of 3-hydroxy-3- methyl glutaryl Co A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitor producing marine actinomycetes. A total of 65 morphologically different actinomycetes were screened for HMG CoA reductase inhibitor production in a two stage submerged fermentation and evaluated for HMG CoA reductase inhibitor activity by agar diffusion and thin layer chromatography technique using lovostatin as a control. Among 65 marine Actinomycete strains, only one strain pr...

  2. Memrane bioenergetics of the actinomycete Nonomuraca sp. ATCC 39727

    Palese, L. L.; Gaballo, A.; Dobrová, Zuzana; Labonia, N.; Abbrescia, A.; Scacco, S.; Micelli, L.; Papa, S.

    Milano, 2003, s. 159. [Joint Symposia with the British Biochemical Society /SIB 2003./. Milano (IT), 15.09.2003-18.09.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : nadh * atcc * omya Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  3. Structures and comparative characterization of biosynthetic gene clusters for cyanosporasides, enediyne-derived natural products from marine actinomycetes

    Lane, Amy L.; Nam, Sang Jip; Fukuda, Takashi; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Kauffman, Christopher A.; Jensen, Paul R; Fenical, William; Moore, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanosporasides are marine bacterial natural products containing a chlorinated cyclopenta[a]indene core of suspected enediyne polyketide biosynthetic origin. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of novel cyanosporasides C–F (3–6) from the marine actinomycetes “Salinispora pacifica” CNS-143 and Streptomyces sp. CNT-179, highlighted by the unprecedented C-2' N-acetylcysteamine functionalized hexose group of 6. Cloning, sequencing, and mutagenesis of homologous ~50 kb cyanosporas...

  4. ISOLEMENT DES SOUCHES D’ACTINOMYCETES PRODUCTRICES DE NOUVELLES MOLECULES ANTIFONGIQUES

    N. CHERAITI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty two strains of actinomycetes were isolated from four samples of Oubeira lake fresh waters of El Kala region (East of Algeria. The antifungal activity was tested against one filamentous fungus: Aspergillus niger (strain supplied by the mycology laboratory of IBN SINA hospital of Annaba. We have utilized two methods in order to study the antifungal activity: culture in liquid medium and double layer method by testing four different media: ISPI, ISPII, GYEA and Bennett.Among the twenty two isolates, only two strains showed an activity against the target strain. It concerns strains Act sp5 and Act sp10. The activity of strain Act sp5 was very important with an inhibition zone diameter equals at 60 mm on GYEA medium.

  5. Malate dehydrogenases from actinomycetes: structural comparison of Thermoactinomyces enzyme with other actinomycete and Bacillus enzymes.

    Smith, K.; Sundaram, T K; Kernick, M

    1984-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenases from bacteria belonging to the genus Thermoactinomyces are tetrameric, like those from Bacillus spp., and exhibit a high degree of structural homology to Bacillus malate dehydrogenase as judged by immunological cross-reactivity. Malate dehydrogenases from other actinomycetes are dimers and do not cross-react with antibodies to Bacillus malate dehydrogenase.

  6. ACTINOMYCETES: TOLERANCE AGAINST HEAVY METALS AND ANTIBIOTICS

    Smriti Singh, Shruti Pandey and Hotam Singh Chaudhary*

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals can be both, essential as well as toxic for living beings. Micronutrients such as, Co, Fe, Mn have important role to play in living systems whereas, Pb Cd etc. pose harmful effects even at low concentrations. When these heavy metals get accumulated within the tissues of the organisms at various levels of the ecological chain, they cause decrease in the biomass and biological diversity by affecting the growth, morphology and activity of the organisms. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil also causes soil contamination, which can be overcome with the help of bioremediation. A large group of soil bacteria belonging to the Actinomycetes species are exposed to heavy metals in a variety of ways; although, they show resistance to heavy metals. The species of actinomycetes possess resistance for antibiotic synthesis as well. This makes the actinomycetes suitable agents for bioremediation. In this experiment, a total of 20 isolates from Shivpuri region of Madhya Pradesh were tested for the metal tolerance against selected heavy metals. After this, the most tolerant strains were tested to check their antibiotic susceptibility. Metal tolerance was tested by agar well diffusion method and tube dilution method. Out of the 20 isolates, Ash1, Ash 2, Ash 4,Ash 6, Ash 7, Ash 8, Ash 9, Ash 10, Ash 11, Ash 12, Ash 13, Ash 15 were resistant at 10 mM conc. of CuSo4, but their growth was inhibited at higher concentrations of metal salts. Isolates Ash 10, Ash 11, Ash 12, Ash 13, Ash 19, Ash 20 were found to be resistant at 10mM conc. of ZnSO4, but they were also inhibited at higher concentrations. For different concentrations of Pb(CH3COO2 most of the isolates showed same level of tolerance.

  7. In vitro Susceptibility of Alternaria solani to Several Iranian Soil Actinomycetes

    F. Sharifi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. are of the most attractive sources of biologically active compounds. In the recent decades, they have attracted high interests as biocontrol agents. In search of finding such principles, in vitro suppression of Alternaria solani was studied by use of Streptomyces antagonists. A. solani was sensitive to several species mainly Streptomyces plicatus, S. olivaceus and two unidentified actinomycetes. Activity versus time was monitored in S. olivaceus in solid and shaked cultures. Ongoing goals of this research include isolation, characterization and identification of the active metabolites. Future goals include identification of active genes for use in development of recombinant DNAs in transgenic hosts bearing elevated resistance to infections by Alternaria sp.

  8. Actinomycetes in garden soils of the city of Kirov

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Solov'eva, E. S.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.

    2013-05-01

    The population density, diversity, and structure of the actinomycetic complexes were studied in garden soils of the city of Kirov. The relationships between the structure of the complexes and the acidity, the concentrations of the mobile forms of heavy metals, and the soil humus content were analyzed. The specific features of the actinomycetic population in the garden soils of the city in comparison with the transport ecotopes and suburban territories were revealed. It was demonstrated that the actinomycetic complexes in the garden soils preserve their structural similarity with the actinomycetic complexes of the suburban forest parks despite certain changes in the composition of the dominant species and the relative abundance of the separate taxa. The obtained data indicate that the garden plots in the city contribute to the preservation of ecologically balanced ecosystems.

  9. Site-Specific Recombination Strategies for Engineering Actinomycete Genomes

    Herrmann, Simone; Siegl, Theresa; Luzhetska, Marta; Petzke, Lutz; Jilg, Caroline; Welle, Elisabeth; Erb, Annette; Leadlay, Peter F; Bechthold, Andreas; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using technologies based on site-specific recombination in actinomycetes was shown several years ago. Despite their huge potential, these technologies mostly have been used for simple marker removal from a chromosome. In this paper, we present different site-specific recombination strategies for genome engineering in several actinomycetes belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Saccharothrix. Two different systems based on Cre/loxP and Dre/rox have been ut...

  10. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    McNeil, M. M.; Brown, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medic...

  11. Antibiotic Drug Discovery from the New Marine Actinomycete Genus Marinomyces

    Fenical, William H.

    2007-01-01

    Actinomycetes are high G+C content Gram-positive bacteria with an unparalleled ability to produce diverse secondary metabolites. These bacteria, which are best known from soils, have been studied extensively by the pharmaceutical industry and account for a disproportionately large amount of the $25.3 billion annual global sales of microbially derived pharmaceuticals. In recent years however, the yield of new lead compounds from common soil-derived actinomycetes has diminished significantly,...

  12. ISOLATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL COMPOUND FROM MARINE SOIL ACTINOMYCETES

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial study revealed that the isolated marine soil actinomycetes by crowded plate method and was identified by MIDI Advance technology (gas chromatographic) method and Thus, the microbes were identified according to their fatty acid sequences. The actinomycetes species were identified as Streptomyces rimosus, Streptomyces fradiae, and Streptomyces griseoflavus and the antibacterial assay was carried out by well diffusion method. Out of these only Streptomyces rimosus having high a...

  13. Extremophilic and extremotolerant actinomycetes in different soil types

    Zenova, G. M.; Manucharova, N. A.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2011-04-01

    Problems on the resistance of soil actinomycetes to various environmental factors (pH, salinity, temperature, and moisture) are discussed. Actinomycetes as a special group of prokaryotes were revealed to have a greater range of tolerance to these factors than was thought earlier. The regularities of the distribution of extremophilic and extremotolerant actinomycetes developing in unusual for mycelial bacteria conditions, their structural-functional characteristics, and their taxonomic composition were determined. The predominance of acidophilic representatives of the Micromonospora genus in acid soils (typical peat, soddy-podzolic, and taiga podzol) and the haloalkaliphilic Streptomyces pluricilirescens and S. prunicolor species in desert saline soils are shown. The specific features of the actinomycete complexes on thermal fields of the weakly developed stratified volcanic soils are described. In these complexes, the thermophilic forms were represented only by species of the Micromonospora genus; and the mesophilic forms, by Microbispora species. In the periodically heated desert soils, among the thermophilic actinomycetes, representatives of rare Actinomadura, Saccharopolyspora and Streptosporangium genera along with Streptomyces species were indicated. The mechanisms of the resistance of the actinomycetes to the extreme environmental conditions are discussed.

  14. Isolation, abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants and screening for their in vitro antimicrobial biosynthetic potential.

    Passari, Ajit K; Mishra, Vineet K; Saikia, Ratul; Gupta, Vijai K; Singh, Bhim P

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are of interest as the producers of important bioactive compounds. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 42 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from different organs of seven selected medicinal plants. The highest number of isolates (n = 22, 52.3%) of actinomycetes was isolated from roots, followed by stems (n = 9, 21.4%), leaves (n = 6, 14.2%), flowers (n = 3, 7.1%), and petioles (n = 2, 4.7%). The genus Streptomyces was the most dominant among the isolates (66.6%) in both the locations (Dampa TRF and Phawngpuii NP, Mizoram, India). From a total of 42 isolates, 22 isolates were selected for further studies based on their ability to inhibit one of the tested human bacterial or fungal pathogen. Selected isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and subsequently the isolates were grouped to four different genera; Streptomyces, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and Leifsonia. Antibiotic sensitivity assay was performed to understand the responsible antimicrobials present in the isolates showing the antimicrobial activities and revealed that the isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Further, antimicrobial properties and antibiotic sensitivity assay in combination with the results of amplification of biosynthetic genes polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) showed that the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the selected medicinal plants have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This is the first report of the isolation of Brevibacterium sp., Microbacterium sp., and Leifsonia xyli from endophytic environments of medicinal plants, Mirabilis jalapa and Clerodendrum colebrookianum. Our results emphasize that endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants are an unexplored resource for the discovery of biologically active

  15. Isolation, abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants and screening for their in vitro antimicrobial biosynthetic potential

    Ajit Kumar Passari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are of interest as the producers of important bioactive compounds. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 42 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from different organs of seven selected medicinal plants. The highest number of isolates (n=22, 52.3% of actinomycetes was isolated from roots, followed by stems (n=9, 21.4%, leaves (n=6, 14.2%, flowers (n=3, 7.1% and petioles (n=2, 4.7%. The genus Streptomyces was the most dominant among the isolates (66.6% in both the locations (Dampa TRF and Phawngpuii NP, Mizoram, India. From a total of 42 isolates, 22 isolates were selected for further studies based on their ability to inhibit one of the tested human bacterial or fungal pathogen. Selected isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and subsequently the isolates were grouped to four different genera; Streptomyces, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium and Leifsonia. Antibiotic sensitivity assay was performed to understand the responsible antimicrobials present in the isolates showing the antimicrobial activities and revealed that the isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Further, antimicrobial properties and antibiotic sensitivity assay in combination with the results of amplification of biosynthetic genes polyketide synthase (PKS-I and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS showed that the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the selected medicinal plants have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This is the first report of the isolation of Brevibacterium sp., Microbacterium sp. and Leifsonia xyli from endophytic environments of medicinal plants, Mirabilis jalapa and Clerodendrum colebrookianum. Our results emphasize that endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants are an unexplored resource for the discovery of biologically active

  16. Antimethicilin resistance agents from marine actinomycetes from soil sediments of Lagos Lagoon

    Davies Olabisi Flora; Adeleye Isaac Adeyemi; Wang Peng George

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate theisolation of actinomycetes strains with potential for producing antimicrobials with high methicilin resistance capability. Methods: The soil samples were collected from four different locations of Lagos lagoon. TheActinomycetes were isolated from the samples by serial dilution using spread plate method. Isolates were selected based on their cultural characteristics as well as their Gram reaction and phenotypically and molecularly characterizedStreptomyces sp. Isolates were inoculated in starch casein and Kuster’s broth media and secondary metabolites were screened for antimicrobial activity against the following microorganisms: methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus aureusATCC29213,Escherichia coliATCC 29522, Pseudomonas aeruginosaATCC27853,Candida albicans,Enterococcus faecalisATCC 29212. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated fromHIV patients were also used (Staphylococcus warneri,Staphylococcus xylosus andStaphylococcus epidermidis). The antimicrobial metabolites of the isolates were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results:Extracts from isolatesULS12 andULS13 showed antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistantStaphylococcus aureus whileULK3 inhibitedCandida albicans only. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometerdata analysis showed the antibiotic profile of these isolates. Conclusions: The isolatesULS12 andULS13 were found to display the highest antimicrobial activity against the test organisms and could be a potential source of new antibiotics.

  17. Antimethicilin resistance agents from marine actinomycetes from soil sediments of Lagos Lagoon

    Davies Olabisi Flora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the isolation of actinomycetes strains with potential for producing antimicrobials with high methicilin resistance capability. Methods: The soil samples were collected from four different locations of Lagos lagoon. The Actinomycetes were isolated from the samples by serial dilution using spread plate method. Isolates were selected based on their cultural characteristics as well as their Gram reaction and phenotypically and molecularly characterized Streptomyces sp. Isolates were inoculated in starch casein and Kuster’s broth media and secondary metabolites were screened for antimicrobial activity against the following microorganisms: methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 29522, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from HIV patients were also used (Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The antimicrobial metabolites of the isolates were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results: Extracts from isolates ULS12 and ULS13 showed antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus while ULK3 inhibited Candida albicans only. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer data analysis showed the antibiotic profile of these isolates. Conclusions: The isolates ULS12 and ULS13 were found to display the highest antimicrobial activity against the test organisms and could be a potential source of new antibiotics.

  18. Isolation, screening and characterization of uranium microremediable actinomycetes from fallen leaves of Azadirachta indica in Western Ghats

    Microremediation of harmful radioactive waste such as uranium has been carried out by the endophytic actinomycetes strains isolated from the unnoticed fallen leaves of commonly available medicinal plant Azadirachta indica, which are considered as unique source. Among six actinobacteria isolates, one microbe (A5) effectively removed uranium in 12 h at temperature 30 deg C and pH 8-9. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis support the classification of the isolate A5 as a new strain which was named as Streptomyces sp. MINIYAA7 (Genbank accession number KF909129). (author)

  19. Moderately haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes in salt-affected soils

    Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Oborotov, G. V.

    2009-12-01

    It was found that the population density of actinomycetes in solonchaks and saline desert soils varied from hundreds to tens of thousands of colony-forming units (CFUs) per 1 g of soil depending on soil type and was by 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than the number of mycelial bacteria in main soil types. Actinomycetes grow actively in saline soils, and the length of their mycelium reaches 140 m per 1 g of soil. Domination of moderately halophilic, alkaliphilic, and haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes, which grow well under 5% NaCl and pH 8-9, is a specific feature of actinomycetal complexes in saline soils. Representatives of Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera were found among the haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes. Micromonospores demonstrated lower (than streptomycetes) adaptability to high salt concentrations. Investigation of the phylogenetic position of isolated dominant haloalkaliphilic strains of streptomycetes performed on the basis of sequencing of the gene 16S rRNA enabled identifying these strains as Streptomyces pluricolorescens and S. prunicolor.

  20. Antibacterial activity of some actinomycetes from Tamil Nadu, India

    Pachaiyappan Saravana Kumar; John Poonga Preetam Raj; Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To isolate novel actinomycetes and to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Methods:Three soil samples were collected from Vengodu (village) in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. Actinomycetes were isolated using serial dilution and plating method on actinomycetes isolation agar. Results: Totally 35 isolates were obtained on the basis of colony characteristics on actinomycetes isolation agar. All the isolates were screened for antibacterial activity by cross streak method. Medium and optimization of day were done for the potent strains using Nathan's agar well diffusion method. Isolation of bioactive compounds from significant active isolates was done by using different media. The most active isolate VAS 10 was identified as Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) using 16s rRNA sequence method. The hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol extracts of VAS 10 were tested against bacteria. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate;maximum zones of inhibition were observed against Enterococcus durans. The rRNA secondary structure and the restriction sites of Actinobacterium Loyola VAS 10 were predicted using Genebee and NEBCutter online tools respectively. Conclusions: The present study showed that among the isolated actinomycetes, Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) showed good antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria.

  1. ISOLATION OF ENDOPHYTIC ACTINOMYCETES FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS AND ITS MUTATIONAL EFFECT IN BIOCONTROL ACTIVITY

    Hema Shenpagam N.*, D. Kanchana Devi ** and Sinduja G.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the endophytic actinomycetes were collected from three medicinal plants Azadiracta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Phyllanthus amarus. Endophytic actinomycetes were isolated using different media like Starch casein agar, Starch casein nitrate agar, Actinomycetes isolation agar and Soyabean agar, while it showed more colonies in Starch casein agar. The endophytic actinomycetes were stained and biochemical tests were performed. Antimicrobial compound was purified from the filtr...

  2. CRISPR-Cas9 Based Engineering of Actinomycetal Genomes

    Tong, Yaojun; Charusanti, Pep; Zhang, Lixin;

    2015-01-01

    facilitate the genetic manipulation of actinomycetes, we developed a highly efficient CRISPR-Cas9 system to delete gene(s) or gene cluster(s), implement precise gene replacements, and reversibly control gene expression in actinomycetes. We demonstrate our system by targeting two genes, actIORF1 (SCO5087) and...... actVB (SCO5092), from the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Our CRISPR-Cas9 system successfully inactivated the targeted genes. When no templates for homology-directed repair (HDR) were present, the site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Cas9....... Moreover, we developed a system to efficiently and reversibly control expression of target genes, deemed CRISPRi, based on a catalytically dead variant of Cas9 (dCas9). The CRISPR-Cas9 based system described here comprises a powerful and broadly applicable set of tools to manipulate actinomycetal genomes....

  3. Antibiotic pigment from desert soil actinomycetes; biological activity, purification and chemical screening

    Selvameenal L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An actinomycete strain, Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. ossamyceticus (strain D10 was isolated from Thar Desert soil, Rajasthan during the year 2006 and found to produce a yellow color pigment with antibiotic activity. Crude pigment was produced from strain D10 by solid state fermentation using wheat bran medium followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The antimicrobial activity of the crude pigment was evaluated against drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended spectrum b-lactamase producing cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella sp. About 420 mg of crude pigment was produced per 10 g of wheat bran medium. In the disc diffusion method the crude ethyl acetate extract showed a minimum of 10 mm inhibition against Klebsiella sp. and maximum of 19 mm of inhibition against Escherichia coli. The crude pigment was partially purified using thin layer chromatography with the solvent system chloroform:methanol (30:70 and the Rf value was calculated as 0.768. Antimicrobial activity of the partially purified compound from thin layer chromatography was determined using the bioautography method. The purified pigment showed minimum of 15 mm inhibition against Klebsiella sp. and a maximum of 23 mm of inhibition against vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the disc diffusion method. Based on the results of chemical screening, the pigment was tentatively identified as group of sugar containing molecules.

  4. ISOLATION OF ENDOPHYTIC ACTINOMYCETES FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS AND ITS MUTATIONAL EFFECT IN BIOCONTROL ACTIVITY

    Hema Shenpagam N.*, D. Kanchana Devi ** and Sinduja G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the endophytic actinomycetes were collected from three medicinal plants Azadiracta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Phyllanthus amarus. Endophytic actinomycetes were isolated using different media like Starch casein agar, Starch casein nitrate agar, Actinomycetes isolation agar and Soyabean agar, while it showed more colonies in Starch casein agar. The endophytic actinomycetes were stained and biochemical tests were performed. Antimicrobial compound was purified from the filtrate by ethanol extraction method. Antagonistic activities of endophytic actinomycetes isolates were tested against bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungi Rhizopus. For the selected isolates antibiotic resistance was checked using various antibiotic discs like Amoxycillin, Penicillin, Rifampicin and Ampicillin. The strains which showed efficient antibacterial activity were selected to study the effect of mutation by physical and chemical method. In this study, UV mutated endophytic actinomycetes increase antibiotic production than non-mutated endophytic Actinomycetes, whereas in chemical mutation it does not increase the antibiotic production.

  5. Identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease

    Mungsuntisuk Isada

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colletotrichum is one of the most widespread and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi worldwide. Various species of Colletotrichum are the causative agents of anthracnose disease in plants, which is a severe problem to agricultural crops particularly in Thailand. These phytopathogens are usually controlled using chemicals; however, the use of these agents can lead to environmental pollution. Potential non-chemical control strategies for anthracnose disease include the use of bacteria capable of producing anti-fungal compounds such as actinomycetes spp., that comprise a large group of filamentous, Gram positive bacteria from soil. The aim of this study was to isolate actinomycetes capable of inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum spp, and to analyze the diversity of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soil. Results A total of 304 actinomycetes were isolated and tested for their inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides strains DoA d0762 and DoA c1060 and Colletotrichum capsici strain DoA c1511 which cause anthracnose disease as well as the non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain IFO 10217. Most isolates (222 out of 304, 73.0% were active against at least one indicator fungus or yeast. Fifty four (17.8% were active against three anthracnose fungi and 17 (5.6% could inhibit the growth of all three fungi and S. cerevisiae used in the test. Detailed analysis on 30 selected isolates from an orchard at Chanthaburi using the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the isolates (87% belong to the genus Streptomyces sp., while one each belongs to Saccharopolyspora (strain SB-2 and Nocardiopsis (strain CM-2 and two to Nocardia (strains BP-3 and LK-1. Strains LC-1, LC-4, JF-1, SC-1 and MG-1 exerted high inhibitory activity against all three anthracnose fungi and yeast. In addition, the organic solvent extracts prepared from these five strains inhibited conidial growth of the three

  6. Comparing actinomycete and bacterial soil and sediment communities for metagenomics

    Hill, P.; Krištůfek, Václav; Feijoo, A. M.; Caballero, S.; van Elsas, D.

    Praha: Výzkumný ústav rostlinné výroby, Praha, 2005. s. 10. [Život v pode /6./. 01.02.2005-02.02.2005, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : actinomycete * bacterial soil and sediment communities * metagenomics Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Marine actinomycetes from Madeira Archipelago preliminary taxonomic studies

    Ilda Santos Sanches

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The oceans cover 70 % of the Earth´s surface and harbor most of the planet´s biodiversity. However the microbiological component of this diversity remains relatively unexplored. Marine actinomycetes, are a robust resource of chemically prolific novelty. Producing structurally unique biological active secondary metabolites, generating a valuable source for innovative biotechnology and drug discovery[1,2]. As a consequence, the ecological role of actinomycetes and their marine ecosystems may no longer be neglected. It is crucial to move our research efforts into ocean regions for which we know little or nothing about the indigenous microbial diversity. The Portuguese Archipelago, Madeira is located in the Macaronesian Atlantic region, emerging from the African tectonic plate, found in the extreme south of the Tore-Madeira ridge, has a unique biogeography and biodiversity. These distinctive characteristics combined with the fact that Madeira have never been explored, as far as indigenous marine actinomycetes are concerned, makes it from the scientific point of view, the perfect target for our studies. From 662 marine sediment samples collected along Madeira Archipelago (Figure 1 during June of 2012, covering depths from 10-1310 m, a total of 421 actinomycete strains were isolated. In a previous study, an assemblage of 82 strains was selected for taxonomic identification, having into account representative morphological diversity characteristics of the actinomycetes, isolated from Madeira Archipelago. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, it was observed that the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora and Salinispora were predominant, 81% [3]. Additionally, in a recent study, our team selected 168 strains with Salinispora look-alike morphological features. From these 28 strains were identified as belonging to the seawater-obligate marine actinomycete genus Salinispora. Representing the first report of Salinispora spp. in the Macaronesian Atlantic Ocean

  8. Distribution of actinomycetes in oil contaminated ultisols of the Niger Delta (Nigeria)

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of actinomycetes in oil contaminated sandy loam ultisols of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was studied to aid in understanding the effect of hydrocarbons on indigenous microbial population in tropical soils. The average total counts of actinomycetes in all the oil samples analysed was 103 cfu/g. Higher counts of actinomycetes were observed during the dry season than during the wet season. The counts of hydrocarbonoclastic actinomycetes correlated positively with the total count of actinomycetes.The actinomycetes were generally restricted to the top soil(0-10 cm soil depth) although a seemingly deeper(down to 40 cm soil depth) distribution was noticed in the dry season. The isolates included oil degrading species of Actinoplanes, Norcadia,Streptomyces and Streptosporangium. Their high oil utilization ability indicates their positive potential and role in the bioremediation of oil-spilled soils.

  9. Competitive biosorption of thorium and uranium by actinomycetes

    The competitive biosorption of thorium and uranium by actinomycetes was examined. Of the actinomycetes tested, Streptomyces levoris showed the highest ability to sorb both thorium and uranium from aqueous systems. Thorium sorption was not affected by co-existed uranium, while uranium sorption was strongly hindered by co-existed thorium. The amounts of both thorium and uranium sorbed by Streptomyces levoris cells increased with an increase of the solution pH. Although the equilibrium isotherm of uranium biosorption is in similar manner as that of thorium biosorption, uranium was sorbed much faster than thorium. Biosorption isotherm of each metal ion could be well fitted by Langmuir isotherm taking the ionic charge of metal ions into account. The Langmuir isotherm for binary system did not explain completely the competitive biosorption of thorium and uranium by Streptomyces levoris. However, the results suggested that the ion species of both metals in the cells should be Th(OH)22+ and UO22+, respectively. (author)

  10. Actinomycetes for Marine Drug Discovery Isolated from Mangrove Soils and Plants in China

    Hong, Kui; Gao, An-Hui; Xie, Qing-Yi; Gao, Hao Gao; Zhuang, Ling; Lin, Hai-Peng; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Jia; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Goodfellow, Michael; Ruan, Ji-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is a largely unexplored source for actinomycetes with the potential to produce biologically active secondary metabolites. Consequently, we set out to isolate, characterize and screen actinomycetes from soil and plant material collected from eight mangrove sites in China. Over 2,000 actinomycetes were isolated and of these approximately 20%, 5%, and 10% inhibited the growth of Human Colon Tumor 116 cells, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, while 3%...

  11. MINIATURIZED FERMENTATION IN EPPENDORF TUBES FOR THE DETECTION OF ANTAGONISTIC ACTINOMYCETES

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes are recognized as a prolific source for bioactive metabolites. Screening adequate number of strains by appropriate high quality screening protocol determines success of drug discovery programs. To accomplish screening for antagonistic actinomycetes at higher rate, the fermentation stage of the initial screening needs to be miniaturized. The present study is attempted for miniaturized production of bioactive compounds from 40 actinomycetes isolated from less explored ecosystems. ...

  12. Terrestrial actinomycetes from diverse locations of Uttarakhnad, India: Isolation and screening for their antibacterial activity

    Vijay Kumar; Gajraj Singh Bisht; Omprakash Gusain

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Uttarakhand region is less explored, but possess a great biodiversity. This diversity can be explored for isolation and characterization of new actinomycetes strains for seeking antimicrobial molecules. It can therefore be predicted that novel bioactive metabolite producing actinomycetes can be discovered to combat multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens. Materials and Methods Variations in the viable count of actinomycetes were accessed in different altitudes. Actino...

  13. THE ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY OF ACTINOMYCETES OF STREPTOMYCES GENUS IN RELATION TO TRICHODERMA KONINGII

    Barbara Breza-Boruta; Zbigniew Paluszak

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of actinomycetes of genus Streptomyces on the growth of the antagonistic fungus Trichoderma koningii. 150 strains of Streptomyces spp. isolated from two potato cropping systems were used to the tests. Analyses were conducted experimentally in vitro on PDA medium with pH 6 and 7. The results obtained clearly indicate the inhibitory effect of actinomycetes on the fungus T. koningii. Of the tested population of actinomycetes only two strains did no...

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Medically Important Aerobic Actinomycetes in Soil of Iran (2006 - 2007)

    Aghamirian, Mohammad Reza; Ghiasian, Seyed Amir

    2009-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are a large group of soil-inhabiting bacteria that occur worldwide. Some of them are the main cause of two important diseases, nocardiosis and actinomycetoma. To identify the prevalence and geographic distribution of aerobic actinomycetes in soil of Qazvin province, a study was carried out during 2006-2007. In this study, the incidence and diversity of medically important aerobic actinomycetes was determined in 300 soil samples of different parts of Qazvin. The suspe...

  15. An N-acyl homolog of mycothiol is produced in marine actinomycetes

    Newton, Gerald L.; Fahey, Robert C.; Jensen, Paul R.; Fenical, William; MacMillan, John B

    2008-01-01

    Marine actinomycetes have generated much recent interest as a potentially valuable source of novel antibiotics. Like terrestrial actinomycetes the marine actinomycetes are shown here to produce mycothiol as their protective thiol. However, a novel thiol, U25, was produced by MAR2 strain CNQ703 upon progression into stationary phase when secondary metabolite production occurs and became the dominant thiol. MSH and U25 were maintained in a reduced state during early stationary phase but become ...

  16. Actinomycetes from Red Sea Sponges: Sources for Chemical and Phylogenetic Diversity

    Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen; Chen Yang; Hannes Horn; Dina Hajjar; Timothy Ravasi; Ute Hentschel

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges collected off Fsar Reef (Saudi Arabia) was investigated in the present study. Forty-seven actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were assigned to 10 different actinomycete genera. Eight putatively novel species belonging to genera Kocuria, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other 16S rRNA gene sequen...

  17. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea

    M. Sreevidya; Gopalakrishnan, S.; H. Kudapa; Varshney, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures f...

  18. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ACTINOMYCETES AGAINST MDR WOUND BACTERIAL ISOLATES

    L.Ashokkumar; Balagurunathan, R.; P. Palanivel; D. Jegadeeshkumar

    2012-01-01

    A total of five different actinomycete isolates were recovered from mine soil samples collected from Salem, Tamilnadu. These were then assessed for their antibacterial activity against five multidrug resistance bacterial wound isolates. All five isolates of actinomycete exhibited antagonistic activity. The zone of inhibition ranged between 11-25 mm. Among the 5 isolates of actinomycetes A5 isolate has highest antibacterial activity against S.aureus and E.coli. Out of five bacterial isolates P...

  19. Isolation, Phylogenetic Analysis and Anti-infective Activity Screening of Marine Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes

    Safwat Ahmed; Ute Hentschel; Mona Radwan; Abou-El-Ela, Soad H.; Amro Hanora; Pimentel-Elardo, Sheila M.; Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial actinomycetes are noteworthy producers of a multitude of antibiotics, however the marine representatives are much less studied in this regard. In this study, 90 actinomycetes were isolated from 11 different species of marine sponges that had been collected from offshore Ras Mohamed (Egypt) and from Rovinj (Croatia). Phylogenetic characterization of the isolates based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing supported their assignment to 18 different actinomycete genera representing seven diffe...

  20. Comparison of methods for isolation and enumeration of thermophilic actinomycetes from dust.

    Treuhaft, M W; Arden Jones, M P

    1982-01-01

    Thermophilic actinomycetes are the primary sensitizing agents in farmer's lung disease. We compared dilution pour-plate and spread-plate methods for their usefulness in enumerating thermophilic actinomycetes in moldy silage dust and evaluated the ability of a nonquantitative gravity settling technique to recover thermophilic actinomycetes from moldy silage. Spread plates and pour plates yielded similar estimates of total thermophiles. Higher counts were observed on spread plates (P less than ...

  1. Diversity of Aquatic Actinomycetes in Lakes of the Middle Plateau, Yunnan, China

    Jiang, C; Xu, L.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 749 sediment and water samples were collected from 12 lakes of the Middle Plateau of Yunnan from 1983 to 1993. The diversity and biological characteristics of the aquatic actinomycetes in these lakes were studied. Sixteen genera of actinomycetes were isolated from these samples. Micromonospores assumed a notable dominance (from 39 to 89%) in the actinomycete populations of these lake sediments. Streptomycetes were the second most abundant organisms. The diversity and counts of acti...

  2. Isolation and characterization of marine-derived actinomycetes with cytotoxic activity from the Red Sea coast

    Mohamed Saleh Abdelfattah; Mohammed Ismail Youssef Elmallah; Usama Wahid Hawas; Lamia Taha Abou El-Kassema; Mennat Allah Gamal Eid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of different actinomycetes species isolated from the Red Sea coast in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. Methods: Forty actinomycetes strains were isolated from different sediments and seawater samples collected from the Red Sea coast in Egypt. Actinomycetes were recognized by morphological and microscopic examinations. Cell viability and cytotoxicity induced by the crude extracts on breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 were assessed using meth...

  3. Ecological features of rare actinomycetes genera in soils of Azerbaijan

    A. R. Abushova; S. A. Gasanova; M. A. Kasimzade

    2010-01-01

    The results of the research of rare species of actinomycetes in some soils of Azerbaijan were studied. On the selective media the representatives of Streptomyces, Streptosporangium, Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Saccharopolyspora and Saccharomonospora were revealed. Species of Streptomyces and Micromonospora dominate in mountain-wood ecosystems (60 %.). It was established that among streptomyces species of Cinereus section of Violaceus series; Helvolo-Flavus sections of Helvolus...

  4. Molecular insights on the biosynthesis of antitumour compounds by actinomycetes

    Olano Álvarez, Carlos; Méndez Fernández, María del Carmen; Salas Fernández, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Summary Natural products are traditionally the main source of drug leads. In particular, many antitumour compounds are either natural products or derived from them. However, the search for novel antitumour drugs active against untreatable tumours, with fewer side‐effects or with enhanced therapeutic efficiency, is a priority goal in cancer chemotherapy. Microorganisms, particularly actinomycetes, are prolific producers of bioactive compounds, including antitumour drugs, produced as secondary ...

  5. A novel taxonomic marker that discriminates between morphologically complex actinomycetes

    Girard, Geneviève; Traag, Bjørn A; Sangal, Vartul; Mascini, Nadine; Hoskisson, Paul; Goodfellow, Michael; van Wezel, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    In the era when large whole genome bacterial datasets are generated routinely, rapid and accurate molecular systematics is becoming increasingly important. However, 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing does not always offer sufficient resolution to discriminate between closely related genera. The SsgA-like proteins are developmental regulatory proteins in sporulating actinomycetes, whereby SsgB actively recruits FtsZ during sporulation-specific cell division. Here, we present a novel method to classi...

  6. Lactose-reversible coaggregation between oral actinomycetes and Streptococcus sanguis.

    Kolenbrander, P. E.; Williams, B L

    1981-01-01

    Freshly isolated strains of oral actinomycetes were obtained from human dental plaque and were tested for the ability to coaggregate with common laboratory stock strains of Streptococcus sanguis. Strains belonging to the genera Actinomyces, Arachnia, Bifidobacterium, and Bacterionema were isolated. Only members of the genus Actinomyces coaggregated with the streptococci, and only Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii exhibited lactose-reversible interactions. A total of 61 strains, ...

  7. Degradation of Lignin-Related Compounds by Actinomycetes

    Ball, A.S.; Betts, W. B.; McCarthy, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence for activity against the lignin fraction of straw was produced for a range of actinomycete strains. Decolorization of the polymeric dye Poly R and oxidation of veratryl alcohol, indicators of ligninolytic activity in white rot fungi, and utilization of fractionated Kraft lignin and low-molecular-weight methoxylated aromatic compounds were the criteria used. The relationships between these activities and the solubilization of native lignin are discussed.

  8. Actinomycetes in Karstic caves of northern Spain (Altamira and Tito Bustillo).

    Groth, I; Vettermann, R; Schuetze, B; Schumann, P; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    1999-05-01

    A variety of isolation procedures were carried out to study the involvement of bacteria in the colonisation and biodeterioration of Spanish caves with paleolithic rock art (Altamira and Tito Bustillo). The applied techniques mainly aimed to isolate heterotrophic bacteria such as streptomycetes, nocardioform and coryneform actinomycetes, and other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results demonstrated that actinomycetes were the most abundant gram-positive bacteria in the caves. Actinomycetes revealed a great taxonomic diversity with the predominant isolates belonging to the genus Streptomyces. Members of the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Nocardioides, Amycolatopsis, Saccharothrix, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and coccoid actinomycetes (family Micrococcaceae) were also found. PMID:10353805

  9. The structural-functional organization of thermotolerant complexes of actinomycetes in desert and volcanic soils

    Zenova, G. M.; Kurapova, A. I.; Lysenko, A. M.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2009-05-01

    It has been found that the number of thermotolerant actinomycetes in strongly heated soils of deserts and volcanic regions is comparable to or exceeds the number of mesophilic actinomycetes. Among the latter group, streptomyces usually predominate; among thermotolerant actinomycetes, representatives of the Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Saccharopolyspora, Microtetraspora, and Microbispora genera are identified. Thermotolerant actinomycetes display the full cycle of their development in these soils. The method of fluorescent in situ hybridization has made it possible to determine that mycelial forms predominate among the metabolically active representatives of Actinobacteria; their portion increases with the rise in the temperature of soil incubation.

  10. [Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from vermicompost].

    Wang, Xue-jun; Yan, Shuang-lin; Min, Chang-li; Yang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, actinomycetes were isolated from vermicompost by tablet coating method. Antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes were measured by the agar block method. Strains with high activity were identified based on morphology and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that 26 strains of actinomycetes were isolated, 16 of them had antimicrobial activities to the test strains which accounts for 61.54% of all strains. Among the 16 strains, the strain QYF12 and QYF22 had higher antimicrobial activity to Micrococcus luteus, with a formed inhibition zone of 27 mm and 31 mm, respectively. While the strain QYF26 had higher antimicrobial activity to Bacillus subtilis, and the inhibition zone diameter was 21 mm. Based on the identification of strains with high activity, the strain QYF12 was identified as Streptomyces chartreusis, the strain QYF22 was S. ossamyceticus and the strain QYF26 was S. gancidicus. This study provided a theoretical basis for further separate antibacterial product used for biological control. PMID:26137678

  11. ISOLATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL AND DEGRADATIVE POTENTIAL OF ACTINOMYCETES

    Padma Singh* and Vani Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Does the soil Actinomycetes have Antimicrobial and Petrol degradation potential? It is an intriguing question. Actinomycetes are continues to be a subject of study with reference to their Antimicrobial and degradative potential. However studies have been done is limited. Our object was to study its Antimicrobial activity in wide spectrum and to study its degradation potential on Petrol. Approach: In this study we have isolated total 5 Actinomycetes from the Ganga river bed. All the isolates later purified and identified by various Morphological and Biochemical test. Here Nocardia was subjected to antimicrobial test against Streptococcus, Mucor and Aspergillus and it was also subjected to degradation test against Petrol. Result: The 5 isolates are Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Micromono sporangium and 2 different strain of Nocardia (Na1 and Na2. The 2 strains of Nocardia are active against Streptococcus (Na1 29.6mm, Na2 26.6mm, Mucor (Na1 12.5mm, Na2 22.5mm and Aspergillus (Na1 50%, Na2 60%. They also degrade Petrol very effectively, decrease in total organic carbon of the medium was observed during the degradation of petrol. Conclusion: Our observation provides us with evidence that these agents can be used for the production of new antibiotics and as the agent to control the environment pollution.

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants.

    Ajit Kumar Passari

    Full Text Available Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using DNA based fingerprinting, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC and BOX repetitive elements. Genetic relatedness based on both ERIC and BOX-PCR generates specific patterns corresponding to particular genotypes. Exponentially grown antagonistic isolates were used to evaluate phosphate solubilization, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, chitinase, indole-3-acetic acid production, as well as antifungal activities. Out of 22 isolates, the amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA ranging between 10-32 μg/ml was produced by 20 isolates and all isolates were positive for ammonia production ranging between 5.2 to 54 mg/ml. Among 22 isolates tested, the amount of hydroxamate-type siderophores were produced by 16 isolates ranging between 5.2 to 36.4 μg/ml, while catechols-type siderophores produced by 5 isolates ranging from 3.2 to 5.4 μg/ml. Fourteen isolates showed the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous ranging from 3.2 to 32.6 mg/100ml. Chitinase and HCN production was shown by 19 and 15 different isolates, respectively. In addition, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM and chitinase (chiC were successively amplified from 20 and 19 isolates respectively. The two potential strains Streptomyces sp. (BPSAC34 and Leifsonia xyli (BPSAC24 were tested in vivo and improved a range of growth parameters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L. under greenhouse conditions. This study is the first published report that actinomycetes can be isolated as endophytes from

  13. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND CHROMIUM REDUCTION PATTERN AMONG ACTINOMYCETES

    Preeti Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes, one of the most important groups of microbes, exhibit many interesting activities such as degradation and transformation of organic and metal substrates together with production of antibiotics. With these bioactivities, actinomycetes would play an important role in the webs of the marine environment. The present study was designed to evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern, antibiotic producing potential and chromium resistance as well as chromium reduction potential of a range of actinomycetes isolated from marine environments. Actinomycetes were isolated from marine sediment samples obtained from St. Martin’s Island in Bangladesh. Antibiotic resistance among the selected isolates was studied against 10 different antibiotics by disc diffusion method and antibiotic producing potential was assessed by the perpendicular streak method. The isolates were screened for resistance towards heavy metal Cr(VI on culture plates supplemented with Cr(VI at concentrations ranging from 1-5 mM of Cr(VI. Highly resistant isolates were subjected to screening for Cr(VI reduction activity, which was estimated using the Cr(VI specific colorimetric reagent 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide. Out of the total 30 different selected isolates, 25 (83.33% showed resistance against more than three antibiotics and 6 (20% showed resistance to more than six antibiotics. Ninety three percent of the isolates showed MAR index greater than 0.2 and tolerance to Cr(VI at 1mM of initial Cr(VI. None of the isolates displayed antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested. Among the isolates tested for chromate reduction, two were most efficient showing complete reduction of 1mM Cr(VI within 24 h. These two isolates (SM-11, SM-20 were capable of reducing chromate even at high initial Cr(VI concentrations. Remarkably, the isolate SM-11 was found to reduce 82.67%, 44.34% of Cr(VI at 2.5mM, 5mM of initial Cr(VI concentrations respectively, within 72h of incubation. The

  14. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI ACTINOMYCETES-ASOSIASI SPONS PENGHASIL ANTIBIOTIK KOLEKSI PULAU BARRANG LOMPO MAKASSAR

    Rante, Herlina

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes merupakan jenis mikroorganisme yang sangat penting sebagai penghasil metabolit sekunder untuk pengobatan. Senyawa bioaktif dari mikroba diperoleh melalui serangkaian penapisan untuk menghasilkan suatu senyawa antibakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisolasi dan mengindentifikasi bakteri actinomycetes dari spons yang berasal dari pulau Barranglompo Makassar dan mengisolasi dan mengidentifikasi senyawa antibakteri secara bioassay guided fractination Isolasi Ac...

  15. Bioactive Potential of Actinomycetes from Less Explored Ecosystems against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Other Nonmycobacterial Pathogens

    Manikkam, Radhakrishnan; Venugopal, Gopikrishnan; Subramaniam, Balaji; Ramasamy, Balagurunathan; Kumar, Vanaja

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive potential of actinomycetes isolated from certain less explored Indian ecosystems against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other nonmycobacterial pathogens was investigated. Actinomycetes were isolated from the soil samples collected from desert, coffee plantation, rubber forest, and hill area and their cultural and micromorphological characteristics were studied. Crude extracts were prepared by agar surface fermentation and tested against M. tuberculosis isolates by luciferase reporte...

  16. Screening of Actinomycetes From Lipar Area of Oman Sea to Investigate the Antibacterial Compounds

    Shams, MR; Shahnavaz; Ghazvini; Valinasab

    2015-01-01

    Background Actinomycetes are one of the most important sources for the production of antibacterial compounds. Marine environments, due to their unique characteristics, are considered a good option to search for bacteria with the capability of producing antimicrobial compounds. Objectives The purpose of this study was to isolate the actinomycetes producing antibacterial compounds. Materials and ...

  17. In Vitro Investigation of Antifungal Activities of Actinomycetes against Microsporum gypseum

    Naser Keikha

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: The findings of the present research show that terrigenous actinomycetes have an antifungal effect upon Microsporum gypseum. So, one hopes that-in future-rather than administering antifungal chemicals that have side-effects, dermatophytic infections can be cured by applying these actinomycetes.

  18. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ACTINOMYCETES AGAINST MDR WOUND BACTERIAL ISOLATES

    L.Ashokkumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of five different actinomycete isolates were recovered from mine soil samples collected from Salem, Tamilnadu. These were then assessed for their antibacterial activity against five multidrug resistance bacterial wound isolates. All five isolates of actinomycete exhibited antagonistic activity. The zone of inhibition ranged between 11-25 mm. Among the 5 isolates of actinomycetes A5 isolate has highest antibacterial activity against S.aureus and E.coli. Out of five bacterial isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly suppressed by actinomycetes followed by E.coli. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed on 14th day incubation. The result of primary screening reveals that most of the active actinomycetes isolates were active against gram positive bacteria (S.aureus than gram negative bacteria. The antibiotic profile of these isolates underlined their potential as a source of novel antibiotics.

  19. Caerulomycin A- An antifungal compound isolated from marine actinomycetes.

    Ambavane, V.; Tokdar, P.; Parab, R.; Sreekumar, E.S.; Mahajan, G.B.; Mishra, P.D.; DeSouza, L.; Ranadive, P.

    of the most successful ap- proaches is to screen microbial resources to extract novel antifungal antibiotics. Drug discovery from natural products has been traditionally focused on empirical exploitation of the most prolific microbial groups: actinomycetes... obtained from mass, IR and 1H NMR spectra (Figures 3-5). In 1H NMR spectra, the signals at δ 7.8 and 7.35 were assigned for protons attached at C-3 and C-5 respectively. Proton at unsaturated C-7 appeared at δ 8.13 due to nitrogen and OH group being...

  20. Therapeutic Potential of Biologically Reduced Silver Nanoparticles from Actinomycete Cultures

    Silver nanoparticles are applied in nanomedicine from time immemorial and are still used as powerful antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents. Antibiotics produced by actinomycetes are popular in almost all the therapeutic measures, and this study has proven that these microbes are also helpful in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with good surface and size characteristics. Silver can be synthesized by various chemical methodologies, and most of them have turned to be toxic. This study has been successful in isolating the microbes from polluted environment, and subjecting them to the reduction of silver nanoparticles, characterizing the nanoparticles by UV spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles produced were tested for their antimicrobial property, and the zone of inhibition was greater than those produced by their chemically synthesized counterparts. Actinomycetes, helpful in bioremediating heavy metals, are useful for the production of metallic nanoparticles. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles loaded with antibiotics prove to be better in killing the pathogens and have opened up new areas for developing nanobiotechnological research based on microbial applications.

  1. New Dimensions of Research on Actinomycetes: Quest for Next Generation Antibiotics.

    Jose, Polpass Arul; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the discovery of streptomycin, the promise of natural products research on actinomycetes has been captivating researchers and offered an array of life-saving antibiotics. However, most of the actinomycetes have received a little attention of researchers beyond isolation and activity screening. Noticeable gaps in genomic information and associated biosynthetic potential of actinomycetes are mainly the reasons for this situation, which has led to a decline in the discovery rate of novel antibiotics. Recent insights gained from genome mining have revealed a massive existence of previously unrecognized biosynthetic potential in actinomycetes. Successive developments in next-generation sequencing, genome editing, analytical separation and high-resolution spectroscopic methods have reinvigorated interest on such actinomycetes and opened new avenues for the discovery of natural and natural-inspired antibiotics. This article describes the new dimensions that have driven the ongoing resurgence of research on actinomycetes with historical background since the commencement in 1940, for the attention of worldwide researchers. Coupled with increasing advancement in molecular and analytical tools and techniques, the discovery of next-generation antibiotics could be possible by revisiting the untapped potential of actinomycetes from different natural sources. PMID:27594853

  2. Diversity and Antagonistic Activity of Actinomycete Strains From Myristica Swamp Soils Against Human Pathogens

    Varghese Rlnoy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the present investigation Actinomycetes were isolated from the soils of Myristica swamps of southern Western Ghats and the antagonistic activity against different human bacterial pathogens was evaluated. Results of the present study revealed that Actinomycetes population in the soils of Myristica swamp was spatially and seasonally varied. Actinomycetes load was varied from 24×104 to 71×103, from 129×103 to 40×103 and from 31×104 to 84×103 in post monsoon, monsoon and pre monsoon respectively. A total of 23 Actinomycetes strains belonging to six genera were isolated from swamp soils. Identification of the isolates showed that most of the isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces (11, followed by Nocardia (6, Micromonospora (3, Pseudonocardia (1, Streptosporangium (1, and Nocardiopsis (1. Antagonistic studies revealed that 91.3% of Actinomycete isolates were active against one or more tested pathogens, of that 56.52% exhibited activity against Gram negative and 86.95% showed activity against Gram positive bacteria. 39.13% isolates were active against all the bacterial pathogens selected and its inhibition zone diameter was also high. 69.5% of Actinomycetes were exhibited antibacterial activity against Listeria followed by Bacillus cereus (65.21%, Staphylococcus (60.86%, Vibrio cholera (52.17%, Salmonella (52.17% and E. coli (39.13%. The results indicate that the Myristica swamp soils of Southern Western Ghats might be a remarkable reserve of Actinomycetes with potential antagonistic activity.

  3. Terrestrial actinomycetes from diverse locations of Uttarakhnad, India: Isolation and screening for their antibacterial activity.

    Vijay Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Uttarakhand region is less explored, but possess a great biodiversity. This diversity can be explored for isolation and characterization of new actinomycetes strains for seeking antimicrobial molecules. It can therefore be predicted that novel bioactive metabolite producing actinomycetes can be discovered to combat multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens.Variations in the viable count of actinomycetes were accessed in different altitudes. Actinomycetes were isolated, indentified and screened for their antibacterial activity.The highest viable counts of actinomycetes were recorded in valleys followed by mid hills and high hills. A total of 512 actinomycetes were isolated which were found to belong the 14 different genera of actinomycetes. Mainly the genus Streptomyces was dominant in all the soil samples. Out of 512 isolates recovered, 23.44% exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more tested bacterial pathogens. Of these 56.67% showed activity against Gram-positive bacteria, 26.67% against Gram-negative bacteria while 16.67% showed broad spectrum activity. Isolate DV1S and GR9a-5 showed highest antibacterial properties against several multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens and were identified using polyphasic approach. DV1S and GR9a-5 were found to be most closely related with S. massasporeus NBRC 12796(T and Nocardia nova JCM 6044(T respectively.The results of this study strongly support the idea that the viable count of actinomycetes varied greatly with altitude. The actinomycetes species isolated from valleys, mid hills and high hills possess significant capacity to produce compounds which are active against several drug resistant bacterial pathogens.

  4. Studies on Actinomycetal Resources under Extreme Environments in the West of China

    Li, W.

    2005-12-01

    s: Actinomycetes play a quite important role in natural ecological system and they are also profile producers of antibiotics, antitumor agents, enzymes, enzyme inhibitors and immunomodifiers. which have been widely applied in industry, agriculture, forestry and pharmaceutical industry. In the past, the research work on actinomycetes was mainly concentrated on that of common habitats. Actinomycetes resources under extreme environments (including extreme high and low temperature, extreme high or low pH, high salt concentration etc.) have received comparatively little attention from microbiologists. Actinomycetes are regarded as one kind of sideline microorganisms and those under extreme environments are better materials for biological evolution and phylogenetic development in research. There are much more unknown species and much more worth researching for actinomycetes under extreme environments. There are many extreme environmental resources in the west of China. For example, wide range snow-mountains, basified soil and lakes, widely distributed acid and alkaline hot-springs in Yunnan provinces; more than 73.3 million hektares basified soil and salt lakes in Xinjiang Province and many unusual environments in Qinghai Province and other western Provinces. They were mostly precious natural resources and were destroyed, relatively fewer can provided us with unique conditions for study on actinomycetal resources under extreme environments. In recent years, our main work was focusing on study of extremophilic actinomycetal resources in the west of China by using conventional cultivation-methods and culture-independent methods (PCR-clone and DGGE/TGGE, etc), Results showed that large amount of unknown microbial resources (including actinomycetal resources) existed in natural extreme environments. Additionally, lots of new taxa were isolated and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Further, we got some new compounds with different bioactivities from these

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain BMG5.12, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from Tunisian Soils.

    Nouioui, Imen; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Cantor, Michael N; Chen, Amy; Detter, J Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Goodwin, Lynne; Gtari, Maher; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Hua, Susan Xinyu; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Mikhailova, Natalia; Nordberg, Henrik P; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Sen, Arnab; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Wei, Chia-Lin; Woyke, Tanja; Tisa, Louis S

    2013-01-01

    Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain BMG5.12, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from Tunisian soils with the ability to infect Elaeagnus angustifolia and Myrica gale. PMID:23846272

  6. Production of the glycopeptide antibiotic A40926 by Nonomuraea sp ATCC 39727: influence of medium composition in batch fermentation

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Bruheim, Per; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 is a novel actinomycete species and the producer of A40926, a glycopeptide antibiotic structurally similar to teichoplanin. In the present study, a defined minimal medium was designed for Nonomuraea fermentation. The influence of initial phosphate, glucose and ammonium...

  7. New Benzoxazine Secondary Metabolites from an Arctic Actinomycete

    Kyuho Moon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new secondary metabolites, arcticoside (1 and C-1027 chromophore-V (2, were isolated along with C-1027 chromophore-III and fijiolides A and B (3–5 from a culture of an Arctic marine actinomycete Streptomyces strain. The chemical structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated through NMR, mass, UV, and IR spectroscopy. The hexose moieties in 1 were determined to be d-glucose from a combination of acid hydrolysis, derivatization, and gas chromatographic analyses. Arcticoside (1 and C-1027 chromophore-V (2, which have a benzoxazine ring, inhibited Candida albicans isocitrate lyase. Chromophore-V (2 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against breast carcinoma MDA-MB231 cells and colorectal carcinoma cells (line HCT-116, with IC50 values of 0.9 and 2.7 μM, respectively.

  8. Antiviral property of marine actinomycetes against white spot syndrome virus in penaeid shrimps

    Kumar, S.S.; Philip, R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Aquaculture farms, particularly in Southeast Asia are facing severe crisis due to increasing incidences of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Actinomycetes have provided many important bioactive compounds of high prophylactic and therapeutic value...

  9. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes of plants and organic horizons in tundra and taiga soils

    Dubrova, M. S.; Zenova, G. M.; Yakushev, A. V.; Manucharova, N. A.; Makarova, E. P.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2013-08-01

    It has been revealed that in organic horizons and plants of the tundra and taiga ecosystems under low temperatures, actinomycetal complexes form. The population density of psychrotolerant actinomycetes in organic horizons and plants reaches tens and hundreds of thousands CFU/g of substrate or soil, and decreases in the sequence litters > plants > soils > undecomposed plant remains > moss growths. The mycelium length of psychrotolerant actinomycetes reaches 220 m/g of substrate. Application of the FISH method has demonstrated that metabolically active psychrotolerant bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria constitute 30% of all metabolically active psychrotolerant representatives of the Bacterià domain of the prokaryotic microbial community of soils and plants. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes in tundra and taiga ecosystems possess antimicrobial properties.

  10. Specificity of actinomycetal complexes in urbanozems of the city of Kirov

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.; Shirokikh, A. A.

    2011-02-01

    The number and composition of the actinomycetal population was studied in urbanozems in the city of Kirov. It was shown that the total population of actinomycetes was an order of magnitude lower than that in the background territories, and the generic structure of the actinomycetal complex and the species composition of the streptomycetes were transformed under the influence of the urbanization factors. The obtained data were compared with the concentrations of the mobile forms of Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn in different ecotopes (industrial, traffic, and recreation zones). The increase of the relative portion of micromonosporic actinomycetes in comparison with the background (reference) soils was observed in the complexes of the industrial and transport ecotopes mostly contaminated with heavy metals. It was found that the antibiotic potential of the streptomycetes in the contaminated soils was lower than in the soils of the background territories.

  11. Marine actinomycetes as an emerging resource for the drug development pipelines.

    Zotchev, Sergey B

    2012-04-30

    Many representatives of the order Actinomycetales are prolific producers of thousands of biologically active secondary metabolites. Actinomycetes from terrestrial sources have been studied and screened since the 1950s, yielding many important anti-infective and anti-cancer drugs. However, frequent re-discovery of the same compounds in terrestrial actinomycetes have made them less attractive for screening programs in the recent years. At the same time, actinomycetes isolated from the marine environment currently receive considerable attention due to the structural diversity and unique biological activities of their secondary metabolites. This review highlights achievements and challenges in the isolation of marine actinomycetes, some examples of bioactive metabolites identified by conventional screening, and presents new developments in the field of genome mining and heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters leading to the discovery of novel compounds. PMID:21683100

  12. Isolation and identification of actinomycetes from a compost-amended soil with potential as biocontrol agents.

    Cuesta, Gonzalo; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Abad, Manuel; Fornes, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    The search for new biocontrol strategies to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic microorganisms has become widely widespread due to environmental concerns. Among actinomycetes, Streptomyces species have been extensively studied since they have been recognized as important sources of antibiotics. Actinomycete strains were isolated from a calcareous soil, 2 two-phase olive mill waste ('alperujo') composts, and the compost-amended soil by using selective media, and they were then co-cultured with 5 phytopathogenic fungi and 1 bacterium to perform an in vitro antagonism assay. Forty-nine actinomycete strains were isolated, 12 of them showing a great antagonistic activity towards the phytopathogenic microorganisms tested. Isolated strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phenotypic procedures. Eleven isolates concerned the genus Streptomyces and 1 actinomycete with chitinolytic activity belonged to the genus Lechevalieria. PMID:21190787

  13. Actinomycetes as the causative organism of osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease

    The case of a 17-year-old girl with sickle cell anaemia who presented with extensive osteomyelitis due to actinomycetes is reported. Osteomyelitis in the long bones due to actinomycosis is extremely rare. A review of the literature reveals only six cases in which actinomycetes have been isolated from lesions affecting a long bone. The occurence of this condition in sickle cell haemoglobinopathy has not been previously reported. (orig.)

  14. Isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from roots and leaves of maize (Zea mays L.)

    Araújo, Janete M.; da Silva, Adilson C.; João L. Azevedo

    2000-01-01

    Actinomycetes were isolated from surface sterilized leaves and roots of maize. A total of 53 isolates were obtained, 31 of them from leaves and 22 from roots. The genus Microbispora was the most frequently found followed by the genera Streptomyces and Streptosporangium. From the isolated actinomycetes, 43.4% showed antimicrobial activity against one or more tested bacteria and yeast.Microrganismos endofíticos são frequentemente encontrados no interior de plantas cultivadas. Embora vários tipo...

  15. Actinomycetes from the South China Sea sponges: isolation, diversity, and potential for aromatic polyketides discovery

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; He, Liming; Karthik, Loganathan; Li, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges often harbor dense and diverse microbial communities including actinobacteria. To date no comprehensive investigation has been performed on the culturable diversity of the actinomycetes associated with South China Sea sponges. Structurally novel aromatic polyketides were recently discovered from marine sponge-derived Streptomyces and Saccharopolyspora strains, suggesting that sponge-associated actinomycetes can serve as a new source of aromatic polyketides. In this study, a tot...

  16. Population densities and genetic diversity of actinomycetes associated to the rhizosphere of Theobroma cacao

    Tâmara R. Barreto; da Silva, Augusto C.M.; Soares, Ana Cristina F.; De Souza, Jorge T.

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the acknowledged importance of growth-promoting bacteria, only a reduced number of studies were conducted with these microorganisms on Theobroma cacao. The objectives of this work were to study the population densities and genetic diversity of actinomycetes associated with the rhizosphere of cacao as a first step in their application in plant growth promotion and biological control. The populations densities of actinomycetes in soil and cacao roots were similar, with mean values o...

  17. Isolation and in vitro selection of actinomycetes strains as potential probiotics for aquaculture

    Milagro García Bernal; Ángel Isidro Campa-Córdova; Pedro Enrique Saucedo; Marlen Casanova González; Ricardo Medina Marrero; José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to describe a series of in vitro tests that may aid the discovery of probiotic strains from actinomycetes. Materials and Methods: Actinomycetes were isolated from marine sediments using four different isolation media, followed by antimicrobial activity and toxicity assessment by the agar diffusion method and the hemolysis of human blood cells, respectively. Extracellular enzymatic production was monitored by the hydrolysis of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates....

  18. Artificial Chromosomes to Explore and to Exploit Biosynthetic Capabilities of Actinomycetes

    Rosa Alduina; Giuseppe Gallo

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes are an important source of biologically active compounds, like antibiotics, antitumor agents, and immunosuppressors. Genome sequencing is revealing that this class of microorganisms has larger genomes relative to other bacteria and uses a considerable fraction of its coding capacity (5–10%) for the production of mostly cryptic secondary metabolites. To access actinomycetes biosynthetic capabilities or to improve the pharmacokinetic properties and production yields of these chemi...

  19. Harnessing the Potential of Halogenated Natural Product Biosynthesis by Mangrove-Derived Actinomycetes

    Xiang Xiao; Jun Xu; Min-Juan Xu; Shu-Jie Xie; Li Xu; Guang-Hui Ma; Xiao-Min Tang; Jing Xiao; Xue-Gong Li

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove-derived actinomycetes are promising sources of bioactive natural products. In this study, using homologous screening of the biosynthetic genes and anti-microorganism/tumor assaying, 163 strains of actinomycetes isolated from mangrove sediments were investigated for their potential to produce halogenated metabolites. The FADH2-dependent halogenase genes, identified in PCR-screening, were clustered in distinct clades in the phylogenetic analysis. The coexistence of either polyketide sy...

  20. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea.

    Sreevidya, M; Gopalakrishnan, S; Kudapa, H; Varshney, R K

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20°C to 40°C, pH range of 7-11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40) but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40), hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40), indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea. PMID:26887230

  1. Isolation and characterization of actinomycete antagonists of a fungal root pathogen.

    Crawford, D L; Lynch, J M; Whipps, J M; Ousley, M A

    1993-11-01

    By use of selective media, 267 actinomycete strains were isolated from four rhizosphere-associated and four non-rhizosphere-associated British soils. Organic media with low nutrient concentrations were found to be best for isolating diverse actinomycetes while avoiding contamination and overgrowth of isolation media by eubacteria and fungi. While all isolates grew well at pHs 6.5 to 8.0, a few were unable to grow at pH 6.0 and a significant number failed to grow at pH 5.5. Eighty-two selected isolates were screened for in vitro antagonism towards Pythium ultimum by use of a Difco cornmeal agar assay procedure. Five isolates were very strong antagonists of the fungus, four were strong antagonists, and ten others were weakly antagonistic. The remaining isolates showed no antagonism by this assay. Additional studies showed that several of the P. ultimum antagonists also strongly inhibited growth of other root-pathogenic fungi. Twelve isolates showing antifungal activity in the in vitro assay were also tested for their effects on the germination and short-term growth of lettuce plants in glasshouse pot studies in the absence of pathogens. None of the actinomycetes prevented seed germination, although half of the isolates retarded seed germination and outgrowth of the plants by 1 to 3 days. During 18-day growth experiments, biomass yields of some actinomycete-inoculated plants were reduced in comparison with untreated control plants, although all plants appeared healthy and well rooted. None of the actinomycetes significantly enhanced plant growth over these short-term experiments. For some, but not all, actinomycetes, some correlations between delayed seed germination and reduced 18-day plant biomass yields were seen. For others, plant biomass yields were not reduced despite an actinomycete-associated delay in seed germination and plant outgrowth. Preliminary glasshouse experiments indicated that some of the actinomycetes protect germinating lettuce seeds against

  2. Occurrence of Rhodococcus coprophilus and associated actinomycetes in feces, sewage, and freshwater.

    Mara, D. D.; Oragui, J I

    1981-01-01

    Freshwater, sewage, and fecal samples from various sources were examined for Rhodococcus coprophilus, associated actinomycetes, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci. Rhodococcus coprophilus was isolated consistently from feces of farm animals, poultry reared in proximity to farm animals, freshwater, and wastewater polluted with animal fecal wastes. It was not isolated from samples of human feces. The ratio of R. coprophilus total actinomycetes was higher in feces from cattle, sheep, ducks...

  3. Bioperspective of actinomycetes isolates from coastal soils: A new source of antimicrobial producers

    Rattanaporn Srivibool; Morakot Sukchotiratana

    2006-01-01

    Forty five soil samples were collected from four coastal islands on the east coast of Thailand: Chang, Hwai, Lao-yanai in Trat Province and Pai Islands in Chonburi Province. On 3 isolating media, Actinomycetes Isolation Agar, Starch Casein Agar and Glucose Asparagine Agar, 495 isolates of actinomycetes were found. Preliminary test to search for antimicrobial activity was done with Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 885, Staphylococus aureus TISTR 517 (ATCC 25923), Microc...

  4. Enrichment Method for the Isolation of Bioactive Actinomycetes From Mangrove Sediments of Andaman Islands, India

    Baskaran, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various pre-treatment methods and three different media were employed for the isolation of bioactive actinomycetes from mangrove sediments of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Sediments from four different sites of mangrove forest were collected and pre-treated by dry heat method, and the media were supplemented with cycloheximide 80 µg/mL and nalidixic acid 75 µg/mL. The mean actinomycetes population density in sediment samples were recorded as 22 CFU-10^-6/gm in KUA medium followed by 12 CFU-10^-6/gm in AIA medium and 8 CFU-10^-6/gm in SCA medium. A total of 42 actinomycetes were isolated, and all the isolates were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria on two different media. Among 42 isolates tested, 22 species were found to be antibacterial metabolite producer against test bacteria namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Particularly, the actinomycete strains such as A101, A102, A107, A116, A121, A125, A130, F101, F102, F104, F106, De101 and De102 significantly inhibited the growth of all bacteria which were tested. Of these strains, A107 was identified as Streptomyces spp. This strain had the maximum activity against all used pathogens on both medium. Hence, the isolation, characterization and studies of secondary metabolites of actinomycetes from mangrove sediments in Andaman and Nicobar Island could be a pathway for discovery of antibiotics from marine actinomycetes.

  5. Influence of moisture on the vital activity of actinomycetes in a cultivated low-moor peat soil

    Zenova, G. M.; Gryadunova, A. A.; Doroshenko, E. A.; Likhacheva, A. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.; Pochatkova, T. N.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2007-05-01

    It was found that the actinomycetal complex of a cultivated low-moor peat soil is characterized by a high population density and diversity of actinomycetes; representatives of eleven genera were isolated from this soil: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Saccharopolyspora, Microbispora, Microtetraspora, Streptosporangium, Nocardioides, Saccharomonospora, Kibdelosporangium, and Thermomonospora. Some genera were isolated from the soil under all the studied levels of soil moisture. The so-called rare (rarely occurring) genera (Saccharomonospora, Kibdelosporangium, and Thermomonospora) were isolated upon the low level of soil moisture, which ensured an absence of competition from the more abundant actinomycetes. Spores of all the studied actinomycetes could germinate under the low moisture level (a w = 0.67). The level of moisture a w = 0.98 was found to be optimal for the development of the actinomycetes. The complete cycle of the development of all the actinomycetes up to spore formation occurring was only observed under the high moisture level (a w = 0.98).

  6. Geodermatophilus poikilotrophi sp. nov.: a multitolerant actinomycete isolated from dolomitic marble.

    del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Maria; Hofner, Benjamin; Göker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Hezbri, Karima; Gtari, Maher; Schumann, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    A novel Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic actinobacterium, tolerant to mitomycin C, heavy metals, metalloids, hydrogen peroxide, desiccation, and ionizing- and UV-radiation, designated G18T, was isolated from dolomitic marble collected from outcrops in Samara (Namibia). The growth range was 15-35°C, at pH 5.5-9.5 and in presence of 1% NaCl, forming greenish-black coloured colonies on GYM Streptomyces agar. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for other representatives of the genus Geodermatophilus. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diaminoacid. The main phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and small amount of diphosphatidylglycerol. MK-9(H4) was the dominant menaquinone and galactose was detected as diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acids were branched-chain saturated acids iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0 and the unsaturated C17:1 ω8c and C16:1 ω7c. The 16S rRNA gene showed 97.4-99.1% sequence identity with the other representatives of genus Geodermatophilus. Based on phenotypic results and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain G18T is proposed to represent a novel species, Geodermatophilus poikilotrophi. Type strain is G18T (=DSM 44209T=CCUG 63018T). The INSDC accession number is HF970583. The novel R software package lethal was used to compute the lethal doses with confidence intervals resulting from tolerance experiments. PMID:25114928

  7. Characterization of plasma membrane respiratory chain and ATPase on the actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727

    Palese, L.; Gaballo, A.; Dobrová, Zuzana; Labonia, N.; Abbrescia, A.; Scacco, S.; Micelli, L.; Papa, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 228, č. 2 (2003), s. 233-239. ISSN 0378-1097 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cytochrome * respiration * oxidase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.932, year: 2003

  8. Enumerating actinomycetes in compost bioaerosols at source—Use of soil compost agar to address plate ‘mask

    Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, Gillian H; Tamer Vestlund, Asli; Aldred, David; Longhurst, Philip J.; Pollard, Simon J. T.

    2007-01-01

    Actinomycetes are the dominant bacteria isolated from bioaerosols sampled at composting facilities. Here, a novel method for the isolation of actinomycetes is reported, overcoming masking of conventional agar plates, as well as reducing analysis time and costs. Repeatable and reliable actinomycetes growth was best achieved using a soil compost media at an incubation temperature of 44 °C and 7 days’ incubation. The results are of particular value to waste management operators...

  9. Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) by actinomycetes isolated from TNT-contaminated and uncontaminated environments.

    Pasti-Grigsby, M B; Lewis, T A; Crawford, D. L.; Crawford, R L

    1996-01-01

    Actinomycete strains isolated from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated and uncontaminated environments were compared for TNT tolerance and abilities to transform TNT. Regardless of previous TNT exposure history, no significant differences in TNT tolerance were seen among strains. Selected strains did not significantly mineralize [14C]TNT. The actinomycetes did, however, transform TNT into reduced intermediates. The data indicate that, in actinomycete-rich aerobic environments like compos...

  10. Diversity of Actinomycetes at Several Forest Types in Wanagama I Yogyakarta and Their Potency as a Producer of Antifungal Compound

    Reni Nurjasmi; Jaka Widada; Ngadiman N

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycetes are bacterial groups that produce many secondary metabolites, which different biological activities, such as antifungi, antibacteria, antivirus, antitumor, etc. Actinomycetes are widely distributed in soil and their diversity is influenced by type of forest. The aim of this study is to investigate diversity of actinomycetes in several forest types of Wanagama I forest in Yogyakarta and their potency as a producer of antifungal compound. Soil samples under the forest of Tectona g...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain CcI6, a Salt-Tolerant Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodule of Casuarina cunninghamiana.

    Mansour, Samira R; Oshone, Rediet; Hurst, Sheldon G; Morris, Krystalynne; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S

    2014-01-01

    Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a 5.57-Mbp draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain CcI6, a salt-tolerant nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Casurina cunninghamiana grown in Egyptian soils. PMID:24435877

  12. Draft genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida.

    Sen, Arnab; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Deshpande, Shweta; Detter, Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Ghodbhane-Gtari, Faten; Goodwin, Lynne; Gtari, Maher; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Land, Miriam L; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Nouioui, Imen; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Santos, Catarina L; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Tavares, Fernando; Teshima, Hazuki; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Wishart, Jessie; Tisa, Louis S

    2013-01-01

    Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida. PMID:23516220

  13. Draft Genome sequence of Frankia sp. Strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida

    Sen, Arnab [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Beauchemin, Nicholas [University of New Hampshire; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Furnholm, Teal [University of New Hampshire; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten [University of New Hampshire; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gtari, Maher [University of New Hampshire; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nouioui, Imen [University of Tunis-El Manar, Tunisia; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Santos, Catarina [Instiuto Celular e Aplicada, Portugal; Sur, Saubashya [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tavares, Fernando [Instiuto Celular e Aplicada, Portugal; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thakur, Subarna [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Wall, Luis [University of Quilmes, Argentina; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wishart, Jessie [University of New Hampshire; Tisa, Louis S. [University of New Hampshire

    2013-01-01

    Members of actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. stain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain CcI6, a Salt-Tolerant Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodule of Casuarina cunninghamiana

    Mansour, Samira R.; Oshone, Rediet; Hurst, Sheldon G.; Morris, Krystalynne; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a 5.57-Mbp draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain CcI6, a salt-tolerant nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Casurina cunninghamiana grown in Egyptian soils.

  15. Characterization of a chitinase from the cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca.

    Gaber, Yasser; Mekasha, Sophanit; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-09-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a well-known cellulose-degrading actinomycete, which produces various glycoside hydrolases for this purpose. However, despite the presence of putative chitinase genes in its genome, T. fusca has not been reported to grow on chitin as sole carbon source. In this study, a gene encoding a putative membrane-anchored GH18 chitinase (Tfu0868) from T. fusca has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was produced as SUMO fusion protein and, upon removal of the SUMO domain, soluble pure TfChi18A was obtained with yields typically amounting to 150mg per litre of culture. The enzyme was found to be relatively thermostable (apparent Tm=57.5°C) but not particularly thermoactive, the optimum temperature being 40-45°C. TfChi18A bound to α- and β-chitin and degraded both these substrates. Interestingly, activity towards colloidal chitin was minimal and in this case, substrate inhibition was observed. TfChi18A also cleaved soluble chito-oligosaccharides and showed a clear preference for substrates having five sugars or more. While these results show that TfChi18A is a catalytically competent GH18 chitinase, the observed catalytic rates were low compared to those of well-studied GH18 chitinases. This suggests that TfChi18A is not a true chitinase and not likely to endow T. fusca with the ability to grow on chitin. PMID:27108953

  16. Actinomycetes from red sea sponges: Sources for chemical and phylogenetic diversity

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan

    2014-05-12

    The diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges collected off Fsar Reef (Saudi Arabia) was investigated in the present study. Forty-seven actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were assigned to 10 different actinomycete genera. Eight putatively novel species belonging to genera Kocuria, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the NCBI database. PCR-based screening for biosynthetic genes including type I and type II polyketide synthases (PKS-I, PKS-II) as well as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) showed that 20 actinomycete isolates encoded each at least one type of biosynthetic gene. The organic extracts of nine isolates displayed bioactivity against at least one of the test pathogens, which were Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, human parasites, as well as in a West Nile Virus protease enzymatic assay. These results emphasize that marine sponges are a prolific resource for novel bioactive actinomycetes with potential for drug discovery. 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  17. Actinomycetes from Red Sea Sponges: Sources for Chemical and Phylogenetic Diversity

    Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges collected off Fsar Reef (Saudi Arabia was investigated in the present study. Forty-seven actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were assigned to 10 different actinomycete genera. Eight putatively novel species belonging to genera Kocuria, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the NCBI database. PCR-based screening for biosynthetic genes including type I and type II polyketide synthases (PKS-I, PKS-II as well as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS showed that 20 actinomycete isolates encoded each at least one type of biosynthetic gene. The organic extracts of nine isolates displayed bioactivity against at least one of the test pathogens, which were Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, human parasites, as well as in a West Nile Virus protease enzymatic assay. These results emphasize that marine sponges are a prolific resource for novel bioactive actinomycetes with potential for drug discovery.

  18. Isolation of actinomycetes from mangrove and estuarine sediments of Cochin and screening for antimicrobial activity

    Emilda Rosmine

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and screen actinomycetes for antimicrobial activity from mangroves and estuarine soil samples of Cochin. Methods: In the present study, sediment samples collected from mangroves and various stations of Cochin estuary were pretreated and actinomycetes were isolated on different selective media. The isolates were screened for antibiotic activity by following disc diffusion assay (Kirby-Bauer method) against human pathogens, fish pathogens and Gram-positive bacteria. The isolates were identified based on their morphology. Results:Only 2 actinomycete isolates (ER7and ER10) of the 50 isolates screened had antimicrobial activities against one or more pathogens tested. ER7 isolate showed higher antimicrobial activity as compared to that of ER10 isolate. The maximum inhibition zone of crude extract from ER7 was 16.7 mm. The methanol extract of ER7 showed antimicrobial activity against all the pathogens tested with a maximum zone of 21.0 mm. The isolates with antimicrobial activity were found to belong to the genusStreptomyces. Conclusions:There is no significant report on bioactive actinomycetes from the present study areas. Potent antibiotics from the selected isolates could contribute to fight against several human and fish diseases. Further purification, structural elucidation and characterization are recommended to know the quality, novelty and commercial value of these antibiotics. Hence, the mangroves and estuary of Kochi show great promise for the discovery of bioactive actinomycetes.

  19. Phosphate solubilizing activities of Actinomycetes isolated from Waigeo, Raja Ampat islands, West Papua

    SRI WIDAWATI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes is a major microbial group observed in soil, and contributes to nutrient cycling. This study is intended to verify physiological characters and phosphate solubilizing ability of Actinomycetes isolated from soil of Raja Ampat, West Papua. Most of isolates (RCW16-9, RCW16-8, W5-6, RCW25-1, RCW26-5, W28-4, W3-1, W3-7, W17-7, and W10-1 belonged to Streptomyces genera. The isolates produce clear zone in Pivoskaya after 3 days incubation. The liquid growth of this isolate rapidly utilizes glucose, and after 24 days of incubation almost 95% glucose was consumed. Decrease of pH from 6.1 to 4.3 may stimulate dissolution of calcium phosphate, and about 21 mg/L-P was observed in bulk solution. An increase of phosphomonoesterase activity during incubation is concomitant with the release of orthophosphate into bulk solution. Acidity of cultures increased may stimulate solubilization of calcium phosphate. Most strains produce phosphomonoesterase enzyme, indicating that actinomycetes are important soil microbes responsible for mediation and stimulation of both inorganic and organic phosphate dissolution. Physiological and biomass growth character of phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes could be important taxonomic indicator for identifying and grouping soil actinomycetes.

  20. SCREENING OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND GENES CODING POLYKETIDE SYNTHETASE AND NONRIBOSOMAL PEPTIDE SYNTHETASE OF ACTINOMYCETE ISOLATES

    Silvia Kovácsová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe antimicrobial activity using agar plate diffusion method and screening genes coding polyketide synthetase (PKS-I and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS from actinomycetes. A total of 105 actinomycete strains were isolated from arable soil. Antimicrobial activity was demonstrated at 54 strains against at least 1 of total 12 indicator organisms. Antifungal properties were recorded more often than antibacterial properties. The presence of PKS-I and NRPS genes were founded at 61 of total 105 strains. The number of strains with mentioned biosynthetic enzyme gene fragments matching the anticipated length were 19 (18% and 50 (47% respectively. Overall, five actinomycete strains carried all the biosynthetical genes, yet no antimicrobial activity was found against any of tested pathogens. On the other hand, twenty-one strains showed antimicrobial activity even though we were not able to amplify any of the PKS or NRPS genes from them. Combination of the two methods showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes isolated from arable soil, which indicate that actinomycetes are valuable reservoirs of novel bioactive compounds.

  1. Screening of Actinomycetes From Lipar Area of Oman Sea to Investigate the Antibacterial Compounds

    Shams

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Actinomycetes are one of the most important sources for the production of antibacterial compounds. Marine environments, due to their unique characteristics, are considered a good option to search for bacteria with the capability of producing antimicrobial compounds. Objectives The purpose of this study was to isolate the actinomycetes producing antibacterial compounds. Materials and Methods A total of 35 actinomycetes were isolated from Oman Sea (Lipar Area. To investigate antibacterial activity, the isolated actinomycetes were assessed against reference and pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcu intermedius, Staphylococcu chromogenes, Staphylococcu saprophyticus, Bacillus cereus and methicillin-resistance Staphylococcu aureus, Pseudomonas, Listeria, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Acinetobacter, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using the cross streak method. Results Based on the morphological characterization, 35 isolated cases belonged to actinomycetes and %94 of them had the ability to produce antibacterial compounds. In the cross streak method, most of the isolated bacteria have antibacterial activity against reference S. aureus among Gram-positive bacteria and Acinetobacter among Gram-negative bacteria. Inhibition zone diameters were measured between 2-25 and 1-20 mm for Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, receptivity. Conclusions Preliminary results indicate that the native Iranian Actinobacteria could be considered a suitable option for screening of the new antibacterial compounds. Molecular research and antibacterial compound extraction against the aforementioned pathogenic strains are also being conducted.

  2. Amylase activity of aquatic actinomycetes isolated from the sediments of mangrove forests in south of Iran

    Farshid Kafilzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study amylase producing actinomycetes were isolated from the sediments of mangrove forests in the south of Iran and the rate of amylase activity was measured. The samples of sediments were collected from one hundred different places in mangrove forests of the south of Iran. Collected samples were diluted then they were purified on the starch (casein agar culture and Woodruff. After that they were examined in terms of amylase production on agar–starch culture. The activity of the produced amylase by the isolated aquatic actinomycetes was measured by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS method. The results showed that aquatic actinomycetes were isolated from 86 per 100 places in spring (86% and from 61 per 100 places in summer (61%. The highest rates of producing enzyme were related to isolated samples in spring (62.97 U/ml. Biochemical and Bergey’s book tests showed that the most isolated aquatic actinomycetes belonged to Streptomyces genus. As regards this, it is economical and easy to isolate the aquatic actinomycetes which produce amylase that is used in different industries in Iran from the sediments of mangrove forests of the south of Iran. So the isolated strains in this study can be suitable candidates for amylase production after genetic manipulation.

  3. A Morphological, Biochemical and Biological Studies of Halophilic Streptomyces sp. Isolated from Saltpan Environment

    Deepika T. Lakshmipathy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dermatophytes have developed resistance to the existing antifungal antibiotics. As a part of our continuous search we had isolated, identified and characterized actinomycetes from the halophilic environment having antagonistic activity against the dermatophytes namely Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. Approach: Actinomycetes were isolated from the soil sample collected from the Ennore saltpan region, Chennai, India and screened for antidermatophytic secondary metabolite production by well diffusion method. Four dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum [MTCC 3272], Trichophyton mentagrophytes [MTCC 7687], Microsporum gypseum [MTCC 2819] and Epidermophyton floccosum [MTCC 7880] were used to study its susceptibility to the isolated actinomycetes. Actinomycetes which showed antidermatophytic activity were subjected to cultural characterization with respect to aerial and substrate mycelia color, diffusible and melanin pigment production and the growth of the organisms on different media. Further the micro morphological characteristics such as spore surface ornamentation and spore chain morphology determined by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM analysis also suggested that the isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces. The isolates were also tested for utilization of various carbon and nitrogen sources, degradation of complex compounds, sensitivity to antibiotics and inhibitory compounds. Results: All the 3 isolates exhibited different cultural and morphological characteristics. Based on the cultural characters and morphology they were assigned to the genus Streptomyces. The three isolates produced an inhibition zone of 30-31 mm on an average, utilized a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources, degraded almost all the complex compounds and exhibited a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance. They were designated as Streptomyces sp. DKDVIT1, Streptomyces sp. DKDVIT2 and

  4. Increased production of antioxidants in the presence of cadmium by Promicromonospora sp. UTMC2243

    Meisam Mirjalili

    2015-01-01

    Reactive free radicals are detrimental agents which have various side effects cause many diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, etc. They also play an important role in deterioration of food. Therefore, antioxidant compounds with high performance are still demanding. Promicromonospora sp. UTMC 2243 is a rare actinomycete which was used in this experiment for considering its ability to produce antioxidants. In Previous studies resistance and removal of heavy metals has been shown by Promic...

  5. Sceliphrolactam, a polyene macrocyclic lactam from a wasp-associated Streptomyces sp

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R;

    2011-01-01

    A previously unreported 26-membered polyene macrocyclic lactam, sceliphrolactam, was isolated from an actinomycete, Streptomyces sp., associated with the mud dauber, Sceliphron caementarium. Sceliphrolactam's structure was determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectral analysis. Sceliphrol....... Sceliphrolactam displays antifungal activity against amphotericin B-resistant Candida albicans (MIC = 4 µg/mL, 8.3 µM)....

  6. Phylogenetic characterization of culturable actinomycetes associated with the mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera from Gulf of Mannar.

    Nithyanand, Paramasivam; Manju, Sivalingam; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is a virtually untapped source of novel actinomycete diversity and its metabolites. Investigating the diversity of actinomycetes in other marine macroorganisms, like seaweeds and sponges, have resulted in isolation of novel bioactive metabolites. Actinomycetes diversity associated with corals and their produced metabolites have not yet been explored. Hence, in this study we attempted to characterize the culturable actinomycetes population associated with the coral Acropora digitifera. Actinomycetes were isolated from the mucus of the coral wherein the actinomycetes count was much higher when compared with the surrounding seawater and sediment. Actinobacteria-specific 16S rRNA gene primers were used for identifying the isolates at the molecular level in addition to biochemical tests. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes revealed several polymorphic groups within the isolates. Sequencing and blast analysis of the isolates revealed that some isolates had only 96.7% similarity with its nearest match in GenBank indicating that they may be novel isolates at the species level. The isolated actinomycetes exhibited good antibacterial activity against various human pathogens. This study offers for the first time a prelude about the unexplored culturable actinomycetes diversity associated with a scleractinian coral and their bioactive capabilities. PMID:21105906

  7. Ecological and Taxonomic Features of Actinomycetal Complexes in Soils of the Lake Elton Basin

    Zenova, G. M.; Dubrova, M. S.; Kuznetsova, A. I.; Gracheva, T. A.; Manucharova, N. A.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2016-02-01

    In the sor (playa) solonchaks of chloride and sulfate-chloride salinity (the content of readily soluble salts is 0.9-1.0%) in the delta of the Khara River discharging into Lake Elton, the number of mycelial actinobacteria (actinomycetes) is low ((2-3) × 103 CFU/g of soil). At a distance from the water's edge, these soils are substituted for the light chestnut ones, for which an elevated number of actinomycetes (an order of magnitude higher than in the sor solonchaks) and a wider generic spectrum are characteristic. The actinomycetal complex is included the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, whereas in the sor solonchaks around the lake, representatives of Micromonospora were not found.

  8. Cellulolytic Actinomycetes isolated from soil in Bukit Duabelas National Park, Jambi

    ATIT KANTI

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of study was to investigate the enzymatic activities of cellulolytic Actinomycetes. The soil sample was collected from Bukit Duabelas National Park, Jambi. Actinomycetes was isolated by Casein Agar Medium, and its cellulolytic capacity was determined by measuring the activity of CMC-ase. Two isolates of cellulolytic Actinomycetes belonged to genus Streptomyces were isolated. The CMC-ase activity was 7.7 unit and 13.4 unit for isolate I and isolate II respectively. The Km of isolate I and isolate II were 1.356x 10-3 and 1.595x 10-3 (% b/v respectively. Vmaks of isolate I and II was 1.658 x10-4 and 6.166x 10-4 µg glukosa/mL enzyme /minute, respectively.

  9. Actinomycetal complexes in drained peat soils of the taiga zone upon pyrogenic succession

    Zenova, G. M.; Glushkova, N. A.; Bannikov, M. V.; Shvarov, A. P.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2008-04-01

    The number and diversity of actinomycetes in peat soils vary in dependence on the stage of pyrogenic succession. In the cultivated peat soil, the number of actinomycetes after fires decreases by three-four times, mainly at the expense of acidophilic and neutrophilic groups. An increase in the number of mycelial prokaryotes (at the expense of alkaliphilic forms) is seen on the fifth year of functioning of the pyrogenic peat soil. The species diversity of streptomycetes in peat soils also decreases after fires. An increase in the range of streptomycetal species at the expense of neutrophilic and alkaliphilic forms takes place on the fifth year of the pyrogenic succession. Parameters of the actinomycetal complex—the population density, species composition, and ecological features—are the criteria whose changes allow us to judge the state of peat soils in the course of their pyrogenic succession.

  10. A Search and Improvement of Actinomycetes Strains by Gamma Radiation for Biological Control of Plant Pathogen

    Two hundred isolates of actinomycetes isolate from soil sample in Sakaerat Bioshere Reserve and Suwanvajokkasikit Field Corps Research Station were tested the ability of actinomycetes on chitinase production and inhibition on the growth of 3 phyto pathogenic fung: Fusarium sporotrichiodes, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii, It was found that 7 isolates showed good tendency to control the growth of phyto pathogenic fungi in the with and with chitin. To increase the ability on antifungal activity the select show were mutant using gamma irradiation of radiance 173 isolates of mutant actinomycetes we found that only 35 isolates showed higher in inhibitory effect on three phyto pathogenic fungi tested. three isolate. Three isolates of mutant strains, SJ9I-15, SG4I-17 and SG4I-38 and two isolates of wild type strain which are SJ9 and SG4 were selected for controlling phyto pathogenic fungi in the green house.

  11. Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples of Sheopur (A city of central India

    Hotam S Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was isolation, purification, and characterization of actinomycetes from soil samples, having antimicrobial activity against 12 selected pathogenic strains. Soils samples were taken from different niche habitats of Sheopur district, Madhya Pradesh, India. These samples were serially diluted and plated on actinomycete isolation agar media. Potential colonies were screened, purified, and stored in glycerol stock. Isolates were morphologically and biochemically characterized. These isolates were subjected to extraction for production of the antibacterial compound. Antibacterial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the purified extract of isolates were evaluated. Totally 31 actinomycete isolates were tested for antagonistic activity against 12 pathogenic microorganisms. Isolates AS14, AS27, and AS28 were highly active, while AS1 showed less activity against the pathogenic microorganisms. Isolate AS7 exhibited the highest antagonistic activity against Bacillus cereus (24 mm and AS16 showed the highest activity against Enterococcus faecalis (21 mm. MIC was also determined for actinomycete isolates against all the tested microorganisms. MIC of actinomycete isolates was found to be 2.5 mg/ml against Shigella dysenteriae, Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and was 1.25 mg/ml for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. All actinomycetes isolates showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, while they showed less activity against S. dysenteriae. These isolates had antibacterial activity and could be used in the development of new antibiotics for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.

  12. Crystallochemical transformation of phyllosilicates under the impact of cyanobacteria and actinomycetes

    Chizhikova, N. P.; Omarova, E. O.; Lobakova, E. S.; Zenova, G. M.; Manucharov, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of the crystallochemical structure of phyllosilicates (vermiculite and biotite) under the impact of growing cyanobacterial and actinomycetal associations, as well as monocultures of cyanobacteria and actinomycetes, has been studied. The character of the mineral transformation depends on their crystallochemical structure and the type of biota. The most significant changes take place in the contact zone between minerals and microbial associations; the effect of microbial monocultures is smaller. The transformation of biotite proceeds via the stage of ordered mica-vermiculite (smectite) neoformation (rectorite); the destruction of vermiculite has been identified.

  13. Phosphate solubilizing activities of Actinomycetes isolated from Waigeo, Raja Ampat islands, West Papua

    SRI WIDAWATI; ARIF NURKANTO; I Made Sudiana

    2008-01-01

    Actinomycetes is a major microbial group observed in soil, and contributes to nutrient cycling. This study is intended to verify physiological characters and phosphate solubilizing ability of Actinomycetes isolated from soil of Raja Ampat, West Papua. Most of isolates (RCW16-9, RCW16-8, W5-6, RCW25-1, RCW26-5, W28-4, W3-1, W3-7, W17-7, and W10-1) belonged to Streptomyces genera. The isolates produce clear zone in Pivoskaya after 3 days incubation. The liquid growth of this isolate rapidly uti...

  14. Screening of Antibacterial Producing Actinomycetes from Sediments of the Caspian Sea

    Mohseni, Mojtaba; Norouzi, Hamed; Hamedi, Javad; Roohi, Aboulghasem

    2013-01-01

    Actinomycetes are interesting as a main producer of secondary metabolites and industrial antibiotics from marine environments. A total of 44 strains of actinomycetes were isolated from Caspian Sea sediments at a depth of 5-10 m. Preliminary screening was done using cross-streak method against 2 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative pathogen bacteria. The most potent strains MN2, MN3, MN38, MN39, MN40, MN41, and MN44 were used to extract the antibacterial substances. The antibacterial activities w...

  15. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOACTIVE ACTINOMYCETES FROM SOIL IN AND AROUND NAGPUR

    Rita N. Wadetwar* and Arun T. Patil

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Fifteen soil samples were collected from different locations near Nagpur i.e. from Nagpur, Bhandara and Chandrapur. Air drying and pre-treatment of soil samples with CaCo3 (1%) were found to be most effective for isolation of actinomycetes. Five different selective media were used for the isolation of actinomycetes and the best growth was observed in yeast malt extract agar medium with 1 mg/ml cycloheximide as antifungal agent and by using double layer agar technique for isolation. ...

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Actinomycete Antagonists of a Fungal Root Pathogen †

    Crawford, Don L.; Lynch, James M.; Whipps, John M.; Ousley, Margaret A.

    1993-01-01

    By use of selective media, 267 actinomycete strains were isolated from four rhizosphere-associated and four non-rhizosphere-associated British soils. Organic media with low nutrient concentrations were found to be best for isolating diverse actinomycetes while avoiding contamination and overgrowth of isolation media by eubacteria and fungi. While all isolates grew well at pHs 6.5 to 8.0, a few were unable to grow at pH 6.0 and a significant number failed to grow at pH 5.5. Eighty-two selected...

  17. Actinomycetes bioactivos de sedimento marino de la costa central del Perú

    Jorge León

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo evaluamos la actividad antibacteriana y antifúngica de actinomycetes marinos sobre patógenos de origen clínico. Asimismo, fueron evaluadas la capacidad de producir enzimas extracelulares como carbohidrasas, lipasas y proteasas. Los Actinomycetes fueron aislados de sedimentos colectados entre setiembre a diciembre del 2005 de las Bahías de Ancón (Lima e Independencia (Ica de 34 y 100 m de profundidad. El aislamiento se realizó en Agar Caseína - Almidón (ACA y Agar Marino (AM con adición de Cicloheximide (10 μg/mL. Las evaluaciones antimicrobianas fueron realizadas frente a bacterias patógenas antibiótico-multirresistentes y hongos de origen clínico; en tanto, para evaluar su actividad multienzimática se utilizaron sustratos poliméricos diversos. Se aislaron un total de 62 actinomycetes, de los cuales 31 (50% mostraron actividad antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus, 36 (59% frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa y 23 (37% a ambos patógenos. Las cepas de actinomycetes I-400A y M10-77 identificadas en cada caso como Streptomyces y Thermoactinomyces fueron las que exhibieron mayor actividad inhibitoria frente a P. aeruginosa y S. aureus respectivamente. Asimismo, 13 actinomycetes (20,97% mostraron actividad antifúngica frente a cultivos de Candida albicans cepa 1511 y 17 (27,42% frente a Candida albicans cepa 1511MIC; sin embargo, ningún actinomycete presentó actividad inhibitoria frente a Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus y Trichophyton mentagrophytes. La mayoría de los actinomycetes mostraron tener actividad multienzimática capaz de hidrolizar compuestos poliméricos como el tween-80 (96%, la gelatina (95%, almidón (93%, lecitina (88% y la caseína (74%. Extractos del compuesto activo obtenidos de la cepa M10-77 con etil acetato rindieron notable actividad inhibitoria contra S. aureus. Se concluye que el sedimento marino es fuente de Actinomycetes con gran capacidad de producir sustancias

  18. Discovery of pentangular polyphenols hexaricins A-C from marine Streptosporangium sp. CGMCC 4.7309 by genome mining.

    Tian, Jun; Chen, Haiyan; Guo, Zhengyan; Liu, Ning; Li, Jine; Huang, Ying; Xiang, Wensheng; Chen, Yihua

    2016-05-01

    Many novel microbial nature products were discovered from Actinobacteria by genome mining methods. However, only a few number of genome mining works were carried out in rare actinomycetes. An important reason precluding the genome mining efforts in rare actinomycetes is that most of them are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation. Herein, we chose the rare marine actinomycete Streptosporangium sp. CGMCC 4.7309 to explore its secondary metabolite diversity by genome mining. The genetic manipulation method has never been established for Streptosporangium strains. At first, we set up the genetic system of Streptosporangium sp. CGMCC 4.7309 unprecedentedly. The draft genome sequencing of Streptosporangium sp. CGMCC 4.7309 revealed that it contains more than 20 cryptic secondary metabolite biosynthetic clusters. A type II polyketide synthases-containing cluster (the hex cluster) was predicted to encode compounds with a pentangular polyphenol scaffold by in silico analysis. The products of the hex cluster were uncovered by comparing the metabolic profile of Streptosporangium sp. CGMCC 4.7309 with that of the hex30 inactivated mutant, in which a key ketoreductase gene was disrupted. Finally, three pentangular polyphenols were isolated and named as hexaricins A (1), B (2), and C (3). The inconsistency of the stereochemistry of C-15 in hexaricins A, B, and C indicates a branch point in their biosynthesis. Finally, the biosynthetic pathway of the hexaricins was proposed based on bioinformatics analysis. PMID:26754814

  19. Isolation and identification of actinomycetes from a compost-amended soils biocontrol agents

    Compost capability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens has become an interesting subject as a strategy for reducing the adverse effects of massive fungicides application in the environmental. In this context, actinomycetes have received considerable attention as biocontrol agents, particularly Streptomyces species. (Author)

  20. Isolation and identification of actinomycetes from a compost-amended soils biocontrol agents

    Garcia de la Fuente, R.; Cuesta, G.; Fornes, F.; Abad, M.

    2009-07-01

    Compost capability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens has become an interesting subject as a strategy for reducing the adverse effects of massive fungicides application in the environmental. In this context, actinomycetes have received considerable attention as biocontrol agents, particularly Streptomyces species. (Author)

  1. Screening of chitinolytic actinomycetes for biological control of Sclerotium rolfsii stem rot disease of chilli

    Pranee Pattanapipitpaisal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and eighty three strains were isolated from rhizoshere-associated soils, from Ubon Ratchathani andSrisaket province, using Enrichment Media for isolation of Chitinase-producing Actinomycetes agar (EMCA agar. All strainswere screened for chitinolytic activity and sixty eight strains gave significant clear zone on EMCA agar plates. The selectedchitinolytic strains were assayed for in vitro antagonism against Sclerotium rolfsii using cornmeal agar (CMA agar assayprocedure and the result showed that thirteen isolates have remarkable inhibiting the growth of the fungus and the top fiveantagonistic actinomycetes were PACCH 277, PACCH129, PACCH225, PACCH24 and PACCH246, respectively. The resultindicated that these actinomycetes produce chitinase which catalyze the degradation of chitin, resulting in inhibition of S.rolfsii growth. Their abilities to control the disease development were tested for in vivo biocontrol assay on chilli seedlings.Two out of thirteen candidate, PACCH24 and PACCH225, antagonists reduced the disease development at 90%. It wassuggested that the ability to inhibit the growth of pathogen in vitro was not related to the disease reduction in vivo. Thestrain PACCH24 was further identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus according to morphological characteristic, cell walland cellular sugar analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing. The study implies a novel chitinolytic actinomycete which could bedeveloped to be a biological agent which would be included as a complement with organic fertilizers in order to control stemrot disease and promote growth of chilli.

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on the survival of fungal and actinomycetal florae contaminating medicinal plants

    This study evaluates the effect of gamma radiation on the viability of fungi and actinomycetes that contaminate medicinal plants. The relationship between the total lipids of some fungi and actinomycetes and their sensitivity to gamma radiation is also investigated. The data reveal that the viable counts of these florae decrease approximately exponentially with the radiation dose, the effective dose for the elimination of these microorganisms being about 5 kGy for all the medicinal plants under study. Response of pure cultures of fungi and actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plants to increasing absorbed doses of gamma radiation indicate that an increase in radioresistance is in the following order: Streptomyces rimosus, Fusarium solani, Nocardia kuroishii. F. oxysporum, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. ochraceus. The total lipid contents of molds and actinomycetes have been reported to be increased by increasing the radio-resistance of microorganisms, and hence there is a relationship between the radio-sensitivity of microorganisms and the total lipid mass of flora mycelia. (Author)

  3. Anthracimycin, a potent anthrax antibiotic from a marine-derived actinomycete.

    Jang, Kyoung Hwa; Nam, Sang-Jip; Locke, Jeffrey B; Kauffman, Christopher A; Beatty, Deanna S; Paul, Lauren A; Fenical, William

    2013-07-22

    Licensed to kill: A new antibiotic, anthracimycin (see scheme), produced by a marine-derived actinomycete in saline culture, shows significant activity toward Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax infections. Chlorination of anthracimycin gives a dichloro derivative that retains activity against Gram-positive bacteria, such as anthrax, but also shows activity against selected Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23776159

  4. Enumerating actinomycetes in compost bioaerosols at source—Use of soil compost agar to address plate 'masking'

    Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, G. H.; Tamer Vestlund, A.; Aldred, D.; Longhurst, P. J.; Pollard, S. J. T.

    Actinomycetes are the dominant bacteria isolated from bioaerosols sampled at composting facilities. Here, a novel method for the isolation of actinomycetes is reported, overcoming masking of conventional agar plates, as well as reducing analysis time and costs. Repeatable and reliable actinomycetes growth was best achieved using a soil compost media at an incubation temperature of 44 °C and 7 days' incubation. The results are of particular value to waste management operators and their advisors undertaking regulatory risk assessments that support environmental approvals for compost facilities.

  5. A mixed community of actinomycetes produce multiple antibiotics for the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus

    Barke Jörg

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attine ants live in an intensely studied tripartite mutualism with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, which provides food to the ants, and with antibiotic-producing actinomycete bacteria. One hypothesis suggests that bacteria from the genus Pseudonocardia are the sole, co-evolved mutualists of attine ants and are transmitted vertically by the queens. A recent study identified a Pseudonocardia-produced antifungal, named dentigerumycin, associated with the lower attine Apterostigma dentigerum consistent with the idea that co-evolved Pseudonocardia make novel antibiotics. An alternative possibility is that attine ants sample actinomycete bacteria from the soil, selecting and maintaining those species that make useful antibiotics. Consistent with this idea, a Streptomyces species associated with the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus was recently shown to produce the well-known antifungal candicidin. Candicidin production is widespread in environmental isolates of Streptomyces, so this could either be an environmental contaminant or evidence of recruitment of useful actinomycetes from the environment. It should be noted that the two possibilities for actinomycete acquisition are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Results In order to test these possibilities we isolated bacteria from a geographically distinct population of A. octospinosus and identified a candicidin-producing Streptomyces species, which suggests that they are common mutualists of attine ants, most probably recruited from the environment. We also identified a Pseudonocardia species in the same ant colony that produces an unusual polyene antifungal, providing evidence for co-evolution of Pseudonocardia with A. octospinosus. Conclusions Our results show that a combination of co-evolution and environmental sampling results in the diversity of actinomycete symbionts and antibiotics associated with attine ants.

  6. Investigation of the Amycolatopsis sp. Strain ATCC 39116 Vanillin Dehydrogenase and Its Impact on the Biotechnical Production of Vanillin

    Fleige, Christian; Hansen, Gunda; Kroll, Jens; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 is capable of synthesizing large amounts of vanillin from ferulic acid, which is a natural cell wall component of higher plants. The desired intermediate vanillin is subject to undesired catabolism caused by the metabolic activity of a hitherto unknown vanillin dehydrogenase (VDHATCC 39116). In order to prevent the oxidation of vanillin to vanillic acid and thereby to obtain higher yields and concentrations of vanillin, the responsible vani...

  7. Identification and preliminary characterization of non-polyene antibiotics secreted by new strain of actinomycete isolated from sebkha of Kenadsa, Algeria

    Omar; Messaoudi; Mourad; Bendahou; Ibrahim; Benamar; Djamal-Elddine; Abdelwouhid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes isolated from sabkha of Kenadsa and identification of the isolate interesting. Methods: Eighteen strains were isolated, using four culture media from sebkha of Kenadsa(Bechar, Southwestern Algeria). Screening of antimicrobial activity consisted of two steps: in primary screening, antibacterial activity was determined by using the agar plug method against test strains; in secondary screening, better isolate which showed a good activity in the first screening was selected to extract antimicrobial substances. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were evaluated by using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Partial characterization of antimicrobial products was performed on the basis of chemical revelations, UV-vis spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. The identification of isolate interesting was performed through morphological, chemical, biochemical and physiological characteristics. Results: All isolates showed antimicrobial activity against at least one microorganism test. One isolate, LAM143 cG 3, was selected for its broad spectrum and high antimicrobial activity. The isolate LAM143 c G3 was identified as Spirillospora sp. The comparison between the species of this genus(Spirillospora rubra and Spirillospora albida) and our isolate indicated the existence of several physiological and biochemical differences which led us to suppose that this was a new member of this genus. Primary characterization of antimicrobial substances produced by the isolate LAM143 c G3 indicated the presence of amines and phenols. The UV–vis spectrum suggested a non-polyenic nature of substances secreted by our isolate, while infrared confirmed the presence of amine groups.Conclusions: The result of the present study revealed that sebkha of Kenadsa was rich in rare actinomycetes, that secreted interesting antimicrobial substance.

  8. Specificity of the mutualistic association between actinomycete bacteria and two sympatric species of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants

    Poulsen, M; Cafaro, M; Boomsma, J J;

    2005-01-01

    Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants maintain two highly specialized, vertically transmitted mutualistic ectosymbionts: basidiomycete fungi that are cultivated for food in underground gardens and actinomycete Pseudonocardia bacteria that are reared on the cuticle to produce antibiotics that suppress...

  9. Diversity of Actinomycetes at Several Forest Types in Wanagama I Yogyakarta and Their Potency as a Producer of Antifungal Compound

    Reni Nurjasmi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes are bacterial groups that produce many secondary metabolites, which different biological activities, such as antifungi, antibacteria, antivirus, antitumor, etc. Actinomycetes are widely distributed in soil and their diversity is influenced by type of forest. The aim of this study is to investigate diversity of actinomycetes in several forest types of Wanagama I forest in Yogyakarta and their potency as a producer of antifungal compound. Soil samples under the forest of Tectona grandis, Swietenia macrophylla King, Bamboosa vulgaris, Melaleuca leucadendron, and Gliricidia maculata were used as sources of soil bacteria. Bacteria and actinomycetes communities were analyzed through culture-independent approach by RISA and nested-PCR RISA using actinomycetes spesific primer (F243, respectively. Through culture-dependent approach, isolated actinomycetes diversity were analyzed by identification of morphology (colony and cell, genetic (BOX element by rep-PCR, and secondary metabolites (thin layer chromatography. In addition, isolates were assayed for their antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus. The presence of Polyketide Synthase-I (PKS-I and NonRibosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS genes were amplified by PCR to study their correlation with antifungal activity of the actinomycete isolates. The results showed that types of forest influence diversity of rhizobacteria especially actinomycetes. According to culture-independent approach, relatively, com-

munity of rhizobacteria from the highest were soil under the forest of B. vulgaris, G. maculata, T. grandis, S.macrophylla King, and M. leucadendron, respectively. Meanwhile, community of actinomycetes from the highest were soil under the forest of G. maculata, B. vulgaris, M. leucadendron, S. macrophylla King, and T. grandis, respec- tively. Fourty-three morphologically different isolates were found by using

  • Identification of soil actinomycetes in bukit bangkirai fire forest east kalimantan and its potention as cellulolitic and phosphate solubilizing

    ARIF NURKANTO

    2007-01-01

    Some actinomycetes which were isolated from Bukit Bangkirai fire forest in East Kalimantan have been identified. Those isoates were also characterized for its cellulolitic and phosphate solubilizing ability. Identification was based on Miyadoh (1997) and Holt (1994) methods. Actinomycetes could be identified by microscopic observation on spores, chain spore, hypha, aerial hypha and its pigmentation. The cellulolitic ability was observed by clear zone ratio in CMC medium and phosphate solubil...

  • Succession of Actinomycetes During Composting Proccess of Dairy-Farm Waste Investigated by Culture-Dependent and Independent Approaches

    Mukhlissul Faatih; Jaka Widada; Ngadiman N

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic, thermophilic, and maturation phases were recognized in composting proccess. Temperaturechanges influence the microbial communities in compost within composting proccess. Actinomycetes account for alarger part of compost microbial population. The aim of this research was to study succession of actinomycetescommunity during composting of dairy-farm waste investigated by culture-dependent and independentapproaches.In culture-independent method, the succession of actinomycetes communi...

  • Phylogenetic appraisal of antagonistic, slow growing actinomycetes isolated from hypersaline inland solar salterns at Sambhar salt Lake, India

    SolomonRobinsonDavidJebakumar

    2013-01-01

    Inland solar salterns established in the vicinity of Sambhar Lake are extreme saline environments with high salinity and alkalinity. In view of the fact that microbes inhabiting such extreme saline environments flourish the contemporary bioprospecting, it was aimed to selectively isolate slow growing and rare actinomycetes from the unexplored solar salterns. A total of 14 slow growing actinomycetes were selectively isolated from three composite soil samples of inland solar salterns. Among the...

  • Use of the BioMerieux ID 32C yeast identification system for identification of aerobic actinomycetes of medical importance.

    Muir, D B; Pritchard, R C

    1997-01-01

    The BioMerieux ID 32C Yeast Identification System was examined to determine its usefulness as a rapid method for the identification of medically important aerobic actinomycetes. More than 290 strains were tested by this method and the results were compared to those obtained by conventional methods. It was found that aerobic actinomycetes could be differentiated to species level in 7 days by the ID 32C system.

  • In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants

    Ajit Kumar Passari; Vineet Kumar Mishra; Vijai Kumar Gupta; Mukesh Kumar Yadav; Ratul Saikia; Bhim Pratap Singh

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using...

  • Isolation and partial characterization of actinomycetes with antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant bacteria

    Smriti Singh; Pramod Kumar; N Gopalan; Bhuvnesh Shrivastava; RC Kuhad; Hotam Singh Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To isolate strains of Actinomycetes from different locations of Gwalior to evaluate its antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant pathogenic strains. Method: Soil samples collected from different niche habitats of Gwalior were serially diluted and plated on selective media. Potential colonies were further purified and stored in agar slants and glycerol stocks. Isolates were biochemically characterized and purified isolates were test against pathogenic microorganisms for screening. Isolates with antagonistic properties were inoculated in production media and secondary metabolites or antimicrobial products were extracted. Result: The seven actinomycetes strains showing maximum antibacterial activity were isolated further characterized based on their colony characteristics and biochemical analyses. The isolates were screened for their secondary metabolites activity on three human pathogenic bacteria are Escherichia coli (E. coli), Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE). Discussion: The strain MITS 1005 was found to be more active against the test bacteria.

  • Mutational analysis of primary alcohol metabolism in the methylotrophic actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica

    Hektor, Harm J.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    1996-01-01

    Mutants of the methylotrophic actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica unable to grow on methanol as carbon source were isolated and characterized. Mutants specifically affected in methanol utilization were deficient in formaldehyde assimilation. Mutants blocked in the first step of primary alcohol oxidation (C1-C4) had lost activity of the tetrazolium-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, a three-component enzyme complex. This complex, or individual components, thus play a crucial role in utilizati...

  • Isolation and screening of phytotoxin producing actinomycetes and determination of phytotoxin effect spectrum of selected strains

    Reyhan khayatmaher; Mohammad Ali Amoozegar; Shimasadat Seyedmahdi; Javad Hamedi; Mohammad Reza Naghavi; Faranak Foroozanfar; Ali Mohammad Latifi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Actinomycetes are well-known phytotoxin producing microorganisms. Nowadays the use of microbial herbicides versus traditional chemicals draws a great deal of attention as they do not cause any environmental problems.Materials and Methods: Actbacterial strains of 40 rhizospheric and phyllospheric samples were isolated. Primary screening was implemented on radish and cress seeds on GAP¬Agar. Then, bioassay of cell¬free broth of strains with more than 70% inhibitory effect on the s...

  • Bioleaching of Rare Earth Elements and Uranium From Sinai Soil, Egypt Using Actinomycetes

    Maha Amin Hewedy, Abeer Ahmed Rushdy, and Noha Mohammed Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The use of microorganisms in the recovery of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) and Uranium (U) from low grade ores provides an appropriate eco-friendly alternative to chemical methods used in extraction and/or removal of metals from soils, with a higher efficiency, less destruction to the environment, and lower cost from a commercial view especially given that high-grade mineral resources that can be used in the chemical extraction of metals are being depleted. The feasibility of using actinomycetes...

  • Actinobase: Database on molecular diversity, phylogeny and biocatalytic potential of salt tolerant alkaliphilic actinomycetes

    Sharma, Amit K; Gohel, Sangeeta; Singh, Satya P.

    2012-01-01

    Actinobase is a relational database of molecular diversity, phylogeny and biocatalytic potential of haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes. The main objective of this data base is to provide easy access to range of information, data storage, comparison and analysis apart from reduced data redundancy, data entry, storage, retrieval costs and improve data security. Information related to habitat, cell morphology, Gram reaction, biochemical characterization and molecular features would allow researchers...

  • Characterizing contrasting soils and sediments with semispecific actinomycete r-DNA PCR primers

    Hill, P.; Krištůfek, Václav; Caballero, S.; Kroetsch, D. J.; Rauch, Ota

    České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology AS CR, 2004, s. 88-92. ISBN 80-86525-03-1. [Present methods for investigation of microbial community biodiversity in soils and substrates. Methodological workshop /9./. České Budějovice (CZ), 02.03.2004-03.03.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : contrasting soils * sediments * semispecific actinomycete r-DNA PCR primers Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

    1. Using actinomycete-specific PCR primers to characterize the bacterial communities of wormcasts

      Hill, P.; Krištůfek, Václav; Feijoo, A. M.; Gallego, G.

      České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology ASCR, 2005, s. 25-29. ISBN 80-86525-04-X. [Contributions to soil Zoology in Central Europe I. Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /7./. České Budějovice (CZ), 14.04.2003-16.04.2003] Grant ostatní: CIAT(XX) SL18 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : actinomycetes * Colombia * earthworms Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

    2. Investigation of physiologically active products obtained from carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes

      Charged particles such as carbon-ions are superior to X-rays or gamma-rays in the physical and biological characteristics. The propose research project is aimed to provide new insights on antibiotic development. Carbon-ion exposure reduced cell growth. Product(s) from carbon-ion irradiated microorganera suppressed growth of human leukemia cells. We suggested that carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes produce antitumor active product(s) for leukemia cells. (author)

    3. Prevalence of viridans streptococci exhibiting lactose-inhibitable coaggregation with oral actinomycetes.

      Kolenbrander, P E; Williams, B L

      1983-01-01

      Fresh oral isolates from human dental plaque were selected on the basis of their spherical morphology. In a double-blind experiment, their species identity and ability to coaggregate with human oral Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii were determined. Of the 110 isolates characterized, 30 were identified as either Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus-constellatus, or Veillonella parvula; none of these coaggregated with the actinomycetes. The remaining 80 isolates were ide...

    4. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF GLYCEROL ON HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION OF MEADOW GRASS BY CELLULOLYTIC ACTINOMYCETES

      Sultanova, L.; Zorin, V.; Petukhova, N.; Sharaeva, A.; Mikhailova, T.; Fedorova, V.

      2011-01-01

      It has been shown that pre-treatment of meadow grass with saline water solutions containing 220 % of glycerol (temperature 120 oC, pressure 98 kPa, time 1 hour) and further washing of lignocelluloses substrate by water lead to significant increase of microorganisms growth, yield of reducing substances and KMC-cellulase activity of extracellular enzymes during the period of cellulolytic actinomycetes cultivation.

    5. Isolation, taxonomy, and antagonistic properties of halophilic actinomycetes in Saharan soils of Algeria.

      Meklat, Atika; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed

      2011-09-01

      The diversity of a population of 52 halophilic actinomycetes was evaluated by a polyphasic approach, which showed the presence of members of the Actinopolyspora, Nocardiopsis, Saccharomonospora, Streptomonospora, and Saccharopolyspora genera. One strain was considered to be a new member of the last genus, and several other strains seemed to be new species. Furthermore, 50% of strains were active against a broad range of indicators and contained genes encoding polyketide synthetases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. PMID:21764956

    6. Isolation, Taxonomy, and Antagonistic Properties of Halophilic Actinomycetes in Saharan Soils of Algeria ▿

      Meklat, Atika; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed

      2011-01-01

      The diversity of a population of 52 halophilic actinomycetes was evaluated by a polyphasic approach, which showed the presence of members of the Actinopolyspora, Nocardiopsis, Saccharomonospora, Streptomonospora, and Saccharopolyspora genera. One strain was considered to be a new member of the last genus, and several other strains seemed to be new species. Furthermore, 50% of strains were active against a broad range of indicators and contained genes encoding polyketide synthetases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. PMID:21764956

    7. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes.

      Hagemeyer, O; Bünger, J; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Drath, C; Merget, R; Brüning, Th; Broding, H C

      2013-01-01

      Exposures to molds and bacteria (especially actinomycetes) at workplaces are common in garbage workers, but allergic respiratory diseases due to these microorganisms have been described rarely. The aim of our study was a detailed analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. From 2002 to 2011 four cases of occupational respiratory diseases related to garbage handling were identified in our institute (IPA). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in three subjects (cases 1-3, one smoker, two non-smokers), occupational asthma (OA) was diagnosed in one subject (case 4, smoker), but could not be excluded completely in case 2. Cases 1 and 2 worked in composting sites, while cases 3 and 4 worked in packaging recycling plants. Exposure periods were 2-4 years. Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Specific IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were detected exclusively in case 4. Diagnoses of HP were essentially based on symptoms and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. OA was confirmed by bronchial provocation test with Aspergillus fumigatus in case 4. In conclusion, occupational HP and OA due to molds occur rarely in garbage workers. Technical prevention measures are insufficient and the diagnosis of HP is often inconclusive. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools including bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination. PMID:23835992

    8. Changes in the structure of the rhizosphere complex of actinomycetes in the ontogenesis of winter rye

      Shirokikh, I. G.; Merzaeva, O. V.; Zenova, G. M.

      2006-06-01

      Changes in the taxonomic structure of actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of winter rye ( Secale cereale L.) growing on acid soddy-podzolic soil were studied. During the first stages of ontogenesis of winter rye, the rhizosphere complex of mycelial prokaryotes was characterized by a relatively level generic structure (with respect to the indices of abundance and frequency of particular genera), low values of the species diversity, and low domination frequency of the species from the Streptomyces genus. The numbers and species diversity of the streptomycetes increased during the further growth of the winter rye, so that streptomycetes became a dominant group in the complex of the rhizosphere actinomycetes. According to the two-way ANOVA, the population density of the Micromonospora and the Streptosporangium genera in the rhizosphere was mainly dictated by the winter rye variety, whereas the population density of the streptomycetes depended on the particular stage of the winter rye development. The differences between the actinomycetal complexes characteristic of different varieties of winter rye at the early stages of its development was leveled by the end of the winter rye growth.

    9. Actinomycete complexes in soils of industrial and residential zones in the city of Kirov

      Shirokikh, I. G.; Solov'eva, E. S.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.

      2014-02-01

      The number, diversity, and structure of the actinomycetal complexes in the soils of the industrial and residential zones of the city of Kirov are considered. The total content of mobile cadmium, zinc, lead, iron, and nickel in the soils of the industrial biotopes was 1.8 and 6.0 times higher than their concentration in the soils of the residential and background zones, respectively. In the heavy metal (HM)-polluted soils, the share of actinomycetes in the total number of prokaryotes and the relative abundance of the micromono-spores in the actinomycetal complex were much higher and the species diversity of the streptomycetes was lower than these characteristics in the soils of the residential zone. The differences in the composition of the mycelial prokaryote complexes appear to be related to the selective resistance of some of their representatives to heavy metals. The possibility to select the strains resistant to HMs and suitable for use in the bioremediation of polluted soils is considered.

    10. Antagonistic properties of seagrass associated Streptomyces sp. RAUACT-1:A source for anthraquinone rich compound

      S Ravikumar; M Gnanadesigan; A Saravanan; N Monisha; V Brindha; S Muthumari

      2012-01-01

      Objective:To identify the antibacterial potential of seagrass (Syringodium isoetifolium) associate microbes against bacterial pathogens. Methods: Eumeration of microbial associates were analyzed with leaf and root samples of Syringodium isoetifolium. MIC and MBC were calculated for bacterial pathogens with microbial associates. Phylogenetic and GC-MS analysis were calculated for Actinomycetes sp. (Act01) which was the most potent. Results: Of the isolated microbial associates phosphatase producing bacterial isolates were identified as maximum [(261.78±35.09) CFU×104/g] counts in root sample. Of the selected microbial isolates Actinomycete sp (Act01) showed broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against antibiotic resistant and fish bacterial pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of Act01 showed maximum identities (99%) with the Streptomyces sp. (GU5500072). The 16s rDNA secondary structure of Act01 showed the free energy values as-366.3 kkal/mol. The GC-MS analysis Act01 showed maximum retention value with 23.742 RT and the corresponding chemical class was identified as 1, 4-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxybutyl)-9, 10-anthraquinone 9, 10-anthrac. Conclusions:In conclusion, Streptomyces sp. (GU045544.1) from Syringodium isoetifolium could be used as potential antibacterial agent.

    11. Anticancer property of sediment actinomycetes against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines

      Ravikumar S; Fredimoses M; Gnanadesigan M

      2012-01-01

      Objective: To investigate the anticancer property of marine sediment actinomycetes against two different breast cancer cell lines. Methods:In vitro anticancer activity was carried out against breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines. Partial sequences of the 16s rRNA gene, phylogenetic tree construction, multiple sequence analysis and secondary structure analysis were also carried out with the actinomycetes isolates. Results: Of the selected five actinomycete isolates, ACT01 and ACT02 showed the IC50 value with (10.13±0.92) and (22.34±5.82)μg/mL concentrations, respectively for MCF-7 cell line at 48 h, but ACT01 showed the minimum (18.54±2.49 μg/mL) level of IC50 value with MDA-MB-231 cell line. Further, the 16s rRNA partial sequences of ACT01, ACT02, ACT03, ACT04 and ACT05 isolates were also deposited in NCBI data bank with the accession numbers of GQ478246, GQ478247, GQ478248, GQ478249 and GQ478250, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that, the isolates of ACT02 and ACT03 were represented in group I and III, respectively, but ACT01 and ACT02 were represented in group II. The multiple sequence alignment of the actinomycete isolates showed that, the maximum identical conserved regions were identified with the nucleotide regions of 125 to 221st base pairs, 65 to 119th base pairs and 55, 48 and 31st base pairs. Secondary structure prediction of the 16s rRNA showed that, the maximum free energy was consumed with ACT03 isolate (-45.4 kkal/mol) and the minimum free energy was consumed with ACT04 isolate (-57.6 kkal/mol). Conclusions:The actinomycete isolates of ACT01 and ACT02 (GQ478246 and GQ478247) which are isolated from sediment sample can be further used as anticancer agents against breast cancer cell lines.

    12. The biodegradation of layered silicates under the influence of cyanobacterial-actinomycetes associations

      Ivanova, Ekaterina

      2013-04-01

      The weathering of sheet silicates is well known to be related to local and global geochemical cycles. Content and composition of clay minerals in soil determine the sorption properties of the soil horizons, water-holding capacity of the soil, stickiness, plasticity, etc. Microorganisms have a diverse range of mechanisms of minerals' structure transformation (acid- and alkali formation, biosorption, complexing, etc). One of the methods is an ability of exopolysaccharide-formation, in particular the formation of mucus, common to many bacteria, including cyanobacteria. Mucous covers cyanobacteria are the specific econiches for other bacteria, including actinomycetes. The objective was to analyze the structural changes of clay minerals under the influence of the cyanobacterial-actinomycetes associative growth. The objects of the study were: 1) the experimental symbiotic association, consisting of free-living heterocyst-formative cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis Kutz. ATCC 294132 and actinomycete Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus FR837630, 2) rock samples obtained from the Museum of the Soil Science Department of the Lomonosov Moscow State University: kaolinite, consisting of kaolin (96%) Al4 (OH) 8 [Si4O10]; mixed with hydromica, chlorite and quartz; vermiculite, consisting of vermiculite (Ca, Mg, ...)*(Mg, Fe)3(OH)2[(Si, Al)4O10]*4H2O and trioctahedral mica (biotite). The mineralogical compositions of the rocks were determined by the universal X-ray Diffractometer Carl Zeiss Yena. The operationg regime was kept constant (30 kv, 40 mA). The cultivation of the association of actinomycete S. cyanoefuscatus and cyanobacterium A. variabilis caused a reduction in the intensity of kaolinite and hydromica reflexes. However, since both (mica and kaolinite) components have a rigid structure, the significant structural transformation of the minerals was not revealed. Another pattern was observed in the experiment, where the rock sample of vermiculite was used as the mineral

    13. Succession of Actinomycetes During Composting Proccess of Dairy-Farm Waste Investigated by Culture-Dependent and Independent Approaches

      Mukhlissul Faatih1

      2015-11-01

      Full Text Available Mesophilic, thermophilic, and maturation phases were recognized in composting proccess. Temperaturechanges influence the microbial communities in compost within composting proccess. Actinomycetes account for alarger part of compost microbial population. The aim of this research was to study succession of actinomycetescommunity during composting of dairy-farm waste investigated by culture-dependent and independentapproaches.In culture-independent method, the succession of actinomycetes community was analyzed by nestedpolymerasechain reaction of ribosomal intergenic spacer (nested-PCR RISA using spesific primer F243 and primerR23S followed by a second PCR using primers F968 and R23S. In culture-dependent method actinomycetes fromcompost were isolated on selective media, starch-nitrate medium and humic-acid + vitamins medium. DNA ofactinomycetes was extracted and amplified by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR using primer BOXA1R. Thebanding patterns were used to generate dendrograms by UPGMA clustering with NTSYS program. Microcosmcontaining sterile rice-straw and water which is inoculated with each actinomycetes isolates was used for examiningthe ability of each isolate in rice-straw degradation.The experiment results showed that succession of both bacteria and actinomycetes was occured withincomposting proccess of dairy-farm waste. Analysed by culture-independent method revealed that the highestcommunity of compost’s bacteria was on mesophilic, thermophilic, and maturation phases, respectively. WhereasPCR-nested RISA resulted the highest population of actinomycetes was on thermophilic, maturation, and mesophilicphases, respectively. By culture-dependent method was obtained 29 actinomycetes isolates from mesophilic phase,23 isolates from thermophilic phase, and 19 isolates from maturation phase. Genetic diversity analysis of the obtainedisolates showed the presence of phylogenetic grouping on each phase of composting proccess. This result

    14. Production and characterization of a thermostable glucoamylase from Streptosporangium sp. endophyte of maize leaves.

      Stamford, T L M; Stamford, N P; Coelho, L C B B; Araújo, J M

      2002-06-01

      Thermostable amylolytic enzymes are currently investigated to improve industrial processes of starch degradation. Streptosporangium sp. an endophytic actinomycete isolated from leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) showed glucoamylase production, using starch-Czapek medium, and the highest rate was obtained in the initial growth phase, after incubation for 24 h at pH 8.0. Maximum glucoamylase activity (158 U mg(-1) protein) was obtained at pH 4.5 and 70 degrees C. The isolated enzyme exhibited thermostable properties as indicated by retention of 100% of residual activity at 70 degrees C for 30 min with total inhibition at 100 degrees C. Extracellular enzyme from Streptosporangium sp. was purified by fractionated precipitation with ammonium sulphate. After 60% saturation produced 421 U mg(-1) protein, and yield was 74% with purification 2.7 fold. The enzyme produced by Streptosporangium sp. has potential for industrial applications. PMID:12056484

    15. Lignin-solubilizing ability of actinomycetes isolated from termite (Termitidae) gut

      The lignocellulose-degrading abilities of 11 novel actinomycete strains isolated from termite gut were determined and compared with that of the well-characterized actinomycete, Streptomyces viridosporus T7A. Lignocellulose bioconversion was followed by (i) monitoring the degradation of [14C]lignin- and [14C]cellulose-labeled phloem of Abies concolor to 14CO2 and 14C-labeled water-soluble products, (ii) determining lignocellulose, lignin, and carbohydrate losses resulting from growth on a lignocellulose substrate prepared from corn stalks (Zea mays), and (iii) quantifying production of a water-soluble lignin degradation intermediate (acid-precipitable polymeric lignin). Of the assays used, total lignocellulose weight loss was most useful in determining overall bioconversion ability but not in identifying the best lignin-solubilizing strains. A screening procedure based on 14CO2 evolution from [14C-lignin]lignocellulose combined with measurement of acid-precipitable polymeric lignin yield was the most effective in identifying lignin-solubilizing strains. For the termite gut strains, the pH of the medium showed no increase after 3 weeks of growth on lignocellulose. This is markedly different from the pattern observed with S. viridosporus T7A, which raises the medium pH considerably. Production of extracellular peroxidases by the 11 strains and S. viridosporus T7A was followed for 5 days in liquid cultures. On the basis of an increase of specific peroxidase activity in the presence of lignocellulose in the medium, the actinomycetes could be placed into the same three groups

    16. Isolation and characterization of potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

      Gebreselema Gebreyohannes; Feleke Moges; Samuel Sahile; Nagappan Raja

      2013-01-01

      To isolate, evaluate and characterize potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 31 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains by primary screening. In the primary screening, 11 promising isolates were identified and subjected to solid state and submerged state fermentation methods to produce crude extracts. The fermented biomass was extracted by organic solvent extraction method and tested against bacterial strains by disc and agar well diffusion methods. The isolates were characterized by using morphological, physiological and biochemical methods. Results: The result obtained from agar well diffusion method was better than disc diffusion method. The crude extract showed higher inhibition zone against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. One-way analysis of variance confirmed most of the crude extracts were statistically significant at 95% confidence interval. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of crude extracts were 1.65 mg/mL and 3.30 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, and 1.84 mg/mL and 3.80 mg/mL against Escherichia coli respectively. The growth of aerial and substrate mycelium varied in different culture media used. Most of the isolates were able to hydrolysis starch and urea; able to survive at 5% concentration of sodium chloride; optimum temperature for their growth was 30 °C. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that freshwater actinomycetes of Lake Tana appear to have immense potential as a source of antibacterial compounds.

    17. Purification and characterization of protease enzyme from actinomycetes and its cytotoxic effect on cancer cell line (A549)

      C Balachandran; V Duraipandiyan; S Ignacimuthu

      2012-01-01

      Objective: To isolate active actinomycetes from soil samples of Northern Himalayas and study their culture characterization, protease production and cytotoxic effects on cancer cell line (A549). Methods: Forty six strains of actinomycetes were isolated from the soil collected from Northern Himalayas, India. Isolation of actinomycetes was performed by serial dilution plate technique. Forty six isolated actinomycetes cultures were grown in ISP 2 medium to study the morphology and biochemical characteristics. Isolated strains were studied for protease enzyme production in skim milk agar medium with solubilising capacity. Seven isolates were studied for melanin pigmentation and different NaCl concentration. Effects of environmental conditions influencing protease enzyme production of seven isolated strains were also studied at different pH, temperature and metal ions (β-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, iodoacetamide, MgSO4, CaCl2 and EDTA). The seven isolates were also studied for lytic enzyme activity using different bacteria and yeast such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Enterococcus feacalis (E. feacalis), Escherishia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans), Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Results: Isolates ERIA-31 and ERIA-33 produced more protease enzyme activity in modified nutrient agar media compared to other actinomycetes cultures. ERIA-31 and ERIA-33 were tested for cytotoxic effect in human adenocarcinoma cancer cell line (A549). IC50 for ERIA-31 was 57.04 μg/mL and IC50 for ERIA-33 was 55.07 μg/mL. Conclusion: Actinomycete being a protease producing bacteria has the potential for use in industrial purpose, pharmaceuticals, cytotoxic agent and its proteolytic activity. Isolates of ERIA-31 and ERIA-33 produced significant amount of protease enzymes.

    18. Investigation of physiologically active products obtained from carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes

      Charged particles such as carbon-ions are superior to X-rays or gamma-rays in the physical and biological characteristics. The propose research project is aimed to provide new insights on antibiotic development. Mutants were prepared by heavy ion irradiation, examined the effect of physiologically active substances produced. Product(s) from carbon-ion irradiated microorganera suppressed growth of human cololectal cancer cells and breast cancer cells. We suggested that carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes produce antitumor active product(s) for cololectal and breast cancer cells. (author)

    19. Investigation of physiologically active products obtained from carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes

      Charged particles such as carbon-ions are superior to X-rays or gamma-rays in the physical and biological characteristics. The propose research project is aimed to provide new insights on antibiotic development. Product(s) from carbon-ion irradiated microorganera suppressed growth of human leukemia cells and mammary tumor cells. This product(s) induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells. We suggested that carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes produce antitumor active product(s) for leukemia cells and mammary tumor cells. (author)

    20. Application of TLC in the Screening of Acarbose-producing Actinomycetes

      Fei Ren; Long Chen; Qunyi Tong

      2014-01-01

      Acarbose is widely used in medicine, such as the treatment of diabetes and obesity. A simple Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)-scanning technique was developed for the rapid and accurate analysis of acarbose in a large number of fermentation broths of actinomycetes to screen for acarbose producer. The linearity of the acarbose in this way was good within the range from 2 to 10 μg (r2 = 0.9997). This technique didn’t need expensive instrument and complex procedure for the detection of acarbose i...

    1. Genome sequencing reveals complex secondary metabolome in themarine actinomycete Salinispora tropica

      Udwary, Daniel W.; Zeigler, Lisa; Asolkar, Ratnakar; Singan,Vasanth; Lapidus, Alla; Fenical, William; Jensen, Paul R.; Moore, BradleyS.

      2007-05-01

      Recent fermentation studies have identified actinomycetes ofthe marine-dwelling genus Salinispora as prolific natural productproducers. To further evaluate their biosynthetic potential, we analyzedall identifiable secondary natural product gene clusters from therecently sequenced 5,184,724 bp S. tropica CNB-440 circular genome. Ouranalysis shows that biosynthetic potential meets or exceeds that shown byprevious Streptomyces genome sequences as well as other naturalproduct-producing actinomycetes. The S. tropica genome features ninepolyketide synthase systems of every known formally classified family,non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and several hybrid clusters. While afew clusters appear to encode molecules previously identified inStreptomyces species,the majority of the 15 biosynthetic loci are novel.Specific chemical information about putative and observed natural productmolecules is presented and discussed. In addition, our bioinformaticanalysis was critical for the structure elucidation of the novelpolyenemacrolactam salinilactam A. This study demonstrates the potentialfor genomic analysis to complement and strengthen traditional naturalproduct isolation studies and firmly establishes the genus Salinispora asa rich source of novel drug-like molecules.

    2. Antimicrobial potential of Halophilic actinomycetes against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens.

      Aslam, Sana; Sajid, Imran

      2016-03-01

      A collection of forty halophilic actinomycetes isolated from water and mud samples of the saline lake at Kalar Kahar, salt range, Pakistan, was screened to investigate their antimicrobial potential against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens. The isolates exhibited significant tolerance to alkaline conditions and grew well at pH 9-11. The taxonomic status of the isolated strains was determined by morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed that majority of the isolates (90%) belong to the genus Streptomyces. Most of the isolates exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activity up to 20mm zone of inhibition against MDR ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter spp. Additionally the isolates showed moderate to high cytotoxicity in the range of 40 to 80% larval mortality against Artemia salina in a micro well cytotoxicity assay. The chemical screening or the so called metabolic fingerprinting of the methanolic extracts of each isolate, by thin layer chromatography (TLC) using various staining reagents and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), indicated an impressive diversity of the compounds produced by these strains. The study reveals that these halophilic actinomycetes are a promising source of bioactive compounds. The preparative scale fermentation, isolation, purification and structure elucidation of the compounds produced by them may yield novel antimicrobial or chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27087086

    3. Viability of fungal and actinomycetal spores after microwave radiation of building materials.

      Górny, Rafał L; Mainelis, Gediminas; Wlazło, Agnieszka; Niesler, Anna; Lis, Danuta O; Marzec, Stanisław; Siwińska, Ewa; Łudzeń-Izbińska, Beata; Harkawy, Aleksander; Kasznia-Kocot, Joanna

      2007-01-01

      The effects of microwave radiation on viability of fungal and actinomycetal spores growing on agar (medium optimal for growth) as well as on wooden panel and drywall (common building construction/finishing materials) were studied. All materials were incubated at high (97-99%) and low (32-33%) relative humidity to mimic "wet" and "dry" environmental conditions. Two microwave power densities (10 and 60 mW/cm2) and three times of exposure (5, 30, and 60 min) were tested to find the most effective parameters of radiation which could be applied to non-invasive reduction or cleaning of building materials from microbial contaminants. Additionally, a control of the surface temperature during the experiments allowed differentiation between thermal and microwave effect of such radiation. The results showed that the viability of studied microorganisms differed depending on their strains, growth conditions, power density of microwave radiation, time of exposure, and varied according to the applied combination of the two latter elements. The effect of radiation resulting in a decrease of spore viability on "wet" wooden panel and drywall was generally observed at 60 min exposure. Shorter exposure times decreased the viability of fungal spores only, while in actinomycetes colonizing the studied building materials, such radiation caused an opposite (supporting growth) effect. PMID:18247470

    4. Endophytic Actinomycetes: A Novel Source of Potential Acyl Homoserine Lactone Degrading Enzymes

      Surang Chankhamhaengdecha

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Several Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria employ N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (HSL quorum sensing (QS system to control their virulence traits. Degradation of acyl-HSL signal molecules by quorum quenching enzyme (QQE results in a loss of pathogenicity in QS-dependent organisms. The QQE activity of actinomycetes in rhizospheric soil and inside plant tissue was explored in order to obtain novel strains with high HSL-degrading activity. Among 344 rhizospheric and 132 endophytic isolates, 127 (36.9% and 68 (51.5% of them, respectively, possessed the QQE activity. The highest HSL-degrading activity was at 151.30±3.1 nmole/h/mL from an endophytic actinomycetes isolate, LPC029. The isolate was identified as Streptomyces based on 16S  rRNA gene sequence similarity. The QQE from LPC029 revealed HSL-acylase activity that was able to cleave an amide bond of acyl-side chain in HSL substrate as determined by HPLC. LPC029 HSL-acylase showed broad substrate specificity from C6- to C12-HSL in which C10HSL is the most favorable substrate for this enzyme. In an in vitro pathogenicity assay, the partially purified HSL-acylase efficiently suppressed soft rot of potato caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum as demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HSL-acylase activity derived from an endophytic Streptomyces.

    5. Development of actinomycetes in brown semidesert soil under low water pressure

      Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.; Gracheva, T. A.; Lapygina, E. E.; Napol'skaya, K. R.; Sydnitsyna, A. E.

      2012-07-01

      Under laboratory conditions, the spores of a xerotolerant Streptomyces odorifera strain germinated in brown semidesert soil even at extremely low soil water pressure ( P = -96.4 MPa, -964 atm, a w 0.50); the plantlets increased in length and formed mycelium, on which a new generation of spores was produced (a complete development cycle of the actinomycetes—from a spore to the formation of new spores—passed). The duration of the first cycles of the actinomycetes' development varied from 13 days at P = -27 atm to 57 days at P = -964 atm and was directly proportional to the absolute value of the soil water pressure ( P). In the first cycles of the actinomycetes' development, the rate of increase of the concentration of the germinated spores and mycelium, as well as the logarithms of the mycelium-to-germinated spore concentration ratios, was inversely proportional to the logarithm of P. These relationships indicated that the energy state of the water determined its availability to soil biota and, hence, the activity of its physiological and biochemical processes.

    6. Phosphatic precipitates associated with actinomycetes in speleothems from Grand Cayman, British West Indies

      Jones, Brian

      2009-07-01

      Calcitic speleothems from a cave located on the north central coast of Grand Cayman commonly include corrosion surfaces that developed when calcite precipitation ceased and corrosion mediated by condensates became the operative process. Dissolution features associated with these surfaces, including etched crystal surfaces, microcavities, and solution-widened boundaries between crystals, are commonly occupied by microbes and microbial mats that have been replaced by calcium phosphate and/or coated with calcium phosphate. No mineralized microbes were found in the calcite crystals that form the speleothems. The morphology of the mineralized hyphae (eight morphotypes) and spores (nine morphotypes) are indicative of actinomycetes, a group of microbes that are ideally adapted to life in oligotrophic cave environs. Superb preservation of the delicate hyphae, aerial hyphae, and delicate ornamentation on the hyphae and spores indicate that the microbes underwent rapid mineralized while close to their original life positions. Although these actinomycetes were extremely susceptible to replacement by calcium phosphate, there is no evidence that they directly or indirectly controlled precipitation. Nevertheless, the association between the P-rich precipitates and microbes shows that the use of phosphorus as a proxy for seasonal climate changes in paleoclimate analyses must be treated with caution.

    7. Structural and functional properties of actinomycetal communities in chernozems and saline soils of Ukraine

      Grishko, V. N.; Syshchikova, O. V.

      2010-02-01

      In the profiles of ordinary and southern chernozems, the total numbers of amylolytic microorganisms and actinomycetes decreased with the depth by 2.4-4.2 and 3.4 times, respectively; in the profiles of solonetz and solonchak soils, by 4.2-5.3 and 4.8 times, respectively. In the genetic horizons of the ordinary and southern chernozems, the share of actinomycetes amounted to 29-30% of the total population of microorganisms; in the saline soils, it increases with the depth from 23 to 43%. In the chernozems, Streptomyces violaceomaculatus (Roseus section), St. sporoherbeus (Azureus), St. aerionidulus (Cinereus), St. enduracidicus (Cinereus), and St. grisinus (Cinereus) predominated; in the saline soils, St. violaceomaculatus and St. aerionidulus prevailed. In the ordinary chernozem, the Berger-Parker index was 1.5 times higher than in the southern chernozem. High similarity was found between the streptomycete communities in the chernozems (the Sorensen coefficient was 0.78). In the solonetzes, the species richness of the streptomycetes was higher by 1.7 times than in the solonchaks. In the chernozems, the similarity of the streptomycete communities was higher than in the solonchaks (0.78 and 0.60, respectively).

    8. Screening of Marine Actinomycetes from Segara Anakan for Natural Pigment and Hydrolytic Activities

      Asnani, A.; Ryandini, D.; Suwandri

      2016-02-01

      Marine actinomycetes have become sources of great interest to natural product chemistry due to their new chemical entities and bioactive metabolites. Since April 2010, we have screened actinobacteria from five sites that represent different ecosystems of Segara Anakan lagoon. In this present study we focus on specific isolates, K-2C which covers 1) actinomycetes identification based on morphology observation and 16S rRNA gene; 2) fermentation and isolation of pigment; 3) structure determination of pigment; and 4) hydrolytic enzymes characterization; Methodologies relevant to the studies were implemented accordingly. The results indicated that K-2C was likely Streptomyces fradiae strain RSU15, and the best fermentation medium should contain starch and casein with 21 days of incubation. The isolate has extracellular as well as intracellular pigments. Isolated pigments gave purple color with λmax of 529.00 nm. The pigment was structurally characterized. Interestingly, Streptomyces K-2C was able to produce potential hydrolytic enzymes such as amylase, cellulase, protease, lipase, urease, and nitrate reductase.

    9. 秦岭太白山北坡土壤拮抗性放线菌分布及特性%Distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomycetes on northern slope of Taibai Mountain, Qinling

      朱文杰; 薛泉宏; 曹艳茹; 薛磊; 申光辉; 来航线

      2011-01-01

      Twelve representative soil samples were collected from different altitudes on the northern slope of Taibai Mountain to study the distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomyces by using agar block method. There existed a great deal of soil antagonistic actinomyces in the study area. Among the 141 actinomycete strains isolated, 116 strains (82. 3% ) showed antagonism toward 12 target bacteria or fungi. The antagonistic strains at altitudes 800-1845, 3488, 3655, and 3670 m occupied 73.7% -86.8% , 81.3% , 78.9% and 82.3% of the total, respectively. 42. 1% of the strains at altitudes 1200-2300 m and >3400 m showed strong and broad spectrum antagonistic activity, suggesting that there was a great potential for the isolation of actinomycete strains with strong anti-biotic capability at these altitudes. 24. 1 % of the antagonistic actinomycetes showed antagonism against Staphyloccocus aureu, and 2.4% , 6.9% and 11. 2% of them showed activity toward Verticillium dahliae in cotton, Phytophthora sp. In strawberry and Neonectria radkiccla in ginseng, respectively. This study showed that the soil actinomycete antagonistic potentiality (SAAP) could be used as a quantitative indicator to evaluate the potential of antagonistic actinomycete resources in soil.%以太白山北坡12个不同海拔高度的代表性土样为研究对象,采用皿内琼脂块法筛选拮抗性放线茵.结果表明:在太白山北坡不同海拔高度土壤中生存着大量拮抗性放线菌,在分离出的141株放线菌中,有82.3%的放线菌对21种靶标菌有拮抗作用.其中,海拔800~1845、3488、3655和3670 m土壤中的拮抗性放线菌分别占其总数73.7%~86.8%、81.3%、78.9%及82.3%,在海拔1200~2300及3400 m以上土壤中分离到的广谱强拮抗性放线菌占其总数的42.1%.在拮抗性放线菌中,对金黄色葡萄球菌有强拮抗性的放线菌占拮抗菌总数的24.1%,对棉花黄萎病、草莓疫霉及人参

    10. Distribution and generic composition of culturable marine actinomycetes from the sediments of Indian continental slope of Bay of Bengal

      Das, Surajit; Lyla, P. S.; Ajmal Khan, S.

      2008-05-01

      Actinomycetes population from continental slope sediment of the Bay of Bengal was studied. Samples were collected during two voyages of FORV Sagar Sampada in 2004 (May-June) and 2005 (July) respectively from 11 transects (each transect had ca. 200 m, 500 m, and 1 000 m depth stations). The physicochemical parameters of overlying water, and sediment samples were also recorded. The actinomycete population ranged from 5.17 to 51.94 CFU/g dry sediment weight and 9.38 to 45.22 CFU/g dry sediment weight during the two cruises respectively. No actinomycete colony was isolated from stations in 1 000 m depth. Two-way analysis of variance showed significant variation among stations (ANOVA two-way, P0.05). Three actinomycetes genera were identified. Streptomyces was found to be the dominating one in both the cruises, followed by Micromonospora, and Actinomyces. The spore of Streptomyces isolates showed the abundance in spiral spore chain. Spore surface was smooth. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the influencing physico-chemical factors were sediment pH, sediment temperature, TOC, porosity, salinity, and pressure. The media used in the present study was prepared with seawater. Thus, they may represent an autochthonous marine flora and deny the theory of land runoff carriage into the sea for adaptation to the salinity of the seawater and sediments.

    11. Isolation, screening and characterization of Uranium microremediable actinomycetes from fallen leaves of Azadirachta indica in Western Ghats

      The aim of this study was to isolate and screen the actinomycetes from fallen leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) in Western Ghats, India that has the capacity to microremediate radioactive waste Uranium. The influence of different temperature and pH on Uranium removal was also studied

    12. In vitro Antimicrobial Assay of Actinomycetes in Rice AgainstXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and as Potential Plant Growth Promoter

      Erneeza Mohd Hata

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to invitro assay the antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes in rice against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and as potential plant growth promoter. A total of 92 actinomycete strains were isolated from different rice plant components and field locations. Of these, only 21.74% showed antagonistic activity against the Xoc pathogen. Molecular identification via 16s rRNA amplification revealed that 60% of the active antagonistic strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Isolates that demonstrated the highest antagonistic activity were also able to produce hydrolytic enzymes and plant growth-promoting hormones. Combination of preliminary screening based on in vitro antagonistic, hydrolytic enzyme and plant growth hormone activity facilitated the best selection of actinomycete candidates as evidenced by strains classification using cluster analysis (Ward's Method. Results from the preliminary screening showed that actinomycetes, especially Streptomycetes, could offer a promising source for both biocontrol and plant growth-promotion agents against BLS disease in rice.

    13. Actinomycetes Mycetoma

      Sumati Hogade; Metgud, S. C.; Swoorooparani

      2011-01-01

      Mycetoma is a chronic infection, frequently seen in tropical and sub-tropical countries and is considered as an occupational disease. Nocardia species though it can infect immunocompetent individuals, it most commonly affects immunocompromised patients. A 50-year-old male, farmer presented to our hospital with serosanguineous discharging swelling over the dorsum of right foot. We have isolated Nocardia asteroides from the tissue sample. Speciation of this isolate was carried out based on phen...

    14. Components in Antineoplastic Actinomycete Strain(N2010-37)of Bottom Mud in Mangrove

      ZHOU Zhong-liu; JIN Bei; YIN Wen-qing; FU Chun-yan; FENG Hua-fen

      2011-01-01

      Objective To study the antitumor components from an actinomycete strain(N2010-37)of bottom mud in Zhanjiang Mangrove,South China Sea.Methods The components were isolated and purified by chromatographic techniques and recrystallization,and the structures were identified by spectral methods together with physicochemical analyses.The antitumor effects of these components were tested in vitro by MTT method.Results Three compounds were identified including two anthrones and one novel lactone.They are(3S,4R,7R,8R,9S)-3,8-dihydroxy-4,7,9-trimethyl-2,6-cyclononanediolacetone(1),2-hydroxy-l-methoxy-3-methylanthraquinone(2),and 1,6,8-thihydroxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone(3).Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound,and compounds 1 and 3 show the favorablecytotoxic activities against human chronic granulocytic leukemia cell line K562 strain by MTT method in vitro.

    15. Structural-functional specificity of the complexes of psychrotolerant soil actinomycetes

      Zenova, G. M.; Dubrova, M. S.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

      2010-04-01

      The active growth and development of psychrotolerant actinomycetes take place in peat and podzolic soils of the tundra and taiga at temperatures below 10°C. The population density of psychrotolerant mycelial prokaryotes in these soils reaches thousands and tens of thousands of CFU/g of soil, and the length of their mycelium is up to 380 m/g of soil. The application of fluorescent in situ hybridization (the FISH method) demonstrated that the metabolically active psychrotolerant representatives of the phylogenetic group of Actinobacteria comprise up to 30% of the total number of bacteria in prokaryotic microbial communities of oligotrophic peat bog and podzolic soils. The portion of metabolically active mycelial actinobacteria exceeds the portion of unicellular actinobacteria. Psychrotolerant streptomycetes isolated from peat bog soils possess pectinolytic, amylolytic, and antagonistic activities at low temperatures (5°C).

    16. Marine actinomycetes: a new source of compounds against the human malaria parasite.

      Jacques Prudhomme

      Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria continues to be a devastating parasitic disease that causes the death of 2 million individuals annually. The increase in multi-drug resistance together with the absence of an efficient vaccine hastens the need for speedy and comprehensive antimalarial drug discovery and development. Throughout history, traditional herbal remedies or natural products have been a reliable source of antimalarial agents, e.g. quinine and artemisinin. Today, one emerging source of small molecule drug leads is the world's oceans. Included among the source of marine natural products are marine microorganisms such as the recently described actinomycete. Members of the genus Salinispora have yielded a wealth of new secondary metabolites including salinosporamide A, a molecule currently advancing through clinical trials as an anticancer agent. Because of the biological activity of metabolites being isolated from marine microorganisms, our group became interested in exploring the potential efficacy of these compounds against the malaria parasite. METHODS: We screened 80 bacterial crude extracts for their activity against malaria growth. We established that the pure compound, salinosporamide A, produced by the marine actinomycete, Salinispora tropica, shows strong inhibitory activity against the erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle. Biochemical experiments support the likely inhibition of the parasite 20S proteasome. Crystal structure modeling of salinosporamide A and the parasite catalytic 20S subunit further confirm this hypothesis. Ultimately we showed that salinosporamide A protected mice against deadly malaria infection when administered at an extremely low dosage. CONCLUSION: These findings underline the potential of secondary metabolites, derived from marine microorganisms, to inhibit Plasmodium growth. More specifically, we highlight the effect of proteasome inhibitors such as salinosporamide A on in vitro and in vivo parasite development

    17. Antimicrobial Activities of Some Actinomycetes Isolated from Different Rhizospheric Soils in Tunisia.

      Trabelsi, Ines; Oves, Daniel; Manteca, Angel; Genilloud, Olga; Altalhi, Abdullah; Nour, Mohamed

      2016-08-01

      Fifty four isolates of actinomycetes were collected from four different rhizospheric soils: 18 strains from palm tree bark and soil, 12 strains from an olive field soil, 9 strains from a coastal forest, and 15 strains from an agriculture soil situated in the Algerian-Tunisian border (Oum Tboul). Based on morphological and cultural characters, the isolates were classified as Streptomyces (42 strains), Micromonospora (4 strains), Pseudonocardia (1 strain), Actinomadura (1 strain), Nocardia (1 strain), and non-Streptomyces (5 strains). More than half of the isolates inhibited at least one tested pathogenic microorganisms in liquid culture. In addition, antimicrobial activities of some strains were tested on solid culture. Several bioactive compounds were identified by liquid chromatography joined with low-resolution mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) and analysed by MEDINA's database and by the dictionary of natural products Chapman & Hall. An interesting chlorinated compound with the molecular formula C20H37ClN2O4, produced by three different strains (SF1, SF2, and SF5), was subject of an attempted purification. However, it was demonstrated using confocal microscopy and LC/MS high resolution that this compound is produced only on solid culture. These three potential antimicrobial isolates showed high similarity with Streptomyces thinghirensis and Streptomyces lienomycini, in terms of morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences (bootstrap 97 %). All these findings prove the high antimicrobial diversity of the studied soils. The potential of the selected and other relatively unexplored extreme environments constitute a source of interesting actinomycete strains producing several biologically active secondary metabolites. PMID:27139253

    18. Himalomycin A and cycloheximide-producing marine actinomycete from Lagos Lagoon soil sediment

      Davies Olabisi Flora; Adeleye IsaacAdeyemi; Wang Peng George

      2015-01-01

      Objective: To isolate and screen Actinomycetes from Lagos Lagoon soil sediments for antibiotic production. Methods: Soil samples were collected from four different locations of Lagos Lagoon and were dried for 2 weeks. Actinomycetes were isolated by serial dilution using spread plate method on starch casein and Kuster’s agar supplemented with 80 μg/mL cycloheximide to prevent fungal growth. The plates were incubated at 28 °C for 1-2 weeks. Isolates were selected based on their cultural characteristics as well as their Gram’s reaction and subcultured on same media for isolation and incubated at 28 °C for 3 days. Pure cultures were maintained on nutrient agar slants at 4 °C. Thereafter, they were inoculated into starch casein and Kuster’s broth media and incubated at 28 °C for 8 days. The resulting crude extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity against the following microorganisms: methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 29522, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from HIV patients were also used (Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Extraction of secondary metabolites was carried out and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results: All the isolates displayed varying antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test organisms. Himalomycin A was identified in the extract from isolate ULS7. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer data analysis showed the antibiotic profile of these isolates. Conclusions: The isolate ULS7 was found to display the highest antimicrobial activity against the test organisms.

    19. SCREENING, ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTIC(S FROM MARINE ACTINOMYCETES

      Attimarad S L

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available As marine environmental conditions are extremely different from terrestrial ones, it is surmised that marine actinomycetes might produce novel bioactive compounds. Hence marine sediments, collected from the coastal areas of Gokharna and Muradeshwara of Karnataka state, were screened. Seventeen isolates were obtained on starch-casein agar media by soil dilution technique. However, only six isolates namely SUN-A2, SUN-A3, SUN-A4, SUN-A5, SUN-A7 and SUN-A15 showed significant antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Further studies were carried out with the most active SUN-A2. Optimization of media, temperature and pH by shake flask fermentation indicated starch-casein, 28o C and pH 7 to be suitable for SUN-A2. The production of antibiotics began after 24 h reached maximum at 72 h and maintained at the same level up to 120 h. Ethyl acetate was used to extract antibacterial compounds from the culture filtrate. TLC was done on silica gel using ethyl acetate: methanol (6:4 and direct bioautography showed the presence of two active substance, one with Rf 0.8 more active than the other with Rf 0.4. Further purification is done by column chromatography using a mixture of dicholoromethane and ethyl acetate. The findings from this investigation reveal that the strain SUN-A2 in order exhibited superior antimicrobial activity to other sediment isolates of actinomycetes.

    20. Antibiotic Producing Potentials of Three Freshwater Actinomycetes Isolated from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

      Timothy Sibanda

      2010-07-01

      Full Text Available Crude extracts of three actinomycetes species belonging to Saccharopolyspora (TR 046 and TR 039 and Actinosynnema (TR 024 genera were screened for antibacterial activities against a panel of several bacterial strains. The extracts showed antibacterial activities against both gram-negative and gram-positive test bacteria with inhibition zones ranging from 8 to 28 mm (TR 046; 8 to15 mm (TR 039; and 10 to 13 mm (TR 024. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.078 to 10 mg/mL (TR 046; 5 to >10 mg/mL (TR 039; and 1.25 to 5 mg/mL (TR 024. Time-kill studies revealed that crude extract of TR 046 showed strong bactericidal activity against Bacillus pumilus (ATCC14884, reducing the bacterial load by 104 cfu/mL and 102 cfu/mL at 4× MIC and 2× MIC, respectively, after 6 h of exposure. Similarly, against Proteus vulgaris (CSIR 0030, crude extract of TR 046 achieved a 0.9log10 and 0.13log10 cfu/mL reduction at 5 mg/mL (4× MIC and 1.25 mg/mL (2× MIC after 12 h of exposure. The extract was however weakly bactericidal against two environmental bacterial strains (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis; and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 19582: the extract showed bacteriostatic activities at all concentrations tested. These freshwater actinomycetes appear to have immense potential as a source of new antibacterial compound(s.

    1. Clear felling and burning effects on soil nitrogen transforming bacteria and actinomycetes population in Chittagong University campus, Bangladesh

      S.M.Sirajul Haque; Rahima Ferdoshi; Sohag Miah; M.Nural Anwar

      2012-01-01

      The effect of forests clear felling and associated burning on the population of soil nitrogen transforming bacteria and actinomycetes are reported at three pair sites of Chittagong University campus,Bangladesh in monsoon tropical climate.Clear felled area or burnt site and 15-21 year mixed plantation of native and exotic species,situated side by side on low hill having Typic Dystrochrepts soil was represented at each pair site.At all the three pair sites,clear felled area or burnt site showed very significantly (p≤0.001) lower population of actinomycetes,Rhizobium,Nitrosomonas,Nitrobacter and ammonifying as well as denitrifying bacteria compared to their adjacent mixed plantation.From environmental consideration,this finding has implication in managing natural ecosystem.

    2. Structural changes of actinomycete communities along primary succession process on non-reclaimed post-mining sites

      Chroňáková, Alica; Krištůfek, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Tichý, Martin

      Lyon : Microbial- ecology Organisation , 2005. s. 94. [Bageco /8./. 26.06.2005-29.06.2005, Lyon] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1259 Grant ostatní: GAJU(CZ) GAJU/54/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : actinomycete communities * primary succession process * non-reclaimed post-mining sites Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour

    3. Structural and Functional Characterizations of SsgB, a Conserved Activator of Developmental Cell Division in Morphologically Complex Actinomycetes

      Xu, Qingping; Traag, Bjørn A.; Willemse, Joost; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Minor, Wladek; Mommaas, A. Mieke; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Wang, Shuren; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; van Wezel, Gilles P.; (Leiden-MC); (SLAC); (Scripps); (UV); (UCSD); (Burnham)

      2010-01-20

      SsgA-like proteins (SALPs) are a family of homologous cell division-related proteins that occur exclusively in morphologically complex actinomycetes. We show that SsgB, a subfamily of SALPs, is the archetypal SALP that is functionally conserved in all sporulating actinomycetes. Sporulation-specific cell division of Streptomyces coelicolor ssgB mutants is restored by introduction of distant ssgB orthologues from other actinomycetes. Interestingly, the number of septa (and spores) of the complemented null mutants is dictated by the specific ssgB orthologue that is expressed. The crystal structure of the SsgB from Thermobifida fusca was determined at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution and represents the first structure for this family. The structure revealed similarities to a class of eukaryotic 'whirly' single-stranded DNA/RNA-binding proteins. However, the electro-negative surface of the SALPs suggests that neither SsgB nor any of the other SALPs are likely to interact with nucleotide substrates. Instead, we show that a conserved hydrophobic surface is likely to be important for SALP function and suggest that proteins are the likely binding partners.

    4. Degradative crystal–chemical transformations of clay minerals under the influence of cyanobacterium-actinomycetal symbiotic associations

      Ekaterina Ivanova

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and actinomycetes are essential components of soil microbial community and play an active role in ash elements leaching from minerals of the parent rock. Content and composition of clay minerals in soil determine the sorption properties of the soil horizons, water-holding capacity of the soil, stickiness, plasticity, etc. The transformative effect of cyanobacterial–actinomycetes associations on the structure of clay minerals – kaolinite, vermiculite, montmorillonite, biotite and muscovite – was observed, with the greatest structural lattice transformation revealed under the influence of association in comparison with monocultures of cyanobacterium and actinomycete. The range of the transformative effect depended both on the type of biota (component composition of association and on the crystal–chemical parameters of the mineral itself (trioctahedral mica – biotite, was more prone to microbial degradation than the dioctahedral – muscovite. The formation of the swelling phase – the product of biotite transformation into the mica–vermicullite mixed-layered formation was revealed as a result of association cultivation. Crystal chemical transformation of vermiculite was accompanied by the removal of potassium (К, magnesium (Mg and aluminum (Al from the crystal lattice. The study of such prokaryotic communities existed even in the early stages of the Earth's history helps to understand the causes and nature of the transformations undergone by the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere of the planet.contribution of treatments on structure induces and model parameters are discussed in the paper.

    5. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the endophytic actinomycete R18(6) against multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria.

      Carvalho, Tiele; Van Der Sand, Sueli

      2016-03-01

      Endophytic actinomycetes are promising sources of antimicrobial substances. This study evaluates the activity of metabolites produced by the endophytic actinomycete R18(6) against Gram-negative bacteria multiresistant to antimicrobials. R18(6) isolate was grown in submerged cultures under different conditions: carbon source, temperature, pH and incubation time to optimize antimicrobials production. The actinomycete grown in base medium supplemented with 1% glucose, pH 6.5 and incubation at 30 ºC for 96 h with shaking at 100 rpm, exhibited the highest activity against the used Gram-negative bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the crude extract produced by the microorganism varied between 1/32 and 1/256. It had bactericide or bacteriostatic activity, depending on the Gram-negative organism. The active extract was stable at high temperatures, and unstable in medium containing proteolytic enzymes. Micromorphology of R18(6) was investigated by optical and scan microscopy, revealing that it was morphologically similar to the genusStreptomyces. PMID:26871499

    6. Inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus and cancer cells by marine actinomycete strains

      Li, Ping; Yan, Peisheng

      2014-12-01

      Ten actinomycete strains isolated from the Yellow Sea off China's coasts were identified as belonging to two genera by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis: Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis. Six Streptomyces strains (MA10, 2SHXF01-3, MA35, MA05-2, MA05-2-1 and MA08-1) and one Nocardiopsis strain (MA03) were predicted to have the potential to produce aromatic polyketides based on the analysis of the KSα (ketoacyl-synthase) gene in the type II PKS (polyketides synthase) gene cluster. Four strains (MA03, MA01, MA10 and MA05-2) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth (inhibition rate >50%) and subsequent aflatoxin production (inhibition rate >75%) of the mutant aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus NFRI-95. The ethyl acetate extracts of the broth of these four strains displayed significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth, and the IC50 values were calculated (MA03: 0.275 mg mL-1, MA01: 0.106 mg mL-1, MA10: 1.345 mg mL-1 and MA05-2: 1.362 mg mL-1). Five strains (2SHXF01-3, MA03, MA05-2, MA01 and MA08-1) were selected based on their high cytotoxic activities. The ethyl acetate extract of the Nocardiopsis strain MA03 was particularly noted for its high antitumor activity against human carcinomas of the cervix (HeLa), lung (A549), kidney (Caki-1) and liver (HepG2) (IC50: 2.890, 1.981, 3.032 and 2.603 μg mL-1, respectively). The extract also remarkably inhibited colony formation of HeLa cells at an extremely low concentration (0.5 μg mL-1). This study highlights that marine-derived actinomycetes are a huge resource of compounds for the biological control of aflatoxin contamination and the development of novel drugs for human carcinomas.

    7. Hydrophobic nature and effects of culture conditions on biofilm formation by the cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca

      Almaris N. Alonso

      2015-09-01

      Full Text Available Thermobifida fusca produces a firmly attached biofilm on nutritive and non-nutritive surfaces, such as cellulose, glass, plastic, metal and Teflon®. The ability to bind to surfaces has been suggested as a competitive advantage for microbes in soil environments. Results of previous investigations indicated that a Gram-positive cellulolytic soil bacteria, Cellulomonas uda, a facultative aerobe, specifically adhered to nutritive surfaces forming biofilms, but cells did not colonize non-nutritive surfaces. Cell surface hydrophobicity has been implicated in the interactions between bacteria and the adhesion to surfaces. It was recently described that the cellulolytic actinomycete T. fusca cells hydrophobicity was measured and compared to the cellulolytic soil bacteria C. uda. Also, T. fusca biofilm formation on non-nutritive surface, such as polyvinyl chloride, was examined by testing various culture ingredients to determine a possible trigger mechanism for biofilm formation. Experimental results showed that partitioning of bacterial cells to various hydrocarbons was higher in T. fusca cells than in C. uda. The results of this study suggest that the attachment to multiple surfaces by T. fusca could depend on nutrient availability, pH, salt concentrations, and the higher hydrophobic nature of bacterial cells. Possibly, these characteristics may confer T. fusca a selective advantage to compete and survive among the many environments it thrives.

    8. Diversity and bioactivity of actinomycetes from marine sediments of the Yellow Sea

      Zhang, Shumin; Ye, Liang; Tang, Xuexi

      2012-03-01

      Among the 116 actinomycetes collected from marine sediments of the Yellow Sea, 56 grew slowly and appeared after 2-3 weeks of incubation. Among the 56 strains, only 3 required seawater (SW) for growth, and 21 grew well in the medium prepared with SW rather than distilled water (DW), while the remaining 32 grew well either with SW or with DW. Six representatives with different morphological characteristics, including 1 SW-requiring strain and 5 well-growing with SW strains, were selected for phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene. Two strains belong to Micrococcaceae and Nocardiopsaceae respectively. The other 4 strains belong to the family of Streptomycetaceae. In the analyzed 6 strains, one was related to Nocardiopsis spp. and the other three were related to Streptomyces spp., representing new taxa. Bioactivity testing of fermentation products from 3 SW-requiring strains and 21 well-growing with SW strains revealed that 17 strains possessed remarkable activities against gram-positive pathogen or/and tumor cells, suggesting that they were prolific resources for natural drug discovery.

    9. Genome Sequence and Analysis of the Soil Cellulolytic ActinomyceteThermobifida fusca

      Lykidis, Athanasios; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Anderson, Iain; Land, Miriam; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Martinez, Michele; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Richardson, Paul; Wilson,David B.; Kyrpides, Nikos

      2007-02-01

      Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic soilbacterium that belongs to Actinobacteria. 3 It is a major degrader ofplant cell walls and has been used as a model organism for the study of 4secreted, thermostable cellulases. The complete genome sequence showedthat T. fusca has a 5 single circular chromosome of 3642249 bp predictedto encode 3117 proteins and 65 RNA6 species with a coding densityof 85percent. Genome analysis revealed the existence of 29 putative 7glycoside hydrolases in addition to the previously identified cellulasesand xylanases. The 8 glycosyl hydrolases include enzymes predicted toexhibit mainly dextran/starch and xylan 9 degrading functions. T. fuscapossesses two protein secretion systems: the sec general secretion 10system and the twin-arginine translocation system. Several of thesecreted cellulases have 11 sequence signatures indicating theirsecretion may be mediated by the twin-arginine12 translocation system. T.fusca has extensive transport systems for import of carbohydrates 13coupled to transcriptional regulators controlling the expression of thetransporters and14 glycosylhydrolases. In addition to providing anoverview of the physiology of a soil 15 actinomycete, this study presentsinsights on the transcriptional regulation and secretion of16 cellulaseswhich may facilitate the industrial exploitation of thesesystems.

    10. The loop structure of Actinomycete glycoside hydrolase family 5 mannanases governs substrate recognition.

      Kumagai, Yuya; Yamashita, Keitaro; Tagami, Takayoshi; Uraji, Misugi; Wan, Kun; Okuyama, Masayuki; Yao, Min; Kimura, Atsuo; Hatanaka, Tadashi

      2015-10-01

      Endo-β-1,4-mannanases from Streptomyces thermolilacinus (StMan) and Thermobifida fusca (TfMan) demonstrated different substrate specificities. StMan hydrolyzed galactosylmannooligosaccharide (GGM5; 6(III) ,6(IV) -α-d-galactosyl mannopentaose) to GGM3 and M2, whereas TfMan hydrolyzed GGM5 to GGM4 and M1. To determine the region involved in the substrate specificity, we constructed chimeric enzymes of StMan and TfMan and evaluated their substrate specificities. Moreover, the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of StMan (StMandC) and the complex structure of the inactive mutant StE273AdC with M6 were solved at resolutions of 1.60 and 1.50 Å, respectively. Structural comparisons of StMandC and the catalytic domain of TfMan lead to the identification of a subsite around -1 in StMandC that could accommodate a galactose branch. These findings demonstrate that the two loops (loop7 and loop8) are responsible for substrate recognition in GH5 actinomycete mannanases. In particular, Trp281 in loop7 of StMan, which is located in a narrow and deep cleft, plays an important role in its affinity toward linear substrates. Asp310 in loop8 of StMan specifically bound to the galactosyl unit in the -1 subsite. PMID:26257335

    11. Streptomyces andamanensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

      Sripreechasak, Paranee; Tamura, Tomohiko; Shibata, Chiyo; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Tanasupawat, Somboon

      2016-05-01

      A novel actinomycete, strain KC-112T, was isolated from soil collected from Similan Islands, Phang-Nga Province, Thailand. The strain exhibited morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The formation of smooth spiral spore chains was observed on aerial mycelia. ll-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in whole-cell hydrolysates, but no diagnostic sugars were detected and the strain lacked mycolic acids. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H2). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, an unknown phospholipid, an unknown aminolipid, unknown lipids and an unknown glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 73 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain KC-112T was closely related to Streptomyces fumanus NBRC 13042T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptomyces anandii NBRC 13438T (98.8 %) and Streptomyces capillispiralis NBRC 14222T (98.8 %). DNA-DNA relatedness values among strain KC-112T and type strains of closely related species were lower than 70 %. On the basis of evidence from this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain KC-112T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, namely Streptomyces andamanensis sp. nov. The type strain is KC-112T ( = KCTC 29502T = NBRC 110085T = PCU 347T = TISTR 2401T). PMID:26908169

    12. Isolation and characterization of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)-producing Streptomyces sp. S161 from sheep (Ovis aries) faeces.

      Lu, Y; Wang, J; Deng, Z; Wu, H; Deng, Q; Tan, H; Cao, L

      2013-09-01

      An actinomycete producing oil-like mixtures was isolated and characterized. The strain was isolated from sheep faeces and identified as Streptomyces sp. S161 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain showed cellulase and xylanase activities. The (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the mixtures showed that the mixtures were composed of fatty acid methyl esters (52·5), triglycerides (13·7) and monoglycerides (9·1) (mol.%). Based on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the fatty acid methyl esters were mainly composed of C14-C16 long-chain fatty acids. The results indicated that Streptomyces sp. S161 could produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) directly from starch. To our knowledge, this is the first isolated strain that can produce biodiesel (FAME) directly from starch. PMID:23692633

    13. Rare actinomycetes Nocardia caishijiensis and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans as endophytes, their bioactivity and metabolites evaluation.

      Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie

      2016-04-01

      Two strains identified as Nocardia caishijiensis (SORS 64b) and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans (AGLS 2) were isolated as endophytes from Sonchus oleraceus and Ageratum conyzoides respectively. The analysis of their extracts revealed them to be strongly bioactive. The N. caishijiensis extract gave an LC50 of 570 μg/ml(-1) in the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay and an EC50 of 0.552 μg/ml(-1) in the DPPH antioxidant assay. Antimicrobial activity was observed against Methicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (14 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 706003 (13 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (11 mm) and Candida tropicalis (20 mm). For the extract of P. carboxydivorans the EC50 was 0.670 μg/ml(-1) and it was observed to be more bioactive against Bacillus subtilis DSM 10 ATCC 6051 (21 mm), C. tropicalis (20 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (17 mm), MRSA (17 mm), E. coli K12 (W1130) (16 mm) and Chlorella vulgaris (10 mm). The genotoxicity testing revealed a 20 mm zone of inhibition against the polA mutant strain E. coli K-12 AB 3027 suggesting damage to the DNA and polA genes. The TLC and bioautography screening revealed a diversity of active bands of medium polar and nonpolar compounds. Metabolite analysis by HPLC-DAD via UV/vis spectral screening suggested the possibility of stenothricin and bagremycin A in the mycelium extract of N. caishijiensis respectively. In the broth and mycelium extract of P. carboxydivorans borrelidin was suggested along with α-pyrone. The HPLC-MS revealed bioactive long chained amide derivatives such as 7-Octadecenamide, 9, 12 octadecandienamide. This study reports the rare actinomycetes N. caishijiensis and P. carboxydivorans as endophytes and evaluates their bioactive metabolites. PMID:26946375

    14. Complete genome sequence of Kibdelosporangium phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T), a plant growth promoting endophytic actinomycete isolated from oil-seed plant Jatropha curcas L.

      Qin, Sheng; Feng, Wei-Wei; Xing, Ke; Bai, Juan-Luan; Yuan, Bo; Liu, Wei-Jie; Jiang, Ji-Hong

      2015-12-20

      Kibdelosporangium phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T) is a plant growth promoting endophytic actinomycete isolated from the oil-seed plant Jatropha curcas L. collected from dry-hot valley, in Sichuan, China. The complete genome sequence of this actinomycete consists of one chromosome (11,759,770bp) with no plasmid. From the genome, we identified gene clusters responsible for polyketide and nonribosomal peptide synthesis of natural products, and genes related to the plant growth promoting, such as zeatin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) and siderophore. The complete genome information may be useful to understand the beneficial interactions between K. phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T) and host plants. PMID:26516119

    15. Degradation and induction specificity in actinomycetes that degrade p-nitrophenol.

      1993-01-01

      We have isolated two soil bacteria (identified as Arthrobacter aurescens TW17 and Nocardia sp. strain TW2) capable of degrading p-nitrophenol (PNP) and numerous other phenolic compounds. A. aurescens TW17 contains a large plasmid which correlated with the PNP degradation phenotype. Degradation of PNP by A. aurescens TW17 was induced by preexposure to PNP, 4-nitrocatechol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, or m-nitrophenol, whereas PNP degradation by Nocardia sp. strain TW2 was induced by PNP, 4-nitroca...

    16. Screening of Rhizospheric Actinomycetes for Various In-vitro and In-vivo Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) Traits and for Agroactive Compounds.

      Anwar, Sumaira; Ali, Basharat; Sajid, Imran

      2016-01-01

      In this study 98 rhizospheric actinomycetes were isolated from different wheat and tomato fields, Punjab, Pakistan. The isolates were characterized morphologically, biochemically, and genetically and were subjected to a comprehensive in vitro screening for various plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. About 30% of the isolates screened were found to be the promising PGP rhizobacteria (PGPRs), which exhibited maximum genetic similarity (up to 98-99%) with different species of the genus Streptomyces by using16S rRNA gene sequencing. The most active indole acetic acid (IAA) producer Streptomyces nobilis WA-3, Streptomyces Kunmingenesis WC-3, and Streptomyces enissocaesilis TA-3 produce 79.5, 79.23, and 69.26 μg/ml IAA respectively at 500 μg/ml L-tryptophan. The highest concentration of soluble phosphate was produced by Streptomyces sp. WA-1 (72.13 mg/100 ml) and S. djakartensis TB-4 (70.36 mg/100 ml). All rhizobacterial isolates were positive for siderophore, ammonia, and hydrogen cyanide production. Strain S. mutabilis WD-3 showed highest concentration of ACC-deaminase (1.9 mmol /l). For in-vivo screening, seed germination, and plant growth experiment were conducted by inoculating wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds with the six selected isolates. Significant increases in shoot length was observed with S. nobilis WA-3 (65%), increased root length was recorded in case of S. nobilis WA-3 (81%) as compared to water treated control plants. Maximum increases in plant fresh weight were recorded with S. nobilis WA-3 (84%), increased plant dry weight was recorded in case of S. nobilis WA-3 (85%) as compared to water treated control plants. In case of number of leaves, significant increase was recorded with S. nobilis WA-3 (27%) and significant increase in case of number of roots were recorded in case of strain S. nobilis WA-3 (30%) as compared to control plants. Over all the study revealed that these rhizospheric PGP Streptomyces are good candidates to be developed as

    17. Cytotoxicity of actinomycetes associated with the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei (Millar, 1977, endemic of northeastern coast of Brazil

      Paula C Jimenez

      2013-04-01

      Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that the crude extract of the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei, endemic from northeasttern Brazil, strongly hinders growth of tumor cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis due to tryptophan derivatives, which are commonly found in bacteria. This study presents a bioactivity-guided screening among actinomycetes, associated with E. vannamei, aiming at recognizing active principles with biological relevance. Twenty strains of actinomycetes, designated as EVA 0101 through 0120, were isolated from colonies of E. vannamei among which 11 were selected for cytotoxicity evaluation. The extracts from EVA 0102, 0103, 0106, 0109 and 0113 were the most active, and were further studied for IC50 determination and chemical analysis by ¹H NMR. IC50 values obtained ranged from 3.62 µg mL-1 (for EVA 0109 in leukemia cells to 84.65 µg/mL (for EVA 0106 in melanoma cells. All active extracts exhibited the same TLC and spectroscopic profiles, suggesting the presence of quinones and other related secondary metabolites. Furthermore, these strains were identified and compared based on their respective 16S rRNA sequences. The results herein identified the five strains as Micromonospora spp. while phylogenetic analysis suggests that they are possibly two different Micromonospora species producing the cytotoxic compounds.

    18. Targeted Gene Disruption of the Cyclo (L-Phe, L-Pro Biosynthetic Pathway in Streptomyces sp. US24 Strain

      Samiha Sioud

      2007-01-01

      Full Text Available We have previously isolated a new actinomycete strain from Tunisian soil called Streptomyces sp. US24, and have shown that it produces two bioactive molecules including a Cyclo (L-Phe, L-Pro diketopiperazine (DKP. To identify the structural genes responsible for the synthesis of this DKP derivative, a PCR amplification (696 bp was carried out using the Streptomyces sp. US24 genomic DNA as template and two degenerate oligonucleotides designed by analogy with genes encoding peptide synthetases (NRPS. The detection of DKP derivative biosynthetic pathway of the Streptomyces sp. US24 strain was then achieved by gene disruption via homologous recombination using a suicide vector derived from the conjugative plasmid pSET152 and containing the PCR product. Chromatography analysis, biological tests and spectroscopic studies of supernatant cultures of the wild-type Streptomyces sp. US24 strain and three mutants obtained by this gene targeting disruption approach showed that the amplified DNA fragment is required for Cyclo (L-Phe, L-Pro biosynthesis in Streptomyces sp. US24 strain. This DKP derivative seems to be produced either directly via a nonribosomal pathway or as a side product in the course of nonribosomal synthesis of a longer peptide.

    19. A Novel and Effective Streptomyces sp. N2 Against Various Phytopathogenic Fungi.

      Xu, Bo; Chen, Wei; Wu, Zhi-ming; Long, Yue; Li, Kun-tai

      2015-11-01

      Phytopathogenic fungi would induce a variety of plant diseases, resulting in a severe reduction of agricultural output. However, the current plant disease control is mainly dependent on the environmentally and healthily hazardous chemical fungicides. Thus, the present work aimed to isolate an effective antagonistic microorganism against various soilborne phytopathogenic fungi. By dual culture with Rhizoctonia solani, a novel Streptomyces specie, Streptomyces sp. N2, was screened out from a total of 167 isolated actinomycetes, which displayed a strong inhibitory effect on R. solani (26.85 ± 1.35 mm of inhibition zone diameter). By means of macroporous resin and silica gel column chromatography coupled with preparative HPLC, an antifungal metabolite (3-methyl-3,5-amino-4-vinyl-2-pyrone, C6H7O2N) was isolated and purified from Streptomyces sp. N2. The bioassay results showed that the purified antifungal metabolite could not only possess a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on a range of plant pathogenic fungi in vitro (e.g., R. solani, Pyricularia grisea, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Penicillium italicum, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), but also had a significantly effective in vivo biocontrol efficacy on grape fruits anthracnose caused by C. gloeosporioides. Microscopic observation indicated that the antifungal metabolite from Streptomyces sp. N2 would exert its antimicrobial activity by disorganizing the cytoplasmic organelles of phytopathogenic fungi. The above results suggested that Streptomyces sp. N2 was one of promising fungicide for biocontrol of fungal plant diseases, especially due to its broad-spectrum and effective antagonist on various plant pathogens. PMID:26306529

    20. XML In Vitro Comparison of MIC Crude Extracts of Active Actinomycetes Isolated with Terbinafine, Griseofulvin Ketoconazole and Fluconazole against Microsporum Canis, Microsporum Gypseum and Trichophyton Mentagrophytes

      Keikha, N. (MSc

      2015-05-01

      Full Text Available Background and Objective: Dermatophytes are the fungi that have the ability to attack the keratinized tissues such as the skin, hair and nails. Infections caused by these organisms are named dermatophytosis. We aimed to compare Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Crude extracts of Active Actinomycete Isolates with Terbinafine, Griseofulvin, Ketoconazole and Fluconazole Drugs against Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Material and Methods: In this experimental study, in order to find MIC by actionmycete, 100 isolates were studied and then crude extracts of the active actinomycete isolates were prepared in sterile conditions. Finally, the crude extracts obtained at different concentrations were used to obtain the MIC of Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Moreover, various concentrations of the drugs such as terbinafine, griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole in solvent Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO were prepared and their growth inhibitory effect was evaluated and then compared with the results obtained from the crude extract of active actinomycete isolates. Results: the crude extracts obtained from active Actioiomycetes isolates and the drugs such as terbinafine, griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole, in a dose-dependent manner, could inhibit the growth of Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton Mentagrophytes. Conclusion: compared to MIC of Crude extract of active actinomycete isolates, Terbinafine has a significant effect on the growth inhibition in all of the fungal Dermatophytes and then griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are in the next rank, respectively.

    1. CCACB - Culture Collection of Actinomycetes of the Institute of Soil Biology České Budějovice, Czech Republic

      Krištůfek, Václav; Chroňáková, Alica; Němec, Jan

      Osnabrück: University Osnabrück, 2009. s. 137. [Biology of Streptomycetes. 07.10.2009-11.10.2009, Münster] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Culture Collection of Actinomycetes * Institute of Soil Biology * České Budějovice Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

    2. CCACB - Culture Collection of Actinomycetes of the Institute of Soil Biology České Budějovice, Czech Republic

      Krištůfek, Václav; Chroňáková, Alica; Petrásek, Jiří; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Elhottová, Dana

      Praha: Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 2014. s. 157-158. ISBN 978-80-7080-887-0. [BioTech 2014 & 6 th Czech-Swiss Symposium with Exhibition. 11.06.2014-14.06.2014, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : CCACB * soil actinomycetes * depository Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

    3. Complete Genome Sequence of Micromonospora Strain L5, a Potential Plant-Growth-Regulating Actinomycete, Originally Isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia Root Nodules

      Hirsch, A. M.; Alvarado, J.; Bruce, D.; Chertkov, O.; De Hoff, P. L.; Detter, J. C.; Fujishige, N. A.; Goodwin, L. A.; Han, J.; Han, S.; Ivanova, N.; Land, M. L.; Lum, M. R.; Milani-Nejad, N.; Nolan, M.; Pati, A.; Pitluck, S.; Tran, S. S.; Woyke, T.; Valdes, M.

      2013-08-29

      Micromonospora species live in diverse environments and exhibit a broad range of functions including antibiotic production, biocontrol, and ability to degrade complex polysaccharides. To learn more about these versatile actinomycetes, we sequenced the genome of strain L5, originally isolated from root nodules of an actinorhizal plant growing in Mexico.

    4. Comparative analysis of oligonucleotide primers for high-throughput screening of genes encoding adenylation domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases in actinomycetes

      Bakal, Tomáš; Goo, K.-S.; Najmanová, Lucie; Plháčková, Kamila; Kadlčík, Stanislav; Ulanová, Dana

      2015-01-01

      Roč. 108, č. 5 (2015), s. 1267-1274. ISSN 0003-6072 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Nonribosomal peptide synthetase * Adenylation domain * Actinomycetes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2014

    5. Nocardia altamirensis sp. nov., isolated from Altamira cave, Cantabria, Spain.

      Jurado, Valme; Boiron, Patrick; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Laurent, Frédéric; Couble, Andrée; Laiz, Leonila; Klenk, Hans-Peter; González, Juan M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Mouniée, Delphine; Bergeron, Emanuelle; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

      2008-09-01

      A novel actinomycete strain, OFN S17(T), was isolated from a sample collected from Altamira Cave, Cantabria, Spain. This strain was identified by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The 16S rRNA, hsp65 and sod gene sequences of the strain were determined and compared with those of representative Nocardia species. The results showed that strain OFN S17(T) should be assigned to the genus Nocardia. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain OFN S17(T) was most closely related to the type strain of Nocardia tenerifensis (98.6, 96.2 and 96% similarity, respectively, for the 16S rRNA, hsp65 and sod gene sequences). The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization analyses revealed 29% relative reassociation between the DNA of strain OFN S17(T) and N. tenerifensis DSM 44704(T). The phenotypic and genotypic data show that strain OFN S17(T) merits recognition as a representative of a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia altamirensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OFN S17(T) (=CIP 109606(T) =DSM 44997(T)). PMID:18768631

    6. Micromonospora humi sp. nov., isolated from peat swamp forest soil.

      Songsumanus, Apakorn; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Thawai, Chitti; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Kudo, Takuji

      2011-05-01

      A novel actinomycete, strain P0402(T), was isolated from peat swamp forest soil collected in Thailand. Its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of this strain matched those of the genus Micromonospora, i.e. the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid and N-glycolyl muramic acid in the peptidoglycan, whole-cell sugar pattern D, phospholipid type II, and cellular fatty acid type 3b. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a close relationship between strain P0402(T) and Micromonospora coxensis JCM 13248(T) (99.0 % similarity), Micromonospora eburnea JCM 12345(T) (99.0 %), Micromonospora marina JCM 12870(T) (98.9 %), Micromonospora halophytica JCM 3125(T) (98.7 %), Micromonospora chalcea JCM 3031(T) (98.7 %), Micromonospora purpureochromogenes JCM 3156(T) (98.6 %) and Micromonospora aurantiaca JCM 10878(T) (98.5 %). It could be clearly distinguished from these type strains based on low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic differences. On the basis of the data presented, strain P0402(T) is suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora humi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P0402(T) ( = JCM 15292(T)  = PCU 315(T)  = TISTR 1883(T)). PMID:20562246

    7. Control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. in cultures of Arthrospira sp. Control de Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. en cultivos de Arthrospira sp.

      Carlos Méndez; Eduardo Uribe

      2012-01-01

      Cultivation of cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. has been developed in many countries for the production of proteins, pigments and other compounds. Outdoor mass cultures are often affected by biological contamination, drastically reducing productivity as far as bringing death. This study evaluates the control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. with two chemical compounds: urea (U) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB), in laboratory conditions and outdoor mass culture of Arthrospira sp. The lethal concen...

    8. Metagenomic of Actinomycetes Based on 16S rRNA and nifH Genes in Soil and Roots of Four Indonesian Rice Cultivars Using PCR-DGGE

      Mahyarudin

      2015-07-01

      Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the metagenomic of actinomycetes based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA and bacterial nifH genes in soil and roots of four rice cultivars. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile based on 16S rRNA gene showed that the diversity of actinomycetes in roots was higher than soil samples. The profile also showed that the diversity of actinomycetes was similar in four varieties of rice plant and three types of agroecosystem. The profile was partially sequenced and compared to GenBank database indicating their identity with closely related microbes. The blast results showed that 17 bands were closely related ranging from 93% to 100% of maximum identity with five genera of actinomycetes, which is Geodermatophilus, Actinokineospora, Actinoplanes, Streptomyces and Kocuria. Our study found that Streptomyces species in soil and roots of rice plants were more varied than other genera, with a dominance of Streptomyces alboniger and Streptomyces acidiscabies in almost all the samples. Bacterial community analyses based on nifH gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that diversity of bacteria in soils which have nifH gene was higher than that in rice plant roots. The profile also showed that the diversity of those bacteria was similar in four varieties of rice plant and three types of agroecosystem. Five bands were closely related with nifH gene from uncultured bacterium clone J50, uncultured bacterium clone clod-38, and uncultured bacterium clone BG2.37 with maximum identity 99%, 98%, and 92%, respectively. The diversity analysis based on 16S rRNA gene differed from nifH gene and may not correlate with each other. The findings indicated the diversity of actinomycetes and several bacterial genomes analyzed here have an ability to fix nitrogen in soil and roots of rice plant.

    9. Hoyosella altamirensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the order Actinomycetales isolated from a cave biofilm.

      Jurado, Valme; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesáreo; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Mouniée, Delphine; Laiz, Leonila; Couble, Andrée; Pötter, Gabriele; Boiron, Patrick; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

      2009-12-01

      A novel actinomycete, strain OFN S31(T), was isolated from a complex biofilm in the Altamira Cave, Spain. A polyphasic study was carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of this strain. Phylogenetic analysis with 16S rRNA gene sequences of representatives of the genera Corynebacterium, Dietzia, Gordonia, Millisia, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Segniliparus, Skermania, Tsukamurella and Williamsia indicated that strain OFN S31(T) formed a distinct taxon in the 16S rRNA gene tree that was more closely associated with the Mycobacterium clade. The type strain of Mycobacterium fallax was the closest relative of strain OFN S31(T) (95.6 % similarity). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose, which are characteristic components of cell-wall chemotype IV of actinomycetes. The sugars of the peptidoglycan were acetylated. The polar lipid pattern was composed of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol. Strain OFN S31(T) is characterized by the absence of mycelium and mycolic acids. Strain OFN S31(T) had MK-8 as the major menaquinone. The DNA G+C content was 49.3 mol%, the lowest found among all taxa included in the suborder Corynebacterineae. Based on morphological, chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and genetic characteristics, strain OFN S31(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Hoyosella altamirensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Hoyosella altamirensis is strain OFN S31(T) (=CIP 109864(T) =DSM 45258(T)). PMID:19643882

    10. Identification of antibacterial secondary metabolite from marine Streptomyces sp. VITBRK4 and its activity against drug resistant Gram positive bacteria

      Benita Mercy R

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available Drug resistance by bacterial pathogens becomes a major health problem worldwide. Hence, it is important to search for broad spectrum of antibiotic from natural sources. Marine actinomycetes isolated from marine sediments collected at different sampling sites along the southeast coast of Bay of Bengal, India were investigated for antagonistic activity against selected drug resistant Gram positivebacterial pathogens. All actinomycetes isolates were screened for antibacterial activity against standard drug resistant ATCC strains. The potential isolate which showed higher inhibitory activity against drug resistant pathogens was mass cultured and the ethyl acetate (EA extract of the cell free culture broth was tested for antibacterial activity. The biochemical, morphological and physiological characterisation of the isolate revealed that it was Gram-positive rod, sporulating and produced grey aerial mycelium. The spore chain morphology, and smooth surface morphology showed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces.Based on Nonomura’s key for classification of Streptomycesand Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, the isolatewas identified as Streptomyces species and designated as Streptomyces sp. VITBRK4.Purification and characterization of EA extract of the isolate by thin layer chromatography (TLC and HPLC-DAD analysis showed the presence of indolo compound along with few other unidentified metabolites. The result of this study showed that the antibacterial activity of the EA extract against drug resistant strains may be due to indolo compound present in the extract.

    11. A Pimarane Diterpene and Cytotoxic Angucyclines from a Marine-Derived Micromonospora sp. in Vietnam’s East Sea

      Michael W. Mullowney

      2015-09-01

      Full Text Available A screening of our actinomycete fraction library against the NCI-60 SKOV3 human tumor cell line led to the isolation of isopimara-2-one-3-ol-8,15-diene (1, lagumycin B (2, dehydrorabelomycin (3, phenanthroviridone (4, and WS-5995 A (5. These secondary metabolites were produced by a Micromonospora sp. isolated from sediment collected off the Cát Bà peninsula in the East Sea of Vietnam. Compound 1 is a novel Δ8,9-pimarane diterpene, representing one of approximately 20 actinomycete-produced diterpenes reported to date, while compound 2 is an angucycline antibiotic that has yet to receive formal characterization. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by combined NMR and MS analysis and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by analysis of NOESY NMR and CD spectroscopic data. Compounds 2–5 exhibited varying degrees of cytotoxicity against a panel of cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. Overall, this study highlights our collaborative efforts to discover novel biologically active molecules from the large, underexplored, and biodiversity-rich waters of Vietnam’s East Sea.

    12. Cultivable actinomycetes from rhizosphere of birch (Betula pendula) growing on a coal mine dump in Silets, Ukraine.

      Ostash, Bohdan; Gren, Tetiana; Hrubskyy, Yaroslav; Tistechok, Stepan; Beshley, Stepan; Baranov, Volodymyr; Fedorenko, Victor

      2014-08-01

      Five actinomycete strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of birch, one of a few native tree forms capable of thriving on the upper level of a coal mine dump near the village of Silets (Lvivska region, Ukraine). No such strains were isolated from surrounding gangue, or from nearby grass Calamagrostis epigeios. Using 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis of cell wall aminoacids, four of these strains were shown to belong to genus Streptomyces and one to be Amycolatopsis. The isolates were able to produce siderophores and antibacterial compounds. In comparison to the reference strain Streptomyces coelicolor M145, certain rhizospheric isolates displayed somewhat increased survival in the presence of copper, iron(III), or chromium(VI) salts. The Amycolatopsis isolate was also shown to accumulate significant quantities of heavy metals from waste extracts. Possible roles of the described strains in coal mine dump ecology are discussed. PMID:23686352

    13. Improvement of the productivity of ecumicin, a novel anti-tuberculosis agent, from new Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123.

      Jin, Ying-Yu; Kim, Jin-Yong; Yang, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hanki; Suh, Joo-Won

      2016-05-01

      Ecumicin is a novel anti-tuberculosis agent produced by Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123 as a new strain of actinomycetes. First, in order to increase the cell mass of Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123, we optimized the culture conditions with regard to carbon and nitrogen sources. The cell mass of Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123 increased by approximately twofold when glucose and soybean flour were used as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. For maximum production of ecumicin, we optimized the culture conditions by adding amino acids as building blocks for ecumicin, by adding vegetable oils and by controlling the temperature and pH. Ecumicin production was two times higher with the addition of valine as the building blocks for ecumicin compared with the production in the absence of valine. Interestingly, with the addition of 1% corn oil, the production of ecumicin increased by 4.6-fold compared with the production in the absence of corn oil. Finally, by controlling the pH and temperature, we established an optimized culture condition in which Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123 produced 576 mg ecumicin per litre of medium, which is about 50 times higher than in the control medium at 30 °C and pH 7.0. PMID:26648116

    14. Actinomycetes Strains Screening for Xanthan- degrading and Study on Ferment Conditions for Enzyme Producing%产黄原胶降解酶放线菌筛选及发酵工艺研究

      古丽·艾合买提; 穆斯塔帕·克地尔; 唐娴

      2011-01-01

      [Objective] Xanthan is a kind of extracellular polysaccharose (EPS) produced by a plant pathogen of Xanthomonas campestris . It has a main chain structure similar to cellulose and is difficult to degrade, and can be -widely used for thickening agent, suspending agent, emulsifying agent and stabilizing agent as biogel with its special physical properties. However, it can also cause black rotten disease for crucifer. The purpose of this program is to obtain oligosaccharide produced by biodegradation of xanthan which used for biochemical to control black rotten disease by screening actinomycetes strains for xanthan - degrading. [ Method ] The program was carried out by screening actinomycetes strains from natural soil based on xanthan - degrading ability, identifying by 16S rRNA analysis, selecting mutants by ultraviolet mutation for higher enzyme activity, and studying on ferment conditions for enzyme producing by one factor and orthogonal tests. [Result]A strain of Streptomyces sp has been obtained, and the xanthan - degrading enzyme activity of its fermentation liquid reached 200 IU/L after culture medium and ferment conditions optimization.%[目的]黄原胶是植物致病菌野油菜黄单胞菌所分泌的胞外多糖,其主链类似纤维素很难降解,可作为生物胶用于增稠剂、悬浮剂、乳化剂和稳定剂,还能引起十字花科植物黑腐病.筛选分离对黄原胶有显著降解作用的放线菌,以生物方法降解黄原胶,降解产物黄原胶寡糖可有效防治黑腐病,具有开发为生物农药的潜力.[方法]从自然土壤样品中进行分离筛选、纯化、16S rRNA鉴定及诱变选育,获得高效降解黄原胶放线菌菌株,通过发酵工艺研究,确定最适产酶条件.[结果]优化产酶培养基配方为:蔗糖3%,( NH4 )2SO4 0.5%,KNO31%,酵母膏0.1%.菌株发酵产酶培养条件为:发酵温度28℃,pH7.5,500mL瓶装量为150 mL,底物浓度0.5%,接种量为5%.[结论]获得一株高效

    15. Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus

      João Fabio Soares

      2008-04-01

      Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus. As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso.This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in porcupine (Coendou villosus faeces samples. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulphate and showed high infection by cysts of Giardia sp. and by oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., although the animals did not show any associated clinical sign.

    16. XML In Vitro Comparison of MIC Crude Extracts of Active Actinomycetes Isolated with Terbinafine, Griseofulvin Ketoconazole and Fluconazole against Microsporum Canis, Microsporum Gypseum and Trichophyton Mentagrophytes

      Keikha, N. (MSc; Ayatollahi Mousavi, SA. (PhD; Nakhaei, AR. (PhD; Amanloo, S. (MSc); Shah idi Benjar, GH. (PhD); Amiri , S . (MSc)

      2015-01-01

      Background and Objective: Dermatophytes are the fungi that have the ability to attack the keratinized tissues such as the skin, hair and nails. Infections caused by these organisms are named dermatophytosis. We aimed to compare Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Crude extracts of Active Actinomycete Isolates with Terbinafine, Griseofulvin, Ketoconazole and Fluconazole Drugs against Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Material and Methods: In this exp...

    17. Degradation of Textile Dye Reactive Navy – Blue Rx (Reactive blue–59) by an Isolated Actinomycete Streptomyces krainskii SUK – 5

      Mane, U. V.; Gurav, P. N.; Deshmukh, A.M.; Govindwar, S. P.

      2008-01-01

      The isolated Actinomycete, Streptomyces krainskii, SUK -5 was found to decolorize and degrade textile dye Reactive blue–59.This azo dye was decolorized and degraded completely by Streptomyces krainskii SUK–5 at 24 h in shaking condition in the nutrient medium at pH 8. Induction in the activity of Lignin Peroxidase,and NADH-DCIP Reductase and MR reductase represents their role in degradation .The biodegradation was monitored by TLC, UV vis spectroscopy, FTIR. and GCMS analysis. Microbial and p...

    18. Production and purification of a bioactive substance against multi-drug resistant human pathogens from the marine-sponge-derived Salinispora sp.

      Satyendra Singh; Pritesh Prasad; Ramesh Subramani; William Aalbersberg

      2014-01-01

      Objective: To isolate, purify, characterize, elucidate structure and evaluate bioactive compounds from the sponge-derived Salinispora sp. FS-0034. Methods: The symbiotic actinomycete strain FS-0034 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from the Fijian marine sponge Theonella sp. Based on colony morphology and obligatory requirement of seawater for growth, and mycelia morphological characteristics the isolate FS-0034 was identified as a Salinispora sp. The bioactive compound was identified by using various spectral analysis of ultraviolet, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, correlated spectroscopy and heteronuclear multiple bond coherence spectral data. A minimum inhibitory concentration assay were performed to evaluate the biological properties of the pure compound against multi-drug resistant pathogens. Results: Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the culture of Salinispora sp. FS-0034 by different chromatographic methods yielded the isolation of an antibacterial compound, which was identified as rifamycin W (compound 1). Rifamycin W was reported for its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, wild typeStaphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and displayed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 15.62, 7.80 and 250.00 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions:The present study reported the rifamycin W from sponge-associated Salinispora sp. and it exhibited appreciable antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens which indicated that sponge-associated Actinobacteria are significant sources of bioactive metabolites.

    19. Comparison of denitrification between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp.

      Chakravarthy, Srinandan S; Pande, Samay; Kapoor, Ashish; Nerurkar, Anuradha S

      2011-09-01

      Denitrification was compared between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp. in this study, both of which were isolated from activated sludge of a denitrifying reactor. Denitrification of both isolates showed contrasting patterns, where Diaphorobacter sp. showed accumulation of nitrite in the medium while Paracoccus sp. showed no accumulation. The nitrate reduction rate was 1.5 times more than the nitrite reduction in Diaphorobacter sp., as analyzed by the resting state denitrification kinetics. Increasing the nitrate concentration in the medium increased the nitrite accumulation in Diaphorobacter sp., but not in Paracoccus sp., indicating a branched electron transfer during denitrification. Diaphorobacter sp. was unable to denitrify efficiently at high nitrate concentrations from 1 M, but Paracoccus sp. could denitrify even up to 2 M nitrate. Paracoccus sp. was found to be an efficient denitrifier with insignificant amounts of nitrite accumulation, and it could also denitrify high amounts of nitrate up to 2 M. Efficient denitrification without accumulation of intermediates like nitrite is desirable in the removal of high nitrates from wastewaters. Paracoccus sp. is shown to suffice this demand and could be a potential organism to remove high nitrates effectively. PMID:21509603

    20. Rhizosphere microbial communities from resistant and susceptible watermelon cultivars showed different response to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum inoculation

      Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), a soil-borne pathogen of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), can cause substantial production losses worldwide. In this study, plate culture and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methods were used to evaluate the effects of inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum on rhizosphere microbial communities of different watermelon cultivars to FON. Two methods indicated that the effects of watermelon rhizosphere microbial community of different resistance cultivars to FON were much different. Populations of culturable bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of susceptible watermelon cultivar were significantly lower than in the resistant cultivar after inoculation (P<0.05), but the opposite result was observed for fungi. Principal component analysis of bacterial and fungal community structure also showed that the cultivar of FON-inoculated soil treatment were separated from the non-inoculated controls after inoculation, and there was clear discrimination between the susceptible cultivars and the resistant cultivars. Sequence analysis of specific bands from DGGE profiles showed that specific rhizosphere bacterial and fungal groups differed between watermelon cultivars after inoculation . Both methods demonstrated that different resistant watermelon cultivars occupied different rhizosphere microbial communities, and and disease suppression might be correlated with high microbial diversity. F. oxysporum f. sp. Niveum alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with watermelon rhizosphere. (author)

    1. Micromonospora fluostatini sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

      Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Kudo, Takuji; Mori, Mihoko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Tanasupawat, Somboon

      2015-12-01

      The novel actinomycete strain PWB-003T, which produced fluostatins B and C antibiotics, was isolated from nearshore sediment collected from Panwa Cape, Phuket Province, Thailand. Data from the present polyphasic study indicated that strain PWB-003T represented a member of the genus Micromonospora. It produced single spores on substrate mycelia and contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. Whole-cell hydrolysate contained ribose, xylose, arabinose, mannose and glucose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-10 (H4). Cellular fatty acids comprised C18 : 1ω9c, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis, the novel strain was closely related to Micromonospora eburnea LK2-10T (99.38 %), Micromonospora chaiyaphumensis MC5-1T (99.16 %), Micromonospora yangpuensis FXJ6.011T (98.97 %), Micromonospora echinaurantiaca DSM 43904T (98.97 %), Micromonospora pallida DSM 43817T (98.97 %), Micromonospora sagamiensis DSM 43912T and Micromonospora auratinigra JCM 12357T (both 98.97 %). The G+C content of the DNA was 74.5 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness values among strain PWB-003T and related type strains ranged from 11.3 ± 1.3 to 38.8 ± 1.1 %. On the basis of these observations, strain PWB-003T could be distinguished from its closely related type strains and is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora fluostatini sp. nov. (type strain PWB-003T = JCM 30529T = PCU 341T = TISTR 2345T) is proposed. PMID:26358439

    2. Micromonospora mangrovi sp. nov., isolated from mangrove soil.

      Xie, Qing-Yi; Ren, Jian; Li, Lei; Li, Yu; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

      2016-04-01

      A novel actinomycete strain 2803GPT1-18(T) was isolated from a composite mangrove soil sample collected from Beihai, Guangxi province, China. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain 2803GPT1-18(T) indicated high similarity with 'Micromonospora harpali' NEAU-JC6(T) (99.2 %), Micromonospora haikouensis 232617(T) (99.1 %), Micromonospora wenchangensis 2602GPT1-05(T) (99.1 %), Micromonospora schwarzwaldensis HKI0641(T) (99.1 %). The gyrB gene sequence analysis also indicated that strain 2803GPT1-18(T) should be assigned to the genus Micromonospora but different from any established Micromonospora species. The strain harbored meso-DAP and glycine as major cell wall amino acids, MK-10(H6) (53.5 %), MK-9(H6) (25.1 %) and MK-9(H4) (13.4 %) as predominant menaquinones. The characteristic whole cell sugars are arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose and mannose. The polar lipid profile comprises phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and unidentified polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids present are iso-C16:0 (44.2 %) and iso-C15:0 (12.4 %). The DNA G+C content is 71.2 mol%. Furthermore, a combination of DNA-DNA relatedness and some physiological and biochemical properties indicated that the novel strain could be readily distinguished from the closely related species. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic data, strain 2803GPT1-18(T) represents a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora mangrovi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2803GPT1-18(T) (=CCTCC AA2012012(T) = DSM45761(T)). PMID:26942919

    3. Aeromicrobium halotolerans sp. nov., isolated from desert soil sample.

      Yan, Zheng-Fei; Lin, Pei; Chu, Xiao; Kook, MooChang; Li, Chang-Tian; Yi, Tae-Hoo

      2016-07-01

      A Gram-positive, aerobic, and non-motile, rod-shaped actinomycete strain, designated YIM Y47(T), was isolated from soils collected from Turpan desert, China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain YIM Y47(T) belonged to the genus Aeromicrobium. YIM Y47(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Aeromicrobium massiliense JC14(T) (96.47 %). Growth occurs at 20-45 °C (optimum at 30 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum at pH 7.0), and salinities of 0-7.0 % NaCl (optimum at 4.0 %). The strain YIM Y47(T) exhibits chemotaxonomic features with menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the predominant quinone, C16:0, C18:1 ω9c and 10-methyl C18:0 (>10 %) as major fatty acids. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain YIM Y47(T) contained LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and unknown phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain YIM Y47(T) was found to be 44.7 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic data, it is proposed that strain YIM Y47(T) should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Aeromicrobium, with the name Aeromicrobium halotolerans sp. nov. The type strain is YIM Y47(T) (=KCTC 39113(T)=CGMCC 1.15063(T)=DSM 29939(T)=JCM 30627(T)). PMID:26892181

    4. A novel alkaloid from marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces xinghaiensis with broad-spectrum antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.

      Wence Jiao

      Full Text Available Due to the increasing emergence of drug-resistant bacteria and tumor cell lines, novel antibiotics with antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are urgently needed. Marine actinobacteria are rich sources of novel antibiotics, and here we report the discovery of a novel alkaloid, xinghaiamine A, from a marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces xinghaiensis NRRL B24674(T. Xinghaiamine A was purified from the fermentation broth, and its structure was elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR spectrum as well as mass spectrometry. Xinghaiamine A was identified to be a novel alkaloid with highly symmetric structure on the basis of sulfoxide functional group, and sulfoxide containing compound has so far never been reported in microorganisms. Biological assays revealed that xinghaiamine A exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activities to both Gram-negative persistent hospital pathogens (e.g. Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli and Gram-positive ones, which include Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. In addition, xinghaiamine A also exhibited potent cytotoxic activity to human cancer cell lines of MCF-7 and U-937 with the IC50 of 0.6 and 0.5 µM, respectively.

    5. Control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. in cultures of Arthrospira sp. Control de Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. en cultivos de Arthrospira sp.

      Carlos Méndez

      2012-09-01

      Full Text Available Cultivation of cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. has been developed in many countries for the production of proteins, pigments and other compounds. Outdoor mass cultures are often affected by biological contamination, drastically reducing productivity as far as bringing death. This study evaluates the control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. with two chemical compounds: urea (U and ammonium bicarbonate (AB, in laboratory conditions and outdoor mass culture of Arthrospira sp. The lethal concentration 100 (LC100 at 24 h for Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. determined was of 60-80 mg L-1 (U and 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. The average effective inhibition concentration for 50% of the population (IC50 in Arthrospira sp., after 72 h, was 80 mg L-1 (U and 150 mg L-1 (AB. The application of doses of 60 mg L-1 (U or 100 mg L-1 (AB in the outdoor mass culture of this contaminated microalga, completely inhibited grazing and did not affect the growth of Arthrospira sp. but rather promoted rapid recovery of algal density at levels prior to infestation. These compounds provided an economical and effective control of predators in cultures of Arthrospira sp.El cultivo de la cianobacteria Arthrospira sp. ha sido desarrollado en muchos países para la obtención de proteínas, pigmentos y otros compuestos. Cultivo que a nivel industrial se ve afectado frecuentemente por contaminación biológica, reduciendo drásticamente la productividad hasta causar la muerte. Este estudio evalúa el control de Branchionus sp. y de Amoeba sp. con dos compuestos químicos, la urea (U y bicarbonato de amonio (AB en cultivos de Arthrospira sp. La concentración letal 100 (LC100 determinada a las 24 h para Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. fue de 60-80 mg L-1 (U y 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. La concentración media de inhibición efectiva, después de 72 h, para el 50% de la población (IC50 en Arthrospira fue de 80 mg L-1 (U y 150 mg L-1 (AB. La aplicación de dosis de 60 mg L-1 (U ó 100 mg L-1 (AB en

    6. Optimization of medium components and culture conditions of algicidal actinomycetes BS01%高效溶藻放线茵BS01发酵培养基及发酵条件优化

      傅丽君; 安新丽; 李东; 许丽霞; 田蕴; 郑天凌

      2011-01-01

      从漳江口红树林区采集的沉积物样品中分离到1株放线菌菌株BS01 Brevibacterium sp.,其胞外活性产物对塔玛亚历山大藻Alexandrium tamarense具有明显的溶藻作用.采用单因素及均匀设计,通过摇瓶培养对BS01产溶藻活性物质的发酵培养基及发酵条件进行优化.结果表明,在可溶性淀粉为碳源、硝酸钠为氮源、装液量为40%、起始pH值为7.5、培养温度为28℃、转速为150r·min-1、振荡培养时间为48h的条件时,BS01发酵产物的杀藻活性最强.通过均匀设计进行最佳发酵培养基及培养条件优化的结果为:可溶性淀粉为20g·L-1,硝酸钠为0.5g·L-1,pH为7.7,温度为27.2℃.研究结果为杀藻活性物质高效提取及杀藻机制研究奠定了基础.%A strain of actinomycetes BS01 capable of lysing the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense was isolated from mangrove area of Zhangjiangkou in Fujian province. The medium components and cultural conditions for algicidal activity of actinomycete strain BS01 were optimized by single-factor and uniform tests in shake-flask. The initial pH, fermentation temperature, fermentation time, and inoculum were optimized through single-factor tests. Results showed that BS01 exhibited the best algicidal activity by using soluble starch as carbon source, sodium nitrate as nitrogen source, initial pH at 7.7, temperature at 27.2℃, and shaking at 150r.min-1 in 100mL of 250mL conical flask for 48h. The optimal fermentation parameters of BS01 were: soluble starch 20g·L-1, sodium nitrate 0.5g.L-1, pH value 7.7, and temperature 27.2℃by using uniform design experiments.

    7. Streptomyces atriruber sp. nov. and Streptomyces silaceus sp. nov.: New Species of Equine Origin

      Actinomycete strains isolated from lesions on equine placentas in Kentucky were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic identification. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, morphological observations, and the presence of the LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diamino-acid in whole...

    8. Biological Control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Causal Agent of Sunflower Head and Stem Rot Disease, by Use of Soil borne Actinomycetes Isolates

      F. Baniasadi

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available Problem statement: High level of biosafety and non adverse effects on the environment of biocontrol strategies of pest management, are priorities of tomorrow's world agriculture. Actinomycetes are active biocontrol agents due to their antagonistic properties against wide range of plant pathogens particularly fungi. Fungal pathogens are liable for a big part of damages in agriculture economy. Approach: In the present research antifungal bioactivity of 50 isolates of Actinomycetes collected from soils of Kerman province of Iran was investigated against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib., the causal agent of stem rot in sunflower, through agar disc method and dual culture bioassays. The Streptomyces isolate No. 363 was propagated in submerged cultures and active crude was prepared upon which several biological characterizations performed. Greenhouse studies were achieved to confirm laboratory results. Results: Among the tested Streptomyces isolates, 10 isolates revealed antagonistic properties in dual culture procedure from which isolate No. 363 showed highest bioactivity. The active metabolite of Streptomyces isolate No. 363 was polar and well soluble in H2O. Using agar-disc method, progressive growth of the pathogen was highly reduced by the antagonist through exhibiting ability to constitute fungus-free zones of inhibitions. The results indicated that isolate No. 363 was a proper candidate for field biocontrol studies. Conclusion: Results may open a horizon for production of resistant transgenic plants having antifungal properties originated from biologically active Streptomyces spp. recognition and production of effective metabolite(s of Streptomyces spp. which was responsible for antifungal activities will be our commercial goal due to rich reserves of soil borne Actinomycetes in Iran.

    9. Utilization of Agro-industrial Wastes for the Simultaneous Production of Amylase and Xylanase by Thermophilic Actinomycetes

      Renu Singh

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL: K2HPO4(0.1, (NH42SO4(0.1, NaCl (0.1, MgSO4(0.1 at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB > corn cob (CC > wheat bran (WB > wheat straw (WS > sugarcane bagasse (SB and rice bran (RB > wheat bran (WB > wheat straw (WS > sugarcane bagasse (SB > corn cob (CC, respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio.

    10. Optimizing water treatment practices for the removal of actinomycetes and earthy odor in water of Bovilla reservoir

      ADELA KULLAJ

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available Bovilla reservoir, which is situated 15 km North-East of Tirana the capital city of Albania is one of the major hidrotechnical works of this country. This reservoir is a warm monomictic water body and stratifies higher in the summer season. The predominant trophic state of Bovilla reservoir is oligotrophy. From autumn 2001 this reservoir repeatedly manifests an unpleasant taste and odor which is defined as musty- earthy. Taste and odor control has become an important issue for drinking water suppliers worldwide. Consumers react very sensitively to changes in the organoleptic quality of their drinking water. The reason is that odor compounds present a very low threshold of perception (10–20 ng/L. Bovilla water treatment plant treats 1800 L/s raw water taken from Bovilla reservoir, using oxidation, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection process. In cases of bad odor powdered activated carbon (PAC is added at the rapid mix section. Throughout the monitoring period were done: quality and sensory analysis of raw water on a weekly frequency, analysis of treated water after coagulation, laboratory scale experiments using different doses of chemicals, applying optimized doses in full scale and PAC adsorption experiments. The aims of this study were: to predict the PAC doses required to treat water of Bovilla reservoir containing bad taste and odor, to establish the removal efficiency of taste and odor by three types of activated carbons with different iodine number and to assess the impact of NaOCl and other chemical in the treatment process of the plant in removing actinomycetes and bad odor. Results have shown that traditional treatment processes are usually inadequate in removing taste and odor and optimization of plant practices is required. Powdered activated carbon (PAC can effectively remove taste and odor when the correct dose is applied.

    11. Degradation of Textile Dye Reactive Navy – Blue Rx (Reactive blue–59 by an Isolated Actinomycete Streptomyces krainskii SUK – 5

      Mane, U. V.

      2008-01-01

      Full Text Available The isolated Actinomycete, Streptomyces krainskii, SUK -5 was found to decolorize and degrade textile dye Reactive blue–59.This azo dye was decolorized and degraded completely by Streptomyces krainskii SUK–5 at 24 h in shaking condition in the nutrient medium at pH 8. Induction in the activity of Lignin Peroxidase,and NADH-DCIP Reductase and MR reductase represents their role in degradation .The biodegradation was monitored by TLC, UV vis spectroscopy, FTIR. and GCMS analysis. Microbial and phytotoxicity studies of the product were carried out.

    12. SP-100 Test Site

      Preparatory activities are well under way at Hanford to convert the 309 Containment Building and its associated service wing to a 2.5 MWt nuclear test facility for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Preliminary design is complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system to enclose the high temperature reactor, a test assembly cell and handling system, control and data processing systems, and safety and auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 75% complete. The facility has been cleared of obstructing equipment from its earlier reactor test. Current activities are focusing on definitive design and preparation of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) aimed at procurement and construction approvals and schedules to achieve reactor criticality by January 1992. 6 refs

    13. Diversity of foam producing nocardioform actinomycetes isolated from biological foam from activated sludge plants in Comunidad Valenciana; Diversidad de actinomicetos nocardioformes productores de espumas biologicas aislados de plantas depuradoras de aguas residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana

      Soler, A.; Alonso, J.L.; Cuesta, G.

      2009-07-01

      The formation of biological foams in activated sludge systems is one of the most important problems of solid separation in wastewater treatment plants. Nocardioform actinomycetes are the most important filamentous bacteria responsible of foam formation. This group of microorganisms has hydrophobic cellular surfaces due to the mycolic acids. These foams interfere in wastewater treatment process because retain many suspended solids, block conductions and produce overflowing in the digesters and corridors. To identify correctly the nocardioform actinomycetes we have to do poli phasic taxonomy that includes 16S rDNA sequences analysis, determinate several chemo taxonomic markers and some phenotypic tests. (Author) 18 refs.

    14. Molecular Genetic Characterization of an Anthrabenzoxocinones Gene Cluster in Streptomyces Sp. FJS31-2 for the Biosynthesis of BE-24566B and Zunyimycin Ale.

      Lü, Yuhong; Yue, Changwu; Shao, Meiyun; Qian, Shengyan; Liu, Ning; Bao, Yuxin; Wang, Miao; Liu, Minghao; Li, Xiaoqian; Wang, Yinyin; Huang, Ying

      2016-01-01

      Genome mining is an effective tool used to discover novel natural products from actinomycetes. Genome sequence analysis of Streptomyces sp. FJS31-2 revealed the presence of one putative type II polyketide gene cluster (ABX), which may correspond to type II polyketide products including BE-24566B and its chloro-derivatives. The addition of natural humus acid successfully activated the biosynthsis of the abx gene cluster. BE-24566B and its chloro-derivatives, named zunyimycin A, were also detected. The targeted deletion of the polyketide skeleton synthesis genes such as abxp, abxk, and abxs was performed in the wild strain to identify the gene cluster for BE-24566B biosynthesis. PMID:27248985

    15. Biological Control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, the Causal Agent of Root Rot Disease of Greenhouse Cucurbits in Kerman Province of Iran

      Sara Shafii Bafti

      2005-01-01

      Full Text Available Antagonistic activity of 178 soil actinomycete isolates was assayed against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Schlecht, Emend (Snyde and Hansen cause of root rot and fusarium wilt of greenhouse cucurbits in Kerman Province, southeast of Iran. From tested isolates, Streptomyces olivaceus (strain 115 showed anti-fusarium activity revealed through screening and bioassays by agar disk and well-diffusion methods. The active strain was grown in submerged cultures for determination of growth curve and preparation of crude extract for further biological characterizations. Antifungal activity was fungistatic type on the pathogen mycelia. It is prominent that amending greenhouse soil mix with the S. olivaceus (strain 115 will reduce crop losses by the pathogen.

    16. 嗜盐嗜碱放线菌的研究进展与展望%Research on Progress of Halophilic Basophilic Actinomycetes

      加苏尔·阿不都克里木; 旭格拉; 塔衣尔; 阿不都克里木·热依木; 木尼热木·阿力木江; 迪丽拜尔·托合提

      2015-01-01

      Haloalkaliphilic extremophiles were survied in saline alkali soil. Halophilic basophilic Actinomycetes with the genetic characteristics and the special supersedes way, produced a variety of secondary me⁃tabolites, was one of microbial resources with great application prospect. This paper mainly reviewed Halophilic ba⁃sophilic Actinomycetes Resources, standard classification, distribution, system science, development and utilization prospects.%嗜盐嗜碱极端微生物主要分布于地球上的盐碱土壤中,嗜盐嗜碱放线菌适应并长期生存这一特殊极端环境,已具备独特的遗传特性和新陈代谢途径,能够产生具有开发利用价值的多种次生代谢产物,是一类极具应用前景的微生物资源。文章主要综述了嗜盐嗜碱放线菌的资源、分类标准、分布、系统学及其发展趋势、开发利用前景。

    17. Determination of the Residual Anthracene Concentration in Cultures of Haloalkalitolerant Actinomycetes by Excitation Fluorescence, Emission Fluorescence, and Synchronous Fluorescence: Comparative Study

      Reyna del Carmen Lara-Severino

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are compounds that can be quantified by fluorescence due to their high quantum yield. Haloalkalitolerant bacteria tolerate wide concentration ranges of NaCl and pH. They are potentially useful in the PAHs bioremediation of saline environments. However, it is known that salinity of the sample affects fluorescence signal regardless of the method. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study based on the sensitivity, linearity, and detection limits of the excitation, emission, and synchronous fluorescence methods, during the quantification of the residual anthracene concentration from the following haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes cultures Kocuria rosea, Kocuria palustris, Microbacterium testaceum, and 4 strains of Nocardia farcinica, in order to establish the proper fluorescence method to study the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinobacteria. The study demonstrated statistical differences among the strains and among the fluorescence methods regarding the anthracene residual concentration. The results showed that excitation and emission fluorescence methods performed very similarly but sensitivity in excitation fluorescence is slightly higher. Synchronous fluorescence using Δλ=150 nm is not the most convenient method. Therefore we propose the excitation fluorescence as the fluorescence method to be used in the study of the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes.

    18. Acetone extract from Streptoverticillium sp., a bacterium isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil, induces anti-inflammatory activity in mice.

      Da Cruz, Rodrigo B; Galdino, Pablinny M; Penna, Karlla G B D; Hoffmann, Karen; Costa, Elson A; Bataus, Luiz A M

      2013-01-01

      The Streptoverticillium sp. Z1 is an actinomycete isolated from the soil under Cerrado vegetation, the extract of this strain was investigated in nociceptive and inflammatory models. The Streptoverticillium extract (ExS) 50 and 100 mg/kg (s.c.) produced a significant inhibition of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhings thereby demonstrating an anti-nociceptive effect. In the tail flick test the ExS (s.c.) was inactive. This result implited that ExS does not contain opioid-like compounds with central analgesic properties. In the inflammatory models, ExS 100 and 200 mg/kg (s.c.) were able to inhibit the croton oil-induced ear edema and, ExS 200 and 500 mg/kg (s.c.) inhibited the leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The phospholipase A2 enzymatic assay showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of ExS was not due to direct effect on phospholipase A2 activity. These data suggest that Streptoverticillium sp. produces metabolites with anti-inflammatory effect and that these metabolites are unable to directly inhibit phospholipase A2 enzyme. PMID:23828355

    19. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry

      Bernadete Radin

      2009-04-01

      Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

    20. Actinoalloteichus nanshanensis sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of a fig tree (Ficus religiosa).

      Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Xiangjing; Du, Jing; Xi, Lijun; Huang, Ying

      2011-05-01

      A Gram-positive, aerobic actinomycete, designated strain NEAU 119(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere of a fig tree and was characterized using a polyphasic approach. The isolate formed branching, non-fragmenting vegetative hyphae and produced black pigment on yeast extract/malt extract (ISP medium 2). The G+C content of the DNA was 76.6 mol%. The organism had chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Actinoalloteichus and was closely related to the type strains of Actinoalloteichus cyanogriseus, Actinoalloteichus spitiensis and Actinoalloteichus hymeniacidonis, currently the only three recognized species of the genus Actinoalloteichus, sharing 16S rRNA gene similarities of 96.4, 96.6 and 98.1 %, respectively. However, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the novel strain showed only 46.8 % relatedness with the type strain of A. hymeniacidonis. In addition, a set of phenotypic characteristics also readily distinguished strain NEAU 119(T) from the type strains of recognized species of the genus Actinoalloteichus. According to the above data, it is proposed that strain NEAU 119(T) represents a novel species, Actinoalloteichus nanshanensis sp. nov. The type strain of Actinoalloteichus nanshanensis is NEAU 119(T) ( = CGMCC 4.5714(T) = NBRC 106685(T)). PMID:20562245

    1. Streptomyces actinomycinicus sp. nov., isolated from soil of a peat swamp forest.

      Tanasupawat, Somboon; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Takuji

      2016-01-01

      A novel actinomycete, strain RCU-197T, was isolated from soil of a peat swamp forest in Rayong Province, Thailand. Using a polyphasic approach, the strain was classified in the genus Streptomyces. It contained ll-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. No diagnostic sugars were detected in whole-cell hydrolysates and there was a lack of mycolic acids. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The polar lipids profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside, an unknown aminolipid and two unknown phospholipids. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the strain formed distinct clade within the genus Streptomyces and was closely related to Streptomyces echinatus NBRC 12763T (98.78 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). According to the polyphasic approach as well as DNA-DNA relatedness, the strain could be clearly differentiated from closely related species and represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces actinomycinicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RCU-197T ( = JCM 30864T = TISTR 2208T = PCU 342T). PMID:26510888

    2. Novel bioactive metabolites from a marine derived bacterium Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000.

      El-Gendy, Mervat M A; Hawas, Usama W; Jaspars, Marcel

      2008-06-01

      Extracts of the Egyptian marine actinomycete, Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000, were found to be highly bioactive. It was isolated from the marine red alga Laurenica spectabilis collected off the Ras-Gharib coast of the Red Sea, Egypt. According to detailed identification studies, the strain was classified as a member of the genus Nocardia. The cultivation and chemical analysis of this species yielded four structurally related compounds namely, chrysophanol 8-methyl ether (1), asphodelin; 4,7'-bichrysophanol (2) and justicidin B (3), in addition to a novel bioactive compound ayamycin; 1,1-dichloro-4-ethyl-5-(4-nitro-phenyl)-hexan-2-one (4) which is unique in contain both chlorination and a rarely observed nitro group. The compounds were isolated by a series of chromatographic steps and their structures of 1approximately 3 secured by detailed spectroscopic analysis of the MS and NMR data whereas that of 4 was elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These compounds displayed different potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi with MIC ranging from 0.1 to 10 microg/ml. PMID:18667786

    3. Gordonia otitidis sp. nov., isolated from a patient with external otitis.

      Iida, Soji; Taniguchi, Hiroko; Kageyama, Akiko; Yazawa, Katsukiyo; Chibana, Hiroji; Murata, Shota; Nomura, Fumio; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Mikami, Yuzuru

      2005-09-01

      The taxonomic positions of two clinically isolated actinomycetes were established using a polyphasic approach. The two strains, IFM 10032(T), isolated from ear discharge of a 28-year-old Japanese female patient with external otitis, and IFM 10148, isolated from pleural fluid of a 60-year-old Japanese male patient with bronchitis, possessed meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic amino acid, MK-9(H(2)) as the predominant menaquinone and mycolic acids ranging from 58 to 64 carbons. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were most closely related to those of Gordonia aichiensis, Gordonia sputi and 'Gordonia jacobaea'. Differences in several phenotypic characteristics together with genotypic distinctiveness distinguish strains IFM 10032(T) and IFM 10148 from these three species. DNA-DNA hybridization results and the combination of genotypic and phenotypic data showed that the two strains belong to a single species, and merit recognition of a novel species within the genus Gordonia. The name proposed for this taxon is Gordonia otitidis sp. nov.; the type strain is IFM 10032(T) (=DSM 44809(T)=JCM 12355(T)=NBRC 100426(T)). PMID:16166681

    4. SP-100 advanced technology program

      The goal of the triagency SP-100 Program is to develop long-lived, compact, lightweight, survivable nuclear reactor space power systems for application to the power range 50 kWe to 1 MWe. The successful development of these systems should enable or significantly enhance many of the future NASA civil and commercial missions. The NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program strongly augments the parallel SP-100 Ground Engineering System Development program and enhances the chances for success of the overall SP-100 program. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key technical elements of the Advanced Technology Program and the progress made in the initial year and a half of the project

    5. Organic Nutrition of Beggiatoa sp

      1981-01-01

      Culture OH-75-B of Beggiatoa sp. differed significantly from any described previously in its utilization of organic carbon and reduced sulfur compounds. It deposited internal sulfur granules characteristic of Beggiatoa sp. with either sulfide or thiosulfate in the medium. This strain (OH-75-B, clone 2a) could be grown in agitated liquid cultures on mineral medium with acetate as the only source of organic carbon. The resultant growth yields and rates were comparable to those for typical heter...

    6. Optimal spænding i kajakken

      Rossing, Niels Nygaard

      2012-01-01

      Artiklens overordnede fokus er, hvilken betydning den enkelte kajakroers spændingsniveau har for præstationen. Artiklen svarer på, hvad et spændingsniveau er, hvilke kilder der er til spænding, og sidst hvad man kan gøre for at finde sit optimale spændingsniveau....

    7. En moderne spøgelseshistorie

      Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

      2011-01-01

      Anmeldelse af César Airas "Spøgelserne". Anmeldelsen indkredser bla. spøgelsernes karakter i denne moderne, interkulturelle historie......Anmeldelse af César Airas "Spøgelserne". Anmeldelsen indkredser bla. spøgelsernes karakter i denne moderne, interkulturelle historie...

    8. Fungi Association with Cedar’s Seeds and Fusarium sp. and Pestalotia sp. Pathogenicities Levantamento de Fungos em Sementes de Cedro e Avaliação da Patogenicidade de Fusarium sp. e Pestalotia sp.

      Sílvia Cristina Benetti; Álvaro Figueredo dos Santos; Antonio Carlos de Souza Medeiros; David de Souza Jaccoud Filho

      2010-01-01

      This research had as main objectives the evaluation of cedar’s seeds seed-borne fungi and the Fusarium
      sp. and Pestalotia sp. pathogenicities. For the fungi detection Potato Dextrose and Agar medium and Blotter
      test methods were used. For the pathogenicity tests, isolates of Fusarium sp. and Pestalotia sp. were used. The following fungi were observed: Pestalotia sp., Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp., Colletotrichum sp., Macrophomina sp. and Cladosporium sp. The fungi...

    9. Uso tradicional y actual de spirulina sp. (Arthrospira sp.)

      Liliana Ramírez- Moreno; Roxana Olvera-Ramírez

      2006-01-01

      Spirulina sp. (Arthrospira sp.) es una cianobacteria filamentosa no diferenciada, habitante de lagos alcalinos, que se cultiva para consumo humano debido a su contenido nutricional. En México, el consumo de esta cianobacteria se remonta a tiempos prehispánicos, cuando era conocida como tecuitlatl, siendo conocida como dihé por las tribus nativas de la región del lago de Chad, en África. En los últimos años se le han atribuido diversos efectos positivos en el tratamiento de algunos tipos de al...

    10. Production and purification of a bioactive substance against multi-drug resistant human pathogens from the marine-sponge-derived Salinispora sp.

      Satyendra; Singh; Pritesh; Prasad; Ramesh; Subramani; William; Aalbersberg

      2014-01-01

      Objective:To isolate,purify,characterize,elucidate structure and evaluate bioactive compounds from the sponge-derived Salinispora sp.FS-0034.Methods:The symbiotic actinomycete strain FS-0034 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from the Fijian marine sponge Theonella sp.Based on colony morphology and obligatory requirement of seawater for growth,and mycelia morphological characteristics the isolate FS-0034 was identified as a Salinispora sp.The bioactive compound was identified by using various spectral analysis of ultraviolet,high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy,H nuclear magnetic resonance,correlated spectroscopy and heteronuclear multiple bond coherence spectral data.A minimum inhibitory concentration assay were performed to evaluate the biological properties of the pure compound against multi-drug resistant pathogens.Results:Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the culture of Salinispora sp.FS-0034 by different chromatographic methods yielded the isolation of an antibacterial compound,which was identified as rifamycin W(compound 1).Rifamycin W was reported for its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,wild type Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and displayed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 15.62,7.80 and 250.00 μg/mL,respectively.Conclusions:The present study reported the rifamycin W from sponge-associated Salinispora sp.and it exhibited appreciable antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens which indicated that sponge-associated Actinobacteria are significant sources of bioactive metabolites.

    11. Caracterización de actinobacterias raras, degradadoras de lignocelulosa: demostración de actividad lacasa en dos aislados de Tsukamurella sp y Cellulosimicrobium sp

      Enrique Luis Revollo Escudero

      2014-01-01

      . Palabras clave: Actinobacteria; deslignificación; enzimas modificadoras de lignina; EC 1.10.3.2; ABTS. Abstract: The physicochemical characteristics of lignin and its compaction with cellulose have restricted the biotechnological exploitation of enormous amounts of plant biomass. Laccases are a subfamily of multicopper oxidases involved in lignin depolymerization. Although they have been extensively characterized in fungi, studies of the diversity and functions of laccases in prokaryotes are mainly on enzyme isoforms of Streptomyces sp. In this work we isolated 20 strains of soil actinomycetes. The laccase activity of 17 of them was evidenced in qualitative assays with guaiacol, and two selected strains were characterized in detail. The morphological evidence and the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences suggest that these two isolates belong to the genera Tsukamurella and Cellulosimicrobium. In submerged cultures with shaking, AC01 (Tsukamurella sp. exhibited a maximal oxidation activity of ABTS (2,2 '-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate of 108 U/L. On the other hand, AC18 (Cellulosimicrobium sp. that exhibited a higher oxidative activity of guaiacol than the other 16 isolated strains and showed resistance to toxic levels of copper, reached a maximum ABTS oxidation rate of 0.56 U/L. These results suggest that in AC18 operates a mechanism of substrate or inducer specificity, regulating the measurable laccase activity and laccase gene expression. Genomic and functional characterization of laccases of new ligninolytic actinomycetes may help to extend the range of redox centers with specific biotechnological applications, as well as establishing their evolutionary relationships with eukaryotes. Keywords: Actinobacteria; delignification; lignin-modifying enzymes; EC 1.10.3.2; ABTS.

    12. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

      Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.;

      2002-01-01

      Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and...

    13. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

      Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.; Molin, Søren; Wilkins, K.

      2002-01-01

      Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and ident...

    14. Genome-wide analysis of the role of GlnR in Streptomyces venezuelae provides new insights into global nitrogen regulation in actinomycetes

      Bibb Mervyn J

      2011-04-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background GlnR is an atypical response regulator found in actinomycetes that modulates the transcription of genes in response to changes in nitrogen availability. We applied a global in vivo approach to identify the GlnR regulon of Streptomyces venezuelae, which, unlike many actinomycetes, grows in a diffuse manner that is suitable for physiological studies. Conditions were defined that facilitated analysis of GlnR-dependent induction of gene expression in response to rapid nitrogen starvation. Microarray analysis identified global transcriptional differences between glnR+ and glnR mutant strains under varying nitrogen conditions. To differentiate between direct and indirect regulatory effects of GlnR, chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP using antibodies specific to a FLAG-tagged GlnR protein, coupled with microarray analysis (ChIP-chip, was used to identify GlnR binding sites throughout the S. venezuelae genome. Results GlnR bound to its target sites in both transcriptionally active and apparently inactive forms. Thirty-six GlnR binding sites were identified by ChIP-chip analysis allowing derivation of a consensus GlnR-binding site for S. venezuelae. GlnR-binding regions were associated with genes involved in primary nitrogen metabolism, secondary metabolism, the synthesis of catabolic enzymes and a number of transport-related functions. Conclusions The GlnR regulon of S. venezuelae is extensive and impacts on many facets of the organism's biology. GlnR can apparently bind to its target sites in both transcriptionally active and inactive forms.

    15. Identification and characterization of a new erythromycin biosynthetic gene cluster in Actinopolyspora erythraea YIM90600, a novel erythronolide-producing halophilic actinomycete isolated from salt field.

      Dandan Chen

      Full Text Available Erythromycins (Ers are clinically potent macrolide antibiotics in treating pathogenic bacterial infections. Microorganisms capable of producing Ers, represented by Saccharopolyspora erythraea, are mainly soil-dwelling actinomycetes. So far, Actinopolyspora erythraea YIM90600, a halophilic actinomycete isolated from Baicheng salt field, is the only known Er-producing extremophile. In this study, we have reported the draft genome sequence of Ac. erythraea YIM90600, genome mining of which has revealed a new Er biosynthetic gene cluster encoding several novel Er metabolites. This Er gene cluster shares high identity and similarity with the one of Sa. erythraea NRRL2338, except for two absent genes, eryBI and eryG. By correlating genotype and chemotype, the biosynthetic pathways of 3'-demethyl-erythromycin C, erythronolide H (EH and erythronolide I have been proposed. The formation of EH is supposed to be sequentially biosynthesized via C-6/C-18 epoxidation and C-14 hydroxylation from 6-deoxyerythronolide B. Although an in vitro enzymatic activity assay has provided limited evidence for the involvement of the cytochrome P450 oxidase EryFAc (derived from Ac. erythraea YIM90600 in the catalysis of a two-step oxidation, resulting in an epoxy moiety, the attempt to construct an EH-producing Sa. erythraea mutant via gene complementation was not successful. Characterization of EryKAc (derived from Ac. erythraea YIM90600 in vitro has confirmed its unique role as a C-12 hydroxylase, rather than a C-14 hydroxylase of the erythronolide. Genomic characterization of the halophile Ac. erythraea YIM90600 will assist us to explore the great potential of extremophiles, and promote the understanding of EH formation, which will shed new insights into the biosynthesis of Er metabolites.

    16. Interplay of posttranslational modifications in Sp1 mediates Sp1 stability during cell cycle progression.

      Wang, Yi-Ting; Yang, Wen-Bin; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

      2011-11-18

      Although Sp1 is known to undergo posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, acetylation, sumoylation, and ubiquitination, little is known about the possible interplay between the different forms of Sp1 that may affect its overall levels. It is also unknown whether changes in the levels of Sp1 influence any biological cell processes. Here, we identified RNF4 as the ubiquitin E3 ligase of Sp1. From in vitro and in vivo experiments, we found that sumoylated Sp1 can recruit RNF4 as a ubiquitin E3 ligase that subjects sumoylated Sp1 to proteasomal degradation. Sp1 mapping revealed two ubiquitination-related domains: a small ubiquitin-like modifier in the N-terminus of Sp1(Lys16) and the C-terminus of Sp1 that directly interacts with RNF4. Interestingly, when Sp1 was phosphorylated at Thr739 by c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 during mitosis, this phosphorylated form of Sp1 abolished the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Our results show that, while sumoylated Sp1 subjects to proteasomal degradation, the phosphorylation that occurs during the cell cycle can protect Sp1 from degradation by repressing the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Thus, we propose that the interplay between posttranslational modifications of Sp1 plays an important role in cell cycle progression and keeps Sp1 at a critical level for mitosis. PMID:21983342

    17. Pantoea vagans sp. nov., Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov., Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov.

      Brady, Carrie L; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Coutinho, Teresa A

      2009-09-01

      Bacteria isolated from eucalyptus leaves and shoots showing symptoms of blight and die-back collected in Uganda, Uruguay and Argentina and from maize displaying brown stalk rot symptoms in South Africa were tentatively placed in the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. These isolates, together with two strains (LMG 2558 and LMG 2560) previously assigned to Pantoea agglomerans based on protein electrophoregrams but later excluded from this species, were further investigated using molecular techniques. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) revealed that the strains were phylogenetically closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea stewartii and Pantoea ananatis. MLSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis placed the strains into four separate clusters, not containing any of the type strains of species of the genus Pantoea. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed the classification of the isolates into four novel species, for which the names Pantoea vagans sp. nov. (type strain R-21566T=LMG 24199T=BCC 105T=BD 765T), Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov. (type strain R-25678T=LMG 24197T=BCC 076T=BD 769T), Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. (type strain R-31523T=LMG 24200T=BCC 109T=BD 767T) and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov. (type strain LMG 2558T=BD 871T=NCPPB 1682T) are proposed. PMID:19620357

    18. An Sp1/Sp3 binding polymorphism confers methylation protection.

      Yanis A Boumber

      Full Text Available Hundreds of genes show aberrant DNA hypermethylation in cancer, yet little is known about the causes of this hypermethylation. We identified RIL as a frequent methylation target in cancer. In search for factors that influence RIL hypermethylation, we found a 12-bp polymorphic sequence around its transcription start site that creates a long allele. Pyrosequencing of homozygous tumors revealed a 2.1-fold higher methylation for the short alleles (P<0.001. Bisulfite sequencing of cancers heterozygous for RIL showed that the short alleles are 3.1-fold more methylated than the long (P<0.001. The comparison of expression levels between unmethylated long and short EBV-transformed cell lines showed no difference in expression in vivo. Electrophorectic mobility shift assay showed that the inserted region of the long allele binds Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, a binding that is absent in the short allele. Transient transfection of RIL allele-specific transgenes showed no effects of the additional Sp1 site on transcription early on. However, stable transfection of methylation-seeded constructs showed gradually decreasing transcription levels from the short allele with eventual spreading of de novo methylation. In contrast, the long allele showed stable levels of expression over time as measured by luciferase and approximately 2-3-fold lower levels of methylation by bisulfite sequencing (P<0.001, suggesting that the polymorphic Sp1 site protects against time-dependent silencing. Our finding demonstrates that, in some genes, hypermethylation in cancer is dictated by protein-DNA interactions at the promoters and provides a novel mechanism by which genetic polymorphisms can influence an epigenetic state.

    19. The extent of grain yield and plant growth enhancement by plant growth-promoting broad-spectrum Streptomyces sp. in chickpea.

      Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Alekhya, Gottumukkala; Prakash, Bandikinda; Kudapa, Himabindu; Rathore, Abhishek; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

      2015-01-01

      The physiological and molecular responses of five strains of Streptomyces sp. (CAI-17, CAI-68, CAI-78, KAI-26 and KAI-27), with their proven potential for charcoal rot disease control in sorghum and plant growth-promotion (PGP) in sorghum and rice, were studied to understand the mechanisms causing the beneficial effects. In this investigation, those five strains were evaluated for their PGP capabilities in chickpea in the 2012-13 and 2013-14 post-rainy seasons. All of the Streptomyces sp. strains exhibited enhanced nodule number, nodule weight, root weight and shoot weight at 30 days after sowing (DAS) and pod number, pod weight, leaf area, leaf weight and stem weight at 60 DAS in both seasons over the un-inoculated control. At crop maturity, the Streptomyces strains had enhanced stover yield, grain yield, total dry matter and seed number plant(-1) in both seasons over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere, the Streptomyces sp. also significantly enhanced microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase activity, total nitrogen, available phosphorous and organic carbon in both seasons over the un-inoculated control. Of the five strains of Streptomyces sp., CAI-17, CAI-68 and CAI-78 were superior to KAI-26 and KAI-27 in terms of their effects on root and shoot development, nodule formation and crop productivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs had revealed the success in colonization of the chickpea roots by all five strains. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of selected PGP genes of actinomycetes revealed the selective up-regulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-related and siderophore-related genes by CAI-68 and of β-1,3-glucanase genes by KAI-26. PMID:25646153

    20. Exploitation of biological wastes for the production of value-added hydrolases by Streptomyces sp. MSWC1 isolated from municipal solid waste compost.

      Mokni-Tlili, Sonia; Ben Abdelmalek, Imen; Jedidi, Naceur; Belghith, Hafedh; Gargouri, Ali; Abdennaceur, Hassen; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib

      2010-09-01

      Actinomycetes with the ability to degrade natural polysaccharides were isolated during a screening programme from soil, farmyard manure and municipal solid waste compost. One of the most potent isolates was identified as Streptomyces sp. MSWC1 using morphological and biochemical properties along with 16S rDNA partial sequence analysis. The highest enzyme production by Streptomyces was observed for the xylanase and chitinase activity on different carbon sources with an optimum of 12,100 IU ml(-1) and 110 IU ml(-1) at 3 days' culture on 1% of xylan and chitin, respectively. To meet the demand of industry, low-cost medium is required for the production of hydrolases by Streptomyces sp. Strain MSWC1 grown on manure, compost, and a natural carbon source was used to evaluate the re-utilisation of biological wastes for the production of value-added products. Despite the presence of a high amount of toxic heavy metals in the compost, Streptomyces produced interesting enzymes that have been biochemically characterized. PMID:20022900

    1. Production of α-amylase from Streptomyces sp. SLBA-08 strain using agro-industrial by-products

      Édilla Ribeiro dos Santos

      2012-10-01

      Full Text Available Approximately 1.5 trillion tons are the estimated yearly biomass production, making it an essentially unlimited source of raw material for environmentally friendly and biocompatible products transformed by microorganism, specially fungi and actinomycetes. Several lignocellulosic residues, such as sisal waste and sugarcane bagasse contain starch in their structures which could become important sources for the production of amylases. This study evaluated the production of amylolytic enzymes using Streptomyces sp. SLBA-08 strain, isolated from a semi-arid soil, according to their ability to grow on soluble starch as the sole carbon source. The effect of the carbon source (sisal waste and sugarcane bagasse on α-amylase production was studied using submerged cultivations at 30 ºC. The highest level of α-amylase activity corresponded to 10.1 U. mL-1 and was obtained using sisal waste (2.7% and urea (0.8% in submerged fermentation after 3 days of cultivation. The partial characterization showed the best α-amylase activity at 50ºC and pH 7.0. These results are of great importance for the use of sisal waste as a substrate for biotechnological proposes.

    2. Monacyclinones, New Angucyclinone Metabolites Isolated from Streptomyces sp. M7_15 Associated with the Puerto Rican Sponge Scopalina ruetzleri

      Jan Vicente

      2015-07-01

      Full Text Available During an investigation of new actinomycete species from Caribbean sponges for novel bioactive natural products, frigocyclinone (1, dimethyldehydrorabelomycin (3 and six new angucyclinone derivatives were isolated from Streptomyces sp. strain M7_15 associated with the sponge Scopalina ruetzleri. Of these, monacyclinones A–B (4–5 contain the core ring structure of dehydrorabelomycin (2 with the aminodeoxysugar found in frigocyclinone (1. Monacyclinone C (6 is a hydroxylated variant of frigocyclinone (1 and monacyclinone D (7 is a Baeyer Villiger derivative of (6 which also exists as the open chain hydrolysis product monacyclinone E (8. Monacyclinone F (9 contains two unique epoxide rings attached to the angucyclinone moiety and an additional aminodeoxysugar attached through an angular oxygen bond. All structures were confirmed through spectral analyses. Activity against rhabdomycosarcoma cancer cells (SJCRH30 after 48 h of treatment was observed with frigocyclinone (1; EC50 = 5.2 µM, monacyclinone C (6; 160 µM, monacyclinone E (8; 270 µM, and monacyclinone F (9; 0.73 µM. The strongest bioactivity against rhabdomycosarcoma cancer cells and gram-positive bacteria was exhibited by compound 9, suggesting that the extra aminodeoxysugar subunit is important for biological activity.

    3. SP-100 Reactor Subsystem Development

      Demuth, Scott F.

      1994-07-01

      The SP-100 reactor subsystem consists of the pressure vessel, vessel internals, and fuel elements. Type A (standard) Nb-1Zr and rhenium materials development efforts related to fabrication of the vessel, vessel internals, and fuel cladding/liner have been completed. Type A and Type C (PWC-11) Nb-1Zr loop fabrication has been successfully demonstrated by prototypic testing with flowing lithium at 1350 K for 1500 hr. Development of UN fuel has been completed, and the performance validated by irradiation testing to the full life (7 yr. full power) burnup of 6 atom %. Neutronic and hydraulic core performance have been validated by engineering mockup critical experiments in the Zero Power Physics Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory, and detailed core hydraulic flow testing with water. Essentially all feasibility issues have been settled for the full life SP-100 reactor subsystem. Remaining SP-100 reactor subsystem development efforts are focused on further reducing mass by the use of Type C (PWC-11) Nb-1Zr rather than Type A, and demonstrating fuel life for beyond full life to perhaps 9 atom % burnup.

    4. 生防放线菌TGNBSA5的鉴定及其活性物质的研究%Identification of a Bioactive Endophytic Actinomycete TGNBSA5 and Study on Its Active Substances

      黄以超; 颜霞; 王建华; 高小宁; 王惠; 黄丽丽

      2012-01-01

      Endophytic actinomycete TGNBSA5, isolated from Arctium lappa stem, has strong inhibitory activity against Pseudotnonas syringae pv, actinidiae (Psa). In order to exploit the bio-control application of the actinomycete, physiological and biochemical characterization, morphological, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were conducted to identify the strain. Meanwhile, after further fermentation of the strain, bioactive compounds were isolated and purified by ethyl acetate extraction, chro-matographic technology, and HPLC detection. The result showed that the endophytic actinomycete was classified as Streptomyces sporovirgulis. NMR and UV spectra analysis indicated that one of the bioactive compounds was benzyl alcohol. It is the first time that the endophytic actinomycete Streptomyces sporovirguiis be isolated from plant. The clarification of the bioactive benzyl alcohol provides theoretical basis for the development of this actinomycete and the bio-control of kiwifruit canker disease as well.%牛蒡内生放线菌TGNBSA5对猕猴桃溃疡病菌有较好拮抗作用.为开发该生防菌的生物防治价值,采用生理生化活性测定、形态观察及16S rDNA序列分析,并经发酵培养后,发酵液采用乙酸乙酯萃取、柱层析和薄层层析、HPLC检测等方法分离纯化抑菌活性组分.结果表明,该内生放线菌为链霉菌属的孢杆链霉菌( Streptomyces sporovirgulis),经紫外和NMR鉴定活性组分之一为苯甲醇.孢杆链霉菌为第一次从植物中分离获得,且活性组分苯甲醇的明确将为猕猴桃溃疡病的防治提供理论依据.

    5. Nocardia rayongensis sp. nov., isolated from Thai peat swamp forest soil.

      Tanasupawat, Somboon; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Takuji

      2016-05-01

      An actinomycete strain, RY45-3T, isolated from a peat swamp forest soil in Rayong Province, Thailand, was characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain belonged to the genus Nocardia on the basis of morphological, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties. Cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The N-acyl group of muramic acid in the cell wall was glycolyl type. The diagnostic sugars in whole-cell hydrolysates were galactose and arabinose. MK-8 (H4ω-cycl) was the major menaquinone. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The genomic DNA G+C content was 71 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis, strain RY45-3T was closely related to Nocardia jiangxiensis JCM 12861T (98.9 %), Nocardia nova JCM 6044T (98.8 %) and Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis JCM 9894T (98.6 %). The strain showed low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with N. jiangxiensis JCM 12861T, N. nova JCM 6044T and N. pseudobrasiliensis JCM 9894T (range from 3.6 to 55.3 %). On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and the results mentioned, this strain could be differentiated from closely related type strains and represents a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia rayongensis sp. nov. (type strain RY45-3T = JCM 19832T = TISTR 2213T = PCU 334T) is proposed. PMID:26873179

    6. Potensi Tanaman Ornamental (Aglaonema sp., Dieffenbachia sp., dan Spathiphyllum sp.) dalam Menurunkan Jumlah Mikroba Udara dalam Ruangan Kelas Sekolah Dasar

      Mangunsong, Sisca Nency Teresia

      2016-01-01

      Bioaerosol is dust particles consisting of bacteria and other fungi with spores that are in the room when the temperature and humidity level are adequate. Its presence in the room are generally harmless, but some time causes disease. This research was aims to determine the effect of ornamental plant Aglaonema sp., Dieffenbachia sp., and Spathiphyllum sp. on amount of bacteria and fungi in the class room. Bioaerosol isolation was performed according to the method of air sampling with three rep...

    7. Sebaran dan Kerapatan Populasi Pratylenchus sp dan Radopholus sp Pada Tanaman Kopi (Coffea sp.) Kabupaten Gayo Lues Provinsi Aceh

      Bayhaqi

      2015-01-01

      Bayhaqi, 2014. Distribution and Population Density Of Pratylenchus sp and Radopholus sp on Coffee (Coffea sp.) in Gayo Lues Regency Aceh Province. Under supervising commission Darma Bakti and Hasanuddin. Gayo Coffee is one among the main export commodities of Indonesia has been known in the domestic and international markets, Gayo coffee production includes more than 90% of the total coffee production in the province. Coffee production in Gayo Lues district reached 540 kg / ha with a pla...

    8. An analysis of the sponge Acanthostrongylophora igens’ microbiome yields an actinomycete that produces the natural product manzamine A

      Amanda Leigh Waters

      2014-10-01

      Full Text Available Sponges have generated significant interest as a source of bioactive and elaborate secondary metabolites that hold promise for the development of novel therapeutics for the control of an array of human diseases. However, research and development of marine natural products can often be hampered by the difficulty associated with obtaining a stable and sustainable production source. Herein we report the first successful characterization and utilization of the microbiome of a marine invertebrate to identify a sustainable production source for an important natural product scaffold. Through molecular-microbial community analysis, optimization of fermentation conditions and MALDI-MS imaging, we provide the first report of a sponge-associated bacterium (Micromonospora sp. that produces the manzamine class of antimalarials from the Indo-Pacific sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens (Thiele, 1899 (Class Demospongiae, Order Haplosclerida, Family Petrosiidae. These findings suggest that a general strategy of analysis of the macroorganism’s microbiome could significantly transform the field of natural products drug discovery by gaining access to not only novel drug leads, but the potential for sustainable production sources and biosynthetic genes at the same time.

    9. DISTRIBUSI Solen sp DI PERAIRAN KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

      Eva Ari Wahyuni

      2016-03-01

      Full Text Available DISTRIBUTION OF Solen sp IN BANGKALAN WATERSSolen sp potential needs to be developed on the island of Madura, particularly in Bangkalan. Solen sp utilization has increased which has the potential to overfishing. Therefore, this study aims to determine the density of Solen sp and their ecology in the waters Modung village, Modung District, Bangkalan. The experiment was conducted in April 2015 using the descriptive method. The materials used include Solen sp and physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, salinity, pH, and substrate. The analyzes were conducted at the Laboratory of Marine Science, Department of Marine Sciences, Trunojoyo University of Madura by using the tool grabsampler, sieveshaker, and pipetting with gravimetric method. The analysis shows the range of values of temperature between 29-300C, salinity between 31-32 ppt, pH were 7.9-8.0 and the type of substrate in the form of sandy mud, as well as the density of Solen sp from 8-10 individuals/m2. All measurement results indicate normal conditions and in accordance with the sea water quality standard for marine life, which can be a suitable habitat for the growth and development of Solen sp. This condition is thought to affect the density of Solen sp.Keywords: Bangkalan, density, distribution, Solen sp, substrate.ABSTRAKPotensi Solen sp perlu dikembangkan di pulau Madura, khususnya di Kabupaten Bangkalan. Pemanfaatan Solen sp mengalami peningkatan sehingga berpotensi overfishing. Untuk itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kepadatan Solen sp dan ekologinya di perairan desa Modung, Kecamatan Modung, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan April 2015 dengan metode deskriptif. Materi dan bahan yang digunakan diantaranya Solen sp dan parameter fisika-kimia lingkungan (suhu, salinitas, pH, dan substrat. Analisa dilakukan di Laboratorium Ilmu Kelautan, Program studi/Jurusan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Trunojoyo Madura dengan menggunakan alat

    10. Fungi Association with Cedar’s Seeds and Fusarium sp. and Pestalotia sp. Pathogenicities Levantamento de Fungos em Sementes de Cedro e Avaliação da Patogenicidade de Fusarium sp. e Pestalotia sp.

      Sílvia Cristina Benetti

      2010-02-01

      Full Text Available

      This research had as main objectives the evaluation of cedar’s seeds seed-borne fungi and the Fusarium
      sp. and Pestalotia sp. pathogenicities. For the fungi detection Potato Dextrose and Agar medium and Blotter
      test methods were used. For the pathogenicity tests, isolates of Fusarium sp. and Pestalotia sp. were used. The following fungi were observed: Pestalotia sp., Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp., Colletotrichum sp., Macrophomina sp. and Cladosporium sp. The fungi observed in the highest frequencies were: Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp. and Pestalotia sp. A reduction of the germination level was observed in seedlings from cedar’s seed inoculated with Fusarium sp.

       

      doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.58.81

      Este trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar fungos em sementes de cedro e testar a patogenicidade de Fusarium sp. e Pestalotia sp. Para detecção de fungos, foram utilizados batata-dextrose-ágar e papel filtro. Para o teste de patogenicidade, utilizaram-se isolados de Fusarium sp. e de Pestalotia sp. Foi constatada a presença dos seguintes fungos nas sementes: Pestalotia sp., Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp., Colletotrichum sp., Macrophomina sp. e Cladosporium sp. Os fungos de maior freqüência foram: Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp. e Pestalotia sp. Observou-se decréscimo nos valores de emergência das plântulas oriundas das sementes inoculadas com Fusarium sp.

       

      Doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.58.81

    11. An actinomycete isolate from solitary wasp mud nest having strong antibacterial activity and kills the Candida cells due the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss

      Vijay eKumar

      2014-08-01

      Full Text Available An actinomycetes strain designated as MN 2(6 was isolated from the solitary wasp mud nest. The isolate was identified using polyphasic taxonomy. It produced the extensive branched brown substrate and white aerial hyphae that changed into grayish black. The aerial mycelia produced the spiral spore chains with rugose spore surface. The growth was observed between temperature range of 27-37°C, pH 8-10 and below salt concentration of 6% (w/v. The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic relationship showed that strain MN 2(6 lies in clade with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NRRL 2387T, Streptomyces sporocinereus NBRC 100766T and Streptomyces demainii NRRL B-1478T with which it shares a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.3%. The strain MN 2(6 can be differentiated from type strains based on phenotypic characteristics. The strain MN 2(6 showed most promising activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacilli and Candida species suggesting broad-spectrum characteristics of the active metabolite. Evaluation of anti-candidal activity of the metabolite of strain MN 2(6 by scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed changed external morphology of yeast. It kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss. However, further studies are required to elucidate the structure of the active metabolite produced by the isolate MN 2(6

    12. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off and promotion of tomato plant growth by endophytic actinomycetes isolated from native plants of Algerian Sahara.

      Goudjal, Yacine; Toumatia, Omrane; Yekkour, Amine; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Mathieu, Florence; Zitouni, Abdelghani

      2014-01-20

      Thirty-four endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from the roots of native plants of the Algerian Sahara. Morphological and chemical studies showed that twenty-nine isolates belonged to the Streptomyces genus and five were non-Streptomyces. All isolates were screened for their in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. The six that had the greatest pathogen inhibitory capacities were subsequently tested for their in vivo biocontrol potential on R. solani damping-off in sterilized and non-sterilized soils, and for their plant-growth promoting activities on tomato seedlings. In both soils, coating tomato seeds with antagonistic isolates significantly reduced (Pdamping-off of tomato seedlings. Among the isolates tested, the strains CA-2 and AA-2 exhibited the same disease incidence reduction as thioperoxydicarbonic diamide, tetramethylthiram (TMTD) and no significant differences (Pseed-treated seedlings compared to the control. The taxonomic position based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies indicated that the strains CA-2 and AA-2 were related to Streptomyces mutabilis NBRC 12800(T) (100% of similarity) and Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus JCM 4364(T) (100% of similarity), respectively. PMID:23920229

    13. Switching antibiotics production on and off in actinomycetes by an IclR family transcriptional regulator from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952.

      Chaudhary, Amit Kumar; Singh, Bijay; Maharjan, Sushila; Jha, Amit Kumar; Kim, Byung-Gee; Sohng, Jae Kyung

      2014-08-01

      Doxorubicin, produced by Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952, is tightly regulated by dnrO, dnrN, and dnrI regulators. Genome mining of S. peucetius revealed the presence of the IclR (doxR) type family of transcription regulator mediating the signal-dependent expression of operons at the nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster. Overexpression of doxR in native strain strongly repressed the drug production. Furthermore, it also had a negative effect on the regulatory system of doxorubicin, wherein the transcript of dnrI was reduced to the maximum level in comparision with the other two. Interestingly, the overexpression of the same gene also had strong inhibitory effects on the production of actinorhodin (blue pigment) and undecylprodigiosin (red pigment) in Streptomyces coelicolor M145, herboxidiene production in Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC 49982, and spinosyn production in Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRRL 18395, respectively. Moreover, DoxR exhibited pleiotropic effects on the production of blue and red pigments in S. coelicolor when grown in different agar media, wherein the production of blue pigment was inhibited in R2YE medium and the red pigment was inhibited in YEME medium. However, the production of both blue and red pigments from S. coelicolor harboring doxR was halted in ISP2 medium, whereas S. coelicolor produced both pigmented antibiotics in the same plate. These consequences demonstrate that the on and off production of these antibiotics was not due to salt stress or media compositions, but was selectively controlled in actinomycetes. PMID:24786531

    14. Babesia sp. in Colombian bats (Microchiroptera).

      Marinkelle, C J

      1996-07-01

      Two leaf-chinned bats (Mormoops megalophylla) collected in 1963 in central Colombia were heavily infected with Babesia sp., probably Babesia vesperuginis. Both bats had pronounced splenomegaly. This is the first report of a Babesia sp. infection of a bat in the Americas. PMID:8827683

    15. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

      The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing [3-14C] glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO2. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that [3-14C]sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates

    16. Predictive value of Sp1/Sp3/FLIP signature for prostate cancer recurrence.

      Roble G Bedolla

      Full Text Available Prediction of prostate cancer prognosis is challenging and predictive biomarkers of recurrence remain elusive. Although prostate specific antigen (PSA has high sensitivity (90% at a PSA level of 4.0 ng/mL, its low specificity leads to many false positive results and considerable overtreatment of patients and its performance at lower ranges is poor. Given the histopathological and molecular heterogeneity of prostate cancer, we propose that a panel of markers will be a better tool than a single marker. We tested a panel of markers composed of the anti-apoptotic protein FLIP and its transcriptional regulators Sp1 and Sp3 using prostate tissues from 64 patients with recurrent and non-recurrent cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy as primary treatment for prostate cancer and were followed with PSA measurements for at least 5 years. Immunohistochemical staining for Sp1, Sp3, and FLIP was performed on these tissues and scored based on the proportion and intensity of staining. The predictive value of the FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 signature for clinical outcome (recurrence vs. non-recurrence was explored with logistic regression, and combinations of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 and Gleason score were analyzed with a stepwise (backward and forward logistic model. The discrimination of the markers was identified by sensitivity-specificity analysis and the diagnostic value of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 was determined using area under the curve (AUC for receiver operator characteristic curves. The AUCs for FLIP, Sp1, Sp3, and Gleason score for predicting PSA failure and non-failure were 0.71, 0.66, 0.68, and 0.76, respectively. However, this increased to 0.93 when combined. Thus, the "biomarker signature" of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 combined with Gleason score predicted disease recurrence and stratified patients who are likely to benefit from more aggressive treatment.

    17. PENGARUH FILTRAT CENDAWAN Aspergillus sp. DAN Fusarium sp. TERHADAP VIABILITAS BENIH DAN PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT SENGON (Paraserianthes falcataria)

      Naning Yuniarti; Tati Suharti; Yulianti Bramasto

      2013-01-01

      Fungi are one of the main causes of damage to seeds. Fungi can be a pathogen or saprophyte such as Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of filtrate fungus Aspergillus sp and Fusarium sp on seed viability and seedling growth performance of Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria). The experiment design used was the Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with treatment: control, filtrate of Aspergillus sp and Fusarium sp filtrate. Each treatment was rep...

    18. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

      Akanksha Srivastava; Ratnakar Tiwari; Vikas Srivastava; Tej Bali Singh; Ravi Kumar Asthana

      2015-01-01

      An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for ant...

    19. Isolation and characterization of a Nocardiopsis sp. from honeybee guts.

      Patil, Preeti B; Zeng, Yu; Coursey, Tami; Houston, Preston; Miller, Iain; Chen, Shawn

      2010-11-01

      Although actinomycetes are the plant-associated environmental bacteria best known for producing thousands of antibiotics, their presence in the guts of flower-feeding honeybees has rarely been reported. Here, we report on the selective isolation of actinomycetes from the gut microbiota of healthy honeybees, and their inhibitory activity against honeybee indigenous bacteria. More than 70% of the sampled honeybees (N>40) in a season carried at least one CFU of actinomycete. The isolates from bees of one location produced inhibitory bioactivities that were almost exclusively against several bee indigenous Bacillus strains and Gram-positive human pathogens but not Escherichia coli. An antibiotic-producing actinomycete closely related to Nocardiopsis alba was isolated from the guts in every season of the year. A DNA fragment encoding a homologous gene (phzD) involved in phenazine biosynthesis was identified in the isolate. Expression of the phzD detected by reverse transcription-PCR can explain the survival of this organism in anaerobic environments as some redox-active extracellular phenazines are commonly regarded as respiratory electron acceptors. The results raise important questions concerning the roles of the antibiotic-producing actinomycetes and the phenazine-like molecules in honeybee guts and honey. PMID:20846361

    20. Sp1 regulates human huntingtin gene expression.

      Wang, Ruitao; Luo, Yawen; Ly, Philip T T; Cai, Fang; Zhou, Weihui; Zou, Haiyan; Song, Weihong

      2012-06-01

      Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. The expansion of cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats results in neuronal loss in the striatum and cortex. Mutant huntingtin (HTT) may cause toxicity via a range of different mechanisms. Recent studies indicate that impairment of wild-type HTT function may also contribute to HD pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating HTT expression have not been well defined. In this study, we cloned 1,795 bp of the 5' flanking region of the human huntingtin gene (htt) and identified a 106-bp fragment containing the transcription start site as the minimal region necessary for promoter activity. Sequence analysis reveals several putative regulatory elements including Sp1, NF-κB, HIF, CREB, NRSF, P53, YY1, AP1, and STAT in the huntingtin promoter. We found functional Sp1 response elements in the huntingtin promoter region. The expression of Sp1 enhanced huntingtin gene transcription and the inhibition of Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation reduced huntingtin gene expression. These results suggest that Sp1 plays an important role in the regulation of the human huntingtin gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Our study suggests that the dysregulation of Sp1-mediated huntingtin transcription, combining with mutant huntingtin's detrimental effect on other Sp1-mediated downstream gene function, may contribute to the pathogenesis of HD. PMID:22399227

    1. Safradan İzole Edilen Campylobacter Sp.

      Yorgancıgil, Birdal; Tezeren, Deniz; Balaban, Neriman; Terzioğlu, Serdar; Öztürk, Süheyla

      2009-01-01

      SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 1997 Haziran; 4(3) Safradan İzole Edilen Campylobacter Sp. Birdal YORGANCIGİL Deniz TEZEREN Neriman BALABAN Serdar TERZlOĞLU Süheyla ÖZTÜRK Özet Campylobacter sp. 'in neden olduğu, gastrointestinal traktüs haricindeki lokal veya sistemik infeksiyon vakaları oldukça azdır. Bu çalışmada safradan izole edilen bir Campylobacter sp. olgusu incelenmiştir. Ankara Numune Hastanesi Cerrahi Kliniğinde koles...

    2. Cloning of the staurosporine biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0274 and its heterologous expression in Streptomyces lividans.

      Onaka, Hiroyasu; Taniguchi, Shin-ichi; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Furumai, Tamotsu

      2002-12-01

      Staurosporine is a representative member of indolocarbazole antibiotics. The entire staurosporine biosynthetic and regulatory gene cluster spanning 20-kb was cloned from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0274 and sequenced. The gene cluster consists of 14 ORFs and the amino acid sequence homology search revealed that it contains three genes, staO, staD, and staP, coding for the enzymes involved in the indolocarbazole aglycone biosynthesis, two genes, staG and staN, for the bond formation between the aglycone and deoxysugar, eight genes, staA, staB, staE, staJ, staI, staK, staMA, and staMB, for the deoxysugar biosynthesis and one gene, staR is a transcriptional regulator. Heterologous gene expression of a 38-kb fragment containing a complete set of the biosynthetic genes for staurosporine cloned into pTOYAMAcos confirmed its role in staurosporine biosynthesis. Moreover, the distribution of the gene for chromopyrrolic acid synthase, the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of indolocarbazole aglycone, in actinomycetes was investigated, and rebD homologs were shown to exist only in the strains producing indolocarbazole antibiotics. PMID:12617516

    3. Uji Efektifitas Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma sp. Dan Gliocladium sp. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium

      Nasution, Rima Yunisa

      2015-01-01

      Rima Yunisa Nasution. 2014. Effectiveness test on antagonist fungi Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium Sp. to control fusarium disease (Fusarium oxysporum F.sp capsici) for chilli crop (Capsicum Annuum L.) at screen house. Supervised by Lahmuddin Lubis and Hassanuddin. The goal of the research is to examine antagonist fungi Trichoderma and Gliocladium virens towards F. Oxysporum that lead the fusarium disease for chilli crop at screen house. The research was conducted at Plant Dise...

    4. Tubulinosema sp. Microsporidian Myositis in Immunosuppressed Patient

      Choudhary, Maria M.; Metcalfe, Maureen G.; Arrambide, Kathryn; Bern, Caryn; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Pieniazek, Norman J.; Bandea, Rebecca D.; Deleon-Carnes, Marlene; Adem, Patricia; Choudhary, Moaz M.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Saeed, Musab U.

      2011-01-01

      The Phylum Microsporidia comprises >1,200 species, only 15 of which are known to infect humans, including the genera Trachipleistophora, Pleistophora, and Brachiola. We report an infection by Tubulinosema sp. in an immunosuppressed patient.

    5. SP-100 power system development status

      The SP-100 ground engineering system development project objectives, approach and status are described. The SP-100 GES development project is phase II of a three-phase program funded and directed by three United States Federal Agencies (NASA, DOD and DOE) to develop space reactor power systems for space applications in the 10 to 1000 KWe power range. The first phase of the program lasted three years, and this was completed at the end of FY 1985. SP-100 Phase I analytically and experimentally reviewed all near-term space reactor power system candidates and selected one system that best met the project mission requirements for future civilian and military space applications. The SP-100 Phase II started in fiscal year 1986 to develop the Phase I selected space reactor power system to be technically ready for space applications in the mid-to late 1990s. (author)

    6. Silencing the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 Genes in Tomato Reduces Abscisic Acid—Mediated Drought Tolerance

      Yan Liang

      2013-11-01

      Full Text Available Drought is a major threat to agriculture production worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs play a pivotal role in sensing and converting stress signals into appropriate responses so that plants can adapt and survive. To examine the function of MAPKs in the drought tolerance of tomato plants, we silenced the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 genes in wild-type plants using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS method. The results indicate that silencing the individual genes or co-silencing SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 reduced the drought tolerance of tomato plants by varying degrees. Co-silencing SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 impaired abscisic acid (ABA-induced and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced stomatal closure and enhanced ABA-induced H2O2 production. Similar results were observed when silencing SpMPK3 alone, but not when SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 were individually silenced. These data suggest that the functions of SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 are redundant, and they overlap with that of SpMPK3 in drought stress signaling pathways. In addition, we found that SpMPK3 may regulate H2O2 levels by mediating the expression of CAT1. Hence, SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 may play crucial roles in enhancing tomato plants’ drought tolerance by influencing stomatal activity and H2O2 production via the ABA-H2O2 pathway.

    7. Heptaketides with antiviral activity from three endolichenic fungal strains Nigrospora sp., Alternaria sp. and Phialophora sp.

      He, Jun-Wei; Chen, Guo-Dong; Gao, Hao; Yang, Fan; Li, Xiao-Xia; Peng, Tao; Guo, Liang-Dong; Yao, Xin-Sheng

      2012-09-01

      Two new heptaketides, (+)-(2S,3S,4aS)-altenuene (1a) and (-)-(2S,3S,4aR)-isoaltenuene (2a), together with six known compounds, (-)-(2R,3R,4aR)-altenuene (1b), (+)-(2R,3R,4aS)-isoaltenuene (2b), 5'-methoxy-6-methyl-biphenyl-3,4,3'-triol (3), alternariol (4), alternariol-9-methyl ether (5), and 4-hydroxyalternariol-9-methyl ether (6) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of an endolichenic fungal strain Nigrospora sphaerica (No.83-1-1-2). Compounds 1a and 1b were separated from enantiomers 1 by chiral HPLC, and so were 2a and 2b from enantiomers 2. Interestingly, 1-6 were also obtained from other two endolichenic fungal strains Alternaria alternata (No.58-8-4-1) and Phialophora sp. (No.96-1-8-1). The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by means of MS, HR-MS, NMR, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the absolute configurations of 1a-2b were determined by CD experiments and CD calculation. Of these compounds, 4 and 5 showed antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) in vitro, with IC(50) values of 13.5 and 21.3 μM, and with selective index (SI) values of 26.5 and 17.1, respectively. PMID:22613072

    8. Metabolomics of the Bio-Degradation Process of Aflatoxin B1 by Actinomycetes at an Initial pH of 6.0

      Manal Eshelli

      2015-02-01

      Full Text Available Contamination of food and feed by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a cause of serious economic and health problems. Different processes have been used to degrade AFB1. In this study, biological degradation of AFB1 was carried out using three Actinomycete species, Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277, Streptomyces lividans TK 24, and S. aureofaciens ATCC 10762, in liquid cultures. Biodegradation of AFB1 was optimised under a range of temperatures from 25 to 40 °C and pH values of 4.0 to 8.0. An initial concentration of 20 µg/mL of AFB1 was used in this study. The amount of AFB1 remaining was measured against time by thin layer chromatography (TLC and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, coupled with UV and mass spectrometry (LC-MS. All species were able to degrade the AFB1, and no significant difference was found between them. AFB1 remained in the liquid culture for R. erythropolis, S. lividans and S. aureofaciens were 0.81 µg/mL, 2.41 µg/mL and 2.78 µg/mL respectively, at the end of the first 24 h. Degradation occurred at all incubation temperatures and the pH with the optimal conditions for R. erythropolis was achieved at 30 °C and pH 6, whereas for S. lividans and S. aureofaciens the optimum conditions for degradation were 30 °C and pH 5. Analysis of the degradative route indicated that each microorganism has a different way of degrading AFB1. The metabolites produced by R. erythropolis were significantly different from the other two microorganisms. Products of degradation were identified through metabolomic studies by utilizing high-resolution mass spectral data. Mass spectrometric analysis indicated that the degradation of AFB1 was associated with the appearance of a range of lower molecular weight compounds. The pathway of degradation or chemical alteration of AFB1 was followed by means of high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (HR-FTMS analysis as well as through the MS2 fragmentation to unravel the degradative pathway for

    9. 放线菌剂与腐植酸钾对魔芋抗病促生效果研究%Study of Combined Application of Actinomycetes Biocontrol Agents and Potassium Humate on Disease Resistance and Growth-promoting Effect of Amorphophallus Konjac

      张忠良; 刘列平; 何斐

      2014-01-01

      分别以不施菌剂、不施腐植酸钾为对照,采用小区试验,探讨生防放线菌剂与腐植酸钾配施条件下二者对魔芋的防病促生作用。试验结果表明:(1)​当腐植酸钾与3号放线菌配施时,具有较强的防病促生作用。30克/株、60克/株、90克/株腐植酸钾分别配施3号菌剂时,与不施腐植酸钾对照相比,魔芋病害相对防效、增产率及增长系数分别提高了9.8%~41.6%、17.1%~76.3%和20.1%~64.2%。其中,60克/株腐植酸钾配施3号菌剂时效果最明显。(2)​当放线菌剂与腐植酸钾配施时,具有较强的防病促生作用。1、2、3号放线菌剂与60克/株腐植酸钾配施,与不施菌剂对照相比,魔芋病害相对防效、增产率及增长系数分别提高了11.7%~89.7%、33.3%~150.9%和38.5%~175.0%。其中2、3号放线菌剂与60克/株腐植酸钾配施处理效果较好。研究表明,腐植酸钾与放线菌剂配施能促进魔芋生长,提高魔芋产量,降低发病率。%With no actinomycetes and potassium humate treatments as control(CK), the effect of actinomycetes and potassium humate on disease resistance and growth-promoting of Amorphophallus konjac in the plot trials were evalu-ated. Results showed that:(1) Combined application of potassium humate and actinomycetes No.3 had strong disease resistance and growth-promoting effect. Under 30, 60, 90 gram per plant of potassium humate combined with actinomy-cetes No.3 treatment, biocontrol effect increased by 9.8%~41.6%, yield increased by 17.1%~76.3%and growth factor increased by 20.1%~64.2% compared with the group without potassium humate. Among which, the combined ap-plication of 60 gram per plant of potassium humate and actinomycetes No.3 had the most obvious effect. (2) Combined application of actinomycetes and potassium humate had signiifcant anti-disease and growth-promoting effect. Three kind of actinomycetes combined with 60 gram per plant of potassium

    10. Expression of surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D in murine decidua and immunomodulatory effects on decidual macrophages.

      Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Koippallil Gopalakrishnan, Aghila Rani; Pandit, Hrishikesh; Marri, Eswari Dodagatta-; Kouser, Lubna; Jamil, Kaiser; Alhamlan, Fatimah S; Kishore, Uday; Madan, Taruna

      2016-02-01

      Surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules that belong to the C-type lectin family. In lungs, they play an important role in the clearance of pathogens and control of inflammation. SP-A and SP-D are also expressed in the female reproductive tract where they play an important role in pregnancy and parturition. However, the role of SP-A and SP-D expressed at the feto-maternal interface (decidua) remains unclear. Here, we have examined the expression of SP-A and SP-D in the murine decidua at 17.5 (pre-parturition) and 19.5dpc (near parturition) and their effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated decidual macrophages. SP-A and SP-D were localized to stromal cells in the murine decidua at 17.5 and 19.5dpc in addition to cells lining the maternal spiral artery. Purified pre-parturition decidual cells were challenged with LPS with and without SP-A or SP-D, and expression of F4/80 and TNF-α were measured by flow cytometry. On their own, SP-A or SP-D did not affect the percentage of F4/80 positive cells while they suppressed the percentage of TNF-α positive cells. However, simultaneous addition of SP-A or SP-D, together with LPS, reduced TNF-α secreting F4/80 positive cells. It is likely that exogenous administration of SP-A and SP-D in decidua can potentially control infection and inflammation mediators during spontaneous term labor and infection-induced preterm labor. Thus, the presence of SP-A and SP-D in the murine decidua is likely to play a protective role against intrauterine infection during pregnancy. PMID:26421960

    11. Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., isolated from Lonar Lake, a meteorite salt water lake in India.

      Sharma, Trupti K; Mawlankar, Rahul; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Shinde, Vidhya K; Zhan, Jing; Li, Wen-Jun; Rele, Meenakshi V; Dastager, Syed G; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

      2016-02-01

      A novel alkaliphilic actinomycete, strain NCL716(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from the vicinity of Lonar Lake, an alkaline salt water meteorite lake in Buldhana district of Maharashtra State in India. The strain was characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach which confirmed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Growth was observed over a pH range of 7-11 at 28 °C. The cell wall was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid and traces of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acid components were identified as iso-C16:0 (46.8 %), C17:1 (12.4 %), anteiso-C15:0 (5.1 %) and anteiso-C17:1 (4.8 %). The major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The major menaquinones were determined to be MK-9 (H6) (70.3 %), MK-9 (H4) (15.5 %) and MK-9 (H8) (7.2 %). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was determined to be 71.4 mol  %. The 16S rRNA gene sequence has been deposited in GenBank with accession number FJ919811. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NCL716(T) shares >99 % similarity with that of Streptomyces bohaiensis strain 11A07(T), DNA-DNA hybridization revealed only 33.2 ± 3.0 % relatedness between them. Moreover, these two strains can be readily distinguished by some distinct phenotypic characteristics. Hence, on the basis of phenotypic and genetic analyses, it is proposed that strain NCL716(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NCL 716(T) (=DSM 42084(T) = MTCC 11708(T) = KCTC 39684(T)). PMID:26597560

    12. Streptomyces zhihengii sp. nov., isolated from rhizospheric soil of Psammosilene tunicoides.

      Huang, Mei-Juan; Fei, Jing-Jing; Salam, Nimaichand; Kim, Chang-Jin; Hozzein, Wael N; Xiao, Min; Huang, Hai-Quan; Li, Wen-Jun

      2016-10-01

      An actinomycete strain, designated YIM T102(T), was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Psammosilene tunicoides W. C. Wu et C. Y. Wu collected from Lijiang, Yunnan Province, China. The taxonomic position of the new isolate was investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YIM T102(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Strain YIM T102(T) was most closely related to Streptomyces eurocidicus NRRL B-1676(T) with a pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 98.9 %. However, DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain YIM T102(T) and S. eurocidicus NBRC 13491(T) was found to be 37.8 ± 1.8 %. The menaquinone composition detected for strain YIM T102(T) was MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8), while the major fatty acids were summed feature 4 (38.0 %), anteiso-C15:0 (13.1 %), iso-C16:0 (10.1 %), summed feature 3 (9.8 %) and C16:0 (9.0 %) and iso-C15:0 (5.2 %). The whole-cell hydrolysates contained galactose, glucose, ribose and mannose, along with LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 70.7 mol%. Strain YIM T102(T) also exhibited antagonistic activity against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae and Colletotrichum nicotianae Averna, based on the findings from the comparative analyses of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics; it is proposed that strain YIM T102 represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces zhihengii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM T102(T) (=KCTC 39115(T) = DSM 42176(T) = CGMCC 4.7248(T)). PMID:27169711

    13. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp(3)-sp(3) cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides.

      Johnston, Craig P; Smith, Russell T; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W C

      2016-08-18

      In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp(2)-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp(3)-sp(3) bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp(3)-sp(3) bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp(3)-sp(3) coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp(3)-sp(3) bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox

    14. Evaluation of nutrient components of Bangia sp.

      李水军; 马家海; 纪焕红; 谢恩义

      2003-01-01

      General nutrient components including moisture, ash, crude protein, lipid and carbohy-drate, inorganic elements, photosynthetic pigments, amino acids and fatty acids of Bangia sp. Were an-alyzed and compared with Porphyra yezoensis. The results indicated that the content of protein, totalamino acids and free amino acids accounted for 47.2 %, 42.6 % and 3.3 % in dried Bangia sp. , respec-tively, all essential amino acids were present in relatively high levels and desirable composition. Lipidwas 1.8 %, in which the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reached 50.5 %. In per 100 g dried material, thecontent of chlorophyll, carotenoids, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin accounted for 766, 208, 4 600 and2 963 mg, respectively. Inorganic elements necessary for human body were found to be abundant inBangia sp. The results showed that the nutritive value of Bangia sp. Was the highest among algae re-ported so far, and the industry of Bangia sp. Was provided with significant economic importance and de-veloping potential.

    15. Interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp

      Uptake of uranium by higher fungi, such as mushroom is little elucidated. We have studied the interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp. (a mushroom) in pure culture over a wide range of U concentration (50-3000 mg/L). The Pleurotus sp. was cultured in two different media. One was rice bran medium, and the other was agar (yeast extract, peptone and dextrose) medium. The uptake of uranium in Pleurotus sp. was examined by alpha ray autoradiography (A,A), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and scanning microcopy (SEM) equipped with EDS. In the agar medium, the higher uranium concentration gave lower growth of mycelia, and no fruiting body was observed. In the rice bran medium, the fruiting body was grown at U concentrations up to 1000 mg/L. The AA and XRF analysis showed that uranium taken up in the fruiting body was below the detection limit. The SEM-EDS analysis indicated that U was distributed in the limited region and was not transported to the mycelia far from U containing medium. It is concluded that uranium affects the growth of Pleurotus sp., and little uranium is taken up by Pleurotus sp. during the growth of both mycelia and fruiting body. (author)

    16. Bioaccumulation of Total and Methyl Mercury in Three Earthworm Species (Drawida sp., Allolobophora sp., and Limnodrilus sp.)

      Zhang, Zhong Sheng; Zheng, Dong Mei; Wang, Qi Chao; Lv, Xian Guo

      2009-01-01

      We determined total and methyl mercury contents in soil, three earthworm species and their vomitus to study the species-specific differences of mercury bioconcentration in Huludao City, a heavily polluted region by chlor-alkali and nonferrous metal smelting industry in Liaoning Province, northeast China. Total and methyl mercury contents were 7.20 mg/kg and 6.94 ng/g in soil, 1.43 mg/kg and 43.03 ng/g in Drawida sp., 2.80 mg/kg and 336.52 ng/g in Alolobophora sp., respectively. Total mercury ...

    17. 青岛泊子盐场放线菌多样性及其功能酶的筛选%Biodiversity of actinomycetes from Pozi saltern in Qingdao and the screening for functional enzymes

      常显波; 刘文正; 张晓华

      2015-01-01

      In this study ,15 actinomycetes were isolated using three different media (M1~M3 ) from a salt pond of Qingdao .Bioinformatics analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences from the isolates revealed they belonged to three genera (Streptomyces ,Nocardiopsis and a novel genus) ,with Streptomyces being the dominant genus .The strain CXB832 were 95 .4 % and 94 .9 % homologous to the two standard strains of bacteria ,and therefore was candidates for a new genus on the basis of phenotypic ,chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic distinctiveness .The type of medium and temperature showed significant effects on the number and diversity of actinomycetes recovered .Starch casein medium was the most effective media to isolate actinomycetes species at 37℃ .12 ,3 ,2 and 1 of 15 isolates produces amylase ,lipase ,caseinase and cellulose ,respectively .%采用平板涂布法利用3种培养基从青岛即墨市田横镇泊子盐场盐池底泥样中共分离纯化出15株放线菌,对分离菌株进行16S rRNA基因测序分析。发现这15株放线菌分属于链霉菌属( Streptomyces )、拟诺卡氏菌属(Nocardiopsis)和1个新属,其中 Streptomyces属为优势菌属;菌株CXB832与 Nocardiopsis arabia DSM 45083T和 Haloacti-nospora albus DSM 45015T最接近,同源性分别为95.4%和94.9%,根据其表型和分子特征可以初步判定该菌株为放线菌新属。培养基及培养温度对盐池环境中放线菌的分离效果均有影响,利用淀粉酪素培养基在37℃分离的放线菌种类和数量较多。在15株放线菌中,分别有12株、3株、2株和1株放线菌产淀粉酶、酯酶、蛋白酶和纤维素酶。

    18. Surfactant Proteins SP-A and SP-D Modulate Uterine Contractile Events in ULTR Myometrial Cell Line.

      Georgios Sotiriadis

      Full Text Available Pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules. However, there is extrapulmonary existence, especially in the amniotic fluid and at the feto-maternal interface. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that SP-A and SP-D are involved in the initiation of labour. This is of great importance given that preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study, we investigated the effects of recombinant forms of SP-A and SP-D (rhSP-A and rhSP-D, the comprising of trimeric lectin domain on contractile events in vitro, using a human myometrial cell line (ULTR as an experimental model. Treatment with rhSP-A or rhSP-D increased the cell velocity, distance travelled and displacement by ULTR cells. rhSP-A and rhSP-D also affected the contractile response of ULTRs when grown on collagen matrices showing reduced surface area. We investigated this effect further by measuring contractility-associated protein (CAP genes. Treatment with rhSP-A and rhSP-D induced expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR and connexin 43 (CX43. In addition, rhSP-A and rhSP-D were able to induce secretion of GROα and IL-8. rhSP-D also induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-6 Ra. We provide evidence that SP-A and SP-D play a key role in modulating events prior to labour by reconditioning the human myometrium and in inducing CAP genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines thus shifting the uterus from a quiescent state to a contractile one.

    19. Sp(3, R) coadjoint orbit theory

      The algebraic mean field method is applied to the symplectic Lie algebra sp(3, R) that describes geometrical collective states in atomic nuclei. The expectations of sp(3, R) generators define a symplectic density matrix. The mean field approximation restricts the densities to a manifold that is a coadjoint orbit of the transformation group Sp(3, R) and a level surface of the symplectic Casimir functions. Compared to representation theory, mean field theory is technically simpler, but yields similar predictions for physical properties of collective states. The critical points of the energy functional on a coadjoint orbit surface define rotational bands. The deformation, kinetic energy and Kelvin circulation of principal axis symplectic rotors are determined as a function of the angular momentum. Illustrative applications of coadjoint orbit theory are reported for the yrast rotational bands of a light 20Ne and a heavy 166Er deformed isotope. (author)

    20. SP2Bench: A SPARQL Performance Benchmark

      Schmidt, Michael; Lausen, Georg; Pinkel, Christoph

      2008-01-01

      Recently, the SPARQL query language for RDF has reached the W3C recommendation status. In response to this emerging standard, the database community is currently exploring efficient storage techniques for RDF data and evaluation strategies for SPARQL queries. A meaningful analysis and comparison of these approaches necessitates a comprehensive and universal benchmark platform. To this end, we have developed SP$^2$Bench, a publicly available, language-specific SPARQL performance benchmark. SP$^2$Bench is settled in the DBLP scenario and comprises both a data generator for creating arbitrarily large DBLP-like documents and a set of carefully designed benchmark queries. The generated documents mirror key characteristics and social-world distributions encountered in the original DBLP data set, while the queries implement meaningful requests on top of this data, covering a variety of SPARQL operator constellations and RDF access patterns. As a proof of concept, we apply SP$^2$Bench to existing engines and discuss ...

    1. BUSCANDO UM BIOHERBICIDA CONTRA Cyperus sp (tiririca

      Cristine Benfatti Gonzalez

      2001-01-01

      Full Text Available As an alternative to conventional control of Cyperus sp (herbaceousnutsedge, with chemical products, it rises the biological control, making use of phytopathogenic microorganisms. As results of the whole production of Cercospora henningsii e Cercospora caricis by fermentation in potato-dextrose (PD liquid medium, it was observed that both species obtained the optimum growth at 36o C. C. henningsii attained the best value after a period of 72 h of fermentation and C. caricis attained it after 60 h. The field experiments, against Cyperus sp (nutsedge, with the obtained products by liquid fermentation of Cercospora sp (C. henningsii and/or C. caribaea, andwith the use of "wet chamber", proved the pathogenic potential bioherbicide of these microorganisms. = Como alternativa ao controle convencional do Cyperus sp (tiririca usando produtos químicos, surge o controle biológico, empregando-se microrganismos fitopatógenos. Como resultados da produção massal de Cercospora henningsii eCercospora caricis através de cultivo submerso em meio de cultura batata-dextrose (BD, observou-se que ambas espécies obtiveram um crescimento ótimo a 36o C, sendo que para C. henningsii se deu com 72 h de fermentação e para C. caricis com 60 h. Os experimentos de campo, bem como os de Câmara úmida, contra Cyperus sp (tiririca,com os produtos obtidos pelo cultivo submerso de Cercospora sp (C. henningsii e/ou C. caribaea, demonstraram a patogenicidade, ou seja, o potencial bioherbicida desses microrganismos.

    2. Analysis list: Sp1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

      Full Text Available Sp1 Placenta,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Sp1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Sp1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Sp1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Sp1.Placenta....tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Sp1.Pluripotent_stem_cell

    3. Blastocystis sp. Infection Mimicking Clostridium Difficile Colitis

      Gil, Gaby S.; Chaudhari, Shobhana; Shady, Ahmed; Caballes, Ana; Hong, Joe

      2016-01-01

      We report an unusual case of severe diarrhea related to Blastocystis sp. infection in a patient with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis. The patient was admitted due to profuse diarrhea associated with fever and leukocytosis. Pertinent stool work-up such as leukocytes in stool, stool culture, clostridium difficile toxin B PCR, and serology for hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C and cytomegalovirus screening were all negative. Ova and parasite stool examination revealed Blastocystis sp. The patient was given intravenous metronidazole with clinical improvement by day three and total resolution of symptoms by day ten. PMID:27247810

    4. The SP theory of intelligence: an overview

      J. Gerard Wolff

      2013-01-01

      This article is an overview of the SP theory of intelligence, which aims to simplify and integrate concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. It is conceived of as a brain-like system that receives "New" information and stores some or all of it in compressed form as "Old" information; and it is realised in the form of a computer model, a first version of the SP machine. The matching and un...

    5. SP-100 converter multicouple thermoelectric cell

      The General Electric Company is under contract to DOE to design, fabricate, and test an SP-100 Ground Engineering System. This paper provides a description of the SP-100 space reactor power system configuration, and a more detailed description of the power conversion subsystem (PCSS) and the key building block of the power converter, the thermoelectric cell. The functions of the various elements of the PCSS and the cells are also presented. These cells convert the thermal energy from the reactor into electrical power at the desired voltage while being conductively coupled to the hot and cold side heat exchangers to maximize the power output and system specific power

    6. Ocorrência de Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Leopardus weidii de vida livre Occurrence of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Leopardus weidii of wild life

      Camila Belmonte Oliveira; João Fábio Soares; Aleksandro Schafer da Silva; Marcos Kipper da Silva; Edson Luis Salomão; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

      2008-01-01

      Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá) é um mamífero neotropical de ampla distribuição no Brasil. No município de Cachoeira do Sul, RS, um exemplar foi capturado para tratamento, quando se coletou uma amostra de fezes, que foi analisada pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco para pesquisa de parasitos. Foi observada elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp.. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que L. weeidi é hospedeiro desses protozoários.Leopar...

    7. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

      Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

      2011-01-01

      All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation fo...

    8. CULTIVO EXPERIMENTAL DEL CLADOCERO Moina sp ALIMENTADO CON Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae

      Martha Prieto; Litia De la Cruz; Mario Morales

      2006-01-01

      Objetivo. Realizar un cultivo experimental de cladócero Moina sp alimentado con Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae. Materiales y métodos. Fueron realizados cultivos experimentales de la cepa de cladóceros Moina sp en el laboratorio de Alimento Vivo de la Universidad de Córdoba, bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura (22oC), pH (7.6), intensidad lumínica (2000 lux) y aireación. Se emplearon dos dietas de alimento como tratamiento (Ankistrodesmus y Ankistrodesmus mas Saccharomyce...

    9. Assessment of Surfactant Protein A (SP-A dependent agglutination

      Griese Matthias

      2010-11-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Monomers of the collectin surfactant associated protein-A (SP-A are arranged in trimers and higher oligomers. The state of oligomerization differs between individuals and likely affects SP-A's functional properties. SP-A can form aggregates together with other SP-A molecules. Here we report and assess a test system for the aggregate forming properties of SP-A in serum and broncho-alveolar lavage samples. Methods Anti-SP-A antibodies fixed to latex beads bound SP-A at its N-terminal end and allowed the interaction with other SP-A molecules in a given sample by their C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD to agglutinate the beads to aggregates, which were quantified by light microscopy. Results SP-A aggregation was dependent on its concentration, the presence of calcium, and was dose-dependently inhibited by mannose. Unaffected by the presence of SP-D no aggregation was observed in absence of SP-A. The more complex the oligomeric structure of SP-A present in a particular sample, the better was its capability to induce aggregation at a given total concentration of SP-A. SP-A in serum agglutinated independently of the pulmonary disease; in contrast SP-A in lung lavage fluid was clearly inferior in patients with chronic bronchitis and particularly with cystic fibrosis compared to controls. Conclusions The functional status of SP-A with respect to its aggregating properties in serum and lavage samples can be easily assessed. SP-A in lung lavage fluid in patients with severe neutrophilic bronchitis was inferior.

    10. Common scab of potato in relation to Streptomyces sp. activity influenced by tuber periderm tissue state

      Krištůfek, Václav; Diviš, J.; Zou, P.; Trefil, L.; Dostálková, I.; Schrempf, H.

      Münster: University of Münster, 2003. s. 40. [Biology of streptomycetes and related actinomycetes . 27.02.2003-03.03.2003, Münster] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : common scab * potato * Streptomyces Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

    11. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

      Antônio Marcos Guimarães

      2005-04-01

      Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em 69,6% (16/23 das amostras de solo coletadas de praças públicas. A contaminação somente por ovos de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solo coletadas em escolas/creches foi de 22,2% (4/18. A percentagem de amostras de areia coletadas de escolas/creches contaminadas somente com larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi de 11,1% (2/18. Praças públicas são as áreas com maior risco potencial de infecção por Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp. Exame coproparasitológico realizado em 174 amostras de fezes de cães observou 58% e 23%, respectivamente, com ovos de Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23 and 69.6 (16/23 respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18. Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool

    12. Efficacy of fermenting liquor of one antagonistic actinomycete on experimental colibacillosis in chicken%一株拮抗放线菌发酵液对试验性鸡大肠杆菌病的疗效试验

      傅艳萍; 孙斌; 来航线; 王晶钰

      2009-01-01

      对一株具有抑菌效果的放线菌发酵液用于治疗鸡大肠杆菌病的疗效进行了研究.采用人工感染诱发鸡大肠杆菌病造模,分别以放线菌发酵液与氟苯尼考进行预防和治疗试验.结果显示,放线菌发酵液治疗组与氟苯尼考低剂量(5 mg/kg)组的大肠杆菌病治疗效果相当,差异不显著;放线菌发酵液预防组与感染对照组在死亡率、治愈率和增重方面差异显著.证实,试验所用的放线菌发酵液可用于治疗和预防人工诱发的O_(89)血清型鸡大肠杆菌病.%Avian colibacillosis induced by the experimental infection method was treated and prevented using the fermenting liquor of antagonistic actinomycetes and florfenieol. The fermenting liquor treatment group (5 mg/kg) had similar therapeutic effect to the low dose of florfenicol group,and the difference be-tween the two groups was not significant(P>0.05). The difference between the fermenting liquor preven-tion group and the infection control group was significant in mortality,cure rate,and weight gain. The re-sults showed that this fermenting liquor of actinomycete could treat and prevent O_(89) serotype avian coliba-cillosis induced by experimental infection.

    13. Framework, The Physics of sp(2,R)

      Hawthorn, Ian; Ussher, Matthew

      2015-01-01

      A mathematical framework for relativistic quantum field theory is constructed with natural symmetry $\\mathsf{so}(2,3)= \\mathsf{sp}(2,\\mathbb{ R})$. In this framework gravity and electromagnetism unify as aspects of the geometry. The source equation for gravity differs from Einstein's equation and permits behaviour that could explain dark matter.

    14. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

      Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: lcvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Rafael V. de P., E-mail: rafael@itatijuca.com [Itatijuca Biotech, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A., E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

      2015-07-01

      Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

    15. Ocorrência de Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Leopardus weidii de vida livre Occurrence of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Leopardus weidii of wild life

      Camila Belmonte Oliveira

      2008-04-01

      Full Text Available Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá é um mamífero neotropical de ampla distribuição no Brasil. No município de Cachoeira do Sul, RS, um exemplar foi capturado para tratamento, quando se coletou uma amostra de fezes, que foi analisada pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco para pesquisa de parasitos. Foi observada elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp.. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que L. weeidi é hospedeiro desses protozoários.Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá is a neo-tropical mammal with has a wide distribution in Brazil. In the municipality of Cachoeira do Sul, RS, a fecal sample from a specimen captured for treatment was collected and analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate for research of parasites. A large number of cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. The results indicate that L. weeidi is a host of these protozoa.

    16. A new virginae butanolide from Streptomyces sp.

      Xiang LI; Yi Nan ZHENG; Wen Han LIN; Isabel SATTLER

      2006-01-01

      A novel butanolide, named virginaebutanolide F (1), was isolated from the lyophilized culture broth of Streptomyces sp., along with a known compound virginaebutanolide C (2). Their structures including the stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR as well as HRESI-MS and CD spectroscopic analysis.

    17. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

      Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

    18. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

      Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni;

      2012-01-01

      Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We...

    19. Ragweed (Ambrosia sp. seeds in bird feed

      Frick, G.

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available In 2005, the Swiss official feed inspection of Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux Research Station (ALP was mandated to check bird feed and raw materials for the presence of Ambrosia sp. seeds. Indeed, such seeds were found in varying amounts when analyzed in the feed microscopy laboratory. The producers were informed, and a limit of intervention (50 mg.kg-1 ≈ 9 to 10 seeds.kg-1 was finally set for this undesirable component. The results of five years of controls show, at first, around 50% of contaminated samples. With appropriate measures, the level of contamination could be lowered in the following years. In parallel, the size of Ambrosia sp. seeds and the sieves to be used for routine analyses were checked. Ambrosia sp. seeds found in feed checked in Switzerland were seldom larger ("wider" than 3.5 mm and never smaller than 1.5 mm. Several EU Member States started their own control and monitoring programs. The results of studies from Germany, Slovenia and Denmark, presented by their feed microscopists at the IAG meetings, indicate the presence of Ambrosia sp. seeds in 21 to 75% of the products put on the market.

    20. Surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, in respiratory fungal infections: their role in the inflammatory response.

      Carreto-Binaghi, Laura Elena; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Taylor, Maria Lucia

      2016-01-01

      Pulmonary surfactant is a complex fluid that comprises phospholipids and four proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) with different biological functions. SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D are essential for the lungs' surface tension function and for the organization, stability and metabolism of lung parenchyma. SP-A and SP-D, which are also known as pulmonary collectins, have an important function in the host's lung immune response; they act as opsonins for different pathogens via a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain and enhance the attachment to phagocytic cells or show their own microbicidal activity by increasing the cellular membrane permeability. Interactions between the pulmonary collectins and bacteria or viruses have been extensively studied, but this is not the same for fungal pathogens. SP-A and SP-D bind glucan and mannose residues from fungal cell wall, but there is still a lack of information on their binding to other fungal carbohydrate residues. In addition, both their relation with immune cells for the clearance of these pathogens and the role of surfactant proteins' regulation during respiratory fungal infections remain unknown. Here we highlight the relevant findings associated with SP-A and SP-D in those respiratory mycoses where the fungal infective propagules reach the lungs by the airways. PMID:27250970

    1. Cultivation of Microalgae Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. as a Potentional Biofuel Feedstock

      Prof. dr. Violeta Makareviciene

      2011-10-01

      Full Text Available The growth of two robust algae strains Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. growing in Lithuanian lakes was investigated with the aim to obtain optimum conditions for biomass cultivation for biofuel production in the Lithuanian environment. Samples were taken from different nitrogen sources and of different concentrations, with addition of various concentrations of CO2 and in the presence of salt. The best biomass productivity was achieved using urea as a nitrogen source or modified growing medium BG11 with decreased concentration of NaNO3. The positive impact on the growth of biomass was achieved by aeration with CO2 (especially with concentration of 24%. Additional research into the removal of pollutants, such inorganic salts of nitrogen and phosphorus and organic materials from wastewater using microalgae has revealed good possibilities of using both algae strains in wastewater treatment plants. A content of oil in Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. has suggested their potential use as biodiesel feedstock.

    2. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

      Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

      2007-12-01

      Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)). PMID:18048759

    3. The astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthesis pathway in Sphingomonas sp. PB304

      Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Bun Yeol;

      2014-01-01

      A major carotenoid in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, originally isolated from a river in Daejon City, South Korea, was identified as astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside. Gene clusters encoding the astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthetic enzymes were identified by screening Sphingomonas sp. PB304 fosmid...... of astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, a putative corresponding gene in the carotenoid biosynthetic gene cluster, and high amino acid sequence homology to the existing glycosyltransferases. Therefore, we propose that astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside can be synthesized in Sphingomonas sp. PB304...

    4. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

      Muhammad Qasim

      2013-01-01

      The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time....

    5. Coronamycins, peptide antibiotics produced by a verticillate Streptomyces sp. (MSU-2110) endophytic on Monstera sp.

      Ezra, D; Castillo, UF; Strobel, GA; Hess, WM; Porter, H; Jensen, JB; Condron, MAM; Teplow, DB; J. Sears; Maranta, M; Hunter, M; Weber, B.; Yaver, D

      2004-01-01

      Coronamycin is a complex of novel peptide antibiotics with activity against pythiaceous fungi and the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. It is also active against the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, with an IC50 of 9.0 ng ml-1. Coronamycin is produced by a verticillate Streptomyces sp. isolated as an endophyte from an epiphytic vine, Monstera sp., found in the Manu region of the upper Amazon of Peru. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fermentation broths of this endoph...

    6. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of galvanized steel by Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in the presence of Ag–Cu ions

      Ilhan-Sungur, Esra, E-mail: esungur@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Unsal-Istek, Tuba [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Cansever, Nurhan [Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Chemistry-Metallurgy, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey)

      2015-07-15

      The effects of Ag–Cu ions on the microbiologically induced corrosion of galvanized steel in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. were investigated. The corrosion behavior of galvanized steel was analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biofilm, corrosion products and Ag–Cu ions on the surfaces were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and elemental mapping. The biofilm layer formed by the Desulfovibrio sp. was stable covering the all surface of galvanized steel coupons, while that by Desulfosporosinus sp. was intermittent, highly porous and heterogeneous. It was found that both of the sulfate reducing bacteria species accelerated corrosion of the galvanized steel. However, it was detected that Desulfosporosinus sp. was more corrosive for galvanized steel than Desulfovibrio sp. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in biofilm clustered into patches on the galvanized steel surface when the culture contained toxic Ag–Cu ions. The ions affected the growth of the sulfate reducing bacteria strains in different ways and hence the corrosion behaviors. It was observed that the Ag–Cu ions affected negatively growth of Desulfosporosinus sp. especially after 24 h of exposure leading to a decrease in the corrosion rate of galvanized steel. However, Desulfovibrio sp. showed more corrosive effect in the presence of the ions according to the ions-free culture. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that corrosion products on the surfaces were mainly composed of Zn, S, Na, O and P. - Highlights: • Galvanized steel was corroded by Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. • Desulfosporosinus sp. is more corrosive than Desulfovibrio sp. • The Ag–Cu ions affected corrosion behavior of Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. on galvanized steel.

    7. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of galvanized steel by Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in the presence of Ag–Cu ions

      The effects of Ag–Cu ions on the microbiologically induced corrosion of galvanized steel in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. were investigated. The corrosion behavior of galvanized steel was analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biofilm, corrosion products and Ag–Cu ions on the surfaces were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and elemental mapping. The biofilm layer formed by the Desulfovibrio sp. was stable covering the all surface of galvanized steel coupons, while that by Desulfosporosinus sp. was intermittent, highly porous and heterogeneous. It was found that both of the sulfate reducing bacteria species accelerated corrosion of the galvanized steel. However, it was detected that Desulfosporosinus sp. was more corrosive for galvanized steel than Desulfovibrio sp. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in biofilm clustered into patches on the galvanized steel surface when the culture contained toxic Ag–Cu ions. The ions affected the growth of the sulfate reducing bacteria strains in different ways and hence the corrosion behaviors. It was observed that the Ag–Cu ions affected negatively growth of Desulfosporosinus sp. especially after 24 h of exposure leading to a decrease in the corrosion rate of galvanized steel. However, Desulfovibrio sp. showed more corrosive effect in the presence of the ions according to the ions-free culture. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that corrosion products on the surfaces were mainly composed of Zn, S, Na, O and P. - Highlights: • Galvanized steel was corroded by Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. • Desulfosporosinus sp. is more corrosive than Desulfovibrio sp. • The Ag–Cu ions affected corrosion behavior of Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. on galvanized steel

    8. Effects of lung surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, and palmitic acid on monolayer stability.

      Ding, J; Takamoto, D Y; von Nahmen, A; Lipp, M M; Lee, K Y; Waring, A J; Zasadzinski, J A

      2001-01-01

      Langmuir isotherms and fluorescence and atomic force microscopy images of synthetic model lung surfactants were used to determine the influence of palmitic acid and synthetic peptides based on the surfactant-specific proteins SP-B and SP-C on the morphology and function of surfactant monolayers. Lung surfactant-specific protein SP-C and peptides based on SP-C eliminate the loss to the subphase of unsaturated lipids necessary for good adsorption and respreading by inducing a transition between...

    9. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) specifically binds dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

      Phospholipids are the major components of pulmonary surfactant. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is believed to be especially essential for the surfactant function of reducing the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) with a reduced denatured molecular mass of 26-38 kDa, characterized by a collagen-like structure and N-linked glycosylation, interacts strongly with a mixture of surfactant-like phospholipids. In the present study the direct binding of SP-A to phospholipids on a thin layer chromatogram was visualized using 125I-SP-A as a probe, so that the phospholipid specificities of SP-A binding and the structural requirements of SP-A and phospholipids for the binding could be examined. Although 125I-SP-A bound phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyeline, it was especially strong in binding dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but failed to bind phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. Labeled SP-A also exhibited strong binding to distearoylphosphatidylcholine, but weak binding to dimyristoyl-, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-, and dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine. Unlabeled SP-A readily competed with labeled SP-A for phospholipid binding. SP-A strongly bound dipalmitoylglycerol produced by phospholipase C treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but not palmitic acid. This protein also failed to bind lysophosphatidylcholine produced by phospholipase A2 treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. 125I-SP-A shows almost no binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine. The addition of 10 mM EGTA into the binding buffer reduced much of the 125I-SP-A binding to phospholipids. Excess deglycosylated SP-A competed with labeled SP-A for binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but the excess collagenase-resistant fragment of SP-A failed

    10. Fitoremediasi limbah budidaya sidat menggunakan filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp.

      Tri Apriadi

      2014-09-01

      Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi dari filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp. sebagai agen bioremediasi dalam mereduksi kandungan bahan organik limbah budidaya sidat. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan perbedaan dosis limbah (25 %, 50 %, 75 %, 100%. Wadah penelitian berupa akuarium resirkulasi menggunakan sistem carrousel. Dilakukan pengukuran secara rutin terhadap beberapa parameter kualitas air serta perubahan bobot Spirogyra sp. selama dua minggu retensi. Diperoleh hasil bahwa penurunan konsentrasi bahan organik menggunakan Spirogyra sp. berlangsung efektif hingga hari keenam. Spirogyra sp. mampu mentolelir limbah budidaya sidat pada dosis limbah 25% dan 50%. Spirogyra sp. pada perlakuan dosis limbah 50% memiliki kemampuan yang lebih baik dalam menurunkan bahan organik limbah budidaya sidat.

    11. Substitusi Dedak Padi Dengan Pod Kakao(Theobroma cacao L) Dipermentasi Dengan Rhizopus SP, Saccharomyces SP, Lactobacilus SP Terhadap Performans Ternak Babi Perternakan Larance Jantan

      Bornok Venantius P.

      2013-01-01

      BORNOK VENANTIUS P: Substitution of rice bran with cacao pods fermented by Rhizopus sp, Saccharomyces sp and Lactobacillus sp to performance of male croosbred Landrace swine. Under the supervision by NURZAINNAH GINTING and ISKANDAR SEMBIRING. Cacao pods fermented can be used as an alternative feed a substitution of rice bran for its capacity to improve performance during growth. The objective of this research was to prove potention of cacao pods fermented, which can be seen from consumptio...

    12. A pumilio homolog in Polycelis sp.

      Yuwen, Yanqing; Dong, Zimei; Si, Xiaohui; Chen, Guangwen

      2014-02-01

      Pumilio proteins (PUMs), members of the pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) family, are eukaryote-specific RNA-binding proteins. We isolated a 2,048-basepair cDNA fragment of a pumilio homolog from the planarian flatworm Polycelis sp. This pumilio protein (PyPUM) contains a conserved pumilio homology domain (PUM-HD) consisting of eight repeats and two flanking half repeats. PyPUM shows high similarity to Dugesia japonica pumilio (DjPUM) from another planarian D. japonica, and their PUM-HD also shows high similarity to each other. Furthermore, our data showed that there is a flatworm-specific spacer between repeats 7 and 8. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PyPUM has a closer relationship to other PUM homologs from flatworms. These results provide a foundation for future functional studies of pumilio gene in Polycelis sp. PMID:24292205

    13. Sp6 and Sp8 transcription factors control AER formation and dorsal-ventral patterning in limb development.

      Endika Haro

      2014-08-01

      Full Text Available The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6-/-;Sp8+/- exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning.

    14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 [Taxonomy Icon

      Full Text Available Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NL.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_S.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico...n/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis...+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=69 ...

    15. Analysis list: SP2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

      Full Text Available SP2 Blood,Liver,Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyus...hu-u/hg19/target/SP2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.B...lood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Liver.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Pluripotent_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc

    16. Commercial technologies from the SP-100 program

      For more than a decade, Jet Propulsion Labortory and Los Alamos have managed a multi-agency funded effort to develop a space reactor power system. This SP-100 Program has developed technologies required for space power systems that can be implemented in the industrial and commercial sectors to improve competitiveness in the global economy. Initial steps taken to transfer this technology from the laboratories to industrial and commercial entities within United States include: (1) identifying specific technologies having commercial potential; (2) distributing information describing the identified technologies and interacting with interested commercial and industrial entities to develop application-specific details and requirements; and (3) providing a technological data base that leads to transfer of technology or the forming of teaming arrangements to accomplish the transfer by tailoring the technology to meet application-specific requirements. SP-100 technologies having commercial potential encompass fabrication processes, devices, and components. Examples: a process for bonding refractory metals to graphite, a device to sense the position of an actuator and a component to enable rotating machines to operate without supplying lubrication (self-lubricating ball bearing). Shortly after the NASA Regional Technology Transfer Centers widely disseminated information covering SP-100 technologies, over one hundred expressions of interest were received, which indicate that there is a large potential benefit in transferring SP-100 technology. Interactions with industrial and commercial entities have identified a substantial need for creating teaming arrangements involving the interested entity and personnel from laboratories and their contractors, who have the knowledge and ability to tailor the technology to meet application-specific requirements. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

    17. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

      Castelli, Ivano E.; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

      2012-03-01

      Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment.

    18. Uptake of Glyphosate by an Arthrobacter sp

      Pipke, Rüdiger; Schulz, Arno; Amrhein, Nikolaus

      1987-01-01

      The uptake of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]glycine) by an Arthrobacter sp. which can utilize this herbicide as its sole source of phosphorus was investigated. Orthophosphate suppressed the expression of the uptake system for glyphosate and also competed with glyphosate for uptake. The Km for glyphosate uptake was 125 μM, and the Ki for orthophosphate was 24 μM. Organophosphonates as well as organophosphates inhibited glyphosate uptake, but only organophosphates and orthophosphate suppressed...

    19. Spøgelsets egne ord

      Gemzøe, Anker

      2012-01-01

      refleksioner over den gengangerscene, der åbner Shakespeares Hamlet. Ifølge Derridas ’hantologie’ opererer spøgelser i en eksistentiel tidslighed, der har at gøre med sorg, sprog og forvandling. Genremæssigt, tilføjer Gemzøe, har gengangeren det med at husere i tragedien. Med Derridas ’hantologie’ som en af de...

    20. Blastocystis sp. from food animals in India

      Sreekumar, C.; Selvaraj, J.; Gomathinayagam, S.; Thangapandiyan, M.; Ravikumar, G.; Roy, Parimal; C Balachandran

      2013-01-01

      Blastocystis, a zoonotic protozoan found in the intestinal tracts of a wide range of animals, has not been reported from non-human hosts from India so far. Organisms indistinguishable from Blastocystis sp. were identified in the Giemsa stained intestinal scrapings collected from carcasses of piglet and poultry that were brought for necropsy to the Central University Laboratory, Chennai. The ‘central vacuole forms’ of the parasite, with number of nuclei ranging from 1 to 12 were identified. Th...

    1. Chlamydomonas sajao nov. sp. (Chlorophyta, Volvocales)

      Lewin, Ralph A.

      1984-06-01

      A new species of Chlamydomonas, namely, C. sajao nov. sp. of the Volvocales, Chlorophyta was isolated from a duckweed growing near a ricefield in the vicinity of Guangzhou, China. This interesting unicellular green alga, similar to C. mexicana from Mexico, secretes quantities of extracellular mucilaginous polysaccharides, and may be employed in improving soil quality. The new species resembles C. waldenburgensis Moewus in most characteristics but differs in three important features.

    2. Celtis sp MICROPROPAGATION: CONTAMINATION AND OXIDATION CONTROL

      Aurora Yoshiko Sato; Herly Carlos Teixeira Dias; Leonaldo Alves de Andrade; Vênia Camello de Souza

      2001-01-01

      Tissue culture presents great potential for the establishment of native species in vitro, which have economic-ecological importance. The Celtis sp or "juazeiro-de-bode" is a semi-arid plant from Northeastern Brazil used as forage during the long dry season. Not much is known about its reproduction, and the micropropagation may represent one alternative for its propagation. The oxidation and contamination are the main problems in establishment, in vitro, of any part of plants. For studying the...

    3. Oxidation of acyclic terpenoids by Corynebacterium sp.

      Yamada, Y; Seo, C W; Okada, H.

      1985-01-01

      Squalene analogs such as lycopersene, geranylfarnesyl, digeranyl, and 2-hydroxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene and terpene alcohol derivatives such as farnesyl benzyl ether, farnesyl pivalate, geranylgeranyl pivalate, geranyl pivalate, and geranyl benzyl ether were oxidized by Corynebacterium sp. strain SY-79, which was isolated from soil by using squalene as a carbon source. Lycopersene and geranylfarnesyl gave no major product. Digeranyl, geranyl benzyl ether, and geranyl pivalate gave terminal oxidat...

    4. Biosorption of 241Am by Candida sp

      The biosorption of radionuclide 241Am from solutions by Candida sp., and the influences of experimental conditions on the adsorption were studied. The results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 4h and the optimum pH=2. No significant differences on 241Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 degree C, or challenged with Au3+ or Ag+, even 1500 times or 4500 times over 241Am, respectively. The adsorption rate could reach 97.8% by dry Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L in 241Am solutions (pH=2) of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.04-873.0 μg/L) (C0), with maximum adsorption capacity (W) of 63.5 MBq/g (501.8 μg/g), implying that the removal of 241Am by Candida sp. from solutions was feasible. The relationship between activities (C0) and adsorption capacities (W) of 241Am indicated that the biosorption process could be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm

    5. Sterols from the Madagascar Sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.

      Yoel Kashman

      2010-12-01

      Full Text Available The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, D5, D7 and D5,7, were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in D5,7 sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5a,8a-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5a,8a-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and b-caroten bleaching assays.

    6. Sarcocystis sp. encephalomyelitis in a cat.

      Bisby, Tricia M; Holman, Patricia J; Pitoc, George A; Packer, Rebecca A; Thompson, Craig A; Raskin, Rose E

      2010-03-01

      A 5-month-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for spinal pain, ataxia, and anisocoria. Neuroanatomic localization indicated diffuse or multifocal central nervous system disease. On cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neutrophilic pleocytosis and intracellular protozoal merozoites were observed. The merozoites were oval, 2-4 microm in width and 4-6 microm in length, and had linear arrays of nuclear material concentrated at one pole. Serum was positive for Sarcocystis sp. antibodies and negative for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The organism was determined to be either Sarcocystis neurona or Sarcocystis dasypi based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 ribosomal RNA genomic region. Clinical disease resolved following treatment with 3 different protocols for protozoal infection. This case is the first to demonstrate the antemortem diagnosis and survival of a domestic cat with Sarcocystis sp.-associated encephalomyelitis. Clinicians and cytopathologists should include Sarcocystis sp. as a differential for feline inflammatory central nervous system disease characterized by neutrophilic pleocytosis. PMID:19548967

    7. Bioremediation of hexavalent chromate using permeabilized Brevibacterium sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. cells.

      Ge, Shimei; Ge, Shichao; Zhou, Maohong; Dong, Xinjiao

      2015-07-01

      Bioremediation has been found to be a useful method for removing hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), which is very toxic, from wastewater. Two strains of bacteria that were able to reduce Cr(VI) effectively were isolated from Cr(VI) contaminated soil samples and identified as Brevibacterium sp. K1 and Stenotrophomonas sp. D6, respectively, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Brevibacterium sp. K1 and Stenotrophomonas sp. D6 could grow in Luria-Broth medium containing K2Cr2O7 at 1000 and 1600 mg/L, respectively, and they completely reduced the Cr(VI) in LB medium containing K2Cr2O7 at 200 mg/L within 72 h. Further analyses revealed that permeabilized K1 and D6 cells reduced Cr(VI) more effectively than did the resting cells. Triton X-100 was the best permeabilizing agent that was tested. The permeabilized cells of both strains could completely reduce Cr(VI) in industrial wastewater twice before needing to be replenished. The results suggested that these chromate-reducing bacteria are potential candidates for practical use biotreating industrial effluents containing Cr(VI) with Stenotrophomonas sp. D6 being the more effective bacterium. PMID:25881152

    8. EFEKTIFITAS DAYA HAMBAT BAKTERI Streptomyces sp TERHADAP Erwinia sp PENYEBAB PENYAKIT BUSUK REBAH PADA TANAMAN LIDAH BUAYA (Aloe barbadensis Mill

      SARMILA TASNIM

      2013-05-01

      Full Text Available Streptomyces sp was conducted from December 2010 - June 2011 at the Laboratoryof Microbiology, Biology Department, Math and Science Faculty, UdayanaUniversity Bukit Jimbaran-Bali. Implementation stages of the research consisted ofisolation and testing of the antibiotic activity Streptomyces sp to inhibit growthbacterial pathogens Erwinia sp as a cause of disease in plants fallen foul (Soft rot ofAloe barbadensis Mill.The results of this study have eight isolates of Streptomyces spwith macroscopic and microscopic characters are varied. Furthermore, all isolateswere obtained and then tested against antibiotic activity to inhibit growth the bacteriaErwinia sp. Test results obtained by Streptomyces sp that has the most effective ininhibiting the ability of the bacteria Erwinia sp isolates are Streptomyces sp2for (45%.

    9. SpAHA1 and SpSOS1 Coordinate in Transgenic Yeast to Improve Salt Tolerance.

      Zhou, Yang; Yin, Xiaochang; Duan, Ruijun; Hao, Gangping; Guo, Jianchun; Jiang, Xingyu

      2015-01-01

      In plant cells, the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) mediates Na+ extrusion using the proton gradient generated by plasma membrane H+-ATPases, and these two proteins are key plant halotolerance factors. In the present study, two genes from Sesuvium portulacastrum, encoding plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (SpSOS1) and H+-ATPase (SpAHA1), were cloned. Localization of each protein was studied in tobacco cells, and their functions were analyzed in yeast cells. Both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 are plasma membrane-bound proteins. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses showed that SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 were induced by salinity, and their expression patterns in roots under salinity were similar. Compared with untransformed yeast cells, SpSOS1 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic yeast by decreasing the Na+ content. The Na+/H+ exchange activity at plasma membrane vesicles was higher in SpSOS1-transgenic yeast than in the untransformed strain. No change was observed in the salt tolerance of yeast cells expressing SpAHA1 alone; however, in yeast transformed with both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, SpAHA1 generated an increased proton gradient that stimulated the Na+/H+ exchange activity of SpSOS1. In this scenario, more Na+ ions were transported out of cells, and the yeast cells co-expressing SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 grew better than the cells transformed with only SpSOS1 or SpAHA1. These findings demonstrate that the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase SpAHA1 can function in coordination. These results provide a reference for developing more salt-tolerant crops via co-transformation with the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-ATPase. PMID:26340746

    10. Direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. oil be using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase.

      Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Muthukumar, Karuppan

      2014-01-01

      This work emphasizes the potential of the isolated Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of fatty acid methyl ester by the direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. of macroalgae. Dimethyl carbonate was used as the extraction solvent and also as the reactant. The effect of solvent/algae ratio, water addition, catalyst, temperature, stirring and time on the direct transesterification was studied. The highest fatty acid methyl ester yield obtained under optimum conditions (5 g Oedogonium sp. powder, 7.5 ml of solvent (dimethyl carbonate)/g of algae, 8% catalyst (%wt/wt of oil), distilled water 1% (wt/wt of algae), 36 h, 55°C and 180 rpm) was 82%. Final product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and (1)H NMR analysis. The results showed that the isolated enzyme has good potential in catalyzing the direct transesterification of algae, and the dimethyl carbonate did not affect the activity of the isolated lipase. PMID:23890544

    11. Antibacterial Activity of Freshwater Microalga Scenedesmus sp. on Foodborne Pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp.

      Aisha Gogoba Ishaq

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Microalgae possess promising bioactive compounds with a wide range of activities. In this study, crude pigment extract of Scenedesmus sp. a freshwater microalga was screened against two known foodborne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Salmonella sp. (ATCC 14028 to evaluate its antimicrobial properties. The crude pigment of the microalga was extracted with 90 % acetone whereas antibacterial screening was done by agar well diffusion method. In addition, the MIC of crude pigment was determined following the macrobroth dilution method. Concentrations ranging from 0.35mg/ml – 3.48 mg/ml demonstrated highest inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923.  The MIC was achieved at 0.08 mg/ ml. On the other hand, there was no inhibitory activity at any concentration of crude extract against Salmonella sp. (ATCC 14028.  Results of this study suggest that the inhibitory activity may be limited to gram positive foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus.

    12. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

      Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

      2012-03-01

      Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed. PMID:22225994

    13. Characterization of a Bioflocculant Produced by a Consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo

      Okoh, Anthony I; Mabinya, Leonard V.; Kunle Okaiyeto; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U

      2013-01-01

      The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2–10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The ...

    14. Isolation of C11 Cyclopentenones from Two Didemnid Species, Lissoclinum sp. and Diplosoma sp.

      Katsuhiro Ueda

      2009-12-01

      Full Text Available A series of new C11 cyclopentenones 1-7 was isolated, together with four known metabolites 9/10, 12 and 13, from the extract of the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum sp. The other didemnid ascidian Diplosoma sp. contained didemnenones 1, 2 and 5, and five known metabolites 8-12. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against three human cancer cell lines (HCT116, A431 and A549.

    15. Identification and evaluation of physiologically active root endophytic actinomycetes from mangrove plants in Hainan Province%红树植物根内生放线茵的分离鉴定及其生理活性的评价

      唐依莉; 谢修超; 洪葵

      2012-01-01

      A total of 138 root endophytic actinomycete strains were successfully isolated using 1/10ATCC 172 medium from the roots of 18 mangrove plants and 3 semi-mangrove plants in Hainan Province. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates showed that the isolates belonged to members of the genera Jishengella, Micromonospora and Streptomycetes. Bioactivity tests were carried out on all the isolated endophytic actinomycete fermentation liquids. Of all the isolates forty strains showed citotoxities to hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 cell, and twenty seven strains were active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 9551 (MRSA). The strains isolated from the mangroves showed no bioactivity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Sodium chloride tolerance test for 88 isolates indicated that 77 isolates were halo-tolerant or halophilic, 2 isolates of which exhibited the highest tolerance to p(NaCI) = 150 g ·L-1 and 54 isolates grew well on the medium containing p (NaCl) =33 g ·L-1.%采集海南文昌清澜港头苑村红树林保护区的18种红树植物和3种半红树植物的根部样品,用1/10ATCC172培养基共分离到138株内生放线菌。经初步鉴定,分离到的138株内生放线菌分别属于继生菌属、小单胞菌属和链霉菌属3个属。对分离到的内生放线菌进行体外细胞毒活性和抗菌活性检测,结果表明,对肝癌SMMC-7721细胞有细胞毒活性的菌株有40株,抗MRSA活性的菌株有27株,所有测试菌株均未检测到抗白色念珠菌活性。对88株菌进行耐盐性检测,77株菌表现出耐盐或嗜盐特征,其中2株最高耐盐质量浓度ρ(NaCl)=150g·L-1,54株菌可在含有P(NaCl)=33g·L-1的培养基上生长良好。

    16. Potencialidade de um actinomiceto de rizosfera de tomateiro como agente de biocontrole de doenças Potenciality of an actinomycete from tomato rhizosphere as a biocontrol agent for tomato diseases

      Renato Carrer Filho

      2009-09-01

      Full Text Available Um actinomiceto (Streptomyces setonii, isolado 'UFV-RD1', obtido de rizosfera de planta sadia de tomateiro, foi selecionado dentre outros 117, como promissor agente de biocontrole de enfermidades da cultura. Em testes de antagonismo in vitro contra patógenos do tomateiro, o isolado 'UFV-RD1' foi incapaz de inibir o crescimento de bactérias (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria mas inibiu a germinação de conídios de alguns fungos (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans, Corynespora cassiicola, Stemphylium solani. Em ensaios de biocontrole experimental in vivo, em casa de vegetação, o actinomiceto foi efetivo em reduzir a severidade de sintomas no caso de patógenos fúngicos e bacterianos testados como desafiantes. A campo, quando A. solani e P. infestans ocorreram naturalmente, as plantas originárias de sementes microbiolizadas com propágulos da estirpe 'UFV-RD1' exibiram sintomas menos severos que as plantas controle para o caso da pinta preta. O agente de biocontrole é promissor para futuros protocolos de manejo integrado, como forma de reduzir a quantidade de defensivos utilizados.An actinomycete (Streptomyces setonii, isolate 'UFV-RD1', isolated from the rhizosphere of a healthy tomato plant was selected out of 117 as a promising biocontrol agent for tomato diseases. In in vitro antagonism tests against tomato pathogens, the isolate 'UFV-RD1' was unable to inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria but inhibited conidium germination of fungi (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans, Corynespora cassiicola, Stemphylium solani. Experimental biocontrol assays in a greenhouse indicated that the actinomycete was effective for reducing symptom severity in the case of bacteria and fungi tested

    17. 产抗生素南极海洋放线菌的筛选及培养条件优化%Screening and Optimization of Culture Conditions of Antarctic Marine Actinomycete Producing Antibiotics

      彭彬; 孙超

      2013-01-01

      对32株南极海洋放线菌进行抑菌活性实验,筛选出3株具有一定抑菌活性的放线菌,分别命名为GD-F1、GD-F2和GD-F3,其中GD-F2的抑菌活性较高;探讨了碳源、氮源、pH值等条件对GD-F2产抗生素的影响,确定GD-F2产抗生素的最佳培养条件为:碳源为可溶性淀粉、氮源为大豆粉或酵母膏、用天然海水和蒸馏水各一半配制培养基、无机盐浓度为改良高氏一号培养基的一半、pH值为7.0,为南极海洋放线菌的机理研究和应用奠定了基础.%The antibiotic activity of 32 strains of antarctic marine Actinomycete were tested and 3 strains GD-F1,GD-F2,GD-F3 with antibiotic activity were screened,among which strain GD-F2 had the highest antibiotic activity. The culture conditions for strain GD-F2 were obtained as follows; with soluble starch as carbon source,with bean powder or yeast extract as nitrogen source,the medium with pH value of 7. 0 was made with natural sea water-distilled water(1: 1) ,the concentrations of inorganic salts were half of those of improved Gao No. 1 culture medium. This study will lay the foundation for adaptation mechanism research and biotechnologi-cal application of antarctic marine Actinomycete.

    18. Streptomyces sp. Sebagai Biofungisida Patogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht.) f.sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) Snyd. et Hans. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Tomat (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

      NURI MANDAN SARI; RETNO KAWURI; KHAMDAN KHALIMI

      2014-01-01

      A research was conducted to isolate Streptomyces sp. of soil Udayana University campus in theBukit-Jimbaran, to obtain the most effective Streptomyces sp. which is effective in inhibit the growth ofFusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and to test response of tomato plants with Streptomyces sp.culture against Fusarium wilt desease. Implementation phases of the research consisted of isolation andidentification of Streptomyces sp, test the inhibition against F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and ...

    19. Infant formula alters surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-B expression in pulmonary epithelial cells.

      Chen, Maurice G; Atkins, Constance L; Bruce, Shirley R; Khan, Amir M; Liu, Yuying; Alcorn, Joseph L

      2011-09-01

      Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and SP-B are critical in the ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension and provide innate immunity. Aspiration of infant milk formula can lead to lung dysfunction, but direct effects of aspirated formula on surfactant protein expression in pulmonary cells have not been described. The hypothesis that infant formula alters surfactant protein homeostasis was tested in vitro by assessing surfactant protein gene expression in cultured pulmonary epithelial cell lines expressing SP-A and SP-B that were transiently exposed (6 hr) to infant formula. Steady-state levels of SP-A protein and mRNA and SP-B mRNA in human bronchiolar (NCI-H441) and mouse alveolar (MLE15) epithelial cells were reduced in a dose-dependent manner 18 hr after exposure to infant formula. SP-A mRNA levels remained reduced 42 hr after exposure, but SP-B mRNA levels increased 10-fold. Neither soy formula nor non-fat dry milk affected steady-state SP-A and SP-B mRNA levels; suggesting a role of a component of infant formula derived from cow milk. These results indicate that infant formula has a direct, dose-dependent effect to reduce surfactant protein gene expression. Ultimately, milk aspiration may potentially result in a reduced capacity of the lung to defend against environmental insults. PMID:21520433

    20. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens

      Gama NMSQ

      2003-01-01

      Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M and one negative (I flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain were isolated from the transport boxes of the four positive flocks (flocks A, B, L and M. Salmonella sp was not isolated from the transport boxes or from the feces after 76 weeks-old in flock I. Salmonella sp was isolated in the 1st, 11th, 34th, 42nd and 76th weeks from flock A; in the 1st, 4th, 11th and 76th weeks from flock B; in the first week and in the 17th to 52nd weeks from flock L; and in the 1st and 76th weeks from flock M. S. Enteritidis, S. enterica rough strain and Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis were isolated from the four positive flocks. Besides, Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana was isolated from flocks B and L, and Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka was isolated from flock L. Eggs produced by flock A and by flock L were contaminated with S. Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain. According to these results, Salmonella-infected flocks may produce contaminated eggs.

    1. Feed training of peacock bass (Cichla sp.)

      M.A.M Moura; KUBITZA F.; CYRINO J. E. P.

      2000-01-01

      The Amazonian cichlid peacock bass (Cichla sp.) is a highly marketable food and sport fish, therefore a suitable species for aquaculture. However, because of its piscivorous feeding preferences, the species does not accept dry feeds voluntarily, turning its intensive culture difficult and costly. This study aimed to wean fingerling peacock bass from inert moist food to dry diets. In a first experiment, 1,134 fingerlings weighting 0.27 g were divided in two 0.37 m³ hapas and fed ground fish fl...

    2. Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028

      Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028 was examined for the ability to accumulate uranium from solutions. The uptake of uranium by this microorganism is very rapid and is affected by pH but not by temperature, metabolic inhibitors, culture time and the presence of various cations and anions. The amount of uranium absorbed by the cells increased as the uranium concentration of the solution increased up to 55 mg uranium/g cell dry weight. Electron microscopy indicated that uranium accumulated intracellularly as needle-like fibrils. Uranium could be removed chemically from the cells, which could then be reused a a biosorbent. (orig.)

    3. Amino Alcohols from the Ascidian Pseudodistoma sp.

      Tae Hyung Won

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available Seven new amino alcohol compounds, pseudoaminols A–G (1–7, were isolated from the ascidian Pseudodistoma sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. Structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data and from chemical conversion. The presence of an N-carboxymethyl group in two of the new compounds (6 and 7 is unprecedented among amino alcohols. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity, as well as weak inhibitory activity toward Na+/K+-ATPase.

    4. Equity valuation : Pirelli & C. SpA

      Bernardino, André Rolhas

      2015-01-01

      This thesis has the purpose to value Pirelli & C. SpA at 31st of December of 2014. Pirelli is publicly traded in the Milan Stock Exchange, Borsa Italiana, and it is known as the fifth largest tyre manufacturer in the world with a great focus on high-end premium tyres. To valuate Pirelli’s equity a discounted cash flow methodology is used with an outcome of a 14,39 Euros price per share. To complete the valuation it is put in place a relative valuation, which supports the author’s recommendati...

    5. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens

      Gama NMSQ; Berchieri Jr A; SA Fernandes

      2003-01-01

      This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M) and one negative (I) flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmo...

    6. Metabolites from mangrove endophytic fungus Dothiorella sp.

      XUQingyan; WANGJianfeng; HUANGYaojian; ZHENGZhonghui; SONGSiyang; ZHANGYongmin; SUWenjin

      2004-01-01

      Mangroves are special woody plant communities in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical coasts. They prove to be a natural microorganisms and new metabolites storage. In the study of mangrove endophytic fungi metabolites, four new compounds, Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4, as well as a known octaketide, cytosporone B (5), are isolated from an endophytic fungus, Dothiorella sp., HTF3. They all show cytotoxic activities. The elucidation of these structures is mainly based on 1D/2D NMR and ESI-MS spectral analyses.

    7. The SP theory of intelligence: benefits and applications

      J. Gerard Wolff

      2013-01-01

      This article describes existing and expected benefits of the "SP theory of intelligence", and some potential applications. The theory aims to simplify and integrate ideas across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. It combines conceptual simplicity with descriptive and explanatory power across several areas of computing and cognition. In the "SP machine" -- an expression of the SP theory which is c...

    8. Uji Pengaruh Beberapa Herbisida Terhadap Trichoderma sp Secara In Vitro

      Majid, Muhammad

      2016-01-01

      Muhammad Majid: In Vitro Test on the Effect of Trichoderma sp Through Application of some Herbicides. Under Supervision ofHasanuddin and Mukhtar Iskandar Pinem. Herbicide is most commonly used pesticide, yet contained multiple negative effect on environment, especially towards soil microorganisms. This research’s objective is to study effect of herbicide with different concentration towards Trichoderma sp. Trichoderma sp has been inoculated in PDA which have been induced with six different...

    9. Smart machines and the SP theory of intelligence

      Wolff, J Gerard

      2014-01-01

      These notes describe how the "SP theory of intelligence", and its embodiment in the "SP machine", may help to realise cognitive computing, as described in the book "Smart Machines". In the SP system, information compression and a concept of "multiple alignment" are centre stage. The system is designed to integrate such things as unsupervised learning, pattern recognition, probabilistic reasoning, and more. It may help to overcome the problem of variety in big data, it may serve in pattern rec...

    10. UJI POTENSI Gliocladium sp TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN TOMAT

      Lina Herlina

      2013-01-01

      AbstrakMikroorganisme tanah seperti Gliocladium sp dapat bertindak sebagai dekomposer dan juga sebagai agen pengendali hayati patogen tanaman hal ini memberikan harapan untuk mengurangi penggunaan pupuk dan fungisida sintetik. Tujuan penelitian untuk menguji potensi biofertililzer Gliocladium sp terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi buah tomat. Variabel bebas yaitu bioferlizer Gliocladium sp  dengan dosis (g/tanaman) 0,50, 100, 150, dan 200 .Variabel tergantung adalah pertumbuhan dan produksi tan...

    11. Viability And Conidial Production Of Entomopathogenic Fungi Penicillium SP.

      Nurariaty Agus; Annie P. Saranga; Ade Rosmana; Ade Sugiarti

      2015-01-01

      Abstract Penicillium sp. order Eurotiales class Eurotiomycetes family Trichocomaceae is one of the entomopathogenic fungi that have the potential to be developed as biological control agent of pests.The study aims to determine the viability and spora production of Entomopathogenic fungi Penicillium sp. Experiments was conducted in Pests Identification and Biological Control laboratory Department of Plant Pest and Disease Faculty of Agriculture Hasanuddin University. The fungus Penicillium sp....

    12. The effects of acupressure points in SP6 and SP8 on primary dysmenorrhea

      Alireza Akbarzade

      2011-09-01

      Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common disorders of women in reproductive age. In addition to physical and psychological disturbances, it may cause socioeconomic problems. The acupressure is a suggested treatments for dysmenorrhea. This study was conducted to identify and compare the effects of acupressure in Saninjo and DiJi points on pain severity of primary dysmenorrhea and systematic symptoms associated with it. Methods: This study was a cross-over clinical trial. 50 girls aged between 18 and 30 years old referred to an urban health center in Sar-e-Pol-e-Zahab city were selected. Subjects randomly allocated into two equal groups (A and B and were assessed over three consecutive menstrual cycles. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Validity and reliability determined by content validity and test retest methods respectively. Pain severity was assessed using McGill pain ruler. At the end, data from 42 women were used for analysis with SPSS package.Results: The severity of primary dysmenorrhea was 6.65±1.05 in SP6 and 6.84 ±1.9 in SP8 before acupressure and significantly decreased to 2.89±1.36 and 2.03±0.94 respectively after acupressure (P<0.001. Conclusion: We can conclude that dysmenorrhea pain decreased after acupressure and SP6 and SP8 points can be used as an urgent remedy to alleviate primary dysmenorrhea.

    13. Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a Parasite of Midges (Chironomus sp. Chironomidae) from Argentina

      de Doucet, Maria M. A.; Poinar, George O.

      1984-01-01

      Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the Arroyo Saldan River in Córdoba, Argentina. This species parasitizes midges of the genus Chironomus (Chironomidae: Diptera). It is distinguished from other members of the genus by the presence of six longitudinal chords, vulval flaps, degree of ventral displacement of the mouth, and size and shape of the spicule and amphids.

    14. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

      Qasim, Muhammad [Department of Chemical Engineering, American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

      2013-07-01

      The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time. Also, the degree of substrate conversion was studied by the varying the dilution rate as an independent parameter. The dilution rate (ratio of feed flow rate to the culture volume) was varied by varying the feed volumetric rate from 110-170 mL/h for inlet hexavalent chromium concentrations of 70 mg/dm3. The results show that a chemostat with recycle gives a better performance in terms of substrate conversion than a chemostat without a recycle. Moreover, the degree of substrate conversion decreases as the dilution rate is increased. Also, Bacillus sp. was found to give higher conversions compared to pseudomonas sp.

    15. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

      Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

      1995-12-31

      Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

    16. SP-100 fuel pin performance results from the SP-3RR irradiation test

      The objective of the SP-100 Program is to verify and validate the design of a compact, fast-spectrum nuclear reactor capable of producing tens to hundreds of kilowatts of electrical power in support of a broad range of space applications. The heat source for thermoelectric power generation in the SP-100 reactor design is fuel pins using high-density uranium nitride (UN) fuel, a refractory alloy liner, and niobium-1 % zirconium (Nb-1Zr) alloy cladding. A total of 86 experimental fuel pins with various fuel, liner, and cladding candidate materials have been irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor as part of the SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program. Postirradiation examination results from these fuel pins are key in establishing performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the reactor fuel system. This paper provides a brief description of the SP-3RR fuel pin test and presents the first irradiation data on the performance of wrought rhenium liner material and UN fuel at goal burnup of 6 at.%

    17. Maize responds to Azotobacter sp and Burkholderia sp inoculation at reduced dose of nitrogen fertilizer

      Juan Manuel Sánchez-Yáñez

      2014-03-01

      Full Text Available The positive maize response to inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB as Azotobacter sp and Burkholderia sp an endophytic type, are an alternative to reduced and optimize nitrogen fertilizer (NF dose, recommended for this plant, without adversely affect its growth. The aim of this study was to analyze maize respond to inoculation with Azotobacter sp and Burkholderia sp at the dose 50% of FN. Used an experimental design of randomized blocks. By response variables: percent germination (%, the shoot and root phenology: plant height (PH, root length (RL and biomass: shoot fresh weight (SFW and root fresh weight (RFW, the shoot dry weight (SDW and root dry weight (RDW. The results indicated a positive maize respond to PGPB inoculation at germination, seedling and flowering level, reached a RDW of 7.03 g, statistically significant value compared with 2.60 g of RDW non inoculated maize feed with NF dose recommended regard as relative control (RC. This suggests a synergistic interaction among these PGPB in synthesis of plant growth promoting substances (PGPS on maize, to optimize the reduced NF dose.

    18. Auxiliary tensor fields for Sp(2,R) self-duality

      Ivanov, Evgeny A; Zupnik, Boris M

      2014-01-01

      The coset Sp(2,R)/U(1) is parametrized by two real scalar fields. We generalize the formalism of auxiliary tensor (bispinor) fields in U(1) self-dual nonlinear models of abelian gauge fields to the case of Sp(2,R) self-duality. In this new formulation, Sp(2,R) duality of the nonlinear scalar-gauge equations of motion is equivalent to an Sp(2,R) invariance of the auxiliary interaction. We derive this result in two different ways, aiming at its further application to supersymmetric theories. We also consider an extension to interactions with higher derivatives.

    19. Microbial transformation of citral by Penicillium sp..

      Esmaeili, Akbar; Tavassoli, Afsaneh

      2010-01-01

      Thymol is present in the essential oils from herbs and spices, such as thyme. It is produced by these plant species as a chemical defense against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, this compound has attracted great attention in food industry, i.e., it has been used as a natural preservative in foods such as cheese to prevent fungal growth. Previous studies concerning the biotransformation of nerol by Penicillium sp. and microbial transformation of citral by sporulated surface cultures method (SSCM) of Penicillium digitatum have been reported. The objective of this research was to study the pathway involved during biotransformation of citral by Penicillium sp. using two methods. The culture preparation was done using different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain Penicillium for citral biotransformation. The biotransformation products were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). A comparison of the two methods showed that SSCM was more effective, its major products were thymol (21.5 %), geranial (18.6 %) and nerol (13.7 %). LM produced only one compound — thymol — with a low efficiency. PMID:20842292

    20. Antimicrobial compounds produced by Actinomadura sp. AC104 isolated from an Algerian Saharan soil

      Badji, Boubekeur; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Sabaou, Nasserdine

      2006-01-01

      During a search for nonpolyenic antifungal antibiotics, an actinomycete designated AC104 was isolated from a Saharan soil sample by a dilution agar plating method using a chitin – vitamins B medium supplemented with rifampicin. Isolate AC104 presented the morphological and the chemical characteristics of the genus Actinomadura. On the basis of 76 physiological tests and 16S rDNA analysis, this isolate was determined to be quite different from the known species of Actinomadura. It is active ag...

    1. The Effect of Acupuncture to SP6 on Skin Temperature Changes of SP6 and SP10: An Observation of “Deqi”

      Jia-Min Yang

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available Background. Deqi sensation is a complex but an important component for acupuncture effect. In this study, we tried to observe the relationship between Deqi and skin temperature changes and whether there was some relativity between Deqi and needle stimulations on cold congealing and dysmenorrhea rat model. Thirty-two female Sprague Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (Saline Control Group, Model Group, Group A with strong stimulation, and Group B with small stimulation. Group A and Group B were performed with different stimulations. We found that, compared with saline control group, model group, and Group B, Group A showed that the skin temperature changes on right acupoint SP6 and SP10 increased significantly at 5 min–10 min interval. The skin temperature changes on left SP6 decreased at instant–5 min interval. The skin temperature changes on right SP10 decreased significantly at instant–5 min interval and 10 min–20 min interval. Thermogenic action along Spleen Meridian of Foot Greater Yin was manifested as simultaneous skin temperature increase on right SP6 and SP10 at 5 min–10 min interval after needling SP6, which was helpful to illustrate the relationship between the characteristic of Deqi and needle stimulations.

    2. Highly Prevalent Coxiella sp. Bacterium in the Tick Vector Amblyomma americanum▿

      Jasinskas, Algimantas; Zhong, Jianmin; Barbour, Alan G.

      2006-01-01

      Laboratory-reared and field-collected Amblyomma americanum ticks were hosts of a Coxiella sp. and a Rickettsia sp. While the Coxiella sp. was detected in 50 of 50 field-collected ticks, the Rickettsia sp. was absent from 32% of ticks. The Coxiella sp. showed evidence of a reduced genome and may be an obligate endosymbiont.

    3. First report of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in fecal samples in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in southern Brazil

      Matheus Hillard Farret

      2010-09-01

      Full Text Available This study reports the gastrointestinal parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in the southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples of two species kept in captivity in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed by the direct smear method, centrifugal flotation technique with zinc sulfate and Kinyoun staining technique for research of parasites. Mixed infection by eggs of Capillaria, cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. This is the first report this protozoa in blue macaw.

    4. Integrative Gene Cloning and Expression System for Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 Bioactive Molecule Producing Strains

      Samiha Sioud

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58, two strains producing interesting bioactive molecules, were successfully transformed using E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002, as a conjugal donor, carrying the integrative plasmid pSET152. For the Streptomyces sp. US 24 strain, two copies of this plasmid were tandemly integrated in the chromosome, whereas for Streptomyces sp. TN 58, the integration was in single copy at the attB site. Plasmid pSET152 was inherited every time for all analysed Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 exconjugants under nonselective conditions. The growth, morphological differentiation, and active molecules production of all studied pSET152 integrated exconjugants were identical to those of wild type strains. Consequently, conjugal transfer using pSET152 integration system is a suitable means of genes transfer and expression for both studied strains. To validate the above gene transfer system, the glucose isomerase gene (xylA from Streptomyces sp. SK was expressed in strain Streptomyces sp. TN 58. Obtained results indicated that heterologous glucose isomerase could be expressed and folded effectively. Glucose isomerase activity of the constructed TN 58 recombinant strain is of about eighteenfold higher than that of the Streptomyces sp. SK strain. Such results are certainly of importance due to the potential use of improved strains in biotechnological process for the production of high-fructose syrup from starch.

    5. Potential topical natural repellent against Ae. aegypti, Culex sp. and Anopheles sp. mosquitoes

      Dewi Nur Hodijah

      2014-08-01

      Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Minyak atsiri daun sirih diketahui mempunyai daya proteksi. Dibuatkan losion berdasarkan pengantar sediaan farmasi yang ditambahkan minyak atsiri daun nilam. Sediaan losion dipilih agar dapat menempel lebih lama di permukaan kulit. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk membandingkan daya proteksi antara losion dengan penambahan minyak nilam dan losion tanpa penambahan minyak nilam dibandingkan daya proteksi dengan DEET. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental laboratorium. Semua nyamuk uji berasal dari insektarium laboratorium penelitian kesehatan Loka litbang P2B2 Ciamis. Konsentrasi minyak atsiri daun sirih dalam losion adalah 4%; konsentrasi minyak nilam sebagai zat pengikat adalah 0,4%. Formula yang digunakan yaitu formula dasar yang ada pada pengantar sediaan farmasi. Uji repelensi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metoda yang direkomendasikan oleh Komisi pestisida.Hasil: Dihasilkan formulasi losion yang stabil dan masih memenuhi standar formulasi sediaan. Berdasarkan hasil, diperoleh data bahwa DEET dan losion hasil modifikasi memiliki rata-rata daya proteksi di atas 90% selama 6 jam terhadap nyamuk Ae.aegypti dan Culex sp. Kesimpulan: Penambahan minyak nilam pada losion sirih dapat meningkatkan daya proteksi terhadap hinggapan nyamuk Ae. aegypti dan Culex sp. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:44-8Kata kunci:repelen alamiah, minyak atsiri, daun sirih, daun nilam, Ae. aegypti, Culex sp.AbstractBackground: Betel leaf essential oil lotion has been known to have insect repellent properties. A lotion was made based on a pharmaceutical formula from a monograph where patchouli leaf essential oil was added. A lotion preparation was intended to enhance adherence of the formula on the surface of the skin. The purpose of this study was to compare protection percentage of lotion with patchouli oil and without patchouli oil lotion compared to DEET.Methods: This study is an experimental laboratory-based research. All mosquitoes

    6. Pneumonitis and emphysema in sp-C gene targeted mice.

      Glasser, Stephan W; Detmer, Emily A; Ikegami, Machiko; Na, Cheng-Lun; Stahlman, Mildred T; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

      2003-04-18

      SP-C-deficient (SP-C -/-) mice developed a severe pulmonary disorder associated with emphysema, monocytic infiltrates, epithelial cell dysplasia, and atypical accumulations of intracellular lipids in type II epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. Whereas alveolar and tissue surfactant phospholipid pools were increased, levels of other surfactant proteins were not altered (SP-B) or were modestly increased (SP-A and SP-D). Analysis of pressure-volume curves and forced oscillatory dynamics demonstrated abnormal respiratory mechanics typical of emphysema. Lung disease was progressive, causing weight loss and cardiomegaly. Extensive alveolar remodeling was accompanied by type II cell hyperplasia, obliteration of pulmonary capillaries, and widespread expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, indicating myofibroblast transformation in the lung parenchyma. Dysplastic epithelial cells lining conducting airways stained intensely for the mucin, MUC5A/C. Tissue concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines were not substantially altered in the SP-C (-/-) mice. Production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) was increased in alveolar macrophages from SP-C (-/-) mice. Absence of SP-C caused a severe progressive pulmonary disorder with histologic features consistent with interstitial pneumonitis. PMID:12519727

    7. Linking surfactant protein SP-D and IL-13

      Qaseem, Asif S; Sonar, Sanchaita; Mahajan, Lakshna;

      2012-01-01

      Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate immune molecule that plays a protective role against lung infection, allergy, asthma and inflammation. In vivo experiments with murine models have shown that SP-D can protect against allergic challenge via a range of mechanisms including inhibition of...

    8. Monochroa bronzella sp. n. from the southwestern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

      Karsholt, Ole; Nel, Jacques; Fournier, François;

      2013-01-01

      Abstract. Monochroa bronzella sp. n. is described from the southwestern Alps (France, Italy). It is closely related to M. nomadella (Zeller, 1868), with which it was hitherto confused. Literature records of M. nomadella from France and northwestern Italy refer to M. bronzella sp. n. The two speci...

    9. SP Monitoring of Intermittent Flow Through Covered-Karst Sinkholes

      Bumpus, P. B.; Kruse, S. E.

      2010-12-01

      A year of continuous SP (self-potential) monitoring was combined with high-resolution 3-D GPR surveys and intermittent water table monitoring over two small covered-karst conduits in Tampa, Florida. SP readings were logged over ~30 electrodes at 2-minute intervals. Positive and negative SP anomalies episodically manifested over conduits, suggesting that conduit flow is dynamic, not static. Three distinct SP flow regimes in the conduits are postulated: fast flow through the conduit to the underlying aquifer, slow flow to the confining layer through the collapse conduit walls, and a conduit plugged high enough to behave like the rest of the confining layer. SP responses after rain events appear to measure the effects of two wetting front curves, one striking the monitoring electrode, one the reference. By comparing curve shapes for all possible pairs of electrodes, it may be possible to establish surficial infiltration and flow patterns. SP is also strongly affected by soil conductivity, rainfall history, and cultural noise. Further concurrent study of moisture content and SP with a suite of reference electrodes placed in various topographic, vegetative, geologic, and climatic settings will help distinguish groundwater flow from other sources affecting SP measurements.

    10. Truncated recombinant human SP-D attenuates emphysema and type II cell changes in SP-D deficient mice

      Mühlfeld Christian

      2007-10-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant protein D (SP-D deficient mice develop emphysema-like pathology associated with focal accumulations of foamy alveolar macrophages, an excess of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolar space and both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of alveolar type II cells. These findings are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with a truncated recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D has been shown to decrease the lipidosis and alveolar macrophage accumulation as well as production of proinflammatory chemokines. The aim of this study was to investigate if rfhSP-D treatment reduces the structural abnormalities in parenchymal architecture and type II cells characteristic of SP-D deficiency. Methods SP-D knock-out mice, aged 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 9 weeks were treated with rfhSP-D for 9, 6 and 3 weeks, respectively. All mice were sacrificed at age 12 weeks and compared to both PBS treated SP-D deficient and wild-type groups. Lung structure was quantified by design-based stereology at the light and electron microscopic level. Emphasis was put on quantification of emphysema, type II cell changes and intracellular surfactant. Data were analysed with two sided non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Main Results After 3 weeks of treatment, alveolar number was higher and mean alveolar size was smaller compared to saline-treated SP-D knock-out controls. There was no significant difference concerning these indices of pulmonary emphysema within rfhSP-D treated groups. Type II cell number and size were smaller as a consequence of treatment. The total volume of lamellar bodies per type II cell and per lung was smaller after 6 weeks of treatment. Conclusion Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with rfhSP-D leads to a reduction in the degree of emphysema and a correction of type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. This supports the concept that rfhSP-D might become a therapeutic option in diseases that are

    11. Thermoelectric electromagnetic pump design for SP-100

      This paper describes the design of the Thermoelectric Electromagnetic (TEM) pump used in the SP-100 space power system. The TEM pump is designed to pump liquid (molten) lithium (Li) coolant in the Primary Heat Transport Subsystem (PHTS) and Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRSS). The pump utilizes advanced Thermoelectric (TE) cells to generate electric current that induces magnetic flux in a Z-shaped magnetic structure. The electric current and magnetic flux pass through the liquid Li perpendicular to each other to create the pumping force. The TE cells are semiconductors located between rectangular ducts connected to the reactor hot PHTS piping and the cooler HRSS piping. The temperature difference (ΔT) across the TE cells generates the voltage to power the pump. The design provides a minimum mass, self-regulated pump, with no moving parts and self-powered by an internal temperature gradient

    12. Meroterpenoids from a Tropical Dysidea sp. Sponge.

      Kim, Chang-Kwon; Woo, Jung-Kyun; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Cho, Eunji; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Sim, Chung J; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

      2015-11-25

      Six new meroterpenoids (1-6), along with arenarol (7), a known rearranged drimane sesquiterpene hydroquinone, were isolated from a Dysidea sp. sponge collected from the Federated States of Micronesia. On the basis of the results of combined spectroscopic analysis, compound 1 was determined to be the cyclic ether derivative of 7, whereas 2 and 3 were assigned as the corresponding sesquiterpene quinones containing taurine-derived substituents. Compounds 4-6 possess a novel tetracyclic skeleton formed by a direct linkage between the quinone and sesquiterpene moieties. The configurations of these new compounds were assigned on the basis of combined NOESY and ECD analysis. These compounds exhibited cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities and weak inhibition against Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. PMID:26551342

    13. Digitization of Sp\\"orer's sunspot drawings

      Diercke, Andrea; Denker, Carsten

      2012-01-01

      Much of our knowledge about the solar dynamo is based on sunspot observations. It is thus desirable to extend the set of positional and morphological data of sunspots into the past. Gustav Sp\\"orer observed in Germany from Anklam (1861-1873) and Potsdam (1874-1894). He left detailed prints of sunspot groups, which we digitized and processed to mitigate artifacts left in the print by the passage of time. After careful geometrical correction, the sunspot data are now available as synoptic charts for almost 450 solar rotation periods. Individual sunspot positions can thus be precisely determined and spot areas can be accurately measured using morphological image processing techniques. These methods also allow us to determine tilt angles of active regions (Joy's law) and to assess the complexity of an active region.

    14. SP-100 Control Drive Assembly Development Plan

      Demuth, Scott F.

      1994-07-01

      The Control Drive Assemblies are the only active components in the entire SP-100 system. Consequently, the design challenges dealing with self-welding, wear, and misalignment in the high temperature and high radiation environment are significant. Because of the harsh environment, it has been necessary to test a variety of materials for such components as bearings, electromagnetic coils, clutches, brakes, and gears. The current Control Drive Assembly technology status is adequate for the 20-KWe design with a five-year life, but has not yet been completely demonstrated for the 100-KWe design with a full ten-year life. The difference in technology status for the 20-KWe and 100-KWe designs is due to the shorter lifetime requirement of the 20-KWe system.

    15. Morfologia da laringe de cutia (Dasyprocta sp.)

      Andrezza B.S. Silva; Thais M.V. Santos; Maria Acelina M. Carvalho; Paulo S.L. Guerra; Marcia S. Rizzo; Waldilleny R. Araújo; Cristiane B.B. Torres; Airton M. Conde Junior

      2014-01-01

      A cutia (Dasyprocta sp.) é um roedor silvestre com distribuição mundial. Atualmente, além de importante papel ecológico que exerce, está sendo utilizada como modelo em experimento animal. Estudos sobre a morfologia destes animais são importantes porque podem ser uma alternativa para o estudo de diversos processos patológicos, além de contribuirem para a preservação da espécie. A laringe é um órgão localizado entre a faringe e a traqueia, no qual está envolvido nas funções de respiração, deglu...

    16. Post-neonatal drop in alveolar SP-A expression

      Stray-Pedersen, Arne; Vege, Ashild; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjorg;

      2008-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is synthesized in the lung and is a part of the innate immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of SP-A in lung tissue from fetuses, infants, children and adults with special regard to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). METHODS: A...... infants aged between 1 week and 5 months. Infants aged >5 months had abundant SP-A expression corresponding to older children and adults. There was no difference in the age distribution between cases of SIDS and explained deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The apparent drop in SP-A expression takes place in the first...... total of 160 cases were studied; 19 fetuses and neonates, 59 SIDS and 49 explained infant deaths below 1 year of age, 19 toddlers and 14 adults. Immunohistochemical detection of SP-A using monoclonal antibodies was performed by microscopy of lung tissue specimens collected at autopsy. A scoring system...

    17. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

      Antônio Marcos Guimarães; Endrigo Gabellini Leonel Alves; Glycia Ferreira de Rezende; Marcelo Costa Rodrigues

      2005-01-01

      Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de ...

    18. Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., isolated from lichen.

      Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Inahashi, Yuki; Kudo, Takuji; Mori, Mihoko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Takahashi, Yoko; Tanasupawat, Somboon

      2016-01-01

      A novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, strain LDG1-22T, for which we propose the name Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., was isolated from a lichen sample collected from tree bark in Thailand. The taxonomic position of the species has been described based on a polyphasic approach. Strain LDG1-22T produced irregular sporangia on agar media. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H4); the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylglycerol. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained ribose, glucose, mannose and small amounts of arabinose and xylose. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (31.2 %) and iso-C16 : 0 (14.2 %). Mycolic acids were absent. The G+C content was 73.6 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain LDG1-22T showed highest similarity (98.8 %) to Actinoplanes friuliensis DSM 45797T and it clustered with Actinoplanes nipponensis JCM 3264T and Actinoplanes missouriensis JCM 3121T in phylogenetic tree analysis. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness, strain LDG1-22T could be distinguished from related species of the genus Actinoplanes and so represents a novel species of this genus. The type strain of Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov. is LDG1-22T ( = JCM 30485T = TISTR 2343T = PCU 344T). PMID:26552374

    19. Properties of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Granules and Bioemulsifiers from Pseudomonas sp. and Burkholderia sp. Isolates Growing on Glucose.

      Sacco, Laís Postai; Castellane, Tereza Cristina Luque; Lopes, Erica Mendes; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; Alves, Lúcia Maria Carareto

      2016-03-01

      A Burkholderia and Pseudomonas species designated as AB4 and AS1, respectively, were isolated from soil containing decomposing straw or sugar cane bagasse collected from Brazil. This study sought to evaluate the capacities of culture media, cell-free medium, and crude lysate preparations (containing PHB inclusion bodies) from bacterial cell cultures to stabilize emulsions with several hydrophobic compounds. Four conditions showed good production of bioemulsifiers (E24 ≥ 50 %), headed by substantially cell-free media from bacterial cell cultures in which bacterial isolates from Burkholderia sp. strain AB4 and Pseudomonas sp. strain AS1 were grown. Our results revealed that the both isolates (AB4 and AS1 strains) exhibited high emulsification indices (indicating usefulness in bioremediation) and good stabilities. PMID:26578147

    20. Murine fertilized ovum, blastomere and morula cells lacking SP phenotype

      XU; YiXin; HE; ZhiYing; ZHU; HaiYing; CHEN; XueSong; LI; JianXiu; ZHANG; HongXia; PAN; XingHua

      2007-01-01

      In the field of stem cell research, SP (side population) phenotype is used to define the property that cells maintain a high efflux capability for some fluorescent dye, such as Hoechst 33342. Recently, many researches proposed that SP phenotype is a phenotype shared by some stem cells and some progenitor cells, and that SP phenotype is regarded as a candidate purification marker for stem cells. In this research, murine fertilized ova (including conjugate and single nucleus fertilized ova), 2-cell stage and 8-cell stage blastomeres, morulas and blastocysts were isolated and directly stained by Hoechst 33342 dye. The results show that fertilized ovum, blastomere and morula cells do not demonstrate any ability to efflux the dye. However, the inner cell mass (ICM) cells of blastocyst exhibit SP phenotype, which is consistent with the result of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in vitro. These results indicate that the SP phenotype of ICM-derived ESCs is an intrinsic property and independent of the culture condition in vitro, and that SP phenotype is one of the characteristics of at least some pluripotent stem cells, but is not shared by totipotent stem cells. In addition, the result that the SP phenotype of ICM cells disappeared when the inhibitor verapamil was added into medium implies that the SP phenotype is directly associated with ABCG2. These results suggest that not all the stem cells demonstrate SP phenotype, and that SP phenotype might act as a purification marker for partial stem cells such as some pluripotent embryonic stem cells and multipotent adult stem cells, but not for all stem cells exampled by the totipotent stem cells in the very early stage of mouse embryos.

    1. Carotenoid Contents in Anoxygenic Phototrophic Purple Bacteria, Marichromatium Sp. and Rhodopseudomonas Sp. of Tropical Environment, Malaysia

      Zaima Azira

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available Carotenoids have shown extensive applications in pharmaceutical, aquaculture and animal feed industries. Recently, researchers have been studied on their potentiality for the health benefits in reducing the risk of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Based on above perspectives a study was conducted in tropical environment to evaluate the total carotenoid content, dry cell weight and bacteriochlorophyll type of phototrophic purple bacteria;Marichromatium sp. and Rhodopseudomonas sp. The bacteria Marichromatium sp. was isolated from the mangrove sediments, Kuantan Pahang. While, Rhodopseudomonas sp. was collected from fish rearing tanks INOCEM, IIUM. The bacteria were cultivated and monitored by using 112 media under anaerobic light conditions at 2500-lux light intensity of continuous illumination of 60-watt tungsten bulb at 30±2°C. Total carotenoid contents and dry cell weight of the bacterial cells were compared from day 0 to day 5 using UV-VIS spectrometer. Bacteriochlorophyll type was also determined using UV-VIS spectrometer. The results showed that isolate IIUM-JHR2 produced the highest total carotenoid content (4.08±2.21mg/g at day 3 while IIUM-JHM1produced the highest dry cell weight (3.83±1.57 g/L at day 2. Statistical analysis showed significance differences (p0.05 detected for total carotenoid contents among the species. However, live cell cultures exhibited absorption maxima at 382, 495.5, 524, 591, 806 and 864 nm in all isolates indicating the presence of bacteriochlorophylla and carotenoids belonging to the spirilloxanthin series. The finding reveals that these bacteria could be utilized in aquaculture as fish feed supplement to enhance growth, survival and coloration of cultured fishes. Furthermore, they can play significant role as potential elements towards food and pharmaceutical industries.

    2. Plant growth promoting potential of pseudomonas sp. SP0113 isolated from potable water from a closed water well

      Przemieniecki Wojciech Sebastian; Kurowski Paweł Tomasz; Karwowska Anna

      2015-01-01

      The Pseudomonas sp. SP0113 strain from a partially closed aquatic environment was identified as a plant growth promoting bacterium (PGPB). Laboratory tests revealed that PS0113 has multiple plant growth promoting traits, including mineral phosphate solubilizing ability, ammonifying ability that increases nitrogen availability for plants via the root system, and phosphatase activity that plays an important role in organic phosphorus mineralization. Tricalciu...

    3. Life cycle and secondary production of two mayflies Leptophlebia sp. And Ephemera sp. In Heizhuchong stream, Hubei, China

      LI Xiaoyu; YAN Yunjun

      2008-01-01

      From June 2003 to June 2004,an investigation on the life cycle,production and trophic basis of dominant species of macrozoobenthos community in a second-order river of the Hanjiang River basin,Hubei,China was carried out.The results showed that the dominant species Leptophlebia sp.and Ephemera sp.appeared to develop two generations per year,and there was a small overlap in the two generations of both species.The pupation of Leptophlebia sp.mainly occurred in autumn and winter,while pupation of Ephemera sp.mainly took place in summer and winter.The standing stocks of the Leptophlebia sp.population and Ephemera sp.population had two peaks in a year.The cohort production and cohort P/B ratio of the Leptophlebia sp.population estimated by size frequency method were 19.018 1 g/m2.a and 5.7 respectively,while its annual production and P/B ratio were 38.036 2 g/m2.a and 11.4.The cohort production and cohort P/B ratio of the Ephemera sp.population were 38.015 9 g/m2.a and 5.9,while its annual production and P/B ratio were 76.0318 g/m2.a and 11.8.

    4. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California

      The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition seriously damage over 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and Cali...

    5. Estudio de actinomicetos marinos aislados de la costa central del Perú y su actividad antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus Meticilina Resistentes y Enterococcus faecalis Vancomicina Resistentes Study of marine actinomycetes isolated from the central coast of Peru and their antibacterial activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis

      Jorge León

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar el potencial antimicrobiano de actinomicetos marinos frente a cepas S. aureus meticilino-resistentes (MRSA y E. faecalis vancomicina-resistentes (VRE. Materiales y métodos. En dos medios de cultivo se sembraron 29 cepas de actinomicetos aislados de sedimento marino. Se evaluó la capacidad inhibitoria mediante pruebas de antagonismo in vitro para MRSA y VRE. Se procesó los extractos orgánicos de tres actinomicetos seleccionados para determinar la Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI del compuesto activo. Resultados. La mayoría de los actinomicetos aislados correspondieron a un grupo homogéneo de blanco-grisáceos (62% con buen nivel de crecimiento en agar marino. Los porcentajes inhibitorios fueron superiores a 85% para ambos patógenos con halos de inhibición mayores a 69 y 78 mm de diámetro para MRSA y VRE respectivamente. Los extractos diclorometánicos de tres de los actinomicetos aislados (I-400A, B1-T61, M10-77 mostraron gran potencial inhibitorio de ambos patógenos, siendo M10-77 la cepa de actinomiceto de mayor actividad antibiótica frente a S. aureus ATCC 43300 resistente a meticilina y E. faecalis ATCC 51299 resistente a vancomicina con una Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI de 7,9 y 31,7 μg/ mL respectivamente. El análisis filogenético de la cepa M10- 77 presenta un 99% de similaridad con la especie marina Streptomyces erythrogriseus. Conclusiones. El sedimento marino de la costa central del Perú es fuente promisorio de cepas de actinomicetos con gran capacidad de producir compuestos bioactivos capaces de inhibir patógenos tipificados como multidrogo-resistentes tales como S. aureus meticilino resistentes y E. faecalis vancomicina resistentes.Objectives. To determine the antimicrobial potential of marine actinomycetes against drug-resistant pathogens represented by strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE. Materials and

    6. Scalability of Parallel Spatial Direct Numerical Simulations on Intel Hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2

      Joslin, Ronald D.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Zubair, Mohammad

      1995-01-01

      The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2 parallel computers is documented. Spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows are computed with the PSDNS code. The feasibility of using the PSDNS to perform transition studies on these computers is examined. The results indicate that PSDNS approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine by remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation. Scalability information is provided to estimate computational costs to match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points. By increasing the number of processors, slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine-dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the computational cost is dominated by FFT routine, which yields less than ideal speedups. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines on the SP1, the serial code achieves 52-56 M ops on a single node of the SP1 (45 percent of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a "real world" simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP supercomputer. For the same simulation, 32-nodes of the SP1 and SP2 are required to reach the performance of a Cray C-90. A 32 node SP1 (SP2) configuration is 2.9 (4.6) times faster than a Cray Y/MP for this simulation, while the hypercube is roughly 2 times slower than the Y/MP for this application. KEY WORDS: Spatial direct numerical simulations; incompressible viscous flows; spectral methods; finite differences; parallel computing.

    7. Antimicrobial Activity and Stability of Fermentation Liquid from Actinomycete H50 Strain%放线菌H50发酵液抑菌活性及其稳定性测定

      黄剑; 李天华; 崔艺久; 白洪志; 韩梅

      2012-01-01

      The strain of H50 was isolated from the soil in the lab.By identification, the strain was regarded as streptomyces. taking 12 epiphyte,3 bacteria as object, by means of mycelium growth rate and cup-plate method, the antimicrobial activity ot bioassay was studied. The stability of the fermentation broths in different conditions was measured. The antimicrobial tests showed that the inhibition rate of all the 12 strains were considerable and 6 of them reached 50%.It showed strongest inhibition efitvt against Bacillus subtills (12.3 mm).Organize method tests showed that inhibition rate of fermentation broths of the strain H50 to Sclerotinia sclerotiomm and Botrytis cinerea was 98.3% and 94.9% , respectively. Through the research of stability of the fermentation broths of actinomycete strain H50 to heat, acid, alkali and light we found that it had a stable activity to heat.acid and UV,but unstable to alkali.Antimierobial spectrum of actinomycete strain H50 was wide. Antimicrobial activity of the fermentation broths was stable and worth to be developed.%将沈阳农业大学微生物研究室分离的1株放线菌H50[链霉菌属(Streptomyces)]分别以植物病原菌真菌12株、细菌3株为供试菌,采用菌丝生长速率法和管碟法测定H50发酵液的抑菌活性以及发酵液的稳定性.发酵液的抑菌活性测定结果表明:H50发酵液对12株供试病原真菌均具有不同程度抑制作用,对其中6种病原真菌菌丝生长抑制率达50%以上,对油菜菌核病菌和黄瓜灰霉病菌的抑制率分别为98.3%和94.9%;H50发酵液对3种供试病原细菌中的枯草芽孢杆菌的抑制作用最强,抑菌圈直径为12.3mm.发酵液的稳定性检测结果表明:发酵液在80℃处理后抑菌活性开始下降,发酵液在pH值4.0~8.0条件下抑菌活性稳定,可见该菌株的代谢产物具有广谱抑菌活性和较强的热、酸、紫外光稳定性,具有潜在的开发价值.

    8. 柳珊瑚Anthogorgiacaerulea相关可培养共生放线菌多样性及其生物毒活性研究%Diversity and Biotoxicity of Culturable Actinomycetes Associated with the Gorgonian Anthogorgia caerulea

      杨小梅; 李菲; 胡丽琴; 周文红; 覃媚; 高程海

      2014-01-01

      【目的】研究斜阳岛附近海域柳珊瑚Anthogorgiacaerulea可培养共生放线菌多样性及其发酵液代谢产物的生物毒活性。【方法】采用纯培养法和基于16 S rRNA基因序列的系统发育分析对从广西斜阳岛附近海域采集的柳珊瑚Anthogorgiacaerulea可培养共生放线菌多样性进行研究,利用卤虫致死法测试其生物毒活性。【结果】从柳珊瑚Anthogorgiacaerulea中分离获得相关可培养放线菌23株,采用16S rRNA基因序列的系统发育分析后发现,这些菌株属于2个亚纲9个科9个属23种。绝大部分菌株都具有一定的生物毒活性,其中10株菌株有较强生物毒活性,1株有显著毒活性。【结论】广西斜阳岛附近海域柳珊瑚Anthogorgia caerulea中存在较为丰富的放线菌多样性,部分菌株具有较强的生物毒活性。%[Objective]To investigate the diversity and biotoxicity of culturable actinomycetes isolated from GorgonianAnthogorgia caerulea collected at the Xieyang island.[Methods]Cul-tivated marine bacteria were isolated from Gorgonian Anthogorgia caerulea collected at the Xieyang island by using conventional culture-dependent method,and then investigate their di-versity by using phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons.Ac-tivities of the crude extract of strains isolated were tested through brine shrimp lethality.[Results]We isolated 23 bacterial strains from the sample in media(2216E,NA and ISP2 ) supplement with seawater.On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics,we selected 23 strains to perform a phyloenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that there were 2 subclass,9 family,9 genus and 23 species.Activity results showed that the crude extract of 1 0 strains showed obvious brine shrimp lethality.[Conclu-sion]Gorgonian Anthogorgia caerulea collected at the Xieyang island showed high diversity of actinomycetes,and some of them showed obvi

    9. Growth Promotion and Disease Control Effect Determination of Endophytic Actinomycetes from Medicago sativa%首蓿内生拮抗放线菌的促生防病作用研究

      王燕; 张绒仙

      2011-01-01

      [ Objective ] The research aimed to screen antagonistic endophytic actinomycetes from Medicago sativa. [ Method ] Growth promotion and disease control effect determination has been done by using Mx1, Mx3 and Mx5, which wcre isolated from the healthy Medicago sativa[ Result ] The result that the comparative control of Mx3 extracts could be 56.56%, 44.67% to Botrytis cinerea and Gaeumannomyces graminis var.tritici, respectively; the control effect of Mx3 extract was higher than it' s suspension. Mx3 extract had good effect on plant height and leaf quantity of tomato growing in the greenhouse; its growth-promoting abihty on wheat and cucumber was higher than water control. [ Conclusion ] Mx3 could promote growth of root, bud on both tomato and wheat, but it could restrain the growth of cucumber root.%[目的]从首蓿内生放线菌中筛选拮抗菌株.[方法]采用已从健康首蓿组织中分离得到的内生放线菌Mx1、Mx3、Mx5进行温室促生防病测定.[结果]菌株Mx3的发酵液对番茄灰霉病的防效可达56.56%,对小麦全蚀病的防效为44.67%;发酵液对2种病害的防效都明显高于菌悬液.对温室番茄株高、叶片数生长影响最明显;对小麦、黄瓜的促生均高于对照.[结论]菌株Mx3促生效果最好,其发酵液的防病效果明显优于菌悬液.

    10. Screening and Identification of Actinomycetes Antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum and Phomopsis asparagi%香蕉枯萎病菌和芦笋茎枯病菌的拮抗放线菌筛选与鉴定

      杜宜新; 石妞妞; 阮宏椿; 甘林; 杨秀娟; 陈福如

      2013-01-01

      从江西井冈山地区采集的土壤样品中分离获得76株放线菌,通过对峙培养法筛选出菌株S15对香蕉枯萎病菌 Fusarium oxysporum、芦笋茎枯病菌 Phomopsis asparagi 有强抑制作用,该菌培养滤液对稻瘟病菌Magnaporthe oryzae、番茄灰霉病菌 Botrytis cinerea、大豆炭疽病菌 Colletotrichum truncatum、水稻纹枯病菌Rhizoctonia solani、柑橘炭疽病菌Colletotrichum gloeosporioides、香蕉黑星病菌Cladosporium cucumerinum、番茄早疫病菌 A lternaria solani、黄瓜炭疽病菌 Colletotrichum orbiculare、玉米大斑病菌 Setosphaeria turcica等多种重要的植物病原真菌也均有较强的抑制作用,拮抗谱较宽。根据其形态特征、培养特性、生理生化特性和16S rDNA序列同源性分析,S15被鉴定为链霉菌属波卓链霉菌 Streptomyces bottropensis。%Seventy-six strains of actinomycete were isolated from the soil in Jinggangshan area in Jiangxi province . S15 was found to be strongly antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum and Phomopsis asparagi .The inhibition effect of S15fermentationfiltratewassignificantagainst Magnaportheoryzae,Botrytiscinerea,Colletotrichumtruncatum, Rhizoctonia solani , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , Cladosporium cucumerinum , A lternaria solani , Colletotrichum orbiculare and Setosphaeria turcica . According to its morphology , cultural characteristics , physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence ,S15 were identified to be Streptomyces bottropensis .

    11. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

      Timlin, John; Ross, Nicholas; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. Niel; Fan, Xiaohui; Haggard, Daryl; Makler, Martin; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Urry, C. Megan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; SpIES Team

      2016-01-01

      We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Warm Spitzer. SpIES was designed to probe enough volume to perform measurements of the z>3 quasar clustering and luminosity function in order to test various "AGN feedback'' models. Additionally, the wide range of multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data makes SpIES a prime location to identify both high-redshift (z>6) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES maps ~115deg2 of Stripe 82 to depths of 6.3 uJy (21.9 AB Magnitudes) and 5.75 uJy (22.0 AB Magnitudes) at [3.6] and [4.5] microns respectively; depths significantly greater than WISE. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. Amongst our preliminary science results, we show high significance detections of spectroscopically confirmed, z~5 quasars in the SpIES data. This work is based [in part] on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

    12. Feed training of peacock bass (Cichla sp.

      MOURA M. A. M.

      2000-01-01

      Full Text Available The Amazonian cichlid peacock bass (Cichla sp. is a highly marketable food and sport fish, therefore a suitable species for aquaculture. However, because of its piscivorous feeding preferences, the species does not accept dry feeds voluntarily, turning its intensive culture difficult and costly. This study aimed to wean fingerling peacock bass from inert moist food to dry diets. In a first experiment, 1,134 fingerlings weighting 0.27 g were divided in two 0.37 m³ hapas and fed ground fish flesh with 35% success. Then, 1.3 g fish were pooled, stocked in six 25 L cages and fed two pellet sequences with 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% and 0% ground fish flesh (GFF. One sequence was flavored with 10% krill meal (Euphausia sp.. Training success of fish fed the GFF-00 diet flavored with krill reached 12%ª compared to 11.6%ª (p < 0.05 for diets without krill meal. A second experiment was set up with 969, 1.5 g fish, trained with GFF with 39.8% success. After the feed training period, 2.2 g fish were then fed a sequence of moist pellets containing 80%, 60% and 45% GFF. Fish trained to feed on moist pellets with 45% ground fish were pooled and stocked into nine 25 L cages. Fish were weaned to dry pellets without ground fish flesh (GFF-00 using three diet sequences: 1 dry pellets; 2 moist pellets; and 3 dry pellets flavored with 4% cod liver oil; all three diets contained 30, 10 and 0% GFF. The three sequences yielded, respectively 30.8%ª, 23.6%ª, and 24.7%ª (p < 0.05 fish feeding on GFF-00. There were no apparent beneficial effects of increasing moisture or addition of cod liver oil as flavor enhancers in the weaning diets. This study revealed the feasibility of training peacock bass to accept dry pellets, but feeding young fish ground fish flesh seemed to be a major bottleneck in improving feed training success.

    13. Occurrence of Pyemotes sp. on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick)

      Carlos Romero Ferreira de Oliveira; Cláudia Helena Cysneiros Matos; Eduardo Hatano

      2007-01-01

      The aim of this work was to study the population reduction of the tomato leafminer moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), by Pyemotes sp. in the laboratory. The mite became greenish when fed on caterpillars, pupae, and adults of T. absoluta. The caterpillars and adults of T. absoluta were quickly paralyzed by the mite venom. A single T. absoluta could host many Pyemotes sp, physogastric females, which were allowed to grow on the moth. Pyemotes sp. can be a new alternative for the biological control o...

    14. Efektivitas Ovitrap Bambu terhadap Jumlah Jentik Aedes sp yang Terperangkap

      Wiwit Aditama

      2015-05-01

      places of 10 subdistricts. Data of trapped Aedes sp larvae numbers was collected four times repeatedly within one week time-lapse. Analysis was conducted using the mean number of larvae in ovitraps and ovitrap index. The number of Aedes sp larvae trapped was 1,265. The most effective ovitrap is piece of bamboo, mean = 123, p value = 0.006, HI = 10.01% (16.66 26.67%, CI = 36.8% (336.06 - 39.74%, BI = 29.97% (73.33 - 103.3%. Health authorities should promote bamboo ovitrap, especially to public as an effort to control Aedes sp.

    15. Aspectos reproductivos del cladocero Moinodaphnia sp. en condiciones de laboratorio.

      Prieto G., Martha

      2001-01-01

      Realizar un cultivo experimental de cladócero Moina sp alimentado con Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae. Fueron realizados cultivos experimentales de la cepa de cladóceros Moina sp en el laboratorio de Alimento Vivo de la Universidad de Córdoba, bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura (22°C), pH (7.6), intensidad lumínica (2000 lux) y aireación. Se emplearon dos dietas de alimento como tratamiento (Ankistrodesmus y Ankistrodesmus mas Saccharomyces cereviseae) en concentrac...

    16. Microfibril-associated Protein 4 Binds to Surfactant Protein A (SP-A) and Colocalizes with SP-A in the Extracellular Matrix of the Lung

      Schlosser, Anders; Thomsen, Theresa H.; Shipley, J. Michael;

      2006-01-01

      seen to recombinant SP-A composed of the neck region and carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-A indicating that the interaction between MFAP4 and SP-A is mediated via the collagen domain of SP-A. Monoclonal antibodies directed against MFAP4 and SP-A were used for immunohistochemical analysis, which......Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an oligomeric collectin that recognizes lipid and carbohydrate moieties present on broad range of micro-organisms, and mediates microbial lysis and clearance. SP-A also modulates multiple immune-related functions including cytokine production and chemotaxis...... recombinant MFAP4 with a molecular mass of 36 and 66 kDa in the reduced and unreduced states respectively. Gel filtration chromatography and chemical crosslinking showed that MFAP4 forms oligomers of four dimers. We demonstrated calcium-dependent binding between MFAP4 and human SP-A1 and SP-A2. No binding was...

    17. Description of Pristina armata n. sp. (Clitellata: Naididae: Pristininae) from a carnivorous plant (Nepenthes sp.) in Borneo, Indonesia.

      Schenková, Jana; Čermák, Václav

      2013-01-01

      A new clitellate species of Pristininae (Naididae), Pristina armata n. sp., found in the pitcher of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes sp., is reported from East Kalimantan, Indonesia. P. armata n. sp. is a very small clitellate, less than 1 mm long in fixed state, and without proboscis on the prostomium. Signs of reproduction by paratomy were observed, but the generic placement remains preliminary because sexually mature individuals were not found. P. armata n. sp. is characterized by giant hook-like dorsal chaetae at IV. The description of P. armata n. sp. was based on six fixed specimens of different size and stage of development. Noteworthy is the habitat of P. armata n. sp. in Nepenthes pitchers, this being the first clitellate species described from such a habitat. P. armata n. sp. may be a member of the nepenthebionts' community, realizing its life cycle inside the digestive fluid of the Nepenthes pitcher, or it belongs to nepenthephiles, species that commonly occur in this habitat but do not specialize on it. PMID:26473244

    18. Application of SP2 and the spatially continuous SP2-P1 equations to the PBMR reactor

      The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is nearing realisation and interest in improvements to modeling methods of HTR reactor designs are growing in momentum. Recent efforts in formulating PBMR-type benchmark problems yielded some standard for evaluating different approaches to such core problems. The Simplified P2 approximation has been shown to improve upon diffusion results in core problems where diffusion is of reasonable accuracy. It can thus be expected that a scattering dominated core such as the PBMR could benefit from such an approach. SP2 does however exhibit unpleasing discontinuous fluxes at material interfaces, and Brantley has proposed to remedy this situation with a SP2-P1 hybrid calculation, using the improved SP2 solution away from material interfaces, and regular P1 near and on material boundaries. In this paper, we develop a 3-dimensional cylindrical multigroup implementation of SP2 and SP2-P1. We apply these methods to the PBMR benchmark, using as reference a S8 transport calculation. Results indicate that the PBMR is highly diffusive in nature, and that diffusion is (for a fixed cross section problem) within 1000 pcm of transport. SP2 and SP2-P1 marginally improve upon this result, but may be applicable for flux solutions near non-diffusive boundaries. (authors)

    19. Plant growth promoting properties of Halobacillus sp. and Halomonas sp. in presence of salinity and heavy metals.

      Desale, Prithviraj; Patel, Bhargav; Singh, Sukrit; Malhotra, Aakshi; Nawani, Neelu

      2014-08-01

      Salinity and heavy metal stress are challenging problems in agriculture. Here we report the plant growth promoting ability of three moderate halophiles, Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6, in presence of both salinity and heavy metal stress. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 can tolerate 25, 21, and 29% NaCl, respectively and grow in presence of 1 mM cobalt, cadmium, and nickel and 0.04 mM mercury and 0.03 mM silver. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 produced 152.5, 95.3, and 167.3 µg/ml indole acetic acid (IAA) and could solubilize 61, 53, and 75 parts per million (ppm) phosphate, respectively in the presence of 15% NaCl. The production of IAA and solubilization of phosphate was well retained in the presence of salinity and heavy metals like 1 mM cadmium, 0.7 mM nickel, 0.04 mM mercury, and 0.03 mM silver. Besides, the strains showed amylase and protease activities and could produce hydrogen cyanide and ammonia in presence of salinity and heavy metals. A mixture of three strains enhanced the root growth of Sesuvium portulacastrum under saline and heavy metal stress, where the root length increased nearly 4.5 ± 0.6 times and root dry weight increased 5.4 ± 0.5 times as compared to control. These strains can thus be useful in microbial assisted phytoremediation of polluted saline soils. PMID:23775888

    20. Cultivo experimental de Tigriopus sp. (Copepoda: Harpacticoidea Experimental culture of Tigriopus sp. (Copepoda: Harpacticoidea

      Armando Mujica R

      1995-01-01

      Full Text Available Tigriopus sp. es un copépodo de pozas intennareales de la IV Región (Chile, de hábitos bento-pelágicos y muy resistente a cambios de temperatura, salinidad y contenido de oxígeno disuelto. Entre otras, estas características han despertado el interés por estudiar la factibilidad biológica del cultivo de esta especie, a fin de alimentar larvas de peces y crustáceos de interés comercial, con un alimento vivo que se encuentre en su dieta natural. En el presente estudio se entregan los resultados obtenidos en el cultivo experimental de esta especie, referidos a crecimiento poblacional, fecundidad, estado de desarrollo, alimentación, temperatura y salinidad. El mayor crecimiento se logró con la combinación de 21ºC de temperatura, 26%o de salinidad y un alimento de mezcla en iguales proporciones de Nannochloris sp. (microalga y Saccharomyces sp. (levadura. Se determinó que las hembras portan un promedio de 24 huevos, independiente de la talla y la camada. No hay mortalidad en la etapa de eclosión, por lo que se generaron tantos nauplios como huevos producidos. El tiempo de aparición de huevos desde el momento de la cópula fue dependiente de la temperatura, así como también la velocidad de desarrollo de las diferentes fases, apareciendo los copepoditos I a los 6-7 días después de la eclosión y los adultos aproximadamente a los 17 díasTigriopus sp. is a copepod inhabiting intertidal pools in the IV Region (Chile, with bentho-pelagic behaviour and very resistant to changes in temperature, salinity and oxygen contents. These characteristics lead to the interest in studying the biological feasability of cultivation of this species to use it as nonnal food for larval fish and crustacean of commercial interest. This study gives information about the biology of this species, mainly related with growth, development, feeding, fecundity and some limiting enviromental factors (temperature and salinity. According to this, the best population

    1. Mycorrhizal dependency of laurel (Ocotea sp.)

      A greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine the mycorrhizal dependency of laurel (>Ocotea sp.). In order to do this, a completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments in a factorial array of 3 x 2 and five repetitions. The treatments involved a combination of three Phosphorus (P) levels in soil solution (0.002, 0.02 and 0.2 mg L-1) and two levels of mycorrhizal inoculation, either inoculated or non-inoculated with Glomus aggregatum Schenck and Smith. The leaf P content as a function of time was used as an output variable. Shoot dry matter, shoot P content, mycorrhizal colonization of roots, and mycorrhizal dependence were measured at harvest. The results indicated that the leaf P content increased significantly when using the mycorrhizal inoculation in laurel at P level 0.2 mg L -1, but not in the other P levels, on some of the sampling days. Shoot dry weight and total plant P content did not increase at all levels of soil available P. Mycorrhizal dependency of laurel reached 28%, which allows this species to be classified as moderately dependent on mycorrhiza.

    2. SP-100 thermoelectric cell testing at JPL

      Three prototypic SP-100 thermoelectric cells, fabricated by Martin Marietta Astro Space in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, were tested in vacuum at prototypic temperatures at JPL. Their thermal and electrical performance were characterized with 200 C, 300 C, 400 C, and 500 C temperature gradients across the cell. The latter was representative of prototypic operating conditions with a 1,050 C hot side temperature and a 550 C cold side temperature. The initial thermal and electrical performance of all three cells closely matched predictions. Following the characterization testing, the cells were put on an extended life test at the prototypic temperatures, in order to determine any significant degradation modes of the cell. Throughout this test, the thermal performance of the cells were nearly identical to predictions. This test, also, confirmed earlier suspicions that the hot side silicon-germanium to electrode interface would degrade without some significant protective coating at the bond line. Because of resource limitations and early development problems with this coating, the necessary protective layers had not yet been fully developed at the time this generation of cells was manufactured. Subsequent to these tests, accelerated experiments with coupons, having a protective coating applied, have demonstrated the equivalent of 11 to 13 years of operation without any apparent degradation. Four new cells are being fabricated with this technology, two of which will be tested at JPL

    3. Accomplishments and plans of SP-100 program

      The SP-100 program is proceeding toward concept definitions for a space nuclear reactor which is safe and suitable for civilian and military applications. The selection of a specific design and demonstration of the base technologies was scheduled for the end of 1985, to be followed by engineering development and ground testing in 1986. The main current uses/users thus far anticipated are communications satellites, both military and civilian, radar (and possibly laser) surveillance and remote sensing systems, and manufacturing and other extensions of a space station growth scenario. The reactor will weigh no more than 3000 kg and must fit into the Orbiter bay with a payload and OTV. Three concepts are still under evaluation: a lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics; an in-core thermionic system with pumped sodium-potassium coolant; and a configuration with a Stirling engine to convert reactor heat into electricity. If the engineering analyses and base tests are successful, it is expected that the flight application phase can be reached by 1991 at the latest

    4. Karyotypic characterization of Capsicum sp. accessions

      Willame Rodrigues do Nascimento Souza

      2015-05-01

      Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the chromosome number and the karyotype of Capsicum annuum, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum frutencens and Capsicum baccatum accessions in the active Capsicum sp. genebank at the Federal University of Piauí (BGC-UFPI. These species have great economic importance throughout the world, and their cytogenetic characterization can inform taxonomy and lead to improvement in the genus. Karyotypes were obtained from the rootlet meristems of the studied accessions using the squash method and Giemsa staining. The chromosome number 2n=2x=24 was verified for each of the four species. Chromosomal polymorphisms were observed for the C. frutencens accession BGC 37, which presented 12 pairs of metacentric chromosomes instead of 11 pairs of metacentric chromosomes and 1 submetacentric chromosome pair present in other accessions. In the accessions BGC 01 and BGC 37, secondary constrictions were observed in the 1 and 12 as well as in the 6 and 11 homologs, respectively. The karyotypes of the studied species were asymmetrical among themselves. The results obtained in this study confirm the high genetic diversity previously described in the literature for this genus.

    5. Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

      Yang, Fan; Liu, Hong-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Ding-Bin; Wang, Xiang; Yan, Xin; Hong, Qing; Li, Shun-Peng

      2015-06-01

      Strain YF-2(T), a Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, light-yellow-pigmented bacterium, was isolated from soil samples collected in the city of Yuncheng, Shanxi province of China. Strain YF-2(T) grew over a temperature range of 25-37 °C, at pH 5.0-8.0 and with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence of the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain YF-2(T) was closely related to strains Flavobacterium akiainvivens CIP 110358(T) and Flavobacterium hauense KCTC 32147(T) with 95.99 and 95.92 % sequence similarity, respectively. The dominant fatty acids of strain YF-2(T) were Summed Feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c) (21.97 %), iso-C15:0 (18.65 %), iso-C17:0 3OH (11.41 %), C16:0 (9.92 %), and anteiso-C15:0 (6.21 %). It contained phosphatidylethanolamine and menaquinone MK-6 as major polar lipid and respiratory quinone, respectively. Strain YF-2(T) differs from other Flavobacterium species in many characteristics and represents a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain YF-2(T) (=CCTCC AB 2014079(T) = JCM 30153(T)). PMID:25726422

    6. Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

      Feng, Qingqing; Han, Lu; Yuan, Xin; Tan, Xu; Gao, Yuan; Lv, Jie

      2015-08-01

      A Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain T3T, was isolated from freshwater of Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou, south-west China. Analysis of the16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain T3T was a member of the genus Flavobacterium and closely related to Flavobacterium resistens DSM 19382T (96.8 %). The novel strain was able to grow at 10-34 °C (optimum 28 °C), pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0-9.0) and with 0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown glycolipids, five unknown aminolipids and four unidentified lipids, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The predominant fatty acids were C16  :  1ω7c and/or C16  :  1ω6c and iso-C15  :  0. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 36 mol  %. Based on these data, strain T3T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = CGMCC 1.12926T = JCM 30113T). PMID:25969476

    7. Dokdonia pacifica sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

      Zhang, Zenghu; Gao, Xin; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

      2015-07-01

      A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, non-gliding, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain SW230(T), was isolated from a surface seawater sample collected from the South Pacific Gyre. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SW230(T) shared highest similarity with members of the genus Dokdonia (95.0-94.5%), exhibiting 95.0% sequence similarity to Dokdonia genika NBRC 100811(T). Optimal growth occurred in the presence of 2-3% (w/v) NaCl, at pH 8.0 and at 28 °C. The DNA G+C content of strain SW230(T) was 36 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10% of the total) were iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, and C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. On the basis of data from the present polyphasic study, strain SW230(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Dokdonia, for which the name Dokdonia pacifica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW230(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12184(T) = JCM 18216(T)). PMID:25862384

    8. Lactobacillus kitasatonis sp. nov., from chicken intestine.

      Mukai, Takao; Arihara, Keizo; Ikeda, Ami; Nomura, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Fumihiko; Ohori, Hitoshi

      2003-11-01

      Four strains isolated from chicken small intestine and strains JCM 1038 and JCM 1039 (designated as Lactobacillus acidophilus) were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. They were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not produce gas from glucose. These strains had similar phenotypic characteristics and exhibited intergroup DNA relatedness values of >77 %, indicating that they comprised a single species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of a representative strain, JCM 1039(T) (designated as type strain in this study), was determined and aligned with those of other Lactobacillus species. JCM 1039(T) was placed in the Lactobacillus delbrueckii cluster of the genus Lactobacillus on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and formed an independent cluster that was distinct from its closest neighbours, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, L. acidophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and whole-cell protein profiles clearly indicated that these strains represent a novel Lactobacillus species, for which the name Lactobacillus kitasatonis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain of this species is JCM 1039(T). PMID:14657145

    9. Sphingobium vermicomposti sp. nov., isolated from vermicompost.

      Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Faria, Cátia; Lopes, Ana R; Svensson, Liselott; Falsen, Enevold; Moore, Edward R B; Ferreira, António C Silva; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

      2009-12-01

      Strain VC-230(T) was isolated from homemade vermicompost produced from kitchen waste. The isolate was a Gram-negative-staining, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile rod-shaped bacterium able to grow at 15-37 degrees C and pH 6-8. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain VC-230(T) was determined to belong to the family Sphingomonadaceae by its clustering with type strains of the genus Sphingobium, with Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 33790(T) (97.7 %) and Sphingobium herbicidovorans DSM 11019(T) (97.4 %) as its closest neighbours. The polar lipid pattern, the presence of spermidine and ubiquinone 10, the predominance of the cellular fatty acids C(18 : 1)omega7c/9t/12t, C(16 : 1)omega7c and C(16 : 0) and the G+C content of the genomic DNA supported the affiliation of this organism to the genus Sphingobium. The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses verify that strain VC-230(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Sphingobium vermicomposti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VC-230(T) (=CCUG 55809(T) =DSM 21299(T)). PMID:19643879

    10. Itinerant ferromagnetism in fermionic systems with SP (2 N) symmetry

      Yang, Wang; Wu, Congjun

      The Ginzburg-Landau free energy of systems with SP (2 N) symmetry describes a second order phase transition on the mean field level, since the Casimir invariants of the SP (2 N) group can be only of even order combinations of the generators of the SP (2 N) group. This is in contrast with systems having the SU (N) symmetry, where the allowance of cubic term generally makes the phase transition into first order. In this work, we consider the Hertz-Millis type itinerant ferromagnetism in an interacting fermionic system with SP (2 N) symmetry, where the ferromagnetic orders are enriched by the multi-component nature of the system. The quantum criticality is discussed near the second order phase transition point.

    11. LEGACY - EOP Gold Coral (Gerardia sp.) Growth Measurements

      National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gold coral (Gerardia sp.) trees that were inspected years earlier on Pisces submersible dives were revisited and their change in size measured. The fishery for...

    12. Volvatellin, caulerpenyne-related product fromt he sacoglossan Volvatella sp.

      Fontana, A.; Ciavatta, M.L.; Mollo, E.; Naik, C.G.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Cimino, G.

      Volvatellin (4) is a highly unstable terpene isolated from the extracts of the Indian opisthobranch mollusk Volvatella sp. The structure and the relative stereochemistry of 4 were determined by NMR methods. The paper also describes a hypothetical...

    13. Medical management of suspected Paecilomyces sp. deep keratitis.

      Holland, Lee; Lee, Graham A

      2015-01-01

      A 74-year-old woman developed a deep keratitis presenting with an endothelial plaque without overlying stromal involvement. Owing to the characteristic clinical appearance, she was provisionally diagnosed with a Paecilomyces sp. keratitis. Corneal scrapings and aqueous humour samples were culture negative. The difficulties in diagnosing Paecilomyces sp. keratitis are discussed. The patient's keratitis was managed with a combination of topical, oral and intracameral injections of voriconazole. This medical management strategy was successful in achieving good infection control and visual outcome. We report a rarely encountered presentation of keratitis in which the clinical appearance and response to voriconazole are highly suggestive evidence of a Paecilomyces sp. keratitis. We believe the combination of topical, oral and intracameral injections of voriconazole represents a novel treatment approach for Paecilomyces sp. keratitis. Our case supports the potential for a medical approach as initial treatment in this otherwise devastating form of oculomycosis. PMID:26135494

    14. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

      Stock, Jan H.

      1973-01-01

      Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

    15. Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711

      Shoemaker, William R.; Muscarella, Mario E.; Lennon, Jay T

      2015-01-01

      We present a draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711 that was isolated from agricultural soil. The genome provides insight into the ecological strategies of this bacterium in free-living and host-associated environments.

    16. Massarina armatispora sp. nov., a new intertidal ascomycete from mangroves

      Hyde, K.D.; Vrijmoed, L.L.P.; Chinnaraj, S.; Jones, E.B.G.

      Massarina armatispora sp. nov. is described from dead intertidal mangrove wood collected in India and Hong Kong. The new taxon is compared with other M. species, and its placement in the genus Massarina is discussed...

    17. Users guide for the ANL IBM SP1

      Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Pieper, S.C.

      1994-10-01

      This guide presents the features of the IBM SP1 installed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The guide describes the available hardware and software, access policies, and hints for using the system productively.

    18. SP-100 multimegawatt scaleup to meet electric propulsion mission requirements

      The SP-100 space power nuclear reactor nuclear heat source technology, utilizing uranium nitride fuel clad in PWC-11 in a fast reactor with lithium coolant circulated by an electromagnetic pump, is shown in this paper to be directly extrapolatable to thermal power levels that meet NASA nuclear electric propulsion requirements using different power conversion techniques. The SP-100 nuclear technology can be applied for missions with NEP requirements as low as 10's of kWe to 10's of MWe

    19. Genome sequencing and annotation of Serratia sp. strain TEL.

      Lephoto, Tiisetso E; Gray, Vincent M

      2015-12-01

      We present the annotation of the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KP711410). This organism was isolated from entomopathogenic nematode Oscheius sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KM492926) collected from grassland soil and has a genome size of 5,000,541 bp and 542 subsystems. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number LDEG00000000. PMID:26697332

    20. Metabolism of glyphosate in Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr.

      Jacob, G S; Garbow, J.R.; Hallas, L E; Kimack, N M; Kishore, G M; Schaefer, J.

      1988-01-01

      Metabolism of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr, a bacterium isolated from a glyphosate process waste stream, was examined by a combination of solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and analysis of the phosphonate composition of the growth medium. Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr was capable of eliminating 20 mM glyphosate from the growth medium, an amount approximately 20-fold greater than that reported for any other microorganism to date. The bact...