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Sample records for actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae jl03

  1. Genome biology of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae JL03, an isolate of serotype 3 prevalent in China.

    Zhuofei Xu

    Full Text Available Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, a cause of considerable world wide economic losses in the swine industry. We sequenced the complete genome of A. pleuropneumoniae, JL03, an isolate of serotype 3 prevalent in China. Its genome is a single chromosome of 2,242,062 base pairs containing 2,097 predicted protein-coding sequences, six ribosomal rRNA operons, and 63 tRNA genes. Preliminary analysis of the genomic sequence and the functions of the encoded proteins not only confirmed the present physiological and pathological knowledge but also offered new insights into the metabolic and virulence characteristics of this important pathogen. We identified a full spectrum of genes related to its characteristic chemoheterotrophic catabolism of fermentation and respiration with an incomplete TCA system for anabolism. In addition to confirming the lack of ApxI toxin, identification of a nonsense mutation in apxIVA and a 5'-proximal truncation of the flp operon deleting both its promoter and the flp1flp2tadV genes have provided convincing scenarios for the low virulence property of JL03. Comparative genomic analysis using the available sequences of other serotypes, probable strain (serotype-specific genomic islands related to capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharide O-antigen biosyntheses were identified in JL03, which provides a foundation for future research into the mechanisms of serotypic diversity of A. pleuropneumoniae.

  2. Binding of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to Phosphatidylethanolamine

    Jeannotte, Marie-Eve; Abul-Milh, Maan; Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Jacques, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine fibrinohemorrhagic necrotizing pleuropneumonia, a disease that causes important economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In general, the initial step of bacterial colonization is attachment to host cells. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the binding of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 to phospholipids, which are the major constituents of biological membranes. Phospholipids serve...

  3. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae transmission and clinical outbreaks

    Tobias, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a bacterium causing respiratory disease and mortality in pigs. Outbreaks of clinical disease occur regularly in pig farms. More knowledge of the epidemiology of the bacteria in pig populations should contribute to the design of more effective measures for preventio

  4. Survival of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae outside the pig.

    Assavacheep, P; Rycroft, A N

    2013-02-01

    Transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is primarily thought to be via direct transfer of mucus from pig to pig. For transfer between farms, the organism may need to persist in the wet or dried state to be carried on an inanimate surface. The survival of A. pleuropneumoniae was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. In aqueous suspension, survival was improved by the presence of NaCl and mucin; it was prolonged at lower temperature. In dry state, it survived best on a hydrophobic surface either under desiccated conditions or saturated humidity. Detectable viability was maintained for 3-4 days. When frozen, A. pleuropneumoniae survived for more than 17 weeks at -20 °C, but the viability declined to 0.01% during that time. Survival at -70 °C was effective for long term storage. Results obtained from this investigation would be applicable for sampling method, transport techniques, epidemiological study, and biosecurity implementation. PMID:22892250

  5. A cohort study on Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae colonisation in suckling piglets

    Tobias, T.J.; Klinkenberg, D.; Bouma, A.; Broek, van den J.; Daemen, A.J.J.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes respiratory disease in pigs and despite the use of preventive measures such as vaccination and antimicrobials clinical outbreaks still occur. At weaning often many piglets are not colonised. If differences in prevalence between litters are large and if factors

  6. Isolation and identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pig's lungs at farms and their sensitivity to antibiotics

    Žutić Milenko; Ašanin Ružica; Milić N.; Ivetić V.; Vidić Branka; Žutić Jadranka; Ašanin Jelena

    2008-01-01

    The presence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae has been established in all suspected cases of pleuropneumonia at several farms that have been included in the research. Equal incidence of pleuropneumonia has been found both among piglets for breeding and for fattening. The health monitoring of herds is extremely important, firstly because of the need for the adequate strategy to be chosen for controlling the Actinobacillus-caused pleuropneumonia and, at the same time, in order to prevent enor...

  7. Catecholamines promote Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron metabolism.

    Lu Li

    Full Text Available Catecholamines are host stress hormones that can induce the growth of many bacteria by facilitating iron utilization and/or regulate the expression of virulence genes through specific hormone receptors. Whether these two responsive pathways are interconnected is unknown. In our previous study, it was found that catecholamines can regulate the expression of a great number of genes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important swine respiratory pathogen. However, bacterial growth was not affected by catecholamines in rich medium. In this study, it was discovered that catecholamines affected A. pleuropneumoniae growth in chemically defined medium (CDM. We found that serum inhibited A. pleuropneumoniae growth in CDM, while epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine promoted A. pleuropneumoniae growth in the CDM containing serum. The known bacterial hormone receptor QseC didn't play roles in this process. Ion-supplementation and transcriptome analysis indicated that serum addition resulted in iron-restricted conditions which were alleviated by the addition of catecholamines. Transferrin, one of the components in serum, inhibited the growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in CDM, an effect reversed by addition of catecholamines in a TonB2-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate that catecholamines promote A. pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron-acquisition and metabolism, which is independent of the adrenergic receptor QseC.

  8. Evaluation of 5 ' nuclease assay for detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Angen, Øystein; Jensen, J.; Lavritsen, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    , nonspecific reactions appeared when testing dilutions of DNA templates or pure cultures of A. pleuropneumoniae, as well as when testing tonsil scrapings from specific-pathogen-free herds. The diagnostic sensitivity, as evaluated with 586 tonsil scrapings from animals infected with A. pleuropneumoniae, is the...... equal to 30 must be chosen in order to obtain reliable results. The investigation emphasizes that a thorough evaluation of the criteria used to define a positive test result is necessary.......Sequence detection by the 5' nuclease TaqMan assay uses online detection of internal fluorogenic probes in closed PCR tubes. Primers and probe were chosen from a part of the omlA gene common to all serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which gave an amplicon of 92 bp, The test was evaluated...

  9. Concurrent host-pathogen gene expression in the lungs of pigs challenged with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Brogaard, Louise; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia in pigs, a disease which is associated with high morbidity and mortality, as well as impaired animal welfare. To obtain in-depth understanding of this infection, the interplay between virulence factors of the pathogen and defense ...

  10. Purification, serology and pathogenic role of the 110 kilodalton rtx hemolysins of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Ma, Jianneng

    1991-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of contagious swine pleuropneumonia, an economically important disease of the swine industry worldwide. Improved control of this disease requires enhanced understanding of the factors contributing to pathogenesis. The objectives of this study were to investigate the immune response and virulence properties of the 110-kilodalton (110-KDa) hemolysins [hemolysin I (HlyI) and hemolysin II (HlyII)] of A. pleuropneumoniae...

  11. Evaluation of 5 ' nuclease assay for detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Angen, Øystein; Jensen, J.; Lavritsen, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    Sequence detection by the 5' nuclease TaqMan assay uses online detection of internal fluorogenic probes in closed PCR tubes. Primers and probe were chosen from a part of the omlA gene common to all serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which gave an amplicon of 92 bp, The test was evaluated...... with 73 lung isolates and 120 tonsil isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae as well as with a collection of reference strains. By using a C-t value (cycle number in which the fluorescence exceeds the threshold defined by the software) of 30 as the cutoff limit, the 5' nuclease assay represents a test with 100......% sensitivity and 100% specificity, A high degree of reproducibility of the test was demonstrated. If samples with C-t values of less than or equal to 30 are considered positive, the detection limit of the assay was 1 CPU/reaction tube, corresponding to a 10-fold higher number of DNA templates. After cycle 30...

  12. Evaluation and application of ribotyping for epidemiological studies of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Denmark

    Fussing, V.; Barfod, Kristen; Nielsen, R.; Møller, K.; Nielsen, J.P.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Bisgaard, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate ribotyping as an epidemiological tool for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and apply the method in studies of A. pleuropneumoniae infections in Danish pig herds. The evaluation of ribotyping was based on the 13 international reference strains and 106 ep...... strains were closely related, though only showing 33% similarity to HindIII ribotypes of remaining serotypes. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Mapping of functional regions on the transferrin-binding protein (TfbA) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Strutzberg, K; von Olleschik, L; Franz, B.; Pyne, C; Schmidt, M. A.; Gerlach, G F

    1995-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae can use porcine transferrin as the sole source of iron. Two proteins with molecular masses of approximately 60 kDa (TfbA) and 110 kDa have been shown to specifically bind porcine transferrin; from the TfbA protein, three isoforms from A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 5, and 7 have been identified and characterized by nucleotide sequence analysis. Here we defined the transferrin-binding region(s) of the TfbA protein of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 by TnphoA mu...

  14. The genetic organization of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis region of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14

    Ito, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    The genetic organization of the gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 has been determined. The DNA region for the CPS biosynthesis of serotype 14 (cps14) comprised 9 open reading frames, designated as cps14AB1B2B3CDEFG genes, encoding Cps14A to Cps14G protein, respectively. Cps14A was similar to CpsA of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12; the Cps14B1 and Cps14B2 were similar to CpsB of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype...

  15. Serotyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 strains using a monoclonal-based polystyrene agglutination test

    Dubreuil, J.D.; Letellier, A.; Stenbæk, Eva; Gottschalk, M.

    1996-01-01

    A polystyrene agglutination test has been developed for serotyping Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a and 5b strains. Protein A-coated polystyrene microparticles were sensitized with a murine monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope on serotype 5 LPS-O chain as shown by SDS-PAGE and...

  16. Serological characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 strains antigenically related to both serotypes 2 and 7

    Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara

    1996-01-01

    Nine Danish Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 isolates were shown by latex agglutination and indirect haemagglutination to possess capsular polysaccharide epitopes identical to those of serotype 2 strain 1536 (reference strain of serotype 2) and strain 4226 (Danish serotype 2 strain). Imm...

  17. Experimental vaccination of pigs with an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b capsular polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugate

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Jacobsen, M.J.; Nielsen, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The protective efficacy of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toroid conjugate (Ap5bCP-TT) against homologous challenge of pigs was investigated. Four pigs were non-vaccinated controls (group A), 4 pigs were injected with adjuvant without antigen (group...

  18. Experimental vaccination of pigs with an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b capsular polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugate

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Jacobsen, M.J.; Nielsen, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The protective efficacy of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toroid conjugate (Ap5bCP-TT) against homologous challenge of pigs was investigated. Four pigs were non-vaccinated controls (group A), 4 pigs were injected with adjuvant without antigen (group B...

  19. Multiplex PCR that can distinguish between immunologically cross-reactive serovar 3, 6, and 8 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains

    Zhou, L.; Jones, S.C.P.; Angen, Øystein; Bosse, J.T.; Nash, J. H. E.; Frey, J.; Zhou, R.; Chen, H.C.; Kroll, J.S.; Rycroft, A.N.; Langford, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a highly sensitive and specific multiplex PCR, based on capsular loci and the species specific apxIV gene, that unequivocally differentiates serovar 3, 6, and 8 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains that are cross-reactive in conventional immunological tests.......We describe a highly sensitive and specific multiplex PCR, based on capsular loci and the species specific apxIV gene, that unequivocally differentiates serovar 3, 6, and 8 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains that are cross-reactive in conventional immunological tests....

  20. Influence of Serum and Glucose Additives on Survival of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Aerosolized from the Freeze-Dried State

    Hensel, Andreas

    1994-01-01

    Serum and/or glucose added to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae suspensions before freeze-drying significantly increased survival rates of bacteria in aerosols. Aerosols with predictable numbers of viable bacteria can be made as required in an aerosol infection model. Sucrose supplementation of impinger fluids increased recovery of viable A. pleuropneumoniae.

  1. Characterization of two genes encoding distinct transferrin-binding proteins in different Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates.

    Gerlach, G F; Klashinsky, S; Anderson, C.; Potter, A A; Willson, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The gene encoding the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 transferrin-binding protein (tfbA) was cloned, and the carboxy-terminal 70% of the protein was expressed as an aggregate protein in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequences of the tfbA genes from A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 7 (G.-F. Gerlach, C. Anderson, A. A. Potter, S. Klashinsky, and P. J. Willson, Infect. Immun. 60:892-898, 1992) and 1 were determined, and a comparison revealed that they had 65% sequence identity. The de...

  2. The genetic organization of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis region of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 15

    Ito, Hiroya; Sueyoshi, Masuo

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of the cps gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 15 revealed the presence of three open reading frames, designated as cps15ABC genes. At the protein level, Cps15A and Cps15B showed considerably high homology to CpsA (67.0 to 68.7%) and CpsB (31.7 to 36.8%), respectively, of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12, revealing the common genetic organization of the cps among serotypes...

  3. Cloning and molecular characterization of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Langford, P R; Loynds, B M; Kroll, J S

    1996-01-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu,Zn SODs), until recently considered very unusual in bacteria, are now being found in a wide range of gram-negative bacterial species. Here we report the cloning and characterization of sodC, encoding Cu,Zn SOD in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a major pathogen of pigs and the causative organism of porcine pleuropneumonia. sodC was shown to lie on a monocistronic operon, at the chromosomal locus between the genes asd (encoding aspartate semialdehyde dehy...

  4. Profiling microRNAs in lung tissue from pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Anthon, Christian; Bak, Mads; Tommerup, Niels; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Gorodkin, Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2012-01-01

    still very limited. Results: In this study, the RNA extracted from visually unaffected and necrotic tissue from pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was subjected to small RNA deep sequencing. We identified 169 conserved and 11 candidate novel microRNAs in the pig. Of these, 17 were......Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding genes that play a crucial regulatory role in mammalian development and disease. Whereas a large number of miRNAs have been annotated at the structural level during the latest years, functional annotation is sparse. Actinobacillus...... pleuropneumoniae (APP) causes serious lung infections in pigs. Severe damage to the lungs, in many cases deadly, is caused by toxins released by the bacterium and to some degree by host mediated tissue damage. However, understanding of the role of microRNAs in the course of this infectious disease in porcine is...

  5. Evaluation of a PCR for detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in mixed bacterial cultures from tonsils

    Gram, T.; Ahrens, Peter; Nielsen, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    strains of A. lignieresii. The lower detection limit of the PCR test was 10(3) A. pleuropneumoniae CFU/PCR test tube and was not affected by addition of 10(6) E. coli CFU/PCR test tube. Mixed bacterial cultures from tonsils of 101 pigs from 9 different herds were tested by culture and by PCR using four...... different bacteriological media. While 65% reacted positive; in the PCR only 23% were positive by culture, thereby suggesting a superior sensitivity of the PCR test to that of culture. The use of selective media, large inoculum and incubation for 48 h gave the highest number of positive PCR reactions from......A PCR for the detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was evaluated. All of 102 field isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae reacted in the PCR by amplification of a 985 bp product. No PCR amplification product was observed when examining strains of A. ureae, A. capsulatus, A. hominis, A. equuli, A...

  6. Isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 by immunomagnetic separation

    Angen, Øystein; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Lavritsen, D.T.;

    2001-01-01

    ) using immunomagnetic beads (Dynabeads(R)) was developed for isolation of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 from pure cultures and from heterogeneous suspensions. Different coating and washing procedures were evaluated in pure and mixed cultures using polyclonal (PAb) and monoclonal antibodies. The highest...... reisolation yield was achieved when the beads were coated with 1.5 mug PAb IgG/10(7) beads. After washing the beads for four times 9-24% of the bacteria could be reisolated depending on the amount of IgG attached to the beads and the number of beads used. The recovery was increased to 19-61% when only two...... in this heterogeneous suspension. No significant difference was observed when comparing the recovery of A. pleuropneumoniae from pure culture, from mixed cultures and from artificially inoculated tonsils. From 12 pigs inoculated with an aerosol of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 the bacterium could not be detected from...

  7. Detection of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) variant

    Stenbaek, E.I.; HovindHaugen, K.

    1996-01-01

    linear repeating pentasaccharide units with an O-acetyl group linked to a glucose unit. A monoclonal antibody (MAb 102-G02) directed against A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 was characterized in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS...

  8. Comparison of conventional and long-acting oxytetracyclines in prevention of induced Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae infection of growing swine.

    Kiorpes, A L; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T; Kruse, G O

    1989-01-01

    These experiments tested the hypothesis that long-acting oxytetracycline (oxytetracycline-LA) was more effective than regular oxytetracycline in preventing porcine pleuropneumonia when administered either 24 or 48 h prior to experimental challenge with virulent strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Two experiments (1 and 2) were conducted using growing pigs (average weight 12-15 kg). Antibiotic treatments were administered once intramuscularly at 20 mg/kg body weight; controls received ...

  9. A multiplexed immunoassay for detection of antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) in pigs

    Berger, Sanne Schou; Boas, Ulrik; Andresen, Lars Ole;

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumoniae, a contagious and severe respiratory disease in pigs. Based on capsular antigens, 15 App serovars have been described, and the prevalence and morbidity of these serovars vary with geographic...... regions (1). In Denmark, the most important serovars are considered to be App 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 12. As part of the Danish surveillance program for App, the Danish Veterinary Institute uses ELISAs and complement fixation tests (CFT) to test for porcine anti-App antibodies (2-7). In an effort to improve...... our diagnostic tools, we are currently developing a novel indirect fluorescent microsphere immunoassay that can facilitate simultaneous detection of antibodies towards multiple App serovars within a single serum sample volume. The multiplex immunoassay is based on Luminex technology (8) and has...

  10. Improved diagnostic PCR assay for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae based on the nucleotide sequence of an outer membrane lipoprotein

    Gram, Trine; Ahrens, Peter

    1998-01-01

    species related to A. pleuropneumoniae or isolated from pigs were assayed. They were all found negative in the PCR, as were tonsil cultures from 50 pigs of an A. pleuropneumoniae-negative herd. The sensitivity assessed by agarose gel analysis of the PCR product was 10(2) CFU/PCR test tube. The specificity......The gene (omlA) coding for an outer membrane protein of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 and 5 has been described earlier and has formed the basis for development of a specific PCR assay, The corresponding regions of all 12 A. pleuropneumoniae reference strains of biovar 1 were sequenced...... and sensitivity of this PCR compared to those of culture suggest the use of this PCR for routine identification of A. pleuropneumoniae....

  11. Transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs under field-like conditions: emphasis on tonsillar colonisation and passively acquired colostral antibodies

    Vigre, Håkan; Angen, Øystein; Barfod, K.; Lavritsen, D. T.; Sørensen, V.

    proportion of pigs with detectable levels of colostral antibodies to the different serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae was declining. Since these two events take place in the same age period, we expect a possible biological association between the level of the passive immunity and the degree of tonsillar......The objectives of this study were to elucidate at which age tonsillar colonisation by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae occurs in pigs and relate this occurrence to the presence of colostral antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae. The infection patterns were studied in an isolated cohort of pigs, which...... birth, showing that A. pleuropneumoniae can be transmitted from sow to offspring during a 3-week nursing period. The cumulative proportion of pigs carrying A. pleuropneumoniae in their tonsils increased significantly between the age of 4-12 weeks. This age period corresponded to the age at which the...

  12. A computational strategy for the search of regulatory small RNAs in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Rossi, Ciro C.; Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Witney, Adam A.; Gould, Kate A.; Langford, Paul R.; Bazzolli, Denise M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in gene regulation and are frequently connected to the expression of virulence factors in diverse bacteria. Only a few sRNAs have been described for Pasteurellaceae pathogens and no in-depth analysis of sRNAs has been described for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, responsible for considerable losses in the swine industry. To search for sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae, we developed a strategy for the computational analysis of the bacterial genome by using four algorithms with different approaches, followed by experimental validation. The coding strand and expression of 17 out of 23 RNA candidates were confirmed by Northern blotting, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing. Among them, two are likely riboswitches, three are housekeeping regulatory RNAs, two are the widely studied GcvB and 6S sRNAs, and 10 are putative novel trans-acting sRNAs, never before described for any bacteria. The latter group has several potential mRNA targets, many of which are involved with virulence, stress resistance, or metabolism, and connect the sRNAs in a complex gene regulatory network. The sRNAs identified are well conserved among the Pasteurellaceae that are evolutionarily closer to A. pleuropneumoniae and/or share the same host. Our results show that the combination of newly developed computational programs can be successfully utilized for the discovery of novel sRNAs and indicate an intricate system of gene regulation through sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae and in other Pasteurellaceae, thus providing clues for novel aspects of virulence that will be explored in further studies. PMID:27402897

  13. A Transcriptome Map of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae at Single-Nucleotide Resolution Using Deep RNA-Seq

    Su, Zhipeng; Zhu, Jiawen; Xu, Zhuofei; Xiao, Ran; Zhou, Rui; Li, Lu; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the pathogen of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a highly contagious respiratory disease of swine. Although the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae was sequenced several years ago, limited information is available on the genome-wide transcriptional analysis to accurately annotate the gene structures and regulatory elements. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has been applied to study the transcriptional landscape of bacteria, which can efficiently and accurately identify gene expression regions and unknown transcriptional units, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), UTRs and regulatory regions. The aim of this study is to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae by RNA-seq in order to improve the existing genome annotation and promote our understanding of A. pleuropneumoniae gene structures and RNA-based regulation. In this study, we utilized RNA-seq to construct a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of A. pleuropneumoniae. More than 3.8 million high-quality reads (average length ~90 bp) from a cDNA library were generated and aligned to the reference genome. We identified 32 open reading frames encoding novel proteins that were mis-annotated in the previous genome annotations. The start sites for 35 genes based on the current genome annotation were corrected. Furthermore, 51 sRNAs in the A. pleuropneumoniae genome were discovered, of which 40 sRNAs were never reported in previous studies. The transcriptome map also enabled visualization of 5'- and 3'-UTR regions, in which contained 11 sRNAs. In addition, 351 operons covering 1230 genes throughout the whole genome were identified. The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map validated annotated genes and corrected annotations of open reading frames in the genome, and led to the identification of many functional elements (e.g. regions encoding novel proteins, non-coding sRNAs and operon structures). The transcriptional units described in this study

  14. Transcriptional profiling of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during the acute phase of a natural infection in pigs

    Harel Josée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a respiratory disease which causes great economic losses worldwide. Many virulence factors are involved in the pathogenesis, namely capsular polysaccharides, RTX toxins, LPS and many iron acquisition systems. In order to identify genes that are expressed in vivo during a natural infection, we undertook transcript profiling experiments with an A. pleuropneumoniae DNA microarray, after recovery of bacterial mRNAs from serotype 5b-infected porcine lungs. AppChip2 contains 2033 PCR amplicons based on the genomic sequence of App serotype 5b strain L20, representing more than 95% of ORFs greater than 160 bp in length. Results Transcriptional profiling of A. pleuropneumoniae recovered from the lung of a pig suffering from a natural infection or following growth of the bacterial isolate in BHI medium was performed. An RNA extraction protocol combining beadbeating and hot-acid-phenol was developed in order to maximize bacterial mRNA yields and quality following total RNA extraction from lung lesions. Nearly all A. pleuropneumoniae transcripts could be detected on our microarrays, and 150 genes were deemed differentially expressed in vivo during the acute phase of the infection. Our results indicate that, for example, gene apxIVA from an operon coding for RTX toxin ApxIV is highly up-regulated in vivo, and that two genes from the operon coding for type IV fimbriae (APL_0878 and APL_0879 were also up-regulated. These transcriptional profiling data, combined with previous comparative genomic hybridizations performed by our group, revealed that 66 out of the 72 up-regulated genes are conserved amongst all serotypes and that 3 of them code for products that are predicted outer membrane proteins (genes irp and APL_0959, predicted to code for a TonB-dependent receptor and a filamentous hemagglutinin/adhesin respectively or lipoproteins (gene APL_0920. Only 4

  15. Characterization of bifunctional L-glutathione synthetases from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Actinobacillus succinogenes for efficient glutathione biosynthesis.

    Yang, Jianhua; Li, Wei; Wang, Dezheng; Wu, Hui; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2016-07-01

    Glutathione (GSH), an important bioactive substance, is widely applied in pharmaceutical and food industries. In this work, two bifunctional L-glutathione synthetases (GshF) from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (GshFAp) and Actinobacillus succinogenes (GshFAs) were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3). Similar to the GshF from Streptococcus thermophilus (GshFSt), GshFAp and GshFAs can be applied for high titer GSH production because they are less sensitive to end-product inhibition (Ki values 33 and 43 mM, respectively). The active catalytic forms of GshFAs and GshFAp are dimers, consistent with those of GshFPm (GshF from Pasteurella multocida) and GshFSa (GshF from Streptococcus agalactiae), but are different from GshFSt (GshF from S. thermophilus) which is an active monomer. The analysis of the protein sequences and three dimensional structures of GshFs suggested that the binding sites of GshFs for substrates, L-cysteine, L-glutamate, γ-glutamylcysteine, adenosine-triphosphate, and glycine are highly conserved with only very few differences. With sufficient supply of the precursors, the recombinant strains BL-21(DE3)/pET28a-gshFas and BL-21(DE3)/pET28a-gshFap were able to produce 36.6 and 34.1 mM GSH, with the molar yield of 0.92 and 0.85 mol/mol, respectively, based on the added L-cysteine. The results showed that GshFAp and GshFAs are potentially good candidates for industrial GSH production. PMID:26996628

  16. Profiling microRNAs in lung tissue from pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Podolska Agnieszka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of non-protein-coding genes that play a crucial regulatory role in mammalian development and disease. Whereas a large number of miRNAs have been annotated at the structural level during the latest years, functional annotation is sparse. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP causes serious lung infections in pigs. Severe damage to the lungs, in many cases deadly, is caused by toxins released by the bacterium and to some degree by host mediated tissue damage. However, understanding of the role of microRNAs in the course of this infectious disease in porcine is still very limited. Results In this study, the RNA extracted from visually unaffected and necrotic tissue from pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was subjected to small RNA deep sequencing. We identified 169 conserved and 11 candidate novel microRNAs in the pig. Of these, 17 were significantly up-regulated in the necrotic sample and 12 were down-regulated. The expression analysis of a number of candidates revealed microRNAs of potential importance in the innate immune response. MiR-155, a known key player in inflammation, was found expressed in both samples. Moreover, miR-664-5p, miR-451 and miR-15a appear as very promising candidates for microRNAs involved in response to pathogen infection. Conclusions This is the first study revealing significant differences in composition and expression profiles of miRNAs in lungs infected with a bacterial pathogen. Our results extend annotation of microRNA in pig and provide insight into the role of a number of microRNAs in regulation of bacteria induced immune and inflammatory response in porcine lung.

  17. Proteomic and immunoproteomic characterization of a DIVA subunit vaccine against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Maas Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protection of pigs by vaccination against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is hampered by the presence of 15 different serotypes. A DIVA subunit vaccine comprised of detergent-released proteins from A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2 and 5 has been developed and shown to protect pigs from clinical symptoms upon homologous and heterologous challenge. This vaccine has not been characterized in-depth so far. Thus we performed i mass spectrometry in order to identify the exact protein content of the vaccine and ii cross-serotype 2-D immunoblotting in order to discover cross-reactive antigens. By these approaches we expected to gain results enabling us to argue about the reasons for the efficacy of the analyzed vaccine. Results We identified 75 different proteins in the vaccine. Using the PSORTb algorithm these proteins were classified according to their cellular localization. Highly enriched proteins are outer membrane-associated lipoproteins like OmlA and TbpB, integral outer membrane proteins like FrpB, TbpA, OmpA1, OmpA2, HgbA and OmpP2, and secreted Apx toxins. The subunit vaccine also contained large amounts of the ApxIVA toxin so far thought to be expressed only during infection. Applying two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE we showed different isoforms and variations in expression levels of several proteins among the strains used for vaccine production. For detection of cross-reactive antigens we used detergent released proteins of serotype 7. Sera of pigs vaccinated with the detergent-released proteins of serotypes 1, 2, and 5 detected seven different proteins of serotype 7, and convalescent sera of pigs surviving experimental infection with serotype 7 reacted with 13 different proteins of the detergent-released proteins of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2, and 5. Conclusions A detergent extraction-based subunit vaccine of A. pleuropneumoniae was

  18. Characterization of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae seeder pig challenge-exposure model.

    Lechtenberg, K F; Shryock, T R; Moore, G

    1994-12-01

    Five strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 were used to intranasally infect 5 groups of pigs. Using each bacterial strain, infected pigs (termed seeder pigs) were commingled for 48 hours with 5 groups of noninfected test pigs, then were removed. Seeder and test pigs were maintained in isolation and were observed for 14 days. Seeder pigs had mortality that was threefold greater than that of test pigs (24% vs 8%). Rectal temperature in excess of 40.3 C was achieved for 84% of test pigs and 88% of seeder pigs. Neither of these 2 variables was statistically different between the 2 groups of pigs. Clinical impression scores > or = 2 (on a 0 to 3 scale) were three-fold (64% vs 20%) greater for seeder than for test pigs (P amount of lesions. The number of A pleuropneumoniae isolations was not statistically different between test and seeder pig populations. Recovery of Pasteurella multocida or other bacteria was greater from the seeder pigs (P recoverable isolates was greater from test pigs than from seeder pigs (P < 0.05). Assessment of lung lesions at necropsy by either visual estimation or on a weight basis were in agreement.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7887514

  19. Interference of peptides and specific antibodies with the function of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae transferrin-binding protein.

    Strutzberg, K; Franz, B.; Gerlach, G F

    1997-01-01

    Multiple-antigenic peptides (MAPs) containing transferrin-binding domains of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 7-derived transferrin-binding protein (TfbA) (K. Strutzberg, L. von Olleschik, B. Franz, C. Pyne, M. A. Schmidt, and G.-F. Gerlach, Infect. Immun. 63:3846-3850, 1995) were constructed. It was found that the MAPs inhibited transferrin binding of the recombinant TfbA protein, whereas antibodies directed against transferrin-binding domains failed to do so.

  20. Differential expression of the cytotoxic and hemolytic activities of the ApxIIA toxin from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Tu, A H; Hausler, C; Young, R.; Struck, D K

    1994-01-01

    The ApxIIA protein secreted from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is both hemolytic and cytotoxic. However, when the cloned apxII operon is expressed in Escherichia coli, two forms of the ApxIIA protein can be recovered. Toxin which remains intracellular has hemolytic and cytotoxic activities, while toxin that is secreted is cytotoxic with little or no hemolytic activity. This indicates that the cytotoxicity of ApxIIA is independent of its hemolytic activity.

  1. Transcriptional Profiling of Hilar Nodes from Pigs after Experimental Infection with Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae

    Shumin Yu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP is an inhabitant of the porcine upper respiratory tract and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia (PP. In recent years, knowledge about the proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression that occurs in lung and lymph node of the APP-infected swine has been advanced. However, systematic gene expression profiles on hilar nodes from pigs after infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have not yet been reported. The transcriptional responses were studied in hilar nodes (HN from swine experimentally infected with APP and the control groupusing Agilent Porcine Genechip, including 43,603 probe sets. 9,517 transcripts were identified as differentially expressed (DE at the p ≤ 0.01 level by comparing the log2 (normalized signal of the two groups named treatment group (TG and controls (CG. Eight hundred and fifteen of these DE transcripts were annotated as pig genes in the GenBank database (DB. Two hundred and seventy-two biological process categories (BP, 75 cellular components and 171 molecular functions were substantially altered in the TG compared to CG. Many BP were involved in host immune responses (i.e., signaling, signal transmission, signal transduction, response to stimulus, oxidation reduction, response to stress, immune system process, signaling pathway, immune response, cell surface receptor linked signaling pathway. Seven DE gene pathways (VEGF signaling pathway, Long-term potentiation, Ribosome, Asthma, Allograft rejection, Type I diabetes mellitus and Cardiac muscle contraction and statistically significant associations with host responses were affected. Many cytokines (including NRAS, PI3K, MAPK14, CaM, HSP27, protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit and alpha isoform, mediating the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and promoting survival and vascular permeability, were activated in TG, whilst many immunomodulatory cytokines were

  2. Comparative profiling of the transcriptional response to iron restriction in six serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with different virulence potential

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Friis, Carsten; Angen, Øystein;

    2011-01-01

    receptor of Neisseria meningitidis, a possible virulence factor which contributes to bacterial survival in rats. Conclusions By comparative analysis of gene expression among 6 different serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae we identified a common set of presumably essential core genes, involved in iron......Background Comparative analysis of gene expression among serotypes within a species can provide valuable information on important differences between related genomes. For the pig lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, 15 serotypes with a considerable variation in virulence potential and...... virulence genes. We used a pan-genomic microarray to study the transcriptional response to iron restriction in vitro in six serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae (1, 2, 3, 5b, 6, and 7), representing at least two levels of virulence. Results In total, 45 genes were significantly (p <0.0001) up-regulated and 67...

  3. Microarray-based comparative genomic profiling of reference strains and selected Canadian field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    MacInnes Janet I

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. Current commercially-available vaccines are of limited value because they do not induce cross-serovar immunity and do not prevent development of the carrier state. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (M-CGH were used to estimate whole genomic diversity of representative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains. Our goal was to identify conserved genes, especially those predicted to encode outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins because of their potential for the development of more effective vaccines. Results Using hierarchical clustering, our M-CGH results showed that the majority of the genes in the genome of the serovar 5 A. pleuropneumoniae L20 strain were conserved in the reference strains of all 15 serovars and in representative field isolates. Fifty-eight conserved genes predicted to encode for outer membrane proteins or lipoproteins were identified. As well, there were several clusters of diverged or absent genes including those associated with capsule biosynthesis, toxin production as well as genes typically associated with mobile elements. Conclusion Although A. pleuropneumoniae strains are essentially clonal, M-CGH analysis of the reference strains of the fifteen serovars and representative field isolates revealed several classes of genes that were divergent or absent. Not surprisingly, these included genes associated with capsule biosynthesis as the capsule is associated with sero-specificity. Several of the conserved genes were identified as candidates for vaccine development, and we conclude that M-CGH is a valuable tool for reverse vaccinology.

  4. Experimental Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae challenge in swine: Comparison of computed tomographic and radiographic findings during disease

    Brauer Carsten

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In pigs, diseases of the respiratory tract like pleuropneumonia due to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App infection have led to high economic losses for decades. Further research on disease pathogenesis, pathogen-host-interactions and new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches are needed. In most studies, a large number of experimental animals are required to assess lung alterations at different stages of the disease. In order to reduce the required number of animals but nevertheless gather information on the nature and extent of lung alterations in living pigs, a computed tomographic scoring system for quantifying gross pathological findings was developed. In this study, five healthy pigs served as control animals while 24 pigs were infected with App, the causative agent of pleuropneumonia in pigs, in an established model for respiratory tract disease. Results Computed tomographic (CT findings during the course of App challenge were verified by radiological imaging, clinical, serological, gross pathology and histological examinations. Findings from clinical examinations and both CT and radiological imaging, were recorded on day 7 and day 21 after challenge. Clinical signs after experimental App challenge were indicative of acute to chronic disease. Lung CT findings of infected pigs comprised ground-glass opacities and consolidation. On day 7 and 21 the clinical scores significantly correlated with the scores of both imaging techniques. At day 21, significant correlations were found between clinical scores, CT scores and lung lesion scores. In 19 out of 22 challenged pigs the determined disease grades (not affected, slightly affected, moderately affected, severely affected from CT and gross pathological examination were in accordance. Disease classification by radiography and gross pathology agreed in 11 out of 24 pigs. Conclusions High-resolution, high-contrast CT examination with no overlapping of organs is superior to

  5. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae osteomyelitis in pigs demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette; Hagedorn-Olsen, T.;

    1999-01-01

    of A. pleuropneumoniae in formalin-fixed tissue was performed to verify the association of A. pleuropneumoniae with the bone and joint lesions. By in situ hybridization A. pleuropneumoniae was demonstrated as multiple microcolonies or single cells dispersed in focal fibrinonecrotizing pleuropneumonia...

  6. Effects of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae cytotoxins on generation of oxygen radicals by porcine neutrophils

    Simson Tarigan

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxins produced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App suggested to be the most important pathogenic and virulent factors for this organism. However, the mechanisms on how the cytotoxins contribute to the disease process remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the cytotoxins on the oxidative-burst metabolism of porcine neutrophils. In this study, neutrophils were firstly loaded with an oxidative probe dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFHDA then expose to cytotoxins. Cells producing oxygen radicals emitted fluorescence and its intensity was measured with a FACScan flow cytometer. All cytotoxins derived from either App serotypes producing ApxI and ApxII, App serotypes producing ApxII only, or App serotypes producing ApxII and ApxIII were capable of stimulating neutrophils for oxygen-radical generation. However, compared with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, App cytotoxins were much weaker as stimulants for oxygen radicals. In addition, Apx preparation stimulated an oxidative-burst metabolism of neutrophils at a low, narrow range of Apx doses. At higher doses, the toxins inhibit the oxidative burst metabolism. The effects of cytotoxins produced by App during infection on recruited neutrophils into the lungs are assumed to be comparable to those observed in this in vitro study. Neutrophils, and other host cells, adjacent to the bacteria become lysis due to high toxin concentration, whereas those at some distance to the bacteria produce oxygen radicals which in turn cause tissue damage or necrosis.

  7. Effect of tulathromycin on the carrier status of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the tonsils of pigs

    Angen, Øystein; Andreasen, M.; Nielsen, E.O.;

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a single or double dose of tulathromycin was evaluated in pigs carrying Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in their tonsils. Twenty-nine pigs from a reinfected specific pathogen-free-herd were selected from animals testing positive in an A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2-specific...... were tested by PCR on tonsil scrapings on days 0, 4, 11 and 33, and on day 33 all the animals were euthanased. There were no significant differences between the numbers of PCR-positive animals in the three groups on any of the sampling dates....... PCR test on tonsil scrapings and they were divided into three groups. The pigs in group I were treated subcutaneously with 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin on day 0, the pigs in group 2 were treated with 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin on days 0 and 4, and the pigs in group 3 were left untreated as controls. The pigs...

  8. Characterization of the omlA gene from different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: a new insight into an old approach

    Ciro César Rossi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The OmlA protein is a virulence factor of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important pathogen in pigs. The polymorphisms present in the omlA gene sequence of 15 reference serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae and non-serotypable isolates were assessed to determine the possible evolutionary relationship among them and to validate the importance of this gene as a molecular marker for the characterization of this bacterium. Divergence among the 15 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae probably resulted initially from two major evolutionary events that led to subsequent differentiation into nine groups. This differentiation makes it possible to characterize most of the serotypes by using bionformatics, thereby avoiding problems with immunological cross-reactivity. A conserved α-helix common to all the serotypes was most likely involved in connecting the protein to the outer membrane and acting as a signal peptide. A previously unknown gene duplication was also identified and could contribute to the genetic variability that makes it difficult to serotype some isolates. Our data support the importance of the omlA gene in the biology of A. pleuropneumoniae and provide a new area of research into the OmlA protein.

  9. New insights on the treatment of respiratory diseases caused by actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis in pigs with marbofloxacin

    Vilalta Sans, Carles

    2014-01-01

    La marbofloxacina (MB) és una fluoroquinolona de tercera generació àmpliament usada en diferents espècies per tractar sobretot infeccions respiratòries. Aquest antibiòtic posseeix un ampli espectre d’activitat que inclou dos dels principals patògens associats al complexe respiratori porcí (CRP), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) i Haemophilus parasuis (HP). APP és l’agent etiològic de la pleuropneumònia porcina i pot romandre a les tonsil·les dels porcs sense mostrar cap mena de símptoma ...

  10. New insights on the treatment of respiratory diseases caused by actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis in pigs with marbofloxacin

    Vilalta Sans, Carles; Cristòfol Adell, Carles

    2015-01-01

    La marbofloxacina (MB) és una fluoroquinolona de tercera generació àmpliament usada en diferents espècies per tractar sobretot infeccions respiratòries. Aquest antibiòtic posseeix un ampli espectre d'activitat que inclou dos dels principals patògens associats al complexe respiratori porcí (CRP), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) i Haemophilus parasuis (HP). APP és l'agent etiològic de la pleuropneumònia porcina i pot romandre a les tonsil·les dels porcs sense mostrar cap mena de símptoma ...

  11. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological surveillance of infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 in pig herds

    Klausen, Joan; Andresen, Lars Ole; Barfod, Kristen; Sørensen, Vibeke

    2002-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for serological surveillance of infection of pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) serotype 5 was developed. The antigen used was prepared from Ap serotype 5b strain L20. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis...

  12. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of expression stability of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae housekeeping genes during in vitro growth under iron-depleted conditions

    Nielsen, K. K.; Boye, Mette

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the present investigation were to develop and test a sensitive and reproducible method for the study of gene expression in the porcine lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by real-time quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and to evaluate a number of suitable internal c...

  13. Evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies to the Apx toxins of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Nielsen, Ragnhild; van den Bosch, Johannes F.; Plambeck, Tamara; Sørensen, Vibeke; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    The reference strains of the 12 serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae express one or two of three different RTX exotoxins designated Apr I, Apr II and Apr III. The toxins are important virulence factors. In the present study, ELISAs with purified Apr I, Apr II and Apr III, respectively, as...

  14. Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in edible tissues of healthy and experimentally infected pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Bladek, Tomasz; Posyniak, Andrzej; Jablonski, Artur; Gajda, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the comparison of the tissue pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in healthy pigs and pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App). Tulathromycin was given to 24 healthy and 24 infected pigs by intramuscular injection at a single dosage of 2.5 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.). Pigs were euthanised at each group and then samples of liver, kidney, muscle, injection site and skin with fat were taken at scheduled time points. Drug concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS. In this study, higher values of the area under the concentration-time curves (AUC) were calculated in all tissue samples taken from infected than healthy pigs. In pigs with App the AUCs of liver, kidney, muscle, skin with fat and injection site were 1111, 1973, 235, 181 and 2931 mg kg(-1) h, while in pigs without inflammation they were 509, 1295, 151, 111 and 1587 mg kg(-1) h, respectively. Maximum drug tissue concentrations (Cmax) in infected animals were 2370, 6650, 2016, 666 and 83,870 µg kg(-1), while in healthy pigs they were 1483, 6677, 1733, 509 and 55,006 µg kg(-1), respectively. The eliminations half-times (T1/2) were respectively longer in all tissue samples taken from infected animals (from 157.3 to 187.3 h) than in healthy ones (from 138.6 to 161.2 h). The tulathromycin tissue concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in all tissue samples of the infected pigs compared with the healthy animals at 360 h (from 0.0014 to 0.0280) and at 792 h (from 0.0007 to 0.0242) after drug administration. The results suggest that the tissue pharmacokinetic properties and residue depletion of tulathromycin can be influenced by the disease state of animals. PMID:26247868

  15. Comparative profiling of the transcriptional response to iron restriction in six serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with different virulence potential

    Angen Øystein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative analysis of gene expression among serotypes within a species can provide valuable information on important differences between related genomes. For the pig lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, 15 serotypes with a considerable variation in virulence potential and immunogenicity have been identified. This serotypic diversity can only partly be explained by amount of capsule and differences in the RTX toxin genes in their genomes. Iron acquisition in vivo is an important bacterial function and in pathogenic bacteria, iron-limitation is often a signal for the induction of virulence genes. We used a pan-genomic microarray to study the transcriptional response to iron restriction in vitro in six serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae (1, 2, 3, 5b, 6, and 7, representing at least two levels of virulence. Results In total, 45 genes were significantly (p A. pleuropneumoniae was the up-regulation of a putative cirA-like siderophore in all six serotypes. Three genes, recently described in A. pleuropneumoniae as possibly coding for haemoglobin-haptoglobin binding proteins, displayed significant serotype related up-regulation to iron limitation. For all three genes, the expression appeared at its lowest in serotype 3, which is generally considered one of the least virulent serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. The three genes share homology with the hmbR haemoglobin receptor of Neisseria meningitidis, a possible virulence factor which contributes to bacterial survival in rats. Conclusions By comparative analysis of gene expression among 6 different serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae we identified a common set of presumably essential core genes, involved in iron regulation. The results support and expand previous observations concerning the identification of new potential iron acquisition systems in A. pleuropneumoniae, showing that this bacterium has evolved several strategies for scavenging the limited iron resources of the

  16. Construction and immunogenicity of a ∆apxIC/ompP2 mutant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis

    Qiong Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The apxIC genes of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 5 (SC-1, encoding the ApxIactivating proteins, was deleted by a method involving sucrose counter-selection. In this study, a mutant strain of A. pleuropneumoniae (SC-1 was constructed and named DapxIC/ ompP2. The mutant strain contained foreign DNA in the deletion site of ompP2 gene of Haemophilus parasuis. It showed no haemolytic activity and lower virulence of cytotoxicity in mice compared with the parent strain, and its safety and immunogenicity were also evaluated in mice. The LD50 data shown that the mutant strain was attenuated 30-fold, compared with the parent strain (LD50 of the mutant strain and parent strain in mice were determined to be 1.0 × 107 CFU and 3.5 × 105 CFU respectively. The mutant strain that was attenuated could secrete inactivated ApxIA RTX toxins with complete antigenicity and could be used as a candidate live vaccine strain against infections of A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis.

  17. No overall relationship between average daily weight gain and the serological response to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in eight chronically infected Danish swine herds

    Andreasen, Margit; Mousing, Jan; Thomsen, Lars Krogsgård

    approximately 4 weeks of age), and sera were analyzed for antibodies to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7 and 12. Mixed analysis of covariance analyzed the relationship between the average daily weight gain and a categorical variable defining seroconversion as none...... most pigs included in the study were subclinically infected, or because a temporary negative influence of the infections is hidden due to an increased growth in the period following infection. In conclusion. at least in these eight herds, seroresponses to M. hyopneumoniae and A. pleuropneumoniae could...

  18. Molecular characterisation of the early response in pigs to experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae using cDNA microarrays

    Bendixen Christian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is responsible for porcine pleuropneumonia, a widespread, highly contagious and often fatal respiratory disease of pigs. The general porcine innate immune response after A. pleuropneumoniae infection is still not clarified. The objective of this study was hence to characterise the transcriptional response, measured by using cDNA microarrays, in pigs 24 hours after experimental inoculation with A. pleuropneumoniae. Methods Microarray analyses were conducted to reveal genes being differentially expressed in inflamed versus non-inflamed lung tissue sampled from inoculated animals as well as in liver and tracheobronchial lymph node tissue sampled from three inoculated animals versus two non-inoculated animals. The lung samples were studied using a porcine cDNA microarray with 5375 unique PCR products while liver tissue and tracheobronchial lymph node tissue were hybridised to an expanded version of the porcine microarray with 26879 unique PCR products. Results A total of 357 genes differed significantly in expression between infected and non-infected lung tissue, 713 genes differed in expression in liver tissue from infected versus non-infected animals and 130 genes differed in expression in tracheobronchial lymph node tissue from infected versus non-infected animals. Among these genes, several have previously been described to be part of a general host response to infections encoding immune response related proteins. In inflamed lung tissue, genes encoding immune activating proteins and other pro-inflammatory mediators of the innate immune response were found to be up-regulated. Genes encoding different acute phase reactants were found to be differentially expressed in the liver. Conclusion The obtained results are largely in accordance with previous studies of the mammalian immune response. Furthermore, a number of differentially expressed genes have not previously been associated

  19. Impact of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biofilm mode of growth on the lipid A structures and stimulation of immune cells.

    Hathroubi, Skander; Beaudry, Francis; Provost, Chantale; Martelet, Léa; Segura, Mariela; Gagnon, Carl A; Jacques, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), the etiologic agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, forms biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces. APP biofilms confers resistance to antibiotics. To our knowledge, no studies have examined the role of APP biofilm in immune evasion and infection persistence. This study was undertaken to (i) investigate biofilm-associated LPS modifications occurring during the switch to biofilm mode of growth; and (ii) characterize pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and proliferation in porcine PBMCs challenged with planktonic or biofilm APP cells. Extracted lipid A samples from biofilm and planktonic cultures were analyzed by HPLC high-resolution, accurate mass spectrometry. Biofilm cells displayed significant changes in lipid A profiles when compared with their planktonic counterparts. Furthermore, in vitro experiments were conducted to examine the inflammatory response of PAMs exposed to UV-inactivated APP grown in biofilm or in suspension. Relative mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes IL1, IL6, IL8 and MCP1 decreased in PAMs when exposed to biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Additionally, the biofilm state reduced PBMCs proliferation. Taken together, APP biofilm cells show a weaker ability to stimulate innate immune cells, which could be due, in part, to lipid A structure modifications. PMID:27226465

  20. Selective media for the isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from the pig

    Vidić Branka M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective media were developed and evaluated for isolation of A. pleuropneumoniae from pig tonsils. Samples were obtained from four pig herds with a clinical history of pleuropneumonia. For isolation of A. pleuropneumoniae 93 pig tonsils were collected at slaughter. Each sample was streaked on to four different selective media (modified PPLO agar (mPPLO Brain-Heart agar (BH, Columbia agar (CA, Miller-Hinton chocolate agar (MHCA containing different combinations of antibiotics, NAD and nystatin. The selectivity of nutritive media is conditioned by the content of antibiotics, as well as by the type of medium used. Mean isolation rate of A. pleuropneumoniae in the investigated herds, was 17.2%. The best results were obtained using PPLO2 agar, 20.4%. The other media supplemented with the mentioned antibiotics gave satisfactory results.

  1. Identification and Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Infected and Subclinically Infected Pigs by Multiplex PCR Based on the Genes ApxIVA and OmlA

    XIAO Guo-sheng; CAO San-jie; DUAN Li-li; WEN Xin-tian; MA Xiao-ping; CHEN Hua-mei

    2006-01-01

    PCRs based on different genes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have been developed for detecting and identifying A. pleuropneumoniae. Some of them could amplify positive fragments from the phylogenetically closely related species bacteria. To improve veracity and specificity of PCR, a species-specific multiplex PCR assay was developed to identify and detect A. pleuropneumoniae, based on the 3'-terminus of the species-specific apxIVA gene and the already existing species-specific primers in the omlA gene. Both 346-bp and 950-bp fragments could be simultaneously amplified from all A. pleuropneumoniae reference strains and isolates, and the species specificity of the assay was evaluated with a collection of ten strains representing eight different species bacteria including species normally found in the respiratory tracts of swine. All of these strains turned out negative in the multiplex PCR. All sequences of products of multiplex PCR randomly sampled were also correct. The sensitivity of the multiplex PCR was determined to be 10 pg ofA. pleuropneumoniae DNA. The multiplex PCR and bacterial isolation were compared to determine their sensitivities by using experimentally infected pigs and clinical disease pigs. The multiplex PCR was more sensitive than bacterial isolation. The multiplex PCR was also evaluated on mixed bacterial cultures from clinical healthy pigs. 26/100 (26%) of the subclinically infected pigs were detected from clinical healthy pigs. The results indicate that the multiplex PCR assay is a sensitive, highly specific,and effective diagnostic tool for identification and detection of A. pleuropneumoniae.

  2. Economic impacts of reduced pork production associated with the diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae on grower/finisher swine operations in the United States.

    Losinger, Willard C

    2005-05-10

    An examination of the economic impacts of the diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae on grower/finisher swine operations indicated that reduced pork production, associated with the diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae on the operation, diminished consumer surplus by $53+/-52 million, and resulted in a total loss of $32+/-30 million to the US economy in 1995. Most of the economic surplus lost by consumers was transferred to producers, whose economic surplus increased by $21+/-25 million (which was not significantly different from zero). Uncertainty analysis showed that an estimate of the decline in production associated with the diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae accounted for most of the uncertainty of the change in consumer surplus and of the total loss to the economy. The estimate of the price elasticity of demand for pork also contributed towards a lot of the uncertainty in the estimated change in producer surplus. PMID:15820115

  3. Diversidad genética de cepas de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App aisladas desde planteles de producción intensiva de cerdos en Chile Genetic diversity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App strains in intensive swine farms in Chile

    V Neira-Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App es el agente etiológico de la pleuroneumonía contagiosa porcina, una de las enfermedades de etiología bacteriana de mayor relevancia en producción porcina. En el mundo se han descrito 15 serotipos de App, en Chile solo los serotipos 1 y 5. La serotipificación requiere mucho tiempo, trabajo y dinero, actualmente se encuentran herramientas moleculares para realizar una "serotipificación" mediante la genotipificación de toxinas Apx. Así, se evaluaron 60 aislados de App provenientes de nueve empresas porcinas de producción intensiva distribuidas en distintas regiones de Chile, obtenidas desde pulmones de cerdos con lesiones compatibles con pleuroneumonía contagiosa porcina. Las bacterias fueron aisladas mediante los métodos tradicionales y confirmados por API, recolectados durante los años 2007, 2008 y 2009. Los resultados identificaron los genotipos correspondientes sólo a los serotipos 4, 6 y 7, los cuales se describen por primera vez en Chile, siendo el más frecuente el serotipo 7. En las diferentes zonas estudiadas, no existió un serotipo predominante, excepto en las regiones de O'Higgins y del Biobío en las cuales fue más frecuentemente aislado el serotipo 7. El presente estudio es el primer acercamiento con el fin de conocer la distribución de serotipos de App en Chile. Con el fin de conocer la real diversidad genética y serotipos de App en los diversos planteles en Chile es necesario realizar estudios que contemplen un mayor número de aislados.Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, an important bacterial disease in intensive pig production. In the world were described 15 App serotypes, in Chile serotypes 1 and 5 have been reported. The serotyping technique is slow, expensive and difficult; currently, a molecular tool named PCR is available to "serotyping" by Apx toxins genotyping, which is quick, non-expensive and easy. 60 App

  4. Evaluation and application of ribotyping for epidemiological studies of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Denmark

    Fussing, V.; Barfod, Kristen; Nielsen, R.;

    1998-01-01

    discriminatory power was between 0.85-0.89. The relatively low discriminatory power was caused by four predominant types, containing 61% of the isolates. The typing system was applied in studies of routes of infection of specific pathogen-free (SPF) pig herds and included 112 strains of A. pleuropneumoniae...

  5. Cloning and Expression of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Gene Coding for TbpA and Development of an Indirect TbpA-ELISA

    LIANG Wang-wang; HE Qi-gai; CHEN Huan-chun; XU Di-ping; WU Rui; ZHANG Rong-rong

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the cloning and expression of gene encoding transferrin-binding protein A from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Escherichia coli expression system and the development of an indirect TbpA-ELISA. The gene coding TbpA was amplified from the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 genome using polymerase chain reaction and cloned to pET-28b expression vector under the control of strong, inducible T7 promoter. The recombinant plasmid was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The expressed fusion protein was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The diagnostic potential of recombinant TbpA (rTbpA) was evaluated through an antibody-detection indirect ELISA based on the purified rTbpA. The TbpA antibodies were detectable in mice on day 7 after vaccination with purified rTbpA protein or infection with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 10 with the TbpA-based ELISA. In addition, the TbpA-ELISA was able to detect 12 serotyping rabbit antisera postinoculation (PI) with A. pleuropneumoniae 12 serotypes experimentally. The comparable result was obtained by detecting the 117 clinical serum samples using, respectively, the TbpA-ELISA and indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) based on multiplex antigen. The result indicates that the TbpA-ELISA was the more sensitive method compared with the Mix-IHA method because of its consistent presence in A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes. In conclusion, the conserved TbpA of A. pleuropneumoniae can be used for the development of a cross-serotype diagnostic method for the detection of antibodies against A. pleuropneumoniae.

  6. Identification of a hemolysin from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and characterization of its channel properties in planar phospholipid bilayers.

    Lalonde, G; McDonald, T V; Gardner, P; O'Hanley, P D

    1989-08-15

    A proteinaceous hemolysin secreted by strain 4074 of serotype 1 of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was purified by diafiltration and ion exchange chromatographic techniques. The hemolytic activity is associated with a 107-kDa band as assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and confirmed by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. This hemolysin produces pores in membranes as demonstrated by osmotic protection studies using red blood cells and carbohydrate compounds of various molecular weights. These assays suggest a pore diameter in the order of 2 nm. Phospholipid bilayers composed of 1:1 w/w phosphotidylserine:phosphotidylethanolamine exposed to this toxin display discrete current flow events typical of transmembrane channels and consistent with the interpretation that this toxin acts by forming pores in phospholipid membranes. The linear relationship of current amplitude to holding potential when examined over the -60 to +60 mV range indicates that this pore has a constant mean single channel conductance level of 350-400 pS. PMID:2474533

  7. Effect of different antimicrobial treatments on serum acute phase responses and leukocyte counts in pigs after a primary and a secondary challenge infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Sjölund, M; Fossum, C; Martin de la Fuente, AJM;

    2011-01-01

    The susceptibility to an initial challenge and a re-challenge inoculation with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was analysed in pigs that were treated with antimicrobials of different efficacies following the first exposure to A pleuropneumoniae. In brief, 30 nine-week-old specific pathogen......-free pigs were allocated to five groups of six. After acclimatisation, four groups were inoculated with A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. At the onset of clinical signs, three of the groups of pigs were treated with enrofloxacin, tetracycline or penicillin. A fourth group served as the inoculated control and...

  8. Activity of antibodies against Salmonella dublin, Toxoplasma gondii, or Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in sera after treatment with electron beam irradiation or binary ethylenimine

    Kyvsgaard, N.C.; Lind, Peter; Preuss, T.; Kamstrup, Søren; Lei, J.C.; Bogh, H.O.; Nansen, P.

    1996-01-01

    used as an estimate for the relative posttreatment activity. For a Toxoplasma gondii indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agglutination assay as well as for a Salmonella dublin indirect ELISA, the posttreatment activity was more than 89% of the pretreatment activity when the samples...... were irradiated in the frozen state on dry ice but only 35% of their activity when they were irradiated in the liquid state at 0 degrees C. The patterns seen in an S. dublin blocking ELISA and an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae complement fixation assay differed in that samples with a low level of...

  9. An atypical biotype I Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 13 is present in North America

    Perry, Malcolm B.; Angen, Øystein; MacLean, Leann L.;

    2012-01-01

    analysis of the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of a representative strain revealed that the CPS is almost identical to that of the reference strain of serotype 13, having a slightly higher degree of glycose O-acetylation. However, it produces an O-PS within the LPS antigenically...... and structurally identical with that of the reference strain of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 10. The O-PS was characterized as a homopolymer of 1,2 linked β-d-galactofuranosyl residues, a structure unrelated to that of the O-PS produced by the reference strain of serotype 13. Strains from Canada and...

  10. Conservation and antigenic cross-reactivity of the transferrin-binding proteins of Haemophilus influenzae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis.

    Holland, J; Parsons, T R; Hasan, A A; Cook, S M; Stevenson, P; Griffiths, E; Williams, P

    1996-12-01

    Haemophilus influenzae acquires iron from the iron-transporting glycoprotein transferrin via a receptor-mediated process. This involves two outer-membrane transferrin-binding proteins (Tbps) termed Tbp1 and Tbp2 which show considerable preference for the human form of transferrin. Since the Tbps are attracting considerable attention as potential vaccine components, we used transferrin affinity chromatography to examine their conservation amongst 28 H. influenzae type b strains belonging to different outer-membrane-protein subtypes as well as six non-typable strains. Whole cells of all type b and non-typable strains examined bound human transferrin; whilst most strains possessed a Tbp1 of approximately 105 kDa, the molecular mass of Tbp2 varied from 79 to 94 kDa. Antisera raised against affinity-purified native H. influenzae Tbp1/Tbp2 receptor complex cross-reacted on Western blots with the respective Tbps of all the Haemophilus strains examined. When used to probe Neisseria meningitidis Tbps, sera from each of four mice immunized with the Haemophilus Tbp1/2 complex recognized the 68 kDa Tbp2 of N. meningitidis strain B16B6 but not the 78 kDa Tbp2 of N. meningitidis strain 70942. Serum from one mouse also reacted weakly with Tbp1 of strain B16B6. Apart from a weak reaction with the Tbp2 of a serotype 5 strain, this mouse antiserum failed to recognize the Tbps of the porcine pathogen A. pleuropneumoniae. However, a monospecific polyclonal antiserum raised against the denatured Tbp2 of Neisseria meningitidis B16B6 recognized the Tbps of all Haemophilus and Actinobacillus strains examined. Since H. influenzae forms part of the natural flora of the upper respiratory tract, human sera were screened for the presence of antibodies to the Tbps. Sera from healthy adults contained antibodies which recognized both Tbp1 and Tbp2 from H. influenzae but not N. meningitidis. Convalescent sera from meningococcal meningitis patients contained antibodies which, on Western blots

  11. The porcine acute phase response to infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, major acute phase protein and serum amyloid a protein are sensitive indicators of infection

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Klausen, Joan; Nielsen, J.P.;

    1998-01-01

    In an experimental infection model mimicking acute Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) infection in swine (Sus scrofa) by aerosol inoculation, the development of a number of typical clinical signs was accompanied by a prototypic acute phase reaction encompassing fever and an acute phase protein ...

  12. Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR baseada no gene cpx para detecção de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae em suínos natural e experimentalmente infectados Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR based on the cpx gene for detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in natural and experimentally infected pigs

    Karina Koerich de Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A pleuropneumonia suína é uma das mais importantes doenças respiratórias dos suínos, estando presente em todos os países produtores. Para o controle e o monitoramento da pleuropneumonia, é necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos rápidos e acurados de diagnóstico. Com o objetivo de validar a técnica da PCR, baseada no gene cpx de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, em suínos sabidamente positivos, primeiramente foi realizada inoculação experimental com amostras de A. pleuropneumoniae sorotipo 5B e coletadas amostras por meio de suabe de tonsila, biópsia de tonsila e sangue para realização da técnica de PCR, isolamento bacteriológico e teste de ELISA, respectivamente. Posteriormente, estas técnicas foram aplicadas em suínos naturalmente infectados, em três rebanhos com diferentes situações sanitárias quanto à apresentação clínica da doença. De cada rebanho, foram analisados cinco grupos de suínos com idades diferentes, sendo coletado de cada animal biópsia de tonsila para isolamento bacteriológico e PCR e sangue para determinação do perfil sorológico. Os resultados obtidos na inoculação experimental confirmaram que, mesmo com o estabelecimento da infecção comprovada pelo isolamento bacteriológico, após o período de 45 dias, não foi possível detectar o agente pela técnica de PCR. Em animais naturalmente infectados, a técnica de PCR apresentou maior sensibilidade quando comparado com o isolamento. A associação entre PCR e ELISA demonstrou ser uma boa alternativa para definir a situação sanitária do rebanho quanto à infecção por A. pleuropneumoniae.Swine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important pig respiratory diseases and has been found in all producer countries. For control and monitoring of pleuropneumonia, it is necessary the development of fast and specific methods of diagnosis. To validate PCR based on the cpx gene of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in positive pigs, an experimental

  13. Intra-unit correlations in seroconversion to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae at different levels in Danish multi-site pig production facilities

    Vigre, Håkan; Dohoo, I.R.; Stryhn, H.;

    2004-01-01

    2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh). Based on the estimated variances, three newly described computational methods (model linearisation, simulation and linear modelling) and the standard method (latent-variable approach) were used to estimate the correlations (intra-class correlation components......, ICCs) between pigs in the same production unit regarding seroconversion. Substantially different values of ICCs were obtained from the four methods. However, ICCs obtained by the simulation and the model linearisation were quite consistent. Data used for estimation were collected from 1161 pigs from......In this paper, multilevel logistic models which take into account the multilevel structure of multi-site pig production were used to estimate the variances between pigs produced in Danish multi-site pig production facilities regarding seroconversion to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 (Ap...

  14. Expresión recombinante en E. Coli de antígenos de Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae para vacunación y diagnóstico

    Medrano Muñoz, Andrés

    2003-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae es una bacteria gramnegativa que provoca la pleuroneumonía porcina. En este trabajo se ha procedido a la producción y purificación, mediante técnicas de biología molecular, de antígenos proteicos de esta bacteria y a su uso en la formulación de una vacuna por subunidades y de un ELISA para diagnóstico. Los cuatro antígenos escogidos fueron dos proteínas de membrana externa (Tbp1 y Tbp2) y dos exotoxinas (ApxI y ApxIII). La primera necesidad consistía en localiz...

  15. The transferrin receptor of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: Quantitation of expression and structural characterization using a peptide-specific monoclonal antibody

    Bøg, Yang S.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Bastholm, L.;

    2001-01-01

    antigens were detected with the Mab in iron-starved Actinobacillus lignieresii, Actinobacillus porcinus, Actinobacillus minor Haemophilus influenzae. and Haemophilus parasuis. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the Mab 1.48, Tbp2 could be detected in both recombinant E. coli......-restricted culture. It was found that Tbp2 was not expressed in iron replete medium by any serotype except serotypes 5a, 5b and 6 where a weak expression was seen. There was a weak expression of related antigens in Actinobacillus indolicus and Actinobacillus suis under iron-depleted conditions while no similar...... expressing Tbp2 and in wild type A. pp grown under iron restricted conditions. The subcellular location of Tbp2 in A. pp was studied by immunoelectron microscopy using the Mab 1.48. Interestingly, all antibody binding was found inside the A. pp cells, while Tbp2 expressed in recombinant E. coli was found...

  16. Estudio del comportamiento serológico de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App en planteles porcinos comerciales de la zona central de Chile Serological behaviour study of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App in commercial swine herds from the central region of Chile

    D Muñoz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile se ha realizado sólo un estudio en Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App. Este trabajo pretende determinar la duración de la inmunidad materna, la edad de seroconversión y la prevalencia aparente y verdadera en 7 planteles de cerdos comerciales. Se obtuvieron 60 muestras por plantel, divididas en 10 muestras de suero, de animales de 4, 6, 10, 14,18 y 21 semanas de edad, y analizadas a través de un kit ELISA® comercial. De las 420 muestras se detectaron 134 positivas, de las cuales 112 correspondían a cerdos menores de 10 semanas y sólo 22 provenían de animales mayores de 10 semanas, que seroconvirtieron probablemente debido a una infección de campo. La caída de la inmunidad materna fue alrededor de la 10ª semana de edad. En cuanto a la seroconversión, se observó que a partir de la 18* semana comenzaron a aparecer los animales con anticuerpos circulantes propios. Dos de los siete planteles no seroconvirtieron. Además, dos presentaron una seroconversión igual o superior al 50% a las 18 semanas. La seroprevalencia aparente de App fue de 10,48%, mientras que prevalencia verdadera, mediante dos métodos estadísticos, fue de 9,6% (IC: 7,6% y 11,7% y 10,67% respectivamente. En este trabajo se encontró que la prevalencia es similar a la observada en EE.UU., debido presumiblemente al sistema de producción y a los serotipos que están presentes en ambos países. Por otro lado, si bien la mayoría de los planteles seroconvierten luego de la caída de la inmunidad materna, se observaron diferentes patrones serológicos entre ellos.In Chile, there was only one existing study on App. This study was designed to determine the maternal immunity duration, the age of seroconversion and the apparent and true prevalence in animals from 7 swine commercial herds. 60 samples were taken per herd and divided into 10 serum samples from animals of 4, 6,10,14,18and21 weeks of age, which were analyzed by ELISA®. Out of the 420 samples, 134 were

  17. Comparative activities of selected fluoroquinolones against dynamic populations of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in an in vitro model of time-kill continuous culture experiment.

    Damte, Dereje; Lee, Seung-Jin; Yohannes, Sileshi B; Hossain, Md Akil; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to demonstrate and compare the impact of different pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin and difloxacin on their antimicrobial effects, their killing and re-growth kinetics, and the population dynamics of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae clinical isolates in an in vitro dynamic model. Selected clinical isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae and three fluoroquinolones at a range of simulated AUC(24)/MIC ratios of multiple doses were investigated. At the same simulated AUC(24)/MIC ratios of the three fluoroquinolones, the killing re-growth profile and I(E) values (intensity of the antimicrobial effect) revealed strain- and fluoroquinolone-specific effects. For example, a 31% lower I(E) of difloxacin was observed in AppK5 (biofilm-former) than in AppK2 (biofilm-non-former) at the same AUC(24)/MIC ratio of 120 h. In addition, losses in A. pleuropneumoniae susceptibility of both strains by the three fluoroquinolones were observed. AUC(24)/MPC ratios of 20.89 and 39.81 for marbofloxacin, 17.32 and 19.49 for enrofloxacin and 31.62 and 60.25 for difloxacin were estimated to be protective against the selection of AppK2 and AppK5 strain mutants, respectively. Integration of these in vitro data with published pharmacokinetics revealed the inadequacy of the conventional clinical doses of the three drugs to attain the above protective values for minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) and concentration to prevent growth of 90% of the mutant subpopulation (MPC(90)). In conclusion, the results suggest optimising doses could suffice for resistant mutants control, while for biofilm-forming strains combination with biofilm-disrupting agents to reduce the MBEC to achieve AUC/MBEC ratios within the possible dosing regimens is desired. PMID:24139884

  18. A novel Respiratory Health Score (RHS supports a role of acute lung damage and pig breed in the course of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection

    Gerlach Gerald F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial lung infections are a major cause of economic losses in the pig industry; they are responsible for approximately 50% of the antibiotics used in pigs and, therefore, also present an increasing concern to consumer protection agencies. In response to this changing market we investigated the feasibility of an old approach aimed at the breeding selection of more resistant pigs. As a first step in this direction we applied a new respiratory health score system to study the susceptibility of four different pig breeding lines (German Landrace, Piétrain, Hampshire, Large White towards the respiratory tract pathogen Actinobacillus (A. pleuropneumoniae. Results A controlled experimental aerosol infection with an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 isolate was performed using 106 weaning pigs of defined breeding lines from the breeds German Landrace, Piétrain, Hamphire, and Large White. Pigs were clinically assessed on days 4 and 20 post infection following a novel scoring system, the Respiratory Health Score (RHS, which combines clinical, sonographic and radiographic examination results. The ranking on day 4 was significantly correlated with the ranking based on the pathomorphological Lung Lesion Score (LLS; Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient of 0.86 [p Conclusion These results demonstrate that the RHS obtained from live pigs shows a highly significant correlation to the lung lesion score considered as a "gold standard". The correlation of the ranking at days 4 and 20 post infection implies that the course of disease is highly dependent on the acute lung damage. The different severity of signs among the tested pig breeding lines clearly suggests a genetic difference in the susceptibility of pigs to A. pleuropneumoniae infection.

  19. Padronização de três ELISAs polivalentes com lipopolissacarídeos de cadeia longa dos sorotipos 1 e 5, 2, 3 e 7 ou 10 e 12 de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Standardization of three polyvalent ELISA based on long chain lipopolysaccharides of serotypes 1 and 5, 2, 3 and 7, or 10 and 12 of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    S.S. Kuchiishi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Três ELISAs polivalentes baseados em lipopolissacarídeos de cadeia longa (LPS-CL foram estabelecidos para detectar anticorpos para todos os sorotipos prevalentes de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Foram testadas amostras provenientes do banco de soros de suínos experimentalmente inoculados com todos os sorotipos de A. pleuropneumoniae. Os ELISAs foram sensíveis à detecção de anticorpos contra todos os LPS-CL. Foram observadas reações cruzadas no ELISA polivalente produzido com os sorotipos 1 e 5, com anti-soros específicos para os sorotipos 9 e 11, pois os sorotipos 1, 9 e 11 apresentaram antígenos somáticos comuns. No polivalente com os sorotipos 2, 3 e 7, observaram-se reações com anti-soros dos sorotipos 4, 6 e 8, devido à presença de antígenos somáticos entre os sorotipos 3, 6 e 8 e entre os sorotipos 4 e 7. Amostras de soros de animais infectados com Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare e Haemophilus parasuis, agentes que acometem o sistema respiratório dos suínos, não apresentaram reações cruzadas com os antígenos baseados em LPS-CL.Three polyvalent ELISA based on long chain lipopolysaccharides (LC-LPS were established to detect all prevalent serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Samples from a serum bank of experimentally inoculated animals with all serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae were tested. Antibodies specific to LC-LPS of each serotype were detected. Cross-reactions were observed in the polyvalent ELISA produced with serotypes 1 and 5, with specific antisera to serotypes 9 and 11 due to common somatic antigens presence in serotypes 1, 9, and 11. In the polyvalent with serotypes 2, 3 and 7 reactions were observed with antisera of serotypes 4, 6, and 8, due to the presence of somatic antigens in serotypes 3, 6, and 8 and serotypes 4 and 7. Experimentally infected animals with respiratory agents of swine Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare, and Haemophilus parasuis did not present

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A SELECTIVE AND INDICATIVE MEDIUM FOR ISOLATION OF ACTINOBACILLUS-PLEUROPNEUMONIAE FROM TONSILS

    Jakobsen, Marianne; Nielsen, Jens

    In order to isolate ActinobacillIus pleuropneumoniae from mixed bacterial flora a selective and indicative medium was developed. The optimal concentrations of antibiotics were determined for selective chocolate agar (S-TSA) and selective blood agar (S-MBA) using a set of 25 strains of A. pleuropn......In order to isolate ActinobacillIus pleuropneumoniae from mixed bacterial flora a selective and indicative medium was developed. The optimal concentrations of antibiotics were determined for selective chocolate agar (S-TSA) and selective blood agar (S-MBA) using a set of 25 strains of A...

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A SELECTIVE AND INDICATIVE MEDIUM FOR ISOLATION OF ACTINOBACILLUS-PLEUROPNEUMONIAE FROM TONSILS

    Jakobsen, Marianne; Nielsen, Jens

    1995-01-01

    In order to isolate ActinobacillIus pleuropneumoniae from mixed bacterial flora a selective and indicative medium was developed. The optimal concentrations of antibiotics were determined for selective chocolate agar (S-TSA) and selective blood agar (S-MBA) using a set of 25 strains of A. pleuropn......In order to isolate ActinobacillIus pleuropneumoniae from mixed bacterial flora a selective and indicative medium was developed. The optimal concentrations of antibiotics were determined for selective chocolate agar (S-TSA) and selective blood agar (S-MBA) using a set of 25 strains of A...

  2. Transcriptional Portrait of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during Acute Disease - Potential Strategies for Survival and Persistence in the Host

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Angen, Øystein; Boye, Mette

    2012-01-01

    results suggested that A. pleuropneumoniae is using various strategies to increase its fitness, such as applying Na+ pumps as an alternative way of gaining energy. Furthermore, the transcriptional data provided potential clues as to how A. pleuropneumoniae is able to circumvent host immune factors and...... survive within the hostile environment of host macrophages. This persistence within macrophages may be related to urease activity, mobilization of various stress responses and active evasion of the host defenses by cell surface sialylation. Conclusions/Significance The data presented here highlight the...

  3. Evaluation of a multiplex PCR test for simultaneous identification and serotyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 5, and 6

    Jessing, Stine Graakjær; Angen, Øystein; Inzana, Tomas J.

    2003-01-01

    6 were combined with the already existing species-specific primers used in a PCR test based on the omlA gene. The PCR test was evaluated with serotype reference strains of A. pleuropneumoniae as well as 182 Danish field isolates previously serotyped by latex agglutination or immunodiffusion. For all...... cross-reacted by the latex agglutination test were of serotype 2, 5, or 6. Determination of the serotype by PCR represents a convenient and specific method for the serotyping of A. pleuropneumoniae in diagnostic laboratories....

  4. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs.

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (pdisease susceptibility to co-infection of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae in pigs. Enrichment positively influences behavioural state, immunological response and clinical outcome in pigs. PMID:27606818

  5. The Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae HMW1C-like glycosyltransferase mediates N-linked glycosylation of the Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 adhesin.

    Kyoung-Jae Choi

    Full Text Available The Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 adhesin is an important virulence exoprotein that is secreted via the two-partner secretion pathway and is glycosylated at multiple asparagine residues in consensus N-linked sequons. Unlike the heavily branched glycans found in eukaryotic N-linked glycoproteins, the modifying glycan structures in HMW1 are mono-hexoses or di-hexoses. Recent work demonstrated that the H. influenzae HMW1C protein is the glycosyltransferase responsible for transferring glucose and galactose to the acceptor sites of HMW1. An Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae protein designated ApHMW1C shares high-level homology with HMW1C and has been assigned to the GT41 family, which otherwise contains only O-glycosyltransferases. In this study, we demonstrated that ApHMW1C has N-glycosyltransferase activity and is able to transfer glucose and galactose to known asparagine sites in HMW1. In addition, we found that ApHMW1C is able to complement a deficiency of HMW1C and mediate HMW1 glycosylation and adhesive activity in whole bacteria. Initial structure-function studies suggested that ApHMW1C consists of two domains, including a 15-kDa N-terminal domain and a 55-kDa C-terminal domain harboring glycosyltransferase activity. These findings suggest a new subfamily of HMW1C-like glycosyltransferases distinct from other GT41 family O-glycosyltransferases.

  6. Differences in Purinergic Amplification of Osmotic Cell Lysis by the Pore-Forming RTX Toxins Bordetella pertussis CyaA and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ApxIA: the Role of Pore Size

    Mašín, Jiří; Fišer, Radovan; Linhartová, Irena; Osička, Radim; Bumba, Ladislav; Hewlett, E. L.; Benz, R.; Šebo, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 12 (2013), s. 4571-4582. ISSN 0019-9567 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/0460; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/0580; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0717; GA AV ČR IAA500200914; GA ČR GA13-14547S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bordetella pertussis * Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae * E-coli Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.156, year: 2013

  7. Estudios hematológicos y patológicos comparativos de cerdos inoculados con un aislado de campo y el serotipo 5 ATCC de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Comparative hematological and pathological study of inoculated pigs with a field isolate and an ATCC serotype 5 of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    D Muñoz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una inoculación experimental de A. pleuropneumoniae utilizando un aislado de campo y una cepa de referencia ATCC serotipo 5, para lo cual se utilizaron tres grupos de animales (n = 15 para cada grupo. El grupo 1 (G1 fue inoculado con medio estéril, el grupo (G2 con serotipo 5 ATCC y el grupo 3 (G3 fue inoculado con un aislado de campo (418/07. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (P ≤ 0,05 en el recuento de leucocitos totales entre el grupo G1 v/s G2 y G1 v/s G3 y los grados de las lesiones pulmonares totales evidenciaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P ≤ 0,05 entre los tres grupos de estudio. Las lesiones histopatológicas pulmonares mostraron diferencias estadísticas relevantes sólo entre G1 y G3 (P ≤ 0,05. En este trabajo se verifican diferencias importantes del comportamiento entre el aislado de campo y el serotipo 5 ATCC, sobre los cambios hematológicos y las lesiones macroscópicas e histopatológicas ocasionadas por ellos, lo cual podría indicar una mayor virulencia y patogenicidad del aislado nacional. Se espera en un futuro próximo serotipificar este aislado nacional de App.An experimental inoculation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App was carried out with a field isolate and an ATCC serotype 5. Three groups of 15 pigs each were used. Group 1 (G1 was the control group inoculated with sterile media, Group 2 was inoculated with the serotype 5 ATCC, and Group 3 (G3 was inoculated with a field isolate (418/07. The results showed statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 in the total leukocytes count between G1 v/s G2 and G1 v/s G3. The total macroscopic lung lesions scores were statistically different among the 3 groups (P ≤ 0.05. However, statistical difference was found only between G1 and G3 in the histopathological lung lesions (P ≤ 0.05. This work shows a clear difference in the hematological changes and the macroscopic and histopathological lesions between the

  8. Delineation of the genus Actinobacillus by comparison of partial infB sequences

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels; Christensen, H; Okkels, H.; Kilian, Mogens; Bruun, B

    2004-01-01

    position of Actinobacillus capsulatus was unresolved; this species is more remotely related to A. lignieresii. The two species A. lignieresii and A. pleuropneumoniae could not be clearly separated by infB sequence analysis. The phylogeny of the genus Actinobacillus based on infB analysis was essentially......, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Actinobacillus equuli, Actinobacillus suis, Actinobacillus ureae, Actinobacillus arthritidis, Actinobacillus hominis and two unnamed genomospecies showed more than 85 % similarity to the type strain of the type species of the genus, Actinobacillus lignieresii. The taxonomic...... congruent with relationships inferred from 16S rRNA sequence comparisons and DNA hybridization studies. Discrepancies were encountered with single strains or taxa at the periphery of the genus. Greater intraspecies variation was observed with infB sequences than with 16S rRNA gene sequences, with notable...

  9. An Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae PCR typing system based on the apx and omlA genes - evaluation of isolates from lungs and tonsils of pigs

    Gram, T.; Ahrens, Peter; Andreasen, Morten;

    2000-01-01

    . The PCR typing system was tested on 102 field strains of A. pleuropneumoniae isolated from lungs of diseased pigs. The serotyping results of the investigated field strains were in agreement with the apr and omlA gene patterns found in the reference strains of the bacteria, with the exception of the...... omlA gene of five strains of serotype 8. To examine the apx and omlA gene pattern of tonsil isolates, the PCR typing system was tested on a total of 280 A. pleuropneumoniae field strains isolated from tonsils of pigs. Agreement between serotyping and DNA typing was found in 96% of the isolates using...... the apx gene patterns and in 89% of the isolates using the omlA gene. The same serotype specific apx/omlA gene pattern was thus found in the majority of the tonsil isolates and in isolates from diseased lungs. Most of the differences in the omlA gene were found in 18 tonsil isolates of serotype 12...

  10. Hepatic gene expression changes in pigs experimentally infected with the lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae as analysed with an innate immunity focused microarray

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    differentially expressed. A large group of these genes encoded proteins involved in the acute phase response, including serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and tumor necrosis factor-a the expression of which were all found to be up-regulated and glutathione S-transferase, transthyretin...... initiating and orchestrating the innate immune response to A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Keywords: acute phase protein, hepatic transcriptional response, innate defence, gene expression, pig......, mannan-binding lectin A, surfactant protein D, and surfactant protein A1 were down-regulated in the liver of infected animals. Down-regulation of a1-acid glycoprotein during infection has not been described previously in any species. These results confirm that the liver plays an important role in...

  11. Incidence of Reinfections with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Pig Farms Located in Respiratory-Disease-Free Regions of Switzerland – Identification and Quantification of Risk Factors

    Scheidegger R

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify risk factors for reintroduction of Actinobacillus pleuopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (enzootic pneumonia onto pig farms in areas in Switzerland that were involved in an eradication programme from 1996 to 1999 and to assess the role of dealers in relation to these reinfections. The study was based on the comparison of pig farms that were reinfected in the year 2000 (cases and pig farms that remained uninfected in the same area (controls. Additionally, data were collected from Swiss pig dealers and transport companies. Out of a total of 3983 farms, 107 farms were reinfected in the year 2000. The incidences were 0.1% for Actinobacillus pleuopneumoniae and 2.6% for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (enzootic pneumonia. Compared to reinfection rates prior to the eradication programme, this is a considerable reduction. Statistically significant risk factors for the reinfection were 'finishing farm', 'large mixed breeding-finishing farm', 'reinfected neighbour' and 'parking site for pig transport vehicles close to the farm'. Pig farmers that purchased pigs from only one supplier per batch had a lower risk of reintroducing infection (protective factor. As long as infected and uninfected regions co-exist in Switzerland, direct and indirect contact between farms, pig herds and slaughter sites via transport vehicles are a major pathway of disease spread. Risk management measures linked to these contacts are therefore of key importance. The survey of dealers indicated various areas for improvement such as strategic planning of pick-up routes or cleaning and disinfecting of trucks.

  12. PCR specific for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 3

    Zhou, L.; Jones, S.C.P.; Angen, Øystein;

    2008-01-01

    , but the method has liminations, for example, cross-reactions between serotypes 3, 6, and 8. This study describes the development of a serotype 3-specific PCR, based on the capsule locus, which can be used in a multiplex format with the organism's specific gene apxIV. The PCR test was evaluated on 266...

  13. Expression of coding (mRNA) and non-coding (microRNA) RNA in lung tissue and blood isolated from pigs suffering from bacterial pleuropneumonia

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Wendt, Karin Tarp;

    2010-01-01

    infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (AP). Expression differences of mRNA and microRNA were quantified at different time points (6h, 12h, 24h, 48h PI) using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (Rotor-Gene and Fluidigm). Expression profiles of miRNA in blood of seven animals were...

  14. Construction of the Gene Deleted Attenuated Mutant Strain apxIIC -/kanr + of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae%胸膜肺炎放线杆菌apxlIC7kanr+基因缺失减毒株的构建

    李建; 曹三杰; 文心田; 黄小波; 都启晶; 张明; 余慧

    2012-01-01

    The recombinant transfer vector pBSKA was electroporated into parent strain Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 7 (APP -7 ) strain WF83. Product of the electroporation was plated onto TSB agar containing kanamyeine (Kan). After 2 days the recombinant strains were selected. Resistance of kanamycine experiment confirmed that mutant strain can counteract kanamycine. Dependence experiment of NAD confirmed that mutant strain needed NAD in growth. Identification of PCR confirmed that complete apxIIC gene was substitute for kanamycine resistance gene and there was no presence of pBSKA. Hemolytic experiment confirmed that mutant strain had no ability of haemolysis. Cytotoxicity test confirmed that mutant strain had no cytotoxieity. Safety experiment of injected mice confirmed that eytotoxicity and haemolysis of mutant was attenuated significantly so that mutant was safe to mice. Experiment of genetic stability confirmed that kanamycine resistance of mutant was stable 30 successive generations in vitro and 10 generations in vivo. All of the above - mentioned tests indicated that the gene deleted attenuated strain was constructed successfully, which provided certain basis for further genetic live vaccine research with mutant strain.%重组转移载体pBSKA通过电转化导入亲本菌胸膜肺炎放线杆菌血清7型(APP-7)WF83株,电转化后的产物涂布于TSB/Kan平板,2d获得突变株。卡那霉素抗性实验证实突变株有卡那霉素抗性;NAD依赖性实验证实突变株依赖NAD生长;PCR鉴定证实了卡那霉素抗性基因置换了apxlIC基因,并证实突变株中无pBSKA质粒的存在;溶血活性实验证实突变株完全失去了溶血活性;细胞毒性实验证实突变株的细胞毒性完全丧失;对小鼠的安全性实验证实突变株的毒力显著减弱,突变株对小鼠是安全的;遗传稳定性实验证实,突变株在体外连续传30代和在体内传10代均不会发生卡

  15. Generation of nalidixic acid-resistant strains and signature-tagged mutants of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae%胸膜肺炎放线杆菌萘啶酸抗性菌株的选育和信号标签突变株的构建

    商霖; 李薇; 李良军; 黎璐; 张四化; 李婷婷; 李耀坤; 刘磊; 郭志伟; 周锐; 陈焕春

    2008-01-01

    胸膜肺炎放线杆菌(APP)是重要的猪呼吸道病原菌,给世界养猪业造成严重的经济损失.信号标签突变(STM)技术是在宿主动物体内鉴定病原菌毒力因子的高通量方法.通过体外传代选育出APP血清1型和3型萘啶酸抗性菌株,再以萘啶酸抗性菌株为受体菌,以携带mini-Tn10的标签质粒(pLOF/TAG1-48)的E.coli CC118 λ pir或S17-1λpir为供体菌,在或不在E.coli DH5α(pRK2073)的辅助下,进行三亲本或两亲本接合,通过抗性筛选、PCR和Southern杂交鉴定转座突变株.结果表明:体外萘啶酸加压传代很容易选育出萘啶酸抗性APP菌株,该抗性的产生与DNA促旋酶A亚基基因gyrA的突变有关.在APP与E. coli接合实验中,两亲本接合比三亲本接合操作更简单,效率也较高;APP不同菌株在接合和转座效率上存在很大差异,血清1型菌株高于血清3型菌株,3型标准菌株高于地方分离株JL03-R.本研究为APP STM突变体库的构建与毒力基因的鉴定奠定了基础.

  16. Construction of An Activation of Toxin 1 Gene C (△apxIC) Mutant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Gomphosised Outer Membrane Protein P2 Gene(ompP2) of Haemophilus parasuis%猪传染性胸膜肺炎放线杆菌缺失毒素1激活基因C(ApxIC)同时嵌合副猪嗜血杆菌外膜蛋白P2基因(ompP2)复合突变株的构建

    刘琼; 龚雨恒; 王国镔; 文心田; 黄小波; 曹三杰

    2012-01-01

    猪胸膜肺炎放线杆菌(Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae,APP)以及副猪嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus parasuis,Hps)是引起猪发病的2种病菌.本研究以APP血清5型分离株(SW1)为基础材料,通过构建重组转移载体pBOSK△IC-1和pBOSK△IC/ompP2,构成卡那霉素抗性基因(Kanr)和枯草芽胞杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)的果聚蔗糖酶基因(sacB)的正负双向筛选表达盒,并筛选获得SW1株缺失毒素Ⅰ的激活基因C(Apx(I)C),同时嵌合Hps外膜蛋白P2基因(ompP2)的复合突变株SW1 △ApxIC/ompP2.该突变株经鉴定,与SW1亲本株相比,其缺失了大小为475 bp的apxIC基因,同时嵌合有大小为1 107bp的Hps ompP2基因,其基本生长特性与亲本株(SW1)没有显著区别;同时在体外,连续传代10代之后缺失的apxIC基因不会发生回复突变,嵌入的ompP2基因仍能够稳定遗传.本研究成功构建了猪传染性胸膜肺炎放线杆菌缺失apxIC基因并嵌合有Hps ompP2基因复合突变株,为今后研究APP和Hps新型二联疫苗打下基础.%Actinobacillus pkuropnewnoniae (APP) and Haemophilus parasuis (Hps) are the bacteria of causing porcine disease. In this study, We constructed two recombinant vectores pBOSKA/C-1 and pBOSKAIC/ompP2 using APP5 (SW1) strain as a template, and the two recombinant vectores were used for plus-minus screening system with the basis of Kanr and sacB. The mutant strain, named SW1 A apxICIompP2, was obtained, which was deleted toxin I gene C (apxIC) in SW1 and gotnphosised outer membrane protein P2 Hps gene {ompPZ). The mutant missed a size of 475 bp apxIC gene but was inserted a size of 1107 bp Hps ompP2 gene compared with the parental strain SW1. No reverse mutation of apxlC gene was observed during after 10 generations, while Hps ompP2 gene still had a good genetic stability in vitro, the mutant strain had no significant difference of he basic growth characteristics with the parental strain (SW1). The results confirmed that an \\apxlC mutant of A

  17. Actinobacillus pleruropneumoniae transcriptome analysis during early infection - coping with a hostile environment

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Jensen, Tim Kåre;

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To obtain an increased understanding of how the porcine lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) establish infection in the host. Understanding the means by which a pathogen establishes and maintains infection in the host organism is the first step towards controlling disease...... the next 42 hours. Functional analysis identified a number of putative virulence genes to be initially up-regulated. Conclusions: This is the first study monitoring the development of Ap response in the porcine host during early infection. The ability of pathogenic bacteria to adjust gene expression...... in response to environmental stimuli is critical for bacterial survival within the host. The genes identified as differentially expressed in this study may represent a core set of genes which are mobilized to cope with the host immune response and adapt to the hostile environment. The potential virulence...

  18. Pleural effusion associated with acute and chronic pleuropneumonia and pleuritis secondary to thoracic wounds in horses: 43 cases (1982-1992).

    Collins, M B; Hodgson, D R; Hutchins, D R

    1994-12-15

    Case records of 43 horses with pleural effusion associated with acute pleuropneumonia, chronic pleuropneumonia, or pleuritis secondary to a penetrating thoracic wound were reviewed to determine the predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition. Acute pleuropneumonia was diagnosed in 36 horses, the majority of which were Thoroughbreds (89%). Of 22 (61%) horses that were in race training at the onset of illness, 11 (31%) had been recently transported a long distance and 4 (11%) had evidence of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Physical examination findings and hematologic data were nonspecific. The most consistent abnormality was hyperfibrino-genemia. Affected horses were treated with antibiotics, thoracic drainage, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care. Twenty-two (61%) horses were discharged from the hospital, with the mean duration of hospitalization for those discharged being 23 days. Nine (25%) horses were euthanatized and 5 (14%) died. Bacterial culturing of thoracic fluid resulted in growth in 30 of the 36 (83%) horses. The finding of anaerobic bacteria in thoracic fluid was not associated with a lower survival rate (62%) than the overall survival rate (61%). Four horses with chronic pleuropneumonia had a history of lethargy and inappetence for > 2 weeks. Actinobacillus equuli was isolated, either alone or in combination with other bacteria, from thoracic fluid of these 4 horses. Each horse was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and made a rapid recovery. Three horses with acute pleuritis secondary to penetrating thoracic wounds also had nonspecific clinical signs, apart from the wound and a large volume of pleural effusion. Bacteriologic isolates from these horses differed slightly from those of horses with acute pleuropneumonia. PMID:7744650

  19. Clinical significance and taxonomy of Actinobacillus hominis

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Christensen, J J; Fussing, V;

    2001-01-01

    Clinical findings in 36 immunosuppressed patients with lower respiratory tract infection or bacteremia with Actinobacillus hominis are described. Animal contact was only recorded for three patients; nine patients died despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Although infections with this micr...

  20. Comparison of high and low virulence serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by quantitative real-time PCR

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Angen, Øystein; Boye, Mette

    high virulence while serotype 6 strains are normally found to be less pathogenic. To gain an understanding of the differential virulence of serotype 2 and 6, the expression of a panel of Ap genes during infection of porcine epithelial lung cells (SJPL) were examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR...... be important for early establishment of the bacteria in the host were examined by qPCR. The genes examined were apfA, coding for a subunit of Type IV pili, kdsB coding for a gene involved in lippopolysacceride biosynthesis, and pgaB which is involved in biofilm formation, all three believed to be...... normalization of the qPCR data. Preliminary results showed that in both serotype 2 and serotype 6, the toxin producing gene apxIV was the most highly expressed of the investigated genes. The major difference observed between the two serotypes was that apfA, involved in type IV vili production, was significantly...

  1. Serological characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 strains antigenically related to both serotypes 2 and 7

    Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara

    1996-01-01

    ). Immunodiffusion confirmed the antigenic relationship with serotype 2 and further demonstrated an antigenic relationship with strain WF83 (reference strain of serotype 7). SDS-PAGE with LPS from strains 1536, 4226, WF83 and strain 7317 (representative of the 9 isolates examined) showed that strains WF83 and 7317...

  2. Putative biomarkers for evaluating antibiotic treatment: an experimental model of porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection

    Lauritzen, B.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Skaanild, M.T.;

    2003-01-01

    animals received a single dose of either danofloxacin (2.5 mg/kg) or tiamulin (10 mg/kg). To test the discriminative properties of the biomarkers, the dosage regimens were designed with an expected difference in therapeutic efficacy in favour of danofloxacin. Accordingly, the danofloxacin-treated pigs...... recovered clinically within 24h after treatment, whereas tiamulin-treated animals remained clinically ill until the end of the study, 48 h after treatment. A similar Picture was seen for the biomarkers of infection. During the infection period, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and haptoglobin...... increased, whereas plasma zinc, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol decreased. In the danoffoxacin-treated animals, CRP, interleukin-6, zinc, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol reverted significantly towards normalisation within 24h of treatment. In contrast, signs of normalisation were absent (CRP, zinc and...

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of MIDG2331, a Genetically Tractable Serovar 8 Clinical Isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Bossé, JT; Chaudhuri, RR; Li, Y; Leanse, LG; Fernandez Crespo, R; Coupland, P; Holden, MT; Bazzolli, DM; Maskell, DJ; Tucker, AW; Wren, BW; Rycroft, AN; Langford, PR

    2016-01-01

    Wellcome Trust provided funding to Paul Coupland and Matthew Holden under grant number 098051. Biotechnology and Biological Sci- ences Research Council (BBSRC) provided funding to Janine T. Bosse, Roy R. Chaudhuri, Yanwen Li, Leon G. Leanse, Roberto Fernandez Cre- spo, Paul Coupland, Matthew Holden, Denise Mara Soares Bazzolli, Dun- can J. Maskell, Dan Tucker, Brendan W. Wren, Andrew N. Rycroft, Paul R. Langford, and BraDP1t Consortium under grant numbers BB/ G020744/1, BB/G019177/1, BB/G0192...

  4. Clinical significance and taxonomy of Actinobacillus hominis

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Christensen, J J; Fussing, V;

    2001-01-01

    microorganism seem to be rare, the fact that 37 of 46 strains characterized in this study have been found in Copenhagen indicates that under-reporting may occur. A. hominis is phenotypically relatively homogeneous but can be difficult to differentiate from other Actinobacillus species unless extensive...

  5. Selective medium for isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    Slots, J

    1982-01-01

    A selective medium, TSBV (tryptic soy-serum-bacitracin-vancomycin) agar, was developed for the isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, TSBV agar contained (per liter) 40 g of tryptic soy agar, 1 g of yeast extract, 100 ml of horse serum. 75 mg of bacitracin, and 5 mg of vancomycin. The TSBV medium suppressed most oral species and permitted significantly higher recovery of A. actinomycetemcomitans than nonselective blood agar medium. The distinct colonial morphology and positive cat...

  6. Comparison of Common Antibiotic Therapies for Haemophilus Pleuropneumonia in Pigs

    Willson, Philip J.; Osborne, A. Dudley

    1985-01-01

    Three experiments were done to evaluate some antibiotic therapies that are used commonly to treat pigs infected with Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae. Haemophilus-free piglets, 12 weeks of age, were challenged in a chamber with an aerosol of H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and were medicated with antibiotics at various times before or after challenge. Antibiotic formulations which are commonly used to treat pneumonia in swine were used. They were chloramphenicol, penicillin, and a long-acting form...

  7. Fluoroquinolones in the treatment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans associated periodontitis

    Kleinfelder, JW; Mueller, RF; Lange, DE

    2000-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis patients harboring Actinobacillus actinmycetemcomitans (Aa) are prime candidates for systemic antibiotic therapy. Besides tetracycline and the combination of metronidazole and amoxicillin the fluoroquinolones are also believed to have antibacterial activity against Aa. The

  8. Pleuroneumonía Equina (Equine Pleuropneumonia

    Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa pleuroneumonía es un problema frecuente en el caballo. Esta enfermedad consiste en colonización bacteriana del parénquima pulmonar, desarrollo de una neumonía o abscesos pulmonares y la consiguiente extensión del proceso hacia la pleura visceral y el espacio pleural provocando pleuritis. Generalmente, su desarrollose asocia con cualquier condición que favorezca la aspiración de secreciones faríngeas o impida su eliminación (transporte, enfermedades víricas, ejercicio extenuante, anestesia general, etc. Los signos clínicos pueden variar según se trate de un problema agudo o crónico, predominando en el primer caso: fiebre, letargia,descarga nasal, tos, intolerancia al ejercicio, disnea y leurodinia. En los casos crónicos suele aparecer fiebre intermitente, pérdida de peso y edema subesternal El diagnóstico se basa fundamentalmente en la ecografía de la región torácica y el análisis microbiológico y citológico de las secreciones traqueales y pleurales. Su tratamiento se centra en antibioterapia sistémica para inhibir el crecimientobacteriano, drenaje del exceso de líquido pleural (en los casos que dificulte la capacidad respiratoria del animal o sea claramente séptico, administración de terapia antiinflamatoria y analgésica y tratamiento de soporte a base de fluidoterapia, oxigenoterapia y broncodilatadores. El pronóstico de la pleuroneumonía es favorable en los casos que se identifican precozmente y reciben tratamientoagresivo, empeorando mucho en casos crónicos o con complicaciones como la laminitis, colitis asociada a antibióticos y trombosis yugular. Las principales secuelas de este proceso incluyen la formación de abscesos pulmonares, fístulas broncopleurales,neumotórax, y pericarditis restrictiva.SummaryPleuropneumonia is a frequent and severe disease in the horse. It is produced by the bacterial colonization of pulmonary parenchyma, development of pneumonia or pulmonary abscesses and subsequent

  9. Cytoplasmic N-Glycosyltransferase of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Is an Inverting Enzyme and Recognizes the NX(S/T) Consensus Sequence*

    Schwarz, Flavio; Fan, Yao-Yun; Schubert, Mario; Aebi, Markus

    2011-01-01

    N-Linked glycosylation is a frequent protein modification that occurs in all three domains of life. This process involves the transfer of a preassembled oligosaccharide from a lipid donor to asparagine side chains of polypeptides and is catalyzed by the membrane-bound oligosaccharyltransferase (OST). We characterized an alternative bacterial pathway wherein a cytoplasmic N-glycosyltransferase uses nucleotide-activated monosaccharides as donors to modify asparagine residues of peptides and pro...

  10. Molecular characterisation of the early response in pigs to experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae using cDNA microarrays

    Hedegaard, Jakob; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila;

    2007-01-01

    inflamed lung tissue, genes encoding immune activating proteins and other pro-inflammatory mediators of the innate immune response were found to be up-regulated. Genes encoding different acute phase reactants were found to be differentially expressed in the liver. Conclusion: The obtained results are......-inflamed lung tissue sampled from inoculated animals as well as in liver and tracheobronchial lymph node tissue sampled from three inoculated animals versus two non-inoculated animals. The lung samples were studied using a porcine cDNA microarray with 5375 unique PCR products while liver tissue and...... tracheobronchial lymph node tissue were hybridised to an expanded version of the porcine microarray with 26879 unique PCR products. Results: A total of 357 genes differed significantly in expression between infected and non-infected lung tissue, 713 genes differed in expression in liver tissue from infected versus...

  11. Epidemiological survey of bovine pleuropneumonia in Mali

    Now that rinderpest has been eradicated, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) remains the most important infectious disease of cattle in many tropical African countries including Mali. It is considered as a priority disease by the World Organization for Animal Health, the African Union/Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources, the Pan-African Programme for the Control of Epizootics (PACE) and the FAO-Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal Diseases (EMPRES). All these institutions and programmes have recognised that the lack of sufficient epidemiological data on this disease is an obstacle to implementing efficient plans for its control. Therefore, research must be conducted in order to generate the accurate data needed to prepare a technically appropriate and well coordinated control programme. The present epidemiological study was conducted in Mali with the aim of evaluating the seroprevalence of the disease in cattle and its geographical distribution. Serum samples collected from 7 628 cattle in different parts of the country were tested for the presence of specific antibody against CBPP by a c-ELISA. In parallel to this serological study, data on CBPP outbreaks and abattoir lung seizures over a 10-year period (1997-2006) were collected. Preliminary results indicate a national seroprevalence rate of 16.28% (1 242/7 628) and a herd seroprevalence rate of 85.18% (161/189). In general, both rates correlated and were relatively higher in the central and southern regions (17.77-28.33%; 89.29-100% respectively) than in the northern and western regions (4.63- 11.89%; 60-83.33% respectively). The total number of outbreaks reported from the field was 121, while the number of suspected lung lesions detected in abattoirs was 12 470. The distribution of these figures varied between the country's regions but did not correlate with the observed seroprevalence rates. (author)

  12. Nasal immunization with mannan-decorated mucoadhesive HPMCP microspheres containing ApxIIA toxin induces protective immunity against challenge infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoiae in mice.

    Li, Hui-Shan; Shin, Min-Kyoung; Singh, Bijay; Maharjan, Sushila; Park, Tae-Eun; Kang, Sang-Kee; Yoo, Han-Sang; Hong, Zhong-Shan; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2016-07-10

    The development of subunit mucosal vaccines requires an appropriate delivery system or an immune modulator such as an adjuvant to improve antigen immunogenicity. The nasal route for vaccine delivery by microparticles has attracted considerable interest, although challenges such as the rapid mucociliary clearance in the respiratory mucosa and the low immunogenicity of subunit vaccine still remain. Here, we aimed to develop mannan-decorated mucoadhesive thiolated hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose phthalate (HPMCP) microspheres (Man-THM) that contain ApxIIA subunit vaccine - an exotoxin fragment as a candidate for a subunit nasal vaccine against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. For adjuvant activity, mucoadhesive thiolated HPMCP microspheres decorated with mannan could be targeted to the PRRs (pathogen recognition receptors) and mannose receptors (MR) of antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the respiratory immune system. The potential adjuvant ability of Man-THM for intranasal immunization was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo experiments. In a mechanistic study using APCs in vitro, it was found that Man-THM enhanced receptor-mediated endocytosis by stimulating the MR of APCs. In vivo, the nasal vaccination of ApxIIA-loaded Man-THM in mice resulted in higher levels of mucosal sIgA and serum IgG than mice in the ApxIIA and ApxIIA-loaded THM groups due to the specific recognition of the mannan in the Man-THM by the MRs of the APCs. Moreover, ApxIIA-containing Man-THM protected immunized mice when challenged with strains of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. These results suggest that mucoadhesive Man-THM may be a promising candidate for a nasal vaccine delivery system to elicit systemic and mucosal immunity that can protect from pathogenic bacteria infection. PMID:27189136

  13. Development of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia Inactivated Vaccine( M1601 Strain)

    Zhao; Ping; He; Ying; Chu; Yuefeng; Gao; Pengcheng; Zhang; Xuan; Lu; Zhongxin

    2014-01-01

    Three batches of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia inactivated vaccine( M1601 strain) developed by the laboratory were studied from the aspects of safety,minimum immune dose,immunity duration and storage life. The results showed that the vaccine was safe to goats under different physiological conditions.Regardless of lambs or adult goats,the minimum immune dose was 3 m L,and the immunity duration and the storage life were 6 and 12 months,respectively.

  14. Isolation of Actinobacillus suis from a cat's lung

    Daignault, D.; Chouinard, L.; Møller, Kristian;

    1999-01-01

    Actinobacillus suis has been isolated from the lungs of a 9-month-old cat. The bacterium was characterized biochemically as well as genetically, and its sensitivity profile to different antimicrobial agents was established. The role of this isolate in the cat's condition is discussed....

  15. Comparison of six typing methods for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    van Steenbergen, T J; Bosch-Tijhof, C J; van Winkelhoff, A J; Gmür, R; de Graaff, J

    1994-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is an important pathogen in the etiology of severe periodontitis. For epidemiological studies on the prevalence of certain pathogenic clones and transmission of this bacterium, adequate typing methods are necessary. The purpose of this study was to compare six different typing methods for A. actinomycetemcomitans. Five reference strains and 27 fresh clinical isolates from periodontitis patients were used. Serotyping showed 12 serotype a strains, 13 type b ...

  16. Identification of Genes Coding for Exported Proteins of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    Mintz, Keith P.; Fives-Taylor, Paula M.

    1999-01-01

    Random fusions of genomic DNA fragments to a partial gene encoding a signal sequence-deficient bacterial alkaline phosphatase were utilized to screen for exported proteins of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in Escherichia coli. Twenty-four PhoA+ clones were isolated and sequenced. Membrane localization signals in the form of signal sequences were deduced from most of these sequences. Several of the deduced amino acid sequences were found to be homologous to known exported or membrane-ass...

  17. Adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to a human oral cell line.

    Mintz, K. P.; Fives-Taylor, P M

    1994-01-01

    Two quantitative, rapid assays were developed to study the adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an oral bacterium associated with periodontal disease, to human epithelial cells. The human oral carcinoma cell line KB was grown in microtiter plates, and adherent bacteria were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with purified anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans serum and horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody or [3H]thymidine-labeled bacteria. Adhesion was found...

  18. Requirements for invasion of epithelial cells by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    Sreenivasan, P K; Meyer, D H; Fives-Taylor, P M

    1993-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an oral bacterium implicated in human periodontal disease, was recently demonstrated to invade cultured epithelial cells (D. H. Meyer, P. K. Sreenivasan, and P. M. Fives-Taylor, Infect. Immun. 59:2719-2726, 1991). This report characterizes the requirements for invasion of KB cells by A. actinomycetemcomitans. The roles of bacterial and host factors were investigated by using selective agents that influence specific bacterial or host cell functions. Inhibi...

  19. Oxidative and nonoxidative killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by human neutrophils.

    Miyasaki, K T; Wilson, M E; Brunetti, A J; Genco, R J

    1986-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a facultative gram-negative microorganism which has been implicated as an etiologic agent in localized juvenile periodontitis and in subacute bacterial endocarditis and abscesses. Although resistant to serum bactericidal action and to oxidant injury mediated by superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), this organism is sensitive to killing by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system (K.T. Miyasaki, M.E. Wilson, and R.J. Genco, In...

  20. Demonstration of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides, small colony type in outbreaks of caprine pleuropneumonia in eastern Tanzania

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Semuguruka, W.D.; Kazwala, R.R.; Ojeniy, B.; Friis, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    . The morbidity and mortality rates were 45%-90% and 14%-50%, respectively. The principal pathological lesions were confined to the thoracic cavity and comprised hydrothorax and serofibrinous pleuropneumonia. The histopathological features consisted of a necrotizing fibrinous pleuropneumonia...

  1. Uses of serology for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    Rurangirwa, F R

    1995-09-01

    A serological test involves detection of specific changes, induced by a pathogen, in the properties or actions of serum of an infected host. The test may detect the presence in serum of either antibodies to the pathogen (produced by the host) or antigens (i.e. the infecting agent itself and/or its components). The many serological tests which have been developed for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) are classified into two groups on the basis of this distinction. To date, no single serological test is able to detect all stages of the disease. Thus the choice of serological test (or combination of tests) will depend on the specific aim of the investigation. Meanwhile, a sensitive, specific and simple 'pen-side' test for the diagnosis of all forms of CBPP is still lacking. PMID:8593394

  2. Epidemiological survey of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Mali

    Full text: Mali is a major producer of livestock, which plays a predominant role in the economy of the country. It brings about 10% of the GDP, 15% of export incomes and constitutes the main source of incomes for the 30% of the national population. Now that rinderpest is controlled, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) remains the most important infectious disease of cattle not only in Mali, but in most tropical African countries causing great economic losses including mortality, loss of weight, reduced working ability, reduced fertility and indirect costs due to control programs. The disease is characterized by a severe fibrinous exudative pleuropneumonia and is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (MmmCS). It is considered a priority disease by the Office of International Epizootie (OIE), the Pan-African Program for the control of epizootics (PACE) and the FAO-Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal Diseases (FAOEMPRES). All these Institutions have recognized that the lack of information concerning the prevalence and the economic impact of the disease is an obstacle to implement any efficient program for its control in Africa. Therefore, research must be conducted in order to generate accurate data on the incidence and distribution of the disease before any appropriate coordinated control program can be defined for this continent. The present epidemiological study was conducted with the aim of studying the seroprevalence of the disease among cattle in Mali, its geographical distribution and its economical impacts. Serum samples collected from 8000 cattle in different parts of the country were tested for MmmSC specific antibody by the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) and the complement fixation test (CFT). In parallel, data of CBPP cases for the past 10 years and the economic impact of the disease, including production losses and control costs were evaluated. The preliminary results of this study will be presented here. (author)

  3. Actinobacillus suis and Actinobacillus equuli, emergent pathogens of septic embolic nephritis, a new challenge for the swine industry Actinobacillus suis y Actinobacillus equuli, patógenos emergentes de nefritis embólica séptica, un nuevo desafío para la industria porcina

    CE Benavente; IC Fuentealba

    2012-01-01

    Kidney lesions are an important cause of tissue condemnation in slaughterhouses. In addition to the potential public health implications, organ condemnations have a significant economic impact on the food animal industry. The condition classified broadly as "nephritis" is one of the main causes of tissue condemnation. Embolic nephritis resembling Actinobacillus equuli infection in foals has been recently detected in sows and market hogs. Actinobacillus suis is phenotypically and phylogenetica...

  4. The Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae HMW1C-Like Glycosyltransferase Mediates N-Linked Glycosylation of the Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 Adhesin

    Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Grass, Susan; Paek, Seonghee; St. Geme, Joseph W.; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

    2010-01-01

    The Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 adhesin is an important virulence exoprotein that is secreted via the two-partner secretion pathway and is glycosylated at multiple asparagine residues in consensus N-linked sequons. Unlike the heavily branched glycans found in eukaryotic N-linked glycoproteins, the modifying glycan structures in HMW1 are mono-hexoses or di-hexoses. Recent work demonstrated that the H. influenzae HMW1C protein is the glycosyltransferase responsible for transferring glucose and ...

  5. No overall relationship between average daily weight gain and the serological response to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in eight chronically infected Danish swine herds

    Andreasen, Margit; Mousing, Jan; Thomsen, Lars Krogsgård

    2001-01-01

    The association between the average daily weight gain (from approximately 4 to 20 weeks of age) and the serological responses to respiratory infections was examined in a longitudinal study including 825 pigs from eight chronically infected herds. Pigs were bled every 4th week (starting from......, early or late as compared to the median time (estimated across herds) of seroconversion for the particular pathogen. The variables "gender", "weight at an approximate age of 4 weeks" and "time" (defining the exact length of the follow-up period), were included as explanatory variables, and "litter......" and "herd" were included as explanatory random variables. The individual pig was the unit of concern. The variable defining time at seroconversion was not significantly associated with the average daily weight gain, when evaluating models across all eight herds. The apparent lack of effect could be because...

  6. Validation of putative reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in tissues and blood from pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Poulsen, K.T.; Angen, Øystein; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive and very efficient technique for quantification of gene expression. However, qRT-PCR relies on accurate normalization of gene expression data, as RNA recovery and cDNA synthesis efficiency might va...

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides T1/44, a Vaccine Strain against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    Gourgues, Géraldine; Barré, Aurélien; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Weber, Johann; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Schieck, Elise; Jores, Joerg; Vashee, Sanjay; Blanchard, Alain; Lartigue, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is the etiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete genome sequence of the strain T1/44, which is widely used as a live vaccine in Africa. PMID:27081135

  8. Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans y Porphyromonas Gingivales como principales patógenos periodontales

    A Bascones

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre las bacterias relacionadas con la enfermedad periodontal, existen dos especies más claramente asociadas a esta enfermedad: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans y Porphyromonas gingivalis. Este trabajo es una revisión bibliográfica sobre estos dos patógenos periodontales, mostrando su origen, prevalencia, distribución, transmisión y respuesta al tratamiento periodontal.Among the bacteria related to periodontal disease, there are two species clearly associated to this disease: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingiva lis. This paper presents a review of the literature regarding this two periodontal pathogens, and showing their origin, prevalence, distribution, transmission and response to periodontal treatment.

  9. Phylogenetic relationship of equine Actinobacillus species and distribution of RTX toxin genes among clusters

    Kuhnert, Peter; Berthoud, Hélène; Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne; Frey, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Equine Actinobacillus species were analysed phylogenetically by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequencing focusing on the species Actinobacillus equuli, which has recently been subdivided into the non-haemolytic A. equuli subsp. equuli and the haemolytic A. equuli subsp. haemolyticus. In parallel we determined the profile for RTX toxin genes of the sample of strains by PCR testing for the presence of the A. equuli haemolysin gene aqx, and the toxin genes apxI, apxII, apxIII and apxIV, which are known in...

  10. Economical succinic acid production from cane molasses by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Liu, Yu-Peng; Zheng, Pu; Sun, Zhi-Hao; Ni, Ye; Dong, Jin-Jun; Zhu, Lei-Lei

    2008-04-01

    In this work, production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC1593 using cane molasses as a low cost carbon source was developed. In anaerobic bottles fermentation, succinic acid concentration of 50.6+/-0.9 g l(-1) was attained at 60 h using an optimum medium containing molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid, resulting in a succinic acid yield of 79.5+/-1.1% and sugar utilization of 97.1+/-0.6%. When batch fermentation was carried out in a 5-l stirred bioreactor with pretreated molasses, 46.4 g l(-1) of succinic acid was attained at 48 h and faster cells growth was also observed. Fed batch fermentation was performed to minimize the substrate (sugar) inhibition effect, giving 55.2 g l(-1) of succinic acid and 1.15 g l(-1)h(-1) of productivity at 48 h. The present study suggests that the inexpensive cane molasses could be utilized for the economical and efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes. PMID:17532626

  11. Synergistic effects between amoxicillin, metronidazole, and the hydroxymetabolite of metronidazole against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    Pavicić, M J; van Winkelhoff, A J; de Graaff, J

    1991-01-01

    Interactions between metronidazole and amoxicillin, metronidazole and its hydroxymetabolite, and amoxicillin and the hydroxymetabolite of metronidazole were investigated with checkerboard titrations in combination with accurately determined MICs and MBCs. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was used as the test organism. Synergism was found for all three combinations. Fractional inhibitory concentration indices and fractional bactericidal concentration indices varied from 0.3 to 0.7. These s...

  12. Improved diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) by standard serological techniques and DNA amplification

    The aim was to improve the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Botswana by the implementation and establishment of the OIE standard complement fixation test (CFT) method, and to demonstrate a diagnostic system in a 96 well format coupled with a colorimetric detection of the PCR amplified product suitable for moderate to high sample numbers for the detection of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides SC (MmmSC) from nasal swabs, lung tissue and cultures

  13. Inokulasi Bakteri Selulolitik Actinobacillus sp. Asal Rumen pada Daun Jati Menurunkan Serat Kasar dan Meningkatkan Protein Kasar

    Mirni Lamid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Constraints use teak leaves as ruminant feed is a high content of crude fiber and low crude protein.The objective of this research was to determine potency of inoculation  Actinobacillus sp. of rumen productionon teak leaves fermentation process could improve quality of teak leaves as animal feed for ruminants.Design study was Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and five replications. Fourtreatment groups were consist of  : P0 = teak leaves + 2% molasses (control; P1 = teak leaves + 2%molasses + 5% Actinobacillus sp.;  P2 = teak leaves + 2% molasses + 10% Actinobacillus sp.;  P3 = teakleaves + 2% molasses + 15%  Actinobacillus sp. Proximate analysis were done after teak leaves werefermented for seven days. The data were analyzed with Analysis of Variance followed by Duncan’s MultipleRange Test. The results showed a significant difference (P <0.05 for crude fiber and crude protein P3 andP2 compared with control’s. Crude fiber content of P3 and P2 respectively 31.67% and 32%, while the crudeprotein content of P3 and P2 respectively 13.57% and 13.31%. Conclusions of this research are:  InoculationActinobacillus sp. with doses 5%, 10% and 15% in the fermentation teak leaves can decrease crude fibercontent and increased crude protein content. Dose efficient to use bacterial fermentation teak leavesActinobacillus sp. is 10%.

  14. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in the Plaque of Children without Periodontitis

    W. Zimmer; Wilson, M.; Marsh, P D; Newman, H.N.; Bulman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out whether the suspected periodontal pathogens Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis could be recovered from the dental plaque and the dorsum of the tongue in children without periodontal breakdown. Thirty-six male Caucasian children participated in this study, 21 aged 6-11 y and 15 aged 14-16 y. Subcontact area plaque and tongue samples were cultured on selective media and a presumptive identification of th...

  15. Acquisition and Colonization Stability of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in Children

    Lamell, Celeste W.; Griffen, Ann L.; McClellan, Dawn L.; Eugene J Leys

    2000-01-01

    The presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis has been shown to be a risk factor for periodontitis in adults, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has been implicated as a pathogen in early-onset periodontitis. Both species have been shown to establish stable colonization in adults. In cross-sectional studies, both A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis have been detected in over one-third of apparently healthy children. Information on the stability of colonization with these organisms in ...

  16. PCR Methods for Rapid Identification and Characterization of Actinobacillus seminis Strains

    Appuhamy, S; Coote, J G; Low, J. C.; Parton, R

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-four isolates of Actinobacillus seminis were typed by PCR ribotyping, repetitive extragenic palindromic element (REP)-based PCR, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-based PCR. Five types were distinguished by REP-PCR, and nine types were distinguished by ERIC-PCR. PCR ribotyping produced the simplest pattern and could be useful for identification of A. seminis and for its differentiation from related species. REP- and ERIC-PCR could be used for strain differentia...

  17. Evidence for invasion of a human oral cell line by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    Meyer, D H; Sreenivasan, P K; Fives-Taylor, P M

    1991-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an oral bacterial species associated with periodontal disease, was found to invade human cell lines. Invasion was demonstrated by recovery of viable organisms from gentamicin-treated KB cell monolayers and by light and electron microscopy. Internalization occurred through a cytochalasin D-sensitive process. Invasion efficiencies of some A. actinomycetemcomitans strains were comparable to those of invasive members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Differen...

  18. tfoX (sxy)-dependent transformation of Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans

    Bhattacharjee, Mrinal K.; Fine, Daniel H.; Figurski, David H.

    2007-01-01

    tfoX (sxy) is a regulatory gene needed to turn on competence genes. Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans has a tfoX gene that is important for transformation. We cloned this gene on an IncQ plasmid downstream of the inducible tac promoter. When this plasmid was resident in cells of A. actinomycetemcomitans and tfoX was induced, the cells became competent for transformation. Several strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, including different serotypes, as well as rough (adherent...

  19. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in Human Periodontal Disease: a Cross-Sectional Microbiological Investigation

    Slots, Jørgen; Reynolds, Homer S.; Genco, Robert J.

    1980-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a facultative gram-negative bacterium which has been associated with severe oral and nonoral infections. This study examined its occurrence in the oral cavities of 10 normal juveniles, 11 normal adults, 10 juvenile periodontitis patients, and 12 adult periodontitis patients. Four deep periodontal pockets and two normal periodontal sites were sampled in the diseased patients, and six normal periodontal sites were sampled in the healthy individuals. In al...

  20. Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans y Porphyromonas Gingivales como principales patógenos periodontales

    A Bascones; A Caballeros

    2000-01-01

    Entre las bacterias relacionadas con la enfermedad periodontal, existen dos especies más claramente asociadas a esta enfermedad: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans y Porphyromonas gingivalis. Este trabajo es una revisión bibliográfica sobre estos dos patógenos periodontales, mostrando su origen, prevalencia, distribución, transmisión y respuesta al tratamiento periodontal.Among the bacteria related to periodontal disease, there are two species clearly associated to this disease: Actinobacil...

  1. Autoinducer 2 Is Required for Biofilm Growth of Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans▿

    Shao, HanJuan; Lamont, Richard J.; Demuth, Donald R.

    2007-01-01

    Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) is required for the growth of Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans in culture under conditions of iron limitation. However, in vivo this organism thrives in a complex multispecies biofilm that forms in the human oral cavity. In this report, we show that adherent growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans on a saliva-coated surface, but not planktonic growth under iron-replete conditions, is defective in a LuxS-deficient background. Biofilm growth of the luxS mut...

  2. Effect of Ciprofloxacin on Killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    Cacchillo, David A.; Walters, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a pathogen associated with aggressive periodontitis, resists phagocytic killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). It is susceptible to ciprofloxacin, which PMNs actively accumulate. This study tested the hypothesis that ciprofloxacin-loaded PMNs are more effective at killing A. actinomycetemcomitans than control PMNs. Isolated human PMNs were loaded by brief incubation with 0.5 μg of ciprofloxacin/ml. Opsonized bacteria (ATCC 43718) were incubated a...

  3. Actinobacillus suis and Actinobacillus equuli, emergent pathogens of septic embolic nephritis, a new challenge for the swine industry Actinobacillus suis y Actinobacillus equuli, patógenos emergentes de nefritis embólica séptica, un nuevo desafío para la industria porcina

    CE Benavente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney lesions are an important cause of tissue condemnation in slaughterhouses. In addition to the potential public health implications, organ condemnations have a significant economic impact on the food animal industry. The condition classified broadly as "nephritis" is one of the main causes of tissue condemnation. Embolic nephritis resembling Actinobacillus equuli infection in foals has been recently detected in sows and market hogs. Actinobacillus suis is phenotypically and phylogenetically closely related to A. equuli. Both are Gram-negative bacteria, not easy to detect in routine exams. A. suis is an opportunistic pathogen that can produce fatal septicaemia in pigs, pneumonia, polyarthritis, septic embolic nephritis, abortion and mummified foetuses. Outbreaks of clinical disease appear to occur more frequently in high-health-status herds. In adult pigs the skin lesions may be confused with porcine erysipelas. A. suis and A. equuli are emerging opportunistic pathogens in the porcine industry and both have potential public health consequences to people that handles meat products. The objective of this paper is to present a literature review regarding the role of A. suis and A. equuli in the pathogenesis of nephritis in swine.Las lesiones renales son una causa importante de decomiso en los mataderos. Además de las posibles consecuencias en salud pública, el decomiso de órganos tiene un gran impacto económico en la industria de alimento animal. Recientemente, nefritis embólica séptica con lesiones semejantes a infecciones con Actinobacillus equuli en potrillos ha sido detectada en reproductoras y cerdos con peso de mercado. Actinobacillus equuli es fenotípica y genéticamente similar a Actinobacillus suis. Ambas son bacterias Gram-negativas difíciles de diagnosticar en exámenes de rutina. A. suis es un patógeno oportunista capaz de producir septicemia en cerdos, neumonía, poliartritis, nefritis embólica séptica, aborto y fetos

  4. Final classification of Bisgaard taxon 9 as Actinobacillus arthritidis sp nov and recognition of a novel genomospecies for equine strains of Actinobacillus lignieresii

    Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne; Angen, Øystein; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2002-01-01

    Phenotypic characterization of bacteria from diseased and healthy horses identified 18 isolates as Bisgaard taxon 9 and 11 isolates as Actinobacillus lignieresii. All strains of taxon 9 were alpha-galactosidase- and raffinose-positive and showed variable fermentation of (+)L-arabinose and (-)D-sorbitol....... Strains of A. lignieresii were negative for these characteristics, with the exception of raffinose. Two strains from the (-)D-sorbitol-negative group of taxon 9 showed a 16S rRNA similarity of 99.6%, while 99.5% similarity was found between two strains of the (-)D-sorbitol-positive group. DNA......-DNA hybridization between the two strains representing the (-)D-sorbitol-negative group showed 98% binding, and their closest relationship was to a strain of A. lignieresii (64%). The two strains of the (-)D-sorbitol-positive group showed 83% binding and were related to the (-)D-sorbitol-negative group at a 76% DNA...

  5. luxS and arcB Control Aerobic Growth of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans under Iron Limitation

    Fong, Karen P.; Gao, Ling; Demuth, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    LuxS is responsible for the production of autoinducer 2 (AI-2), which functions in Vibrio harveyi as a quorum-sensing signal that controls the cell density-dependent expression of the lux operon. In nonluminescent organisms, the physiologic role of AI-2 is not clear. We report that inactivation of luxS in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans JP2 results in reduced growth of the mutant, but not the wild-type organism, under aerobic, iron-limited conditions. Stunted cultures of the luxS mutant ...

  6. Using Participatory Epidemiology Tools to Investigate Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP in Maasai Flocks, Northern Tanzania

    Emmanuel Senyael

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Participatory Epidemiology (PE was applied on the Maasai rangeland of northern Tanzania to understand pastoralist’s perceptions of the clinical and epidemiological features of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP. The study was conducted during the period of April 2008 and caprine disease event was directed during the period of July 2006 to June 2007. Participatory methods such as Focus Group Discussion (FGD, proportional piling and matrix scoring were used to characterize pastoralist perceived clinical signs and risk factors for CCPP. The estimated mean incidence and case mortality rate of CCPP was 31.6 and 61.4%, respectively. Matrix scoring showed moderate to good agreement between informant groups on the clinical signs and risk factors. It was concluded that PE complimented with local knowledge could generally be used to generate disease information at low cost and therefore assist the design of feasible disease surveillance systems and control programmes at local and national level.

  7. Diagnosis of contagious caprine and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) are caused by Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides, small colony type (SC), respectively. These species belong to the group of six mycoplasmas referred to as the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. The members of the M. mycoides cluster are closely related, and some of them are very difficult to grow. Diagnosis based on identification of the causative agents by cultivation, biochemical reactions, or serology is therefore difficult, and improved diagnostic methods are sorely needed. Identification methods for M. capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides ssp. mycoides SC, based on detection of the 16S rRNA genes from all members of the M. mycoides cluster by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and differentiation of species by restriction enzyme analysis with PstI and AluI, respectively, have been developed in the Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute Laboratory, Sweden. The methods are based on the fact that members of the M. mycoides cluster have two rRNA operons and that there are sequence differences (polymorphisms) between the two 16S rRNA genes from the two operons. The majority of these polymorphisms are characteristic for each species, and some of them can be utilized for differentiation between the species. Techniques for extraction of DNA from lung tissue and from clinical material dried onto filter paper for preservation are described. Pleural fluid was found to be an ideal sample for direct analysis by PCR, but this material can also be dried onto filter paper for preservation and sent to another laboratory for the PCR analysis. These identification systems designed for M. capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides ssp. mycoides SC have been used for diagnosis of CCPP and CBPP, respectively, by analysis of clinical samples brought to the laboratory as frozen lung tissue or preserved by drying onto a filter

  8. An international collaborative study to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by monoclonal antibody-based cELISA

    Peyraud, Armelle; Poumarat, Francois; Tardy, Florence; Manso-Silvan, Lucia; Hamroev, Karomatullo; Tilloev, Tillo; Amirbekov, Mullojon; Tounkara, Karim; Bodjo, Charles; Wesonga, Hezron; Nkando, Isabel Gacheri; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Yami, Martha; Cardinale, Eric; Meenowa, Deodass

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the "mycoides cluster" frequently infecting goat herds. The lack of a more specific test has been a real obstacle to the evaluation of the prev...

  9. Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes

    Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

  10. SÜT DİŞİ DİZİSİNDE ACTINOBACILLUS ACTINOMYCETEMCOMITANS'IN VARLIĞI-THE OCCURRENCE OF ACTINOBACILLUS ACTINOMYCETEMCOMITANS IN THE PRIMARY DENTITION

    Aren, Gamze; Aktören, Oya; Külekçi, Güven

    2012-01-01

    ÖzetActinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lokalİze jüve-nil periodontitis, Papjllon- Le fevre sendromunun bazı olguları ve erişkinlerde hızlı ilerleyen periodontitiste başlıca sorumlu patojendir. Bununla birlikte normal ağız florasının da bir yerleşiği olarak bulunabilir. Bu çalışmada 4-7 yaşlan arasındaki sağlıklı 16 çocukta süt diş dizinde A.actinomycetemcomitans'ıun varbğı araştırılmıştır. Bu amaçla her çocuktan alt ikinci süt azısının mesialinden diş ipi ile plak ve dil sırtından bakteriyo...

  11. Differences in iron acquisition from human haemoglobin among strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    Hayashida, H.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    other strains of the species. None of the strains examined could utilize human transferrin as a source of iron. This was in accordance with the presence of a non-functional tbpA gene, which normally encodes the A subunit of the transferrin-binding-protein complex. Southern blot analysis indicated that......To get a better insight into the physiology of the high-toxic JP2 clone of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans serotype b, which is strongly associated with juvenile periodontitis in adolescents of African descent, the modes of iron acquisition in this clone were examined and compared to those of...... functional duplications of tbpA were not present in the genome. Thus, A. actinomycetemcomitans seems to be in a process of evolution, in which iron acquisition from host transferrin is not essential as in many other members of the pasteurellaceae. All strains could utilize haem as a source of iron. All 11 A...

  12. Succinic acid production from duckweed (Landoltia punctata) hydrolysate by batch fermentation of Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137.

    Shen, Naikun; Wang, Qingyan; Zhu, Jing; Qin, Yan; Liao, Siming; Li, Yi; Zhu, Qixia; Jin, Yanling; Du, Liqin; Huang, Ribo

    2016-07-01

    Duckweed is potentially an ideal succinic acid (SA) feedstock due to its high proportion of starch and low lignin content. Pretreatment methods, substrate content and nitrogen source were investigated to enhance the bioconversion of duckweed to SA and to reduce the costs of production. Results showed that acid hydrolysis was an effective pretreatment method because of its high SA yield. The optimum substrate concentration was 140g/L. The optimum substrate concentration was 140g/L. Corn steep liquor powder could be considered a feasible and inexpensive alternative to yeast extract as a nitrogen source. Approximately 57.85g/L of SA was produced when batch fermentation was conducted in a 1.3L stirred bioreactor. Therefore, inexpensive duckweed can be a promising feedstock for the economical and efficient production of SA through fermentation by Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137. PMID:27023386

  13. Estimation of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of two serologic tests for the detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the absence of a reference test (gold standard)

    Enøe, Claes; Andersen, Søren; Sørensen, Vibeke; Willeberg, Preben

    independence was assumed to models allowing for conditional dependence, given the true disease status. No strong evidence of conditional dependence in either test sensitivity or specificity was found. Assuming independence, maximum-likelihood estimates and 95% confidence intervals of the sensitivity and...

  14. Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Olum, Moses; Attah-Poku, Samuel; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Wesonga, Hezron; Soi, Reuben; Naessens, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa. The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies, but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in this species. Our aim was to induce antibody responses to CPS in cattle, and challenge them when they had specific CPS antibody titres similar or higher than those from cattle vaccinated with the live vaccine. The CPS was linked to the carrier protein ovalbumin via a carbodiimide-mediated condensation with 1-ethyl-3(3-imethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). Ten animals were immunized twice and challenged three weeks after the booster inoculation, and compared to a group of challenged non-immunized cattle. When administered subcutaneously to adult cattle, the vaccine elicited CPS-specific antibody responses with the same or a higher titre than animals vaccinated with the live vaccine. Pathology in the group of immunized animals was significantly reduced (57%) after challenge with Mmm strain Afadé compared to the non-immunized group, a figure in the range of the protection provided by the live vaccine. PMID:27496744

  15. Challenges of controlling contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa: a Zambian perspective.

    Muuka, Geoffrey; Songolo, Nadi; Kabilika, Swithine; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Nalubamba, King S; Muma, John B

    2013-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of economic importance that is widely distributed in sub-Saharan African and contributes significantly to cattle morbidity and mortality. Control of CBPP offers a number of challenges as a result many developing countries in Africa are still struggling with this disease. In this study, we look at the challenges encountered in CBPP control in sub-Saharan Africa from the Zambian perspective. In conducting this study, we reviewed scientific literature and reports from the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock and related animal institutions, and also made interviews with experts and key government officials involved in CBPP control in Zambia. Among the challenges identified for the successful control of CBPP were as follows: failure in the delivery of veterinary services, lack of a cattle identification system, natural phenomenon, livestock husbandry systems in the traditional sector, human movements, traditional practices among cattle farmers and cattle marketing systems. It was seen that the epidemiology of CBPP in Zambia is influenced by both ecological and anthological factors. Therefore, design and implementation of any control or eradication programme should be area/regional-dependent taking into account the different factors influencing disease transmission and maintenance. PMID:22843213

  16. Pathogenesis and Immunohistochemical Studies of Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Experimentally Infected Goats

    Umer Sadique*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Younus Rana2, Aftab Ahmad Anjum3, Zahoor-Ul-Hassan, Abdul Sajid and Muhammad Mushtaq

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the pathogenesis of caprine pleuropneumonia (CPP in the experimentally inoculated goats with Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies Capri (Mmc. For this purpose, 12 goats (Group B were inoculated with bacterial isolates of Mmc while four goats were kept as untreated control (Group A. Clinical signs of the disease were recorded twice daily. Two goats from group B were sacrificed on weekly basis to demonstrate gross pathological lesions in different organs. Tissue samples from lungs, trachea, liver, heart, kidney, spleen, and small intestines were preserved for histopathological studies. The lungs and lymph nodes were preserved to demonstrate the antigen in tissue by using immuno- histochemical technique. The disease was successfully reproduced in all infected goats with severe manifestation. The clinical signs and gross lesions of the disease were mild at the beginning and became severe at the third and fourth weeks and then progressed to moderate and chronic forms. The histopathological lesions characteristic of CPP were found in all the organs. Antigen of Mmc was detected in tissue sections of lungs and lymph nodes. In conclusion, the disease was efficiently reproduced in experimental animals that showed acute septicemic form with lethal outcome.

  17. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: Seroprevalence and risk factors in Western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Daniel, Garuma; Abdurahaman, Mukarim; Tuli, Getachew; Deresa, Benti

    2016-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is one of the most important threats to cattle health and production in Ethiopia. At the livestock farm of the Bako Agricultural Research Center, an outbreak of respiratory disease of cattle occurred in May 2011, and many animals were affected and died before the disease was diagnosed. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of CBPP antibodies in selected districts of Western Oromia Region and to assess the potential risk factors for the occurrence of the disease. A crosssectional study was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 in three selected districts of Western Oromia Region. A total of 386 sera were examined for the presence of specific antibodies against Mycoplasma mycoidesmycoides small colony (MmmSC), using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The risk factors that were evaluated in this study were geographical location, age, sex, breed and body condition. The overall seroprevalence in this study was 28.5%. The seroprevalence of Mycoplasma mycoidesmycoides small colony antibodies at the district level was 40.3%, 19.0% and 5.7% in Gobbu Sayyo, BakoTibbe and Horro districts, respectively. There was a statistically significant variation ( p 0.05) with the serological status of the animal. This study showed that the overall prevalence of CBPP in Western Oromia Zones was high. This warrants the implementation of appropriate preventive and control measures to minimise the economic losses associated with the disease. PMID:27247066

  18. Relationship Between Conversion of Localized Juvenile Periodontitis-Susceptible Children From Health to Disease and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Leukotoxin Promoter Structure*

    Bueno, Lina C.; Mayer, Marcia P. A.; DiRienzo, Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    The periodontal pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans produces a leukotoxin that is considered a primary virulence factor in localized juvenile Periodontitis (LJP). Select strains of the bacterium contain a 530-bp deletion in the promoter region of the leukotoxin gene operon which results in enhanced transcription of the leukotoxin. DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to examine genetic variants of A. actinomycetemcomitans in 24 LJP-susceptible children fro...

  19. GENETIC APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF ACTINOBACILLUS ACTINOMYCETEMCOA4ITANS IN LOCALIZED JUVENILE PERIODONTITIS

    DiRienzo, J M; Slots, J

    1990-01-01

    Actinobacillus acrinomycetemcomirans isolates from periodontal pockets were examined for restriction fragment-length polymorphism using a characterized 4.7-kb DNA probe. A total of 6 patterns of RFLP was found in 133 isolates originating from 12 subjects. No relatedness was found between RFLP types and serotypes. Different periodontal sites within the same subject and different individuals within the same family sometimes showed only one type of A. actinomycetemcomitans RFLP. When members amo...

  20. Use of 16S rRNA Sequencing for Identification of Actinobacillus ureae Isolated from a Cerebrospinal Fluid Sample

    Whitelaw, A. C.; Shankland, I. M.; Elisha, B. G.

    2002-01-01

    Actinobacillus ureae, previously Pasteurella ureae, has on rare occasions been described as a cause of human infection. Owing to its rarity, it may not be easily identified in clinical microbiology laboratories by standard tests. This report describes a patient with acute bacterial meningitis due to A. ureae. The identity of the isolate was determined by means of DNA sequence analysis of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene.

  1. Inokulasi Bakteri Selulolitik Actinobacillus sp. Asal Rumen pada Daun Jati Menurunkan Serat Kasar dan Meningkatkan Protein Kasar

    Mirni Lamid; Anggun Foetus Eka Julita; Ngakan Made Rai Widjaya

    2013-01-01

    Constraints use teak leaves as ruminant feed is a high content of crude fiber and low crude protein.The objective of this research was to determine potency of inoculation  Actinobacillus sp. of rumen productionon teak leaves fermentation process could improve quality of teak leaves as animal feed for ruminants.Design study was Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and five replications. Fourtreatment groups were consist of  : P0 = teak leaves + 2% molasses (control); P1 = teak lea...

  2. A meta-analysis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia.

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abayneh, Takele; Mekuria, Solomon; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Skjerve, Eystein; Szonyi, Barbara; Wieland, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    This systematic literature review was initiated due to lack of comprehensive information on the status and distribution of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia. The objectives of the review were thus to provide a pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP in the country and asses the level of in between study variance among the available reports. Manual and electronic search was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015. A total of twelve published articles and one MSc thesis was retrieved from19 initially identified studies. Twenty five animal level datasets were extracted at regional level considering some hypothesized predictors. The retrieved data were summarized in a meta-analytical approach. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP was 25.7% (95% CI:20.9,31.0). The inverse variance square (I(2)) that explains the variation in effect size attributed to reports true heterogeneity was 95.7%.The sub-group analysis was also computed for assumed predictors including, age, sex, type of study population, production systems and regional states. Among these predictors, study population type revealed statistically significant difference (Paccounting for 22.87% of the explainable proportion of heterogeneity among the presumed predictors. Evidence on isolation and confirmation of Mycoplasma capricolum subspp. capripneumonie in the country was obtained from five regional states. In conclusion, it is recommended to further investigate facilities related with transportation and collection premises along with potential role of sheep in the epidemiology of CCPP. Finally, the review emphasizes the need for monitoring the ongoing CCPP control intervention and introduces amendments based on the findings. Besides more surveys are needed in some of the regions where no or few valid data was available. PMID:26943994

  3. Significance of CO2 donor on the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618

    Zou Wei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Succinic acid is a building-block chemical which could be used as the precursor of many industrial products. The dissolved CO2 concentration in the fermentation broth could strongly regulate the metabolic flux of carbon and the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP carboxykinase, which are the important committed steps for the biosynthesis of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes. Previous reports showed that succinic acid production could be promoted by regulating the supply of CO2 donor in the fermentation broth. Therefore, the effects of dissolved CO2 concentration and MgCO3 on the fermentation process should be investigated. In this article, we studied the impacts of gaseous CO2 partial pressure, dissolved CO2 concentration, and the addition amount of MgCO3 on succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618. We also demonstrated that gaseous CO2 could be removed when MgCO3 was fully supplied. Results An effective CO2 quantitative mathematical model was developed to calculate the dissolved CO2 concentration in the fermentation broth. The highest succinic acid production of 61.92 g/L was obtained at 159.22 mM dissolved CO2 concentration, which was supplied by 40 g/L MgCO3 at the CO2 partial pressure of 101.33 kPa. When MgCO3 was used as the only CO2 donor, a maximal succinic acid production of 56.1 g/L was obtained, which was just decreased by 7.03% compared with that obtained under the supply of gaseous CO2 and MgCO3. Conclusions Besides the high dissolved CO2 concentration, the excessive addition of MgCO3 was beneficial to promote the succinic acid synthesis. This was the first report investigating the replaceable of gaseous CO2 in the fermentation of succinic acid. The results obtained in this study may be useful for reducing the cost of succinic acid fermentation process.

  4. Possible involvement of protein kinase C in apoptotic cell death of macrophages infected with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    Nonaka, K; Ishisaki, A; Muro, M; Kato, S; Oido, M; Nakashima, K; Kowashi, Y; Nishihara, T

    1998-02-15

    We have previously reported the evidence for apoptosis in the mouse macrophage cell line J774.1 by the periodontopathic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. In this study, we examined the role of protein kinases in the induction of apoptosis in A. actinomycetemcomitans-infected J774.1 cells by the MTT assay, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis. After J774.1 cells were precultured with protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), J774.1 cells infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans showed the increased percentage of apoptotic cells. On the contrary, protein kinase A (PKA) activators, such as forskolin and dibutyryl cAMP, do not mimic the effect of PMA. PKC inhibitors, such as staurosporine, calphostin C, chelerythrine chloride, and H7 were found to suppress apoptotic cell death in J774.1 cells infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans. However, HA1004, known as PKA inhibitor, had no effect on apoptosis in infected macrophages. The results presented here suggest that the signals through PKC may play crucial roles in the modulation of apoptosis in macrophages infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:9503618

  5. Antioxidant effect of minocycline in gingival epithelium induced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans serotype B toxin

    Ernie Maduratna Setiawati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa serotype B has been associated with aggressive periodontitis. Gingival epithelial cell is exquisitely sensitive to the toxin and may lead to the epithel protective barrier disruption. Experimental models show that minocycline is not related to it’s antimicrobial effect and protection against neuron cell apoptosis of a number experimental models of brain injury and Parkinson’s disease. Purpose: This study, examined antioxidant effect of minocycline to inhibit apoptosis of gingival epithelium induced crude toxin bacteria Aa serotype B in mice. Methods: Thirty adult mice strain Swiss Webster (balb C were divided randomly into three groups: control group (group A, toxin group (group B and toxin and minocycline group (group C. The mice were taken at 24 hours after application, and then the tissue sections of gingival epithelium were stained with tunnel assay and immunohistochemistry. Result: Treatment with these toxin induced apoptosis of gingival epithelium and was associated with DNA fragmentation and reduced gluthatione (GSH. Minocycline 100 nM significantly increased GSH and reduced apoptosis (p < 0.05. Minocycline provides antioxidant effect against citotoxicity of bacteria Aa serotipe B. Conclusion: Nanomolar concentration of minocycline potential as new therapeutic agent to prevent progressivity of aggressiveness of periodontitis.

  6. Optimization of succinic acid fermentation with Actinobacillus succinogenes by response surface methodology (RSM)

    Yun-jian ZHANG; Qiang LI; Yu-xiu ZHANG; Dan WANG; Jian-min XING

    2012-01-01

    Succinic acid is considered as an important platform chemical.Succinic acid fermentation with Actinobacillus succinogenes strain BE-1 was optimized by central composite design (CCD) using a response surface methodology (RSM).The optimized production of succinic acid was predicted and the interactive effects between glucose,yeast extract,and magnesium carbonate were investigated.As a result,a model for predicting the concentration of succinic acid production was developed.The accuracy of the model was confirmed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA),and the validity was further proved by verification experiments showing that percentage errors between actual and predicted values varied from 3.02% to 6.38%.In addition,it was observed that the interactive effect between yeast extract and magnesium carbonate was statistically significant.In conclusion,RSM is an effective and useful method for optimizing the medium components and investigating the interactive effects,and can provide valuable information for succinic acid scale-up fermentation using A.succinogenes strain BE-1.

  7. A complete industrial system for economical succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Li, Jian; Zheng, Xiao-Yu; Fang, Xiao-Jiang; Liu, Shu-Wen; Chen, Ke-Quan; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Ouyang, Ping-Kai

    2011-05-01

    An industrial fermentation system using lignocellulosic hydrolysate, waste yeast hydrolysate, and mixed alkali to achieve high-yield, economical succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes was developed. Lignocellulosic hydrolysate and waste yeast hydrolysate were used efficiently as carbon sources and nitrogen source instead of the expensive glucose and yeast extract. Moreover, as a novel method for regulating pH mixed alkalis (Mg(OH)(2) and NaOH) were first used to replace the expensive MgCO(3) for succinic acid production. Using the three aforementioned substitutions, the total fermentation cost decreased by 55.9%, and 56.4 g/L succinic acid with yield of 0.73 g/g was obtained, which are almost the same production level as fermentation with glucose, yeast extract and MgCO(3). Therefore, the cheap carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as the mixed alkaline neutralize could be efficiently used instead of expensive composition for industrial succinic acid production. PMID:21470857

  8. Detection of highly and minimally leukotoxic Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strains in patients with periodontal disease

    Cortelli Sheila Cavalca

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of highly and minimally leukotoxic Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in patients with periodontal disease. Pooled subgingival plaque samples from 136 patients with some form of periodontal disease were examined. Subjects were between 14 and 76 years of age. Clinical examinations included periodontal pocket depth (PD, plaque index (PI and bleeding index (BI. The obtained plaque samples were examined for the presence of highly or minimally leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans strains by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Chi-square and logistic regression were performed to evaluate the results. Forty-seven subjects were diagnosed with gingivitis, 70 with chronic periodontitis and 19 with aggressive periodontitis. According to chi-square there was no significant correlation detected between PD (chi2 = 0.73, PI (chi2 = 0.35, BI (chi2 = 0.09 and the presence of the highly leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans. The highly leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans strains were correlated with subjects that were 28 years of age and younger (chi2 = 7.41. There was a significant correlation between highly leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans and aggressive periodontitis (chi2 = 22.06. This study of a Brazilian cohort confirms the strong association between highly leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans strains and the presence of aggressive periodontitis.

  9. Rapid detection of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromona gingivalis by multiplex PCR.

    García, L; Tercero, J C; Legido, B; Ramos, J A; Alemany, J; Sanz, M

    1998-01-01

    The identification of specific periodontal pathogens by conventional methods, mainly anaerobic cultivation, is difficult, time consuming and even sometimes unreliable. Therefore, a multiplex PCR method for simultaneous detection of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.), Porphyromona gingivalis (P.g.) and Prevotella intermedia (P.i.) was developed for rapid and easy identification of these specific bacterial pathogens in subgingival plaque samples. In this paper, there is a detailed description of the oligonucleotide primer selection, DNA extraction and PCR conditions and the sequencing of the amplified products. The locus chosen to be amplified is a highly variable region in the 16S ribosomal DNA. For the development of this technique ATCC cultures and pure cultures from subgingival plaque samples taken from periodontitis patients were used. As an internal positive control a recombinant plasmid was developed. This simple DNA extraction procedure and the DNA amplification and visualization of the amplified product permits the detection of the bacteria in a working day. Thus, this multiplex PCR method is a rapid and effective detection method for specific periodontal pathogens. PMID:9524322

  10. An outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and post outbreak sero-surveillance in Eritrea

    At the end of 2002 contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) was never reported in Eritrea for the last 20 to 30 years. A major incursion of CBPP was reported from illegally smuggled Raya Azebo type cattle from Ethiopia, introduced through the Southern Red Sea administrative region of Eritrea (the Afar area bordering Ethiopia). The first case was detected in the Asmara abattoir during post mortem inspection. Characteristic CBPP clinical signs and post-mortem lesions were observed in affected herd during the outbreak of the disease. Significant number of in-contact indigenous cattle was infected by the disease. Samples were first sent to OIE reference laboratory CIRADEMVT in France for confirmation. The disease was confirmed by PCR on 15 January 2003.Samples of Pleural fluids and lung tissues were collected from CBPP infected animals and tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique at the National Veterinary Laboratory. The affected cattle herds were held in an isolation pen and eventually destroyed following confirmation of the disease. Following this incident, surveillance of CBPP was stepped-up and a total of 4,695 serum samples were collected from 313 sampling units or villages and submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory for testing in 2004 one year after the outbreak of the disease as part of the epidemiosurveillance. Serum samples collected for sero-surveillance were tested for CBPP antibodies by the use of the monoclonal antibody specific for Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides sc as described in the competitive ELISA kit manual from CIRAD-EMVT, France. During this post outbreak sero-surveillance sampling season, all age group animals were eligible for sampling. Out of the total sampled animals 67 (1.43%) were positive for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides sc antibodies using the cELISA test. This result suggested that very low lateral infectious agent transmission could have taken place. Vaccination as a control measure had never

  11. Sero-positivity and associated risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia under two cattle production systems in North Central Nigeria.

    Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P trekking during migrations (P = 0.0009). This study had shown the burden of CBPP in the two production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria. PMID:26563271

  12. An abattoir survey of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia lesions in slaughtered cattle in selected districts in Northern Tanzania

    Emmanuel; Swai; Isidory; Mwezimpya; Edward; Ulicky; Adam; Mbise; Winford; Moshy

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To establish and estimate incidence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia(CBPP),using abattoir survey as a diagnostic tool in slaughtered cattle in Northern Tanzania.Methods:A total of 4460 cattle were slaughtered in five abattoirs in 3 northern zone regions(Arusha,Kilimanjaro and Tanga)during the period of January to May 2004.They were examined ante-mortem for‘pneumonia signs’,and‘characteristic contagious bovine pleuropneumonia(CBPP)lung lesions’.Results:Forty-one(0.91%)of the slaughtered cattle,the majority of which were Tanzania short horn zebu,had gross lung lesions suggestive of CBPP.The prevalence of lesions was significantly(P<0.05)higher in Karatu abattoir compared to others.No animal was detected to have lesion in Bomang’ombe abattoir.The most observed pneumonic signs included labored breathing(90%),dry cough(57%)and mucopurulent nasal discharge(47%).The gross characteristic CBPP pathological lesion,frequently encountered was left lung lesion(47%),pinkish lung(71%)and pleural adhesion(98%).Epidemiological reports show that the CBPP reported outbreaks increased from 19 in 2002,65 in 2003 and 18 in 2004(January-March).The corresponding number of reported deaths increased from 137 in 2002,269 in 2003 and 77 in 2004(January-March).Conclusions:It’s concluded from this study that CBPP is a problem in spite of the extensive awareness and vaccination campaigns.Nevertheless,a continued surveillance programme including routine checks of all cattle carcasses at the abattoir and subsequent epidemiological investigation of suspected cases are recommended.

  13. Nitric oxide production by murine spleen cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    Sosroseno, Wihaskoro; Herminajeng, Endang; Susilowati, Heni; Budiarti, Sri

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans) could induce murine spleen cells to produce nitric oxide (NO). Spleen cells derived from Balb/c mice were stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or LPS from Escherichia coli for 4 days. The effects of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA), polymyxin B, and cytokines (IFN-gamma and IL-4) on the production of NO were also assessed. The NO production from the carrageenan-treated spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or both LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans and IFN-gamma was determined. The carrageenan-treated mice were transferred with splenic macrophages and the NO production was assessed from the spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans and IFN-gamma. The results showed that NO production was detectable in the cultures of spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans in a dose-dependent fashion, but was lower than in the cells stimulated with LPS from E. coli. The NO production was blocked by NMMA and polymyxin B. IFN-gamma up-regulated but IL-4 suppressed the production of NO by the spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans. The carrageenan-treated spleen cells failed to produce NO after stimulation with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or both LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans and IFN-gamma. Adoptive transfer of splenic macrophages to the carrageenan-treated mice could restore the ability of the spleen cells to produce NO. The results of the present study suggest that LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans under the regulatory control of cytokines induces murine spleen cells to produce NO and that splenic macrophages are the cellular source of the NO production. Therefore, these results may support the view that NO production by LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans-stimulated macrophages may play a role in the course of periodontal diseases. PMID:16887678

  14. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the Maasai ecosystem of south-western Kenya: Evaluation of seroprevalence, risk factors and vaccine safety and efficacy.

    Mtui-Malamsha, Niwael Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a bovine bacterial disease of major economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccination has been recommended to control the disease in endemic areas such as the Maasai ecosystems of Kenya and Tanzania; however, the currently used live attenuated vaccine has been reported to have poor vaccine safety and efficacy. To compare standard (current) and an improved (buffered) version of the live CBPP-vaccine, several epidemiological studie...

  15. The role of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans fimbrial adhesin on MMP-8 activity in aggressive periodontitis pathogenesis

    Rini Devijanti Ridwan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans is Gram negative and a major bacterial agent associated with aggressive periodontitis in young adult, this bacteria was an important factor in pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans possesses fimbriae with an adhesin protein that was the first bacterial molecules to make physical contact with host. Purpose: The objective of this research was to analyzed the influence of A. actinomycetemcomitans fimbrial adhesin protein induction on MMP-8 activity. Methods: The research was an experimental laboratory study, the step in this study were isolation and identification A. actinomycetemcomitans, characterize A. actinomycetemcomitans adhesin and study the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans adhesin in Wistar rats. Results: The result of this research on the role of adhesin in Wistar rats after analysis with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA showed significant differences in the control group with group induction with A. actinomycetemcomitans, A. actinomycetemcomitans plus adhesin and adhesin. MMP-8 activity increased with induction A. actinomycetemcomitans and 24 kDa A. actinomycetemcomitans adhesin. This fimbrial adhesin protein showed that A. actinomycetemcomitans has the ability to adhesion, colonization and invasion for host in aggressive periodontitis pathogenesis. Conclusion: A. actinomycetemcomitans fimbrial adhesin protein induction increasing MMP-8 activity for aggressive periodontitis pathogenesis.Latar belakang: A. actinomycetemcomitans merupakan salah satu bakteri Gram negatif yang terkait dengan periodontitis agresif yang menyerang penderita usia muda dan merupakan faktor penting dalam patogenesis periodontitis agresif. A. actimycetemcomitans mempunyai fimbriae dengan protein adhesin yang merupakan molekul pertama dari bakteri untuk melakukan kontak fisik dengan host. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis pengaruh induksi adhesin A

  16. Recombinant Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Cytolethal Distending Toxin Proteins Are Required To Interact To Inhibit Human Cell Cycle Progression and To Stimulate Human Leukocyte Cytokine Synthesis

    Akifusa, Sumio; Poole, Stephen; Lewthwaite, Jo; Henderson, Brian; Nair, Sean P

    2001-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an oral bacterium causing periodontitis, produces cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), a cell cycle-modulating toxin that has three protein subunits: CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC. In this study, we have cloned and expressed each toxin gene from A. actinomycetemcomitans in Escherichia coli and purified the recombinant Cdt proteins to homogeneity. Individual Cdt proteins failed to induce cell cycle arrest of the human epithelial c...

  17. Significance of CO2 donor on the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618

    Zou Wei; Zhu Li-Wen; Li Hong-Mei; Tang Ya-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Succinic acid is a building-block chemical which could be used as the precursor of many industrial products. The dissolved CO2 concentration in the fermentation broth could strongly regulate the metabolic flux of carbon and the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase, which are the important committed steps for the biosynthesis of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes. Previous reports showed that succinic acid production could be promoted by regulating ...

  18. Mouse interleukin-1 receptor antagonist induced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide blocks the effects of interleukin-1 on bone resorption and osteoclast-like cell formation.

    Nishihara, T; Ohsaki, Y.; Ueda, N; Saito, N; Mundy, G R

    1994-01-01

    We have reported that P388D1 cell line murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans release interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibitor. The IL-1 inhibitor was purified from conditioned media of P388D1 cells stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS for 72 h to homogeneity by a four-step procedure: acetic acid extraction from conditioned media; Bio-Gel P-60 gel filtration chromatography; DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography; and reverse-pha...

  19. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-polysaccharide-like polysaccharide promotes osteoclast-like cell formation by interleukin-1 alpha production in mouse marrow cultures.

    Nishihara, T.; Ueda, N; Amano, K; Ishihara, Y; Hayakawa, H.; Kuroyanagi, T; Ohsaki, Y; Nagata, K.; Noguchi, T

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of osteoclast-like cell formation induced by periodontopathic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b) capsular-polysaccharide-like polysaccharide (capsular-like polysaccharide) was examined in a mouse bone marrow culture system. When mouse bone marrow cells were cultured with A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide for 9 days, many multinucleated cells were formed. The multinucleated cells showed several characteristics of osteoclasts, inc...

  20. Sero-prevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in bulls originated from Borena pastoral area of Southern Ethiopia.

    Alemayehu, Gezahegn; Leta, Samson; Hailu, Berhanu

    2015-06-01

    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly infectious cattle disease, which is widespread in pastoral areas of Africa, and it imposes a major problem on Ethiopian livestock export market. Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 on bulls originated from Borena pastoral area to determine seroprevalence of CBPP. Forty batches of bulls containing 38,187 Borana bulls were tested using c-ELISA. Of the total 40 batches tested for the presence of antibodies, 25 (62.5 %) of them contained at least one seropositive bull. From the total of 38,187 bulls tested, 150 (0.4 %) bulls were positive. The number of seropositive animals increases as the herd size increases (P 1000, and the difference was found statistically significant (P opportunity to livestock producers and live animal and meat exporters by improving the demand of Ethiopian livestock on international market. Regular reintroduction of infected cattle from neighboring countries or herds where the disease remains endemic may change the disease dynamics again. Therefore, mass blanket vaccinations coupled with prompt diagnosis, isolation and stamping out of the outbreaks, intensive surveillance, followed by strict cattle movement control should be implemented by concerned parties. PMID:25863957

  1. Prevalence of contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia in pastoral flocks of goats in the Rift Valley region of Kenya.

    Kipronoh, Alexander Kipruto; Ombui, Jackson Nyarongi; Kiara, Henry Kimathi; Binepal, Yatinder Singh; Gitonga, Eric; Wesonga, Hezron Okwako

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted between the months of March 2014 and March 2015 to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in goat populations in pastoral flocks in three sub-counties of the Rift Valley region. A total of 432 serum samples were collected from goats from 54 flocks and tested for the presence of antibodies against mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (mccp) using monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Sero-prevalence recorded for Turkana West was 63.9%, Kajiado Central was 48.6%, while Pokot East was 29.2% which was statistically significant (χ2 = 34.997; P = 0.000) in the study sites. The results of this study confirmed that CCPP is widespread and endemic in the pastoral production systems studied in the Rift Valley region. The results confirmed that regions sharing international boundaries are at a higher risk of CCPP hence the need for a unified cross-border approach to disease control measures in the border areas. PMID:26516086

  2. Antimicrobial effect of chlorine dioxide on Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in diabetes mellitus rats treated with insulin

    Tantin Ermawati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of periodontal tissues. Etiology of periodontal disease includes Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans which is the most predominant disease-causing bacteria found in the gingival sulcus. Periodontitis can be exacerbated by the systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus considered as a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency. Treatment of periodontitis is then required in patients with type I diabetes to avoid radical reaction that can not only cause bleeding, but can also prevent infection, as a result, topical antimicrobial therapy and blood glucose control are required. Topical antimicrobial chlorine dioxide is a disinfectant that is effective in killing A. actinomycetemcomitans. Purpose: This study is aimed to determine the effects of topical antimicrobial chlorine dioxide gel or rinse on the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans in DM rats treated with insulin. Methods: 20 three month old male Wistar rats with weight of 170–200 grams were divided into four groups. First, periodontitis and DM were manipulated into all groups through aloksan injection with dose of 170 mg/kg. Those rats in group I were treated with insulin and chlorine dioxide gel, those in group II were treated with insulin and chlorine dioxide rinse, those in group III were treated with insulin only, and those in group IV were without treatment. In the third and seventh weeks, the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans was measured. The data was tested by using One-Way ANOVA test followed by LSD test. Results: The study showed that chlorine dioxide gel has a greater ability in reducing the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans than chlorine dioxide rinse although both are antimicrobials. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the use of chlorine dioxide gel can more effective to decrease the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans than chlorine dioxide rinse in DM rats

  3. Therapeutic effect of Chinese patent medicine "Wuhuanghu" on porcine infectious pleuropneumonia and its acute and subchronic toxicity as well as evaluation of safety pharmacology.

    Wang, Guangxi; Kang, Shuai; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Ren-Yong; Lai, Xin; Zhou, Xun; Liang, Xiao-Xia; Li, Li-Xia; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Lv, Cheng; He, Chang-Liang; Ye, Gang; Yin, Li-Zi; Jing, Bo

    2015-09-01

    Chinese patent medicines play an important role in veterinary clinical use. The aim of this study is to research the anti-infection effect of Chinese patent medicine "Wuhuanghu" for the treatment of porcine infectious pleuropneumonia and to evaluate the safety of "Wuhuanghu" in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of its toxicity. The anti-infection results showed that the treatment with "Wuhuanghu" could significantly inhibit pneumonia and decrement of the pneumonia in high, medium and low doses of "Wuhuanghu" groups were 70.97%, 61.29% and 58.06% respectively. The acute toxicity test showed that rats in the highest group (5000mg/kg) had no death and no abnormal response, suggesting the LD50 of "Wuhuanghu" was more than 5000mg/kg. The subchronic toxicity study showed that hematology indexes in all groups had no obvious differences; blood biochemical index, only albumin and total cholesterol in middle and low doses of "Wuhuanghu" groups were significantly decreased when compared with control group. The clinical pathology showed that the target organ of "Wuhuanghu" was liver. The safety pharmacology study indicated that "Wuhuanghu" had no side effects on rats. In conclusion, "Wuhuanghu" has therapeutic and protective effects to porcine infectious pleuropneumonia in a dose-dependent manner and "Wuhuanghu" is a safe veterinary medicine. PMID:26245812

  4. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh. PMID:26802183

  5. Performance analyses of a neutralizing agent combination strategy for the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618.

    Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Zhu, Li-Wen; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2012-05-01

    A neutralizing agent combination strategy was developed to enhance the succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618. First, a maximal succinic acid production of 48.2 g/L was obtained at a culture pH of 7.5. Second, NaOH and KOH were screened to identify the optimal neutralizing agent for pH control. However, the production of succinic acid did not increase, and severe cell flocculation was observed due to a high concentration of metal ions when only one neutralizing agent was used to control pH. Finally, a neutralizing agent combination strategy was developed with a supply of neutralizing agents with OH(-) and carbonate. The cell flocculation was eliminated, and a maximum succinic acid production of 59.2 g/L was obtained with 5 M NaOH and 40 g/L of MgCO(3); this production was 27.9% higher than that obtained with NaOH alone. The results obtained in this study may be useful for the large-scale industrial production of succinic acid. PMID:22002101

  6. Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618 fermentation medium optimization for the production of succinic acid by response surface methodology.

    Zhu, Li-Wen; Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Hong-Mei; Wan, Duan-Ji; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2012-01-01

    As a potential intermediary feedstock, succinic acid takes an important place in bulk chemical productions. For the first time, a method combining Plackett-Burman design (PBD), steepest ascent method (SA), and Box-Behnken design (BBD) was developed to optimize Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618 fermentation medium. First, glucose, yeast extract, and MgCO(3) were identified to be key medium components by PBD. Second, preliminary optimization was run by SA method to access the optimal region of the key medium components. Finally, the responses, that is, the production of succinic acid, were optimized simultaneously by using BBD, and the optimal concentration was located to be 84.6 g L(-1) of glucose, 14.5 g L(-1) of yeast extract, and 64.7 g L(-1) of MgCO(3). Verification experiment indicated that the maximal succinic acid production of 52.7 ± 0.8 g L(-1) was obtained under the identified optimal conditions. The result agreed with the predicted value well. Compared with that of the basic medium, the production of succinic acid and yield of succinic acid against glucose were enhanced by 67.3% and 111.1%, respectively. The results obtained in this study may be useful for the industrial commercial production of succinic acid. PMID:23093852

  7. Use of corn steep liquor as an economical nitrogen source for biosuccinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes

    Tan, J. P.; Jahim, J. M.; Wu, T. Y.; Harun, S.; Mumtaz, T.

    2016-06-01

    Expensive raw materials are the driving force that leads to the shifting of the petroleum-based succinic acid production into bio-based succinic acid production by microorganisms. Cost of fermentation medium is among the main factors contributing to the total production cost of bio-succinic acid. After carbon source, nitrogen source is the second largest component of the fermentation medium, the cost of which has been overlooked for the past years. The current study aimed at replacing yeast extract- a costly nitrogen source with corn steep liquor for economical production of bio-succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. In this study, a final succinic acid concentration of 20.6 g/L was obtained from the use of corn steep liquor as the nitrogen source, which was comparable with the use of yeast extract as the nitrogen source that had a final succinate concentration of 21.4 g/l. In terms of economical wise, corn steep liquor was priced at 200 /ton, which was one fifth of the cost of yeast extract at 1000 /ton. Therefore, corn steep liquor can be considered as a potential nitrogen source in biochemical industries instead of the costly yeast extract.

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05198-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available e) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ... 49 6e-08 CP001100_1460( CP001100 |pid:none) Chloroherpeton thalassi...bacterium freudenreichii ... 44 2e-08 CP000687_808( CP000687 |pid:none) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoni...000569_834( CP000569 |pid:none) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ... 47 2e-07 CP000951_1090( CP000951 |pid:non...01213_1384( CP001213 |pid:none) Bifidobacterium animalis subsp.... 42 6e-07 CP000142_2488( CP000142 |pid:none) Pelobacter carbino...e) Chlorobaculum parvum NCIB 8327, ... 57 9e-07 AY625502_1( AY625502 |pid:none) Glossina morsitans morsitans clon

  9. LEUKOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ACTINOBACILLUS ACTINOMYCETEMCOMITANS ISOLATED FROM HUMAN AND NON-HUMAN PRIMATES Atividade leucotóxica de amostras de Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans de primatas humanos não-humanos

    Francisca Lúcia de Lima

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a clinically relevant periodontopathogenic Gram-negative coccobacillus that produces a leukotoxin of the RTX cytolysin family. In this study, we evaluated the leukotoxic activity of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains isolated from human and marmosets by Trypan blue exclusion and by the chemiluminescence assays. Among eight A. actinomycetemcomitans human strains studied, two (P2.17 and P8.12 were classified as high leukotoxin producers and among eight marmoset strains, one (M22.11 showed high leukotoxin production, as determined by Trypan blue exclusion assay. The reference strains ATCC 29523 and FDC Y4 respectively behaved like moderate and low producers. The chemiluminescence assay was used to evaluate the leukotoxic activity of M22.11 and P2.17 strains submitted to different growth conditions. Leukotoxic activity was detected on cells at the logarithmic phase and was similar under anaerobic and microaerophilic growth conditions. It was greatly reduced when cells were grown at glucose concentrations lower or higher than 0.75% (0.25% and 1.5% in thioglycolate medium. Leukotoxin production mainly by the M22.11 strain was low in BHI broth, whereas production in TSB medium showed a similar level as in thioglycolate broth medium. Sodium bicarbonate at 10 mM did not affect leukotoxin production.Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans é um cocobacilo Gram negativo, periodontopatógeno clinicamente importante, que produz uma leucotoxina pertencente à família das citolisinas RTX. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a atividade leucotóxica de amostras de A. actinomycetemcomitans isoladas de seres humanos e de calitriquídeos pelos métodos de exclusão de azul de Tripan e quimioluminescência. Duas (P2.17 e P8.12 entre oito amostras de A. actinomycetemcomitans isoladas de seres humanos, e uma (M22.11 entre 8 amostras isoladas de sagüis se apresentaram como altamente produtoras de leucotoxina, como determinado pelo teste de

  10. Association between coinfection of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Treponema denticola and periodontal tissue destruction in chronic periodontitis

    CHEN Li-li; WU Yan-min; YAN Jie; SUN Wei-lian; SUN Yu-zheng; David Ojcius

    2005-01-01

    Background The association between the infection of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomy-cetemcomitans and Treponema denticola in chronic periodontitis (CP) and the severity of periodontal disease remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the subgingival infection frequencies of three periodontopathic bacteria in Chinese CP patients and to evaluate the correlations between infection by these bacteria and periodontal destruction.Methods A multiple PCR assay using primers derived from 16SrDNA genes of P. gingivalis, A. actinomy-cetemitans and T. denticola was established to measure simultaneously the presence of the three microbes in 162 subgingival samples from 81 Chinese CP patients. Results The positive rates of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemitans and T. denticola in the subgingival samples were 84.6%, 83.3% and 88.3%, respectively. Of the subgingival samples, 68% revealed the coinfection of all the three microbes. The infection rates with P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemitans or T. denticola alone was 5.9% (1/17), 17.6% (3/17) and 76.5% (13/17), respectively. A close association was present between the A. actinomycetemitans infection and gingival index (GI) (P0.05). P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemitans were more frequently detectable in middle and deep pockets than in shallow ones (P<0.01), while T. denticola was found remarkably often in deep pockets (P<0.05). The coinfection rate of the three microbes was significantly higher in sites with severe periodontitis than in those with mild periodontitis (P<0.01). Conclusions The multiple PCR established in this study can be used as a sensitive and specific method to simultaneously detect all three microbes in subgingival samples. A. actinomycetemitans infection may be associated with CP and play an important role in the periodontal tissue destruction. The coinfection of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemitans and T. denticola can cause more serious periodontal destruction than

  11. Coinfection by Ureaplasma spp., Photobacterium damselae and an Actinomyces-like microorganism in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with pleuropneumonia stranded along the Adriatic coast of Italy.

    Di Francesco, Gabriella; Cammà, Cesare; Curini, Valentina; Mazzariol, Sandro; Proietto, Umberto; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Ferri, Nicola; Di Provvido, Andrea; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    A case of pleuropneumonia is reported in an adult male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded in 2014 along the Central Adriatic coast of Italy. A severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia and thoracic lymphadenopathy were present at necropsy. Numerous Splendore-Hoeppli bodies were found microscopically scattered throughout the lung. Histochemical evidence of Actinomyces-like organisms was obtained from the pulmonary parenchyma, with a strain of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Ureaplasma spp. being also isolated from the same tissue. For the latter, a genome fragment of approximately 1400bp from the 16s rDNA was amplified and sequenced. BLAST analysis revealed 100% identity with an uncultured Ureaplasma spp. (JQ193826.1). PMID:27033917

  12. Experimental Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia: A Long Term Study on the Course of Infection and Pathology in a Flock of Goats Infected with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    Bölske G; Thiaucourt F; Wesonga HO; Wanjohi C; Lindberg R

    2004-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a major threat to goat farming in parts of Africa and Asia. It classically causes acute high morbidity and mortality early in infection, but little is known of its long term epizootiology and course. In this study, 10 goats were inoculated with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae) and then mixed with 15 goats for contact transmission. The disease course was monitored in each goat for 56–105 days, whereafter the goats w...

  13. Abscesos pleurales producidos por Staphylococcus aureus y Streptococcus spp. beta-hemolítico como secuela de pleuroneumonía en un caballo: Reporte de un caso Abscessos pleurais causados por Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus spp. beta-hemolítico no rescaldo de pleuropneumonia em um cavalo.: Relato de um caso Pleural abscesses produced by Staphylococcus aureus and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus spp. as a sequel of pleuropneumonia in a horse: A case report

    Jorge U Carmona

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los abscesos pleurales son una complicación frecuente en caballos con pleuroneumonía. Su tratamiento resulta difícil, requiere tiempo y dinero. Un caballo criollo argentino, castrado, de 13 años de edad presentó una pleuroneumonía grave que posteriormente se complicó con abscesos pleurales. El uso de anti-inflamatorios no esteroidales (fenilbutazona, una antibioterapia agresiva (ceftiofur, ampicilina y gentamicina, el drenaje eco-guiado y el lavado de los abscesos con una solución de yodopovidona al 0.05% permitió la recuperación exitosa del paciente de este reporte.Os abscessos pleurais são uma complicação comum em cavalos com pleuropneumonia. Seu tratamento é difícil e requer tempo e dinheiro. Um cavalo crioulo argentino, castrado, 13 anos de idade apresentou uma grave pleuropneumonia que posteriormente se tornou complicado com abscesso pleural. O uso de não-esteróides antiinflamatórios (fenilbutazona, uma agressiva terapia antibiótica (cetfiofur, ampicilina e gentamicina, eu drenagem eco-guiado e da lavagem dos abscessos com uma solução de yodopovidona de 0.05%, permitiu o sucesso da recuperação do paciente deste relato de caso.Pleural abscesses are a frequent complication in horses with pleuropneumonia. Their treatment is not easy, and requires time and it is expensive. A 13 years old creole argentine gelding presented a severe pleuropneumonia subsequently complicated with pleural abscess. The use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (fenylbutazone, an aggressive antibiotherapy (ceftiofur, ampicillin, and gentamicin, echoguide drainage and lavage with yodopovidone to 0.05% of the abscesses permitted the successful recuperation of the patient of this case report.

  14. Development of a Novel Cocktail Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and a Field-Applicable Lateral-Flow Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.

    Heller, Martin; Gicheru, Nimmo; Tjipura-Zaire, Georgina; Muriuki, Cecilia; Yu, Mingyan; Botelho, Ana; Naessens, Jan; Jores, Joerg; Liljander, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease that is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, a bacterium belonging to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. In the absence of an efficient CBPP vaccine, improved and easy-to-use diagnostic assays for recurrent testing combined with isolation and treatment of positive animals represent an option for CBPP control in Africa. Here we describe the comprehensive screening of 17 immunogenic Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides proteins using well-characterized bovine sera for the development of a novel cocktail enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for laboratory use. Two recombinant Mycoplasma immunogens, MSC_0136 and MSC_0636, were used to set up a standardized cocktail ELISA protocol. According to the results from more than 100 serum samples tested, the sensitivity and specificity of the novel cocktail ELISA were 85.6% and 96.4%, respectively, with an overall diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE)-prescribed serological assays. In addition, we provide a proof of principle for a field-applicable, easy-to-use commercially produced prototype lateral-flow test for rapid (<30-min) diagnosis of CBPP. PMID:27053669

  15. Experimental Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia: A Long Term Study on the Course of Infection and Pathology in a Flock of Goats Infected with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    Bölske G

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP is a major threat to goat farming in parts of Africa and Asia. It classically causes acute high morbidity and mortality early in infection, but little is known of its long term epizootiology and course. In this study, 10 goats were inoculated with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae and then mixed with 15 goats for contact transmission. The disease course was monitored in each goat for 56–105 days, whereafter the goats were killed and necropsied. Varying features signifying infection occurred in altogether 17 goats (7 inoculated, 10 in-contact. Clinical signs were severe in 8 goats but no fatalities occurred. Only 6 goats had serum antibody titres against M. capripneumoniae in ELISA. Fourteen goats (5 inoculated, 9 in-contact had chronic pleuropulmonary lesions compatible with CCPP at necropsy and 7 of those showed M. capripneumoniae antigen in the lung by immunohistochemistry. Neither cultivation nor PCR tests were positive for the agent in any goat. The results indicate that the clinical course of CCPP in a flock may be comparatively mild, M. capripneumoniae-associated lung lesions may be present at a late stage of infection, and chronic infection may occur without a significant serological response.

  16. Occurrence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in patients with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, healthy subjects and children with gingivitis in two cities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência de Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans em pacientes com periodontite crônica, periodontite agressiva, pessoas saudáveis e crianças com gengivite em duas cidades do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Elerson Gaetti Jardim Júnior; Joseane Maria Dias Bosco; Angélica Marquezim Lopes; Luís Fernando Landucci; Ellen Cristina Gaetti Jardim; Sílvia Rosana Soares Carneiro

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) in 100 patients with chronic periodontitis, 14 patients with aggressive periodontitis, 142 pre-school children with gingivitis and 134 periodontally healthy subjects. Samples of subgingival plaque were taken using sterilized paper points introduced into periodontal pockets or gingival crevice for 60 seconds and inoculated on TSBV agar, which was incubated under anaerobiosis at 37ºC, ...

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15214-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available e) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae... 107 4e-22 CP000927_3202( CP000927 |pid:none) Cau...lobacter sp. K31, complete g... 107 4e-22 CP000569_1501( CP000569 |pid:none) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae...000687_1497( CP000687 |pid:none) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae... 107 6e-22 (Q9...P001098_708( CP001098 |pid:none) Halothermothrix orenii H 168, co... 104 4e-21 (Q8RQM6) RecName: Full=Diaminopim... 83 9e-15 AE017283_1241( AE017283 |pid:none) Propionibacterium acnes KPA1712... 83 9e-15 (Q9X5M1) RecName: Full=Diaminopim

  18. Qualitative and quantitative impacts assessment of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Fulani pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria: The associated socio-cultural factors.

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important trans-boundary disease affecting Fulani cattle herds of Nigeria and whose control is urgently needed. A Participatory Epidemiology approach and cross-sectional study were concurrently conducted to investigate qualitative and quantitative impacts of CBPP, respectively and associated socio-cultural factors that influenced exposure of Fulani nomadic pastoral communities to its risk in Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and December 2013. A total of nine pastoral communities were purposively selected for qualitative impact assessment using Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, while 765 cattle randomly sampled from 125 purposively selected nomadic herds were analyzed using c-ELISA. Data on socio-cultural characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on nomadic herd owners of the 125 selected herds. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W statistics and OpenEpi 2.3 were used for statistical analyses. Pastoralists' dependent factors associated with their socio-cultural activities were tested using Chisquare tests and likelihood backward logistic regressions. The mean proportional piles (relative qualitative impact) of CBPP was 12.6%, and nomads agreement on this impact was strong (W=0.6855) and statistically significant (Psource that caused concentration of stocks in one point was fifty three times more likely (OR 53.08; 95% CI: 14.91, 189.00) to be satisfactory practice that influenced occurrence of the disease in herds. This study highlighted the critical gap that exists in terms of significant influence of socio-cultural factors on CBPP occurrence in pastoral herds in Nigeria. Thus, CBPP surveillance, control and prevention programs that take these factors into consideration will be beneficial to the livestock industry in Nigeria, and indeed Africa. PMID:27237398

  19. Development of an Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Seromonitoring Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia Using Recombinant Lipoprotein LppQ of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides SC as Antigen

    XIN Jiu-qing; GAO Yun-long; LI Yuan; WANG Yan-fan; QIAN Ai-dong

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides SC (MmmSC) is the etiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The lipoprotein LppQ encoded by lppQ gene is specific to MmmSC and is found in the type strain and in field strains isolated in Europe, Africa, and Australia, as well as in vaccine strains. No serological cross-reactions were observed with the related mycoplasmas of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. The N-terminal domain of the mature lipoprotein LppQ is hydrophilic, and it induces a strong, specific, early, and persistent immune response in naturally and experimentally infected animals. Mycoplasma-specific TGA (Trp) codons are utilized as stop codons in most other organisms. The lppQ N-terminal fragment from MmmSC HVRI Ⅹ strain, the Chinese strain for CF antigen production, was mutated with one-step overlapping extension PCR. Sequence analysis confirmed the successful mutation from A to G in codon 198 in the lppQ gene. The fragment containing the mutation site was subcloned into the pET32a expression vector. The recombinant protein with molecular weight of 42 kDa was purified using the Ni-NTA His.Bind purification kit, with a purity of up to 95%. Western blot indicated that the standard positive serum of CBPP could react with the recombinant protein. The purified protein was diluted to 0.35 μg mL-1, and coated to microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates. Indirect ELISA reaction conditions were optimized. The value of P/N was determined to be 4.8 (0.934/0.193), the sensitivity to be 95.8% (46/48), and the specificity to be 98.9% (161/163). 3 817 cattle serum samples from three different provinces were detected by the indirect ELISA and CFT. The Kappa value is 0.63, which is middle or high agreement between the two methods.

  20. Usefulness of real time PCR for the differentiation and quantification of 652 and JP2 Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans genotypes in dental plaque and saliva

    Piras Vincenzo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study is to describe a fast molecular method, able to distinguish and quantize the two different genotypes (652 and JP2 of an important periodontal pathogen: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. The two genotypes show differences in the expression of an important pathogenic factor: the leukotoxin (ltx. In order to evidence this, we performed a real time PCR procedure on the ltx operon, able to recognize Aa clinical isolates with different leukotoxic potentials. Methods The specificity of the method was confirmed in subgingival plaque and saliva specimens collected from eighty-one Italian (Sardinian subjects with a mean age of 43.9, fifty five (68 % of whom had various clinical forms of periodontal disease. Results This procedure showed a good sensitivity and a high linear dynamic range of quantization (107-102 cells/ml for all genotypes and a good correlation factor (R2 = 0.97–0.98. Compared with traditional cultural methods, this real time PCR procedure is more sensitive; in fact in two subgingival plaque and two positive saliva specimens Aa was only detected with the molecular method. Conclusion A low number of Sardinian patients was found positive for Aa infections in the oral cavity, (just 10 positive periodontal cases out of 81 and two of these were also saliva positive. The highly leukotoxic JP2 strain was the most representative (60 % of the positive specimens; the samples from periodontal pockets and from saliva showed some ltx genotype for the same patient. Our experience suggests that this approach is suitable for a rapid and complete laboratory diagnosis for Aa infection.

  1. Improved Multiplex PCR Using Conserved and Species-Specific 16S rRNA Gene Primers for Simultaneous Detection of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Tran, Simon Dangtuan; Rudney, Joel D.

    1999-01-01

    Among putative periodontal pathogens, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis are most convincingly implicated as etiological agents in periodontitis. Therefore, techniques for detection of those three species would be of value. We previously published a description of a multiplex PCR that detects A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis. The present paper presents an improvement on that technique, which now allows more sensitive detection of all three periodontal pathogens. Sensitivity was determined by testing serial dilutions of A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, and P. gingivalis cells. Primer specificity was tested against (i) all gene sequences from the GenBank-EMBL database, (ii) six A. actinomycetemcomitans, one B. forsythus, and four P. gingivalis strains, (iii) eight different species of oral bacteria, and (iv) supra- and subgingival plaque samples from 20 healthy subjects and subgingival plaque samples from 10 patients with periodontitis. The multiplex PCR had a detection limit of 10 A. actinomycetemcomitans, 10 P. gingivalis, and 100 B. forsythus cells. Specificity was confirmed by the fact that (i) none of our forward primers were homologous to the 16S rRNA genes of other oral species, (ii) amplicons of predicted size were detected for all A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, and P. gingivalis strains tested, and (iii) no amplicons were detected for the eight other bacterial species. A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, and P. gingivalis were detected in 6 of 20, 1 of 20, and 11 of 20 of supragingival plaque samples, respectively, and 4 of 20, 7 of 20, and 13 of 20 of subgingival plaque samples, respectively, from periodontally healthy subjects. Among patients with periodontitis, the organisms were detected in 7 of 10, 10 of 10, and 7 of 10 samples, respectively. The simultaneous detection of three periodontal pathogens is an advantage of this technique over conventional PCR assays. PMID

  2. The concentration of apolipoprotein A-I decreases during experimentally induced acute-phase processes in pigs

    Carpintero, R.; Pineiro, M.; Andres, M.;

    2005-01-01

    In this work, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) was purified from pig sera. The responses of this protein after sterile inflammation and in animals infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae or Streptococcus suis were investigated. Decreases in the concentrations of ApoA-I, two to five times lower...

  3. Knoflook remt App

    Mul, M.F.; Becker, P.M.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Wikselaar, van P.G.; Wisselink, H.J.; Stockhofe, N.

    2011-01-01

    De Animal Sciences Group van Wageningen UR heeft in opdracht van biologische varkenshouders onderzocht of het mogelijk is om in plaats van antibiotica, knoflook te gebruiken voor de bestrijding van longontsteking door de bacterie Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App). Uit de resultaten blijkt dat Al

  4. Infectious and rearing-system related risk factors for chronic pleuritis in slaughter pigs

    Enøe, Claes; Mousing, Jan; Schirmer, Anna Luise; Willeberg, Preben

    2002-01-01

    of the pig, the weight of the carcass, and the herd of origin were also recorded. Individual blood samples were examined for seropositivity for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (AP) serotypes 2, 6, 7, 12, Haemophilus parasuis, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MYC) and swine influenza (SI). Herd...

  5. Susceptibility of bacteria isolated from pigs to tiamulin and enrofloxacin metabolites

    Lykkeberg, Anne Kruse; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    -tiamulin (8 alpha-HTIA), and the ENR metabolites were: ciprofloxacin (CIP) and enrofloxacin N-oxide (ENR-N). Bacteria, all of porcine origin, we're selected as representatives of bacterial infections (Stap4ylococcus hyicus and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae), zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter coli) and...

  6. Association between infection of different strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in subgingival plaque and clinical parameters in chronic periodontitis

    WU Yan-min; YAN Jie; CHEN Li-li; GU Zhi-yuan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate subgingival infection frequencies ofPorphyromonas gtngivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strains with genetic variation in Chinese chronic periodontitis (CP) patients and to evaluate its correlation with clinical parameters. Methods: Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed to detect the 16SrDNA, collagenase (prtC) and fimbria (fimA) genes of P. gingivalis and the 16SrDNA, leukotoxin (lktA) and fimbria-associated protein (lap) genes ofA. actinomycetemcomitans in 60 sulcus samples from 30 periodontal healthy subjects and in 122 subgingival plaque samples from 61 patients with CP. The PCR products were further T-A cloned and sent for nucleotide sequence analysis. Results: The 16SrDNA, prtC andfimA genes ofP. gingivalis were detected in 92.6%, 85.2% and 80.3% of the subgingival plaque samples respectively, while the 16SrDNA, lktA andfap genes ofA. actinomycetemcomitans were in 84.4%,75.4% and 50.0% respectively. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed 98.62%~100% homology of the PCR products in these genes with the reported sequences. P. gingivalis strains with prtC+/fimA+ and A. actinomycetemcomitans with lktA+ were predominant in deep pockets (>6 mm) or in sites with attachment loss ≥5 mm than in shallow pockets (3~4 mm) or in sites with attachment loss ≤2 mm (P<0.05). P. gingivalis strains with prtC+/fimA+ also showed higher frequency in gingival index (GI)=3than in GI= 1 group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Infection of P. gingivalis with prtC+/fimA+ and A. actinomycetemcomitans with lktA+correlates with periodontal destruction of CP in Chinese. Nonetheless P. gingivalis fimA, prtC genes and A. actinomycetemcomitans IktA gene are closely associated with periodontal destruction, while A. actinomycetemcomitansfap gene is not.

  7. Serotype Identification and Medicine Sensitivity Test of Actinobcillus pleuropneumoniae%猪传染性胸膜肺炎放线杆菌的血清型鉴定与药敏试验

    蔡丙严; 周建强; 陈长春; 魏冬霞; 张步彩

    2012-01-01

    TZA1,TZA2 and TZA3 strains were obtained by bacteria separate and culture from a suspected infectious pleurop-neumoniae ill pigs in Taizhou, Jiangsu province. After morphology check, cAMP test, satellite growth phenomenon, biochemical test and serotype identification, the isolated strains were serotyped, TZA1 and TZA2 as serotype 1, TZA3 as serotype 3. And the drug sensitivity test showed that three isolated strains were high-sensitive to some antibacterial agents such as en-rofloxacin, azithromycin and ceftizoxime.%从江苏泰州地区疑似猪传染性胸膜肺炎发病猪采集病料,经细菌分离培养得到了3株分离株TZA1、TZA2和TZA3株.经形态学检查、CAMP试验、生化试验和血清型鉴定,确定TZA1株和TZA2株为血清1型,TZA3株为血清3型.药敏试验显示,3株分离菌株对恩诺沙星、阿齐霉素、头孢唑肟高度敏感.

  8. Local and disseminated acute phase response during bacterial respiratory infection in pigs

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2010-01-01

    proteins (APP) outside the liver is increasingly recognized, still little is known of extra-hepatic production of APP in pigs. 14-18 h after experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, causing acute pleuropneumonia in pigs, we studied local APP gene expression changes in different......The acute phase response is playing an important role, aiming to restore the healthy state after tissue injury, inflammation and infection. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate defense reactions remain somewhat elusive. Expression of acute phase...... differentially expressed between infected and control animals. We demonstrated that acute pleuropneumonia caused by A. pleuropneumoniae leads to a rapid disseminated local intra-lung APP response, also in apparently unaffected areas of the infected lung. Further extrahepatic expression of several acute-phase...

  9. Occurrence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in patients with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, healthy subjects and children with gingivitis in two cities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência de Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans em pacientes com periodontite crônica, periodontite agressiva, pessoas saudáveis e crianças com gengivite em duas cidades do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Elerson Gaetti Jardim Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa in 100 patients with chronic periodontitis, 14 patients with aggressive periodontitis, 142 pre-school children with gingivitis and 134 periodontally healthy subjects. Samples of subgingival plaque were taken using sterilized paper points introduced into periodontal pockets or gingival crevice for 60 seconds and inoculated on TSBV agar, which was incubated under anaerobiosis at 37ºC, for 4 days. Microbial identification was performed through biochemical methods and morphocellular and morphocolonial analysis. Aa was detected in 40.3% of healthy subjects, 68% of patients with chronic periodontitis, 92.86% of patients with aggressive periodontitis and 40.14% of children with gingivitis. The rate of recovery of Aa in the tested human groups proved to be higher than previously reported and in agreement with participation of this facultative anaerobe as a member of native microbiota of the periodontium and its relation with aggressive and chronic periodontitis in Brazil.Avaliou-se a ocorrência de Actinobacillus actinmycetemcomitans (Aa em pacientes 100 pacientes com periodontite crônica, 14 com doença periodontal agressiva, 142 crianças com gengivite em idade pré-escolar e 134 indivíduos adultos saudáveis. Amostras de placa subgengival foram coletadas usando cones de papel estéreis introduzidos nas bolsas periodontais ou no sulco gengival por 60 segundos e inoculadas em ágar TSBV, que foram incubadas em anaerobiose a 37ºC, por 4 dias. A identificação microbiana foi realizada através de análises bioquímicas, morfocelulares e morfocoloniais. Aa foi detectado em 40,3% de indivíduos saudáveis, 68% de pacientes com periodontite crônica, 92,86% de pacientes com periodontite agressiva e 40,14% das crianças com gengivite. A taxa de ocorrência de Aa nos grupos testados provou ser mais alta do que a previamente descrita na literatura

  10. Procedimiento para la detección, identificación y tipado de Haemophilus parasuis (Sistema DITPAR).

    Rodríguez Ferri, Elías Fernando; Navas Méndez, Jesús; Fuente Redondo, Víctor A. de la

    2001-01-01

    Se refiere un procedimiento de análisis molecular, por PCR-RFLP, que permite la detección, identificación y tipificación de Haemophilus parasuis, un microorganismo de interés en patología porcina, a partir de muestras clínicas y/o de aislamientos obtenidos en el laboratorio. El método se fundamenta en las peculiaridades de los genes tbp en esta bacteria cuando se compara con otras próximas, como Actinobacillus suis y Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. El procedimiento discrimina H. parasuis de ...

  11. Poly-N-Acetylglucosamine Matrix Polysaccharide Impedes Fluid Convection and Transport of the Cationic Surfactant Cetylpyridinium Chloride through Bacterial Biofilms▿

    Ganeshnarayan, Krishnaraj; Shah, Suhagi M.; Libera, Matthew R.; Santostefano, Anthony; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    Biofilms are composed of bacterial cells encased in a self-synthesized, extracellular polymeric matrix. Poly-β(1,6)-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) is a major biofilm matrix component in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. In this study we investigated the physical and chemical properties of the PNAG matrix in biofilms produced in vitro by the gram-negative porcine respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and the gram-positive device-associated pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis. Th...

  12. A longitudinal study of serological patterns of respiratory infections in nine infected Danish swine herds

    Andreasen, Margit; Nielsen, Jens; Bækbo, Poul; Willeberg, Preben; Bøtner, Anette

    Sixteen litters of seven pigs from each of nine Danish farrow-to-finish herds were followed to investigate the serological patterns caused by natural infection with Mycoplasma hyponeumoniae, Pasteurella multocida toxin and Actinobacillus pleuroneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7, 12. In seven of the herds....... hyopneumoniae (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), P. multocida toxin (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7, 12 (complement-fixation tests). The most-common pattern (28%) of seroconversion was that of pigs first seroconverting to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, followed by...... seroconversion to M. hyopneumoniae. Each herd had a dominant serotype of A. pleuropneumoniae to which most pigs seroconverted. Seroconversion to the respiratory pathogens occurred mainly in the growing-to-finishing units (8-24 weeks). The risk of seroconversion to the P. multocida toxin was very low (...

  13. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania: current status.

    Msami, H M; Ponela-Mlelwa, T; Mtei, B J; Kapaga, A M

    2001-02-01

    CBPP reappeared in Arusha, Northern Tanzania in 1990, having been introduced from Kenya. The disease spread rapidly to Mara region through rustling of sick or infected animals. In November 1992, an unrelated outbreak occurred in Kagera, having spread from Southern Uganda. Up to the end of December 1994, the disease appeared to be confined to Kagera and Arusha. In January 1995, CBPP was observed in Morogoro region, south of the central railway line. Thereafter, the disease spread through western Tanzania. More recently, further disease has occurred in the Southern Highlands and Central regions. The contaminated area now stretches roughly between latitudes 1 degree and 9 degrees S and longitudes 30 degrees and 37 degrees E, with a cattle population of about 10 million. The direct losses incurred as a result of animal mortality, and vaccination campaign and disease surveillance costs have been assessed at over US$11 million. Indirect losses resulting from chronic disease are much more difficult to assess but are believed to be even higher. Control of the disease has been through restricting animal movements and a mass vaccination campaign. Uncontrolled animal movement during transhumance, trade, cattle thefts and vaccination breakthroughs facilitated the spread of the disease. PMID:11234189

  14. Pleuroneumonía Equina (Equine Pleuropneumonia)

    Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; Díez-de Castro, Elisa; Mayer-Valor, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    ResumenLa pleuroneumonía es un problema frecuente en el caballo. Esta enfermedad consiste en colonización bacteriana del parénquima pulmonar, desarrollo de una neumonía o abscesos pulmonares y la consiguiente extensión del proceso hacia la pleura visceral y el espacio pleural provocando pleuritis. Generalmente, su desarrollose asocia con cualquier condición que favorezca la aspiración de secreciones faríngeas o impida su eliminación (transporte, enfermedades víricas, ejercicio extenuante, ane...

  15. Interferência do tratamento preventivo com antimicrobianos sobre a colonização de agentes da microbiota do trato respiratório de leitões

    Lara, Anne Caroline de

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Os agentes Streptococcus suis, Haemophilus parasuis e Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae são responsáveis por grandes prejuízos na suinocultura tecnificada. Estes agentes podem causar meningite estreptocócica, doença de Glasser ou pneumonias, respectivamente. Essas doenças são consideradas multifatoriais, pois somente a presença dos agentes na granja não é suficiente para desencadear a doença. Portanto, a presença de fatores de risco associado à cepas potencialmente patogênicas represent...

  16. Investigations of representation of certain bacteria strains in lungs of pigs with pneumonia

    Žutić Milenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigations described in this paper was to carry out the identification and to establish the incidence of certain strains of bacteria that take part in the etiopathogenesis of pig infections. The investigations covered a total of 237 pathoanatomically altered lungs of expired pigs. Sampling was done during visits to pig farms, most often in situations when it had been necessary to resolve occurring respiratory infections. The samples were examined in a laboratory for the presence of bacterial causes using standard and commercial methods of microbiological diagnostics. For this purpose, the samples were sown on corresponding nutritive bases (blood agar, MacConkey agar, nutritive agar, BHI agar, Baird Parker agar. For the primary isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis, agar with 5-10% sheep's blood was used and the culture of the strain Staphylococcus aureus which serves as a source of V factor, and for subcultivation of these causes, chocolate agar was used with PolyVitex. In the isolated bacteria, following investigations of morphological and culture characteristics, biochemical identification was performed using the commercial tests BBL Crystal GP ID Kit, E/N ID Kit, Api 20 Strep and Slidex Staph Plus. From the total of 237 examined lung samples, 13 bacteria strains were isolated from 193 samples (81.43%. Among breeding pigs, 112 lung samples were examined and the presence of bacteria was established in 92 (82.14%, while the presence of bacteria was established in 101 samples (80.8% of 125 examined lung samples from fattening pigs. Two bacteria strains were dominant among the spectrum of lung microorganisms: Pasteurella multocida (32.64% and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (29.02%, or, these two bacteria strains in total accounted for 61.66% of all strains isolated in pure culture. The participation of the other 11 bacteria strains ranged from 0.52-9.84%. Observed according to production

  17. 伴放线放线杆菌cdtB基因克隆及其表达蛋白的体外生物学活性检测%Gene cloning of cdtB from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and bioactivity test of the recombinant protein CdtB in vitro

    李璐; 段君兰; 王晓茜; 杨迷芳; 徐艳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To construct the prokayotic expression vector pET-15b-cdtB containing the cdtB gene from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and to test the bioactivity of this recombinant CdtB in vitro. Methods The toxic cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) subunit encoding gene cdtB was amplified by PCR. Through restriction endonuclease digestion,gene cdtB and vector pET-15b were ligated to form pET-15b-cdtB expression system which was transformed into competent cells Escherichia coli BL21 ( DE3 ). Protein expression was induced by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside and examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-pelyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting. Supercoiled plasmid pET-32a DNA was incubated with purified recombinant CdtB protein in vitro to view any changes in the electrophoretic mobility of the plasmid pET-32a DNA band. Results PCR testing results of pET-15b-cdtB transformed cells demonstrated that all strains contained cdtB gene. The DNA sequence was blast with cdtB gene from GenBank and 99% homology was obtained. Both of SDS-PAGE and Western blotting confirmed that recombinant CdtB was obtained. After incubated with the purified recombinant CdtB in vitro, the supercoiled plasmid pET-32a DNA was observed relaxing by 1% ngarose gel electrophoresis test. Conclusions The recombinant plasmid pET-15b-cdtB was successfully constructed and the recombinant CdtB protein which has the Dnase Ⅰ -like activity was obtained.%目的 体外构建伴放线放线杆菌(Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Aa)CdtB蛋白的原核表达载体并诱导其表达,通过变性、复性获得有Ⅰ型脱氧核糖核酸酶(deoxyribonuclease Ⅰ,DNase Ⅰ)样活性的重组CdtB蛋白,为进一步研究AaCdtB的功能以及Aa细胞致死性扩张毒素三聚体全毒素在牙周炎发生、发展过程中的分子致病机制奠定基础.方法 以AaATCC29522基因组DNA为模板,采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)法获得cdtB基因,经双酶切、连接的定向克隆

  18. Actinobacillus minor sp nov, Actinobacillus porcinus sp nov, and Actinobacillus indolicus sp nov, three new V factor-dependent species from the respiratory tract of pigs

    Møller, Kristian; Fussing, V.; Grimont, P.A.D.; Paster, B.J.; Dewhirst, F.E.; Kilian, M.

    1996-01-01

    showed that the Minor group acid taxa C, D plus E, and F are distinct phylogenetic groups that are separate from each other and from other members of the family Pasteurellaceae, On the basis of these results, three new species, corresponding to the Minor group, taxa D plus E, and taxon F, are proposed...

  19. Genetic diversity of Actinobacillus lignieresii isolates from different hosts

    Kokotovic, Branko; Angen, Øystein; Bisgaard, Magne

    2011-01-01

    strains isolated from horses and infected wounds of humans bitten by horses and another consisting of strains isolated from bovine and ovine hosts. The present data indicate a comparatively higher degree of genetic diversity among strains isolated from equine hosts and confirm the existence of a separate...... genomospecies for A. lignieresi-like isolates from horses. Among the isolates from bovine and ovine hosts some clonal lines appear to be genetically stable over time and could be detected at very distant geographic localities. Although all ovine strains investigated grouped in a single cluster, the existence of...... distinct genetic lineages that have evolved specificity for ovine hosts is not obvious and needs to be confirmed in other studies....

  20. Transcriptional profiling at different sites in lungs of pigs during acute bacterial respiratory infection

    Mortensen, Shila; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Hedegaard, Jakob; Bendixen, Christian; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2011-01-01

    The local transcriptional response was studied in different locations of lungs from pigs experimentally infected with the respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5B, using porcine cDNA microarrays. This infection gives rise to well-demarcated infection loci in the lung...... apoptosis and the complement system. Interferon-g was downregulated in both necrotic and bordering areas. Evidence of neutrophil recruitment was seen by the up-regulation of chemotactic factors for neutrophils. In conclusion, we found subsets of genes expressed at different levels in the three selected...... of induced genes as, in unaffected areas a large part of differently expressed genes were involved in systemic reactions to infections, while differently expressed genes in necrotic areas were mainly concerned with homeostasis regulation....

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11289-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available c clone ZM... 48 0.61 1 ( BZ319034 ) hx52c12.g1 WGS-ZmaysF (JM107 adapted methyl filte... 48 0.61 1 ( EH6658...DNA DKFZp459M2... 222 2e-56 AE004439_277( AE004439 |pid:none) Pasteurella multoci...-59 AL607152_10( AL607152 |pid:none) Mouse DNA sequence from clone RP2... 230 5e-59 AY449460_20( AY449460 |pid:none) Oikopleur... CP000569 |pid:none) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ... 224 3e-57 AK296551_1( AK...001001 |pid:none) Methylobacterium radiotolerans J... 218 2e-55 U41762_1( U41762 |pid:none) Rhodobacte

  2. Resistance to antimicrobial agents used for animal therapy in pathogenic , zoonotic and indicator bacteria isolated from different food animals in Denmark: A baseline study for the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Programme (DANMAP)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Bager, Flemming; Jensen, N. E.;

    1998-01-01

    was found. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. In general, resistance was observed more frequently among isolates from pigs than from cattle and broilers. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed......, Enterococcus faecium), 2) zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter coli/jejuni, Salmonella enterica, Yelsinia enterocolitica), and 3) animal pathogens (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus hyicus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). A total of 3304 bacterial isolates......, as is the occurrence of resistance in other countries. The results of this study show the present level of resistance to antimicrobial agents among a number of bacterial species isolated from food animals in Denmark. Thus, the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies has been established, enabling...

  3. Organization and Biology of the Porcine Serum Amyloid A (SAA) Gene Cluster: Isoform Specific Responses to Bacterial Infection

    Olsen, Helle G; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Nielsen, Ole L;

    2013-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a prominent acute phase protein. Although its biological functions are debated, the wide species distribution of highly homologous SAA proteins and their uniform behavior in response to injury or inflammation in itself suggests a significant role for this protein. The pig...... is increasingly being used as a model for the study of inflammatory reactions, yet only little is known about how specific SAA genes are regulated in the pig during acute phase responses and other responses induced by pro-inflammatory host mediators. We designed SAA gene specific primers and...... quantified the gene expression of porcine SAA1, SAA2, SAA3, and SAA4 by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in liver, spleen, and lung tissue from pigs experimentally infected with the Gram-negative swine specific bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, as well as from...

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12795-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available M_Contig/Contig-U12795-1Q.Seq.d (799 letters) Database: ddbj_A 92,845,959 sequences; 95,242,211,685 total letters Searchi...Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ... 39 0.15 CP000264_969( CP000264 |pid:none) Jannaschia sp. CCS1, complete ...ti ge... 44 8.0 1 ( CN187962 ) UCRCS05_0005E19_f Washington Navel Orange Stored ...... 44 8.0 1 ( CN186686 ) UCRCS05_0003E16_f Washington Navel Orange Stored ... 44 8.0 1 ( CN186684 ) UCRCS05_0003E15_f Washington Nave...l Orange Stored ... 44 8.0 1 ( CN185617 ) UCRCS05_0001J21_f Washington Navel Orange Sto

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13341-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available wlesi strain H chro... 112 6e-28 AE014296_2729( AE014296 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster chromos...K1) RecName: Full=mRNA-decapping enzyme subunit 2; ... 117 2e-25 AE014296_2730( AE014296 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster chromos...e) Oryctes rhinoceros virus isolate ... 68 1e-10 FN357300_1( FN357300 |pid:none) Schistosoma mansoni geno....2 CP000910_1119( CP000910 |pid:none) Renibacterium salmoninarum ATCC... 35 1.2 CP001091_1984( CP001091 |pid:none) Actino... EC=3.6... 35 1.2 CP000687_1884( CP000687 |pid:none) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae... 35 1.2 CP001147_219( CP001147 |pid:non

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09625-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ch... 62 3e-08 CP000481_1283( CP000481 |pid:none) Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B... 62 3e-08 A96945( A96945 ) 4 animobutyrate amino...Q374002_1( DQ374002 |pid:none) Glossina morsitans morsitans alani... 59 3e-07 AP0...ella pneumoniae subsp. pn... 59 4e-07 CP001192_65( CP001192 |pid:none) Rhizobium leguminos...WO2008... 60 1e-07 ( O66557 ) RecName: Full=Adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate... 60 1e-07 CP000884_2788( CP000884 |pid:non...om... 59 3e-07 CP000569_1940( CP000569 |pid:none) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae... 59 3e-07 AF166351_1( AF166351 |pid:non

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06348-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available e) Sodalis glossinidius str. 'mors... 55 2e-06 CP001102_416( CP001102 |pid:non...... 55 2e-06 AM260479_948( AM260479 |pid:none) Ralstonia eutropha H16 chromosom... 55 2e-06 AP008232_2223( AP008232 |pid:non...11_2009( CU207211 |pid:none) Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans ch... 53 7e-06 CP000958_957( CP000958 |pid:non...CP001091_1911( CP001091 |pid:none) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae... 50 4e-05 CP000825_210( CP000825 |pid:non...... 44 5.7 1 ( AP010467 ) Lotus japonicus genomic DNA, chromosome 4, clone:... 44 5.7

  8. Swine Influenza Virus and Association with the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Pig Farms in Southern Brazil.

    Schmidt, C; Cibulski, S P; Andrade, C P; Teixeira, T F; Varela, A P M; Scheffer, C M; Franco, A C; de Almeida, L L; Roehe, P M

    2016-05-01

    Despite the putative endemic status of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infections, data on the occurrence of swine influenza outbreaks are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to detect and subtype swIAVs from six outbreaks of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in southern Brazil. Nasal swabs were collected from 66 piglets with signs of respiratory disease in six herds. Lung tissue samples were collected from six necropsied animals. Virus detection was performed by PCR screening and confirmed by virus isolation and hemagglutination (HA). Influenza A subtyping was performed by a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect the A(H1N1)pdm09; other swIAV subtypes were determined by multiplex RT-PCR. In lung tissues, the major bacterial and viral pathogens associated with PRDC (Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and PCV2) were investigated. In some affected pigs, clinico-pathological evaluations were conducted. Influenza A was detected by screening PCR in 46 of 66 swab samples and from five of six lungs. Virus was recovered from pigs of all six herds. Subtype A(H1N1)pdm09 was detected in four of six herds and H1N2 in the other two herds. In lung tissues, further agents involved in PRDC were detected in all cases; Pasteurella multocida was identified in five of six samples and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in three of six. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (1/6), Haemophilus parasuis (1/6) and PCV2 (1/6) were also detected. These findings indicate that subtypes A(H1N1)pdm09 and H1N2 were present in pigs in southern Brazil and were associated with PRDC outbreaks. PMID:26302164

  9. Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens and indicator bacteria in pigs in different European countries from year 2002 – 2004: the ARBAO-II study

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Mevius, Dik J; Schroeter, Andreas;

    2008-01-01

    Background: The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin - II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003-05. The aim of this project was to establish a program for the continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of pathoge......Background: The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin - II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003-05. The aim of this project was to establish a program for the continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility...... bacteria including Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis and Escherichia coli isolated from pigs were collected from fifteen European countries in 2002-2004. Results: Data for A. pleuropneumoniae from infected pigs were submitted from five countries. Most of the isolates from Denmark were...... susceptible to all drugs tested with the exceptions of a low frequency of resistance to tetracycline and trimethoprim - sulphonamide. Data for S. suis were obtained from six countries. In general, a high level of resistance to tetracycline (48.0 - 92.0%) and erythromycin (29.1 - 75.0%) was observed in all...

  10. MicroRNA expression in lung tissue and blood isolated from pigs suffering from bacterial pneumonia

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Wendt, Karin Tarp; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    immune responses. Still, little is known about the impact of miRNAs in the development and pathogenesis of lung infections. Expression of miRNA, known to be induced by bacterial (i.e., LPS) ligands and thus supposed to play a role in the regulation of antimicrobial defence, were studied in lung tissue...... all miRNAs for human, mouse and rat. The miRCURY™ LNA array microarray slides were scanned, and image analysis was carried out using the ImaGene 8.0 software (BioDiscovery, Inc., USA). A two-tailed T-test calculated between infected and control identified 10 of 1263 miRNA to be differentially...... from pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 and 6. Circulating miRNAs were studied in blood from pigs infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 using real time-qPCR (RT-qPCR). Expression profiles of miRNA in blood of seven animals before and after infection...

  11. Pathogen presence in feral pigs and their movement around two commercial piggeries in Queensland, Australia.

    Pearson, H E; Toribio, J-A L M L; Hernandez-Jover, M; Marshall, D; Lapidge, S J

    2014-03-29

    Feral pigs are wild animal reservoirs of infectious pathogens transmissible to other species, all of which are transmissible to domestic pigs. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of harmful production-limiting pathogens; Brucella suis, Leptospira species, Lawsonia intracellularis, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in a feral pig population within a 10 km radius of two large-scale commercial piggeries in Southern Queensland, Australia. The movement pattern of six pigs within the feral population was also investigated using geographic positioning system collars. All pathogens were present in the feral pig population except for A pleuropneumoniae. The true seroprevalence (TP) from 83 serum samples was 10.5 per cent for B suis, 48.6 per cent for Leptospira species, 100 per cent for L intracellularis and 42.1 per cent for M hyopneumoniae. Of 72 lung samples, 27.6 per cent were positive for M hyopneumoniae. Serum samples from 86 domestic sows within the study region were positive for Leptospira species (TP 2.1 per cent), L intracellularis (TP 100 per cent) and M hyopneumoniae (TP 100 per cent). The majority of feral pig movement was within 5 km of the piggeries, with one approaching to 100 m of the free-range piggery. The presence of pathogens in feral pigs in such close proximity to commercial piggeries could pose a biosecurity risk. PMID:24572722

  12. Disease risks associated with free-ranging wild boar in Saskatchewan.

    McGregor, Glenna F; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Godson, Dale L; Wilkins, Wendy; Bollinger, Trent K

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the disease status of Saskatchewan's feral wild boar population. Whole carcasses, tissue samples, and/or serum from 81 hunter-killed boars from Saskatchewan were submitted to the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) between 2009 and 2014. Serological tests were negative for PRRS, H1N1, and H3N2 swine influenza, PCV-2, and TGE/PRCV in 22/22 boars and for Toxoplasma gondii and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in 20/20 boars. Of 20 boars whose sera were tested 20 were positive for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, with 7 positive for, among other strains, serotype 14; 16 were positive for Lawsonia intracellularis, 1 was positive and 6 were suspicious for Salmonella spp. Polymerase chain reaction tests were negative for PRRS and PCV2 in 58/58 boars and positive for Torque teno virus in 1/8 boars. Digestion assays were negative for Trichinella spp. in 22/22 boars. The high seroprevalence of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 is noteworthy as this serotype has not been previously reported in North America. PMID:26246630

  13. Short communication. Severe, diffuse fibrinonecrotic pleuropneumonia in a cat affected by multiple viral infection

    Andrea Balboni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This communication describes the coinfection with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV, feline herpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1, feline calicivirus (FCV and feline coronavirus (FCoV in a 1 year‑old domestic cat living in a feline shelter. The cat was referred to veterinary hospital with clinical signs related to diffuse gastro-intestinal inflammation, it had developed a severe pneumopathy with fibrinous exudation in all body cavities and died 8 days after initial presentation. Pathological findings and biomolecular diagnostic test results were compatible with an initial FPV infection that, in consequence of the lymphoid depletion, has fostered coinfection or reactivation of chronic-latent infections with FeHV-1, FCV, and FCoV. In the reported case, the simultaneous presence of different viruses exacerbated the clinical status of the host, resulting in multiple organ damage and leading it to its death.

  14. Type IV fimbrial subunit protein ApfA contributes to protection against porcine pleuropneumonia

    Sadílková, Lenka; Nepeřený, J.; Vrzal, V.; Šebo, Peter; Osička, Radim

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2012), s. 1-12. ISSN 0928-4249 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA2/025; GA AV ČR KAN200520702; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/0580; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0717 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ApfA * immunogenicity * virulence factors Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.426, year: 2012

  15. Phylogeny of 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae as determined by comparison of 16S rRNA sequences.

    Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Olsen, I; Fraser, G J

    1992-03-01

    Virtually complete 16S rRNA sequences were determined for 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae. Of these strains, 15 were Pasteurella, 16 were Actinobacillus, and 23 were Haemophilus. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on sequence similarity, using the Neighbor-Joining method. Fifty-three of the strains fell within four large clusters. The first cluster included the type strains of Haemophilus influenzae, H. aegyptius, H. aphrophilus, H. haemolyticus, H. paraphrophilus, H. segnis, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. This cluster also contained A. actinomycetemcomitans FDC Y4, ATCC 29522, ATCC 29523, and ATCC 29524 and H. aphrophilus NCTC 7901. The second cluster included the type strains of A. seminis and Pasteurella aerogenes and H. somnus OVCG 43826. The third cluster was composed of the type strains of Pasteurella multocida, P. anatis, P. avium, P. canis, P. dagmatis, P. gallinarum, P. langaa, P. stomatis, P. volantium, H. haemoglobinophilus, H. parasuis, H. paracuniculus, H. paragallinarum, and A. capsulatus. This cluster also contained Pasteurella species A CCUG 18782, Pasteurella species B CCUG 19974, Haemophilus taxon C CAPM 5111, H. parasuis type 5 Nagasaki, P. volantium (H. parainfluenzae) NCTC 4101, and P. trehalosi NCTC 10624. The fourth cluster included the type strains of Actinobacillus lignieresii, A. equuli, A. pleuropneumoniae, A. suis, A. ureae, H. parahaemolyticus, H. parainfluenzae, H. paraphrohaemolyticus, H. ducreyi, and P. haemolytica. This cluster also contained Actinobacillus species strain CCUG 19799 (Bisgaard taxon 11), A. suis ATCC 15557, H. ducreyi ATCC 27722 and HD 35000, Haemophilus minor group strain 202, and H. parainfluenzae ATCC 29242. The type strain of P. pneumotropica branched alone to form a fifth group. The branching of the Pasteurellaceae family tree was quite complex. The four major clusters contained multiple subclusters. The clusters contained both rapidly and slowly evolving

  16. Clinical and Pathological Changes in Rams Experimentally Infected with Actinobacillus seminis and Histophilus somni

    Valéria S. Moustacas; Silva, Teane M. A.; Luciana F. Costa; Custódio A. Carvalho Júnior; Santos, Renato L.; Tatiane A. Paixão

    2014-01-01

    Infectious epididymitis is considered a major cause of economic losses for the sheep industry worldwide. This study aimed to investigate clinical and pathological changes associated with experimental infections with A. seminis and H. somni in rams. Twenty rams of age 18 to 24 months were infected by intraepididymal inoculation of A. seminis (n = 10) and H. somni (n = 10). Rams were weekly examined and biological samples were collected during six weeks. All rams inoculated with A. seminis and ...

  17. Clinical and pathological changes in rams experimentally infected with Actinobacillus seminis and Histophilus somni.

    Moustacas, Valéria S; Silva, Teane M A; Costa, Luciana F; Carvalho Júnior, Custódio A; Santos, Renato L; Paixão, Tatiane A

    2014-01-01

    Infectious epididymitis is considered a major cause of economic losses for the sheep industry worldwide. This study aimed to investigate clinical and pathological changes associated with experimental infections with A. seminis and H. somni in rams. Twenty rams of age 18 to 24 months were infected by intraepididymal inoculation of A. seminis (n = 10) and H. somni (n = 10). Rams were weekly examined and biological samples were collected during six weeks. All rams inoculated with A. seminis and 80% inoculated with H. somni became infected. The recovery of bacteria was possible in semen and urine samples and tissues in both experimental groups. Clinically, there were a decrease in testicular consistency and an increase in measures of the left epididymis tails in both experimental groups. The main gross changes were observed in the reproductive tract. Microscopically, the main lesions were inflammatory changes in the genitourinary tract and testicular degeneration. A. seminis and H. somni were able to colonize several organs of the genitourinary tract in rams, being indistinguishable by clinical exam, necropsy or histopathology. For differential diagnosis, it is important to use diagnostic techniques for direct confirmation of the etiologic agent. PMID:24592151

  18. Genome-wide annotation of porcine microRNA genes and transcriptome profiling during Actinobacillus infection

    Nielsen, Mathilde

    MicroRNAs are small single stranded non-coding RNA molecules which contributes to the regulation of gene expression by primarily binding to the 3´end of protein coding mRNA, hereby inhibiting the translation process or promting degradation of the mRNA. The main focus of this PhD project was to...

  19. Microevolution and Patterns of Dissemination of the JP2 Clone of Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans

    Haubek, Dorte; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    belonging to the JP2 clone had a number of point mutations, particularly in the pseudogenes hbpA and tbpA. Characteristic mutations allowed isolates from individuals from the Mediterranean area and from West Africa, including the Cape Verde Islands, to be distinguished. The patterns of mutations indicate...... that the JP2 clone initially emerged as a distinct genotype in the Mediterranean part of Africa approximately 2,400 years ago and subsequently spread to West Africa, from which it was transferred to the American continents during the transatlantic slave trade. The sustained exclusive colonization...

  20. Early-onset periodontitis in Morocco is associated with the highly leukotoxic clone of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    Haubek, Dorte; Ennibi, O.-K.; Poulsen, Knud; Poulsen, Sven; Benzart, N; Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    schoolchildren. Of 217 plaque samples, 131 (60.4%) were culture-positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans. A total of 19 of these isolates had a 530-bp deletion in the leukotoxin promoter region characteristic of the JP2 clone. A strong association between the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans with the 530-bp...

  1. Comparação de métodos de isolamento de bactérias NAD-dependentes do trato respiratório superior de suínos sadios Methods to isolate NAD-dependent bacteria from the upper respiratory tract of health pigs

    J.D. Kich

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Secreções nasais, tonsilares e tecido tonsilar foram coletados de 67 leitões de 9 a 15 semanas de idade, provenientes de três rebanhos positivos para Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App, e de 50 leitões provenientes de dois rebanhos negativos. Foram classificados como positivos aqueles rebanhos com isolamento prévio de sorotipos 3, 5 e 7 e rebanhos negativos aqueles submetidos a controle veterinário, sem notificação de sintomas clínicos, lesões de pleuropneumonia suína e sem isolamento do agente. O material coletado foi submetido a três diferentes métodos de cultivo: 1- semeadura direta em meio de cultivo sólido seletivo; 2- diluição em caldo seletivo seguido de subsemeadura em meio de cultivo sólido seletivo; 3- diluição em caldo seletivo seguido de subsemeadura em ágar sangue. Entre as amostras NAD-dependentes recuperadas 86 foram classificadas como App, 13 como grupo minor e 21 como grupo taxon (C, D, E e F. Dos rebanhos positivos foram recuperadas quatro amostras de App (sorotipos 3, 7 e 12 e 51 não sorotipificáveis. Dos rebanhos negativos foram recuperadas 31 amostras de App não sorotipificáveis, indicando que o App faz parte da flora normal do trato respiratório superior dos suínos. O melhor método de isolamento de amostras NAD-dependentes de leitões portadores foi da biópsia de tecido tonsilar semeado diretamente em meio sólido seletivo (PPLO ágar adicionado de 2mi g de cristal violeta, 10mi g NAD, 1mi g de lincomicina, 1,4mi g de bacitracina por ml.Nasal and tonsil secretions and tonsil tissue were collected from 67 piglets (9-to-15 weeks old from three positive herds and from 50 piglets from two negative herds. Positive herds were those in which an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App strain of serotype 3, 5 or 7 was isolated and negative ones those in which there was no notification of clinical symptoms or lesions of swine pleuropneumoniae, no App isolation and the herd was under veterinarian control

  2. Antimicrobial profile screening of two oils of Copaifera genus

    F.A. Pieri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a atividade inibitória de óleos de copaíba sobre o crescimento dos micro-organismos: Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundi, Staphylococcus aureus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae e Haemophilus parasuis. Foi realizado um teste de difusão em ágar com duas soluções a 10% de óleos de copaíba obtidos de duas diferentes espécies de copaíba (Copaifera officinalis e C. langsdorffii e um controle negativo com tween 80 e água. Os isolados clínicos de H. parasuis e A. pleuropneumoniae foram incubados em microaerofilia. Os resultados mostraram três espécies Gram-negativas inibidas por ambas as soluções de óleo de copaíba: E. coli, P. aeruginosa e S. flexneri. Na inibição de P. aeruginosa o óleo de C. officinalis foi superior ao de C. langsdorffii (P<0,05. Todas as cepas de S. aureus tiveram seu crescimento inibido pelas soluções no ensaio, sem diferença estatística entre os halos. Estes resultados sugerem que o óleo de copaíba pode ser uma fonte potencial de compostos inibitórios para ser utilizada como antimicrobianos no tratamento de infecções humanas e animais e conservação de alimentos.

  3. Genomic characterization of Haemophilus parasuis SH0165, a highly virulent strain of serovar 5 prevalent in China.

    Zhuofei Xu

    Full Text Available Haemophilus parasuis can be either a commensal bacterium of the porcine respiratory tract or an opportunistic pathogen causing Glässer's disease, a severe systemic disease that has led to significant economical losses in the pig industry worldwide. We determined the complete genomic sequence of H. parasuis SH0165, a highly virulent strain of serovar 5, which was isolated from a hog pen in North China. The single circular chromosome was 2,269,156 base pairs in length and contained 2,031 protein-coding genes. Together with the full spectrum of genes detected by the analysis of metabolic pathways, we confirmed that H. parasuis generates ATP via both fermentation and respiration, and possesses an intact TCA cycle for anabolism. In addition to possessing the complete pathway essential for the biosynthesis of heme, this pathogen was also found to be well-equipped with different iron acquisition systems, such as the TonB system and ABC-type transport complexes, to overcome iron limitation during infection and persistence. We identified a number of genes encoding potential virulence factors, such as type IV fimbriae and surface polysaccharides. Analysis of the genome confirmed that H. parasuis is naturally competent, as genes related to DNA uptake are present. A nine-mer DNA uptake signal sequence (ACAAGCGGT, identical to that found in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Mannheimia haemolytica, followed by similar downstream motifs, was identified in the SH0165 genome. Genomic and phylogenetic comparisons with other Pasteurellaceae species further indicated that H. parasuis was closely related to another swine pathogenic bacteria A. pleuropneumoniae. The comprehensive genetic analysis presented here provides a foundation for future research on the metabolism, natural competence and virulence of H. parasuis.

  4. Organization and biology of the porcine serum amyloid A (SAA gene cluster: isoform specific responses to bacterial infection.

    Helle G Olsen

    Full Text Available Serum amyloid A (SAA is a prominent acute phase protein. Although its biological functions are debated, the wide species distribution of highly homologous SAA proteins and their uniform behavior in response to injury or inflammation in itself suggests a significant role for this protein. The pig is increasingly being used as a model for the study of inflammatory reactions, yet only little is known about how specific SAA genes are regulated in the pig during acute phase responses and other responses induced by pro-inflammatory host mediators. We designed SAA gene specific primers and quantified the gene expression of porcine SAA1, SAA2, SAA3, and SAA4 by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR in liver, spleen, and lung tissue from pigs experimentally infected with the Gram-negative swine specific bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, as well as from pigs experimentally infected with the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Our results show that: 1 SAA1 may be a pseudogene in pigs; 2 we were able to detect two previously uncharacterized SAA transcripts, namely SAA2 and SAA4, of which the SAA2 transcript is primarily induced in the liver during acute infection and presumably contributes to circulating SAA in pigs; 3 Porcine SAA3 transcription is induced both hepatically and extrahepatically during acute infection, and may be correlated to local organ affection; 4 Hepatic transcription of SAA4 is markedly induced in pigs infected with A. pleuropneumoniae, but only weakly in pigs infected with S. aureus. These results for the first time establish the infection response patterns of the four porcine SAA genes which will be of importance for the use of the pig as a model for human inflammatory responses, e.g. within sepsis, cancer, and obesity research.

  5. Erythema Multiforme Associated with Respiratory Disease in a Commercial Breeding Pig Herd.

    Papatsiros, Vasileios G; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Psalla, Dimitra; Petridou, Evanthia; Maragkakis, Giorgos G; Papatsas, Ioannis; Arsenakis, Ioannis; Maes, Dominiek

    2015-10-01

    This study describes an erythema multiforme (EM) in breeding sows, after their mixing in the group housing system. Sows at 30-35 days of gestation showed red and raised skin areas, depression, anorexia, fever, respiratory problems, and increased return to estrus. Blood and nasal samples from diseased sows were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for respiratory pathogens. Hematological and biochemical analyses were performed on the blood samples. From diseased sows, vaginal swabs for microbiological examinations and samples at slaughterhouse for gross and microscopic examinations were collected. Samples from the complete gestation and lactation feed were examined for mycotoxins. All sampled sows were seropositive for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). No viremia for PRRSV and porcine circovirus type 2 were detected. All nasal samples were positive for Streptococcus suis, one for Swine Influenza Virus and one for App, Hemophilus parasuis, and S. suis. In all vaginal swabs, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp. were detected. Diseased sows had moderate leukocytosis, mild anemia, and thrombocytopenia. No mycotoxins were detected in feed. Histopathological examination revealed increased vascularization of the superficial and middle dermis. EM was likely due to illness caused by viral and bacterial infections. This study suggests that stress caused by the sows' mixing might have triggered the problem. PMID:26266696

  6. Genetic organisation of the capsule transport gene region from Haemophilus paragallinarum

    O. De Smidt

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The region involved in export of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface of Haemophilus paragallinarum was cloned and the genetic organisation determined. Degenerate primers designed from sequence alignment of the capsule transport genes of Haemophilus influenzae, Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were used to amplify a 2.6 kb fragment containing a segment of the H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus. This fragment was used as a digoxigenin labelled probe to isolate the complete H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus from genomic DNA. The sequence of the cloned DNA was determined and analysis revealed the presence of four genes, each showing high homology with known capsule transport genes. The four genes were designated hctA, B, C and D (for H. paragallinarum capsule transport genes and the predicted products of these genes likely encode an ATP-dependent export system responsible for transport of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface, possibly a member of a super family designated ABC (ATP-binding cassette transporters.

  7. Exposure of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States to selected pathogens.

    Baroch, John A; Gagnon, Carl A; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are widely distributed in the United States. In 2011 and 2012, serum samples and tonsils were recovered from 162 and 37 feral swine, respectively, in the US to evaluate exposure to important swine endemic pathogens. Antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were found in 2.5% and 25.3% of tested sera, respectively. Positive serological reactions against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have been detected in 19.7% and 69.7% of animals. More than 15% of animals presented antibodies against these 2 pathogens simultaneously. Most animals were also seropositive for Lawsonia intracellularis. Feral swine can also be involved in transmission of zoonotic agents. Almost 50% of animals possessed antibodies against Salmonella. In addition, 94.4% of animals were carriers of Streptococcus suis in their tonsils. In conclusion, feral swine may be considered as a potential reservoir for different endemic diseases in domestic pigs, as well as for important zoonotic agents. PMID:25673913

  8. Occurrence and severity of lung lesions in slaughter pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae with different strategies.

    Hillen, Sonja; von Berg, Stephan; Köhler, Kernt; Reinacher, Manfred; Willems, Hermann; Reiner, Gerald

    2014-03-01

    Different vaccination strategies against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae have been adopted worldwide. Reports from the field indicate varying levels of protection among currently available vaccines. The goal of the present study was to compare the efficacies of three widespread commercial vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae under field conditions. 20 farms were included. 14 farms used different single dose vaccines (vaccine 1 [V1], 8 herds; vaccine 2 [V2], 6 herds); another 6 farms (V3) used a two dose vaccination strategy. Gross lesions of 854 lungs and histopathology from 140 lungs were quantified, and a quantitative PCR was applied to detect M. hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) DNA in lung tissue (n=140). In addition, porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida were tested by qualitative PCR. 53% of lungs were positive for M. hyopneumoniae. 55.9% of lungs showed macroscopic enzootic pneumonia (EP)-like lesions. Lung lesion scores (Phyopneumoniae-loads (Phyopneumoniae indicating that the applied diagnostic tools are valuable in confirming the prevalence and severity of M. hyopneumoniae infections. Comparing different vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae indicates varying levels of protection. M. hyopneumoniae is still a major problem despite the widely applied vaccination. PMID:24485705

  9. The prevalence of Pasteurella multocida from farm pigs in Serbia

    Oliver Radanovic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigations covered a total of 234 lungs from necropsied pigs with different pneumonic lesions, from 6 farrow-to-finish pig farms during 2013 and 2014. The samples were inoculated on selective culture media and aerobically incubated at 37oC and in carbon dioxide condition. The isolated bacterial colonies were further characterised morphologically and biochemically. The identification was confirmed using the BBL Crystal, E/N, G/P ID Kit (Becton Dickinson. For determination of the type of Pasteurella multocida, the PCR method was used. The findings showed that bacteria were isolated from 202 (86% out of 234 examined lung samples. The pure isolates of Pasteurella multocida were obtained from 71 (35 % samples. Out of the remaining 29 (14% examined lung samples, 9, 8, 7 and 5 examined lung samples were shown as mixed cultures of Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis, respectively. The PCR method confirmed that all 15 investigated strains of P. multocida belong to type A.

  10. Establishment of swine interleukin-6 sandwich ELISA.

    Nuntaprasert, A; Mori, Y; Tsukiyama-Kohara, K; Kai, C

    2005-03-01

    We established a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for swine interleukin-6 (SwIL-6), which was applied for detection of SwIL-6 in vitro and in vivo. Anti-SwIL-6 rabbit- and goat-polyclonal antibodies, and monoclonal antibody (mAb) were prepared, conforming that all of the antibodies were reactive with recombinant SwIL-6 by Western blotting and indirect ELISA. A sandwich ELISA was developed using the mAb as a capture antibody and biotinylated goat-polyclonal antibody as a detection antibody. The detection limit of the sandwich ELISA for rSwIL-6 was 49pg/ml and did not show cross-reactivity with swine IL-1b, IL-4, IL-8, IL-18, IL-12, and IFN-g. Using the ELISA, SwIL-6 was detected in culture medium of the monocytes stimulated with PHA-P and PMA, and the plasma or the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. This ELISA for SwIL-6 may be useful for understanding the role of this cytokine in various swine diseases. PMID:15582688

  11. Utilization of CO2 fixating bacterium Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z for simultaneous biogas upgrading and bio-succinic acid production

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Biogas is an attractive renewable energy carrier. However, it contains CO2 which limits certain applications of biogas. Here we report a novel approach for removing CO2 from biogas and capturing it as a biochemical through a biological process. This approach entails converting CO2 into bio-succin...

  12. Qualitative and quantitative determination of enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) with monoclonal antibodies: expression of ECA by two Actinobacillus species.

    Böttger, E C; Jürs, M; Barrett, T; Wachsmuth, K; Metzger, S.; Bitter-Suermann, D

    1987-01-01

    The presence and quantity of the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) in several species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae as well as to other gram-negative families were determined by a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system and Western blotting by using mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for ECA. Except for Erwinia chrysanthemi, previously known to be an exception, all species known or presumed to belong to Enterobacteriaceae produced ECA (89 of 90 species). Most sp...

  13. Factors associated with herd-level PRRSV infection and age-time to seroconversion in farrow-to-finish herds.

    Fablet, C; Marois-Créhan, C; Grasland, B; Simon, G; Rose, N

    2016-08-30

    Factors associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection were investigated in 109 herds. Serums from four batches of pigs (4, 10, 16 and 22 weeks, 15 pigs/batch) were tested by ELISA for PRRSV antibodies. Infection by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza A viruses (swIAV) and PCV2 were detected by specific serological or PCR tests. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management housing and climatic conditions were collected during a herd visit. Factors associated with the herd's PRRSV seropositive status were identified by logistic regression. Large herd size, the lack of disinsectisation in the gestation facilities, on-farm semen collection, a short time-period for gilt quarantine and a low temperature setpoint for the ventilation controller in the fattening room significantly increased the odds of a herd being seropositive for PRRSV. Infection by Mhp and H1N2 swIAV were associated with a PRRSV seropositive status. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the factors associated with the age-time to seroconversion in infected herds. Joint housing for the gilts and sows when lactating, a large nursery pen, a small number of pens per fattening room and lack of all-in all-out management in the fattening section significantly reduced the age-time to seroconversion. A small range of temperatures controlling ventilation rate in the nursery room was also associated with time to PRRSV seroconversion. Infection by Mhp and a high PCV2 infection pressure were associated with a shorter time to seroconversion. Biosecurity measures minimising the risk of introducing PRRSV into the herd, management practices reducing contacts between animals from different batches and within batches and favourable climatic conditions should be implemented to better control PRRSV infection. PMID:27527759

  14. Florfenicol - pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of oral formulations in domestic animals: A systematic review

    Ščuka Leon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC is a major economic problem for swine producers world-wide. Pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of florfenicol oral formulations in domestic animals were evaluated. For this purpose the systematic review and meta-analysis were done. In vitro efficacy of florfenicol showed that this drug is highly effective against most important respiratory pathogens. All these facts are shown in our survey. Three studies in pigs were relevant to include in the meta-analysis, which showed that results in the florfenicol group were better than in comparative control groups in all observed parameters: clinical signs, lung lesions and resolution of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (P<0,001. A second meta-analysis with 7 studies showed that the usage of florfenicol reduces mortality in pig herds with PRDC (P<0.05. Other field trials in pigs using florfenicol oral forms where reviewed. After treatment with florfenicol oral solution there was a significant drop of mortality in both groups of pigs (P<0.01; eg. one using florfenicol oral solution in treating PRDC (n=85 and another mixed pneumoenteric infection (n=54. Analysis of data when using premix in pigs (n=118 also suggests that a medicated premix has a favorable anti-infectious effect on pigs, irrespective of the group of animals or the evolution stage of the disease. Finally, favorable effect of florfenicol in treating swine ileitis was also presented. Regarding their pharmacokinetics, in vitro and clinical efficacy of florfenicol oral forms, they should be considered as a powerful tool for combating complex infections that are frequently met in intensive animal production.

  15. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  16. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    David Risco

    Full Text Available Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa, a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes, or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs, was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV, swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures

  17. Association of swine influenza H1N1 pandemic virus (SIV-H1N1p) with porcine respiratory disease complex in sows from commercial pig farms in Colombia.

    Jiménez, Luisa Fernanda Mancipe; Ramírez Nieto, Gloria; Alfonso, Victor Vera; Correa, Jairo Jaime

    2014-08-01

    Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a serious health problem that mainly affects growing and finishing pigs. PRDC is caused by a combination of viral and bacterial agents, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Myh), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), Pasteurella multocida and Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). To characterize the specific role of swine influenza virus in PRDC presentation in Colombia, 11 farms from three major production regions in Colombia were examined in this study. Nasal swabs, bronchial lavage and lung tissue samples were obtained from animals displaying symptoms compatible with SIV. Isolation of SIV was performed in 9-day embryonated chicken eggs or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. Positive isolates, identified via the hemagglutination inhibition test, were further analyzed using PCR. Overall, 7 of the 11 farms were positive for SIV. Notably, sequencing of the gene encoding the hemagglutinin (HA) protein led to grouping of strains into circulating viruses identified during the human outbreak of 2009, classified as pandemic H1N1-2009. Serum samples from 198 gilts and multiparous sows between 2008 and 2009 were obtained to determine antibody presence of APP, Myh, PCV2 and PRRSV in both SIV-H1N1p-negative and -positive farms, but higher levels were recorded for SIV-H1N1p-positive farms. Odds ratio (OR) and P values revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in PRDC presentation in gilts and multiparous sows of farms positive for SIV-H1N1p. Our findings indicate that positive farms have increased risk of PRDC presentation, in particular, PCV2, APP and Myh. PMID:25160760

  18. Expression of coding (mRNA) and non-coding (microRNA) RNA in lung tissue and blood isolated from pigs suffering from bacterial pleuropneumonia

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Wendt, Karin Tarp; Peter M H Heegaard

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules (18-23 nt), that regulate the activity of other genes at the post-transcriptional level. Recently it has become evident that microRNA plays an important role in modulating and fine tuning innate and adaptive immune responses. Still, little is known about the impact of microRNAs in the development and pathogenesis of lung infections. Expression of microRNA known to be induced by bacterial (i.e., LPS) ligands and thus supposed to play a role in the r...

  19. The porcine systemic response to pleuropneumonia studied by transcriptional profiling of liver and tracheobronchial lung lymph nodes using multiplexed mRNA-Seq

    Hedegaard, Jakob; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Zhan, Bujie; Panitz, Frank; Hornshøj, Henrik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Angen, Øystein; Boye, Mette; Bendixen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    tracheobronchial lung lymph nodes were collected 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after experimental inoculation, as well as from six non-inoculated control pigs. Transcriptional profiles of the liver samples have been generated by preparation of 12-plexed mRNA-Seq libraries followed by sequencing on an Illumina GAIIx (51......+7 cycles) obtaining more than 200 million tag sequences. The 12-plexed mRNA-Seq libraries of the lung lymph node samples have presently (April 2010) been prepared and are to be sequenced. The PCR amplicons of the liver libraries were quantified using both a fluorometer and a qPCR assay, including the use...... reduced the cluster density variability as compared to fluorometer based quantifications. Furthermore, it was found that the fluorometer based measurements tended to deviate for dilute as well as for more concentrated libraries. Following the sequencing of the lung lymph node samples analyses are to be...

  20. Molecular epidemiology of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania based on amplified fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.;

    2001-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 60 field strains of Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides, small colony type (M,. mycoides), comprising 56 isolates from cattle in Tanzania, one from Kenya, two from Botswana and one from Portugal, as well as the type (PG1(T)) and vaccine (T-1-SR49) strains, was ivestigated...

  1. Identification of αLβ2, αMβ2, and αXβ2 integrins as receptors for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin

    Reinholdt, Jesper; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens; Vorup-Jensen, Thomas

    affect also interaction with LtxA has not been addressed. Activity of LtxA on test target cells has been evaluated by enumeration of dead cells stained with trypan blue. This is a tedious and error-prone method, particularly in titration assays. By the present study, we wanted to characterize in more...

  2. Pericardite em suínos ao abate no Rio Grande Sul: avaliação de agentes bacterianos e lesões associadas

    Carolini F. Coelho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a frequência de lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas e dos agentes bacterianos envolvidos em pericardites em suínos no abate no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As amostras foram coletadas em frigoríficos de suínos com Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF entre fevereiro a outubro de 2010 e a condenação por pericardite dos animais acompanhados foi de 3,9% (299/7.571. No total foram investigados 91 casos de pericardites, 89% deles foram classificados como crônicos por histopatologia e pleurite crônica foi observada em 47% dos pulmões correspondentes, todavia não houve associação significativa entre as duas lesões. Os agentes bacterianos isolados a partir dos corações foram Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis e Streptococcus suis. DNA bacterianos mais detectados pela PCR foram de Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae e Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Houve associação significativa entre isolamento de P. multocida e Streptococcus sp. nos corações e pulmões correspondentes. Esses resultados sugerem que a infecção no pulmão possa ter servido de porta de entrada para a colonização do pericárdio adjacente. Apesar de M. hyopneumoniae ter sido o agente detectado com maior frequência pela PCR em corações e pulmões correspondentes, não houve associação significativa da detecção dos agentes nos órgãos. Isto sugere que as infecções foram eventos independentes. Os demais agentes investigados não apresentaram associação significativa entre isolamento ou detecção de DNA em coração e pulmão correspondente. Outro achado importante foi a presença de coinfecções bacterianas em 2% dos corações e por PCR foi detectado DNA bacteriano de dois ou mais agentes em 16,5% dos corações. Esses resultados sugerem que as coinfecções em pericardites precisam ser melhor estudadas.

  3. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of doxycycline hydrochloride and florfenicol polyvinylpyrroliddone microparticle entrapped with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes suspension.

    Li, Xianqiang; Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Yuanhu; Qu, Wei; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-05-01

    In order to effectively control the bacterial pneumonia in pigs, doxycycline hydrochloride (DoxHcl) and florfenicol (FF) microparticle suspension together with inclusion complexes was prepared by using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as host molecules, polyvinylpyrroliddone (PVP) as polymer carriers and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as suspending agents. In vitro antibacterial activity, properties, stability and pharmacokinetics of the suspension were studied. The results demonstrated that DoxHcl and FF had a synergistic or additive antibacterial activity against Streptococcus suis, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis. The size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of microparticles were 1.46 ± 0.06 μm, 0.30 ± 0.02 and 1.53 ± 0.04 mV, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DoxHcl and FF was 45.28% ± 3.30% and 89.69% ± 2.71%, respectively. The re-dispersed time and sedimentation rate of the suspension were 1 min and 1. The suspension went through the 9-gage needle smoothly with withdrawal volume of 9.12 ± 0.87 mL/min. The suspension showed good stability when stored away from light, no irritation at the injection site and sustained release in PBS buffer. After intramuscular administration to pig, DoxHcl and FF could maintain over 0.15 μg/mL for 72 h. Compared to the control injection, the suspension increased the elimination half-life (T½ke) as well as mean residence time (MRT) of DoxHcl from 5.73 to 9.77 h and from 12.02 to 18.81 h, and those of FF from 12.02 to 26.19 h and from 12.02 to 28.16 h, respectively. The suspension increased the bioavailability of DoxHcl and FF by 1.74 and 1.13-fold, respectively. These results suggest that the compound suspension is a promising formulation for pig pneumonia therapy. PMID:26918512

  4. Reduction of periodontal pathogens adhesion by antagonistic strains

    Van Hoogmoed, C. G.; Geertsema-Doornbusch, G. I.; Teughels, W.; Quirynen, M.; Busscher, H. J.; Van der Mei, H. C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Periodontitis results from a shift in the subgingival micro. ora into a more pathogenic direction with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans considered as periodontopathogens. In many cases, treatment procures only a temporary shift t

  5. Comparrisson of MICs of ceftioufur and other antimicrobial agents against bacterial pathogens of swine from the United States, Canada and Denmark

    Salmon, S.A.; Watts, J.L.; Case, C.A.; Hoffmann, L.J.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Yancey, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    , Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In addition to ceftiofur, the following antimicrobial agents or combinations were tested: enroflaxacin, ampicillin...... to 8.0, greater than or equal to 256.0, greater than or equal to 32.0, and greater than or equal to 16.0 mu g/ml, respectively. Trimethoprim-sulfadiazine was active against isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae, S. choleraesuis, S. typhimurium, P. multocida, S. equi, and S. suis (MIC(90)s, less than or.......0 mu g/ml). However, this antimicrobial agent was much less active when it was tested against A. pleuropneumoniae, S. cholerae-suis, and E. coli (MIC(90)s, 16.0, >32.0, and >32.0 mu g/ml, respectively). Against the U.S. isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida, tilmicosin was moderately active...

  6. 猪胸膜肺炎放线杆菌血清1型信号标签诱导突变体库的构建%CONSTRUCTION AND EVALUATION OF SIGNATURE-TAGGED MUTAGENESIS LIBRARIES OF ACTINOBACILLUS PLEUROP NEUMONIAE SEROTYPE

    赫明雷; 刘慧芳; 刘思国; 司薇; 王春来; 杨金国; 杜艳芬; 王聃

    2009-01-01

    本研究以自杀性质粒pUT携带含有信号标签的Mini-Tn5转座子对猪胸膜肺炎放线杆菌血清1型菌进行转座诱变,构建了带有12对特异性信号标签的Mini-Tn5转座子的pUT自杀质粒,转化到供体菌E.coliβ2155后,利用双亲本滤膜杂交法与受体猪胸膜肺炎放线杆菌血清1型菌(APP1)进行接合转移,构建并优化了接合转移体系.利用抗性和营养缺陷培养平板筛选得到接合突变体,通过抗性通用引物与12个特异标签引物和胸膜肺炎放线杆菌毒素IV(ApxIV)鉴定引物分别对这些突变体进行了PCR鉴定和测序验证.结果表明,经过加入标签的MinI-Tn5转座子可以通过接合转移的方式从供体菌E.COliβ2155中插入到APP1基因组当中,并成功构建了12个含有特异信号标签的重组质粒,获得了APP1的12个转座突变体库,经筛选鉴定后得到561个突变株.这为研究APP1的功能基因和筛选特定突变株提供了必要的基础.

  7. 9 CFR 53.8 - Presentation of claims.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presentation of claims. 53.8 Section 53.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., PLEUROPNEUMONIA, RINDERPEST, AND CERTAIN OTHER COMMUNICABLE DISEASES OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY § 53.8...

  8. Production porcine dans les fermes d'Etat à Ho-Chi-Minh Ville/Viet-nam

    Franceschetto, ML.

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Pig production in State farms at Ho-Chi-Minh Ville. Vietnam. An inquiry carried out in Guinea has revealed that the disappearance of trypanotolerance within some local N'Dama cattle can not be attributed to the vaccination campaign initiated against infectious bovine pleuropneumonia but to diverse environmental and animal management factors prevalant in these areas.

  9. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri associated with goat respiratory disease and high flock mortality

    Hernandez, Laura; Lopez, Jose; St-Jacques, Marcel; Ontiveros, Lourdes; Acosta, Jorge; Handel, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    A high mortality outbreak of respiratory mycoplasmosis occurred in goats in Mexico. The clinicopathologic presentation resembled contagious caprine pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae. By using a battery of polymerase chain reaction assays, the mycoplasma associated with this outbreak was identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.

  10. 9 CFR 71.3 - Interstate movement of diseased animals and poultry generally prohibited.

    2010-01-01

    ..., contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, European fowl pest, dourine, contagious equine metritis, vesicular... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on... to the United States: Equine piroplasmosis, bovine piroplasmosis or splenetic fever, scabies...

  11. Genomic regions associated with ventro-cranial chronic pleuritis in pig

    Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Velander, Ingela; Bendixen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Ventro-cranial chronic pleuritis can be a result of pleuropneumonia and enzootic pneumonia. These diseases cause severe losses in intensive pig production worldwide, but host resistance is difficult to breed for. It could be beneficial to use marker-assisted selection, and a step towards this is ...

  12. 21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.

    2010-04-01

    .... multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Haemophilus parasuis, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae; and for the control of SRD associated with A. pleuropneumoniae, P. multocida, and M. hyopneumoniae in groups of pigs..., Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. For the control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk...

  13. 9 CFR 53.1 - Definitions.

    2010-01-01

    ..., RINDERPEST, AND CERTAIN OTHER COMMUNICABLE DISEASES OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY § 53.1 Definitions. Accredited..., contagious pleuropneumonia, exotic Newcastle disease, highly pathogenic avian influenza, infectious salmon anemia, spring viremia of carp, or any other communicable disease of livestock or poultry that in...

  14. 9 CFR 53.2 - Determination of existence of disease; agreements with States.

    2010-01-01

    ... FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, PLEUROPNEUMONIA, RINDERPEST, AND CERTAIN OTHER COMMUNICABLE DISEASES OF... pathogenic avian influenza, up to 100 percent, and in the case of infectious salmon anemia, up to 60 percent... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of existence of...

  15. Bacteria interfere with A-actinomycetemcomitans colonization

    Teughels, Wim; Haake, S. Kinder; Sliepen, Isabelle; Pauwels, Martine; Van Eldere, Johan; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Quirynen, Marc

    2007-01-01

    It is known that beneficial bacteria can suppress the emergence of pathogenic bacteria, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. This study examined the potential for a similar suppression of Aggregatibacter (formerly Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans colonization of epithelial cells, due to its potential relevance in periodontal diseases. Seven presumed beneficial bacteria were examined for their ability to interfere, exclude, or displace A. actinomycetemcomitans from epithelial cells...

  16. Bacterial endocarditis due to eikenella corrodens: A case report

    Mahapatra A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Of all the causes of bacterial endocarditis, HACEK group consisting of Haemophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella Kingae are rare causative agents. We report a case of bacterial endocarditis by E. corrodens, which is one of the members of the HACEK group.

  17. Changes in the incidence of periodontal pathogens during long-term monitoring and after application of antibacterial drugs

    Janatová, T.; Najmanová, Lucie; Neubauerová, Lenka; Kyselková, Martina; Novotná, Gabriela; Spížek, Jaroslav; Janata, Jiří; Dušková, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2009), s. 429-435. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06011; GA MZd NR9119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : DUAL-SPECIES BIOFILMS * ACTINOBACILLUS-ACTINOMYCETEMCOMITANS * PORPHYROMONAS-GINGIVALIS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2009

  18. 21 CFR 522.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection.

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 522.1662a, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... tongue (Actinobacillus lignieresi), leptospirosis (Leptospira pomona), and wound infections; acute... Leptospira pomona, and wound infections and acute metritis caused by Staphylococcus spp. and...

  19. [Intrathoracic esophageal perforation of unknown cause in four horses].

    Graubner, C; Gerber, V; Imhasly, A; Gorgas, D; Koch, C

    2011-10-01

    Three horses (age 17 - 23 years) were referred to the equine clinic of the University of Berne due to colic, fever, tachycardia and tachypnea. All horses showed pleural effusion. Clinical findings in 2 of the horses were highly suggestive of an intra-thoracic esophageal perforation. Severe septic pleuropneumonia without suspicion of an esophageal lesion was diagnosed in the 3rd horse. In addition, an 11 year old stallion was referred to the equine clinic for treatment of a presumptive large colon impaction. The horse was given laxatives after nasogastric intubation. Subsequent dramatic clinical deterioration and signs consistent with severe pleuropneumonia suggest that esophageal perforation had occurred when passing the nasogastric tube. All 4 horses were euthanized due to a poor prognosis. Esophageal perforation was diagnosed or confirmed post mortem in all cases. A hypertrophy of the tunica muscularis of the intra-thoracic esophagus was found in 3 of 4 horses. PMID:21971675

  20. Acclimation of growing pigs to climatic environment.

    Verhagen, J.M.F.

    1987-01-01

    In intensive pig production the climatic environment has an important impact on productivity and health of the animals. Since factors as draught and fluctuating temperatures are known to influence the incidence and severity of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infections in growing pigs at the beginning of the fattening period. These aspects of climatic environmment in young growing pigs were studied.It is known that climatic factors influence metabolic rate and energy metabolism of animals. Moreo...

  1. Two Cases of Bacterial Pneumonia in Bottle-nosed Dolphins (Tursiops Gillii) at the Seoul Zoo, Korea

    Kyung-Yeon Eo and Oh-Deog Kwon1*

    2011-01-01

    Two bacterial pneumonia cases of bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops gillii) were found in Seoul Zoo. Firstly, severe fibrous pleuropneumonia was revealed in a 14-year-old male bottle-nosed dolphin on its necropsy. The clinical signs included anorexia, listing posture, and vertical submerging after the initial signs of low activity and avoiding trainers. White blood cell count increased up to 31.80 × 103/µl. Despite aggressive antibiotics therapy of intramuscular injection and nebulization it die...

  2. Vaccination of Cattle with the N Terminus of LppQ of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Results in Type III Immune Complex Disease upon Experimental Infection

    Mulongo, Musa; Frey, Joachim; Smith, Ken; Schnier, Christian; Wesonga, Hezron; Naessens, Jan; McKeever, Declan

    2015-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a serious respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. Current vaccines against CBPP induce short-lived immunity and can cause severe postvaccine reactions. Previous studies have identified the N terminus of the transmembrane lipoprotein Q (LppQ-N') of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides as the major antigen and a possible virulence factor. We therefore immunized cattle with purified recombinant LppQ-N' formulated in Freund's...

  3. Treatment of pulmonary embolism and prevention of recurrence by placement of vena cava filters in prevention of deep venous thrombosis: Case report

    Vučićević-Trobok Jadranka; Bogdanov Biljana; Trifković Miroslava; Srdić Svetozar

    2002-01-01

    Introduction In patients with pulmonary thromboembolism it is clinical to suspect the disease, establish the diagnosis and initiate anticoagulation treatment as early as possible in order to prevent relapses, which may be fatal. Deep venous thrombosis of lower extremities is the most common site of origin, which initially may remain obscure. Case report Two weeks prior to admission the patient had right-sided chest pain accompanied with dyspnea, interpreted and treated as pleuropneumonia. Pul...

  4. INVESTIGATION OF PERIODONTITIS PATIENTS AND COMPARISON WITH CONTROL GROUP

    M.H. Satan

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial population found in the gingival sulcus region in periodontitis consists of gram negative microorganisms; most of them are obligate anaerobes and capnophil, including Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Fusobaclenuin, Welinella, Actinobacillus actinomycetem comitans, Eiknella and Capnocytohaga. This study has been carried out to investigate anaerobic and capnophilic bacteria from 206 specimens of patients with periodontitis and 145 specimens of control group. Different bacteria isolated from total specimens were obtained as follows: Actinobacillus actinomycetem comitans (patients group 36.9%, control group 4.1 %, Capnocytophaga (47.9%, Eikenella corodens (34.5% , 10.3%, Porphyryromonas gingivaIis (35% , 11%, Prevotella intermedius25.7%, 6.7% and Prevotella melaninogenicus (13.6% , 3.4%.

  5. Combined orthodontic and periodontic treatment in a child with Papillon Lefèvre syndrome

    AlSarheed, Maha A.; Al-Sehaibany, Fares S.

    2015-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) was treated orthodontically 24 months after the start of mechanical and antibiotic therapy in adjunct with periodontal treatment every 6 weeks. After achieving stable periodontal conditions, orthodontic treatment was commenced to correct the teeth position, facial profile, and maxillary protraction. Following the combination therapy and a failure to detect Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from any site in the oral cavity, orthodontic ...

  6. Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis: two cases and a review of the literature

    Malani, A. N.; Aronoff, D. M.; Bradley, S. F.; Kauffman, C A

    2006-01-01

    Cardiobacterium hominis, a member of the HACEK group (Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus aphrophilus, and Haemophilus paraphrophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C. hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella species), is a rare cause of endocarditis. There are 61 reported cases of C. hominis infective endocarditis in the English-language literature, 15 of which involved prosthetic valve endocarditis. There is one reported case of C. hominis after upper endoscopy and none report...

  7. Analysis of the presence of pathogens which predict the risk of disease at peri-implant sites through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Análise por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) da presença de patógenos preditores de risco em sítios periimplantares

    Joely Ângela de Oliveira Leitão; José Luiz De Lorenzo; Mario Julio Avila-Campos; Wilson Roberto Sendyk

    2005-01-01

    The presence of DNA of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia in the peri-implant sulcus samples of 19 partially edentulous patients was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and related to the depth of the peri-implant sulcus, bleeding on probing, and probable risk of disease. Ten of those patients presented a history of periodontal disease and nine of those did not. The DNA amplification of these pathogens was observed in seven sample...

  8. Bases farmacomicrobiológicas del tratamiento antibiótico de las enfermedades periodontales y periimplatarias Farmacobiological concepts in the antibiotic treatment of the periodontal diseases

    Liñares, J.; J.E. Martín-Herrero

    2003-01-01

    La enfermedad periodontal debe considerarse un proceso infeccioso bacteriano crónico. En su etiología, no hay una única especie bacteriana implicada, sino que podríamos considerarla como una infección polimicrobiana en la que estarían implicados diversos microorganismos. Las bacterias que se han asociado más directamente con la enfermedad periodontal son Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus y Treponema denticola. Los pará...

  9. Prevalence of Periodontal Pathogens in Dental Plaque of Children

    Gafan, Gavin P.; Lucas, Victoria S.; Roberts, Graham J.; Petrie, Aviva; Wilson, Michael; David A. Spratt

    2004-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Tannerella forsythensis have been implicated as the main etiological agents of periodontal disease. The purpose of this work was to estimate the prevalence of these organisms in plaque from children without gingivitis (group 1; n = 65) and from those with gingivitis (group 2; n = 53). Extracted DNA from plaque was subjected to two rounds of PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene using both universal primers and species-specific prim...

  10. Enzymatic Detachment of Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms

    Kaplan, Jeffrey B.; Ragunath, Chandran; Velliyagounder, Kabilan; Fine, Daniel H.; Ramasubbu, Narayanan

    2004-01-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common cause of infections associated with catheters and other indwelling medical devices. S. epidermidis produces an extracellular slime that enables it to form adherent biofilms on plastic surfaces. We found that a biofilm-releasing enzyme produced by the gram-negative periodontal pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans rapidly and efficiently removed S. epidermidis biofilms from plastic surfaces. The enzyme worked by ...

  11. Cardiobacterium hominis-induced acute dacryocystitis and lacrimal abscess

    Guru Prasad Manderwad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiobacterium hominis is a member of the HACEK (Haemophilus sp., Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C. hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae group commonly associated with endocarditits and is normally present in the respiratory tract. We describe the first case of acute dacryocystitis with lacrimal abscess caused by C. hominis along with a brief review of the literature. The patient responded to oral and topical ciprofloxacin after incision and drainage and awaits dacryocystorhinostomy.

  12. Attachment of oral bacteria to a basement-membrane-like matrix and to purified matrix proteins.

    Winkler, J R; S. R. John; Kramer, R H; Hoover, C.I.; Murray, P A

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the adherence of oral bacteria to an in vitro basement-membrane-like matrix and to selected individual macromolecular constituents of this matrix. Radiolabeled bacteria were incubated with basement-membrane-like matrices isolated from PF HR-9 cells. Bacteroides gingivalis 33277, Fusobacterium nucleatum FN-2, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans GA3(A) bound to the matrix in the range of 44 to 70%, considerably higher than the ranges of A. actin...

  13. A Three-way Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica Isolates

    Lawrence, Paulraj; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; McDermott, Jason E.; Bumgarner, Roger E.

    2010-10-04

    Mannhemia haemolytica is a Gram- negative bacterium and the principal etiological agent associated with bovine respiratory disease complex. They transform from a benign commensal to a deadly pathogen during stress such as viral infection and transportation to feedlots, and cause acute pleuropneumonia commonly known as shipping fever. The U.S beef industry alone loses more than one billion dollars annually to shipping fever and despite its enormous economic importance there are no specific and accurate genetic markers, which would aid in understanding M. haemolytica pathogenesis and epidemiology at molecular level and assist in devising an effective control strategy.

  14. Diagnóstico microbiológico e histopatológico de mortalidade em avestruzes (Struthio camelus Microbiological and histological diagnosis in mortality of ostrich (Struthio camelus

    O. Vieira-da-Motta

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Several young ostrich, including nestlings, with lassitude and inappetence followed by death or victim of sudden death were immediately brought to diagnosis at an Animal Health Laboratory. At necropsy, animals presented hemorrhage and altered content of the vitelline sac, and necrotic foci in the small intestine; one animal showed necrotic pleuropneumonia with psammomatosus bodies in the lung parenchyma. The cultures from different samples revealed Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aglomerans, and Pseudomonas mendocina. It was suggested one case of septicemia in an animal with exclusive growth of K. pneumoniae isolated from samples of small intestine, lung, and liver.

  15. Epidimitis ovina: Estudios bacteriológico y serológico

    Graciela Méndez Nárez; Efrén Díaz Aparicio; José Francisco Morales Álvarez; Francisco Aguilar Romero; Francisco Suárez Güemes

    1999-01-01

    La brucelosis en ovinos puede ser causada por Brucella ovis y por brucelas lisas, en ambos casos puede presentarse epididimitis u orquitis, las cuales también se asocian con otros agentes infecciosos como Actinobacillus seminis e Histophilus ovis. El objetivo de este trabajo fue aislar e identificar los agentes bacterianos involucrados en la epididimitis ovina y establecer la relación en el diagnóstico serológico y bacteriológico de brucelas lisas, de B. ovis y A. seminis con la p...

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09340-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available um geno... 36 0.68 2 ( DQ198149 ) Plasmodium falciparum merozoite-associated trypto... 34 0.72 4 ( FH170...(s) est1= SSD301F ,1,329 est2= SSD301Z ,330,593 Translated Amino Acid sequence klrfsf*cycyccsihynniac...e chromosome V lambda clones... 34 0.23 2 ( X65554 ) S.cerevisiae ICL1 gene for isoci...oda cDNA cl... 46 1.4 1 ( CP000746 ) Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z, complete g...KIKIISKMPPICNSIENENNSFELTTTISFLKKSKLFKKEINVNEIVSINIS QILGEYNSFLINNTIEDLESAIAQNIHN*s Translated Amino Aci

  17. Identification of Dominant Immunogenic Bacteria and Bacterial Proteins in Periodontitis

    Agerbæk, Mette Rylev; Haubek, Dorte; Birkelund, Svend;

    Marginal periodontitis is considered an infectious disease that triggers host inflammatory responses resulting in destruction of the periodontium. A complex biofilm of bacteria is associated with periodontitis. Some species have been identified as putative pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis...... (P.g) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A.a), but the identity of dominate immunogens of these bacteria is poorly elucidated. The aim of the study was to identify dominant immunogenic proteins of P.g and A.a in patients suffering from chronic and aggressive periodontitis by proteomic analysis...... will be able to identify immunodominant proteins and potentially important virulence factors of putative periodontal pathogens....

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09733-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available AE000516 |pid:none) Mycobacterium tuberculosis CDC1... 100 8e-20 AM408590_1682( AM408590 |pid:none) Mycobacterium bovis BCG Pasteur...ELNNPFVQIERFAEQAKAKAAGDDESMLIDKVFT TSLEYGLPPTGGFGLGIDRFAMLMSDTYNIKEVILFPAMKPE*vskpvttttaaptttea pksn*vqlfnyf...SDTYNIKEVILFPAMKPE*vskpvttttaaptttea pksn*vqlfnyfknfkntliqiynknnykinqff Frame B: ...81 |pid:none) Thauera sp. MZ1T, complete geno... 133 1e-29 CP001091_868( CP001091 |pid:none) Actinobacillus pleuropneu...trophilus V24St... 113 1e-23 CP001472_268( CP001472 |pid:none) Acidobacterium capsulatum ATCC 5... 113 1e-23

  19. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  20. Veterinary research, monitoring and advisory services in connection with the establishment and operation of a communal biomass conversion plant. Partial project 3 (VET-BIO-3). Veterinaer forskning, overvaagning og raadgivning i forbindelse med etablering og drift af biogasfaellesanlaeg. Delprojekt 3 (VET-BIO-3); Pilotprojekt vedroerende etablering af sygdomsovervaagning i forbindelse med biogasfaellesanlaeg

    Willadsen, C.M.

    1991-06-15

    The health of domestic animals which contribute to thermophilic biomass conversion plants has been monitored during a period of 15-18 months. The aim was to evaluate the possible risk of infection by animal diseases through liquid manures which are converted in the plants. Data from 39 stocks has been collected and evaluated for the surveilliance of the general health conditions and the occurrence of specific germs, for cattle Salmonella Dublin, and for swine Actinobacillus pleuropneumiae (serotype 2) and Treponema hyodysenteriae. (CLS) 24 refs.

  1. AcEST: DK947761 [AcEST

    Full Text Available SE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 ... 32 1.7 sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transport complex prot...|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 423 Score = 32.3 bits (72), Expect = 1....rt complex protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succinogenes (strain ...PKHD-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococcus sp. (strain ATCC 27264 / ...2 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0016_O16. 5' end sequence. Accession DK94776

  2. Antimicrobial activity of magnolol and honokiol against periodontopathic microorganisms.

    Chang, B; Lee, Y; Ku, Y; Bae, K; Chung, C

    1998-05-01

    Magnolol (1) and honokiol (2), main compounds from the stem bark of Magnolia obovata Thunb., were evaluated for an antimicrobial activity against periodontopathic microorganisms, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, and Veillonella disper, and a cytotoxicity against human gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Our results indicate that magnolol and honokiol, although less potent than chlorhexidine, show a significant antimicrobial activity against these microorganisms, and a relatively low cytotoxic effect on human gingival cells. Thus, it is suggested that magnolol and honokiol may have a potential therapeutic use as a safe oral antiseptic for the prevention and the treatment of periodontal disease. PMID:9619121

  3. Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study

    Devaraj, C.G.; Agarwal, Payal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tulsi is a popular healing herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its anti-microbial property. However, studies documenting the effect of Tulsi on oral disease causing organisms are rare. Hence, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Tulsi on a periodontal microorganism in human dental plaque. Aim To determine if Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) has an anti-microbial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and zone of inhibition) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque and to compare the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum(Linn.) extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as the negative control. Materials and Methods A lab based invitro experimental study design was adopted. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, to obtain ten different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%) of extract. Plaque sample was collected from 05 subjects diagnosed with periodontal disease. Isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from plaque samples was done using Tryptic Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin agar (TSBV) medium. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was done based on cultural, microscopic, biochemical characterization and multiple drug resistance patterns. Anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract was tested by agar well-diffusion method against 0.2% chlorhexidine as a positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters using Vernier callipers. Results At the 6% w/v concentration of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 10 different concentrations tested. The zone of inhibition for positive control

  4. 伴放线凝聚杆菌感染性心内膜炎一例分析

    刘薇; 云峰; 陈龙; 杨洪波; 王拓; 王晓玲; 姚瑶; 徐珊; 王玉彬; 赖惠英; 陈雪; 陶凤蓉; 艾效曼; 陈东科; 许宏涛; 胡云建

    2014-01-01

    感染性心内膜炎(infective endocarditis,IE)为细菌、真菌和其他微生物(如病毒、立克次体、衣原体、螺旋体等)直接感染而产生心瓣膜或心室壁内膜的炎症。嗜血杆菌属(Haemophilus species)、放线杆菌属(Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans)、心杆菌属(Cardiobacterium hominis)、艾肯菌属(Eikenella corrodens)、

  5. Valorización biotecnológica de subproductos/residuos industriales: producción de ácido succínico y ácido láctico.

    Ramos Andrés, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Se ha estudiado el proceso biotecnológico de obtención de ácidos orgánicos (ácido succínico y ácido láctico) por Actinobacillus succinogenes. Ambos ácidos tienen aplicaciones en alimentación, farmacia e industria química y de polímeros. Su obtención mediante un bioproceso presenta múltiples ventajas como la reducción de las necesidades energéticas y de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero, así como el aprovechamiento de subproductos/residuos industriales. Se han estudio ...

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15683-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available e) Yarrowia lipolytica strain CLIB1... 108 4e-22 AM494964_221( AM494964 |pid:none) Leishmania braziliensis chromos...e) Ralstonia pickettii 12J chromoso... 128 5e-28 CP001359_3546( CP001359 |pid:none) An...mic... 98 2e-19 AM502247_265( AM502247 |pid:none) Leishmania infantum chromos...e) Lactobacillus fermentum IFO 3956... 91 1e-16 AM494966_227( AM494966 |pid:none) Leishmania braziliensis chromos...o... 91 1e-16 CP000687_72( CP000687 |pid:none) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoni

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11369-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 664262_1( FJ664262 |pid:none) Annona cherimola disproportionatin... 279 1e-73 AY081315_1( AY081315 |pid:none) Arabidopsi...transferase; EC=2... 55 3e-06 CP000950_161( CP000950 |pid:none) Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YPII... 55 4...e) Escherichia coli IAI39 chromoso... 55 4e-06 FM178380_39( FM178380 |pid:none) Aliivibrio salmoni...a, complet... 53 2e-05 CP001069_163( CP001069 |pid:none) Ralstonia pickettii 12J chromos...s KD131 ch... 43 0.017 CP000687_1202( CP000687 |pid:none) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoni

  8. Study on the association between tail lesion score, cold carcass weight and viscera condemnations in slaughter pigs

    Dayane Lemos Teixeira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every 3rd pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5 point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia and abscess, heart (pericarditis and liver (ascariasis condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector. Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, whereas the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥ 1 were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥ 3. Pleurisy (13.7% followed by pneumonia (10.4% showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0 to 75%. Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05 ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05 at a batch level. Veterinary inspector shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05 at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post mortem meat

  9. Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs.

    Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O'Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0-75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection

  10. Microbiology and pathology of fibrinous pericarditis in Danish slaughter pigs

    Buttenschøn, J.; Friis, N.F.; Aalbaek, B.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Iburg, T.; Mousing, Jan

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of fibrinous pericarditis detected at slaughter in Danish slaughter pigs is approximately 0.02 %. The microbiology and pathology of this disorder was studied through 46 field cases collected at slaughter from May 1994 to August 1995. Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M......., hyopneumoniae in two cases) and Actinomyces pyogenes was isolated from the pericardium twice (as mono-infection in one case and together with M. hyopneumoniae in another). A. pyogenes was also present in the lung, liver and kidney in one of these cases. Streptococcus suis was isolated together with mycoplasmas...... in all cases from which either A. pleuropneumoniae, A. pyogenes or S. suis was isolated. It is concluded that in this study mycoplasmas, particularly nir. Hyopneumoniae, are the more likely cause of fibrinous pericarditis in slaughter pigs....

  11. Control and eradication of animal diseases in New Zealand.

    Davidson, R M

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand is free from all the major epidemic (Office International des Epizooties List A) diseases of animals and other important diseases, such as rabies and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The once endemic conditions of sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis), bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), hydatids (Echinococcus granulosus) and Aujeszky's disease have been eradicated. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is no longer considered endemic and Pullorum disease (Salmonella Pullorum) has effectively been eradicated from commercial poultry flocks. There are current control programmes for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), enzootic bovine leucosis in dairy cattle, infectious bursal disease, ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis), and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Historically, incursions by three important non-endemic diseases, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, classical swine fever and scrapie, have been successfully eliminated. Any new occurrence of a serious exotic disease would be dealt with swiftly using powerful legislative authorities available for the purpose. PMID:16032229

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00515-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ) Cryptococcus neoformans var. neo... 43 0.029 AY194224_1( AY194224 |pid:none) Aedes aegypti strain...a genomic DNA ch... 55 6e-06 BX640431_139( BX640431 |pid:none) Bordetella parapertussis strain...8_635( CU914168 |pid:none) Ralstonia solanacearum strain IP... 39 0.33 CP000687_334( CP000687 |pid:none) Actinobacillus pleuropne.... Toulou... 39 0.56 AJ496288_1( AJ496288 |pid:none) Bartonella tribocorum succinate de... 39 0.56 (Q7S3C9) RecName: Full=Kynurenine...) Ralstonia solanacearum strain Mo... 37 1.2 CP000750_2785( CP000750 |pid:none) Kine

  13. 猪传染性胸膜肺炎的诊治

    田海蓉; 张登祥

    2007-01-01

    猪传染性胸膜肺炎(Porcine Contagious pleuropneu—moniae,PCP)是由胸膜肺炎放线杆菌(Actinobacillus pleurop—neumoniae,APP)引起猪的一种呼吸系统传染病,任何年龄段猪均可发生,经空气或直接接触传播,应激可促使急性暴发,表现为典型的胸膜肺炎、鼻孔分泌物及口腔呕吐物带血。本病对养猪户造成的直接经济损失主要体现在病猪死亡损失和治疗药物费用上。

  14. Determination of the antibacterial activity of simvastatin against periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study

    Shilpa Emani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Objective: Statin treatment, apart from its hypolipidemic action has proven its antimicrobial activity by improving the survival rate of patients with severe systemic bacterial infections. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disorder of tooth supporting structures caused by a group of specific microorganisms. The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of pure simvastatin drug against the primary periodontal pathogens. Materials and Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans using serial dilution method. Results: MIC of simvastatin against P. gingivalis was 2 μg/ml and A. actinomycetemcomitans was found to be <1 μg/ml which requires further dilutions to determine the exact value. Conclusions: Data suggests a potent antimicrobial activity of simvastatin against both A. actinomycetemcomitans and P gingivalis. Hence simvastatin can be prescribed as a dual action drug in patients with both hyperlipidemia and periodontal disease.

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06293-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available lete... 50 2e-05 AE008692_592( AE008692 |pid:none) Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis... 50 3e-05 AP006725_402...68J8) RecName: Full=UPF0451 protein C17orf61 homolog; Flags: ... 57 2e-07 CP000117_3881( CP000117 |pid:none) Anabaena variabili...) Frame A: rtlvenwwn*rl*cyyfrclwwtwikeksy*cstsrylencttipslsficlipcsilnt tkycwsnvfnwnfii*wiii*fityk*knrcfsnwwilvygrlgnfrndir*iiifkkli...bacter usitatus Ellin6076, ... 54 1e-06 CP000569_678( CP000569 |pid:none) Actinobacillus pleuropneumo... |pid:none) Escherichia coli APEC O1, compl... 46 4e-04 AM942759_2277( AM942759 |pid:none) Proteus mirabil

  16. Laminaria digitata as a potential carbon source for succinic acid and bioenergy production in a biorefinery perspective

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Fotidis, Ioannis;

    2015-01-01

    corresponded to 298 and 285 NmL CH4 g− 1 VSadded, respectively. PHSR could potentially be used for: dietary food additive, fish feed, bioenergy production and added value products. This study opens possibility to conceive different biorefinery scenarios in which the efficient use of the macroalgal biomass......A novel biorefinery concept utilizing macroalgae Laminaria digitata to produce succinic acid, and direct the process residues for feed and energy production, is investigated in the present study. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed at high solid loading (25% w v− 1) resulting in solubilization of...... the carbohydrates to soluble sugars, which accumulated in the liquid hydrolysate. The overall sugar recovery in the macroalgae hydrolysate was 78.23%. Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was able to ferment macroalgae hydrolysate to succinic acid with a yield of 86.49% (g g− 1 of total sugars) and an...

  17. AcEST: DK950383 [AcEST

    Full Text Available ASTTDS 194 >sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transport complex protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succi...bits) Value sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 ... 32 1.7 sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transpo...sapiens GN... 30 8.5 >sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 423 Scor...AAV 643 >sp|B1XLW1|Y2658_SYNP2 PKHD-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococc...4 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0008_I05. 5' end sequence. Accession DK95038

  18. AcEST: DK961319 [AcEST

    Full Text Available Value sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 ... 32 2.3 ...kinase OS=Corynebacterium glutamic... 30 8.7 >sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=...ex protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succinogenes (strain ATCC 55618 / 130Z) GN=rnfC PE=3 SV=1 Length = 703 Sco...KQLAVRCEGPCPCP 183 >sp|B1XLW1|Y2658_SYNP2 PKHD-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococc...1 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0009_M16. 5' end sequence. Accession DK96131

  19. AcEST: DK953954 [AcEST

    Full Text Available >sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transport complex protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succi... sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 ... 32 1.6 sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transpo..... 30 7.8 >sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 423 Score = 32.3 bi...|B1XLW1|Y2658_SYNP2 PKHD-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococcus sp. (...0 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0019_C10. 5' end sequence. Accession DK95395

  20. AcEST: DK947980 [AcEST

    Full Text Available ....done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spoc...RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transport complex protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succinogenes (strain ATCC 55618 / 130Z)...can-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 423 Score = 32.3 bits (72), Expect = 2.2 Identities = 16/...8_SYNP2 PKHD-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococcus sp. (strain ATCC 27264 / PCC 7002 / PR-6) GN...5 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0002_B10. 5' end sequence. Accession DK94798

  1. AcEST: DK953389 [AcEST

    Full Text Available >sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transport complex protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succi...e sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 ... 32 1.6 sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transpo...... 30 7.8 >sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 423 Score = 32.3 b...p|B1XLW1|Y2658_SYNP2 PKHD-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococcus sp. ...1 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0017_K07. 5' end sequence. Accession DK95338

  2. AcEST: DK943994 [AcEST

    Full Text Available CLSSKQLAVRCEGPCPCPTEQSTASTTDS 194 >sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transport complex protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succi...ng significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 ......ens GN... 30 9.4 >sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 423 Score = ...-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococcus sp. (strain ATCC 27264 / PCC 7002 / PR-6) GN=SYNPCC7002_...1 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0004_K07. 5' end sequence. Accession DK94399

  3. AcEST: DK953205 [AcEST

    Full Text Available icant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 ... 32 1.8 sp...d box protein J3 OS=Homo sapiens GN... 30 8.7 >sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spoc...lex protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succinogenes (strain ATCC 55618 / 130Z) GN=rnf...GP PCP Sbjct: 160 KLEQQACLSSKQLAVRCEGPCPCP 183 >sp|B1XLW1|Y2658_SYNP2 PKHD-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococc...0 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0017_C14. 5' end sequence. Accession DK95320

  4. AcEST: DK951024 [AcEST

    Full Text Available QLAVRCEGPCPCPTEQSTASTTDS 194 >sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transport complex protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succi...can-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 ... 32 2.3 sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transpo...c... 30 8.7 >sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 423 Score = 32.3 ...58_SYNP2 PKHD-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococcus sp. (strain ATCC...1 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0010_E15. 5' end sequence. Accession DK95102

  5. AcEST: DK954517 [AcEST

    Full Text Available EQSTASTTDS 194 >sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transport complex protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succinogenes ...2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 ... 32 2.6 sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transport complex...p|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 423 Score = 32.3 bits (72), Exp...DPKKAAV 643 >sp|B1XLW1|Y2658_SYNP2 PKHD-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococcus sp. (strain ATCC ...1 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0020_K10. 5' end sequence. Accession DK95451

  6. AcEST: DK944835 [AcEST

    Full Text Available 94 >sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transport complex protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succi...lue sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 ... 32 1.8 sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transpo... (... 30 8.9 >sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 423 Score = 32.3...658_SYNP2 PKHD-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococcus sp. (strain ATCC 27264 / PCC 7002 / PR-6) ...5 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0007_F11. 5' end sequence. Accession DK94483

  7. AcEST: DK954687 [AcEST

    Full Text Available PTEQSTASTTDS 194 >sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transport complex protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succinogene...R58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 ... 32 2.1 sp|A6VQ42|RN...>sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 423 Score = 32.3 bits (72), E...PDPKKAAV 643 >sp|B1XLW1|Y2658_SYNP2 PKHD-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococcus sp. (strain ATCC...0 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0021_B17. 5' end sequence. Accession DK95468

  8. AcEST: DK953892 [AcEST

    Full Text Available QQACLSSKQLAVRCEGPCPCPTEQSTASTTDS 194 >sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transport complex protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succi...SE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 ... 32 2.1 sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transpo... glutamic... 30 8.1 >sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 423 Score...XLW1|Y2658_SYNP2 PKHD-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococcus sp. (str...7 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0018_P19. 5' end sequence. Accession DK95389

  9. AcEST: DK951694 [AcEST

    Full Text Available ts: (bits) Value sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 ... 32 1.9 sp|B1XLW1|Y2658_...Homo sapiens GN... 30 9.3 >sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 423...TEQSTASTTDS 194 >sp|B1XLW1|Y2658_SYNP2 PKHD-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococc...x protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succinogenes (strain ATCC 55618 / 130Z) GN=rnfC PE=3 SV=1 Length = 703 Scor...9 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0012_B10. 5' end sequence. Accession DK95169

  10. AcEST: DK947612 [AcEST

    Full Text Available N2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 ... 32 1.7 sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transport comple...Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 423 Score = 32.3 bits (72), Expec...rt complex protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succinogenes (s...SYNP2 PKHD-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococcus sp. (strain ATCC 27...8 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0016_H08. 5' end sequence. Accession DK94761

  11. AcEST: DK954462 [AcEST

    Full Text Available ase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococcus sp. (strain ATCC 27264 / PCC 7002 / PR-6) Align length 61 Score (bit) 32.3 E-value 1.9 Repo... >sp|A6VQ42|RNFC_ACTSZ Electron transport complex protein rnfC OS=Actinobacillus succinogenes (strain ATCC 5...N2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 ... 30 9.3 sp|Q9UPW0|FOXJ3_HUM...AN Forkhead box protein J3 OS=Homo sapiens GN... 30 9.3 >sp|B1XLW1|Y2658_SYNP2 PKHD-type hydroxylase SYNPCC7002_A2658 OS=Synechococc...VICEVVEGGP 150 >sp|Q9ER58|TICN2_MOUSE Testican-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Spock2 PE=2 S

  12. Microbial flora in orodental infections

    Saini S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare the normal aerobic and anaerobic bacterial oral flora with flora from deep seated dental caries, gingivitis and adult periodontitis. All the samples belonging to both the control and study groups yielded microbes. Aerobe / Anaerobe ratio was high in normal flora (1.48 as compared to dental caries (0.9, gingivitis (0.72 and periodontitis (0.56. Ninety seven percent of orodental infections were polymicrobial and three or more microbes were found in 84% cases of study group as compared to 28% in controls. Streptococcus mutans and anaerobic lactobacilli were common in dental caries, Actinomyces and Peptostreptococcus spp. in gingivitis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis.

  13. High-throughput Gene Expression Analysis In Pigs As Model For Respiratory Infections

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Brogaard, Louise; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard;

    perform highly controlled experimental infections and to study changes of symptoms, viral titer, and expression of microRNAs/mRNAs as the influenza infection progresses in time, generating information that would be difficult to obtain from human patients. The Gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus......Influenza A virus infections have great impact on human health and welfare and significant resources are linked to influenza epidemics due to excess hospitalizations and lost productivity. Up to 15% of the human population is affected when Influenza spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics...... (WHO). Animal models are essential in understanding the mechanisms involved in human infectious disease and for the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. It is increasingly realized that large animal models like the pig are exceptionally human like and serve as an excellent...

  14. Obtención de ácido láctico. Fermentación en fase dual mediante Actinobacilus Succinogenes

    Ayala Varela, Flavio Celín

    2015-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados obtenidos para la obtención de ácido láctico partiendo de glucosa como sustrato, utilizando el microorganismo Actinobacillus succinogenes, favoreciendo la ruta menos común hacia el piruvato con las condiciones adecuadas: Medio de crecimiento; 53286 Brain Heart Broth (SIGMA-ALDRICH), medio de fermentación; 60 g glucosa, 30 g extracto de levadura, 2 g urea, 2 g MgCl2·6H2O, 1.99 g CaCl2. 2H2O, 0.11 g MnCl2. 4H2O, 4.4 g Na2HPO4, 4,06 g NaH2PO4. 2H2O (composición por li...

  15. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9 g L(-1)), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid. PMID:25682224

  16. . and Aggregatibacter segnis comb. nov., and emended description of Aggregatibacter aphrophilus to include V factor-dependent and V factor-independent isolates

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, N.; Kilian, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    Haemophilus aphrophilus was able to transform Haemophilus paraphrophilus into the NAD-independent phenotype. The transformants carried a full-length nadV inserted in the former locus of the pseudogene. The DNA-DNA relatedness between the type strains of Haemophilus aphrophilus and Haemophilus paraphrophilus.......73(T)=NCTC 5906(T)) and Aggregatibacter segnis comb. nov. (type strain HK316(T)=ATCC 33393(T)=CCUG 10787(T)=CCUG 12838(T)=CIP 103292(T)=NCTC 10977(T)). The species of the genus Aggregatibacter are independent of X factor and variably dependent on V factor for growth in vitro......The aim of this study was to reinvestigate the relationships and the generic affiliations of the species Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Haemophilus paraphrophilus and Haemophilus segnis. The nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase gene (nadV) conferring V factor-independent...

  17. Bases farmacomicrobiológicas del tratamiento antibiótico de las enfermedades periodontales y periimplatarias Farmacobiological concepts in the antibiotic treatment of the periodontal diseases

    J. Liñares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad periodontal debe considerarse un proceso infeccioso bacteriano crónico. En su etiología, no hay una única especie bacteriana implicada, sino que podríamos considerarla como una infección polimicrobiana en la que estarían implicados diversos microorganismos. Las bacterias que se han asociado más directamente con la enfermedad periodontal son Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus y Treponema denticola. Los parámetros farmacodinámicos de los antibióticos son muy útiles a la hora de seleccionar pautas posológicas. El aumento de resistencias producido en muchos periodontopatógenos en los últimos años ha relegado a algunos antibióticos a un segundo plano. Entre la gran variedad de antibióticos utilizados, se han obtenido buenas respuestas terapéuticas con amoxicilina/ácido clavulánico, metronidazol, clindamicina, doxiciclina y las combinaciones de metronidazol más amoxicilina y metronidazol más amoxicili-na/ácido clavulánico.Periodontal disease must be considered a chronic bacterial infection. It does not appear to one single bacterial species that is uniquely involved. Rather, periodontal disease seems to be a polymicrobial infection involving several organisms. The bacteria most often associated with periodontal disease are Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus y Treponema denticola. Pharmacodynamics parameters are very useful to select dosing regimens. The increase in prevalence of resistance occurred in some periodontopathogens in the last years has pushed some antibiotics into the background. Positive responses have been reported with amoxicillin/clavulanate, metronidazole, clindamycin, doxycycline and the combination therapy metronidazole plus amoxicillin and metronidazole plus amoxicillin/clavulanate.

  18. Antimicrobial proteins of Snail mucus (Achatina fulica against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Herluinus Mafranenda DN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achasin and mytimacin-AF are proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica which have antimicrobial activity. Snail mucus is suspected to have other proteins which have antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans the oral pathologic bacteria. Purpose: The study were aimed to characterize the proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica that have antimicrobial activities to Streptococcus mutans and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and to compared the antimicrobial effect of achasin and mytimacin-AF. Methods: The sample of study was the mucus of snails which were taken from Yogyakarta Province. The isolation and characterization of protein were conducted by using SDS-PAGE method, electroelution, and dialysis. Nano drop test was conducted to determine protein concentration. The sensitivity test was conducted by using dilution test, and followed by spectrophotometry and paper disc diffusion tests. Results: The study showed that proteins successfully characterized from snail mucus (Achatina fulica were proteins with molecular weights of 83.67 kDa (achasin, 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa (full amino acid sequence of mytimacin-AF and 9.7 kDa (mytimacin-AF. Based on the dilution test, Achasin had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. But the paper disc diffusion test result showed that Achasin had antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, while mytimacin-AF had no antimicrobial activities. Conclusion: The proteins with molecular weights of 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa were considered as new antimicrobial proteins isolated from snail mucus. Achasin, had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

  19. Activity of Zanthoxylum Species and their Compounds Against Oral Pathogens%花椒属植物对口腔致病菌的抗菌活性

    施瑶; 李定祥; 闵知大

    2005-01-01

    目的:比较6种花椒属(Zanthoxylum)植物乙醇提取物对口腔致病菌的抗菌活性,从中寻找抗菌的活性物质.方法: 用于抗菌活性实验的口腔致病菌是变形链球菌(Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175),放线菌(Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 12104)和嗜血放线伴生杆菌(Actinobacillus actinomycetemicomtans ATCC 43717).抗菌实验为琼脂扩散法(agar diffusion assays)和最低抑菌浓度法(MIC).结果: 拟蚬壳花椒(Z. lactum)的根对这些口腔致病菌表现出最强的抗菌活性,其次是两面针(Z. nitidum)和异叶花椒(Z. dimorphyllum)的根.进而对异叶花椒 (Z. dimorphyllum) 的根进行化学成分研究,分离到4个已知化合物,其中化合物Canthin-6-one对这三种口腔致病菌均有很强的抗菌能力,最低抑菌浓度(MIC)在15.6和62.5 μg/mL之间.结论: Canthin-6-one可能是异叶花椒抗菌活性的物质基础.%Ethanolic extracts obtained from six different Zanthoxylum species and four compounds isolated from Z. dimorphyllum were screened for their antibacterial activity against oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 12104, Actinobacillus actinomycetemicomtans ATCC 43717). Antibacterial activity was tested using agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results revealed that Z. lactum showed the strongest inhibitory effect, whereas Z. nitidum and Z. dimorphyllum exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. Further analysis via bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of the plant Z. dimorphyllum resulted in the isolation of four known compounds identified as Scoparone (1); 6,7,8-Trimethoxycoumarin (2); Canthin-6-one (3); Syringaresinol (4). Canthin-6-one (3) exhibited strong activity against the tested bacteria with MIC values between 15.6 and 62.5 μg/mL.

  20. Two Cases of Bacterial Pneumonia in Bottle-nosed Dolphins (Tursiops Gillii at the Seoul Zoo, Korea

    Kyung-Yeon Eo and Oh-Deog Kwon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two bacterial pneumonia cases of bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops gillii were found in Seoul Zoo. Firstly, severe fibrous pleuropneumonia was revealed in a 14-year-old male bottle-nosed dolphin on its necropsy. The clinical signs included anorexia, listing posture, and vertical submerging after the initial signs of low activity and avoiding trainers. White blood cell count increased up to 31.80 × 103/µl. Despite aggressive antibiotics therapy of intramuscular injection and nebulization it died two months later. At early time of illness Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis were isolated. Lately Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the exhaled air culture and direct sample of lung parenchyma on necropsy. Secondly, a 6-year-old male bottle-nosed dolphin with anorexia and tendency to avoid trainers was completely recovered after prompt treatment with antibiotics and NSAIDs for six days prior to diagnosis. The diagnosis was based on history, clinical signs, blood cell count, and mucous culture from blowhole. The count of white blood cell dramatically decreased from 25.36 × 103/µl to 7.28 × 103/ µl after four days of antibiotics therapy. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the culture.

  1. Vaccination of cattle with the N terminus of LppQ of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides results in type III immune complex disease upon experimental infection.

    Mulongo, Musa; Frey, Joachim; Smith, Ken; Schnier, Christian; Wesonga, Hezron; Naessens, Jan; McKeever, Declan

    2015-05-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a serious respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. Current vaccines against CBPP induce short-lived immunity and can cause severe postvaccine reactions. Previous studies have identified the N terminus of the transmembrane lipoprotein Q (LppQ-N') of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides as the major antigen and a possible virulence factor. We therefore immunized cattle with purified recombinant LppQ-N' formulated in Freund's adjuvant and challenged them with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides. Vaccinated animals showed a strong seroconversion to LppQ, but they exhibited significantly enhanced postchallenge glomerulonephritis compared to the placebo group (P = 0.021). Glomerulonephritis was characterized by features that suggested the development of antigen-antibody immune complexes. Clinical signs and gross pathological scores did not significantly differ between vaccinated and placebo groups. These findings reveal for the first time the pathogenesis of enhanced disease as a result of antibodies against LppQ during challenge and also argue against inclusion of LppQ-N' in a future subunit vaccine for CBPP. PMID:25733516

  2. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 28

    As we move into the second half of 1998, it is appropriate to look forward to 1999 which will see the commencement of four new FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and the initiation of new round of biennium support for the Agency's programme of Technical C-operation (TC). The technical direction of support through these two activities reflects the process that was begun with the external review of the animal production and heath Sub-programme in 1996. Thus in the animal health field this year we have started three new CRPs on rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Newcastle Disease, and in 1999 we will start a new CRP on developing techniques for separating foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccinated animals from those naturally infected. In the animal production field we will start new CRPs in 1999 on purine derivative analysis in urine, and on tannins whilst in veterinary drug residue analysis the first CRP will commence, again in 1999. Further information on these activities is contained in this Newsletter

  3. Identification of self-growth-inhibiting compounds lauric acid and 7-(Z)-tetradecenoic acid from Helicobacter pylori.

    Yamashita, Shinpei; Igarashi, Masayuki; Hayashi, Chigusa; Shitara, Tetsuo; Nomoto, Akio; Mizote, Tomoko; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori growth medium is usually supplemented with horse serum (HS) or FCS. However, cyclodextrin derivatives or activated charcoal can replace serum. In this study, we purified self-growth-inhibiting (SGI) compounds from H. pylori growth medium. The compounds were recovered from porous resin, Diaion HP-20, which was added to the H. pylori growth medium instead of known supplements. These SGI compounds were also identified from 2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which was supplemented in a pleuropneumonia-like organisms broth. The growth-inhibiting compounds were identified as lauric acid (LA) and 7-(Z)-tetradecenoic acid [7-(Z)-TDA]. Although several fatty acids had been identified in H. pylori, these specific compounds were not previously found in this species. However, we confirmed that these fatty acids were universally present in the cultivation medium of the H. pylori strains examined in this study. A live/dead assay carried out without HS indicated that these compounds were bacteriostatic; however, no significant growth-inhibiting effect was observed against other tested bacterial species that constituted the indigenous bacterial flora. These findings suggested that LA and 7-(Z)-TDA might play important roles in the survival of H. pylori in human stomach epithelial cells. PMID:25767109

  4. Towards livestock disease diagnosis and control in the 21st century. Proceedings of an international symposium

    Livestock diseases remain a key constraint to livestock production in developing countries. Diseases like rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, brucellosis, trypanosomosis, tick borne diseases such as anaplasmosis, heartwater and East Coast fever, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and Newcastle disease have caused great economic losses in various parts of the world. The control, and ultimate eradication where possible, of these and other diseases is important for the economies of many nations. It is for this reason that both the IAEA and the FAO have put great emphasis on the control and eradication of livestock diseases. The success of any disease control or eradication programme relies heavily on the robustness and efficacy of tile diagnosis, surveillance or seromonitoring method or methods being used. Nuclear based and related techniques such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have played and continue to play a vital role in this regard. The aim of this symposium is to review existing and emerging techniques used in disease diagnosis and control and to carefully put them in context for use in developing countries in the future

  5. Constraints to cattle production in a semiarid pastoral system in Kenya.

    Onono, Joshua Orungo; Wieland, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    Livestock keeping is the mainstay for the pastoral community while also providing social and cultural value. This study ranked main production constraints and cattle diseases that impacted livelihood and estimated herd prevalence, incidence rate, and impact of diseases on production parameters in a semiarid pastoral district of Narok in Kenya. Data collection employed participatory techniques including listing, pairwise ranking, disease incidence scoring, proportional piling, and disease impact matrix scoring and this was disaggregated by gender. Production constraints with high scores for impact on livelihood included scarcity of water (19%), lack of extension services (15%), presence of diseases (12%), lack of market for cattle and their products (10%), and recurrent cycle of drought (9%). Diseases with high scores for impact on livelihood were East Coast fever (ECF) (22%) and foot and mouth disease (FMD) (21%). High estimated incidence rates were reported for FMD (67%), trypanosomosis (28%), and ECF (15%), while contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) had an incidence rate <1%. Milk yield was affected by FMD, ECF, and trypanosomosis, while ECF was the cause of increased mortality. FMD, ECF, CBPP, and brucellosis caused increased abortion, while effect of gender and location of study was not significant. Despite CBPP being regarded as an important disease affecting cattle production in sub-Sahara Africa, its estimated incidence rate in herds was low. This study indicates what issues should be prioritized by livestock policy for pastoral areas. PMID:23417827

  6. Hemothorax under thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue: plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in a 16-year-old girl.

    Varnholt, V; Ringe, H; Nietsch, L; Gaedicke, G

    1999-12-01

    We present the case of a 16-year-old girl with an extended thrombosis of the femoral and iliac vein and the inferior vena cava during pleuropneumonia; predisposing risk factors for thrombophilia were: use of contraceptives, nicotine abuse and congenital deficiency of antithrombin III (not previously diagnosed). Thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; initial dose: 0.08 mg/kg/h) was started. 2 days later--after diagnosis of an extended hemothorax: 1500 ml blood were obtained after thoracocentesis, transfusion of packed red blood cells was necessary--rt-PA was stopped, with only heparin (400 U/kg/d) being administered. 36 h later--the thrombosis had not yet changed--the thrombolytic therapy with rt-PA was continued in a markedly reduced dose (0.015 mg/kg/d) with no further bleeding complications. 8 days later--after successful thrombolysis--t-PA was stopped, heparin was given for another 10 days, then cumarin was administered orally. PMID:10650854

  7. Genomic characterization of Pasteurella multocida HB01, a serotype A bovine isolate from China.

    Peng, Zhong; Liang, Wan; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Bin; Tang, Biao; Tan, Chen; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-04-25

    Pasteurella multocida infects various domestic and feral animals, generally causing clinical disease. To investigate P. multocida disease in cattle, we sequenced the complete genome of P. multocida HB01 (GenBank accession CP006976), a serotype A organism isolated from a cow in China. The genome is composed of a single circular chromosome of 2,416,068 base pairs containing 2212 protein-coding sequences, 6 ribosomal rRNA operons, and 56 tRNA genes. The present study confirms that P. multocida HB01 possesses a more complete metabolic pathway with an intact trichloroacetic acid cycle for anabolism compared with A. pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis. This is the first time that this metabolic mechanism of P. multocida has been described. We also identified a full spectrum of genes related to known virulence factors of P. multocida. The differences in virulence factors between strains of different serotypes and origins were also compared. This comprehensive comparative genome analysis will help in further studies of the metabolic pathways, genetic basis of serotype, and virulence of P. multocida. PMID:26827796

  8. Proposal for designation of F38-type caprine mycoplasmas as Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae subsp. nov. and consequent obligatory relegation of strains currently classified as M. capricolum (Tully, Barile, Edward, Theodore, and Ernø 1974) to an additional new subspecies, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum subsp. nov.

    Leach, R H; Ernø, H; MacOwan, K J

    1993-07-01

    A subspecies relationship with the existing species Mycoplasma capricolum is appropriate for the F38 group of mycoplasmas, the causative agent of classical contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. We believe that this classification is justified on the basis of the close DNA-DNA relationship recently reported for isolates belonging to the two groups and the other known serological and biological similarities and differences of these organisms. Strain F38T (T = type strain) and taxonomically indistinguishable strains are therefore proposed as members of a new subspecies of M. capricolum, M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. Strain F38 (= NCTC 10192) is the type strain of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae subsp. nov. As a consequence of this subdivision of the species M. capricolum, strains previously classified as M. capricolum are now necessarily relegated to subspecies status, as M. capricolum subsp. capricolum subsp. nov. Strain California kid (= ATCC 27343 = NCTC 10154) is the type strain of M. capricolum, as well as of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum. A taxonomic description of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and a brief amended description of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum are presented. PMID:8347517

  9. Laser therapy and comparative therapy methods in parodontology

    This two studies aim to examine application of a diode-laser in periodontal therapy. The aim of the pilot-study was to examine the immediate effect of the diode-laser in reducing the bacterial concentration in periodontal pockets. 50 patients were randomly subdivided into two groups (laser group, control group) and microbiologic samples were collected. One week after the therapy (1st group: scaling and laser, 2nd group: scaling) there were taken further more samples from the same periodontal pockets treated before. The microbiologic samples were evaluated to verify bacterial elimination from the periodontal pockets, especially Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans could be considerably eliminated from periodontal pockets by the diode laser. In the long-term study, there were two groups, one laser-group and one control-group. All 50 patients were required to have periodontal pockets with a minimum depth of 4 mm in each quadrate. The bacterial reduction, the change of bleeding on probing and the pocket depth had been evaluated six months after therapy. The irradiation with the diode laser allows considerable bacterial elimination, the index of bleeding on probing came out to be significantly better than in the control group. The reduction of pocket depth was also greater than in the control group. (author)

  10. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from genital tract of the Arabian mares affected with genital tract infection and antimicrobial sensitivity

    H. F. AL-Abidy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for isolation and identification of the pathogenic bacteria presented in the genital tract infectionof the Arabian mares, and shows the anti microbial sensitivity. The study included 75 samples taken from infected maressuffering from genital tract infection diagnosed on the basis of case history and clinical signs which included bloody purulentdischarge ranched from yellow to green in colure, fetid oder with congested and oedematous vagina and from some abortioncases, and from mares suffered from tetanus disease symptoms during the period between October 2007 to April 2008 in studfarms breeding mares in Mosul. The samples were collected by swabs from the clitoris, clitorial fossa and the vagina. Isolationof bacteria was performed using aerobic and anaerobic culture techniques. Results of the present study showed a total ofisolation 75% from all samples taken with a high percentage isolation of Clostridium tetani (16.6%, followed by Archanobacterium pyogenes (10.6%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, (6.7% for each Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiellapneumonia, Streptococcus dysagalactiae subsp equisimilis, and (5.3% for each bacteria Actinobacillus equilli, Streptococcuszooepidemicus, Staphylococcus aureus, then Proteus vulgaris (2.6%, and Escherichia coli (1.3%. The most bacterial isolateswere resistant to amoxicillin (100%, ampicillin (90.9 %, and erythromycin (65.9%, while the most isolates were sensitive tokanamycin (70.4%. It could be concluted that the most important bacteria causing genital tract infection of mares could beClostridium tetani and Archanobacterium pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most bacterial isolates were resistant toamoxicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin.

  11. Daya Antibakteri Albumen Telur Ayam Kampung (Gallus Domesticus dan Ayam Kate (Gallus Bantam terhadap Spesies Bakteri Coliform Fekal pada Cangkang Telur

    Vera Pramesti Wijaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dan menganalisis pengaruh albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian ekperimen dengan variabel bebas berupa albumen telur ayam kampung dan kate. Variabel terikat berupa zona hambat pertumbuhan bakteri koliform fekal. Pengujian dilakukan dengan metode difusi agar. Pengujian daya antibakteri albumen telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dilakukan dengan mengukur diameter zona hambat pertumbuhan koloni tiap spesies bakteri koliform fekal pada medium Nutrien Agar. Data pe-nelitian adalah data hasil pengukuran diameter zona hambat pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal. Hasil penelitian dianalisis menggunakan analisis varian tunggal, dan dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT 1%. Hasil dari penelitian adalah: (1 spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pa-da cangkang telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam yaitu Actinobacillus sp., Serratia liquefaciens, Klebsiella ozaenae, dan Escherichia vulneris; dan (2 ada pengaruh perbedaan albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap daya hambat pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam.Kata kunci: albumen telur, ayam kampung, ayam kate, daya antibakteri, bakteri koliform fekal

  12. Influence of hormonal contraceptives on microbial flora of gingival sulcus.

    Klinger, G; Eick, S; Klinger, G; Pfister, W; Gräser, T; Moore, C; Oettel, M

    1998-06-01

    To determine a possible influence of two different hormonal contraceptives on bacterial microflora of gingival sulcus, subgingival plaque samples of 29 healthy women aged between 20 and 32 years were investigated bacteriologically before subjects took a contraceptive and 10 and 20 days after subjects started the medication. In 14 women, and oral contraceptive containing 0.02 mg ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg desogestrel (preparation A) was used, and 15 women took a contraceptive containing 0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol and 2.00 mg dienogest (preparation B) daily over 21 days. There were no changes in clinical parameters of the teeth investigated during 3 weeks of the study. The periodontopathogenic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were never detected throughout the study. On the other hand, the periodontopathogenic species Prevotella intermedia was found in plaque samples of 22 women. The content of this microorganism showed only a little change between the pretreatment period and plaque sampling after 10 days of contraceptive treatment, but a striking increase occurred after 20 days of contraceptive treatment, especially in the preparation A group. In this respect, there was a significant difference between preparations A and B. PMID:9693397

  13. Cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of zirconia coatings with different silver contents on titanium

    Huang, Heng-Li [School of Dentistry, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yin-Yu, E-mail: yinyu@mail2000.com.tw [Department of Mechanical and Computer-Aided Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ya-Chi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mingdao University, Changhua 52345, Taiwan (China); Lai, Chih-Ho [School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Chen, Michael Y.C. [School of Dentistry, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-31

    This study used a twin-gun magnetron sputtering system to deposit ZrO{sub 2}-silver (Ag) coatings on biograde pure-titanium implant materials, and the Ag content in the deposited coatings was controlled by the magnetron power. The films were then annealed using rapid thermal annealing at 350 °C for 2 min to induce the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles on the film surface. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) were used for in vitro antibacterial analyses. The cytocompatibility, mRNA expression, and adhesive morphology of human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells on the coatings were also determined. The obtained results suggest that ZrO{sub 2}-Ag composite coatings containing less than 10.6 at.% Ag show hydrophobicity, good viability and proliferation of HGF cells, and antibacterial effects on S. aureus and A. actinomycetemcomitans. Moreover, the antibacterial performance of ZrO{sub 2}-Ag coatings is superior to that pure-titanium whilst maintaining biological compatibility. - Highlights: • The annealed ZrO{sub 2}-Ag coatings showed a tetragonal-and-monoclinic structure. • Nanoparticles were well distributed in the annealed ZrO{sub 2}-Ag composite coatings. • The ZrO{sub 2}-Ag coated Ti showed hydrophobic feature. • The ZrO{sub 2}-Ag showed good antibacterial performance. • The ZrO{sub 2}-Ag showed good human gingival fibroblast cell viability.

  14. Eikenella corrodens: Patogénesis y aspectos clínicos.

    Rubén Darío Jaramillo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El ambiente microbiológico oral es único y tiene una dinámica compleja. Se calcula que cerca de 500 especies de bacterias habitan la cavidad oral humana, y alrededor de 22 géneros son los predominantes. Las bacterias que se aíslan con más frecuencia de los sitios infectados de la cavidad oral, y que son también patógenos potenciales, forma un grupo pequeño de microorganismos gramnegativos, entre los que se incluyen los siguientes: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, Campylobacter spp., Capnocytophoga spp., Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia y el grupo-Streptococcus milleri. E. corrodens se reconoce como un microbio patógeno oportunista en la cavidad oral; también, puede causar infecciones extra orales, como un agente infeccioso solo o en combinaciones con diversas bacterias. La presente revisión, con un énfasis en E. corrodens, mostrará varios aspectos de sus características microbiológicas y bioquímicas, también se sistematizan y discuten el conocimiento actual sobre los mecanismos de patogénesis, como los lipopolisacáridos, proteínas externas de membrana, complejo de adesina, pili y otros; infecciones oral y extra oral; factores predisponentes; endocarditis; osteomielitis, infecciones intra-abdominales; diagnóstico y agentes antimicrobianos.

  15. Eikenella corrodens: Patogénesis y aspectos clínicos

    Rubén Darío Jaramillo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available El ambiente microbiológico oral es único y tiene una dinámica compleja. Se calcula que cerca de 500 especies de bacterias habitan la cavidad oral humana, y alrededor de 22 géneros son los predominantes. Las bacterias que se aíslan con más frecuencia de los sitios infectados de la cavidad oral, y que son también patógenos potenciales, forma un grupo pequeño de microorganismos gramnegativos, entre los que se incluyen los siguientes: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, Campylobacter spp., Capnocytophoga spp., Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia y el grupo-Streptococcus milleri. E. corrodens se reconoce como un microbio patógeno oportunista en la cavidad oral; también, puede causar infecciones extra orales, como un agente infeccioso solo o en combinaciones con diversas bacterias. La presente revisión, con un énfasis en E. corrodens, mostrará varios aspectos de sus características microbiológicas y bioquímicas, también se sistematizan y discuten el conocimiento actual sobre los mecanismos de patogénesis, como los lipopolisacáridos, proteínas externas de membrana, complejo de adesina, pili y otros; infecciones oral y extra oral; factores predisponentes; endocarditis; osteomielitis, infecciones intra-abdominales; diagnóstico y agentes antimicrobianos.

  16. AcEST: BP915688 [AcEST

    Full Text Available nyl-tRNA synthetase OS=Actinobacillus suc... 89 2e-17 sp|A6LEZ8|SYA_PARD8 Alanyl-tRNA synthetase OS=Parab...VVTGQECGVVLDKTCFYAEQ 538 >sp|Q8BGQ7|SYAC_MOUSE Alanyl-tRNA synthetase, cytoplasmic OS=Mus musculus GN=Aars P... 137 7e-31 tr|B8LD66|B8LD66_THAPS Alanine-trna ligase (Fragment) OS=Thalass... 135 2e-30 tr|Q5ZKF3|Q5ZKF3_CHICK Putative unchar... 2e-28 tr|Q3TZ32|Q3TZ32_MOUSE Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Mus m... 128 2e-28 tr|B5X2C6|B5X2C6_SALSA Ala...GN=GI129... 124 5e-27 tr|B6NV00|B6NV00_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein (Fragmen... 122 2e-26 tr|Q4D747|Q4D747_TRYCR Ala

  17. Responses in ileal and cecal bacteria to low and high amylose/amylopectin ratio diets in growing pigs.

    Luo, Yu-Heng; Yang, Can; Wright, André-Denis G; He, Jun; Chen, Dai-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Dietary starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation in the distal intestine. This study aimed to compare the bacterial community in the ileal and cecal digesta of growing pigs fed diets with low (0.14, LR pigs) and high (0.43, HR pigs) amylose/amylopectin ratio. Pyrosequencing based on MiSeq 2000 platform showed that in ileum digesta, Bacteroidetes of LR pigs was markedly higher than that in HR pigs (P Halomonas pacifica, Escherichia fergusonii, and Actinobacillus minor which belong to class Gammaproteobacteria were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in HR pigs with a significant increase (P < 0.01) of Lactobacillus acetotolerans-like bacteria. Therefore, the changed bacterial community may lead to a transformation of microbial function, such as the alteration of fermentation mode which is showed on the change of microbial metabolites like the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), to a response to the switch of dietary composition, and in turn, to help host absorb and utilize nutrients efficiently. The increase of dietary amylose induced the reduction of conditioned pathogens which may probably be due to the increase of some probiotics such as Lactobacillus, thus reducing the risk of intestinal disease. PMID:26318448

  18. Multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria in frozen food (ready to cook food) of animal origin sold in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Fouzia Sultana; Kamrunnahar; Hafsa Afroz; Afroz Jahan; Md Fakruddin; Suvamoy Datta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the bacterial load and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates obtained from (ready to cook) frozen food samples of animal origin in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A total of 20 samples of frozen ready to cook food of animal origin were purchased from different separate grocery stores in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on the basis of biochemical properties. Results: A total of 57 isolates has been isolated from 20 samples, of them 35.08% were Gram positive and 64.92% were Gram negative organisms. Highest percentages of isolated organisms were Staphylococcocus spp. (24.56%), Alcaligene spp. (17.54%), Klebshiella spp. (12.28%) and the lowest percentages of organisms were Enterococcus spp., Actinobacillus spp. and Proteus spp. Antibiogram results clearly showed that levofloxacin and imipenem were the most effective drug against the isolates. The less effective antibiotics were chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid and resistance was highest against ciprofloxacin. The most contaminated food was chicken nuggets. Conclusions: This type of frozen food contaminated with multi-antibiotic resistant microorganisms can be potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases.

  19. No difference in small bowel microbiota between patients with irritable bowel syndrome and healthy controls.

    Dlugosz, Aldona; Winckler, Björn; Lundin, Elin; Zakikhany, Katherina; Sandström, Gunnar; Ye, Weimin; Engstrand, Lars; Lindberg, Greger

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that colonic microbiota may exhibit important differences between patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy controls. Less is known about the microbiota of the small bowel. We used massive parallel sequencing to explore the composition of small bowel mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with IBS and healthy controls. We analysed capsule biopsies from the jejunum of 35 patients (26 females) with IBS aged 18-(36)-57 years and 16 healthy volunteers (11 females) aged 20-(32)-48 years. Sequences were analysed based on taxonomic classification. The phyla with the highest total abundance across all samples were: Firmicutes (43%), Proteobacteria (23%), Bacteroidetes (15%), Actinobacteria (9.3%) and Fusobacteria (7.0%). The most abundant genera were: Streptococcus (19%), Veillonella (13%), Prevotella (12%), Rothia (6.4%), Haemophilus (5.7%), Actinobacillus (5.5%), Escherichia (4.6%) and Fusobacterium (4.3%). We found no difference among major phyla or genera between patients with IBS and controls. We identified a cluster of samples in the small bowel microbiota dominated by Prevotella, which may represent a common enterotype of the upper small intestine. The remaining samples formed a gradient, dominated by Streptococcus at one end and Escherichia at the other. PMID:25687743

  20. Comparative cytotoxicity of periodontal bacteria

    The direct cytotoxicity of sonic extracts (SE) from nine periodontal bacteria for human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was compared. Equivalent dosages (in terms of protein concentration) of SE were used to challenge HGF cultures. The cytotoxic potential of each SE was assessed by its ability to (1) inhibit HGF proliferation, as measured by direct cell counts; (2) inhibit 3H-thymidine incorporation in HGF cultures; or (3) cause morphological alterations of the cells in challenged cultures. The highest concentration (500 micrograms SE protein/ml) of any of the SEs used to challenge the cells was found to be markedly inhibitory to the HGFs by all three of the criteria of cytotoxicity. At the lowest dosage tested (50 micrograms SE protein/ml); only SE from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum caused a significant effect (greater than 90% inhibition or overt morphological abnormalities) in the HGFs as determined by any of the criteria employed. SE from Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eikenella corrodens, or Wolinella recta also inhibited cell proliferation and thymidine incorporation at this dosage; however, the degree of inhibition (5-50%) was consistently, clearly less than that of the first group of three organisms named above. The SE of the three other organisms tested (Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides intermedius, and Streptococcus sanguis) had little or no effect (0-10% inhibition) at this concentration. The data suggest that the outcome of the interaction between bacterial components and normal resident cells of the periodontium is, at least in part, a function of the bacterial species

  1. PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE ASSESSMENT OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN MILK SAMPLES FROM SELECTED DAIRY FARMS

    Murugaiyah Marimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and bacteriological assessment of subclinical mastitis and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates from dairy cows in different farms around Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 120 milk samples from 3 different farms were randomly collected and tested for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test (CMT, as well as for bacterial culture for isolation, identification and antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent bacteria was Staphylococcus sp. (55%, followed by Bacillus sp., (21% and Corynebacterium sp., (7%, Yersinia sp. and Neisseria sp. both showed 5% prevalence, other species with prevalence below 5% are Acinetobacter sp., Actinobacillus sp., Vibrio sp., Pseudomonas sp., E.coli, Klebsiella sp. and Chromobacter sp. Selected Staphylococcus sp. showed a mean antimicrobial resistance of 73.3% to Ampicillin, 26.7% to Penicillin, Methicillin and Compound Sulphonamide each, 20% to Oxacillin, Amoxycillin and Cefuroxime, 13.3% to Polymyxin B, Erythromycin, Ceftriaxone and Azithromycin and 6.7% to Streptomycin, Clindamycin, Lincomycin and Tetracycline each. This study indicates the need for urgent and effective control measures to tackle the increase in prevalence of subclinical mastitis and their antimicrobial resistance in the study area.

  2. Inhibitory effect of quercetin on periodontal pathogens in vitro.

    Geoghegan, F; Wong, R W K; Rabie, A B M

    2010-06-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) are bacteria strongly associated with early onset, progressive and refractory periodontal disease and associated alveolar bone loss. Quercetin is a flavonoid found in many foods including apples, onions and tea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quercetin on in vitro growth of periodontal pathogens Aa and Pg. For comparison, quercetin's effect on several oral microbes was also evaluated. Different concentrations of quercetin solution were added to calibrated suspensions of Aa and Pg. All suspensions were incubated for 1, 3, 6, and 24 h in an anaerobic chamber at 37 degrees C. At each time point, selected dilutions from each culture broth were plated on blood agar plates. Colonies appearing on blood agar plates were visually counted on 3 days for Aa and 5 days for Pg. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of both periodontal pathogens were also determined. Both periodontal bacteria showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in viable counts after 1 h. No colony forming units of Pg could be observed after 24 h. The results suggest that quercetin possesses significant antimicrobial properties on periodontal pathogens in vitro. PMID:19957242

  3. A clinical study: Melaleuca, Manuka, Calendula and green tea mouth rinse.

    Lauten, Jeffrey D; Boyd, Linda; Hanson, M Blair; Lillie, Dana; Gullion, Christina; Madden, Theresa E

    2005-11-01

    A novel mouthrinse (IND 61,164) containing essential oils and extracts from four plant species (Melaleuca alternifolia, Leptospermum scoparium, Calendula officinalis and Camellia sinensis) were tested. This study aimed to evaluate the safety, palatability and preliminary efficacy of the rinse. Fifteen subjects completed the Phase I safety study. Seventeen subjects completed the Phase II randomized placebo-controlled study. Plaque was collected, gingival and plaque indices were recorded (baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks). The relative abundance of two periodontal pathogens (Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Tanerella forsythensis) was determined utilizing digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes. ANCOVA was used at the p = 0.05 level of significance. Two subjects reported a minor adverse event. One subject withdrew from the study. Several subjects objected to the taste of the test rinse but continued treatment. Differences between gingival index, plaque index or relative abundance of either bacterial species did not reach statistical significance when comparing nine placebo subjects with eight test rinse subjects. Subjects exposed to the test rinse experienced no abnormal oral lesions, altered vital signs, changes in liver, kidney, or bone marrow function. Larger scale studies would be necessary to determine the efficacy and oral health benefits of the test rinse. PMID:16317652

  4. Pretreatment of spent sulphite liquor via ultrafiltration and nanofiltration for bio-based succinic acid production.

    Pateraki, Chrysanthi; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Kookos, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2016-09-10

    Ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been employed to evaluate the simultaneous production of lignosulphonates and bio-based succinic acid using the bacterial strains Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Ultrafiltration with membranes of 10, 5 and 3kDa molecular weight cut-off results in significant losses of lignosulphonates (26-50%) in the permeate stream, while nanofiltration using membrane with 500Da molecular weight cut-off results in high retention yields of lignosulphonates (95.6%) in the retentate stream. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures using permeates from ultrafiltrated SSL resulted in similar succinic acid concentration (27.5g/L) and productivity (0.4g/L/h) by both strains. When permeates from nanofiltrated SSL were used, the strain B. succiniciproducens showed the highest succinic acid concentration (33.8g/L), yield (0.58g per g of consumed sugars) and productivity (0.48g/L/h). The nanofiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor could lead to the production of 306.3kg of lignosulphonates and 52.7kg of succinic acid, whereas the ultrafiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor using a 3kDa membrane could result in the production of 237kg of lignosulphonates and 71.8kg of succinic acid when B. succiniproducens is used in both cases. PMID:27374402

  5. Gut immune dysfunction through impaired innate pattern recognition receptor expression and gut microbiota dysbiosis in chronic SIV infection.

    Glavan, T W; Gaulke, C A; Santos Rocha, C; Sankaran-Walters, S; Hirao, L A; Raffatellu, M; Jiang, G; Bäumler, A J; Goulart, L R; Dandekar, S

    2016-05-01

    HIV targets the gut mucosa early in infection, causing immune and epithelial barrier dysfunction and disease progression. However, gut mucosal sensing and innate immune signaling through mucosal pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) during HIV infection and disease progression are not well defined. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model of AIDS, we found a robust increase in PRRs and inflammatory cytokine gene expression during the acute SIV infection in both peripheral blood and gut mucosa, coinciding with viral replication. PRR expression remained elevated in peripheral blood following the transition to chronic SIV infection. In contrast, massive dampening of PRR expression was detected in the gut mucosa, despite the presence of detectable viral loads. Exceptionally, expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR8 was downmodulated and diverged from expression patterns for most other TLRs in the gut. Decreased mucosal PRR expression was associated with increased abundance of several pathogenic bacterial taxa, including Pasteurellaceae members, Aggregatibacter and Actinobacillus, and Mycoplasmataceae family. Early antiretroviral therapy led to viral suppression but only partial maintenance of gut PRRs and cytokine gene expression. In summary, SIV infection dampens mucosal innate immunity through PRR dysregulation and may promote immune activation, gut microbiota changes, and ineffective viral clearance. PMID:26376368

  6. Characterization and antibacterial performance of ZrCN/amorphous carbon coatings deposited on titanium implants

    Titanium (Ti)-based materials have been used for dental/orthopedic implants due to their excellent biological compatibility, superior mechanical strength and high corrosion resistance. The osseointegration of Ti implants is related to their composition and surface treatment. Better biocompatibility and anti-bacterial performances of Ti implant are beneficial for the osseointegration and for avoiding the infection after implantation surgery. In this study, nanocomposite ZrCN/amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings with different carbon contents were deposited on a bio-grade pure Ti implant material. A cathodic-arc evaporation system with plasma enhanced duct equipment was used for the deposition of ZrCN/a-C coatings. Reactive gas (N2) and C2H2 activated by the zirconium plasma in the evaporation process were used to deposit the ZrCN/a-C coatings. To verify the susceptibility of implant surface to bacterial adhesion, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), one of the major pathogen frequently found in the dental implant-associated infections, was chosen for in vitro anti-bacterial analyses. In addition, the biocompatibility of human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells on coatings was also evaluated by a cell proliferation assay. The results suggested that the ZrCN/a-C coatings with carbon content higher than 12.7 at.% can improve antibacterial performance with excellent HGF cell compatibility as well.

  7. Characterization and antibacterial performance of ZrCN/amorphous carbon coatings deposited on titanium implants

    Lai, Chih-Ho [School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, 404 Taiwan (China); Chang, Yin-Yu, E-mail: yinyu@mail2000.com.tw [Department of Mechanical and Computer-Aided Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin, Taiwan (China); Huang, Heng-Li [School of Dentistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Kao, Ho-Yi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mingdao University, Changhua, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-30

    Titanium (Ti)-based materials have been used for dental/orthopedic implants due to their excellent biological compatibility, superior mechanical strength and high corrosion resistance. The osseointegration of Ti implants is related to their composition and surface treatment. Better biocompatibility and anti-bacterial performances of Ti implant are beneficial for the osseointegration and for avoiding the infection after implantation surgery. In this study, nanocomposite ZrCN/amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings with different carbon contents were deposited on a bio-grade pure Ti implant material. A cathodic-arc evaporation system with plasma enhanced duct equipment was used for the deposition of ZrCN/a-C coatings. Reactive gas (N{sub 2}) and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} activated by the zirconium plasma in the evaporation process were used to deposit the ZrCN/a-C coatings. To verify the susceptibility of implant surface to bacterial adhesion, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), one of the major pathogen frequently found in the dental implant-associated infections, was chosen for in vitro anti-bacterial analyses. In addition, the biocompatibility of human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells on coatings was also evaluated by a cell proliferation assay. The results suggested that the ZrCN/a-C coatings with carbon content higher than 12.7 at.% can improve antibacterial performance with excellent HGF cell compatibility as well.

  8. Evaluation of an integrated biorefinery based on fractionation of spent sulphite liquor for the production of an antioxidant-rich extract, lignosulphonates and succinic acid.

    Alexandri, Maria; Papapostolou, Harris; Komaitis, Michael; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Danezis, Georgios P; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2016-08-01

    Spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been used for the production of lignosulphonates (LS), antioxidants and bio-based succinic acid. Solvent extraction of SSL with isopropanol led to the separation of approximately 80% of the total LS content, whereas the fermentations carried out using the pretreated SSL with isopropanol led to the production of around 19g/L of succinic acid by both Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Fractionation of SSL via nanofiltration to separate the LS and solvent extraction using ethyl acetate to separate the phenolic compounds produced a detoxified sugar-rich stream that led to the production of 39g/L of succinic acid by B. succiniciproducens. This fractionation scheme resulted also in the production of 32.4g LS and 1.15g phenolic-rich extract per 100g of SSL. Both pretreatment schemes removed significant quantities of metals and heavy metals. This novel biorefinery concept could be integrated in acidic sulphite pulping mills. PMID:27176670

  9. An Unusual Occurrence of Actinobacillosis in Heifers and Cows in A Dairy Herd in Tehran suburb-Iran

    Atyabi, N.,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual occurrence of actinobacillosis was diagnosed in 4 heifers aged 8-15 months and 2 cattle in a dairy herd with 190 Iranian Holstein breed. Anorexia, dysphagia, drooling of normal or foodtinged saliva and presence of warts-like lesions on the dorsal surface of tongue shaft were observed in a 15-month-old heifer without showing protrusion of tongue or presenting woody tongue and no involvement of either sulcus lingualis or tongue base. In addition to tongue, soft tissues of oral cavity and pharyngeal region including lymph nodes, salivary glands and tonsils were contained multiple whitish nodules. Histopathologically, typical pyogranulomas of actinobacillosis contained radiating eosinophilic clubs surrounded by many neutrophils were diagnosed. Actinobacillus lignieresii was isolated from the lesions in pure culture. Clinical examination of other animals revealed the presence of different degrees of granulomatous abscesses in soft tissues including skin around mandibles in at least 3 heifers aged 8-11 months and 2 cattle. Due to 4 recent droughty years feeding the heifers, dry cows and low milk producing cattle by cheap oat and wheat straw mixed with plant awns could be the cause of this event.

  10. МИКРОБИОЛОГИЧЕСКОЕ ОБОСНОВАНИЕ ВЫБОРА БАЗИСНОГО МАТЕРИАЛА ЗУБОЧЕЛЮСТНЫХ ЛЕЧЕБНЫХ АППАРАТОВ БОЛЬНЫМ С ПОСЛЕОПЕРАЦИОННЫМИ ДЕФЕКТАМИ ВЕРХНЕЙ ЧЕЛЮСТИ

    Царев, Виктор; Арутюнов, Анатолий; Седракян, Айрапет; Орлова, Ольга; Спиранде, Ирина

    2009-01-01

    В эксперименте in vitro изучали адгезивную способность микроорганизмов Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus milleri, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Candida albicans, Veillonella parvula, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans к базисным пластмассам стомакрил и фторакс, структурированным двумя способами горячей полимеризацией и СВЧ-полимеризацией. Пациентам с дефектами челюстей при нал...

  11. Acute Haemophilus parainfluenzae endocarditis: a case report

    Christou Leonidas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Numerous pathogens can cause infective endocarditis, including Haemophilus parainfluenzae. H. parainfluenzae is part of the H. aphrophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae group that may cause about 3% of the total endocarditis cases, and is characterized by a subacute course and large vegetations. Case presentation Acute H. parainfluenzae endocarditis developed in a 54-year-old woman, with no underlying predisposing factors. The patient presented with fever of 3 days duration and a severe headache. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple cerebral emboli with hemorrhagic foci. Upon suspicion of endocarditis, cardiac transesophageal ultrasonography was performed and revealed massive vegetations. The patient underwent emergency mitral valve replacement, and was further treated with ceftriaxone. Blood cultures grew H. parainfluenzae only after valve replacement, and a 6-week course of ceftriaxone was prescribed. Conclusion We underline the typical presentation of large vegetations in H. parainfluenzae endocarditis, which are associated with embolic phenomena and resulting severity. Although the majority of the few cases reported in the literature are subacute in progress, our case further underlines the possibility that H. parainfluenzae endocarditis may develop rapidly. Thus, awareness of the imaging characteristics of the pathogen may enhance early appropriate diagnosis and therapeutic response.

  12. thermo-stable alpha-amylase(S) from irradiated microbial origin utilizing agricultural and environmental wastes under solid state fermentation conditions

    an investigation concerning the production of thermo-stable α-amylases by thermophilic bacterial and fungal isolates has been undertaken. nine thermophilic bacteria and five teen fungi were isolated from different localities viz. phyllosphere of water hyacinth, different desert plants leaves, fermented dough, oven dust, garbage , and soil. their amylolytic activities were tested by dinitrosalicylic acid color reagent (Dns) method when grown on some environmental pollutants (garbage and water hyacinth) as well as industrial wastes (Bagasse, biscuit, corn flex and dough residues ) as the sole carbon source at 65o C for bacterial and at 50o C for fungal isolates . isolates No. B1,B2,B5,B6,B7,B8,B9, and F4,F6,F8,F12,F13 and F15, exhibited the highest α -amylase production when grown on water hyacinth, while B4,F3,F11 and F13, on dough ; (B3,F9 and F10 ) on bagasse and ( F1,F2,F5,F7,F11 and F14) on garbage. Out of the nine identified bacterial isolated, only two isolates viz; actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, B1 and strepto bacillus moniliformis, B7, exhibited the ability to produce high percentages of α amylases at 55o C (while still able to produce the enzyme within 45-70o C)

  13. A three-way comparative genomic analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica isolates

    McDermott Jason E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannhemia haemolytica is a Gram-negative bacterium and the principal etiological agent associated with bovine respiratory disease complex. They transform from a benign commensal to a deadly pathogen, during stress such as viral infection and transportation to feedlots and cause acute pleuropneumonia commonly known as shipping fever. The U.S beef industry alone loses more than one billion dollars annually due to shipping fever. Despite its enormous economic importance there are no specific and accurate genetic markers, which will aid in understanding the pathogenesis and epidemiology of M. haemolytica at molecular level and assist in devising an effective control strategy. Description During our comparative genomic sequence analysis of three Mannheimia haemolytica isolates, we identified a number of genes that are unique to each strain. These genes are "high value targets" for future studies that attempt to correlate the variable gene pool with phenotype. We also identified a number of high confidence single nucleotide polymorphisms (hcSNPs spread throughout the genome and focused on non-synonymous SNPs in known virulence genes. These SNPs will be used to design new hcSNP arrays to study variation across strains, and will potentially aid in understanding gene regulation and the mode of action of various virulence factors. Conclusions During our analysis we identified previously unknown possible type III secretion effector proteins, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR and CRISPR-associated sequences (Cas. The presence of CRISPR regions is indicative of likely co-evolution with an associated phage. If proven functional, the presence of a type III secretion system in M. haemolytica will help us re-evaluate our approach to study host-pathogen interactions. We also identified various adhesins containing immuno-dominant domains, which may interfere with host-innate immunity and which could potentially

  14. Doença de Chagas aguda pós-transfusional sem miocardite

    Evanil Pires de Campos

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de paciente do sexo feminino, com 59 anos de idade, procedente de Itaporanga (SP, diabética e nefropata crônica, internada em virtude de surtos de pielonefnte e insuficiência renal aguda. Dentre outras medidas terapêuticas, recebeu transfusão de sangue. Cerca de dois dias após a última transfusão (sangue oriundo de doador, posteriormente identificado como chagásico encontraram-se formas tripomastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi em lâmina preparada para execução de hemograma. Iniciou-se tratamento com Benzonidazol. A paciente cursou para, pleuropneumonia e de secreção purulenta cirúrgica isolou-se Klebsiella spp. A septicemia conduziu a paciente ao êxito letal. Nenhuma lesão tecidual foi observada no miocárdio, no sistema nervoso central, adrenal ou nos demais órgãos examinados.D.E. O., a 59 years old white female bom in Paranagua (PR, came from Itaporanga with Kimmelstiel Wilson nephropathy diabetes and pyelonephritis with acute renal failure followed by a nephrectomy. Anaemia and malnutrition led to blood transfusions before and after surgery. On the 34th day, she developed high fever, prostration, agressivity with mental confusion, abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Trypanosomes were seen in peripheral blood smears. Haemoculture and xenodiagnosis was positive. A complement fixation test was negative. Benznidazole (6 mg/kg/day was started. During treatment she presented pulmonary infection and a surgical purulent secretion showed Klebsiella sp. Despite intensive medical care she died of sepsis. Autopsy revealed evidence of diabetes mellitus (glomerulosclerosis, hepatic lesions, pancreatic fibrosis and generalised arteriolar disease. No chagasic lesions were detected in the heart, central nervous system, adrenal or other tissues.

  15. CARACTERIZAÇÃO BIOQUÍMICA DE AMOSTRAS DE Haemophilus parasuis ISOLADAS DE SUÍNOS NA REGIÃO SUL DO BRASIL

    Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar amostras não hemolíticas de bactérias do gênero Haemophilus isoladas de suínos. As bactérias foram isoladas de material clínico de animais com suspeita da doença de Glässer, de leitões aparentemente sadios provenientes de quatro rebanhos com suspeita clínica desta doença e de casos de poliartrites. Além das características culturais e morfotintoriais, foram utilizados os seguintes testes para a identificação: dependência de NAD(fator V, CAMP, produção de hemolisina, indol, urease e catalase, redução do nitrato e produção de ácido dos carboidratos: glicose, sacarose, arabinose e manose. Dezessete dentre 24 amostras foram classificadas como Haemophilus parasuis (dez isoladas de animais clinicamente doentes e sete de leitões normais. Cinco destas amostras foram classificadas nos sorogrupos 2, 4, 7, ND4 e uma foi não tipável. Quatro das 24 amostras apresentaram características do grupo taxonômico C (teste de arabinose positivo e três produziram urease. Os testes realizados não permitiram distinguir as amostras urease positivas do gênero Haemophilus das amostras não hemolíticas de Actinobacilius pleuropneumoniae. Mais de 60% das amostras apresentaram sensibilidade in vitro a: ampicilina, cefalotina, cloranfenicol, danofioxacina, nitrofurantoína, penicilina G, polimixina B e tetraciclina.

  16. Analysis of donor selection for living related kidney transplantation and their postoperative outcome

    Ležaić Višnja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of cadaveric organs for transplantation resulted in increased number of living related kidney donors examinations and consequent transplantations in our Department. Donor procedure, selection, drop-outs and final results for living related donors (LRD were retrospectively analyzed in this paper. Between 1987 and 1994 202 potential LRD were examined. Most of them were females (59% and about 30% were older than 60 years. The family relation between LRD and recipients were: parents (95%, siblings (3%, grandmother grandfather (1.5% and uncle (0.5%. Potential LRD were informed on risks advantages and procedure of living donor transplantation. After primary information 26% of potential LRD gave up further examinations. Following immunological and clinical evaluations 48% of LRD actually donated a kidney. The other 26% were excluded during the selection procedure. High immunological risks including ABO incompatibility, HLA mismatches and positive cross match test were the reasons for drop outs of 35 potential LRD (17%. Five more donors were excluded for medical reasons: one because of low creatinine clearance and four because of neoplasms, discovered during examination (kidney, laryngeal, lung. Fourteen transplantation were not realized due to different recipient reasons: 5 of them had clinical contraindications, two died and in 7 cadaveric kidney transplantations were performed. Mild hypertension, coronary disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 were presented in 5 LRD accepted for transplantation. Five more had to be operated before donation (abdominal or urological operation. Early complications after donor nephrectomy were acute renal failure, stress ulcus, pleuropneumonia in three and thromboflebitis in two donors. In conclusion, although kidney transplantation from LRD is highly successful careful examination during selection procedure is indispensable.

  17. Characterization of free exopolysaccharides secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides.

    Clothilde Bertin

    Full Text Available Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is a severe respiratory disease of cattle that is caused by a bacterium of the Mycoplasma genus, namely Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm. In the absence of classical virulence determinants, the pathogenicity of Mmm is thought to rely on intrinsic metabolic functions and specific components of the outer cell surface. One of these latter, the capsular polysaccharide galactan has been notably demonstrated to play a role in Mmm persistence and dissemination. The free exopolysaccharides (EPS, also produced by Mmm and shown to circulate in the blood stream of infected cattle, have received little attention so far. Indeed, their characterization has been hindered by the presence of polysaccharide contaminants in the complex mycoplasma culture medium. In this study, we developed a method to produce large quantities of EPS by transfer of mycoplasma cells from their complex broth to a chemically defined medium and subsequent purification. NMR analyses revealed that the purified, free EPS had an identical β(1->6-galactofuranosyl structure to that of capsular galactan. We then analyzed intraclonal Mmm variants that produce opaque/translucent colonies on agar. First, we demonstrated that colony opacity was related to the production of a capsule, as observed by electron microscopy. We then compared the EPS extracts and showed that the non-capsulated, translucent colony variants produced higher amounts of free EPS than the capsulated, opaque colony variants. This phenotypic variation was associated with an antigenic variation of a specific glucose phosphotransferase permease. Finally, we conducted in silico analyses of candidate polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways in order to decipher the potential link between glucose phosphotransferase permease activity and attachment/release of galactan. The co-existence of variants producing alternative forms of galactan (capsular versus free extracellular galactan and associated

  18. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF RURAL SUBSISTENCE SMALL HOLDER LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF NWFP, PAKISTAN

    R. N. Khan and R. H. Usmani

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the rural mountainous areas of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan to characterize small holder’s subsistence livestock production system. Livestock farmers (n=82 were interviewed in 16 villages of Batagram and Mansehra districts. The farmers were keeping on an average 4 buffalos, 1 cattle, 12 sheep or 13 goats per household. More than 94% farmers were keeping 4 buffaloes per household as compared to only 40% keeping 1 or 2 cattle. Buffaloes were main dairy animals producing 7.9 liters of milk/day or 2370 liters per lactation of 300 days. Local non-descript cows were producing only 2.5 liters of milk per day. Animals of all species were found to be underfed, as they depended mostly on self growing local grasses for grazing. Only milking animals were offered some concentrates in the form of cottonseed cake and wheat bran. Milk was mostly consumed at the household level or converted into butter oil. Age at first calving and calving interval of buffaloes were longer than those of cows. Incidence of livestock diseases was high in the area. Major diseases in cattle and buffaloes were haemorrhagic septicaemia and internal parasites. Pleuropneumonia and parasitism were major disease problems in small ruminants. It was estimated that gross profit averaged Rs. 32475 per buffalo, Rs. 3320 per sheep and Rs. 5314 per goat per year. Gross margin for cattle was negative and the farmers were sustaining a loss of Rs. 1960 per cow per year. Keeping in view the poor production environments, the overall performance of animals was encouraging and offered considerable scope for improvement.

  20. Treatment of pulmonary embolism and prevention of recurrence by placement of vena cava filters in prevention of deep venous thrombosis: Case report

    Vučićević-Trobok Jadranka

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In patients with pulmonary thromboembolism it is clinical to suspect the disease, establish the diagnosis and initiate anticoagulation treatment as early as possible in order to prevent relapses, which may be fatal. Deep venous thrombosis of lower extremities is the most common site of origin, which initially may remain obscure. Case report Two weeks prior to admission the patient had right-sided chest pain accompanied with dyspnea, interpreted and treated as pleuropneumonia. Pulmonary thromboembolism was suspected due to clinical symptoms, chest X-ray, elevated enzyme levels findings, blood gas analysis with hypoxemia and ECG with right heart overload. The diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism confirmed by lung scintigraphy presented with perfusion defects. After twenty days of heparin therapy, the patient developed left leg edema. Ultrasound screening confirmed bilateral iliac-femoral popliteal vein thrombosis of iliacofemoropopliteal veins bilaterally. Phlebography performed via jugular vein disclosed thrombotic material in the right common iliac vein, as well as in the vena cava inferior. In the course of the procedure vena cava filter has been placed. Discussion Although the patient was receiving anticoagulation heparin therapy, he developed pulmonary thromboembolism relapse and deep venous thrombosis. In our patient, vena cava filter placement was aimed at preventing pulmonary thromboembolism relapse. Since a deficit of S protein was also established, the patient is unfortunately likely to develop thrombosis at other sites as well. Conclusion In our patient pulmonary thromboembolism was a consequence of deep venous thrombosis, and the diagnosis was established by ultrasound screening of the lower extremities and confirmed by phlebography. During phlebography vena cava filter was placed in order to prevent pulmonary thromboembolism.

  1. Antibody response to Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae bacterium in small holder dairy goats in Tanzania.

    Swai, Emmanuel Senyael; Kaaya, Jackson Eliona; Noah, Elly Yesse

    2013-10-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), an Office International des Epizooties listed disease, can cause significant levels of morbidity and mortality in goats in Africa, the Middle East, and Western Asia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of CCPP, in two contrasting administrative districts of northern Tanzania, namely, Babati and Arumeru. A total of 337 serum samples were collected from January to July 2010, from apparently clinically healthy unvaccinated dairy goats breeds of different ages and sexes. Samples were subjected to monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the specific measurement of antibodies to Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae bacterium. The overall animal flock and village-level seroprevalence of CCPP was found to be 3.3 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-5.8], 9.6 % (95 % CI = 4.7-16.9), and 31.5 % (95 % CI = 15.6-56.5), respectively. There was no evidence (p = 0.659) of differences in seroprevalence between samples from the two administrative locations. Despite the fact that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in seropositivity between sex and age and between breeds sampled, there was a significant difference (p goats showing a higher seroprevalence. The findings of this survey revealed evidence of dairy goat exposure to M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, although at a low prevalence. It is therefore advisable to include CCPP serology in the seromonitoring program so as to give a better indication of flock immunity. This should lead to the establishment of appropriate CCPP control measures in smallholder dairy goat flocks, which are increasingly being recognized for their value as a vital source of livelihood for resource poor livestock keepers in Tanzania. PMID:23558376

  2. Estudio microbiológico de la periimplantitis: Presentación de 9 casos clínicos Microbiological study of the peri-implantitis: presentation of 9 clinical case

    M. Quinteros Borgarello

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: La periimplantitis es un proceso inflamatorio de los tejidos que rodean a un implante sometido a carga que produce la pérdida de soporte óseo. En este trabajo se muestran los resultados del estudio microbiológico y del antibiograma realizado a partir del exudado y/o del tejido periimplantario de 16 implantes funcionales con periimplantitis de 9 pacientes que fueron tratados en nuestro servicio. Material y método: Se estudiaron 16 periimplantitis observadas en 9 pacientes; de 14 de ellas se obtuvieron muestras con puntas de papel estériles que se introdujeron en la bolsa periimplantaria. En 2 implantes las muestras procedian de tejido de granulación periimplantario. Inmediatamente después de ser obtenidas, se colocaban en placas de agar-chocolate con brain heart infusion para proceder a su cultivo. Resultados: Los especímenes bacterianos aislados fueron: Stomatococcus, Prevotella oralis, Peptostreptococcus y Fusobacterium nucleatum. En 9 muestras fue imposible aislar una bacteria predominante debido a la complejidad de la flora. Respecto al resto de muestras, la bacteria predominante fue Stomatococcus en 3, Prevotella oralis en 1,Peptostreptococcus en 1 y Fusobacterium nucleatum en 2. Los antibiogramas mostraron una mayor sensibilidad a la asociación de la amoxicilina con el ácido clavulánico, comparada con la amoxicilina, el metronidazol o una combinación de estos dos últimos antimicrobianos. Conclusiones: En este trabajo las bacterias asociadas más frecuentemente a la periimplantitis fueron: Stomatococcus, Prevotella oralis, Peptostreptococcus y Fusobacterium nucleatum. En ningún caso se aislaron cepas de Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Los posibles factores de riesgo asociados a periimplantitis en nuestra serie fueron los implantes recubiertos con hidroxiapatita, implantes de 3,25mm de diámetro y la localización más distal del implante en las prótesis que rehabilitaban extremos libres edéntulos superiores

  3. Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases

    Enzo A. Palombo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes. Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium. Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described.

  4. Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases.

    Palombo, Enzo A

    2011-01-01

    Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described. PMID:19596745

  5. Serum IgG antibody levels to periodontal microbiota are associated with incident Alzheimer disease.

    James M Noble

    Full Text Available Periodontitis and Alzheimer disease (AD are associated with systemic inflammation. This research studied serum IgG to periodontal microbiota as possible predictors of incident AD.Using a case-cohort study design, 219 subjects (110 incident AD cases and 109 controls without incident cognitive impairment at last follow-up, matched on race-ethnicity, were drawn from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP, a cohort of longitudinally followed northern Manhattan residents aged >65 years. Mean follow-up was five years (SD 2.6. In baseline sera, serum IgG levels were determined for bacteria known to be positively or negatively associated with periodontitis (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4, Treponema denticola, Campylobacter rectus, Eubacterium nodatum, and Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies-2. In all analyses, we used antibody threshold levels shown to correlate with presence of moderate-severe periodontitis.Mean age was 72 years (SD 6.9 for controls, and 79 years (SD 4.6 for cases (p640 ng/ml, present in 10% of subjects was associated with increased risk of AD (HR = 2.0, 95%CI: 1.1-3.8. This association was stronger after adjusting for other significant titers (HR = 3.1, 95%CI: 1.5-6.4. In this model, high anti-E. nodatum IgG (>1755 ng/ml; 19% of subjects was associated with lower risk of AD (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.2-0.9.Serum IgG levels to common periodontal microbiota are associated with risk for developing incident AD.

  6. Are Putative Periodontal Pathogens Reliable Diagnostic Markers?▿

    Riep, Birgit; Edesi-Neuß, Lilian; Claessen, Friderike; Skarabis, Horst; Ehmke, Benjamin; Flemmig, Thomas F.; Bernimoulin, Jean-Pierre; Göbel, Ulf B.; Moter, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. A number of putative bacterial pathogens have been associated with the disease and are used as diagnostic markers. In the present study, we compared the prevalence of oral bacterial species in the subgingival biofilm of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) (n = 44) and chronic periodontitis (CP) (n = 46) patients with that of a periodontitis-resistant control group (PR) (n = 21). The control group consisted of subjects at least 65 years of age with only minimal or no periodontitis and no history of periodontal treatment. A total of 555 samples from 111 subjects were included in this study. The samples were analyzed by PCR of 16S rRNA gene fragments and subsequent dot blot hybridization using oligonucleotide probes specific for Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, a Treponema denticola-like phylogroup (Treponema phylogroup II), Treponema lecithinolyticum, Campylobacter rectus, Fusobacterium spp., and Fusobacterium nucleatum, as well as Capnocytophaga ochracea. Our data confirm a high prevalence of the putative periodontal pathogens P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and T. forsythia in the periodontitis groups. However, these species were also frequently detected in the PR group. For most of the species tested, the prevalence was more associated with increased probing depth than with the subject group. T. lecithinolyticum was the only periodontopathogenic species showing significant differences both between GAP and CP patients and between GAP patients and PR subjects. C. ochracea was associated with the PR subjects, regardless of the probing depth. These results indicate that T. lecithinolyticum may be a diagnostic marker for GAP and C. ochracea for periodontal health. They also suggest that current presumptions of the association of specific bacteria with periodontal health and disease require further

  7. The use of ozonated water and 0.2% chlorhexidine in the treatment of periodontitis patients: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Kshitish Durga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of periodontal disease has been thought to be associated with several restricted members of the oral anaerobic species, such as black-pigmented Porphyromonas species and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, in the subgingival environment. Apart from bacteria, certain viruses and fungi that are associated with periodontal disease are also present in the subgingival plaque . Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-blind, crossover split-mouth design was performed. A total of 16 patients suffering from generalized chronic periodontitis were selected for the study. The study period of 18 days was divided into two time-intervals, i.e. baseline (0 days to 7 th day, with a washout period of 4 days followed by a second time interval of 7 days. The use of ozone and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX irrigation was randomized. Both the patient and the clinician evaluating the clinical parameters were blinded regarding the type of irrigation used. Results: The interpretation of clinical and microbial data is from baseline to 7 th day. A higher percentage of plaque index (12%, gingival index (29% and bleeding index (26% reduction was observed using ozone irrigation as compared to chlorhexidine. The percentile reduction of Aa (25% using ozone was appreciable as compared to no change in Aa occurrence using chlorhexidine. By using O 3 and chlorhexidine, there was no antibacterial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg and Tannerella forsythensis. The antifungal effect of ozone from baseline (37% to 7 th day (12.5% was pronounced during the study period, unlike CHX, which did not demonstrate any antifungal effect. Conclusion: Ozone may be considered as an alternative management strategy due to its powerful ability to inactivate microorganisms. Also, there is growing evidence that ozone can be employed as a useful therapeutic agent in both dentistry and medicine.

  8. Virus del síndrome reproductor y respiratorio porcino (PRRSV en granjas porcinas tecnificadas del Estado de México

    Sandra Maricruz López Heydeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio transversal por conglomerados en una etapa, de abril a septiembre de 2011, en cerdos de más de 11 semanas de edad, de 11 granjas, para analizar la situación de PRRSV en granjas tecnificadas del Estado de México. Se colectaron muestras de suero (n=220 para ELISA y sangre (n=80 para transcripción en reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real en un solo paso (RTqPCR para PRRSV, e hisopos nasales (n= 425 para el aislamiento de posibles bacterias patógenas de la enfermedad del complejo respiratorio porcino (CRP. También se aplicó un cuestionario. ELISA mostró una seroprevalencia verdadera de 30.67 %, siendo mayor la probabilidad de ser seropositivos en granjas con antecedentes y calendario de vacunación y de ubicación urbana-semiurbana; los cerdos fueron seroreactivos en 7/11 granjas (63.63 %. RTqPCR mostró viremia en 2/80 (2.5 % cerdos analizados, de 2/11 granjas (18.18 %; una cerda infectada con PRRSV norteamericano que mostró signos clínicos de la enfermedad y una cerda infectada con PRRSV europeo que no mostró ningún signo clínico evidente de infección. Dos granjas no mostraron cerdos seropositivos o virémicos, no tienen antecedentes ni calendario de vacunación y están ubicadas en una zona semirural. En todas las granjas se aisló Staphyloccus aureus y Streptococcus suis; en algunas granjas y con menos frecuencia Actinobacillus spp (4/11 y Pasteurella spp (3/11. Es el primer reporte en México de infección por PRRSV europeo.

  9. APPROUSH TO SPECIFIC DIAGNOSTICS OF CAUSATIVE AGENTS OF INFECTIOUS ENDOCARDIDIS

    Katsapov D.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increased level of morbidity of infective endocarditis (IE connected with new risk factors: intravenous drug use, cardiosurgical interventions, hemodialysis brought new clinical forms of the disease. As it shown in a literature main pathogenetic factors of IE are bacteraemia, trauma of endocardium and invasive medical procedures. Very typical pathogens are streptococci and staphylococci. Most typically mitral and aortal valves are affected with spreading of vegetations on surrounding media. Discussion. IE is polyetiologic disease caused by more than 128 microorganisms, and still a challenge for medical professionals. Detection a causative agent is critical for proper specific treatment. In different sources data on percentage of proven cases very according to country and different medical centres reflecting different local epidemiology of IE, diagnostic criteria and protocols. Culture negative infectious endocarditis (CNIE is considered in case of obtaining of three negative results of cultivation of samples on a standard blood agar during 7 days and subculturing. CNIE incidence very form 2% to 33% according to different researches and higher in cases of community acquired infection and reseeding antibacterial treatment. Some of cases of CNIE caused by gram - negative fastidious microorganisms - Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Actinobacillus, Actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae, with united in HACEK group according to their properties to colonize oropharynx and requirement in special conditions and duration of incubation. Detection of some intracellular bacteria, such as C. burnetti and Bartonella spp. require immunological methods of detection, histological methods and of PCR. Conclusion. In case of diagnostics of patients with CNIE it is necessary to use a combination of prolonged subculturing of serum, emboli and histologic material on blood agar with microscopy by Warthin

  10. Pathological examination and pathogen detection of porcine respiratory disease complex in a finisher swine herd%育肥猪呼吸道疾病综合征病理学观察和病原学检测

    刘捷; 李玉峰; 王先炜; 李文良; 姜平

    2011-01-01

    猪呼吸道疾病综合征是一种由病毒、细菌、环境应激和猪体免疫力低下等多因素相互作用引起的呼吸道疾病.2009年2~4月,上海农场某猪场一批育肥猪出现疑似病例,表现为食欲下降,咳嗽,呼吸困难,生长缓慢和料肉比降低.本研究在流行病学调查的基础上,剖检8头病猪观察其病理变化,主要表现为肺脏弥慢性实变,弹性降低,间质增宽,有的水肿、气肿,或纤维素性胸膜肺炎.病原检测结果显示,该发病猪群主要病原为猪繁殖与呼吸综合征病毒、猪圆环病毒2型和副猪嗜血杆菌.本研究为猪呼吸道疾病综合征的防治提供了依据.%The porcine respiratory disease complex ( PRDC) is a complex disease caused by many factors , including virus, bacteria, environmental stress and low immunity. Some cases susceptive of PRDC were found in a swine farm of Shanghai in April 2009. The pigs showed anorexia, cough, dyspnea. slow growth and reduction of feed efficiency. After epidemiological investigation, eight fattening pigs with respiratory syndrome were selected for gross pathological analysis. The lungs showed mainly diffused consolidation, reduced flexibility , interstitial thicking, emphysema or fibrinous pleuropneumonia. The results of pathogen detection showed that these pigs were mainly infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ( PRRSV) , porcine circovirus cype 2 ( PCV2) and Haemophilus parasuis ( Hps) . This study would be useful for the prevention and control of PRDC.

  11. The CENTAUR network contribution to the gene-based technology: Dissemination of information, international collaboration and training

    The CENTAUR Network (FAO Established Veterinary Biotechnology/Epidemiology Network for Central and Eastern Europe) is designed for cooperation and information of workers in state and regional veterinary directorates, veterinary practitioners, teachers from veterinary schools, advanced students, politicians specialized in agriculture, economy, science management, workers from diagnostic and research laboratories, breeders and other interested parties. It contributes to the use of the Internet, to the improvement of communication in English, to deepening of co-operation between workers with similar interests and to the better link with international organizations and internationally recognized centres of excellence. Formally, 23 countries officially belong to the CENTAUR network. However, in reality nearly one thousand CENTAUR network members are from the all continents. The membership is free and everybody can profit from all information offered. The CENTAUR is creating a protective belt for Central and Eastern European Countries especially those with the 'economies in transition' regarding the devastating Transboundary Animal Diseases such as bluetongue, foot and mouth disease and other vesicular diseases, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, sheep and goat pox, classical swine fever, African swine fever, BSE/TSE, as well as other priority diseases and supports the prevention of a possible risk of biological terrorism. CENTAUR is based on the voluntary cooperation of countries concerned. The main task is to achieve compatibility of the disease control standards namely for better disease and contamination diagnosis and vaccine production, the modern computerized veterinary epidemiology and food safety and consumer protection with the OIE and EU international requirements. It is contributing to the accession of 8 Eastern European countries to the EU in 2004 and some other countries at a later stage. CENTAUR maintains in

  12. Rinderpest Eradication in Africa

    After its introduction into Africa in the 1880s, rinderpest became the most feared and most devastating disease to afflict the continent's cattle and wildlife herds. Outbreaks of the classical disease in cattle caused mortality rates of 10 to 90 percent. So devastating was this 'cattle plague' that many countries worldwide made concerted efforts to stamp it out and, having once eliminated it, prevent its re-emergence. The disease was a serious threat to the livelihoods of millions of people in Africa. The presence or suspected presence in a country served as a major barrier to livestock trade, and many countries of the world, particularly in Africa, were denied access to valuable external livestock markets. This devastating blow to trade impoverished the pastoral peoples of Africa and dealt considerable blows to the economies of their countries. The present-day African Union3 Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources (AUIBAR) 4 was established in 1951 with responsibility for eliminating rinderpest from Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa, where continual east-west cattle movements prevented effective control by individual countries. Since then, with the European Union (EU) as the main donor, AU-IBAR has coordinated the eradication of rinderpest from Africa through five main projects: Joint Project 15 (JP15), 1962 to 1976; the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign (PARC), 1986 to 1998; the Pan African Programme for the Control of Epizootics (PACE), 1999 to 2007; the African Wildlife Veterinary Project (AWVP), 2002 to 2003; and the Somali Ecosystem Rinderpest Eradication Coordination Unit (SERECU) project, 2006 to 2010. In tandem with rinderpest eradication, the need to strengthen veterinary services was addressed. From JP15 to SERECU, the main objective was the eradication of rinderpest from Africa. Alongside this main objective were other complementary and synergistic objectives. Under PARC, these were controlling contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) through mass

  13. Epidimitis ovina: Estudios bacteriológico y serológico

    Graciela Méndez Nárez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La brucelosis en ovinos puede ser causada por Brucella ovis y por brucelas lisas, en ambos casos puede presentarse epididimitis u orquitis, las cuales también se asocian con otros agentes infecciosos como Actinobacillus seminis e Histophilus ovis. El objetivo de este trabajo fue aislar e identificar los agentes bacterianos involucrados en la epididimitis ovina y establecer la relación en el diagnóstico serológico y bacteriológico de brucelas lisas, de B. ovis y A. seminis con la presencia de epididimitis clínica. Se trabajó en 6 rebaños ovinos localizados en los estados de México, Hidalgo y el Distrito Federal, se tomaron muestras de suero de 111 machos, y muestras de semen y testículos de 17 carneros. La presencia de epididimitis se determinó por palpación y observación. A los sueros se les aplicó la prueba diagnóstica de tarjeta al 3% para brucelas lisas, las pruebas de ELISA indirecta e inmunodifusión doble (IDD con el antígeno proteínico de extracción salina caliente para B. ovis, e IDD con antígeno soluble para A. seminis. Se realizó análisis bacteriológico a las muestras de semen y testículos de machos con epididimitis, a las cepas aisladas se les efectuaron pruebas de identificación bioquímica rutinarias; para A. seminis se realizó además IDD con antígeno obtenido por lisis de cepas aisladas y de referencia. En los 6 rebaños se diagnosticó la presencia de anticuerpos para B. ovis, por IDD, se encontraron 10 positivos (9.0%, en ELISA indirecta se obtuvieron 25 sueros positivos (22.5%, para brucelas lisas se encontraron 20 sueros positivos (18.01%. Para A. seminis se identificaron 10 sueros positivos (9.0%, pertenecientes a 3 de los 6 rebaños muestreados. Se lograron aislar dos cepas de B. ovis a partir de testículos, y dos cepas de A. seminis de semen.

  14. Detection of periodontal pathogens in the patients with aortic aneurysm

    Ding Fang; Lyu Yalin; Han Xiao; Zhang Hai; Liu Dongyu; Hei Wei; Liu Yinhua

    2014-01-01

    Background The occurrence and development of aortic aneurysm (AA) are associated with infection.Some researchers have detected the DNA of periodontal pathogens in AA samples in certain populations.However,it has not been done in Chinese population.The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of periodontal pathogens in oral tissue samples and aneurysm samples of AA patients.Methods Eighty-nine subjects with AA and 59 subjects without AA were examined.Periodontal clinical parameters were evaluated.Unstimulated saliva and subgingival plaque somples were collected from all subjects.Twenty-six dissected AA samples were obtained.Evidence of eight periodontal pathogens including Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg),Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa),Prevotella intermedia (Pi),Tannerella forsythensis (Tf),Treponema denticola (Td),Campylobacter rectus (Cr),Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn),and Prevotella nigrescens (Pn) was ascertained in all samples by 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.Results The periodontal indexes including plaque index (PLI),probing depth (PD),bleeding index (BI),and clinical attachment loss (CAL),of the six Ramfjord index teeth were significantly higher in the AA group than those in the control group (P <0.01).Eight periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque samples were more frequently detected in the AA group than in control group.The difference in prevalence between the groups was significant for six (out of eight) periodontal pathogens assayed (Pg,Pi,Fn,Pn,Tf,and Td,P <0.01).Additionally,all eight periodontal pathogens were more frequently detected in saliva samples of the AA group than in those of the control group,again with six (out of eight) (Pg,Pi,Fn,Cr,Tf,and Td) displaying significant differences in prevalence between the two groups (P <0.01).Out of 26 aneurysm samples examined,Pg,Pi,Fn,Crand Tfwere detected in 6 (23.1%),2 (7.7%),3 (11.5%),1 (3.8%),2 (7.7%),respectively,and Aa,Pn,and Td were not

  15. In-depth snapshot of the equine subgingival microbiome.

    Gao, Wenling; Chan, Yuki; You, Meng; Lacap-Bugler, Donnabella C; Leung, W Keung; Watt, Rory M

    2016-05-01

    This study explored the range of bacterial taxa present within healthy subgingival (below the gum-line) niches in the horse oral cavity using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were collected from approximately 200 sulcus sites from two horses (EQ1, EQ2) for analysis. A total of 14,260 quality-filtered pyrosequencing reads were obtained, which were assigned to 3875 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 99% identity cut-off); 1907 OTUs for EQ1 and 2156 OTUs for EQ2. Diverse taxa from 12 phyla were identified, including Actinobacteria (3.17%), Bacteroidetes (25.11%), Chloroflexi (0.04%), Firmicutes (27.57%), Fusobacteria (5.15%), Proteobacteria (37.67%), Spirochaetes (0.15%), Synergistetes (0.22%), Tenericutes (0.16%), GN02 (0.19%), SR1 (0.01%) and TM7 (0.37%). Many OTUs were not closely related to known phylotypes, and may represent 'equine-specific' taxa. Phylotypes corresponding to Gammaproteobacteria were abundant, including Actinobacillus spp. (8.75%), unclassified Pasteurellaceae (9.90%) and Moraxella spp. (9.58%). PCR targeting the Synergistetes and Spirochaetes phyla was performed, and resultant plasmid libraries of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (ca. 1480 bp) were Sanger sequenced. Twenty-six Spirochaetes OTUs, and 16 Synergistetes OTUs were identified (99% identity cut-off). These 'species-level' OTUs were assigned Equine Oral Taxon (EOT) numbers, whose phylogenies and taxonomy were comprehensively investigated, in conjunction with corresponding Synergistetes and Spirochaetes OTUs identified by pyrosequencing. The vast majority of Spirochaetes taxa belonged to the genus Treponema, which corresponded to 7 of the 10 human oral treponeme phylogroups. Other Spirochaetes taxa belonging to the Leptospiraceae family were observed; but many treponemes commonly implicated in animal hoof/foot and non-oral soft tissue infections; e.g. Treponema phagedenis, Treponema pedis, Treponema refringens, Treponema calligyrum; were not identified

  16. Effects of Early Intervention with Sodium Butyrate on Gut Microbiota and the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines in Neonatal Piglets.

    Xu, Jumei; Chen, Xue; Yu, Shuiqing; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate in the gut of animals has potential properties including regulating the innate immune, modulating the lipid metabolism, and protecting gut healthy. So far, only limited information on the impact of butyrate on the neonatal is available. This study aimed to investigate effects of oral administration of sodium butyrate (SB) on gut microbiota and the expression of inflammatory cytokine in neonatal piglets. Ten litters of crossbred newborn piglets were randomly allocated to the SB and control (CO) groups, each group consisted of five litters (replicates). Piglets in the SB group were orally administrated with 7 to 13 ml sodium butyrate solution (150 mmol/l) per day from the age of 1 to 7 days, respectively; piglets in the CO group were treated with the same dose of physiological saline. On days 8 and 21 (of age), gut digesta and tissues were collected for the analysis of microbiota, butyrate concentration and gene expression of inflammatory cytokine. Results showed that there was no difference in the butyrate concentration in the gut of piglets on days 8 and 21 between two groups. Real-time PCR assay showed that SB had no effect on the numbers of total bacteria in the stomach, ileum, and colon. MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that SB increased the richness in the stomach and colon, and the diversity of colonic microbiota on day 8 (P < 0.05). Genera Acinetobacter, Actinobacillus, Facklamia, Globicatella, Kocuria, Rothia, unclassified Leptotrichiaceae, unclassified Neisseriaceae, and unclassified Prevotellaceae in the stomach were increased in relative abundance by SB treatment, whereas the abundances of Lactobacillus decreased on day 8 (P < 0.05). At the genus and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) levels, SB had low impact on bacterial community in the ileum and colon on days 8 and 21. SB treatment decreased the expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, TGF-β, and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in the ileum of piglets on day 8

  17. Antimicrobial Constituents of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. against Periodontal Pathogens

    Garland More

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of Artemisia afra led to the isolation of six known compounds, acacetin (1, 12α,4α-dihydroxybishopsolicepolide (2, scopoletin (3, α-amyrin (4, phytol (5, and a pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid (6. The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus mutans, Gram negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Candida albicans. The crude extract of A. afra inhibited the growth of all tested microbial species at concentration range of 1.6 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The compounds 1–6 also showed activity range at 1.0 mg/mL to 0.25 mg/mL. Three best compounds (scopoletin, betulinic acid, and acacetin which showed good antimicrobial activity were selected for further studies. Cytotoxicity of extract and compounds was determined using the XTT cell proliferation kit. The antioxidant activity of the extract and compounds was done using the DPPH scavenging method. The extract showed good antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 22.2 μg/mL. Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC50 value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid exhibited a decreased scavenging activity with the IC50 of 2.39 and 2.42 μg/mL, respectively. The extract and compounds showed moderate toxicity on McCoy fibroblast cell line and scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC50 value of 132.5 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC50 values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL. The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections.

  18. [Microbiological approach to a possible infective endocarditis case caused by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans].

    Gürcan, Şaban; Ünlü, Selahattin; Kuloğlu, Figen; Karadenizli, Aynur; Kuşkucu, Mert Ahmet

    2016-04-01

    Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, a small, gram-negative coccobacillus that grows slow and fastidious, is generally colonized in the oral cavity. It is a rarely seen bacterium because of the difficulty of isolation but it can be a causative agent for dental infections and infective endocarditis (IE) particularly in the persons having prosthetic heart valves. In this report, a possible IE case caused by A.actinomycetemcomitans in a patient with aortic valve replacement has been presented. A 36-year-old man has admitted to Trakya University Hospital, Health Center for Medical Research and Practice, with the complaints of chills, malaise, intermittent fever, severe arthralgia and weight loss (20 kg). During his follow-up period, the blood cultures that were obtained three week intervals yielded the identical gram-negative coccobacilli morphology. The patient was then diagnosed as possible IE on the basis of having one major (growth of the typical microorganisms that may cause IE in two different blood cultures) and two minor (presence of prosthetic valve and high fever) criterias. The isolate could not be identified with conventional methods, while it was identified as Francisella tularensis with VITEK 2 (bioMerieux, France) system. Hence this identification was not confirmed by real-time Taqman polymerase chain reaction, so MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used to identify this bacteria. In the first run of the study, the isolate was named as Shigella dysenteriae initially, however when it was retested the next day it was identified as A.actinomycetemcomitans. In order to enlighten these conflicting results, 16S and 23S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis was performed, and consequently the bacterium was identified as A.actinomycetemcomitans. Doxycycline (2 x 100 mg po, 20 days) and streptomycin (2 x 10 mg/kg im, 10 days) therapy were initiated, considering the initial suspicious identification (F.tularensis), and on the fifth day of therapy the

  19. 中华慈姑中具有抗菌活性的对映-玫瑰烷和对映-贝壳杉烷二萜%Antibacterial ent-Rosane and ent-Kaurane Diterpenoids from Sagittaria trifolia var. sinensis

    刘雪婷; 施瑶; 梁敬钰; 闵知大

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the antibacterial components from Sagittaria trifolia vat. sinensis. METHODS: The separation was performed over silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. The structures of the obtained compounds were determined on the basis of NMR data and chemical methods. RESULTS: Ten diterpenoids were isolated. Sagittine H (1), sclareol (2), and 19-β-L-3'-acetoxyarabinofuranosyl- ent-kaur-16-ene-19-oate (3) were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit the growth of three oral pathogens, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Actinomyces naeslundiis ATCC 12104, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemeomitans ATCC 43717, using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. CONCLUSIONS: sagittine H (1) is a new ent-rosane glycoside and demonstrated MIC of 62.5 μg·mL-1 against both S. mutans and A. naeslundiis. Compound 3 exhibits strong activity against S. mutans and A. naeslundiis with MIC of 15.6 μg·mL-1 for both.%目的:研究中华慈姑中的抗菌活性成分.方法:通过各种硅胶柱层析和凝胶柱层析进行分离和纯化.分离得到的化合物通过一维和二维的核磁技术以及化学方法进行结构解析.结果:从中华慈姑中分离得到10个化合物,并测试了化合物1-3抗3种口腔细菌的活性.结论:化合物1是一个新的对映-玫瑰烷二萜苷,化合物3显示了很强的抗两种口腔细菌(Streptococus mutans和Actinomyces naeslundiis)的活性,MIC均为15.6 μg·mL-1.化合物1的活性较弱,对上述两种口腔细菌的MIC均为62.5μg-mL-1.

  20. Antimicrobial Constituents of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. against Periodontal Pathogens.

    More, Garland; Lall, Namrita; Hussein, Ahmed; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of Artemisia afra led to the isolation of six known compounds, acacetin (1), 12α,4α-dihydroxybishopsolicepolide (2), scopoletin (3), α-amyrin (4), phytol (5), and a pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid (6). The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus mutans), Gram negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), and Candida albicans. The crude extract of A. afra inhibited the growth of all tested microbial species at concentration range of 1.6 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The compounds 1-6 also showed activity range at 1.0 mg/mL to 0.25 mg/mL. Three best compounds (scopoletin, betulinic acid, and acacetin) which showed good antimicrobial activity were selected for further studies. Cytotoxicity of extract and compounds was determined using the XTT cell proliferation kit. The antioxidant activity of the extract and compounds was done using the DPPH scavenging method. The extract showed good antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value of 22.2 μg/mL. Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC(50) value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL). Acacetin and betulinic acid exhibited a decreased scavenging activity with the IC(50) of 2.39 and 2.42 μg/mL, respectively. The extract and compounds showed moderate toxicity on McCoy fibroblast cell line and scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC(50) value of 132.5 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC(50) values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL. The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:22693528

  1. 1株鸽源鸡杆菌复合群3的分离和鉴定%Isolation and identification of one pigeon-origin Gallibacterium genomo sp3

    杨晓林; 陈英; 余松城; 邹年莉; 吴瑞婷; 夏静; 牛婷; 王富妍; 黄勇

    2014-01-01

    .This disease had caused great economic losses to the pigeon farm.In order to propose a proper treatment program for this disease,representative samples were collected from disease pigeons for bacteria isolation and virus detection. The bacteria were isolated by blood agar and were identified by following test:morphological observation, biochemical identification,animal experiment,antibiotic sensitive experiment,1 6S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Animal experiments were conducted by infecting mice and pigeons to observe its pathogenicity.For the virus detection,the nucleotide sequences of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV),avian influenza virus subtype (H 9 N2) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were detected by RT-PCR. The results showed that NDV was detected from the lung and trachea of some sick pigeons,and one bacterial strain was isolated from the livers and lungs of sick pigeons and named as SC01.The SC01 strain was gram-negative (G-),short rod-shaped bacteria.It was pathogenic to mice,and the median lethal dose to mice was 1.26 × 10 9 CFU/mL.Biochemical test showed that it can ferment most sugars and alcohols.Sensitive drug screen revealed that the SC01 strain was sensitive to ceftriaxone sodium,cefoperazone sodium,florfenicol,cephalexin,cefazolin,and resistant to neomycin,streptomycin,erythromycin,sulfafurazole,etc.The 1 6S rRNA gene sequence of the SC01 strain was blasted in GenBank,and the results showed that the nucleotide sequence homologies of SC01 and Gallibacterium ,Pasteurella , Haemophilus ,Actinobacillus were relatively high. The 1 6S rRNA nucleotide sequence homologies of SC01 and four G.genomo sp.3 strains were 98.5% 99.5%,and the highest homology (99.5%) came from the comparison between the sequences of SC01 and EU423996.Phylogenetic analysis showed that SC01 strain and nine Gallibacterium strains formed an independent big branch in phylogenetic tree.The SC01 strain and G. genomo sp. 3 fell into the same small branch. Meanwhile, Pasteurella , Haemophilus and

  2. 长春市某小学7~12岁儿童牙周致病菌分布状态调查%Distribution of periodontal pathogens in dental plaque samples from 7 to 12-years-old children of Changchun Ziqiang primary school

    倪雪岩; 伊田博; 鈴木基之; 吕亚林; 魏秀峰; 井上美津子

    2010-01-01

    目的 应用聚合酶链反应(PCR)法对儿童口腔内牙龈卟啉单胞菌(Porphyromonas gingivalis,Pg)、伴放线放线杆菌(Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Aa)分布状态进行检测,探讨检出结果与牙周临床指标之间的关系.方法 选取长春市自强小学151名7至12岁儿童为研究对象,选择右上颌中切牙唇面和右上颌第一磨牙颊面为被检部位,取龈上菌斑、记录探诊出血(bleeding on probing,BOP)、探诊深度(probing depth,PD)、牙龈指数(gingival index,GI),应用PCR法对两菌种进行检测.结果 ①儿童龈上菌斑中Pg、Aa检出率为27.6%、54.3%;②6颊面Pg、Aa的检出率(40.0%、57.9%)均高于1 唇面(15.5%、50.7%),Pg检出率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),且与BOP、PD、GI呈正相关;③Pg检出率随年龄增长呈逐渐增高趋势,Aa检出率在11~12岁组最高,其次为7~8岁组和9~10岁组;④BOP阳性部位Pg、Aa检出率(38.3%、65.4%)均高于BOP阴性部位(23.2%、50.5%),P<0.05.在BOP阳性部位,随PD加深Pg检出率逐渐增高,特别是在PD≥4mm时,Pg检出率明显增高(P<0.05),显示Pg检出率与BOP阳性、PD增加呈正相关.结论 7~12岁儿童龈上菌斑中高频度分布着Pg、Aa;上颌前牙区与磨牙区菌丛构成不同,Pg在磨牙区定植更早;两菌种检出率随年龄增长而增加,且与牙周临床指标密切相关,儿童早期采取牙周病的预防措施是非常必要的.%Objective To detect the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans(Aa) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the oral plaque samples from children and investigate the relationship between bacteria and clinical parameters. Methods A total of 151 children aged 7 to 12 years were selected from Changchun Ziqiang primary schooL The supragingival plaque sample was collected from the mesiobuccal and labial surfaces of the right maxillary central incisor and the right maxillary first molar. Extracted DNA from plaque

  3. Detection of putative periodontal pathogens in the subgingival plaque of type Ⅱ prediabetes children with gingivitis%Ⅱ型糖尿病前期伴牙龈炎患儿牙周可疑致病菌的检测

    蔡梁婧; 邰佰霞; 王永兰; 郭宏磊; 朱志颖

    2012-01-01

    目的:检测Ⅱ型糖尿病前期伴牙龈炎患儿龈下菌斑中的牙周可疑致病菌,指导牙周病的治疗和预防.方法:以6~14岁的儿童作为研究对象,按照血糖水平和牙龈炎症状况分为3组:糖尿病前期伴牙龈炎组(实验组)、代谢正常伴牙龈炎组(对照组一)、代谢正常而牙周健康组(对照组二),每组各30例.以牙龈卟啉单胞菌(Porphyromonas gingivalis,Pg)、伴放线放线杆菌(Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Aa)、具核梭杆菌(Fusobacterium nucleatum,Fn),中间普氏菌(Prevotella intermedia,Pi),福塞坦氏菌(Tannerella forsythia,Tf)为目标菌,应用以16SrRNA为基础的聚合酶链反应(polynerase chain reaction,PCR)技术对龈下菌群进行检测.分析5种菌的相对含量与牙周临床指标和血糖水平的相关性.结果:5种可疑致病菌的检出率实验组明显高于对照组二(P<0.05);实验组虽高于对照组一,但无统计学差异(P>0.05).Pg的相对含量与牙周探诊深度(Probing depth,PD)、龈沟出血指数(Sulcus bleeding index,SBI)以及空腹血糖(Fasting blood-glucose,FBG)存在相关性(P<0.05);Pi的相对含量与PD、SBI、FPG、口服葡萄糖耐量实验2h血糖(OGTT2hBG)存在相关性(P<0.05);Aa和Fn的相对含量与SBI、PD存在相关性(P<0.05);Tf的相对含量与SBI、PD、FBG存在相关性(P<0.05).结论:Ⅱ型糖尿病前期伴牙龈炎者牙周可疑致病菌的检出率明显高于正常对照组,虽与单纯牙龈炎组相比,其数量无明显差异,但应更加注意血糖水平和菌斑控制.%AIM; To detect putative periodontal pathogens in the subgingival plaque of type II prediabetes children with gingivitis. METHODS : Six to 14 years old type II prediabetes children with gingivitis (experimental group) , children with only gingivitis ( control) and healthy children ( normal control) were included in this study, with 30 subjects in each group. Subgingival plaque was taken for the detection of

  4. 模拟高原缺氧环境对家兔慢性牙周炎龈下菌群种类分布的影响%Distribution of subgingival microbial category in periodontitis rabbits under simulated high altitude hypoxia condition

    罗丽; 张纲; 祝金香; 谭颖徽; 高钰琪

    2012-01-01

    目的 模拟高原缺氧环境,构建兔牙周炎动物模型,研究其龈下菌斑中的主要牙周致病菌与平原组的差异.方法 选取清洁级家兔40只完全随机设计分成4组:平原实验组、平原对照组、高原实验组、高原对照组各10只,实验组采用正畸结扎丝结扎双下颌前牙,并给予高糖饮食;高原组置模拟海拔5000m的低压氧舱,每天缺氧23 h,持续饲养8周.8周后提取龈下菌斑基因组DNA,用PCR扩增细菌16S rDNA片段方法检测标本中6种牙周炎致病菌包括牙龈卟啉单胞菌(Dorhyromonas gingivalis,Pg)、福赛斯坦纳菌(Bacterides forsythus,Bf)、伴放线放线杆菌(Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Aa)、中间普氏菌(Prevotella intermedia,Pi)、具核梭杆菌(Fusobacterium nucleatum,Fn)和齿垢密螺旋体(Trepone ma denticola,Td)的检出率.结果 与平原实验组相比,高原实验组的牙龈出血指数、菌斑指数和牙周袋深度均有统计学差异(P<0.05).牙周可疑致病菌Pg、Bf Aa、Pi、Fn和Td在高原实验组和平原实验组都可检出,其中高原实验组Fn的检出率80%高于平原实验组20%(P<0.05);平原实验组Pi的检出率70%高于高原实验组15% (P <0.05).结论 高原低氧环境是牙周炎加重的主要原因,Fn与高原牙周炎病变程度加重有一定关系.%Objective To investigate the difference of main pathogenic bacteria in subgingival plaque of periodontitis rabbits under normal oxygen and simulated high altitude hypoxia conditions. Methods A total of 40 rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups including a normal oxygen periodontitis group, a normal control group, a hypoxia periodontitis group and a hypoxia control group (n = 10). Rabbits of the periodontitis groups were given ligation of anterior teeth by steel wire and high-carbohydrate diet, while rabbits of the hypoxia groups were raised in a low pressure oxygen cabin simulating high altitude hypoxia condition (5 000 m) , 23 h

  5. Endocardite infecciosa por Haemophilus aphrophilus: relato de caso Infective endocarditis due to Haemophilus aphrophilus: a case report

    Ricardo M. Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o caso de uma criança com endocardite infecciosa causada por Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIÇÃO: Menino com febre e calafrios há 20 dias. À internação, apresentava-se febril, descorado e sem sinais de instabilidade hemodinâmica; à ausculta cardíaca, tinha sopro holosistólico em foco mitral. Os exames laboratoriais identificaram anemia (hemoglobina = 9,14 g/dL, leucócitos totais de 11.920 mm³, plaquetas de 250.000 mm³, velocidade de sedimentação das hemácias e proteína C reativa elevadas. O ecocardiograma revelou imagem em válvula mitral, sugestiva de vegetação. Com a hipótese de endocardite, foi iniciada antibioticoterapia com penicilina cristalina (200.000 UI/kg/dia associada à gentamicina (4 mg/kg/dia. No terceiro dia de tratamento, foi identificado Haemophilus aphrophilus em hemoculturas, sendo então trocado o esquema antibiótico para ceftriaxona (100 mg/kg/dia. No 20º dia de internação, encontrava-se pálido, mas sem febre e sem outras queixas. Os exames mostravam hemoglobina = 7,0 g/dL, leucócitos = 2.190 mm³, plaquetas = 98.000 mm³, razão normatizada internacional = 1,95 e R = 1,89. Foi feita hipótese de reação adversa ao ceftriaxona, que foi substituído por ciprofloxacina, 20 mg/kg/dia, até completar 6 semanas de tratamento. Após 72 horas da troca, houve normalização dos exames. Durante seguimento ambulatorial, apresentou insuficiência mitral grave, sendo submetido a troca de válvula por prótese metálica 9 meses após quadro agudo. Há 3 anos encontra-se bem, em acompanhamento ambulatorial. COMENTÁRIOS: É rara a identificação de agentes do grupo HACEK (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens e Kingella kingae em crianças com endocardite infecciosa. O caso apresentado, sem fatores de risco relacionados a esses agentes, reafirma a necessidade de tentar sempre identificar o agente etiológico das endocardites para

  6. The Role of the African Union Pan African Veterinary Vaccine Centre (AU-PANVAC) in Rinderpest Eradication

    PANVAC originated in 1986 in response to the need for effective control of rinderpest in Africa. Earlier attempts to eradicate the disease through the multi-national JP15 had failed in the 1970s, partly because insufficient levels of immunity were sustained in vaccinated animals, owing to the use of vaccines that had not been certified by independent quality control. This failure prompted the then OAU (now the AU) to request FAO's assistance in setting up a system for independent quality control of the rinderpest vaccines used in the campaign. Initially, this was achieved through a short-term FAO TCP project in 1986, which established two regional vaccine quality control and training centres: one in Dakar (Senegal) for Central and Western Africa; and one in Debre Zeit (Ethiopia) for Eastern and Southern Africa (TCP/RAF/6767). These centres operated from 1989 to 1992 under a project funded by UNDP; in 1993, they were merged into PANVAC, hosted by the Ethiopian Government at the National Veterinary Institute (NVI), Debre Zeit. PANVAC's mandate was to perform quality control on priority vaccines (primarily rinderpest and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia), according to international standards; promote the adoption of biological standardization and control of veterinary vaccines in Africa, through establishment of a repository of characterized reference vaccine materials; develop internationally recognizable quality control criteria; and promote the principles of good manufacturing practice. PANVAC's contributions. PANVAC's greatest impact on the global rinderpest eradication campaign was in improving the quality of the rinderpest vaccine used in the field. A total of 193 batches of rinderpest vaccine from all the vaccine producing laboratories in Africa were tested between 1996 and 1998, and it was found that the strict, standardized quality control of rinderpest vaccines initiated by PANVAC had resulted in signifi- cant improvements in the quality of the vaccines

  7. 山西省输变电工程水土保持低扰动工程技术%Low Disturbance Engineering Technology of Soil and Water Conservation in Power Transfer and Transformation Construction Project in Shanxi Province

    王露露; 孙中峰; 朱清科

    2013-01-01

    Power transfer and transformation projects have the large span.So their natural conditions,social conditions,economic conditions and the source of soil and water loss are complex.Moreover,the projects temporarily cover large area and disturb a wide range.To explore the low disturbance engineering technology in soil and water conservation of power transmission construction and to help optimize the design of both the main work and soil and water conservation measures,eighteen 500 kV power transfer and transformation projects in Shanxi Province were selected as research samples.By comprising the extent of disturbances and the amount of soil and water losses caused by the traditional main work and soil and water conservation engineering and the low disturbance ones,it was found that the low disturbance engineering technology,including unequal legs and basis transmission tower,haulage methods of aerial cableway and actinobacillus without touching the ground,can significantly reduce the ranges of disturbance and the amount of soil and water loss.In the design of soiland water conservation measures,if the suitable surface soil stripping technology can be used based on the feature of soil and water loss and the soil condition in different control areas and temporary covering technology can be used in some temporary land,the secondary disturbance as well as the investments of the soil and water conservation engineering can be reduced.It was suggested that the low disturbance engineering technology which can reduce soil and water loss should be given priority in the design of main works as well as soil and water conservation measures of power transfer and transformation projects.%输变电工程跨度大,自然、社会经济条件及水土流失来源复杂多变,且临时占地多,扰动范围大.为探索输变电工程水土保持低扰动工程技术,为输变电主体工程及水土保持措施优化设计提供参考依据,以山西省18项500 kV输变电工程为研

  8. Detection of Bacteria Related to Periodontal Disease in Oral Cavities of Japanese Children by Species-specific PCR.%应用PCR法对日本儿童口腔内4种牙周致病菌的检测

    倪雪岩; 伊田博; 欧阳喈; 铃木基之; 井上美津子; 佐佐龍二

    2011-01-01

    目的:应用PCR检测日本儿童口腔内牙龈卟啉单胞菌,伴放线放线杆菌,中间普氏菌以及福赛斯坦氏菌4种牙周病致病菌,并探讨检出结果与牙周临床检查参数之间的关系.方法:被检儿童为昭和大学齿科病院儿童牙病科就诊的儿童.随机选取全身健康的儿童37名作为被检对象,在上颌右侧中切牙和上颌右侧第一磨牙的近中唇、颊面采取龈上菌斑,应用PCR法检测牙周致病菌;临床检查包括口腔内检查、探诊深度及牙龈探诊后出血.结果:临床检查结果显示37名儿童均未患有牙周病.牙周致病菌检测结果显示Pg检出率为21.6%,Aa、Pi、Tf三菌种检出率为55%~58%.混合牙列期Aa、Pi、Tf检出率增高和恒牙列完成期检出率减低的倾向.Pg与牙龈探诊后出血之间未见相关,而Aa、Pi、Tf的检出率呈BOP阳性部位高于BOP阴性部位的倾向.结论:本研究结果显示6~18岁儿童龈上菌斑中高频度存在着牙周致病菌.为早期预防牙周病,对将来患牙周病危险性高的儿童进行早期筛查,并且从儿童时期采取预防措施非常必要.%Objective: To detect the presence of four putative periodontopathic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A.a), Prevotella intermedia (P.i), and Tannerella forsythus (T.f)using PCR in the oral cavities of children, and then investigate relationships between bacterial species and various clinical parameters.Methods: The subjects of 37 children were enrolled the pediatric dental clinic at the Showa University Dental Hospital in Japan.Children with systematic diseases were not excluded.The supragingival plaque sample was collected from the mesiobuccal and labial surfaces of the right maxillary central incisor and the right maxillary first molar.The intraoral examination and following clinical parameters were also assessed: probing depth (PD) and Bleeding On Probing (BOP).Results: In this study, detection

  9. 人工合成抗菌肽对口腔细菌抗菌性能的初步研究%Antibacterial activity of synthetic antimicrobial decapeptide against oral bacteria

    刘奕; 费伟; 王丽娜; 董广艳; 吴红崑

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of decapeptide, a novel antimicrobial peptide, against several major cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria in vitro. Methods In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of decapeptide against Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans), Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus gordonii, Actinomyces viscosus, Actinomyces naeslundii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Saccharomyces albicans in vitro using the agar diffusion method and broth dilution method. Furthermore, a time–kill kinetic study of decapeptide against S. mutans was performed. Results The results showed that decapeptide exhibited antimicrobial activity against various oral bacteria and fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of main cariogenic bacteria ranged from 62.5 μg·mL-1 to 125 μg·mL-1, and the MIC of periodontopathogenic bacteria tested ranged from 250 μg·mL-1 to 1 000 μg·mL-1. Among the bacteria tested, decapeptide had a strong inhibitory effect on cariogenic S.mutans. Results of the time–kill kinetic studies showed that decapeptide reduced the viable counts of S. mutans by more than one order of magnitude after 20 min of incubation, and thoroughly killed S.mutans after 30 min. No viable cells could be detected after 24 h of incubation. Conclusion This study suggest that decapeptide might have potential clinical application in treating dental caries by killing S.mutans within dental plaque.%目的:  评价人工合成抗菌肽(十肽)对口腔常见感染性疾病主要致病菌的抑菌活性。方法  采用琼脂扩散法及液体稀释法体外评价十肽对变异链球菌、表兄链球菌、嗜酸乳杆菌、血链球菌、格氏链球菌、黏性放线菌、内氏放线菌、牙龈卟啉单胞菌、中间普雷沃菌、具核梭杆菌、伴放线嗜

  10. Challenges and opportunities for controlling and preventing animal diseases in developing countries through gene-based technologies

    The livestock revolution so robustly and frequently described in the past five years, is argued to provide a real opportunity for the rural livestock keeper in developing countries to escape the poverty trap, move away from subsistence farming and enter the more rewarding areas of farm enterprise and income generation. To do so though, will require more than merely acknowledging this marketing opportunity. It will be essential to address the many constraints and critical risks that constantly face rural farming in developing countries. Of these, livestock disease rates as one of the most challenging. However, for effective participation in the livestock revolution it will be essential that livestock disease is either controlled or prevented. For the livestock producer in developing countries, many of the life threatening diseases that have been eradicated from the developed world area are ever present and the extent and range of production-limiting diseases are considerable. The situation is further compounded since in many cases veterinary services and other animal health delivery systems are either nonexistent or ineffective. For some time donor organisations have been driving countries in transition to privatise services such as animal health delivery. The current situation is the virtual elimination of functioning State veterinary services without replacement by a private system and certainly not in rural areas. The elimination of the major killer diseases of livestock in the developed world was achieved, for the most part, through considerable State investment, extensive veterinary input and a large share of public money. Such resources are certainly not available today in most developing countries. No wonder therefore that diseases such as Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, African Swine Fever ad Foot and Mouth Disease continue to exist endemically in most poorer regions of Africa and elsewhere. In terms of the production limiting diseases, control of these

  11. Is periodontal disease a public health issue in Colombia?

    Jorge Hernán Ramírez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral health inequalities are a good indicator of socioeconomic contrasts in a country. This could be explained because people living in low socioeconomic strata receive an insufficient and inadequate education in oral health, lack the economic resources to visit a dentist, and frequently cannot acquire basic oral hygiene products. Furthermore, the limited economic resources designated in public health programs for oral diseases prevention and treatment are based in the misconception of separating oral health from general health and the idea of dental treatment as «esthetic» without recognizing the negative impact on people quality of life secondary to dental pain and tooth loss1. In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO emphasized the need to promote oral health and published a guidance document for every nation to define their goals in oral health indicators by the year 20202. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent worldwide and is also a major cause of tooth loss. Gingivitis, the mildest form of periodontal disease is caused by the biofilm (bacterial plaque accumulating in the tooth surface adjacent to the gingival tissue (gums. Periodontitis, the more severe type of periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of connective tissue and dental bone support after an inflammatory host response secondary to infection by periodontal bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola, Tannarella forsythensis, among others3. Untreated periodontitis may eventually cause tooth loss. In accordance with the Third National Survey of Oral Health (ENSAB III 50.2% of people living in Colombia have some degree of periodontal disease. Among those, 17.7% of the cases are classified from moderate to severe periodontitis4. Periodontitis causes an inflammatory response with elevation of multiple acute phase reactants like fibrinogen and C-Reactive Protein (CRP5. In diabetic patients periodontitis is

  12. Effects of foundation treatment and periodontal operation therapy on TNF-α and pathogens in gingival crevicular fluid of chronic periodontitis patients%基础治疗与牙周手术对慢性牙周炎患者血清肿瘤坏死因子及龈沟液中病原菌的影响

    董爱芬

    2013-01-01

    (0.58±0.07)μg/L,12 cases,1.38±0.15,0.98±0.12,13 cases,(4.62±0.52)mm,and 5.73±0.63,significantly lower than (1.08±0.13)μg/L,27 cases,2.87±0.32,1.64±0.18,32 cases,(5.82±0.67)mm,and 6.62±0.74 of the control group,the difference between the observation group and the control group was statistically significant (P < 0.05).The detection rates of the periodontal pathogens such as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Porph yromonas gingivalis aeromonas,and Fu tournament bacteroides isolated from the gingival crevicular fluid were respectively 0,25.0 %,and 1.7 % in the observation group and were 11.7 %,51.7 %,and 15.0% in the control group,the difference between the observation group and the control group was statistically significant (P<0.05).CONCLUSION The periodontal operation treatment has the positive clinical value for it can reduce the level of TNF-α,improve function of periodontal tissue,and reduce the periodontal pathogens content in gingival crevicular fluid.

  13. ¿Se debe considerar a la enfermedad periodontal un problema de salud pública en Colombia?

    Jorge Hernán Ramírez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Las desigualdades en salud oral se han considerado como un fiel reflejo de los contrastes socioeconómicos de un país. Esto se explica porque los estratos más bajos reciben una inadecuada e insuficiente educación en el cuidado de la salud oral, carecen de los recursos suficientes para acceder a una consulta odontológica y con frecuencia no pueden adquirir los artículos básicos de higiene oral. Además, los escasos recursos asignados en programas de salud pública para la prevención y el tratamiento de las enfermedades orales se basan en el concepto erróneo de separar la salud oral de la salud general y considerar los tratamientos odontológicos como «estéticos» sin tener en cuenta que el dolor dental y la pérdida dentaria disminuyen de modo significativo la calidad de vida de las personas1. En 2003 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS enfatizó la necesidad de promover la salud oral en la población mundial y publicó un documento guía para que cada país pueda definir sus metas de mejoría en los indicadores de salud oral para el año 20202.La enfermedad periodontal es una de las entidades más comunes a nivel mundial y una de las principales causas de pérdida dentaria. La gingivitis, la forma más leve de enfermedad periodontal, es ocasionada por el biofilm (placa bacteriana que se acumula en la superficie dentaria adyacente al tejido gingival (encía. La forma más severa de enfermedad periodontal es la periodontitis, secundaria como respuesta inflamatoria a la infección por gérmenes periodontales diversos (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythensis, entre otros caracterizada por la destrucción del tejido conectivo y del soporte óseo para dar lugar a la pérdida dentaria3. La Tercera Encuesta de Salud Bucal (ENSAB III que se hizo en Colombia, comunicó para todas las formas de enfermedad periodontal (gingivitis y periodontitis una prevalencia de 50.2% de