WorldWideScience

Sample records for actinium 236

  1. Extraction of actinium with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid from hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions

    The extraction of actinium with HDEHP from Cl- and NO3- systems has been investigated. It was found that extraction of actinium from HCl solutions is much better than from HNO3 solutions. Stability constants of actinium complexes Ac(X-)+2 with Cl- and NO3- ligands were determined. Our results show that the actinium formed less stable complexes with Cl- than with NO3- ligands. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  2. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results

  3. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  5. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  6. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development. PMID:22697483

  7. Radium, thorium, and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manganese-oxide-coated fiber

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency with which improved manganese-oxide-coated acrylic fibers extract radium, thorium, and actinium from seawater. Tests were made using surface seawater spiked with 227Ac, 227Th and 223Ra. For sample volumes of approximately 30 liters and flow rates up to 0.5 liters per minute, radium and actinium are removed quantitatively. Approximately 80-95% of the thorium is removed under these same conditions. (Auth.)

  8. Oceanography with Uranium-236

    Bomb fall-out 236U is a new oceanic tracer with great merits: Uranium-236 behaves conservatively in the ocean with a strong correlation to salinity, while the long half-life of 23.5 million years makes it an essentially stable isotope on the time-scales of ocean transport phenomena. A challenge is constraining the overall input from atmospheric bomb testing. Of great help is the possibility to track the 236U evolution back before the times where measurements of this isotope at the lowest levels were possible, by employing coral cores as geological archives. Coverage of 236U measurements in ocean water is still scarce. At VERA two depth profiles and a surface transect from the South Atlantic (GEOTRACES cruise GA10/JC068) have recently been measured for 236U, putting the first ever southern hemisphere data on the map. The specific sampling locations allowed characterizing the major South Atlantic and Southern Ocean water masses for this isotope. (author)

  9. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  10. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces ∼100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 GeV protons

  11. Neutron-Induced Fission of Actinium-227, Protactinium-231 and Neptunium-237: Mass Distribution

    Results of radiochemical studies on the mass distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinium-227, protactinium-231 and neptunium-237 have been presented. This work has been carried out as part of a programme to determine the mass distribution in the fission of heavy elements as a function of Z and A. All irradiations have been carried out in the core of the swimming-pool type reactor APSARA with cadmium shielding wherever necessary. Relative yields of several fission product nuclides have been obtained by a method involving a comparison of the fission product activities from the respective targets with those formed from uranium-235 simultaneously irradiated. Thermal-neutron fission yields of uranium-235 have been assumed. These results indicate a predominantly asymmetric mass distribution in all the three cases, and also a distinct though small symmetric peak in the case of actinium-227. (author)

  12. A new method for the determination of low-level actinium-227 in geological samples

    We developed a new method for the determination of 227Ac in geological samples. The method uses extraction chromatographic techniques and alpha-spectrometry and is applicable for a range of natural matrices. Here we report on the procedure and results of the analysis of water (fresh and seawater) and rock samples. Water samples were acidified and rock samples underwent total dissolution via acid leaching. A DGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) extraction chromatographic column was used for the separation of actinium. The actinium fraction was prepared for alpha spectrometric measurement via cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. Recoveries of actinium in water samples were 80 ± 8 % (number of analyses n = 14) and in rock samples 70 ± 12 % (n = 30). The minimum detectable activities (MDA) were 0.017-0.5 Bq kg-1 for both matrices. Rock sample 227Ac activities ranged from 0.17 to 8.3 Bq kg-1 and water sample activities ranged from below MDA values to 14 Bq kg-1of 227Ac. From the analysis of several standard rock and water samples with the method we found very good agreement between our results and certified values. (author)

  13. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  14. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

  15. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  16. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  17. 24 CFR 236.901 - Audit.

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with HUD audit requirements at 24 CFR part 44. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Audit. 236.901 Section 236.901... AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL PROJECTS Audits § 236.901 Audit. Where a State or...

  18. 36 CFR 2.36 - Gambling.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gambling. 2.36 Section 2.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.36 Gambling. (a) Gambling in any form, or the operation of...

  19. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station, control. 236.814 Section 236.814..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located....

  20. 49 CFR 236.771 - Machine, control.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machine, control. 236.771 Section 236.771..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.771 Machine, control. An assemblage of manually operated devices for controlling the functions of a...

  1. 49 CFR 236.777 - Operator, control.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator, control. 236.777 Section 236.777..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.777 Operator, control. An employee assigned to operate the control machine of a traffic control system....

  2. 49 CFR 236.702 - Arm, semaphore.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arm, semaphore. 236.702 Section 236.702 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.702...

  3. 49 CFR 236.703 - Aspect.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aspect. 236.703 Section 236.703 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.703 Aspect....

  4. 49 CFR 236.564 - Acknowledging time.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acknowledging time. 236.564 Section 236.564..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.564 Acknowledging time. Acknowledging time of intermittent automatic train-stop device shall be not more than 30 seconds....

  5. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A...

  6. 49 CFR 236.832 - Train.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train. 236.832 Section 236.832 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.832 Train....

  7. 49 CFR 236.833 - Train, opposing.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train, opposing. 236.833 Section 236.833..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.833 Train, opposing. A train, the movement of which is in a direction opposite to and toward another...

  8. 46 CFR 153.236 - Prohibited materials.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited materials. 153.236 Section 153.236 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 153.236 Prohibited materials. When one of the following paragraphs of this section...

  9. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742...

  10. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  11. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  12. 49 CFR 236.587 - Departure test.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Departure test. 236.587 Section 236.587..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.587 Departure test. (a) The...: (1) Operation over track elements; (2) Operation over test circuit; (3) Use of portable...

  13. 49 CFR 236.376 - Mechanical locking.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical locking. 236.376 Section 236.376 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.376 Mechanical locking. Mechanical locking in interlocking machine shall be...

  14. 49 CFR 236.105 - Electric lock.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric lock. 236.105 Section 236.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.105 Electric lock. Electric lock, except...

  15. 49 CFR 236.793 - Rod, lock.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rod, lock. 236.793 Section 236.793 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.793 Rod, lock. A...

  16. 49 CFR 236.329 - Bolt lock.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bolt lock. 236.329 Section 236.329 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 236.329 Bolt lock. Bolt lock shall be so maintained that signal governing movements over switch...

  17. 49 CFR 236.756 - Lock, bolt.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lock, bolt. 236.756 Section 236.756 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.756 Lock, bolt. A mechanical lock so arranged that if a switch, derail or movable-point frog is not in the proper position...

  18. 49 CFR 236.56 - Shunting sensitivity.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 236.56 Section 236.56 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.56 Shunting sensitivity. Each track circuit controlling home...

  19. 33 CFR 236.3 - References.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 236.3 Section 236.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... QUALITY § 236.3 References. (a) PL 89-72 (b) ER 1105-2-10 (c) ER 1105-2-200...

  20. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS—towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm − 1 which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  1. The production of Neptunium-236g

    Radiochemical analysis of 237Np is important in a number of fields, such as nuclear forensics, environmental analysis and measurements throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. However analysis is complicated by the lack of a stable isotope of neptunium. Although various tracers have been used, including 235Np, 239Np and even 236Pu, none are entirely satisfactory. However, 236gNp would be a better candidate for a neptunium yield tracer, as its long half-life means that it is useable as both a radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements. This radionuclide is notoriously difficult to prepare, and limited in scope. In this paper, we examine the options for the production of 236gNp, based on work carried out at NPL since 2011. However, this work was primarily aimed at the production of 236Pu, and not 236gNp and therefore the rate of production are based on the levels of 236Pu generated in the irradiation of (i) 238U with protons, (ii) 235U with deuterons, (iii) 236U with protons and (iv) 236U with deuterons. The derivation of a well-defined cross section is complicated by the relevant paucity of information on the variation of the 236mNp:236gNp production ratio with incident particle energy. Furthermore, information on the purity of 236gNp so produced is similarly sparse. Accordingly, the existing data is assessed and a plan for future work is presented. - Highlights: • We review the requirements for chemical yield tracers and the candidate tracers for 237Np analysis. • The current state of nuclear decay data and nuclear structure information for 236gNp and 236mNp are examined. • Existing cross section data for the production of 236Np by the irradiation of 235U, 236U and 238U with protons and deuterons are summarised. • We present the strategies employed at NPL for the recovery of 236Np from irradiated targets. • The results of these irradiations are presented

  2. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  3. Dicty_cDB: AFM236 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFM236 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - AFM236P (Link to Original site) AFM236F ... FVLFEQKDYETLSVPWKFQKKLKEIQGSGVVDNPGSTPNPSPNPSPNPVPGNTS NAPT STGRESLETQRDIIQMKSKIDLLSNSLLQLVEQMKVTKPPTNNFSN ... FVLFEQKDYETLSVPWKFQKKLKEIQGSGVVDNPGSTPNPSPNPSPNPVPGNTS NAPT STGRESLETQRDIIQMKSKIDLLSNSLLQLVEQMKVTKPPTNNFSN ...

  4. 236U and Its Measurement With Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    2008-01-01

    <正>236U natural occurring isotopic abundance, 236U/238U atom number ratio, is about 10-14. Therefore, 236U is potentially useful as a ‘fingerprint’ for the presence in the environment or nuclear waste of

  5. 48 CFR 552.236-80 - Heat.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat. 552.236-80 Section... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.236-80 Heat. As prescribed in 536.570-11, insert the following clause: Heat (APR 1984) Unless otherwise specified or unless...

  6. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  7. 49 CFR 236.731 - Controller, circuit.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controller, circuit. 236.731 Section 236.731 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Controller, circuit. A device for opening and closing electric circuits....

  8. 49 CFR 236.728 - Circuit, trap.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, trap. 236.728 Section 236.728... Circuit, trap. A term applied to a circuit used where it is desirable to provide a track circuit but where it is impracticable to maintain a track circuit....

  9. 49 CFR 236.726 - Circuit, track.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, track. 236.726 Section 236.726 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, track. An electrical circuit of which the rails of the track form a part....

  10. 49 CFR 236.721 - Circuit, control.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, control. 236.721 Section 236.721 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, control. An electrical circuit between a source of electric energy and a device which it operates....

  11. 49 CFR 236.790 - Release, time.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release, time. 236.790 Section 236.790... Release, time. A device used to prevent the operation of an operative unit until after the expiration of a predetermined time interval after the device has been actuated....

  12. 49 CFR 236.768 - Locking, time.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, time. 236.768 Section 236.768... Locking, time. A method of locking, either mechanical or electrical, which, after a signal has been caused to display an aspect to proceed, prevents, until after the expiration of a predetermined...

  13. 49 CFR 236.751 - Interlocking, manual.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interlocking, manual. 236.751 Section 236.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Interlocking, manual. An arrangement of signals and signal appliances operated from an interlocking machine...

  14. 49 CFR 236.806 - Signal, home.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, home. 236.806 Section 236.806 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Signal, home. A roadway signal at the entrance to a route or block to govern trains in entering and...

  15. 49 CFR 236.733 - Current, foreign.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current, foreign. 236.733 Section 236.733 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Current, foreign. A term applied to stray electric currents which may affect a signaling system, but...

  16. 49 CFR 236.813 - Speed, slow.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed, slow. 236.813 Section 236.813 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Speed, slow. A speed not exceeding 20 miles per hour....

  17. 49 CFR 236.811 - Speed, medium.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed, medium. 236.811 Section 236.811 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Speed, medium. A speed not exceeding 40 miles per hour....

  18. 49 CFR 236.765 - Locking, mechanical.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, mechanical. 236.765 Section 236.765 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Locking, mechanical. An arrangement of locking bars, dogs, tappets, cross locking and other apparatus...

  19. 17 CFR 256.236 - Taxes accrued.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxes accrued. 256.236 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.236 Taxes accrued. (a) This account shall be credited with the amount of taxes accrued during the accounting period, corresponding debits being made...

  20. 49 CFR 236.757 - Lock, electric.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lock, electric. 236.757 Section 236.757 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Lock, electric. A device to prevent or restrict the movement of a lever, a switch or a movable...

  1. 49 CFR 236.787a - Railroad.

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.787a Railroad... Consolidated Rail Corporation on January 1, 1979; and (b) High speed ground transportation systems that...

  2. Measurement of 236U in environmental media

    The long-lived uranium isotope 236U (T1/2=23.4 Ma) is produced by 235U neutron capture and builds up to high levels in nuclear fuel. It has been distributed in the environment as a result of nuclear activities including nuclear explosions, accidents at nuclear plants, dumping of nuclear waste and releases from nuclear facilities. 236U is a potentially useful tracer of irradiated uranium for nuclear safeguards or other applications, due to its virtual absence in natural samples (236U:238U ratio ∼10-10 in uranium ore). We have measured 236U in soil and sediment reference materials (IAEA 375, 135 and 300) by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The AMS system on the ANTARES accelerator has been upgraded to make such measurements possible. The system, including sample preparation procedures, is described and the results discussed

  3. 236U measurement with accelerator mass spectrometry at CIAE

    236U is a long-lived radioactive isotope which is produced principally by thermal neutron capture on 235U. 236U may be potentially applied in geological research and nuclear safeguards. Accelerator mass spectrometry is presently the most sensitive technique for the measurement of 236U and a measurement method for long-lived heavy ion 236U has been developed. The set-up uses a dedicated injector and the newly proposed 208Pb16O2- molecular ions for the simulation of 236U ion transport. A sensitivity of lower than 10-10 has been achieved for the isotopic ratio 236U/238U in present work.

  4. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever....

  5. 15 CFR 23.6 - Definitions.

    2010-01-01

    ... RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 23.6 Definitions. (a) Operating units. Bureaus and other organizational...., programs). (b) Organizational units. The organizational units within the Department of Commerce are: Office of the Secretary Bureau of Economic Analysis Economic Development Administration Bureau of the...

  6. 48 CFR 236.604 - Performance evaluation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance evaluation... Architect-Engineer Services 236.604 Performance evaluation. (a) Preparation of performance reports. Use DD Form 2631, Performance Evaluation (Architect-Engineer), instead of SF 1421. (2) Prepare a...

  7. 49 CFR 236.1003 - Definitions.

    2010-10-01

    ... the Surface Transportation Board (49 CFR part 1201.1-1 (2008)). Cleartext means the un-encrypted text... § 236.1019 or where all trains are limited to restricted speed within a yard or terminal area or on... as other than main line. Medium speed means, Speed, medium, as defined in subpart G of this part....

  8. 49 CFR 236.719 - Circuit, acknowledgment.

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.719... track rails at each signal in territory where an automatic train stop system or cab signal system of the... engineman at each signal displaying an aspect requiring a stop....

  9. 33 CFR 236.4 - Background.

    2010-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 236.4 Background. (a) The role of the Corps of Engineers in the development of water and related... control, beach erosion control and hurricane protection, hydroelectric power, recreation, water supply, water quality, fish and wildlife and low-flow augmentation. Laws, executive orders, and...

  10. Resolved resonance parameters for 236Np

    Multilevel Breit-Wigner parameters were obtained for fission cross-section representation in the 0.01-33 eV energy region from evaluation of a 236Np experimental fission cross-section in the resolved resonance region. (author)

  11. 49 CFR 236.758 - Lock, electric, forced drop.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lock, electric, forced drop. 236.758 Section 236.758 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.758 Lock, electric, forced drop. An electric lock in which the locking member is...

  12. 7 CFR 205.236 - Origin of livestock.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Origin of livestock. 205.236 Section 205.236... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.236 Origin of... management beginning no later than the second day of life; (2) Dairy animals. Milk or milk products must...

  13. 49 CFR 236.23 - Aspects and indications.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aspects and indications. 236.23 Section 236.23...: All Systems Roadway Signals and Cab Signals § 236.23 Aspects and indications. (a) Aspects shall be... conditions: (1) Night aspects of roadway signals, except qualifying appurtenances, shall be shown by...

  14. 7 CFR 23.6 - Plan of Work.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plan of Work. 23.6 Section 23.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture STATE AND REGIONAL ANNUAL PLANS OF WORK State Program § 23.6 Plan of Work. (a) A State Annual Plan of Work for carrying out the programs authorized under title V shall...

  15. 49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section 236.723 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a...

  16. 49 CFR 236.732 - Controller, circuit; switch.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controller, circuit; switch. 236.732 Section 236.732 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.732 Controller, circuit; switch. A device for opening and closing electric circuits, operated by...

  17. 49 CFR 236.104 - Shunt fouling circuit.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shunt fouling circuit. 236.104 Section 236.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.104 Shunt fouling circuit. Shunt fouling...

  18. 49 CFR 236.1035 - Field testing requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Field testing requirements. 236.1035 Section 236... Train Control Systems § 236.1035 Field testing requirements. (a) Before any field testing of an... on-track equipment; (4) An analysis of the applicability of the requirements of subparts A through...

  19. 40 CFR 86.236-94 - Engine starting and restarting.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.236-94 Section 86.236-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.236-94 Engine starting...

  20. 49 CFR 236.809 - Signal, slotted mechanical.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, slotted mechanical. 236.809 Section 236.809 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.809 Signal, slotted mechanical. A mechanically operated signal with an electromagnetic...

  1. 49 CFR 236.752 - Joint, rail, insulated.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint, rail, insulated. 236.752 Section 236.752..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.752 Joint, rail, insulated. A joint in which electrical insulation is provided between adjoining rails....

  2. 49 CFR 236.562 - Minimum rail current required.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum rail current required. 236.562 Section 236..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.562...

  3. 49 CFR 236.711 - Bond, rail joint.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bond, rail joint. 236.711 Section 236.711..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.711 Bond, rail joint. A metallic connection attached to adjoining rails to insure electrical conductivity....

  4. 49 CFR 236.59 - Insulated rail joints.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insulated rail joints. 236.59 Section 236.59..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.59 Insulated rail joints. Insulated rail joints shall be...

  5. 27 CFR 46.236 - Articles in a warehouse.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles in a warehouse. 46.236 Section 46.236 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.236 Articles in a warehouse. (a)...

  6. 49 CFR 236.780 - Plunger, facing point lock.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plunger, facing point lock. 236.780 Section 236.780 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.780 Plunger, facing point lock. That part of a facing point lock which secures the lock rod to...

  7. First 236U data from the Arctic Ocean and use of 236U/238U and 129I/236U as a new dual tracer

    Casacuberta, N.; Masqué, P.; Henderson, G.; Rutgers van-der-Loeff, M.; Bauch, D.; Vockenhuber, C.; Daraoui, A.; Walther, C.; Synal, H.-A.; Christl, M.

    2016-04-01

    The first dataset of 236U/238U in the water column of the Arctic Ocean (AO) is presented and shows the widest range of ratios reported so far in the open ocean, from (5 ± 5) to (3840 ± 260) ×10-12. Surface samples and depth profiles were collected during two GEOTRACES expeditions in 2011-2012 and analyzed for the concentrations of 236U and 129I, with the aim of investigating whether the combination of 236U/238U and 129I/236U can be used as a new oceanographic tool in the AO. Results show that the distributions of the 236U/238U and 129I/236U atomic ratios are consistent with the different water masses in the AO. High 236U/238U and 129I/236U ratios in the upper water column (> 2000 ×10-12 and >200, respectively) illustrate the penetration of Atlantic waters (AW) into the AO. Lower values were found in Pacific waters (PW) and deep waters of the AO. Rivers seem to represent a temporally and spatially-constrained third anthropogenic source of 236U but more data are needed to confirm this. In a simple mixing model, the combination of 236U/238U and 129I/236U reveals a high contribution (>99%) of natural background waters (pre-nuclear era) in the deep and bottom waters of the Amerasian basin, indicating an apparent water mass renewal time of >1000 years. Despite the relatively high apparent age of the Amerasian Basin deep waters, this work shows the potential of using the dual-tracer approach as a new oceanographic tool in the Arctic Ocean.

  8. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 236 - Civil Penalties 1

    2010-10-01

    ... right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR... controller or point detector 1,000 2,000 236.104Shunt fouling circuit 1,000 2,000 236.105Electric lock 1,000...,000 2,000 236.312Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices: (a)...

  9. Neutron absorption cross section of uranium-236

    U-236 neutron absorption was measured as a function of neutron time-of-flight from 20 eV to 1 MeV. The neutron flux was monitored with a 6Li glass scintillator. Average cross sections from 3 keV to 1 MeV were derived. Estimated uncertainties were less than 5% below 600 keV and increased to 9.5% at 1 MeV. Resonance parametrization from 20 eV to a few keV remains to be done. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  11. 49 CFR 236.775 - Movement, switch-and-lock.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, switch-and-lock. 236.775 Section 236.775 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions §...

  12. 49 CFR 236.810 - Spectacle, semaphore arm.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectacle, semaphore arm. 236.810 Section 236.810 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Spectacle, semaphore arm. That part of a semaphore arm which holds the roundels and to which the blade...

  13. 48 CFR 852.236-78 - Government supervision.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government supervision. 852.236-78 Section 852.236-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Government supervision. As prescribed in 836.572, insert the following clause: Government Supervision...

  14. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  15. Dicty_cDB: SFB236 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFB236 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15759-1 SFB236P (Link to Original ... CP000901_3754( CP000901 |pid:none) Yersinia pestis Angola , complet... 35 5.3 (Q65G12) RecName: Full=tRNA (gu ...

  16. 49 CFR 236.722 - Circuit, cut-in.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, cut-in. 236.722 Section 236.722 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, cut-in. A roadway circuit at the entrance to automatic train stop, train control or cab...

  17. 49 CFR 236.54 - Minimum length of track circuit.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum length of track circuit. 236.54 Section... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.54 Minimum length of track circuit. When a track circuit shorter than maximum inner wheelbase of any locomotive or car operated over such track circuit is used...

  18. 49 CFR 236.786 - Principle, closed circuit.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principle, closed circuit. 236.786 Section 236.786 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Principle, closed circuit. The principle of circuit design where a normally energized electric circuit...

  19. 49 CFR 236.817 - Switch, electro-pneumatic.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, electro-pneumatic. 236.817 Section 236.817 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, electro-pneumatic. A switch operated by an electro-pneumatic switch-and-lock movement....

  20. 49 CFR 236.837 - Valve, electro-pneumatic.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve, electro-pneumatic. 236.837 Section 236.837 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Valve, electro-pneumatic. A valve electrically operated which, when operated, will permit or...

  1. 49 CFR 236.17 - Pipe for operating connections, requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe for operating connections, requirements. 236... Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.17 Pipe for operating connections, requirements. (a) Steel or wrought-iron pipe one inch or larger, or members of equal strength, shall be used for...

  2. 48 CFR 52.236-8 - Other Contracts.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other Contracts. 52.236-8... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.236-8 Other Contracts. As prescribed in 36.508, insert the following clause: Other Contracts (APR 1984) The...

  3. 48 CFR 236.203 - Government estimate of construction costs.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government estimate of...-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction 236.203 Government estimate of construction costs. Follow the procedures at PGI 236.203 for handling the Government estimate of...

  4. 49 CFR 236.1043 - Task analysis and basic requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Task analysis and basic requirements. 236.1043... Train Control Systems § 236.1043 Task analysis and basic requirements. (a) Training structure and... of work, etc.), task(s), and desired success rate; (2) Based on a formal task analysis, identify...

  5. First data of Uranium-236 in the North Sea

    In this paper we present the first 236U-measurements from North Sea water samples. The measurements are performed within an ongoing project that intends to map the distribution of 236U in the Atlantic Ocean and thus to explore the potential of 236U as a new oceanic tracer. We describe the latest modifications of the low energy ETH AMS system TANDY that allow determining the concentrations of both 238U and 236U and the 236U/238U ratio during only one AMS measurement. Further, we present our chemical preparation procedure and, finally, the first 236U data from the North Sea is discussed in detail. A simple conceptual model is used to simulate the temporal evolution of the 236U-concentration in the North Sea. The simulated water mass residence time is in good agreement with independent oceanographic data. Based on these initial results we conclude that anthropogenic 236U has a large potential as a new transient and extremely conservative tracer in Oceanography.

  6. 24 CFR 236.750 - Form of lease.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of lease. 236.750 Section 236... lease. (a) Lease form. Eligible tenants shall be required to execute a lease in a form approved by the Commissioner. (b) Prohibited lease provisions. Lease clauses of the nature described below shall not...

  7. 8 CFR 236.16 - Travel outside the United States.

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel outside the United States. 236.16... Program § 236.16 Travel outside the United States. An alien granted Family Unity Program benefits who intends to travel outside the United States temporarily must apply for advance authorization using Form...

  8. 49 CFR 236.759 - Lock, facing point.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lock, facing point. 236.759 Section 236.759... Lock, facing point. A mechanical lock for a switch, derail, or movable-point frog, comprising a plunger stand and a plunger which engages a lock rod attached to the switch point to lock the operated unit....

  9. 48 CFR 52.236-12 - Cleaning Up.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning Up. 52.236-12 Section 52.236-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED... Cleaning Up. As prescribed in 36.512, insert the following clause: Cleaning Up (APR 1984) The...

  10. 236U and its measurement with accelerator mass spectrometry

    236U is a long-lived radionuclide with half-life of 2.342(3) x 107 a. The ratio of 236U/238U is about 10-14 in the natural Uranium. The origin and production of 236U in globe are introduced and estimated in this paper, respectively. The major applications of 236U as a 100-million year neutron flux integrator, as a 'fingerprint' for monitoring nuclear environment and nuclear activity,and as a tracer in geological studies are briefly summarized. The accelerator mass spectrometry(AMS) measurement of 236U in the world and the research on HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy(CIAE) is also mentioned in this paper. (authors)

  11. Excess of (236)U in the northwest Mediterranean Sea.

    Chamizo, E; López-Lora, M; Bressac, M; Levy, I; Pham, M K

    2016-09-15

    In this work, we present first (236)U results in the northwestern Mediterranean. (236)U is studied in a seawater column sampled at DYFAMED (Dynamics of Atmospheric Fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea) station (Ligurian Sea, 43°25'N, 07°52'E). The obtained (236)U/(238)U atom ratios in the dissolved phase, ranging from about 2×10(-9) at 100m depth to about 1.5×10(-9) at 2350m depth, indicate that anthropogenic (236)U dominates the whole seawater column. The corresponding deep-water column inventory (12.6ng/m(2) or 32.1×10(12) atoms/m(2)) exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the expected one for global fallout at similar latitudes (5ng/m(2) or 13×10(12) atoms/m(2)), evidencing the influence of local or regional (236)U sources in the western Mediterranean basin. On the other hand, the input of (236)U associated to Saharan dust outbreaks is evaluated. An additional (236)U annual deposition of about 0.2pg/m(2) based on the study of atmospheric particles collected in Monaco during different Saharan dust intrusions is estimated. The obtained results in the corresponding suspended solids collected at DYFAMED station indicate that about 64% of that (236)U stays in solution in seawater. Overall, this source accounts for about 0.1% of the (236)U inventory excess observed at DYFAMED station. The influence of the so-called Chernobyl fallout and the radioactive effluents produced by the different nuclear installations allocated to the Mediterranean basin, might explain the inventory gap, however, further studies are necessary to come to a conclusion about its origin. PMID:27262827

  12. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 236 - Risk Assessment Criteria

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. B Appendix... considered: (1) Track plan infrastructure, switches, rail crossings at grade and highway-rail grade...

  13. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.766 Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric...

  14. 49 CFR 236.58 - Turnout, fouling section.

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.58 Turnout, fouling section. Rail joints within the fouling...

  15. 3C236 Radio Source, Interrupted?

    O'Dea, C P; Baum, S A; Sparks, W B; Martel, A R; Allen, M G; Macchetto, F D; Miley, G K; Dea, Christopher P. O'; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Baum, Stefi A.; Sparks, William B.; Martel, Andre R.; Allen, Mark G.; Macchetto, Ferdinando D.; Miley, George K.

    2001-01-01

    We present new HST STIS/MAMA near-UV images and archival WFPC2 V and R band images which reveal the presence of four star forming regions in an arc along the edge of the dust lane in the giant (4 Mpc) radio galaxy 3C236. Two of the star forming regions are relatively young with ages of order 1E7 yr, while the other two are older with ages of order 1E8 - 1E9 yr which is comparable to the estimated age of the giant radio source. Based on dynamical and spectral aging arguments, we suggest that the fuel supply to the AGN was interrupted for 1E7 yr and has now been restored, resulting in the formation of the inner 2 kpc scale radio source. This time scale is similar to that of the age of the youngest of the star forming regions. We suggest that the transport of gas in the disk is non-steady and that this produces both the multiple episodes of star formation in the disk as well as the multiple epochs of radio source activity. If the inner radio source and the youngest star forming region are related by the same eve...

  16. Plutonium-236 traces determination in plutonium-238 by α spectrometry

    Two methods are described in this report for the determination of plutonium-236 traces in plutonium-238 by a spectrometry using semi-conductor detectors. The first method involves a direct comparison of the areas under the peaks of the α spectra of plutonium-236 and plutonium-238. The electrolytic preparation of the sources is carried out after preliminary purification of the plutonium. The second method makes it possible to determine the 236Pu/238Pu ratio by comparing the areas of the α peaks of uranium-232 and uranium-234, which are the decay products of the two plutonium isotopes respectively. The uranium in the source, also deposited by electrolysis, is separated from a 1 mg amount of plutonium either by a T.L.A. extraction, or by the use of ion-exchange resins. The report ends with a discussion of the results obtained with plutonium of two different origins. (authors)

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHE236 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHE236 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13888-1 CHE236P (Link to Original ... 5523_1( AY615523 |pid:none) Gallus gallus neuronal tryptophan ... ... 258 2e-67 BC013458_1( BC013458 |pid:none) Mus ... lanine hydroxy... 256 9e-67 (Q0EAB8) RecName: Full=Tryptophan ... 5-hydroxylase 2; EC=1... 256 9e-67 (Q8IWU9) RecNam ...

  18. 49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.

    2010-10-01

    ... locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in effect....

  19. 48 CFR 1852.236-73 - Hurricane plan.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Hurricane plan. 1852.236-73... Hurricane plan. As prescribed in 1836.570(c), insert the following clause: Hurricane Plan (DEC 1988) In the event of a hurricane warning, the Contractor shall— (a) Inspect the area and place all...

  20. 48 CFR 236.201 - Evaluation of contractor performance.

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction 236.201 Evaluation of contractor performance. (a) Preparation of performance evaluation reports. Use DD Form 2626, Performance Evaluation (Construction... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation of...

  1. 48 CFR 52.236-17 - Layout of Work.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Layout of Work. 52.236-17... Layout of Work. As prescribed in 36.517, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when... need for accurate work layout and for siting verification during work performance: Layout of Work...

  2. 8 CFR 236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.

    2010-01-01

    ... an order under 8 CFR part 240 becomes final, request amelioration of the conditions under which he or... of removal. Algeria 1 1 Arrangements with the countries listed in 8 CFR 236.1(e) provide that U.S... Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Malta Mauritius Moldova Mongolia Nigeria Philippines Poland 4...

  3. 49 CFR 236.907 - Product Safety Plan (PSP).

    2010-10-01

    ... addressed during the life cycle of the product, including maximum threshold limits for each hazard (for... necessary security measures for the product over its life-cycle; (16) A complete description of each warning... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product Safety Plan (PSP). 236.907 Section...

  4. 49 CFR 236.917 - Retention of records.

    2010-10-01

    ...: (i) For the life-cycle of the product, adequate documentation to demonstrate that the PSP meets the...-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.917 Retention of records. (a) What life-cycle and... safety-relevant hazard? After the product is placed in service, the railroad shall maintain a database...

  5. 27 CFR 40.236 - Release from customs custody.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release from customs... on Tobacco Products § 40.236 Release from customs custody. The release of tobacco products from customs custody, in bond, for transfer to the premises of a tobacco products factory, shall be...

  6. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention... the Secretary of Labor at 29 CFR part 1926 and 29 CFR part 1910; and (3) Ensure that any...

  7. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  8. 48 CFR 652.236-70 - Accident Prevention.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 652... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 652.236-70 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 636.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (APR 2004) (a) General....

  9. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    2010-01-01

    ... destruction. Condensed milk products made from pasteurized milk may be transported to a drying plant, provided... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and buttermilk used in the manufacture of dry milk products and modified dry milk products shall be...

  10. Mass and abundance 236U sensitivities at CIRCE

    De Cesare, M.; De Cesare, N.; D'Onofrio, A.; Fifield, L. K.; Gialanella, L.; Terrasi, F.

    2015-10-01

    The actinides (e.g. 236U and xPu isotopes) are present in environmental samples at the ultra trace level since atmospheric tests of NWs (Nuclear Weapons) performed in the past, deliberate dumping of nuclear waste, nuclear fuel reprocessing, on a large scale and operation of NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) on a small scale have led to the release of a wide range of radioactive nuclides in the environment. Their detection requires the most sensitive AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) techniques and at the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) in Caserta, Italy, an upgraded actinide AMS system, based on a 3-MV pelletron tandem accelerator, has been operated. In this paper the progress made in order to push the 236U mass sensitivity and 236U/238U isotopic ratio down to the natural levels is reported. A uranium contamination mass of about 0.05 μg and a 236U/238U isotopic ratio sensitivities at the level of 3.2 × 10-13 are presently achievable.

  11. 48 CFR 452.236-74 - Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution.

    2010-10-01

    ..., Sedimentation, and Pollution. 452.236-74 Section 452.236-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....236-74 Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution. As prescribed in 436.574, insert the following clause: Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution (NOV 1996) (a) Operations shall...

  12. 48 CFR 252.236-7012 - Military construction on Kwajalein Atoll-evaluation preference.

    2010-10-01

    ... Kwajalein Atoll-evaluation preference. 252.236-7012 Section 252.236-7012 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Kwajalein Atoll—evaluation preference. As prescribed in 236.570(c)(2), use the following provision: Military Construction on Kwajalein Atoll—Evaluation Preference (MAR 1998) (a) Definitions. As used in this provision—...

  13. 49 CFR 236.554 - Rate of pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe.

    2010-10-01

    ... or brake pipe. 236.554 Section 236.554 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...; Locomotives § 236.554 Rate of pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe. The equalizing-reservoir pressure or brake-pipe pressure reduction during an automatic brake application shall be at a rate not...

  14. 49 CFR 236.330 - Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. 236.330 Section 236.330 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Rules and Instructions § 236.330 Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. Locking dog of...

  15. 49 CFR 236.560 - Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail. 236.560 Section 236.560 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Instructions; Locomotives § 236.560 Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to...

  16. Recoil distance lifetimes of rotational states in 236U

    Half-lives for members of the 236U ground-state rotational band have been measured by the recoil-distance method following Coulomb excitation with 40Ar8+ projectiles. The B (E2, I→I-2) values in units of e2 b2 determined from the half-lives of the 4+, 6+, 8+, 10+, and 12+ states are 3.03+-0.20, 3.28+-0.19, 3.42+-0.28, 3.11+-0.30, and 3.34+2.23/sub em-dash//sub 0//sub .9//sub 5/, respectively. Transition quadrupole moments Q20(I/subi/→I/subf/) deduced from the lifetimes are constant within experimental error and thus support the characterization of 236U as a good rotor to spin 12+

  17. Dicty_cDB: SHD236 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHD236 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16371-1 - (Link to Original site) ... Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-242I19.F, genomic survey ... sequence. 54 0.004 1 DE092915 |DE092915.1 Oryzias ... latipes DNA, clone: ola1-209J09.R, genomic survey ... sequence. 54 0.004 1 DE086252 |DE086252.1 Oryzias ...

  18. Value of 236U to actinide-only burnup credit

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) submitted a topical report to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in May 1995 in order to gain approval of a method for criticality analysis of transport packages that takes account for the change in actinide isotopes with burnup [pressurized water reactors (PWRs) only]. Historically, the NRC has conservatively assumed that the fuel was in its initial conditions (without any burnable absorbers). In order to permit credit for the changes in actinide content, the NRC has required validation of the depletion and criticality codes for spent nuclear fuel, justification of conservative depletion modeling, and finally confirmation measurements before loading. The NRC requested additional information on March 22, 1996. The DOE responded by a revision of the topical report in May 1997. The NRC again responded with another set of requests of additional information in April 1998. In that set of questions, the NRC challenged the use of 236U in burnup credit. Uranium-236 is not found in any significant amount in any available critical experiments. The authors explore the value of 236U to actinide-only burnup credit

  19. Depth distributions of 236U and 137Cs in the Japan Sea: the potential of 236U as a new oceanographic tracer

    We present the feasibility of using 236U as a tracer for oceanic circulation. Depth profiles of 236U in seawater from seven sites in the Japan Sea allowed assessing the potential of this predominantly artificial uranium isotope. The isotope ratio 236U/238U decreased from ca. 1.3×10–9 in the surface water to ca. 0.2×10–9 close above the sea floor, corresponding to 236U concentrations of ca. 1.0×107 and ca. 1.5×106 atoms/kg, respectively. 236U depth profiles are nearly proportional to those of 137Cs measured in the same water samples. They reveal a generally smooth depth trend with a slightly higher concentration of 236U and 137Cs in the northern area at depths below 2500 m. The cumulative inventory of dissolved 236U in the water column is estimated to be ca. 1.6×1013 atoms/m2, which is similar to the level of global fallout in Japan, 1.8×1013 atoms/m2. Our results indicate that 236U behaves conservatively in seawater, with potential advantages over other tracers for seawater circulation. (author)

  20. Quantum efficiency measurements in the swept charge device CCD236

    The e2v technologies plc. CCD236 is a Swept Charge Device (SCD) designed as a large area (20 mm × 20 mm) soft X-ray detector for spectroscopy in the range 0.8 keV to 10 keV. It benefits from improvements in design over the previous generation, the e2v CCD54, such as: a 4 times increased detector area, a reduction in split X-ray events due to the 100 μm × 100 μm 'pixel' size, and improvements to radiation hardness. The CCD236 will be used in India's Chandrayaan-2 Large Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) instrument and China's Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Measurements of the Quantum Efficiency (QE) have been obtained relative to a NIST calibrated photodiode over the energy range 0.2 keV to 1.9 keV, using the BESSY II X-ray synchrotron in Berlin. Two X-ray event counting methods are described and compared, and QE for soft X-ray interaction is reported. Uniformity of QE across the device is also investigated at energies between 0.52 keV and 1.5 keV in different areas of the detector. This work will enable the actual number of photons incident on the detectors to be calculated, thus ensuring that the CCD236 detectors provide valuable scientific data during use. By comparing the QE methods in this paper with the event processing techniques to be used with CLASS, an estimate of the instrument-specific QE for CLASS can be provided

  1. First measurements of 236U concentrations and 236U/239Pu isotopic ratios in a Southern Hemisphere soil far from nuclear test or reactor sites

    The variation of the 236U and 239Pu concentrations as a function of depth has been studied in a soil profile at a site in the Southern Hemisphere well removed from nuclear weapon test sites. Total inventories of 236U and 239Pu as well as the 236U/239Pu isotopic ratio were derived. For this investigation a soil core from an undisturbed forest area in the Herbert River catchment (17°30′ – 19°S) which is located in north-eastern Queensland (Australia) was chosen. The chemical separation of U and Pu was carried out with a double column which has the advantage of the extraction of both elements from a relatively large soil sample (∼20 g) within a day. The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry using the 14UD pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. The highest atom concentrations of both 236U and 239Pu were found at a depth of 2–3 cm. The 236U/239Pu isotopic ratio in fallout at this site, as deduced from the ratio of the 236U and 239Pu inventories, is 0.085 ± 0.003 which is clearly lower than the Northern Hemisphere value of ∼0.2. The 236U inventory of (8.4 ± 0.3) × 1011 at/m2 was more than an order of magnitude lower than values reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The 239Pu activity concentrations are in excellent agreement with a previous study and the 239+240Pu inventory was (13.85 ± 0.29) Bq/m2. The weighted mean 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratio of 0.142 ± 0.005 is slightly lower than the value for global fallout, but our results are consistent with the average ratio of 0.173 ± 0.027 for the southern equatorial region (0–30°S). - Highlights: • Exploration of uranium-236 (236U) and plutonium-239 (239Pu) in the Southern Hemisphere by accelerator mass spectrometry. • We report the depth profile for both isotopes from a forest site well removed from nuclear test or reactor sites. • 236U and 239Pu were deposited at the same time due to nuclear weapons tests but show a slightly different depth dependence. • The

  2. 49 CFR 236.531 - Trip arm; height and distance from rail.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.531 Trip arm; height and distance from rail. Trip arm of automatic train stop device when in the stop position shall...

  3. 24 CFR 236.260 - Request by Commissioner for assignment of mortgage.

    2010-04-01

    ... assignment of mortgage. 236.260 Section 236.260 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL...

  4. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    2010-10-01

    ... between electrical and mechanical levers. 236.340 Section 236.340 Transportation Other Regulations... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that...

  5. 48 CFR 236.274 - Restriction on acquisition of steel for use in military construction projects.

    2010-10-01

    ..., Division E), do not acquire, or allow a contractor to acquire, steel for any construction project or... of steel for use in military construction projects. 236.274 Section 236.274 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction...

  6. MODELING AND DESIGN STUDY USING HFC-236EA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT IN A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

    The report gives results of an investigation of the operation of a centrifugal compressor--part of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 chiller installation--with the new refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea, a proposed alternative to CFC-114. A large set of CFC-236ea operating da...

  7. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, VISCOSITY, AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236EA WITH FOUR DIFFERENT EXXON LUBRICANTS

    The report discusses miscibility, solubility, viscosity, and density data for the refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea (or R-236ea) and four lubricants supplied by Exxon Corporation. Such data are needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for ...

  8. 49 CFR 236.13 - Spring switch; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller.

    2010-10-01

    ... circuits through circuit controller. 236.13 Section 236.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller. The control circuits of signals governing... circuit controller, or through the contacts of relay repeating the position of such circuit...

  9. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have...

  10. Key Issue of Ultra-trace Environmental Samples by ~(236)U/~(238)U-AMS Method

    2011-01-01

    The accurate determination of uranium-236 in samples at ultra-low level is critical. Combined with AMS , reducing the background effects throughout the experiment is quite necessary. Therefore, some advances on the determination of 236U by accelerator mass spectrometry

  11. 49 CFR 236.53 - Track circuit feed at grade crossing.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track circuit feed at grade crossing. 236.53... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.53 Track circuit feed at grade crossing. At grade crossing with... current track circuit shall feed away from the crossing....

  12. 24 CFR 236.755 - Housing owner's obligation under contract to report tenant income increase.

    2010-04-01

    ... income resulting in the tenant's ability to pay the approved basic monthly rental (plus, where applicable... contract to report tenant income increase. 236.755 Section 236.755 Housing and Urban Development... report tenant income increase. The rental assistance contract shall contain a provision obligating...

  13. 49 CFR 236.529 - Roadway element inductor; height and distance from rail.

    2010-10-01

    ... rail. 236.529 Section 236.529 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and...

  14. 49 CFR 236.16 - Electric lock, main track releasing circuit.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric lock, main track releasing circuit. 236... Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.16 Electric lock, main track releasing circuit. When an electric lock releasing circuit is provided on the main track to permit a train or an engine...

  15. 49 CFR 236.306 - Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement. 236... Interlocking Standards § 236.306 Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement. Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement shall be provided for mechanically operated switch, movable-point frog, or...

  16. 49 CFR 236.7 - Circuit controller operated by switch-and-lock movement.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit controller operated by switch-and-lock movement. 236.7 Section 236.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... switch-and-lock movement. Circuit controller operated by switch-and-lock movement shall be maintained...

  17. 49 CFR 236.557 - Receiver; location with respect to rail.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receiver; location with respect to rail. 236.557 Section 236.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...; location with respect to rail. (a) Receiver of intermittent inductive automatic train stop device of...

  18. Feasibility of using 236U to reconstruct close-in fallout deposition from the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    The first results on the feasibility of using 236U to reconstruct the level and spatial distribution of close-in fallout deposition from the Hiroshima A-bomb are reported, coupled with the use of global fallout 137Cs and 239+240Pu. The results for global fallout 236U in soil samples (0-30 cm) from Ishikawa prefecture showed that the deposition density of 236U from the global fallout can be accurately evaluated using AMS. All deposited 236U, 137Cs and 239+240Pu appeared to have been recovered using 30-cm cores. It was also noted from the depth profiles for 236U/239+240Pu and 236U/137Cs ratios that the downward behavior of 236U in the soil was apparently similar to that of 239+240Pu, while the 137Cs was liable to be retained in upper layers compared with 236U and 239+240Pu. The accumulated levels were 1.78 x 1013 atoms m-2 for 236U, 4340 Bq m-2 for 137Cs and 141 Bq m-2 for 239+240Pu. The ratios of 236U/137Cs and 236U/239+240Pu were (4.10 ± 0.12) x 109 and (1.26 ± 0.04) x 1011 atoms Bq-1, respectively. Results of 236U, 137Cs and 239+240Pu measurements for the seven soil cores (0-30 cm) from Hiroshima were discussed on the basis of ratios of 236U/137Cs and 236U/239+240Pu by comparing with those from the background area in Ishikawa, indicating that the global fallout dominates the current level of 236U accumulation in soil in the Black-rain area around Hiroshima after the Hiroshima bomb, and the contribution of the close-in fallout 236U produced by the Hiroshima A-bomb seems difficult to observe.

  19. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal... vessels of over 100 gross tons shall not approach within 1,000 yards at a speed in excess of 6 knots....

  20. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of 236U and 234U

    Accurate neutron capture cross sections of the actinide elements at neutron energies up to 1 MeV are needed to better interpret archived nuclear test data, for post-detonation nuclear attribution, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. The Detector for Advance Neutron Capture Experiments, DANCE, has unique capabilities that allow the differentiation of capture gamma rays from fission gamma rays and background gamma rays from scattered neutrons captured by barium isotopes in the barium fluoride scintillators. The DANCE array has a high granularity, 160 scintillators, high efficiency, and nearly 4-π solid angle. Through the use of cuts in cluster multiplicity and calorimetric energy the capture gamma-rays are differentiated from other sources of gamma rays. The preliminary results for the capture cross sections of 236U are in agreement with the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The preliminary results for 234U lower are than ENDF/B-VI evaluation and are closer to older evaluations

  1. Primary result of 236U measurement with accelerator mass spectrometry at CIAE

    The rare isotope 236U has a half-life of 2.342(3) x 107 years, and is produced principally by thermal neutron capture on 235U. The isotopic atom ratio of 236U/238U depends on the integral thermal neutron flux received by the material of interest. 236U is potentially useful as a 'fingerprint' for indicating the presence of neutron-irradiated uranium usually originating from nuclear activity. By extracting negative molecular ion UO- from the uranium oxide target, simulating the 236U16O- beam transport with 238U16O- and 208Pb162 O- pilot molecular ion beam, transporting the 236U-containing ion beam with a high resolution injection magnet analyzer and electrostatic analyzer system, and finally identifying and detecting 236U with a time-of-flight detector (TOF), a method for AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) measurement of 236U was established on the HI-13 Accelerator AMS system at China Institute of Atomic Energy. (authors)

  2. 49 CFR 236.328 - Plunger of facing-point lock.

    2010-10-01

    ... Rules and Instructions § 236.328 Plunger of facing-point lock. Plunger of lever operated facing-point lock shall have at least 8-inch stroke. When lock lever is in unlocked position the end of the...

  3. Amendment of the Measurement of Low Abundance 236U by Mass Spectrometry

    The low abundance isotope 236U is easily disturbed by strong peak tails in the measurement of Mass Spectrometry. So, the measurement of 236U is amended with the Background Amendment (BGA) tail calibration method and the dynamic background method. BGA method was used to measure the signal at 235.5 and 236.5 mass number, these signal could be regarded as strong peak tails which was eliminated in the measurement data. When 236U abundance was low, BGA calibration method had good effect, the emendation to measurement reached 2.24%, the amended value was more close to nominal value, and the effect of dynamic background amendment method is not significant. (authors)

  4. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, AND VISCOSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236EA WITH POTENTIAL LUBRICANTS

    The report gives results of miscibility, solubility, and viscosity measurements of refrigerant R-236ea with three potential lubricants. (NOTE: The data were needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for use in refrigeration systems.) The lubricants...

  5. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    2010-07-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.36 Navigable waters... used in sections 311 and 312 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, 33 U.S.C. 1321...

  6. 49 CFR 236.10 - Electric locks, force drop type; where required.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric locks, force drop type; where required... Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.10 Electric locks, force drop type; where required... the forced drop type....

  7. Measurement of the natural 36Cl and 236U uranium mineral with accelerator mass spectrometry

    The concentration of the natural ultra-trace radionuclides 36Cl and 236U in the uranium depended on the neutron flux. In this article, a method for measuring 36Cl and 236U in the same uranium mineral with accelerator mass spectrometry was developed in China Institute of Atomic Energy, providing a protocol of the potential application of 236U in uranium mining, environmental, and geological research. The two samples were from Guangxi and Shanxi province, China, and their ratios 36Cl/Cl and 236U/238U were measured. More experimental data conduced to understand the natural nuclides in the uranium mineral. We plan to conduct more efforts on the research. (authors)

  8. 17 CFR 230.236 - Exemption of shares offered in connection with certain transactions.

    2010-04-01

    ... stock dividend, stock split, reverse stock split, conversion, merger or similar transaction, shall be... Exemptions § 230.236 Exemption of shares offered in connection with certain transactions. Shares of stock...

  9. Fission barriers of 237 to 240 plutonium isotopes with the 236U(α,xn) reactions

    Excitation functions for the reactions 236U(α,xn)sup(240-x)Pu have been measured for x=2, 3, 4. The production of 236U targets as well as the chemical separation of Pu from the irradied targets are given. Experimental results have been analysed using the preequilibrium mechanism (PREEQ code) and the statistical model description of fission through a double humped barrier (GIVAB code)

  10. Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of 236U

    In this paper we describe the 236U(n, γ) reaction cross section measurement at the GELINA white pulsed neutron source of the Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) in Geel. The sample was placed in the neutron beam at a flight station located at a nominal distance of 30 m from the neutron source. Neutron capture gamma rays were detected by two C6D6-based liquid scintillator gamma-ray detectors as a function of the neutron time-of-flight using the pulse height weighting technique. The pulse height weighting function has been derived from Monte Carlo simulations of the detector response to mono-energetic gamma rays. The shape of the neutron flux was measured with a 10B chamber, placed about 60 cm upstream in the neutron beam. The capture yield in the resolved resonance region up to 3 keV has been derived and will be presented here. The analysis of the capture yield in terms of R-matrix resonance parameters is planned for the near future. (authors)

  11. The first transect of U-236 in the North Atlantic Ocean

    New developments in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) allow determining very low-levels of anthropogenic 236U in Ocean waters. As a result, the potential of using the 236U/238U ratio as a new conservative and transient tracer in oceanography is now being tested. In this study 236U/238U ratios and 236U concentrations were determined in 90 3L seawater samples, collected from 9 depth profiles during the Dutch GEOTRACES cruise GA02 in 2010 along the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (from equator to 64 circle N). The 236U/238U ratios ranged from (44±15).10-12 to (1477±91).10-12. Higher values correspond to North Atlantic water masses (i.e. Labrador Sea Water (LSW) and North East Atlantic Deep Water (NEADW)), which have higher input from global fallout and possibly an additional contribution from the European nuclear reprocessing plants. In contrast, lower 236U values are representative of southern water masses such as Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). To explore the potential of this new tracer in oceanography it is compared to other transient tracers (e.g. CFCs) used so far to quantify oceanic processes such as water mass mixing and deep water formation rates.

  12. Deposition of 236U from atmospheric nuclear testing in Washington state (USA) and the Pechora region (Russian Arctic)

    Stratospheric fallout-derived 236U has been detected by sector field ICPMS at two field locations for which our laboratory possessed available archived samples: A) four soil cores from Washington state (northwestern USA) and B) sediment cores from three small lakes in the Pechora region (Russian Arctic). Four Washington state soil cores exhibit 236U inventories of 8.1 ± 1.3, 11.1 ± 0.9, 18 ± 2, and 30.2 ± 3.9 Tatoms/m2; the respective 239Pu contents are 52.9 ± 3.5, 67 ± 3, 71 ± 2, and 151 ± 2 Tatoms/m2. A 236U/239Pu atom ratio of 0.19 ± 0.04 (1 SD) has been determined from the Washington state soil cores. The three Pechora region lake cores each exhibit coincident maxima in their 236U and 239Pu atom concentration profiles. The 236U/238U atom ratios are controlled by two independent factors; 236U is from fallout deposition and 238U concentrations are a property of the geochemical distribution of naturally occurring U. A 236U/238U atom ratio as high as 8.9 × 10−6 has been observed for acid-leached soils containing Pu solely derived from bomb-test fallout. Accordingly, a non-zero 236U background from stratospheric fallout must be recognized and taken into account when detectable 236U is used to infer specific local or regional influences of reactor-irradiated U. -- Highlights: ► The isotope 236U, originating from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, has been identified at two locations in the Northern Hemisphere. ► Peak 236U concentrations match peak 239Pu concentrations in sediment cores. ► The 236U/239Pu atom ratio is 0.19 ± 0.04

  13. Recommendation on changing interfaces of W-058 and W-236A

    This position paper recommends changes to improve the interface between the Cross-Site Transfer System (Project W-058) and the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (Project W-236A) to handle planned waste retrieval and storage operations. Appendix A includes cost estimates and schedule impacts for each project. The cost estimates, schedule impacts, and this position paper will be the basis for writing a change request to formally implement these changes on Project W-236A and Project W-058/W-028. Recommendations are made on pipeline rerouting, pump and configuration, and flushing configuration

  14. Chronology of Pu isotopes and {sup 236}U in an Arctic ice core

    Wendel, C.C., E-mail: cato.wendel@umb.no [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Oughton, D.H., E-mail: deborah.oughton@umb.no [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Lind, O.C., E-mail: ole-christian.lind@umb.no [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Skipperud, L., E-mail: lindis.skipperud@umb.no [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Fifield, L.K., E-mail: keith.fifield@anu.edu.au [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Isaksson, E., E-mail: elisabeth.isaksson@npolar.no [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Hjalmar Johansens Gate 14, N9296 Tromsø (Norway); Tims, S.G., E-mail: steve.tims@anu.edu.au [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Salbu, B., E-mail: brit.salbu@umb.no [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway)

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, state of the art isotopic fingerprinting techniques are applied to an Arctic ice core in order to quantify deposition of U and Pu, and to identify possible tropospheric transport of debris from former Soviet Union test sites Semipalatinsk (Central Asia) and Novaya Zemlya (Arctic Ocean). An ice core chronology of {sup 236}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu concentrations, and atom ratios, measured by accelerator mass spectrometry in a 28.6 m deep ice core from the Austfonna glacier at Nordaustlandet, Svalbard is presented. The ice core chronology corresponds to the period 1949 to 1999. The main sources of Pu and {sup 236}U contamination in the Arctic were the atmospheric nuclear detonations in the period 1945 to 1980, as global fallout, and tropospheric fallout from the former Soviet Union test sites Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk. Activity concentrations of {sup 239+240}Pu ranged from 0.008 to 0.254 mBq cm{sup −2} and {sup 236}U from 0.0039 to 0.053 μBq cm{sup −2}. Concentrations varied in concordance with {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the same ice core. In contrast to previous published results, the concentrations of Pu and {sup 236}U were found to be higher at depths corresponding to the pre-moratorium period (1949 to 1959) than to the post-moratorium period (1961 and 1962). The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio ranged from 0.15 to 0.19, and {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu ranged from 0.18 to 1.4. The Pu atom ratios ranged within the limits of global fallout in the most intensive period of nuclear atmospheric testing (1952 to 1962). To the best knowledge of the authors the present work is the first publication on biogeochemical cycles with respect to {sup 236}U concentrations and {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the Arctic and in ice cores. - Highlights: • Concentrations and atom ratios of Pu and {sup 236}U determined in an Arctic ice core. • Concentrations of U and Pu found to be higher pre- than post-moratorium. • U and Pu concentrations

  15. Interaction of the HII region S236 with the surrounding medium

    The HII region S236 has been observed in the continuum at 50 cm wavelength and in the recombination line H166α at 10 selected positions. A mean electron temperature of 7600 K is derived for the nebula and the measured velocity pattern is explained qualitatively in terms of a gas flow from the molecular cloud. (Auth.)

  16. 49 CFR 236.1017 - Independent third party verification and validation.

    2010-10-01

    ... that consideration of the methodology used in the risk assessment (§ 236.913(g)(2)(vii)) shall apply only to the extent that a comparative risk assessment was required. To the extent practicable, FRA... system supplier and vendor. An entity that is owned or controlled by the supplier or vendor, that...

  17. 49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained...

  18. 49 CFR 236.206 - Battery or power supply with respect to relay; location.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery or power supply with respect to relay..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.206 Battery or power supply with respect to relay; location. The battery or power supply for each signal control relay circuit, where an...

  19. 8 CFR 236.18 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program... REMOVED Family Unity Program § 236.18 Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. (a) Grounds for termination. The Service may terminate benefits under the Family Unity Program whenever the necessity for...

  20. 49 CFR 236.1005 - Requirements for Positive Train Control systems.

    2010-10-01

    ... of the receiving train; (iv) Any movable bridge within the route ahead is not in a position to allow permissive indication for a train movement pursuant to § 236.312; and (v) A hazard detector integrated into... falling rock or undermining of the track structure due to high water or displacement of a bridge...

  1. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236EA WITH HIGH PERFORMANCE ENHANCED TUBES IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the heat transfer performance of pure hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea for high performance enhanced tubes which had not been previously used in Navy shipboard chillers. Shell-side heat transfer coefficient data are presented for condensa...

  2. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236EA AND CFC-114 IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    The report gives results of a heat transfer evaluation of the refrigerants hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea) and 1,1,2,2-dichloro-tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114). (NOTE: With the mandatory phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), as dictated by the Montreal Protocol and Clean Air Act Ame...

  3. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236FA IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the shell-side heat transfer performance of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236fa, which is considered to be a potential substitute for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 in Navy shipboard chillers, for both conventional finned [1024- and 1575-fpm (...

  4. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, VISCOSITY, AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236FA WITH POTENTIAL LUBRICANTS

    The report gives results of miscibility, solubility, viscosity, and density measurements for refrigerant R-236fa and two potential lubricants . (The data are needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for use in refrigeration systems.) The tested oi...

  5. 49 CFR 236.5 - Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of control circuits on closed circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.5 Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle. All control circuits the functioning of which affects safety of train...

  6. 10 CFR 72.236 - Specific requirements for spent fuel storage cask approval and fabrication.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific requirements for spent fuel storage cask approval... REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.236 Specific requirements...

  7. CMS Control Room during early morning collisions at 2.36 TeV.

    Richard Breedon (CMS)

    2009-01-01

    CMS recorded around 15000 collisions at 2.36 TeV with the whole detector operational, including the inner silicon systems (strips and pixels). A relatively quiet control room was still witness to excitement during the first online event displays of the collisions.

  8. 49 CFR 236.314 - Electric lock for hand-operated switch or derail.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric lock for hand-operated switch or derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.314 Electric lock for hand-operated switch or derail. Electric lock shall be provided for each hand-operated switch or derail within interlocking limits,...

  9. 49 CFR 236.207 - Electric lock on hand-operated switch; control.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric lock on hand-operated switch; control..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.207 Electric lock on hand-operated switch; control. Electric lock on hand-operated switch shall be controlled so that it cannot be...

  10. A year-by-year record of 236-U/238-U in coral as a step towards establishing 236-U from nuclear weapons testing fall-out as oceanic tracer

    Since uranium is known to behave conservatively in ocean waters, 236-U has great potential in application as oceanic tracer. 236-U (t1/2=23.4 Ma) was introduced into the oceans by atmospheric nuclear weapon testing with amount estimates ranging from 700 kg to 1500 kg. Thus a resulting initial average 236-U/238-U ratio of at least 5e-9 is expected for an oceanic mixed layer depth of 100 m. This ratio is already higher than the natural pre-nuclear background, which is expected to be at 10e-14 levels. Even the elevated ratios of global stratospheric fall-out are beyond the capabilities of ICPMS and TIMS methods. However, the exceptional sensitivity and ultra-low background for 236-U of the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator's Accelerator Mass Spectrometry system allows us to measure down to 10-13 detection limits. We present a year-by-year record of 236-U/238-U for a Caribbean coral core covering years 1944 to 2006, thus allowing to us put constraints on the oceanic input of 236-U by atmospheric testing. Moreover modeling of the results also demonstrates the capabilities of 236-U as oceanic tracer.

  11. C-2-Aryl O-substituted HI-236 derivatives as non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase inhibitors

    Hunter, Roger; Younis, Yassir; Muhanji, Clare I; Curtin, Tanith-lea; Naidoo, Kevin J.; Petersen, Melissa; Bailey, Christopher M.; Basavapathruni, Aravind; Anderson, Karen S.

    2008-01-01

    Several novel thiourea derivatives of the NNRTI HI-236 substituted at the C-2 oxygen of the phenyl ring have been synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against HIV-1 (IIIB) replication in MT-2 cell cultures. The compounds were synthesized in order to fine-tune the activity of HI-236 as well as to gain insight into spatial characteristics in the pocket pertaining to the positional choice of tether in the design of [NRTI]-tether-[HI-236] bifunctional inhibitors. Two of the thi...

  12. Depth profile of 236U/238U in soil samples in La Palma, Canary Islands

    Srncik, M.; P. Steier; Wallner, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical distribution of the 236U/238U isotopic ratio was investigated in soil samples from three different locations on La Palma (one of the seven Canary Islands, Spain). Additionally the 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio, as it is a well establish tool for the source identification, was determined. The radiochemical procedure consisted of a U separation step by extraction chromatography using UTEVA® Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Inc.). Afterwards Pu was separated from Th and Np by anion exchange ...

  13. The SOFIA experiment: Measurement of 236U fission fragment yields in inverse kinematics

    Grente L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The SOFIA (Studies On FIssion with Aladin experiment aims at measuring fission-fragments isotopic yields with high accuracy using inverse kinematics at relativistic energies. This experimental technique allows to fully identify the fission fragments in nuclear charge and mass number, thus providing very accurate isotopic yields for low energy fission of a large variety of fissioning systems. This report focuses on the latest results obtained with this set-up concerning electromagnetic-induced fission of 236U.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas simiae Strain 2-36, an In Vitro Antagonist of Rhizoctonia solani and Gaeumannomyces graminis

    Adam, Zaky; Chen, Qing; Xu, Renlin; Diange, Adolf E.; Bromfield, Eden S. P.; Tambong, James Tabi

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas simiae 2-36, isolated from a field plot under long-term mineral fertilization, exhibited strong in vitro antagonistic activities against Rhizoctonia solani and Gaeumannomyces graminis. We report here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas simiae 2-36, consisting of 6.4 Mbp with a 60.25% G+C content and 5,790 predicted protein-coding sequences.

  15. 小儿热性惊厥236例临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 236 Cases With Febrile Convulsion

    薛慧敏; 卢宪梅; 李文

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨小儿热性惊厥(febrile convulsion,FC)的临床特点,为该病的防治提供依据.方法 回顾性分析2006年1月至2008年2月山东省济南市第三人民医院收治的236例小儿热性惊厥患儿的临床资料.结果 本组236例热性惊厥患儿经治疗后,未再次出现惊厥症状,其中86例惊厥难以完全控制患儿,给予地西泮+苯巴比妥钠联合治疗,疗效满意.患儿平均住院时间为5 d.出院后随访1年,复发为45例,其中复发1次为32例,2次以上为13例,共6例(2.5%)确诊为癫痫.结论 小儿热性惊厥的发作与高热密切相关,感染性疾病为主要基础疾病.对该病进行积极的综合治疗,预后一般较好.对于极少数有发展为癫痫的高危热性惊厥患儿,可采取适当干预措施,但不能随意对其长期预防性使用抗癫痫药物.

  16. Anthropogenic 236U at Rocky Flats, Ashtabula river harbor, and Mersey estuary: three case studies by sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    236U (t1/2=2.3x107 y) is formed as a result of thermal neutron capture by 235U. In naturally occurring U ores, where a high neutron flux is present from spontaneous fission of 238U, 236U/238U atom ratios are ∼10-4 ppm. In the natural Earth's crust, unaffected by nuclear fallout, these ratios are expected to be on the order of 10-8 ppm. Reactor-irradiated U, however, exhibits high 236U/238U atom ratios approaching 104 ppm. As a result, the presence of very small quantities of reactor-irradiated U will significantly enhance the 'background' 236U/238U atom ratio. When sufficiently elevated 236U/238U ratios are present, the determination of 236U/238U by rapid inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) methods is attractive. We have used sector ICPMS at medium resolving power (R=3440) to measure 236U/238U atom ratios with a determination limit of 0.2 ppm. The limiting factors in the measurement are the 235U1H+ isobar and background signal at m/z 236 arising from the 238U+ peak tail. Based upon the analysis of replicates and considerations of possible systematic errors, uncertainties of ±5% are found for 236U/238U atom ratios of 1-100 ppm. This procedure has been demonstrated in studies of anthropogenic 236U in the environment at three locations: (a) offsite soils from the vicinity of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology site (Golden, Colorado, USA); (b) sediments from the Ashtabula River (Ohio, USA); and (c) sediments from the Mersey estuary (Liverpool, UK). In each of these three locations, definite plumes of elevated 236U/238U are identified and characterized. Maximum 236U/238U atom ratios observed in RFETS-vicinity soils, the Ashtabula River, and the Mersey Estuary are 2.8, 140, and 4.4 ppm, respectively

  17. Fueling the central engine of radio galaxies. II. The footprints of AGN feedback on the ISM of 3C 236

    Labiano, A; Combes, F; Usero, A; Soria-Ruiz, R; Tremblay, G; Neri, R; Fuente, A; Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We study the emission of molecular gas in 3C236, a FR II radio source at z~0.1, and search for the footprints of AGN feedback. 3C236 shows signs of a reactivation of its AGN triggered by a recent minor merger episode. Observations have also previously identified an extreme HI outflow in this source. Methods: The IRAM PdBI has been used to study the distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in 3C236 by imaging with high spatial resolution the emission of the 12CO(2-1) line in the nucleus of the galaxy. We have searched for outflow signatures in the CO map. We have also derived the SFR in 3C236 using data available from the literature at UV, optical and IR wavelengths, to determine the star-formation efficiency of molecular gas. Results: The CO emission in 3C236 comes from a spatially resolved 2.6 kpc disk with a regular rotating pattern. Within the limits imposed by the sensitivity and velocity coverage of the CO data, we do not detect any outflow signatures in the cold molecular gas. The disk has a c...

  18. AMS measurements of global fallout U-236 and Pu in an ombrotrophic peat profile: evidence for their post depositional migration

    U-236, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Pu-242 were analysed in an ombrotrophic peat core representing the last 80 years of atmospheric deposition. The determination of these isotopes at femtogram and attogram levels was possible by using ultra-clean laboratory procedures and accelerator mass spectrometry. Since the Pu isotopic composition characteristic for global fallout, as well as anthropogenic U-236, were identified in peat samples pre-dating the period of atmospheric atom bomb testing, migration of Pu and U within the peat profile is clearly indicated. The vertical profile of the U-236/U-238 isotopic ratio represents the first observation of the U-236 bomb peak in a terrestrial environment. Comparing the abundances of the global fallout derived U-236 and Pu-239 along the peat core, the post depositional migration of plutonium exceeds that of uranium. These results highlight, for the first time, the mobility of Pu and U in a peat bog with implications for their migration in other acidic, organic rich environments.

  19. Detection of UH3+ and ThH3+ molecules and 236U background studies with low-energy AMS

    The performance of the TANDY AMS facility (0.6 MV) at ETH Zurich has been significantly improved for actinides with the installation of an additional 130° magnet on the high-energy side. The background originating from neighboring masses is reduced by three orders of magnitude in the new setup, leading to an abundance sensitivity of 10−10. This now allows 236U/238U measurements down to the 10−12 level. Systematic studies of the possible background for 236U3+ at the compact TANDY system show that actinide–hydride molecules in charge state 3+ do exist. (232Th1H)3+, (235U1H)3+ and (238U1H)3+ can cause a severe background at masses 233, 236, and 239, respectively. The existence of the (232Th1H)3+ molecule was verified unambiguously by analyzing its breakup. The actinide–hydride molecules can be destroyed efficiently using higher stripper pressures. At an ion energy of 1.2 MeV an overall efficiency of more than 10−4 can be achieved using a gas ionization detector. The high efficiency in combination with the low background opens the spectrum of possible applications to both anthropogenic (236U/238U = 10−7 to 10−9) and natural samples (236U/238U −10).

  20. Measurement of 236U on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA)

    In this paper we present the first comprehensive analysis of the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA, Seville, Spain) for 236U studies in environmental samples. In the last years, this radionuclide has become key in the AMS community, due to the very demanding 236U/238U abundance sensitivities required for general applications. As we demonstrate, the AMS system at the CNA is able to achieve sensitivity for the 236U/238U ratio of about 3 × 10−11 despite its compact design. The use of “239Pu”/238U ratio as a proxy for “236U”/235U background correction is proposed and tested with natural samples that were also studied on the 600 kV Tandy AMS system at the ETH Zürich. This correction is significant in the CNA case, due to the low mass resolving power of the low-energy spectrometer and to the lack of a third filter on the high-energy side. With the measurement of reference solutions supplied by the Institute for Reference Materials and Methods (IRMM-075), and reference natural matrixes provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-Soil-6, IAEA-375; 384; 386 and IAEA-RGU), we show that the 1 MV AMS system at the CNA can be routinely used for determinations of anthropogenic 236U at environmental levels

  1. Measurement of {sup 236}U on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA)

    Chamizo, E. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía), Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Christl, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto Stern Weg 5, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present the first comprehensive analysis of the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA, Seville, Spain) for {sup 236}U studies in environmental samples. In the last years, this radionuclide has become key in the AMS community, due to the very demanding {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U abundance sensitivities required for general applications. As we demonstrate, the AMS system at the CNA is able to achieve sensitivity for the {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratio of about 3 × 10{sup −11} despite its compact design. The use of “{sup 239}Pu”/{sup 238}U ratio as a proxy for “{sup 236}U”/{sup 235}U background correction is proposed and tested with natural samples that were also studied on the 600 kV Tandy AMS system at the ETH Zürich. This correction is significant in the CNA case, due to the low mass resolving power of the low-energy spectrometer and to the lack of a third filter on the high-energy side. With the measurement of reference solutions supplied by the Institute for Reference Materials and Methods (IRMM-075), and reference natural matrixes provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-Soil-6, IAEA-375; 384; 386 and IAEA-RGU), we show that the 1 MV AMS system at the CNA can be routinely used for determinations of anthropogenic {sup 236}U at environmental levels.

  2. AMS measurements of global fallout U-236 and Pu in an ombrotrophic peat profile: evidence for their post depositional migration

    Quinto, Francesca; Hrnecek, Erich; Krachler, Michael [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Shotyk, William [Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 839 General Services Building, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Steier, Peter; Winkler, Stephan; Golser, Robin [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    U-236, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Pu-242 were analysed in an ombrotrophic peat core representing the last 80 years of atmospheric deposition. The determination of these isotopes at femtogram and attogram levels was possible by using ultra-clean laboratory procedures and accelerator mass spectrometry. Since the Pu isotopic composition characteristic for global fallout, as well as anthropogenic U-236, were identified in peat samples pre-dating the period of atmospheric atom bomb testing, migration of Pu and U within the peat profile is clearly indicated. The vertical profile of the U-236/U-238 isotopic ratio represents the first observation of the U-236 bomb peak in a terrestrial environment. Comparing the abundances of the global fallout derived U-236 and Pu-239 along the peat core, the post depositional migration of plutonium exceeds that of uranium. These results highlight, for the first time, the mobility of Pu and U in a peat bog with implications for their migration in other acidic, organic rich environments.

  3. Charge transfer inefficiency in the pre- and post-irradiated Swept Charge Device CCD236

    This paper describes the mapping of spectral response of an e2v technologies Swept Charge Device (SCD) CCD236 pre and post irradiation with a 10 MeV equivalent proton fluence of 5.0 × 108 protons cm−2. The CCD236 is a large area (4.4 cm2) X-ray detector which will be used in India's Chandrayaan-2 Large Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) and China's Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). To enable the suppression of surface dark current, clocking is performed continuously resulting in a linear readout. As such the flat field illumination used to measure any change in spectral response over a conventional Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) is not possible. An alternative masking technique has been used to expose pinpoint regions of the device to Mn-Kα and Mn-Kβ X-rays, enabling a local map of spectral response to be built up over the device. This novel approach allows for an estimation of the Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI) of the device to be made by allowing the creation of a CTI scatter plot similar to that typically observed in conventional CCDs

  4. Evaluation of the US Army DT-236 battlefield personnel dosimetry system

    Performance characteristics of the US Army DT-236 battlefield personnel dosimetry system were evaluated using the Health Physics Research Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DT-236 dosimeter is designed to measure total (neutron plus gamma) radiation dose using a radiophotoluminescent (RPL) detector for gamma rays and a silicon diode for fast neutrons. Areas considered in this evaluation included preirradiation dose indication; accuracy and precision of total, gamma, and neutron dose measurements; fading; angular response; temperature dependence; and relative dosimeter response in air and on various body locations. Experimental results for a variety of radiation fields and dose levels indicate that the existing system overestimates total, neutron, and gamma radiation doses in air by about 20 to 60% relative to reference values. Associated measurement precisions were about +-5% of the means for doses above approximately 0.5 Gy. Fading characteristics, angular dependence, and temperature dependence of the RPL and diode systems were consistent with results expected based on detector characteristics and previous performance studies. Recommendations to improve existing reader performance and measurement accuracy are also presented

  5. In-beam spectroscopy of the Kπ = 0- bands in 230-236U

    The Kπ = 0- bands in even uranium nuclei were studied in the compound reactions 231Pa(p,2n)230U, 230,232Th(α,2n)232,234U and 236U(d,pn)236U. In-beam γ-rays were measured in coincidence with conversion-electrons, which were detected with an iron-free orange spectrometer. The negative-parity levels are observed up to intermediate spins (I-). In addition, the 1- and 3- levels in 230U were confirmed by a decay study with an isotope separated 230Pa source. For the heavier isotopes (A > or approx. 232) the properties of the Kπ = 0- bands (energies and γ-branchings) are consistent with a vibrational character of these bands. For 230U the Kπ = 0- band lies at rather low energy (E(1-) = 367 keV), and the level spacings within this band are very similar to those of the isotones 228Th and 226Ra, which might indicate the onset of a stable octupole deformation. (orig.)

  6. Position paper: Live load design criteria for Project W-236A Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the live loads applied to the underground storage tanks of the Multi Function Waste Tank Facility, and to provide the basis for Project W-236A live load criteria. Project 236A provides encompasses building a Weather Enclosure over the two underground storage tanks at the 200-West area. According to the Material Handling Study, the Groves AT 1100 crane used within the Weather Enclosure will have a gross vehicle weight of 66.5 tons. Therefore, a 100-ton concentrated live load is being used for the planning of the construction of the Weather Enclosure

  7. The regulatory effect of SC-236 (4-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pyrazol-1-l] benzenesulfonamide) on stem cell factor induced migration of mast cells

    SC-236 (4-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pyrazol-1-]benzenesulfonamide; C16H11ClF3N3O2S), is a highly selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor. Recently, there have been reports that SC-236 protects against cartilage damage in addition to reducing inflammation and pain in osteoarthritis. However, the mechanism involved in the inflammatory allergic reaction has not been examined. Mast cells accumulation can be related to inflammatory conditions, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of SC-236 on stem cell factor (SCF)-induced migration, morphological alteration, and cytokine production of rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). We observed that SCF significantly induced the migration and morphological alteration. The ability of SCF to enhance migration and morphological alteration was abolished by treatment with SC-236. In addition, production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production induced by SCF was significantly inhibited by treatment with SC-236. Previous work has demonstrated that SCF-induced migration and cytokine production of mast cells require p38 MAPK activation. We also showed that SC-236 suppresses the SCF-induced p38 MAPK activation in RPMCs. These data suggest that SC-236 inhibits migration and cytokine production through suppression of p38 MAPK activation. These results provided new insight into the pharmacological actions of SC-236 and its potential therapeutic role in the treatment of inflammatory allergic diseases

  8. 以R236fa为制冷剂的太阳能喷射制冷系统研究%STUDY OF SOLAR EJECTOR COOLING SYSTEM USING R236fa AS REFRIGERANT

    张博; 左计学; 钟福春; 吕金升

    2012-01-01

    With analysis on the solar ejector cooling system and comparison with the common refrigerants, a new refrigerant of R236fa to the solar ejector cooling system was suggested. The operation of the ejector cooling system was simulated with a mathematical model. In order to verify the theoretical simulation, an experimental study of the system using refrigerant R236fa, R141b and R123 was carried out with the evaporator temperature (5-10℃) , condenser temperature (30-36℃) and generator temperature (82-94℃). It was found that the optimum COP ( =0.413) of the ejector cooling system, the optimum COPsc ( =0.243) and cooling capacity ( =11.90kW) of the overall solar ejector cooling system could be obtained in the system using refrigerant R236fa.%对太阳能喷射制冷系统进行理论分析,并通过与常用工质的比较,提出以R236fa作为太阳能喷射制冷系统的制冷剂.建立计算模型,模拟以R236fa作为制冷剂太阳能喷射制冷系统的运行性能.结合理论分析,蒸发温度在5 ~ 10℃,冷凝温度在30~36℃,发生温度在82 ~ 94℃之间变化时,分别对以R236fa、R141b和R123为制冷剂的太阳能喷射制冷系统进行实验研究.结果表明,典型空调工况条件下,R236fa作为制冷剂的喷射制冷系统COP为0.413;太阳能喷射制冷系统的性能系数COPsc可达0.243,系统的制冷量为11.90kW.

  9. 49 CFR 236.1013 - PTC Development Plan and Notice of Product Intent content requirements and Type Approval.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PTC Development Plan and Notice of Product Intent... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1013 PTC Development Plan and Notice of Product Intent content requirements and Type Approval. (a) For a PTC system...

  10. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF A SEMI-HERMETIC COMPRESSOR WITH HFC-236EA AND CFC-114 AT CHILLER CONDITIONS

    The paper gives results of tests of both HFC-236ea and CFC-114 at a range of temperatures covering surface craft and submarine chiller conditions. vaporating temperatures ranged from 1.7 to 12.8 C, and condensing temperatures from 40.6 to 65.6 C, in order to develop a nine-point ...

  11. 49 CFR 236.1020 - Exclusion of track segments for implementation due to cessation of PIH materials service or...

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures and using the same methodology as required for safety and security route analysis under 49 CFR 172... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236... railroad shall also establish that the remaining risk arising from rail operations on the track...

  12. Evaluation of neutron-induced reactions on 236Pu for JENDL-3.3

    Cross sections and energy-angular distributions of emitted neutrons were evaluated for the neuron-incident reactions on 236Pu in the incident energy range of 10 eV to 20 MeV by using a statistical model combined with a coupled channel optical model. The calculated results were compiled to the latest evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.3 in the ENDF-6 format. The unresolved resonance region is assumed to be from 10 eV to 30 keV, and the averaged resonance parameters were obtained to reproduce the calculated cross sections. Maxwell temperature for fission neutron spectra were estimated from a systematics with a correction for prefission neutrons. (author)

  13. Determination of 236Np(n,f) cross-section using surrogate ratio method

    Surrogate strategy is widely used to determine (n,f) cross-sections. Hybrid ratio approach is used to get 236Np(n,f) cross-section for which there is no experimental data available beyond 7 MeV till date. 237Np and 239Pu are produced over the similar excitation energy range (20.4-25.4 MeV) using 235U(6Li,α)237Np and 235U(6Li,d)239Pu reactions respectively. The ground state Q values for these two reactions are 7.707 MeV and - 6.718 respectively. Hence 237Np and 239Pu can be populated at overlapping excitation energies in 6Li + 235U transfer reactions for bombarding energies around 44.4 MeV. Fission probabilities of these two compound nuclei are measured and the desired cross-sections are determined using the following formula based on Weisskopf-Ewing approximation. Measurements were carried out using 44.4 MeV 6Li beam (from BARC-TIFR Pelletron) and 1.6 mg/cm2 thick 235U target (with 4.5 mg/cm2 thick Ni-Cu backing). Four telescopes (ΔE-E) made of silicon surface barrier detectors, used to detect light charged particles, were kept 100 apart covering 700-1000. A large area silicon detector (with a solid angle ∼ 33 msr and an angular coverage of 1540- 1660) was used to detect fission fragments. Two monitor detectors were placed at forward angles. Results for 236Np(n,f) cross sections using the yields from the forward most telescope are shown. Contributions from Ni-Cu backing in inclusive counts have been subtracted out. The experimental results are consistent with the EMPIRE3.1 calculations

  14. Kalorimetrische Tieftemperaturdetektoren für niederenergetische (E 1 MeV/amu) Schwerionen und ihr erster Einsatz in der Beschleuniger-Massenspektrometrie zur Spurenanalyse von 236 U

    Kraft-Bermuth, Saskia

    2004-01-01

    Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden zum ersten Mal kalorimetrische Tieftemperatur-Detektoren in der Beschleuniger-Massenspektrometrie (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry AMS), einer Standard-Methode zur Bestimmung kleinster Isotopenverhältnisse, eingesetzt, um das Isotopenverhältnis von 236U zu 238U zu bestimmen. Das Uran-Isotop 236U entsteht in der Neutroneneinfang-Reaktion 235U(n,gamma)236U und kann daher als Monitor-Nuklid für Neutronenflüsse verwendet werden. Die Detektoren bestehen a...

  15. Angular distribution of fission fragments from 236U(d,pf)

    Complete text of publication follows. 236U is the only isotope in the actinide region in which transmission fission resonances observed and at the same time a superdeformed fission isomer is well-established. We have been investigating these transmission resonances for several years. The aim of our latest experiment was to measure the angular distribution of the fission fragments in order to determine the spin and K-values of the resonances and to improve the statistics compared to the previous experiment. An experiment was performed to study the fission resonances of 236U at the Munich Tandem Laboratory using 235U(d,p) reaction at 13 MeV. A 235U2O3 target was used with a thickness of 90 μg/cm2. The outgoing proton energy was determined by a Q3D magnetic spectrometer at an angle 139.4 deg. An energy resolution of ΔE = 5keV was achieved. Fission fragments were detected by two position sensitive avalanche detectors (PSAD) consisting of two wire planes corresponding to horizontal and vertical directions. Thus, the spatial positions of the fragments and their angular correlation with respect to the recoil axis could be determined. High resolution measurement of the angular distribution allowed us to determine the spin and K-values of the observed resonances individually. The angular correlation was parametrized with coefficients a2 and a4 of even Legendre polynomials. Fig. 1b) shows the a2 coefficient belonging to the different resonances. The a2 values are agree with the values of Ref. [4], which were used to determine the K-values in the data analysis of the previous experiment. The most interesting energy region is around 5.1 MeV, where hyperdeformed resonances were identified recently in contrast to the superdeformed interpretation published so far. The high-resolution excitation energy spectrum, which was deduced from the proton kinetic energy is shown in Fig. 1a). A combined analysis of the energy spectrum and the angular distribution confirms that the

  16. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions in the $^{234}$U(n,f) and $^{236}$U(n,f) reactions

    We propose to measure the fission fragment angular distribution (FFAD) of the $^{234}$U(n,f) and $^{236}$U (n,f) reactions with the PPAC detection setup used in previous n_TOF-14 experiment. This experiment would take advantage of the high resolution of the n_TOF facility to investigate the FFAD behaviour in the pronounced vibrational resonances that have been observed between 0.1 and 2 MeV for the thorium cycle isotopes. In addition, the angular distribution of these isotopes will be measured for the first time beyond 14 MeV. Furthermore, the experiment will also provide the fission cross section with reduced statistical uncertainty, extending the $^{236}$U(n,f) data up to 1 GeV

  17. The c.-237_236GA>TT THAP1 Sequence Variant Does Not Increase Risk for Primary Dystonia

    Xiao, Jianfeng; Zhao, Yu; Bastian, Robert W.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Racette, Brad A.; Tabbal, Samer D.; Karimi, Morvarid; Paniello, Randal C.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Uitti, Ryan J.; Van Gerpen, Jay A.; Simon, David K.; Tarsy, Daniel; Hedera, Peter; Truong, Daniel D.; Frei, Karen P.; Blitzer, Andrew; Rudzińska, Monika; Pfeiffer, Ronald F.; Le, Carrie; LeDoux, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Sequence variants in coding and non-coding regions of THAP1 have been associated with primary dystonia. In this study, 1446 Caucasian subjects with mainly adult-onset primary dystonia and 1520 controls were genotyped for a variant located in the 5’-untranslated region of THAP1 (c.-237_236GA>TT). Minor allele frequencies were 62/2892 (2.14%) and 55/3040 (1.81%) in subjects with dystonia and controls, respectively (P = 0.202). Subgroup analyses by gender and anatomical distribution also failed to attain statistical significance. In addition, there was no effect of the TT variant on expression levels of THAP1 transcript or protein. Our findings indicate that the c.-237_236GA>TT THAP1 sequence variant does not increase risk for adult-onset primary dystonia in Caucasians. PMID:21370264

  18. The energy dependence of the average number of prompt neutrons resulting from the neutron fission of U236

    The paper gives the numerical results of measurements of the average number of prompt neutrons per fission, #betta#-barsub(p), from neutron-induced fission of 236U in the 0.8 - 6.0 MeV range. An analysis of corrections and errors is given and a curve is recommended for #betta#-barsub(p) as a function of neutron energy. The estimated measurement accuracy is approximately 1%. (author)

  19. Efficacy and safety of the HAA regimen as induction chemotherapy in 236 de novo acute myeloid leukemia

    叶佩佩

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the HAA regimen (homoharringtonine,cytarabine and aclarubicin) as induction chemotherapy in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) .Methods The efficacy and safety of 236 de novo AML patients who received the HAA regimen as induction chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed.The complete remission (CR) rate was assayed.Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival (OS) and relapse free survival (RFS) ,and the differ-

  20. He stripping for AMS of 236U and other actinides using a 3 MV tandem accelerator

    Winkler, Stephan R.; Steier, Peter; Buchriegler, Josef; Lachner, Johannes; Pitters, Johanna; Priller, Alfred; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Interest in the long-lived radioisotope 236U (t1/2 = 23.4 million years) has significantly increased recently, due to the emergence of environmental and earth science applications. Presently, only a few (AMS) accelerator mass spectrometry instruments are suited for this measurement. One major limitation is the relatively low total detection efficiency (on the order of 10-4), which is partly caused by a low stripping yield of the positive ion charge state selected after the tandem accelerator. It has been shown that high yield can be achieved using helium as stripper gas for uranium ion energies below 0.35 MeV. Here we investigate the potential of He stripping of U at the 3-MV tandem accelerator VERA. Phenomenological charge state distributions for U and Th are presented for terminal voltages from 1.0 to 1.7 MV. These terminal voltages provide better background rejection than possible below 1 MeV, and are suited to the widely used 1-3 MV workhorses of many accelerator mass spectrometry laboratories. The methods can be applied to other actinides also.

  1. Tank 241-TX-118, core 236 analytical results for the final report

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for tank 241-TX-118 push mode core segments collected between April 1, 1998 and April 13, 1998. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-TX-118 Push Mode Core sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Benar, 1997), the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995), the Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Organic Complexant Safety Issue (Organic DQO) (Turner, et al, 1995) and the Historical Model Evaluation Data Requirements (Historical DQO) (Sipson, et al., 1995). The analytical results are included in the data summary table (Table 1). None of the samples submitted for Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) exceeded notification limits as stated in the TSAP (Benar, 1997). One sample exceeded the Total Alpha Activity (AT) analysis notification limit of 38.4microCi/g (based on a bulk density of 1.6), core 236 segment 1 lower half solids (S98T001524). Appropriate notifications were made. Plutonium 239/240 analysis was requested as a secondary analysis. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding (Schreiber, 1997) and are not considered in this report

  2. Functions and requirements for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module: Revision 1

    Hanford Site tank waste supernatants will be pretreated to separate the low-level and high-level fractions. The low-level waste fraction, containing the bulk of the chemical constituents, must be processed into a vitrified waste product which will be disposed of onsite, in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost effective manner. The high-level waste fraction separated during supernatant pretreatment (primarily cesium) will be recombined with an additional high-level waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-level waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository. The purpose of this document is to establish the functional requirements baseline for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module, by defining the level 5 and 6 functions and requirements for the project. A functional analysis approach has been used to break down the program functions and associated physical requirements that each function must meet. As the systems engineering process evolves, the design requirements document will replace this preliminary functions and requirements document. The design requirements document (DRD) will identify key decisions and associated uncertainties that impact the project. A revision of this document to a DRD is not expected to change the performance requirements or open issues. However, additional requirements and issues may be identified

  3. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer. PMID:26141189

  4. Depth distributions of uranium-236 and cesium-137 in the Japan/East Sea; toward the potential use as a new oceanic circulation tracer

    Sakaguchi, A.; Kadokura, A.; Steier, P.; Takahashi, Y.; Shizuma, K.; Yamamoto, M.

    2012-04-01

    137Cs (T1/2=30.2 y) has been spread all over the world as a fission product of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 1960s. This nuclide has been used as a powerful tool for oceanography due to the well-defined origin and conservative behaviour in water . However, the number of atoms has decayed already to one thirds compared with its initial levels, and it will become more difficult to measure. In this situation, we focus on 236U (T1/2=2.342-107 y) as a candidate for a new isotopic tracer for oceanography. The detection of 236U in the environment has become possible only recently, by the development of measuring techniques with high sensitivity based on AMS. Our group showed that global fallout from bomb tests contains 236U, which might be produced as nuclear reactions of 235U(n,γ) and/or 238U(n,3n). So 236U has been therefore globally distributed in the surface environment. Thus, 236U has a similar potential as a tracer for environmental dynamics as 137Cs, especially for oceanography. In this study, a comprehensive attempt was made to measure the concentration of 236U in marine samples such as water, suspended solid and bottom sediments to clarify the environmental behaviour of this isotope. Furthermore, the discussion of the circulation of deep and bottom water in "Miniature Ocean", the Japan Sea, has been attempted. Bottom sediments (4 sites) and seawater samples (7 sites) were collected from the Japan Sea. The sediment core was cut into 1 cm segments from the surface to 5 cm in depth within a few hours after the sampling. About 20 L of seawater samples were collected from some depths in each site, and immediately after the sampling, the water was filtered with 0.45 μm pore-size membrane-filters. After the appropriate pre-treatment for each sample, uranium isotope and 137Cs were measured with AMS and Ge-detector, respectively. 236U was successfully detected for all seawater samples, and 236U/238U atom ratios in seawater were in the range of (0

  5. The c.-237_236GA>TT THAP1 Sequence Variant Does Not Increase Risk for Primary Dystonia

    Xiao, Jianfeng; Zhao, Yu; Robert W. Bastian; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Racette, Brad A.; Tabbal, Samer D.; Karimi, Morvarid; Paniello, Randal C.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Uitti, Ryan J; Van Gerpen, Jay A; Simon, David K; Tarsy, Daniel; Hedera, Peter; Truong, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    Sequence variants in coding and non-coding regions of THAP1 have been associated with primary dystonia. In this study, 1446 Caucasian subjects with mainly adult-onset primary dystonia and 1520 controls were genotyped for a variant located in the 5’-untranslated region of THAP1 (c.-237_236GA>TT). Minor allele frequencies were 62/2892 (2.14%) and 55/3040 (1.81%) in subjects with dystonia and controls, respectively (P = 0.202). Subgroup analyses by gender and anatomical distribution also failed ...

  6. Determination of 236Np(n,f) and 238Pu(n,f) cross-sections using surrogate reactions

    Cross sectional data for 236Np(n,f) reaction is not available for neutron energies beyond 4.32 MeV. In this work, we have determined the cross-section of the above reaction for the neutron energy range En=10-18 MeV using ‘Hybrid Surrogate Ratio’ method via 235U(6Li, α)237Np and 235U(6Li,d)239Pu reactions. The cross-sections for 238Pu(n,f) reaction available in literature have been used as a reference for the above surrogate method

  7. The most compact scission configuration of fragments from low energy fission of 234U and 236U

    Using a time of flight technique, the maximal values of the kinetic energy as a function of the primary mass of fragments from low energy fission of 234U and 236U were measured by Signarbieux et al. From calculations of scission configurations, one can conclude that, for those two fissioning systems, the maximal values of the total kinetic energy corresponding to fragmentations (42Mo62, 50Sn80) and (42Mo64, 50Sn80) respectively, are equal to the available energy, and that their scission configurations are composed of a spherical heavy fragment and a prolate light fragment, both in their ground state. (author).

  8. Measurement of the U-236(n, f) cross section in the neutron energy range from 0.5 eV up to 25 keV

    Wagemans, Cyrillus; De Smet, Liesbeth; Vermote, Sofie; Heyse, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The U-236(n,f) cross section has been measured in the energy range from 0.5 eV to 25 keV at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator neutron time-of-flight facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements in Geel, Belgium. A highly enriched U-236 sample was mounted back-to-back with a B-10 sample in the center of a Frisch-gridded ionization chamber, hence realizing a 2 pi detection geometry. A U-235(n,f) cross-section control measurement was performed in the same experimental co...

  9. Deep-UV 236.5 nm laser by fourth-harmonic generation of a single-crystal fiber Nd:YAG oscillator

    Deyra, Loïc; Martial, Igor; Didierjean, Julien; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    International audience We demonstrate a deep-UV laser at 236.5 nm based on extracavity fourth-harmonic generation of a Q-switched Nd: YAG single-crystal fiber laser at 946 nm. We first compare two nonlinear crystals available for second-harmonic generation: LBO and BiBO. The best results at 473 nm are obtained with a BiBO crystal, with an average output power of 3.4 W at 20 kHz, corresponding to a second-harmonic generation efficiency of 38%. This blue laser is frequency-converted to 236.5...

  10. Observation of the Therapeutic Effect of Perindopril on 236 Cases of Acute Myocardial Infarction%培哚普利治疗急性心肌梗塞236例的效果观察

    黄震华; 朱雅琴; 朱文敏; 许左隽; 顾燕

    2002-01-01

    目的:观察培哚普利治疗急性心肌梗塞的疗效.方法:治疗组患者入院后给予口服培哚普利4mg,qd,连用4wk.结果:治疗组236例患者中33例死亡,占1398%;未用培哚普利的对照组160例患者中55例死亡,占3438%(X2=22.94,P<0.01);培哚普利尚有改善左室射血分数、小轴缩短率,减少左室内径的作用.结论:培哚普利对治疗急性心肌梗塞有利.

  11. 20 CFR 1002.236 - How is the employee's rate of pay determined when he or she returns from a period of service?

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the employee's rate of pay determined... and Benefits Rate of Pay § 1002.236 How is the employee's rate of pay determined when he or she returns from a period of service? The employee's rate of pay is determined by applying the same...

  12. Lightcurves and Derived Rotation Periods for 18 Melpomene, 234 Barbara 236 Honoria, 520 Franziska, and 525 Adelaide

    Pilcher, Frederick

    2014-07-01

    From new lightcurves obtained near their 2014 oppositions rotation periods and amplitudes are found for 18 Melpomene 11.571 ± 0.002 hours, 0.16 ± 0.02 magnitudes; 234 Barbara 26.473 ± 0.002 hours, amplitude 0.16 ± 0.02 magnitudes; 236 Honoria 12.336 ± 0.001 hours, 0.23 ± 0.02 magnitudes; 520 Franziska 16.507 ± 0.001 hours, 0.35 ± 0.02 magnitudes; and 525 Adelaide 19.967 ± 0.001 hours, amplitude 0.35 ± 0.03 magnitudes near celestial longitude 180 degrees and 0.02 ± 0.01 magnitudes at celestial longitude 57 degrees, latitude -4 degrees. The amplitude - aspect method strongly suggests the latter position lies within a few degrees of one of the two rotational poles.

  13. Angular correlation between the heavy fragments and the light charged particles in tripartition of 236U and 252Cf

    The energy distributions and relative intensities of protons, deuterons, tritons and alpha-particles emitted along the fission axis during thermal neutron fission of 236U are measured simultaneously with the energies of the two fission fragments. The mass distributions of the fragments, the total kinetic energy (TKE), the dependence of the mean TKE on the fragment mass, as well as the mean kinetic energy dependence of polar particles on the fragment mass and energy are deduced from these data. Although some experimental results agree remarkably well with the hypothesis that polar particles are evaporated in-flight from fission fragments, the general conclusion is that these particles are emitted according to some other mechanism

  14. Detection of UH{sup 3+} and ThH{sup 3+} molecules and {sup 236}U background studies with low-energy AMS

    Lachner, Johannes, E-mail: lachner@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof; Synal, Hans-Arno [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    The performance of the TANDY AMS facility (0.6 MV) at ETH Zurich has been significantly improved for actinides with the installation of an additional 130 Degree-Sign magnet on the high-energy side. The background originating from neighboring masses is reduced by three orders of magnitude in the new setup, leading to an abundance sensitivity of 10{sup -10}. This now allows {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U measurements down to the 10{sup -12} level. Systematic studies of the possible background for {sup 236}U{sup 3+} at the compact TANDY system show that actinide-hydride molecules in charge state 3+ do exist. ({sup 232}Th{sup 1}H){sup 3+}, ({sup 235}U{sup 1}H){sup 3+} and ({sup 238}U{sup 1}H){sup 3+} can cause a severe background at masses 233, 236, and 239, respectively. The existence of the ({sup 232}Th{sup 1}H){sup 3+} molecule was verified unambiguously by analyzing its breakup. The actinide-hydride molecules can be destroyed efficiently using higher stripper pressures. At an ion energy of 1.2 MeV an overall efficiency of more than 10{sup -4} can be achieved using a gas ionization detector. The high efficiency in combination with the low background opens the spectrum of possible applications to both anthropogenic ({sup 236}U/{sup 238}U = 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -9}) and natural samples ({sup 236}U/{sup 238}U < 10{sup -10}).

  15. 特克斯河流域近236a降水变化及其趋势预测%Variation and Prediction Trend of Precipitation Series for the Tekes River Basin during the Last 236 Years

    陈峰; 袁玉江; 魏文寿; 喻树龙; 范子昂; 张瑞波; 张同文; 尚华明

    2010-01-01

    根据2006年采自特克斯河流域6个采样点的树轮样本研制的树轮宽度年表与气象资料,通过相关普查发现,特克斯河流域树轮标准化年表与上年7月至当年6月的降水存在显著的正相关,最高单相关系数为0.727.用库尔克尔也灭,小白代的树轮宽度标准化年表序列,可较好地重建该地区最近236 a的降水序列,方差解释量达54%,并通过交叉检验表明重建结果是稳定可靠的.近236 a,特克斯河流域上年7月至当年6月降水经历了8个偏湿阶段和8个偏干阶段,同时重建降水序列具有10.3 a、7.5 a、6.0 a、3.0 a、2.1 a的变化准周期,并在1790年,1911年,1929年,1974年发生过降水突变.采用毛毛虫-奇异谱分析法(Caterpillar-ssa)对该地区未来20 a的降水的自然变化进行预测.结果表明,21世纪的最初几年降水量将延续20世纪90年代以来增加的趋势,之后出现下降,并在2013~2016年前后最低值出现.

  16. Determination of 236U and transuranium elements in depleted uranium ammunition by α-spectrometry and ICP-MS

    It is well known that ammunition containing depleted uranium (DU) was used by NATO during the Balkan conflict. To evaluate the origin of DU (the enrichment of natural uranium or the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel) it is necessary to directly detect the presence of activation products (236U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am, and 237Np) in the ammunition. In this work the analysis of actinides by α-spectrometry was compared with that by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after selective separation of ultratraces of transuranium elements from the uranium matrix. 242Pu and 243Am were added to calculate the chemical yield. Plutonium was separated from uranium by extraction chromatography, using tri-n-octylamine (TNOA), with a decontamination factor higher than 106; after elution plutonium was determined by ICP-MS (239Pu and 240Pu) and α-spectrometry (239+240Pu) after electroplating. The concentration of Pu in two DU penetrator samples was 7 x 10-12 g g-1 and 2 x 10-11 g g-1. The 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio in one penetrator sample (0.12±0.04) was significantly lower than the 240Pu/239Pu ratios found in two soil samples from Kosovo (0.35±0.10 and 0.27±0.07). 241Am was separated by extraction chromatography, using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), with a decontamination factor as high as 107. The concentration of 241Am in the penetrator samples was 2.7 x 10-14 g g-1 and -15 g g-1. In addition 237Np was detected at ultratrace levels. In general, ICP-MS and α-spectrometry results were in good agreement.The presence of anthropogenic radionuclides (236U, 239Pu,240Pu, 241Am, and 237Np) in the penetrators indicates that at least part of the uranium originated from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Because the concentrations of radionuclides are very low, their radiotoxicological effect is negligible. (orig.)

  17. Sequential Injection Method for Rapid and Simultaneous Determination of 236U, 237Np, and Pu Isotopes in Seawater

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    target analytes, whereupon plutonium and neptunium were simultaneously isolated and purified on TEVA, while uranium was collected on UTEVA. The separation behavior of U, Np, and Pu on TEVA–UTEVA columns was investigated in detail in order to achieve high chemical yields and complete purification...... for the radionuclides of interest. 242Pu was used as a chemical yield tracer for both plutonium and neptunium. 238U was quantified in the sample before the separation for deducing the 236U concentration from the measured 236U/238U atomic ratio in the separated uranium target using accelerator mass spectrometry....... Plutonium isotopes and 237Np were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after separation. The analytical results indicate that the developed method is robust and efficient, providing satisfactory chemical yields (70–100%) of target analytes and relatively short analytical time (8 h/sample)....

  18. Biological, chemical and other data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN236 in the South Pacific Ocean from 2009-06-12 to 2009-07-08 (NODC Accession 0104353)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104353 includes biological, chemical, optical, physical and underway data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN236 in the South...

  19. Numerical methods to analyze alpha spectra and application to the study of neptunium 237 and neptunium 236

    A set of numerical methods to analize alpha spectra measured with semiconductor detectors are presented. The methods can be divided in two groups, the first being based in the X2 minimization ands the second in the use of the Fourier Transform. The methods based in the minimization of X2 can, in turn, be divided according to the model used to fit the spectra. Some of them use a monoenergetic line for the intercomparison with the other peaks in the same spectrum. The others take into account the analytical function developed to represent an alpha line. Both allow the determination of positions and areas of the components, as well as the uncertainties of the results. The Fast Fourier Transform is applied to the second group of methods, which include the smoothing of experimental data, and the deconvolution of spectra. Examples are given of the application of these methods to real spectra. The alpha spectra of 237Np and 236Np are studied by using some of the methods described in this work. (Author)

  20. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234 , 236 , 238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    Ullmann, J. L.; Krticka, M.; Kawano, T.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.

    2015-10-01

    Calculations of the neutron-capture cross section at low neutron energies (10 eV through 100's of keV) are very sensitive to the nuclear level density and radiative strength function. These quantities are often poorly known, especially for radioactive targets, and actual measurements of the capture cross section are usually required. An additional constraint on the calculation of the capture cross section is provided by measurements of the cascade gamma spectrum following neutron capture. Recent measurements of 234 , 236 , 238U(n, γ) emission spectra made using the DANCE 4 π BaF2 array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will be presented. Calculations of gamma-ray spectra made using the DICEBOX code and of the capture cross section made using the CoH3 code will also be presented. These techniques may be also useful for calculations of more unstable nuclides. This work was performed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396) and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734).

  1. Determination of plutonium isotopes in urine samples from radiation workers using 236Pu tracer, anion exchange resin and alpha spectrometry

    Bioassay technique is used for the estimation of actinides present in the body based on their excretion rate through body fluids. For occupational radiation workers urine assay is the preferred method for monitoring of chronic internal exposure. Determination of low concentrations of actinides such as plutonium, americium and uranium at low level of mBq in urine by alpha spectrometry requires pre-concentration of large volumes of urine. This paper deals with standardization of analytical method for the determination of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using anion exchange resin and 236Pu tracer for radiochemical recovery. The method involves oxidation of urine followed by co-precipitation of plutonium along with calcium phosphate. Separation of Pu was carried out by Amberlite, IRA-400, anion exchange resin. Pu-fraction was electrodeposited and activity estimated using tracer recovery by alpha spectrometer. Twenty routine urine samples of radiation workers were analyzed and consistent radiochemical tracer recovery was obtained in the range 74-96% with a mean and standard deviation of 85 and 6% respectively. (author)

  2. Molecular Hydrogen in the Damped Lyman-alpha System towards GRB 120815A at z=2.36

    Krühler, T; Fynbo, J P U; Vreeswijk, P M; Schmidl, S; Malesani, D; Christensen, L; De Cia, A; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Kann, D A; Kaper, L; Vergani, S D; Afonso, P M J; Covino, S; Postigo, A de Ugarte; D'Elia, V; Filgas, R; Goldoni, P; Greiner, J; Hartoog, O E; Milvang-Jensen, B; Nardini, M; Piranomonte, S; Rossi, A; Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Schady, P; Schulze, S; Sudilovsky, V; Tanvir, N R; Tagliaferri, G; Watson, D J; Wiersema, K; Wijers, R A M J; Xu, D

    2013-01-01

    [Abridged] Molecular hydrogen H_2 is a key requirement for star-formation, frequently observed along sightlines in the Galaxy and to the Magellanic Clouds, but notoriously hard to detect directly beyond z ~ 0. In the DLAs associated with long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are tightly linked to vigorous star-formation, H_2 has remained largely elusive, and has been unequivocally detected only towards GRB 080607 and possibly towards GRB 060206. Here, we present the discovery of H_2-rich gas, including the presence of vibrationally-excited H_2^* in the optical spectrum of the afterglow of GRB 120815A at z=2.36 obtained with X-shooter at the VLT. The galactic environment of GRB 120815A is characterized by a strong DLA with log(N(H)/cm^-2) = 21.95 +/- 0.10, prominent H_2 absorption in the Lyman-Werner bands (log(N(H_2)/cm^-2) = 20.53 +/- 0.04) and thus a molecular gas fraction log f(H_2)=-1.14 +/- 0.10. The distance d between the absorbing neutral gas and GRB 120815A is constrained via photo-excitation modeling o...

  3. A 233U/236U/242Pu/244Pu spike for isotopic and isotope dilution analysis by mass spectrometry with internal calibration

    The Khlopin Radium Institute prepared on behalf of the IAEA a synthetic mixture of 233U, 236U, 242Pu and 244Pu isotopes. The isotopic composition and elemental concentration of uranium and plutonium were certified on the basis of analyses done by four laboratories of the IAEA Network, using mass spectrometry with internal standardization. The certified values for 233U/236U ratio and the 236U chemical concentration have a coefficient of variation of 0.05%. The latter is fixed by the uncertainty in the 235U/238U ratio of NBS500 used as internal standard. The coefficients of variation of the 244Pu/242Pu ratio and the 242Pu chemical concentration are respectively 0.10% and 0.16% and limited by the uncertainty in the 240Pu/239Pu ratio of NBS947. This four isotope mixture was used as an internal standard as well as a spike, to analyze 30 batches of LWR spent fuel solutions. The repeatability of the mass spectrometric measurements have a coefficient of variation of 0.025% for the uranium concentration, and of 0.039% for the plutonium concentration. The spiking and treatment errors had a coefficient of variation of 0.048%. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Transverse momentum and pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9 and 2.36 TeV

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Hashemi, Majid; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Chabert, Eric Christian; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Elgammal, Sherif; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Jingying; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Herquet, Philippe; Alves, Gilvan; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Oguri, Vitor; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Damgov, Jordan; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Hu, Zhen; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhu, Bo; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Fereos, Reginos; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Papadakis, Antonakis; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Zinonos, Zinonas; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Descamps, Julien; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Rousseau, Delphine; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Paganini, Pascal; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Speck, Joaquim; Van Hove, Pierre; Baty, Clement; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Actis, Oxana; Bender, Walter; Biallass, Philipp; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Kirsch, Matthias; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sowa, Michael; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Zeidler, Clemens; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrens, Ulf; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Wissing, Christoph; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Autermann, Christian; Draeger, Jula; Eckstein, Doris; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Sander, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Bauer, Julia; Blüm, Peter; Buege, Volker; Cakir, Altan; Chwalek, Thorsten; Daeuwel, Daniel; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Frey, Martin; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Renz, Manuel; Sabellek, Andreas; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Karafasoulis, Konstantinos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Petrakou, Eleni; Zachariadou, Aikaterini; Agapitos, Antonis; Gouskos, Loukas; Katsas, Panagiotis; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saganis, Konstantinos; Xaxiris, Evangelos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Kapusi, Anita; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Sharma, Richa; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Suggisetti, Praveenkumar; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Nayak, Aruna; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Moshaii, Ahmad; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fedele, Francesca; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Capiluppi, Paolo; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Landi, Gregorio; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Lanaro, Armando; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; De Guio, Federico; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Menasce, Dario; Miccio, Vincenzo; Moroni, Luigi; Negri, Pietro; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pullia, Antonino; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Salerno, Roberto; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Taroni, Silvia; Cimmino, Anna; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Lomidze, David; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Biasotto, Massimo; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gulmini, Michele; Lacaprara, Stefano; Maron, Gaetano; Mattiazzo, Serena; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Passaseo, Marina; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Pagano, Davide; Ratti, Sergio P.; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Bocci, Andrea; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Dutta, Suchandra; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Gennai, Simone; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; Costa, Marco; Dellacasa, Giulio; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Penzo, Aldo; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jung, Seung Yong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Sim, Kwang Souk; Kim, Jangho; Choi, Minkyoo; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Suyong; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Jo, Youngkwon; Kwon, Jeongteak; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Aumeyr, Thomas; Butler, Philip H.; Signal, Tony; Williams, Jennifer C.; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Altsybeev, Igor; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Obrant, Gennady; Shcheglov, Yury; Shchetkovskiy, Alexander; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Ilina, Natalia; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Oulianov, Alexei; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Vardanyan, Irina; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Konovalova, Nina; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Datsko, Kirill; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Sytine, Alexandre; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Maletic, Dimitrije; Puzovic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Diaz Merino, Irma; Diez Gonzalez, Carlos; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Beaudette, Florian; Beccati, Barbara; Bellan, Riccardo; Benedetti, Daniele; Benelli, Gabriele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bolognesi, Sara; Bona, Marcella; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cattai, Ariella; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Covarelli, Roberto; Curé, Benoît; Dahms, Torsten; De Roeck, Albert; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Gutleber, Johannes; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Holzner, André; Honma, Alan; Huhtinen, Mika; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meridiani, Paolo; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mulders, Martijn; Noy, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ryjov, Vladimir; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schlatter, Wolf-Dieter; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Traczyk, Piotr; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zanetti, Marco; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Betev, Botjo; Caminada, Lea; Casella, Maria Chiara; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dambach, Sarah; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eggel, Christina; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Schinzel, Dietrich; Sordini, Viola; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Trüb, Peter; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Tsirigkas, Dimitrios; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, E Augustine; Chen, Wan-Ting; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Wu, Jing-Han; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lin, Sheng-Wen; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Ueno, Koji; Wang, Chin-chi; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Ayhan, Aydin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Demir, Zahide; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gurpinar, Emine; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kurt, Pelin; Önengüt, Gülsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatöz, Ayse; Sahin, Ozge; Sengul, Ozden; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Hansen, Maria; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Hill, Christopher; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Mackay, Catherine Kirsty; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Foudas, Costas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; MacEvoy, Barry C.; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Bose, Tulika; Clough, Andrew; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Andrea, Jeremy; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Esen, Selda; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Wallny, Rainer; Babb, John; Chandra, Avdhesh; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Norman, Matthew; Padhi, Sanjay; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Blume, Michael; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Garberson, Jeffrey; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lamb, James; Lowette, Steven; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Witherell, Michael; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Gataullin, Marat; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Blekman, Freya; Cassel, David; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Binkley, Morris; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lueking, Lee; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Smith, Richard P.; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prescott, Craig; Rapsevicius, Valdas; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Chen, Jie; Dharmaratna, Welathantri G.D.; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatian, Samvel; Mironov, Camelia; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Smoron, Agata; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Chung, Kwangzoo; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bandurin, Dmitry; Barfuss, Anne-fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Kunori, Shuichi; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; D'Enterria, David; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Petyt, David; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Sonnek, Peter; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Strang, Michael; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; McCauley, Thomas; Musienko, Yuri; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Taylor, Lucas; Wood, Darien; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Killewald, Phillip; Ling, Ta-Yung; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatzerklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, Karolos; Sedov, Alexey; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Matveev, Mikhail; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Gershtein, Yuri; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Jeong, Chiyoung; Lee, Sung Won; Popescu, Sorina; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Johns, Willard; Sheldon, Paul; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Gunthoti, Kranti; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Mattson, Mark; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Flood, Kevin; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Polese, Giovanni; Reeder, Don; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of inclusive charged-hadron transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions are presented for proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 0.9 and 2.36 TeV. The data were collected with the CMS detector during the LHC commissioning in December 2009. For non-single-diffractive interactions, the average charged-hadron transverse momentum is measured to be 0.46 +/- 0.01 (stat.) +/- 0.01 (syst.) GeV/c at 0.9 TeV and 0.50 +/- 0.01 (stat.) +/- 0.01 (syst.) GeV/c at 2.36 TeV, for pseudorapidities between -2.4 and +2.4. At these energies, the measured pseudorapidity densities in the central region, dN(charged)/d(eta) for |eta| < 0.5, are 3.48 +/- 0.02 (stat.) +/- 0.13 (syst.) and 4.47 +/- 0.04 (stat.) +/- 0.16 (syst.), respectively. The results at 0.9 TeV are in agreement with previous measurements and confirm the expectation of near equal hadron production in p-pbar and pp collisions. The results at 2.36 TeV represent the highest-energy measurements at a particle collider to date.

  5. Detection of RtN236T Mutation Associated with Adefovir Dipivoxil Resistance in Hepatitis B Infected Patients with YMDD Mutations in Tehran

    Seyed Hamid Reza Monavari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Objectives: The risk of adefovir dipivoxil resistance emergence has increased in lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B infected patients. The mutations known as causing adefovir resistance, rtN236T and rtA181V/T, are detected within the D and B functional domain of the HBV polymerase, respectively. In this study, we intended to determine the pre-existing adefovir-resistance mutations in patients infected with LAM resistant mutants prior to starting adefovir therapy.Material and Methods: The study included 30 patients with chronic hepatitis B with lamivudine resistance mutations in the YMDD motif that experienced viral breakthrough.Results: After alignment of protein coding sequences, the rtN236T mutation was observed in two (6.6 % patients, while twenty-eight others had neither rtN236T, nor rtA181V/T mutation. All 30 patients were infected with genotype D of hepatitis B virus.Conclusions: The early detection of LAM-resistance mutations may allow a timely chance of therapy to avoid hepatitis flare-up. This data suggests that monitoring of ADV-resistance mutations in ADV naive patients can be considered in selecting the appropriate anti-viral regimen.

  6. Deep-UV 236.5  nm laser by fourth-harmonic generation of a single-crystal fiber Nd:YAG oscillator.

    Deyra, Loïc; Martial, Igor; Didierjean, Julien; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick

    2014-04-15

    We demonstrate a deep-UV laser at 236.5 nm based on extracavity fourth-harmonic generation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG single-crystal fiber laser at 946 nm. We first compare two nonlinear crystals available for second-harmonic generation: LBO and BiBO. The best results at 473 nm are obtained with a BiBO crystal, with an average output power of 3.4 W at 20 kHz, corresponding to a second-harmonic generation efficiency of 38%. This blue laser is frequency-converted to 236.5 nm in a BBO crystal with an overall fourth-harmonic generation yield of 6.5%, corresponding to an average output power of 600 mW at 20 kHz. This represents an order of magnitude increase in average power and energy compared to previously reported pulsed lasers at 236.5 nm. This work opens the possibility of LIDAR detection of dangerous compounds for military or civilian applications. PMID:24978960

  7. Stopping of 236 keV - 3.019 MeV protons in mylar and polypropylene films

    Damache, S.; Ouichaoui, S.; Belhout, A.; Medouni, A.; Toumert, I.

    2004-10-01

    The stopping powers of polypropylene and mylar polymers for protons have been accurately measured over the energy intervals Ep=(0.352-3.009) MeV and Ep=(0.236-3.019) MeV, respectively. Ab initio calculations using the Sigmund-Schinner binary collision theory for electronic stopping yielded S( E) values fairly consistent with the measured data that show no noticeable deviations from the Bragg-Kleeman additivity rule. The data have also been analyzed in the framework of the modified Bethe-Bloch theory assuming additivity. Values of the mean excitation and ionization potential, I, and of the Barkas parameter, b, have been deduced for the two polymers and for their (C, O) atomic constituents by adopting values of these parameters recommended in the ICRU-49 report for the H element. Thus, the respective I-values {(56.90 ± 0.72) eV, (79.92 ± 1.30) eV} for the two polymers and the same b-value 1.39 for their (C, O) atomic constituents have been determined by adopting for H the value b=1.8, while the I-values {(81.73 ± 1.38) eV, (109.46 ± 6.55) eV} have been deduced for the (C, O) constituents by adopting for H the value I=19.2 eV. Priorily, the shell, Barkas and Bloch corrections to the calculated S( E) values have been evaluated for both polymers over the explored respective energy ranges. The obtained results are discussed in comparison with previous ones when reported in the literature to our knowledge.

  8. Accurate measurements of fission-fragment yields in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f) with the SOFIA set-up

    Chatillon, A.; Taïeb, J.; Martin, J.-F.; Pellereau, E.; Boutoux, G.; Gorbinet, T.; Grente, L.; Bélier, G.; Laurent, B.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamaño, M.; Audouin, L.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Farget, F.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Heinz, A.; Jurado, B.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Lindberg, S.; Löher, B.; Nociforo, C.; Paradela, C.; Pietri, S.; Ramos, D.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.-L.; Rodrìguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Simon, H.; Tassan-Got, L.; Törnqvist, H.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Yan, Y.

    2016-03-01

    SOFIA (Studies On Fission with Aladin) is a new experimental set-up dedicated to accurate measurement of fission-fragments isotopic yields. It is located at GSI, the only place to use inverse kinematics at relativistic energies in order to study the (γ,f) electromagnetic-induced fission. The SOFIA set-up is a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer, which allows to fully identify both fission fragments in coincidence on the whole fission-fragment range. This paper will report on fission yields obtained in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f) reactions.

  9. Accurate measurements of fission-fragment yields in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f with the SOFIA set-up

    Chatillon A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SOFIA (Studies On Fission with Aladin is a new experimental set-up dedicated to accurate measurement of fission-fragments isotopic yields. It is located at GSI, the only place to use inverse kinematics at relativistic energies in order to study the (γ,f electromagnetic-induced fission. The SOFIA set-up is a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer, which allows to fully identify both fission fragments in coincidence on the whole fission-fragment range. This paper will report on fission yields obtained in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f reactions.

  10. Bose-Einstein correlations with CMS detector at the LHC at √s = 0.9 and 2.36 TeV

    Bose-Einstein correlations between identical particles are measured using samples of proton-proton collisions at 0.9 and 2.36 TeV centre-of-mass energy, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The signal is observed in the form of an enhancement of pairs of the same-sign charged particles with small relative momentum. A significant increase of the size of the correlated particle emission region with the particle multiplicity in the event is observed