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Sample records for actinium 233

  1. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    available at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Targets will be processed at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and purify the actinium-225 that will subsequently be transferred to NorthStar laboratory facilities for product quality testing and comparison to the product quality of ORNL produced actinium-225, which is currently the industry standard. The test irradiations at FNAL will produce 1-20 mCi per day which is more than sufficient for quantitative evaluation of the proposed production process. The beneficial outcome of this effort will be a new production route for actinium-225 that does not use or require any uranium-233 materials owned by DOE or use any radium-226 as an irradiation target but can supply the medical community's needs for actinium-225 now and in the future.

  2. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    V protons available at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Targets will be processed at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and purify the actinium-225 that will subsequently be transferred to NorthStar laboratory facilities for product quality testing and comparison to the product quality of ORNL produced actinium-225, which is currently the industry standard. The test irradiations at FNAL will produce 1-20 mCi per day which is more than sufficient for quantitative evaluation of the proposed production process. The beneficial outcome of this effort will be a new production route for actinium-225 that does not use or require any uranium-233 materials owned by DOE or use any radium-226 as an irradiation target but can supply the medical community's needs for actinium-225 now and in the future.

  3. Extraction of actinium with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid from hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions

    The extraction of actinium with HDEHP from Cl- and NO3- systems has been investigated. It was found that extraction of actinium from HCl solutions is much better than from HNO3 solutions. Stability constants of actinium complexes Ac(X-)+2 with Cl- and NO3- ligands were determined. Our results show that the actinium formed less stable complexes with Cl- than with NO3- ligands. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  4. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results

  5. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  6. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  7. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  8. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development. PMID:22697483

  9. Radium, thorium, and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manganese-oxide-coated fiber

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency with which improved manganese-oxide-coated acrylic fibers extract radium, thorium, and actinium from seawater. Tests were made using surface seawater spiked with 227Ac, 227Th and 223Ra. For sample volumes of approximately 30 liters and flow rates up to 0.5 liters per minute, radium and actinium are removed quantitatively. Approximately 80-95% of the thorium is removed under these same conditions. (Auth.)

  10. Thermal Stabilization of 233UO2, 233UO3, and 233U3O8

    This report identifies an appropriate thermal stabilization temperature for 233U oxides. The temperature is chosen principally on the basis of eliminating moisture and other residual volatiles. This report supports the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Standard for safe storage of 233U (DOE 2000), written as part of the response to Recommendation 97-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB), addressing safe storage of 233U

  11. Excited levels of Pa-233; Niveles excitados del Pa-233

    Vara Cuadrado, J. M.

    1969-07-01

    A study of Pa-233 excited levels from the alpha decay of Np-237 and from beta decay of Th-233 has been performed. The alpha decay spectrum was measured with a semiconductor spectrometer of 18 keV effective resolution (FWHM). Over 13 new lines were identified. The gamma ray spectra of Np-237 and Th-233 were obtained with a Ge-Li detector low and medium range energy lines, and with Si-Li detector for the low energy region. A continuous purification method of Np-237 from its comparatively short-lived daughter Pa-233 was applied. A high number of new lines were identified in both spectra. The gamma-gamma coincidence spectra were obtained with INa(T{sub 1}) detectors. (Author) 54 refs.

  12. Disposition Options for Uranium-233

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program (MD), in support of the U.S. arms-control and nonproliferation policies, has initiated a program to disposition surplus weapons-usable fissile material by making it inaccessible and unattractive for use in nuclear weapons. Weapons-usable fissile materials include plutonium, high-enriched uranium (HEU), and uranium-233 (sup 233)U. In support of this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory led DOE's contractor efforts to identify and characterize options for the long-term storage and disposal of excess (sup 233)U. Five storage and 17 disposal options were identified and are described herein

  13. Excited levels of Pa-233

    A study of Pa-233 excited levels from the alpha decay of Np-237 and from beta decay of Th-233 has been performed. The alpha decay spectrum was measured with a semiconductor spectrometer of 18 keV effective resolution (FWHM). Over 13 new lines were identified. The gamma ray spectra of Np-237 and Th-233 were obtained with a Ge-Li detector low and medium range energy lines, and with Si-Li detector for the low energy region. A continuous purification method of Np-237 from its comparatively short-lived daughter Pa-233 was applied. A high number of new lines were identified in both spectra. The gamma-gamma coincidence spectra were obtained with INa(T1) detectors. (Author) 54 refs

  14. 8 CFR 233.1 - Contracts.

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contracts. 233.1 Section 233.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTRACTS WITH TRANSPORTATION LINES § 233.1 Contracts. The contracts with transportation lines referred to in section 233(c) of the Act may...

  15. Neutron-Induced Fission of Actinium-227, Protactinium-231 and Neptunium-237: Mass Distribution

    Results of radiochemical studies on the mass distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinium-227, protactinium-231 and neptunium-237 have been presented. This work has been carried out as part of a programme to determine the mass distribution in the fission of heavy elements as a function of Z and A. All irradiations have been carried out in the core of the swimming-pool type reactor APSARA with cadmium shielding wherever necessary. Relative yields of several fission product nuclides have been obtained by a method involving a comparison of the fission product activities from the respective targets with those formed from uranium-235 simultaneously irradiated. Thermal-neutron fission yields of uranium-235 have been assumed. These results indicate a predominantly asymmetric mass distribution in all the three cases, and also a distinct though small symmetric peak in the case of actinium-227. (author)

  16. A new method for the determination of low-level actinium-227 in geological samples

    We developed a new method for the determination of 227Ac in geological samples. The method uses extraction chromatographic techniques and alpha-spectrometry and is applicable for a range of natural matrices. Here we report on the procedure and results of the analysis of water (fresh and seawater) and rock samples. Water samples were acidified and rock samples underwent total dissolution via acid leaching. A DGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) extraction chromatographic column was used for the separation of actinium. The actinium fraction was prepared for alpha spectrometric measurement via cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. Recoveries of actinium in water samples were 80 ± 8 % (number of analyses n = 14) and in rock samples 70 ± 12 % (n = 30). The minimum detectable activities (MDA) were 0.017-0.5 Bq kg-1 for both matrices. Rock sample 227Ac activities ranged from 0.17 to 8.3 Bq kg-1 and water sample activities ranged from below MDA values to 14 Bq kg-1of 227Ac. From the analysis of several standard rock and water samples with the method we found very good agreement between our results and certified values. (author)

  17. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skim milk. 58.233 Section 58.233 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  18. 45 CFR 233.70 - Blindness.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blindness. 233.70 Section 233.70 Public Welfare... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.70 Blindness. (a) State plan requirements. A State plan under title X or XVI of the Social Security Act must: (1) Contain a definition of blindness in terms of...

  19. 40 CFR 233.71 - New Jersey.

    2010-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Material is incorporated as... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Jersey. 233.71 Section 233.71... REGULATIONS Approved State Programs § 233.71 New Jersey. The applicable regulatory program for discharges...

  20. 49 CFR 233.13 - Criminal penalty.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal penalty. 233.13 Section 233.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.13 Criminal penalty....

  1. 45 CFR 233.80 - Disability.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disability. 233.80 Section 233.80 Public Welfare... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.80 Disability. (a) State plan requirements. A State plan under title XIV...; and (ii) “Totally” is related to the degree of disability. The following definition is...

  2. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  3. 22 CFR 23.3 - Refunds.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refunds. 23.3 Section 23.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.3 Refunds. (a) Rectifications and readjustments. See § 22.6 of this chapter for outline of circumstances under which fees which have...

  4. 49 CFR 233.9 - Reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports. 233.9 Section 233.9 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.9 Reports. Not later than April 1, 1997 and every 5 years thereafter, each carrier shall file with FRA a signal system status report “Signal System...

  5. 49 CFR 234.233 - Rail joints.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail joints. 234.233 Section 234.233..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.233 Rail joints. Each non-insulated rail joint...

  6. 12 CFR 23.3 - Lease requirements.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lease requirements. 23.3 Section 23.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEASING General Provisions § 23.3 Lease... connection with leasing that property, and may engage in activities incidental thereto, if the...

  7. Plutonium and U-233 mines

    A comparison is made among second generation reactor systems fuelled primarily with fissile plutonium and/or U-233 in uranium or thorium. This material is obtained from irradiated fuel from first generation CANDU reactors fuelled by natural or enriched uranium and thorium. Except for plutonium-thorium reactors, second generation reactors demand similar amounts of reprocessing throughput, but the most efficient plutonium burning systems require a large prior allocation of uranium. Second generation reactors fuelled by U-233 make more efficient use of resources and lead to more flexible fuelling strategies, but require development of first generation once-through thorium cycles and early demonstration of the commercial viability of thorium fuel reprocessing. No early implementation of reprocessing technology is required for these cycles

  8. 12 CFR 233.4 - Exemptions.

    2010-01-01

    ... FUNDING OF UNLAWFUL INTERNET GAMBLING (REGULATION GG) § 233.4 Exemptions. (a) Automated clearing house... business are exempt from this regulation's requirements for establishing written policies and...

  9. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  10. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  11. Dicty_cDB: SLB233 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLB233 (Link to dictyBase) slb233 - - Contig-U16290-1 SLB233P ...(Link to Original site) SLB233F 697 SLB233Z 631 SLB233P 1328 - - Show SLB233 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLB...233 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID slb233 NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16290-1 Or...iginal site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLB2-B/SLB233Q.Seq.d/ R...epresentative seq. ID SLB233P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLB233 (SLB233Q) /CSM/SL/SLB2-B/SLB

  12. Dicty_cDB: SLD233 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLD233 (Link to dictyBase) sld233 - - Contig-U15622-1 SLD233P ...(Link to Original site) SLD233F 296 SLD233Z 383 SLD233P 679 - - Show SLD233 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLD2...33 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID sld233 NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15622-1 Ori...ginal site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLD2-B/SLD233Q.Seq.d/ Re...presentative seq. ID SLD233P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLD233 (SLD233Q) /CSM/SL/SLD2-B/SLD2

  13. 48 CFR 233.215 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 233.215....215 Contract clause. Use Alternate I of the clause at FAR 52.233-1, Disputes, when— (1) The... (v) Tracked combat vehicles (vi) Related electronic systems; (2) The contracting officer...

  14. Preserving high-purity 233U

    The MARC X Conference hosted a workshop for the scientific community to communicate needs for high-purity 233U and its by-products in order to preserve critical items otherwise slated for downblending and disposal. Currently, only small portions of the U.S. holdings of separated 233U are being preserved. However, many additional kilograms of 233U (>97 % pure) still are destined to be disposed, and it is unlikely that this material will ever be replaced due to a lack of operating production capability. Summaries of information conveyed at the workshop and feedback obtained from the scientific community are presented herein. (author)

  15. 49 CFR 233.3 - Application.

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.3 Application. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b... the general railroad system of transportation. (b) This part does not apply to rail rapid...

  16. The Pa-233 fission cross section

    The energy dependent neutron-induced fission cross section of 233Pa has for the first time been measured directly with mono-energetic neutrons. This isotope is produced in the thorium fuel cycle and serves as an intermediate step between the 232Th source material and the 233U fuel material. Four neutron energies between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV have been measured in a first campaign. Some preliminary results are presented and compared to literature. (author)

  17. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS—towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm − 1 which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  18. Dicty_cDB: SFL233 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available MKIKIXXPPXRKXXVWIGGXILXSLSTFXQMWXSKX Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: iasdfg**rkrfspftki...SF (Link to library) SFL233 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16382-1 SFL233P (Link... to Original site) SFL233F 480 SFL233Z 142 SFL233P 622 - - Show SFL233 Library SF (Link to library) Clone ID... SFL233 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16382-1 Original site...xptnvdxxx Frame B: slptsvnnekdfrlllkyfrepks*rqlslff*iglpipktnkln*iknkngw*rcssfs y**rfwyv*srfcw*rcstccfpincws

  19. Workshop on Preserving High Purity Uranium-233

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Giaquinto, Joseph [ORNL; Canaan, R Douglas {Doug} [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    A workshop was held on at the MARC X conference to provide a forum for the scientific community to communicate needs for high-purity 233U and its by-products in order to preserve critical items otherwise slated for downblending and disposal. Currently, only a small portion of the U.S. holdings of separated 233U is being preserved. However, many additional kilograms of 233U (>97% pure) still are destined to be downblended which will permanently destroy their potential value for many other applications. It is not likely that this material will ever be replaced due to a lack of operating production capability. Summaries of information conveyed at the workshop and feedback obtained from the scientific community are presented herein.

  20. Benchmark testing of 233U evaluations

    In this paper we investigate the adequacy of available 233U cross-section data (ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3) for calculation of critical experiments. An ad hoc revised 233U evaluation is also tested and appears to give results which are improved relative to those obtained with either ENDF/B-VI or JENDL-3 cross sections. Calculations of keff were performed for ten fast benchmarks and six thermal benchmarks using the three cross-section sets. Central reaction-rate-ratio calculations were also performed

  1. Star formation in the S233 region

    Ladeyschikov, D A; Parfenov, S Yu; Alexeeva, S A; Bieging, J H

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the possibility of triggered star formation on the border of the HII region S233, which is formed by a B-star. Using high-resolution spectra we determine the spectral class of the ionizing star as B0.5 V and the radial velocity of the star to be -17.5(1.4) km/s. This value is consistent with the velocity of gas in a wide field across the S233 region, suggesting that the ionizing star was formed from a parent cloud belonging to the S233 region. By studying spatial-kinematic structure of the molecular cloud in the S233 region, we detected an isolated clump of gas producing CO emission red-shifted relative to the parent cloud. In the UKIDSS and WISE images, the clump of gas coincides with the infrared source containing a compact object and bright-rimmed structure. The bright-rimmed structure is perpendicular to the direction of the ionizing star. The compact source coincides in position with IRAS source 05351+3549. All these features indicate a possibility of triggeri...

  2. 233-S plutonium concentration facility hazards assessment

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  3. Preserving Ultra-Pure Uranium-233

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Goldberg, Dr. Steven A. [DOE SC - Chicago Office; Hutcheon, Dr. Ian D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2011-10-01

    Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) is a synthetic isotope of uranium formed under reactor conditions during neutron capture by natural thorium ({sup 232}Th). At high purities, this synthetic isotope serves as a crucial reference material for accurately quantifying and characterizing uranium-bearing materials assays and isotopic distributions for domestic and international nuclear safeguards. Separated, high purity {sup 233}U is stored in vaults at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These materials represent a broad spectrum of {sup 233}U from the standpoint of isotopic purity - the purest being crucial for precise analyses in safeguarding uranium. All {sup 233}U at ORNL is currently scheduled to be disposed of by down-blending with depleted uranium beginning in 2015. This will reduce safety concerns and security costs associated with storage. Down-blending this material will permanently destroy its potential value as a certified reference material for use in uranium analyses. Furthermore, no credible options exist for replacing {sup 233}U due to the lack of operating production capability and the high cost of restarting currently shut down capabilities. A study was commissioned to determine the need for preserving high-purity {sup 233}U. This study looked at the current supply and the historical and continuing domestic need for this crucial isotope. It examined the gap in supplies and uses to meet domestic needs and extrapolated them in the context of international safeguards and security activities - superimposed on the recognition that existing supplies are being depleted while candidate replacement material is being prepared for disposal. This study found that the total worldwide need by this projection is at least 850 g of certified {sup 233}U reference material over the next 50 years. This amount also includes a strategic reserve. To meet this need, 18 individual items totaling 959 g of {sup 233}U were identified as candidates for establishing a lasting supply of

  4. 34 CFR 668.233 - Student eligibility.

    2010-07-01

    ... Intellectual Disabilities § 668.233 Student eligibility. A student with an intellectual disability is eligible... intellectual disability, as described in paragraph (1) of the definition of a student with an intellectual... intellectual disability, such as— (1) A documented comprehensive and individualized...

  5. 12 CFR 233.7 - Regulatory enforcement.

    2010-01-01

    ... PROHIBITION ON FUNDING OF UNLAWFUL INTERNET GAMBLING (REGULATION GG) § 233.7 Regulatory enforcement. The... regulators, with respect to the designated payment systems and participants therein that are subject to the... Commission, with respect to designated payment systems and participants therein not otherwise subject to...

  6. 28 CFR 23.3 - Applicability.

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.3 Applicability. (a) These policy standards are applicable to all criminal intelligence systems operating through support...-647). (b) As used in these policies: (1) Criminal Intelligence System or Intelligence System means...

  7. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHR233 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHR233 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16471-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHR...233Z 789 - - - - Show CHR233 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHR233 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHR2-B/CHR233Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHR233 (CHR233Q) /CSM/CH/CHR2-B/CHR233Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXTATATGA...DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SHB457 (SHB457Q) /CSM/SH/SHB4-C/SHB457Q.Seq.d/ 747 0.0 CHR

  9. Track 8: health and radiological applications. Isotopes and radiation: general. 3. Extraction of 229Th from 233U for Medical Research Applications

    the handling of 233U. After separation, the thorium is transferred to the ORNL Radiochemical Development Laboratory (RDL) for decay and periodic extraction of actinium. The safety basis for the RMAL has recently been upgraded to allow the processing of batches containing up to 500 g of 233U. The 233U from Mound Laboratories was delivered in 20 packages, each containing 232U contamination ranges from 2 to 16 ppm. Individual packages of uranium oxide are transferred from the RDF to the RMAL, the package is opened, and the quantity of uranium is verified. The uranium oxide is dissolved in nitric acid, and the solution is adjusted to 8 M. The solution is passed over a Bio-Rad 1x4 anion exchange column at a rate of ∼5 ml/ min. Thorium and plutonium load on the column; uranium, radium, and actinium pass through. The column is washed with 8 M nitric acid to remove residual uranium. Thorium is then eluted from the resin with 0.1 M nitric acid. This solution, typically containing ∼4 mCi of 229Th, is transferred to the RDL for further purification and is then added to the existing thorium inventory. The uranium and acid wash solutions are combined and evaporated to 3O8 by heating in air to 800 deg. C. The oxide is sampled, weighed, packaged, and returned to storage in the RDF. In fiscal year 2000, the process was set up and two small batches of uranium, with 2 ppm 232U, were processed. Because of the low dose associated with this material and to allow refinements to the process, these initial batches were processed in a glove box. The process performed well, with more than 90% recovery of thorium. Just over 5 mCi of 229Th was added to the inventory. Funding already provided for fiscal year 2001 will allow the extraction of another 30 mCi of 229Th; if additional funding can be identified, a total of nearly 70 mCi can be separated by the end of the fiscal year. With this additional thorium, and with other improvements to the actinium extraction facilities at the RDL, the

  10. 17 CFR 256.233 - Notes payable to associate companies.

    2010-04-01

    ... companies. 256.233 Section 256.233 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.233 Notes payable...

  11. 40 CFR 233.4 - Conflict of interest.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 233.4 Section 233.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 233.4 Conflict of interest. Any public officer or employee who has a...

  12. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  13. 45 CFR 233.36 - Monthly reporting (AFDC).

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Monthly reporting (AFDC). 233.36 Section 233.36... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.36 Monthly reporting (AFDC). (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a State plan for AFDC shall require the caretaker relative, or another...

  14. 45 CFR 233.90 - Factors specific to AFDC.

    2010-10-01

    ... meet the needs of the unborn child. (Refer to Medicaid regulations at 42 CFR 435.115 for Medicaid... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Factors specific to AFDC. 233.90 Section 233.90... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.90 Factors specific to AFDC. (a) State plan requirements....

  15. 45 CFR 233.31 - Budgeting methods for AFDC.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budgeting methods for AFDC. 233.31 Section 233.31... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.31 Budgeting methods for AFDC. (a) Requirements for State plans. A State plan for AFDC shall specify that all factors of eligibility shall be...

  16. Performance analysis of 233U for fixed bed nuclear reactors

    Criticality and burn up behavior of the Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) are investigated for the mixed fuel 233UO2/ThO2 as an alternative to low enriched 235UO2 fuel. CERMET fuel with a zirconium matrix and cladding has been used throughout the study. The main results of the study can be summarized as follows: Reactor criticality is already achieved by ∝2% 233UO2 with the mixed 233UO2/ThO2 fuel. At higher 233U fractions, reactor criticality rises rapidly and exceeds keff > 1.5 already by 9% 233UO2. With 100% 233UO2, start up criticality can reach keff = 2.0975. Time dependent reactor criticality keff and fuel burn up have been investigated for two different mixed fuel 233UO2/ThO2 compositions, namely: 4% 233UO2 + 96% ThO2 for a reactor power of 40 MWel (120 MWth) and 9% 233UO2 + 91% ThO2 for a reactor power of 70 MWel (210 MWth). Sufficient reactor criticality (keff > 1.06) for continuous operation without fuel change can be sustained during ∝ 5 and 12 years with 4% and 9% 233UO2 fractions in the mixed fuel, leading to burn ups of ∝ 36000 and > 105000 MWD/t, respectively. Thorium based fuel produces no prolific uranium. Plutonium production remains negligible. (orig.)

  17. Update of 233U, 229-232Th and 230-233Pa Fission Data

    The influence of the 235U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) on modeling of integral benchmarks was estimated to be significant. For 233U(n,f) PFNS similar sensitivities could be envisaged. For the variety of Th/U fuels and systems, ranging from metal fast to deep thermal solutions, large positive/negative swings in calculated Keff can be expected. Th/U fuelled core criticality calculations would be sensitive to the modelled soft tail of fission neutrons or deficiency of hard tail fission neutrons, as revealed for U and Pu fuels. The deficiency of the 233U(nth,f) PFNS, adopted for the ENDF/B-VII.0. could be traced back to the 'propagation' of calculated 235U(nth,f) PFNS shape at En= 0.5 MeV. At higher energies, average energies of PFNS coincide only at ∼5 MeV, at other En the average energies and spectra shapes are drastically different. However, it might be argued that the response of the criticality benchmark calculations for the 233U thermal and fast systems would be similar to that observed for the PFNS of 239Pu. Our approach allowed to solve the longstanding problem of inconsistency of 235U integral data testing and differential prompt fission neutron spectra data, a similar approach may hold for 233U. Using modified PFNS, we may avoid arbitrary tweaking of neutron cross sections or neutron multiplicities for Th/U fuel-cycle related nuclides (233U, 229,230,231,232Th and 230,231,232,233Pa) to compensate the ill-defined shape of 233U PFNS. For metal fast benchmarks much would depend on the inelastic scattering cross section of 233U, which should be considered rather uncertain at the moment. The unrealistic evaluations of poorly investigated cross sections related to the Th/U fuel cycle could be excluded by consistent analysis of the available fission data base. The evaluation of 229,230,231,232Th(n,f) and 230,231,232,233Pa(n,f) cross sections could be supplemented by description of surrogate and ratio surrogate fission data, coming from

  18. Uranium-233 analysis of biological samples

    Two liquid scintillation techniques were compared for 233U analysis: a two-phase extraction system (D2EHPA) developed by Keough and Powers, 1970, for Pu analysis; and a single-phase emulsion system (TT21) that holds the total sample in suspension with the scintillator. The first system (D2EHPA) was superior in reducing background (two- to threefold) and in accommodating a larger sample volume (fivefold). Samples containing > 50 mg/ml of slats were not extracted quantitatively by D2EHPA

  19. Neutron data evaluation of 233Pa

    Consistent evaluation of 233 Pa measured data base is performed. Hauser-Feshbach-Moldauer theory, coupled channel model and double-humped fission barrier model are employed. Total, differential scattering, fission and (n,xn) data are calculated, using fission cross section data description as a major constraint. The direct excitation of ground state band levels is calculated within rigid rotator model. Average resonance parameters are provided, which reproduce evaluated cross sections in the range of 16.5-70.9 keV. This work is performed under the Project Agreement B-404 with the International Science and Technology Center (Moscow). The Financing Party for the Project is Japan. (author)

  20. Evaluation of resonance parameters of U-233

    Compilation of nuclear data is in progress in Japan, and the second edition of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-2) will be published. The evaluation of the resonance parameters of U-233, which will be included in JENDL-2, has been made. The measured values of the resonance parameters after the publication of BNL-325 (second edition) were collected, and searched by using CINDA-78. The data by Blons, Kolar, Ryabov, and Bergen were used for the present evaluation. Complete set of the data was made for each measurement. Fission and capture areas integrated over energy intervals were obtained. The total, fission and capture cross-sections of U-233 were calculated from the various sets of complete resonance parameters, and shown in figures. The calculated values of total, fission and capture cross-sections based on the parameters by Blons were compared with the measured values. Correction of the resonance parameters with poor reproducibility was able to be made with the NDES system by Nakagawa. The final parameters which will be included in JENDL are shown in tables. (Kato, T.)

  1. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Addition of spirits to wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be...

  2. Nuclear data evaluation for Pa-233

    In this report the evaluation of main neutron nuclear data for 233Pa, namely neutron cross sections (total, elastic, inelastic, radiative capture, fission, (n,2n), (n,3n)), as well as the elastic and inelastic angular distributions, and energy distributions of secondary neutrons from inelastic scattering, (n,2n), (n,3n) and fission reactions, is described. In the same time, radioactive decay data and average number of neutrons per fission are given. For the resolved and unresolved resonance energy range, the Breit-Wigner single level parameters have been estimated. The data cover the energy range between 10-5eV and 20MeV. The final set of evaluated data is given in ENDF/B format and have been checked against physical consistency and format correctness. Many of the data have been calculated using theoretical models. (author)

  3. 40 CFR 233.61 - Determination of Tribal eligibility.

    2010-07-01

    .... 233.61 Section 233.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN..., such as, but not limited to, the exercise of police powers affecting (or relating to) the health... environmental or public health programs administered by the Tribal governing body, and a copy of related...

  4. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor...

  5. 17 CFR 201.233 - Depositions upon oral examination.

    2010-04-01

    ... examination. 201.233 Section 201.233 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... upon oral examination. (a) Procedure. Any party desiring to take the testimony of a witness by.... Examination and cross-examination of deponents may proceed as permitted at a hearing. The witness...

  6. 49 CFR 238.233 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.233 Section... I Passenger Equipment § 238.233 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat in a passenger car... determined by the railroad: (1) Longitudinal: 8g; (2) Vertical: 4g; and (3) Lateral: 4g. (c) Other...

  7. 48 CFR 952.233-2 - Service of protest.

    2010-10-01

    ... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.233-2 Service of protest. As prescribed in 933.106(a), add the following to the end of the provision at 48 CFR 52.233-2: (c) Another copy... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service of protest....

  8. 45 CFR 233.32 - Payment and budget months (AFDC).

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment and budget months (AFDC). 233.32 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.32 Payment and budget months (AFDC). A State shall specify in its plan for AFDC the time period covered by the payment (payment month) and the...

  9. 232 Th - 233 Pa separation by extraction chromatography

    Thorium and protactinium behavior in extraction chromatography systems is presented, aiming its separation by selective retention of the micro constituent on the column. TBP/alumina, TBP/voltalef UF 300, TOA/alumina and TOA/voltalef UF 300 systems were verified. Column preparation as well the 233 Pa removal conditions were settled. The best 232 Th separation from its irradiation product, 233 Pa, has been achieved by using TBP/voltalef UF 300 system. 233 Pa was selectively retained on column from 10 M HCl solutions and eluted with 3 M HCl. (author)

  10. Feasibility to produce uranium-233 from thorium in PHWR

    Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle. It is used as fuel in nuclear reactor. 233U is produced by irradiating thorium in fast reactor or thermal reactor. In this paper feasibility to produce 233U by irradiation of fuel bundles of thorium mixed with plutonium or irradiation of thorium bundles along with slightly enriched Uranium bundles in 220 MWe and 540 MWe PHWRs has been studied. Study shows that production of 233U is possible by irradiating few fuel bundles of PuTh or Thorium bundles along with SEU bundles without affecting the power operation and the safety related parameters. (author)

  11. 12 CFR 233.5 - Policies and procedures required.

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM PROHIBITION ON FUNDING OF UNLAWFUL INTERNET GAMBLING (REGULATION GG) § 233.5 Policies and... otherwise refuses to honor a transaction, shall not be liable to any party for such action if— (1)...

  12. 16 CFR 233.5 - Miscellaneous price comparisons.

    2010-01-01

    ... DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.5 Miscellaneous price comparisons. The practices covered in the provisions set forth... principles. For example, retailers should not advertise a retail price as a “wholesale” price. They...

  13. 12 CFR 233.3 - Designated payment systems.

    2010-01-01

    ... PROHIBITION ON FUNDING OF UNLAWFUL INTERNET GAMBLING (REGULATION GG) § 233.3 Designated payment systems. The... remotely from a location other than a physical office of the money transmitting business; and (e)...

  14. Dicty_cDB: VSJ233 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available itfmvdmfanksq vadavakmydvkvkrvntlitprgekkafvtlspefeaadvankigli...fsli **kk Frame B: agkkvksntpkqdlsvskskltsikapaaaikakaaasavkkgvsnkstrkvrtsvifrr pvtlnnpkkpayprrsvnkitkmdqfrilkaplttesatqkiegsnt...e E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VSJ233 (VSJ233Q) /CS...-B/SLC129Q.Seq.d/ 1021 0.0 own update 2001.11.29 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits....6 1 dna update 2003. 7.18 Homology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Va

  15. Repository criticality control for 233U using depleted uranium

    The US is evaluating methods for the disposition of excess weapons-usable 233U, including disposal in a repository. Isotopic dilution studies were undertaken to determine how much depleted uranium (DU) would need to be added to the 233U to minimize the potential for nuclear criticality in a repository. Numerical evaluations were conducted to determine the nuclear equivalence of different 235U enrichments to 233U isotopically diluted with DU containing 0.2 wt% 235U. A homogeneous system of silicon dioxide, water, 233U, and DU, in which the ratio of each component was varied, was used to determine the conditions of maximum nuclear reactivity. In terms of preventing nuclear criticality in a repository, there are three important limits from these calculations. 1. Criticality safe in any nonnuclear system: The required isotopic dilution to ensure criticality under all conditions, except in the presence of man-made nuclear materials (beryllium, etc.), is ≅1.0% 235U in 238U. The equivalent 233U enrichment level is 0.53 wt% 233U in DU. 2. Critically safe in natural systems: The lowest 235U enrichment found in a natural reactor at shutdown was approximately1.3%. French studies, based on the characteristics of natural uranium ore bodies, indicate that a minimum enrichment of approximately1.28% 235U is required for criticality. These data suggest that nuclear criticality from migrating uranium is not realistic unless the 235U enrichments exceed approximately1.3%, which is a result that is equivalent to 0.72% 233U in DU. 3. Criticality safety equivalent to light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF): The 233U can be diluted with DU so that the uranium criticality characteristics match SNF uranium. Whatever repository criticality controls are used for SNF can then be used for 233U. The average LWR SNF assay (after decay of plutonium isotopes to uranium isotopes) is 1.5% 235U equivalent in 238U. This is equivalent to diluting 233U to 0.81% in DU

  16. Testing of 233U evaluations with criticality benchmarks

    To validate and improve the quality of the complete set of evaluated nuclear reaction data for 233U, criticality benchmarks with fast, epithermal and thermal spectra from ICSBEP handbook were selected to test 233U evaluations from CENDL-3.1, ENDF/B-Ⅶ.0, JENDL-3.3 and JENDL-4.0. The effective multiplication factors keff of selected benchmarks were calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and compared with the benchmark values. The results were analyzed with trend against energy spectrum index and sensitivity analysis. In present validation, the underestimation of keff for benchmarks with thermal, epithermal or some of fast spectra is the main problem existed in the tested evaluations. From the view of thermal reactors design, the 233U evaluation from ENDF/B-Ⅶ.0 shows better performance than other file tested, but still overestimates the contribution of capture reaction in resonance region. (authors)

  17. Experimental 233U nondestructive assay with a random driver

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) of 233U in quantities up to 15 grams containing 7 ppM 232U age 2 years was investigated with a random driver. A passive singles counting technique showed a reproducibility within 0.2% at the 95% confidence level. This technique would be applicable throughout a process in which all of the 233U had the same 232U content at the same age. Where the 232U content varies, determination of 233U fissile content would require active NDA. Active coincidence counting utilizing a 238Pu, Li neutron source and a plastic scintillator detector system showed a reproducibility limit within 15% at the 95% confidence limit. The active technique was found to be very dependent on the detector system resolving time in order to make proper random coincidence corrections associated with the high gamma activity from the 232U decay chain

  18. Decontamination of the 233-S building loadout hood

    This paper concerns the decontamination experience gained during the decontamination and decommissioning (DandD) operations on the Loadout Hood within the 233-S Building. The retired 233-S Building (Plutonium Concentration Facility) is being decommissioned as a demonstration project to develop baseline cost, technology, and operational data for DandD of alpha contaminated facilities. The Loadout Hood within the facility is a plutonium nitrate loadout system highly contaminated with transuranics. The paper consists of a brief description of the facility and Loadout Hood, a summary of the engineering and field work performed, and an evaluation of the technology and methods used

  19. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  20. 7 CFR 1209.233 - Regional caucus chairpersons.

    2010-01-01

    ... chairpersons will coordinate the entire nomination process. In conducting the nominations process, each... PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Rules and Regulations Nomination Procedures § 1209.233..., and voting for importer nominees is limited to importers; and (2) Producer candidates for...

  1. 46 CFR 108.233 - Location and size.

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Helicopter Facilities § 108.233 Location and size. (a) Each helicopter deck must be— (1) At least the size of the rotor diameter of the largest single main...

  2. 48 CFR 1852.233-70 - Protests to NASA.

    2010-10-01

    ... 1852.233-70 Protests to NASA. As prescribed in 1833.106-70, insert the following provision: Protests to NASA (OCT 2002) Potential bidders or offerors may submit a protest under 48 CFR part 33 (FAR part 33... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Protests to NASA....

  3. 45 CFR 233.20 - Need and amount of assistance.

    2010-10-01

    ... eligible child by applying the stepparent deeming formula at 45 CFR 233.20(a)(3)(xiv). (vii) If the State... Orange Product liability litigation, M.D.L. No. 381 (E.D.N.Y.). (t) Student financial assistance made..., items such as depreciation, personal business and entertainment expenses, personal...

  4. Dicty_cDB: VHJ233 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHJ233 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16440-1 - (Link to Original site) ... camonas acidamino... 34 3.2 (Q8TS91) RecName: Full=Imidazole ... glycerol phosphate synthase sub... 33 4.2 AF191043 ...

  5. 48 CFR 1452.233-2 - Service of Protest.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service of Protest. 1452... Protest. As prescribed in 1433.106, the provision at FAR 52.233-2, Service of Protest, shall be modified...: “Service of Protest Department of the Interior (JUL 1996) (Deviation)”; and adding the following...

  6. 48 CFR 52.233-2 - Service of Protest.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service of Protest. 52.233... Service of Protest. As prescribed in 33.106(a), insert the following provision: Service of Protest (SEP 2006) (a) Protests, as defined in section 33.101 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation, that are...

  7. 48 CFR 52.233-3 - Protest After Award.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protest After Award. 52....233-3 Protest After Award. As prescribed in 33.106(b), insert the following clause: Protest After Award (AUG 1996) (a) Upon receipt of a notice of protest (as defined in FAR 33.101) or a...

  8. 48 CFR 852.233-71 - Alternate protest procedure.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate protest... § 852.233-71 Alternate protest procedure. As prescribed in 833.106, insert the following provision: Alternate Protest Procedure (JAN 1998) As an alternative to filing a protest with the contracting...

  9. 48 CFR 952.233-5 - Agency protest review.

    2010-10-01

    ... level. The Department of Energy's agency protest procedures, set forth in 48 CFR 933.103, elaborate on... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency protest review. 952... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.233-5 Agency protest review....

  10. The 233Pa fission cross-section measurement and evaluation

    233Pa is a conspicuous example of strongly discrepant data in the accepted nuclear data evaluations. The precise knowledge of the neutron-induced reaction cross-section of this highly β-active nuclide (T1/2 = 27.0 d) is essential for the successful implementation of the thorium-based fuel cycle in advanced nuclear applications. The reactions involving 233Pa are responsible for the balance of nuclei as well as the average number of prompt fission neutrons in a contemplated reactor scenario. In an IAEA report, it is stated that there is a need to know the 233Pa(n, f) cross-section with an accuracy of 20%. The different evaluated neutron data libraries show, however, a difference of a factor of two for this cross-section. It has previously been deemed not feasible to measure this reaction directly due to its short half-life, high radioactivity and the in-growth of the daughter product 233U. Hence, the entries in the neutron libraries are based on theoretical predictions, which explains the large discrepancies. As reported recently the neutron-induced fission cross-section of 233Pa has been measured for the first time directly with mono-energetic neutrons from 1.0 to 3.0 MeV at the Van-de-Graaff facility of the IRMM. In the meantime, during two further measurement campaigns, the energy range has been extended up to 8.5 MeV. The experimental results will be presented together with recent model calculations of the fission cross-section applying the statistical model code STATIS, which improve the cross-section evaluation up to the second chance fission threshold. (authors)

  11. 47 CFR 51.233 - Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services.

    2010-10-01

    ... presumption that it is acceptable for deployment under § 51.230, the degraded service shall not prevail... deployment of advanced services. 51.233 Section 51.233 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 51.233 Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services. (a) Where...

  12. 39 CFR 233.5 - Requesting financial records from a financial institution.

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requesting financial records from a financial institution. 233.5 Section 233.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION INSPECTION SERVICE AUTHORITY § 233.5 Requesting financial records from a financial institution....

  13. 48 CFR 5452.233-9001 - Disputes: Agreement To Use Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR).

    2010-10-01

    ... Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). 5452.233-9001 Section 5452.233-9001 Federal Acquisition Regulations... of Provisions and Clauses 5452.233-9001 Disputes: Agreement To Use Alternative Dispute Resolution... Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) (APR 2001)—DLAD (a) The parties agree to negotiate with each other to...

  14. 48 CFR 2852.233-70 - Protests filed directly with the Department of Justice.

    2010-10-01

    ... with the Department of Justice. 2852.233-70 Section 2852.233-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Clauses and Forms SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2852.233-70 Protests filed directly with the Department of Justice. As prescribed in...

  15. 48 CFR 52.233-4 - Applicable Law for Breach of Contract Claim.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicable Law for Breach of Contract Claim. 52.233-4 Section 52.233-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.233-4 Applicable Law...

  16. 48 CFR 1352.233-71 - GAO and Court of Federal Claims protests.

    2010-10-01

    ....233-71 GAO and Court of Federal Claims protests. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1333.104-70(a), insert the following provision: GAO and Court of Federal Claims Protests (APR 2010) (a) A protest may be filed with... Claims protests. 1352.233-71 Section 1352.233-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  17. 45 CFR 233.37 - How monthly reports are treated and what notices are required (AFDC).

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How monthly reports are treated and what notices are required (AFDC). 233.37 Section 233.37 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... § 233.37 How monthly reports are treated and what notices are required (AFDC). (a) What happens if...

  18. 45 CFR 233.38 - Waiver of monthly reporting and retrospective budgeting requirements; AFDC.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver of monthly reporting and retrospective budgeting requirements; AFDC. 233.38 Section 233.38 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... § 233.38 Waiver of monthly reporting and retrospective budgeting requirements; AFDC. (a) States...

  19. Dicty_cDB: VSA233 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 4231 |BF294231.1 001PbG02 Pb cDNA #17, Tommaso Pace, Marta Ponzi, and Clara Frontali Plasmodium berghei cDNA...t: 0.00 m3a: 0.00 m3b: 0.00 m_ : 1.00 52.0 %: cytoplasmic 24.0 %: nuclear 8.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: mitochondrial...VS (Link to library) VSA233 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15040-1 VSA233Z (Link to Original...tlfiyrnikqylml*yn snraklsp Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Val...1. 8 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N AZ522056 |AZ522056.1

  20. Fast and Thermal Data Testing of U-233 Critical Assemblies

    Data testing has been performed for U-233 fast and thermal benchmarks. Results are presented for both ENDF/B-VI and a modified JENDL-3.2 evaluation. The revised JENDL-3.2 evaluation is summarized and comparisons with ENDF/B-VI and measured values are discussed. Calculated results using both cross section sets are presented for 10 fast benchmarks (reflected and unreflected U-233 metal) and 38 thermal benchmarks (uranyl-nitrate solutions in spherical and cylindrical geometry). Using the revised JENDL-3.2 evaluation, very good results are obtained for the calculated k-effs for almost all of the 48 benchmarks considered in this study. Possible future work is discussed briefly

  1. Updated and revised neutron reaction data for 233U

    YU Bao-Sheng; CHEN Guo-Chang; ZHANG Hua; CAO Wen-Tian; TANG Guo-You; TAO Xi

    2013-01-01

    A complete set of n+233U neutron reaction data from 10-5 eV-20 MeV is updated and revised based on the evaluated experimental data and the feedback information of various benchmark tests.The main revised quantities are nubars,cross sections as well as angular distributions,etc.The benchmark tests indicate that the present evaluated data achieve very promising results.

  2. Nuclear fuel cycle based on thorium and uranium-233

    The analysis of activities carried out in this country and abroad on a complex solution of principal problems of nuclear power advance. Demonstration of the potentiality of the above problems solution on the basis of conventional reactor plant development (light water cooled reactors and BN-type fast reactors) within the framework of nuclear fuel cycle using uranium-235, plutonium and uranium-233. 28 refs.; 1 fig.; 8 tabs

  3. Strategy for the future use and disposition of uranium-233: Technical information

    This document provides a summary of technical information on the synthetic radioisotope 233U. It is one of a series of four reports that map out a national strategy for the future use and disposition of 233U. The technical information on 233U in this document falls into two main areas. First, material characteristics are presented along with the contrasts of 233U to the more well known strategic fissile materials, 235U and plutonium (Pu). Second, information derived from the scientific information, such as safeguards, waste classifications, material form, and packaging, is presented. Throughout, the effects of isotopically diluting 233U with nonfissile, depleted uranium (DU) are examined

  4. History of Uranium-233(233U)Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant. In support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program

    This report documents the processing of Uranium-233 at the Rocky Flats Plant (Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site). The information may be used to meet Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)and for determining potential Uranium-233 content in applicable residue waste streams

  5. Th/U-233 multi-recycle in PWRs.

    Yun, D.; Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-09-07

    The use of thorium in current or advanced light water reactors (LWRs) has been of interest in recent years. These interests have been associated with the need to increase nuclear fuel resources and the perceived non-proliferation advantages of the utilization of thorium in the fuel cycle. Various options have been considered for the use of thorium in the LWR fuel cycle including: (1) its use in a once-through fuel cycle to replace non-fissile uranium or to extend fuel burnup due to its attractive fertile material conversion, (2) its use for fissile plutonium burning in limited recycle cores, and (3) its advantage in limiting the transuranic elements to be disposed off in a repository (if only Th/U-233 fuel is used). The possibility for thorium utilization in multirecycle system has also been considered by various researchers, primarily because of the potential for near breeders with Th/U-233 in the thermal energy range. The objective of this project is to evaluate the potential of the Th/U-233 fuel multirecycle in current LWRs, with focus this year on pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In this work, approaches for ensuring a sustainable multirecycle without the need for external source of makeup fissile material have been investigated. The intent is to achieve a design that allows existing PWRs to be used with minimal modifications. In all cases including homogeneous and heterogeneous assembly designs, the assembly pitch is kept consistent with that of the current PWRs (21.5 cm used). Because of design difficulties associated with using the same geometry and dimensions as a PWR core, the potential modifications (other than assembly pitch) that would be needed for PWRs to ensure a sustainable multirecycle system have been investigated and characterized. Additionally, the implications of the use of thorium on the LWR fuel cycle are discussed. In Section 2, background information on studies evaluating the use of thorium in the fuel cycle is provided, but focusing on

  6. Passive neutron survey of the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility

    A passive neutron survey was performed at the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility (located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington) during late 1994 and early 1995. Four areas were surveyed: an abandoned filter box and pipe trench, column laydown trench, load-out hood, and process hood. The primary purpose of the survey was to identify locations that had plutonium to help direct decontamination and decommissioning activities. A secondary purpose of the survey was to determine the quantity of material when its presence was identified

  7. Safety analysis for the 233-S decontamination and decommissioning project

    Decommissioning of the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility (REDOX) is a proposed expedited response action that is regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Due to progressive physical deterioration of this facility, a decontamination and decommissioning plan is being considered for the immediate future. This safety analysis describes the proposed actions involved in this D ampersand D effort; identifies the radioactive material inventories involved; reviews site specific environmental characteristics and postulates an accident scenario that is evaluated to identify resultant effects

  8. Isotopic dilution of 233U with depleted uranium for criticality safety in processing and disposal

    The disposal of excess 233U as waste is being considered. Because 233U is a fissile material, a key requirement for processing 233U to a final waste form and disposing of it is the avoidance of nuclear criticality. For many processing and disposal options, isotopic dilution is the most feasible and preferred option to avoid nuclear criticality. Isotopic dilution is dilution of fissile 233U with nonfissile 238U. The use of isotopic dilution removes any need to control nuclear criticality in process or disposal facilities through geometry or chemical composition. Isotopic dilution allows the use of existing waste management facilities that are not designed for significant quantities of fissile materials to be used for processing and disposing of 233U. The amount of isotopic dilution required to reduce criticality concerns to reasonable levels was determined in this study to be approximately 0.53 wt % 233U. The numerical calculations used to define this limit consisted of a homogeneous system of silicon dioxide (SiO2), water (H2O), 233U and depleted uranium (DU) in which the ratio of each component was varied to learn the conditions of maximum nuclear reactivity. About 188 parts of DU (0.2 wt % 235U) are required to dilute 1 part of 233U to this limit in a water-moderated system with no SiO2 present. Thus for the U.S. inventory of 233U, several hundred metric tons of DU would be required for isotopic dilution

  9. Study on the adsorption of 233Pa in glass

    It is intended to examine the adsorption of protactinium on glass in relation to pH, presence of complexing agents concentration and type of electrolytes. The study was made by using carrier-free 233Pa solution and Pyrex glass tube was selected as adsorbent glass material surface. The adsorption curve of protactinium on glass surface as a function of the pH of the tracer solution showed the existence of two pronounced adsorption regions. It was found that this adsorption can be reduced by using electrolytes or complexing agents. Desorption of protactinium previously adsorbed on the Pyrex glass tube was also studied. Hidrochloric, oxalic and hydrofluoric acid solutions were used for the desorption experiments. (Author)

  10. Final Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Assessment Report on the Storage of 233U

    This assessment characterizes the 233U inventories and storage facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This assessment is a commitment in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Implementation Plan (IP), ''Safe Storage of Uranium-233,'' in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board's Recommendation 97-1

  11. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    2010-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  12. 24 CFR 5.233 - Mandated use of HUD's Enterprise Income Verification (EIV) System.

    2010-04-01

    ...) Project-based Voucher program under 24 CFR part 983; (v) Project-based Section 8 programs under 24 CFR... noncompliance. Failure to use the EIV system in its entirety may result in the imposition of sanctions and/or... Income Verification (EIV) System. 5.233 Section 5.233 Housing and Urban Development Office of...

  13. 45 CFR 233.106 - Denial of AFDC benefits to strikers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Denial of AFDC benefits to strikers. 233.106... COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.106 Denial of AFDC benefits... refuse to seek or accept, employment. (2)(i) Provide for the denial of AFDC benefits to any family...

  14. 45 CFR 233.33 - Determining eligibility prospectively for all payment months (AFDC).

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining eligibility prospectively for all payment months (AFDC). 233.33 Section 233.33 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE....33 Determining eligibility prospectively for all payment months (AFDC). (a) The State plan for...

  15. 46 CFR 10.233 - Obligations of the holder of a merchant mariner credential.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obligations of the holder of a merchant mariner credential. 10.233 Section 10.233 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MERCHANT MARINER CREDENTIAL General Requirements for All Merchant Mariner...

  16. Separation and estimation of 229Th and 233U by alpha and gamma ray spectrometric technique

    The individual estimation of 233U and 229Th in a plancheted source made out of liquid sample were done by using an alpha and γ-ray spectrometric techniques. Estimation of 229Th in the plancheted source was done by γ-ray spectrometry and 233U by alpha spectrometry after subtracting the estimated amount of 229Th. In spite of the same alpha energy of 4.8 MeV, the individual estimation of 233U and 229Th based on present technique is superior to conventional techniques and important in the 232Th-233U fuel reprocessing cycle of AHWR and ADSs. The activity of 229Th was also radiochemically separated from its parent activity of 233U by using an ion exchange resin and the purity was checked by the above mentioned technique. (author)

  17. A 233 km Tunnel for Lepton and Hadron Colliders

    Summers, D J; Datta, A; Duraisamy, M; Luo, T; Lyons, G T

    2012-01-01

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of $e^+e^-$, $p \\bar{p}$, and $\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV $e^+e^-$ colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV $e^+ e^-$ collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV $p \\bar{p}$ collider uses the high intensity Fermilab $\\bar{p}$ source, exploits high cross sections for $p \\bar{p}$ production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconduct...

  18. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Mississippi-Oxford, University, MS 38677 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e{sup +}e{sup -}, pp-bar , and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp-bar collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p-bar source, exploits high cross sections for pp-bar production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  19. Statistical analysis of 233 cases in cerebovascular Diseases

    Hu Hao-Yu; Zhejiang; Jlnhua

    2000-01-01

    Objection:Monitoring Clinical in-patient constituent ratio in cerebral vasscular diseases. Methods: we monitored 233 cases of CVD in clinical in--patient 13170 cases for three years with unique registry card accroding to ICD--9. These pepole′s data was putted in computer. Age, sex, constituent ratio of each disease in CVD was observed and number of death and rank order of cases of death as well. Results: In our data, number of male is more than female(1.75:I). Constituent ratio of age is increasing at 40 years old. Main part of CH is middle age and senility, but CI age is senility. Constituent ratio of each disease is following :CI 67.74%, CH 22.13%, CT 6.06%, SAH 3.79% respectlvly. The rank order of death in CVD is third later in cardiovascular diseases and tumors. Conclusions: Our materials revealsed that it is improtant that intensiv′e care and treatment group in pead population of CVD and prevention high risk facters of CVD and health care education

  20. 45 CFR 233.35 - Computing the assistance payment under retrospective budgeting after the initial one or two...

    2010-10-01

    ... retrospective budgeting after the initial one or two months (AFDC). 233.35 Section 233.35 Public Welfare... the initial one or two months (AFDC). The State plan for AFDC shall provide: (a) After the initial one or two payment months of assistance under § 233.34, the amount of each subsequent month's...

  1. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    2010-04-01

    ... when you become entitled after age 62. 404.233 Section 404.233 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.233 Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62. (a) If you do not become entitled to...

  2. 231Pa and 233Pa neutron-induced fission up to 20 MeV

    Consistency of neutron-induced fission cross section data of 231Pa and 233Pa and data extracted from transfer reactions is investigated. Present estimate of 233Pa(n,f) fission cross section is supported by smooth level density parameter systematic, validated in case of 231Pa(n,f) data description up to En=20 MeV. The fission probabilities of Pa, fissioning in 231,233Pa(n,nf) reactions, are defined by fitting (3He,d) or (3He,t) transfer reaction data

  3. Calculation of the neutron-induced fission cross section of 233Pa

    Since very recently, experimental data for the energy dependence of the 233Pa(n,f) cross section are finally available. This has stimulated a new, self-consistent cross section evaluation for the system n+233Pa in the incident neutron energy range 0.01-6 MeV. The results are quite different compared to earlier evaluation attempts. Since 233Pa is an important intermediary in the thorium based fuel cycle, its neutron reaction cross sections are key parameters in the modeling of future advanced reactor concepts

  4. 5 CFR 532.233 - Preparation for full-scale wage surveys.

    2010-01-01

    ... the prevailing rate law for labor and agency representatives to participate in the wage survey process... REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.233 Preparation for full-scale...

  5. Improved AHWR equilibrium core cluster for self sustenance in 233U

    Advance Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being designed with many advance features like negative coolant void reactivity, heat removal through natural circulation and other passive safety features. The AHWR is a 920 MWth, vertical pressure tube type thorium-based reactor cooled by boiling light water and moderated by heavy water and designed to maximise power production from thorium. The equilibrium fuel cycle is based on the conversion of naturally available thorium into fissile 233U, driven by plutonium as external fissile feed. The basic fuel cycle is based on the fact that the AHWR core should be self-sustaining in 233U. The self sustenance in 233U can be achieved by using two types of equilibrium core clusters. In this paper we have done a study where self sustenance in 233U can be achieved by using only single type of cluster. (author)

  6. 233Pa(2nth, f) cross-section determination using a fission track technique

    The 233Pa(2nth, f) cross-section has been experimentally determined for the first time using a fission track technique. It was found to be 4834 ± 57 b, which is significantly high and thus is very important for 232Th-233U-based fuel in advanced heavy-water reactors (AHWR) and accelerator-driven sub-critical systems (ADSs). This is because the 233Pa is an important intermediary in the thorium-based fuel cycle and thus its fission cross-section is a key parameter in the modeling of AHWR and ADSs. The 233Pa(2nth, f) cross-section was calculated theoretically using the TALYS computer code and found to be in good agreement with the experimental value after normalization with respect to 241Am(2nth, f). (orig.)

  7. Comparative studies on plutonium and 233U utilization in miniFUJI MSR

    Molten salt reactor (MSR) has many merits such as safety enhancement and capability to be used for hydrogen production. A comparative evaluation of plutonium and 233U utilization in miniFUJI MSR has been performed. Reactor grade plutonium (RGPu), weapon grade plutonium (WGPu), and super grade plutonium (SGPu) have been utilized in the present study. The reactors can obtain their criticality condition with the 233U concentration in the Th-233U fuel, RGPu concentration in Th-RGPu fuel, WGPu concentration in Th-WGPu fuel, and SGPu concentration in Th-SGPu fuel of 0.52%, 5.76%, 2.16%, and 1.96%, respectively. The Th-233U fuel results in the soft neutron spectra of miniFUJI reactor. The neutron spectra turn into harder with the enlarging of plutonium concentration in loaded fuel where Th-RGPu fuel gives the hardest neutron spectra. (author)

  8. Comparison of 233Pa(2nth, f) cross-section determined by fission track technique with TALYS 1.2

    In the last decade, an appreciable amount of work has been done in the new concepts of advanced heavy-water reactors (AHWR) and accelerator-driven sub-critical systems (ADSs) in the field of nuclear energy. In AHWR, 232Th - 233U is the primary fuel for power generation in AHWR and ADS. In the 232Th - 233U cycle, the fissile nucleus 233U is generated by two successive β-decays after a neutron capture of the fertile nucleus 232Th. The isotope 233Pa (T1/2 = 26.9 days) governs the production of 233U. Therefore, the neutron induced fission reaction with 233Pa greatly influences the production of 233U. The present work is carried out with the objective to study the 233Pa(2nth, f) reaction cross-section using the well known fission track-technique. The fission cross section has been experimentally found to be 4834 ± 57 barns, which is significantly high and thus is very important for 232Th-233U based fuel in advanced heavy water reactors (AHWR) and accelerator driven sub-critical systems (ADSs). In the present work, the 233Pa(2nth, f) cross-section has also been calculated theoretically using nuclear reaction model based computer code TALYS 1.2. The theoretically calculated 233Pa(2nth, f) cross-section found to be in good agreement with the experimental value after normalization with respect to 241Am(2nth, f). (author)

  9. Initial ORNL site assessment report on the storage of 233U

    The 233U storage facility at ORNL is Building 3019. The inventory stored in Building 3019 consists of 426.5 kg of 233U contained in 1,387.1 kg of total uranium. The inventory is primarily in the form of uranium oxides; however, uranium metal and other compounds are also stored. Over 99% of the inventory is contained in 1,007 packages stored in tube vaults within the facility. A tank of thorium nitrate solution, the P-24 Tank, contains 0.13 kg of 233U in ∼ 4,000 gal. of solution. The facility is receiving additional 233U for storage from the remediation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL. Consolidation of material from sites with small holdings is also adding to the 233U inventory. Additionally, small quantities (233U are in other research facilities at ORNL. A risk assessment process was chosen to evaluate the stored material and packages based on available package records. The risk scenario was considered the failure of a package (or a group of similar packages) in the Building 3019 inventory. The probability of such a failure depends on packaging factors such as the age and material of construction of the containers. The consequence of such a failure depends on the amount and form of the material within the packages. One thousand seven packages were categorized with this methodology resulting in 859 low-risk packages, 147 medium-risk packages, and 1 high-risk package. This initial assessment also documents the status of the evaluation of the Building 3019 and its systems for safe storage of 233U. The final assessment report for ORNL storage of 233U is scheduled for June 1999. The report will document the facility assessments, the specific package inspection plan, and the results of initial package inspections

  10. Uses for Uranium-233: What Should Be Kept for Future Needs?

    Since the end of the cold war, the United States has been evaluating what fissile materials to keep for potential uses and what fissile materials to declare excess. There are three major fissile materials: high-enriched uranium (HEU), plutonium, and uranium-233 (233U). Both HEU and plutonium were produced in large quantities for use in nuclear weapons and for reactor fuel. Uranium-233 was investigated for use in nuclear weapons and as a reactor fuel; however, it was never deployed in nuclear weapons or used commercially as a nuclear fuel. Uranium-233 has limited current uses, but it could have several future uses. Because of (1) the cost of storing 233U and (2) arms control considerations, the U.S. government must decide how much of the existing 233U inventory should be kept for future use and how much should be disposed of as waste. The objective of this report is to provide technical and economic input to make a use-or-dispose decision

  11. Compilation of criticality data involving thorium or 233U and light water moderation

    Gore, B.F.

    1978-07-01

    The literature has been searched for criticality data for light water moderated systems which contain thorium or /sup 233/U, and data found are compiled herein. They are from critical experiments, extrapolations, and exponential experiments performed with homogeneous solutions and metal spheres of /sup 233/U; with lattices of fuel rods containing highly enriched /sup 235/UO/sub 2/ - ThO/sub 2/ and /sup 233/UO/sub 2/ - ThO/sub 2/; and with arrays of cyclinders of /sup 233/U solutions. The extent of existing criticality data has been compared with that necessary to implement a thorium-based fuel cycle. No experiments have been performed with any solutions containing thorium. Neither do data exist for homogeneous /sup 233/U systems with H/U < 34, except for solid metal systems. Arrays of solution cylinders up to 3 x 3 x 3 have been studied. Data for solutions containing fixed or soluble poisons are very limited. All critical lattices using /sup 233/UO/sub 2/ - ThO/sub 2/ fuels (LWBR program) were zoned radially, and in most cases axially also. Only lattice experiments using /sup 235/UO/sub 2/ - ThO/sub 2/ fuels have been performed using a single fuel rod type. Critical lattices of /sup 235/UO/sub 2/ - ThO/sub 2/ rods poisoned with boron have been measured, but only exponential experiments have been performed using boron-poisoned lattices of /sup 233/UO/sub 2/ - ThO/sub 2/ rods. No criticality data exist for denatured fuels (containing significant amounts of /sup 238/U) in either solution or lattice configurations.

  12. L233P mutation of the Tax protein strongly correlated with leukemogenicity of bovine leukemia virus.

    Inoue, Emi; Matsumura, Keiko; Soma, Norihiko; Hirasawa, Shintaro; Wakimoto, Mayuko; Arakaki, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2013-12-27

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) Tax protein is believed to play a crucial role in leukemogenesis by the virus. BLV usually causes asymptomatic infections in cattle, but only one-third develop persistent lymphocytosis that rarely progress after a long incubation period to lymphoid tumors, namely enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL). In the present study, we demonstrated that the BLV tax genes could be divided into two alleles and developed multiplex PCR detecting an L233P mutation of the Tax protein. Then, in order to define the relationship between the Tax protein and leukemogenicity, we examined 360 tumor samples randomly collected from dairy or breeding cattle in Japan, of which Tax proteins were categorized, for age at the time of diagnosis of EBL. The ages of 288 animals (80.0%) associated with L233-Tax and those of 70 animals (19.4%) with P233-Tax individually followed log-normal distributions. Only the two earliest cases (0.6%) with L233-Tax disobeyed the log-normal distribution. These findings suggest that the animals affected by EBL were infected with the virus at a particular point in life, probably less than a few months after birth. Median age of those with P233-Tax was 22 months older than that with L233-Tax and geometric means exhibited a significant difference (P<0.01). It is also quite unlikely that viruses carrying the particular Tax protein infect older cattle. Here, we conclude that BLV could be divided into two categories on the basis of amino acid at position 233 of the Tax protein, which strongly correlated with leukemogenicity. PMID:24139177

  13. Interim assessment of the denatured 233U fuel cycle: feasibility and nonproliferation characteristics

    A fuel cycle that employs 233U denatured with 238U and mixed with thorium fertile material is examined with respect to its proliferation-resistance characteristics and its technical and economic feasibility. The rationale for considering the denatured 233U fuel cycle is presented, and the impact of the denatured fuel on the performance of Light-Water Reactors, Spectral-Shift-Controlled Reactors, Gas-Cooled Reactors, Heavy-Water Reactors, and Fast Breeder Reactors is discussed. The scope of the R, D and D programs to commercialize these reactors and their associated fuel cycles is also summarized and the resource requirements and economics of denatured 233U cycles are compared to those of the conventional Pu/U cycle. In addition, several nuclear power systems that employ denatured 233U fuel and are based on the energy center concept are evaluated. Under this concept, dispersed power reactors fueled with denatured or low-enriched uranium fuel are supported by secure energy centers in which sensitive activities of the nuclear cycle are performed. These activities include 233U production by Pu-fueled transmuters (thermal or fast reactors) and reprocessing. A summary chapter presents the most significant conclusions from the study and recommends areas for future work

  14. Interim assessment of the denatured /sup 233/U fuel cycle: feasibility and nonproliferation characteristics

    Abbott, L.S.; Bartine, D.E.; Burns, T.J. (eds.)

    1978-12-01

    A fuel cycle that employs /sup 233/U denatured with /sup 238/U and mixed with thorium fertile material is examined with respect to its proliferation-resistance characteristics and its technical and economic feasibility. The rationale for considering the denatured /sup 233/U fuel cycle is presented, and the impact of the denatured fuel on the performance of Light-Water Reactors, Spectral-Shift-Controlled Reactors, Gas-Cooled Reactors, Heavy-Water Reactors, and Fast Breeder Reactors is discussed. The scope of the R, D and D programs to commercialize these reactors and their associated fuel cycles is also summarized and the resource requirements and economics of denatured /sup 233/U cycles are compared to those of the conventional Pu/U cycle. In addition, several nuclear power systems that employ denatured /sup 233/U fuel and are based on the energy center concept are evaluated. Under this concept, dispersed power reactors fueled with denatured or low-enriched uranium fuel are supported by secure energy centers in which sensitive activities of the nuclear cycle are performed. These activities include /sup 233/U production by Pu-fueled transmuters (thermal or fast reactors) and reprocessing. A summary chapter presents the most significant conclusions from the study and recommends areas for future work.

  15. Recovery of thorium along with uranium 233 from Thorex waste solution employing Chitosan

    The low level waste solution, generated from Thorex process during the processing of U233, contains thorium along with traces of Th228 and U233. Chitosan, a natural bio-polymer derived from Chitin, was earlier used to recover the uranium and americium. The studies were extended to find out its thorium sorption characteristics. Chitosan exhibited very good absorption of thorium (350 mg/g). Chitosan was equilibrated directly with the low level waste solution at different pH after adjusting its pH, for 60 minutes with a Chitosan to aqueous ratio of 1:100 and the raffinates were filtered and analysed. The results showed more than 99% of thorium and U233 could be recovered by Chitosan between pH 4 and 5. Loaded thorium and uranium could be eluted from the Chitosan by 1M HNO3 quantitatively. (author)

  16. Characteristics of Modular Fast Reactor SVBR-100 Using Thorium-Uranium (233) Fuel

    Conclusions: • The performed computations for three different types of fuel (oxide , nitride and metallic), have revealed that maximum of uranium-233 breeding ratio, which equals to 0.9, is achieved when nitride type of fuel is used. • Adding breeding zones or increasing of the core dimensions result in increasing uranium-233 breeding ratio (up to BR = 0,97 or BR = 0,96 respectively). • There is opportunity of using plutonium as initial fissile isotope to implement U-Th-Pu fuel cycle. Breeding ratio is assessed by 0,98 if nitride fuel composition (Th+Pu)N with effective density of 12.5 is used. • The obtained data have demonstrated that both for U-Th FC and U-Th-Pu FC there is an opportunity to achieve a value of U-233 BR to be over unity when using the breeding zones and slightly increased the core dimensions

  17. 231Pa and 233Pa Neutron-Induced Fission Data Analysis

    The 231Pa and 233Pa neutron-induced fission cross-section database is analyzed within the Hauser-Feshbach approach. The consistency of neutron-induced fission cross-section data and data extracted from transfer reactions is investigated. The fission probabilities of Pa, fissioning in 231,233Pa(n,nf) reactions, are defined by fitting (3He,d) or (3He,t) transfer-reaction data. The present estimate of the 233Pa(n,f) fission cross section above the emissive fission threshold is supported by smooth level-density parameter systematics, validated in the case of the 231Pa(n,f) data description up to En =20 MeV

  18. Evaluation of the fission cross sections for U-233 and U-235

    Activities of evaluation of nuclear data was started in Japan, 1963, and the results were published as JENDL-1., JENDL-2 and JENDL-3.1. The revised edition, JENDL-3.2 is now under preparation. The evaluation works of the fission cross sections for U-233 and U-235 and the encountered problems are discussed. For the 1 to 7 MeV region of U-233 cross section, the data by Poenitz adopted in JENDL-2 were discarded and finally ratio data by the Tohoku University were adopted in JENDL-3. The resolved resonance parameters for heavy nuclides including U-233 and U-235 are treated with the Reich-Moore formula in JENDL-3.2 instead of the previously used Breit and Wigner formula. (T.H.)

  19. Uranium-233 waste definition: Disposal options, safeguards, criticality control, and arms control

    Forsberg, C.W.; Storch, S.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lewis, L.C. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

    1998-07-07

    The US investigated the use of {sup 233}U for weapons, reactors, and other purposes from the 1950s into the 1970s. Based on the results of these investigations, it was decided not to use {sup 233}U on a large scale. Most of the {sup 233}U-containing materials were placed in long-term storage. At the end of the cold war, the US initiated, as part of its arms control policies, a disposition program for excess fissile materials. Other programs were accelerated for disposal of radioactive wastes placed in storage during the cold war. Last, potential safety issues were identified related to the storage of some {sup 233}U-containing materials. Because of these changes, significant activities associated with {sup 233}U-containing materials are expected. This report is one of a series of reports to provide the technical bases for future decisions on how to manage this material. A basis for defining when {sup 233}U-containing materials can be managed as waste and when they must be managed as concentrated fissile materials has been developed. The requirements for storage, transport, and disposal of radioactive wastes are significantly different than those for fissile materials. Because of these differences, it is important to classify material in its appropriate category. The establishment of a definition of what is waste and what is fissile material will provide the guidance for appropriate management of these materials. Wastes are defined in this report as materials containing sufficiently small masses or low concentrations of fissile materials such that they can be managed as typical radioactive waste. Concentrated fissile materials are defined herein as materials containing sufficient fissile content such as to warrant special handling to address nuclear criticality, safeguards, and arms control concerns.

  20. Uranium-233 waste definition: Disposal options, safeguards, criticality control, and arms control

    The US investigated the use of 233U for weapons, reactors, and other purposes from the 1950s into the 1970s. Based on the results of these investigations, it was decided not to use 233U on a large scale. Most of the 233U-containing materials were placed in long-term storage. At the end of the cold war, the US initiated, as part of its arms control policies, a disposition program for excess fissile materials. Other programs were accelerated for disposal of radioactive wastes placed in storage during the cold war. Last, potential safety issues were identified related to the storage of some 233U-containing materials. Because of these changes, significant activities associated with 233U-containing materials are expected. This report is one of a series of reports to provide the technical bases for future decisions on how to manage this material. A basis for defining when 233U-containing materials can be managed as waste and when they must be managed as concentrated fissile materials has been developed. The requirements for storage, transport, and disposal of radioactive wastes are significantly different than those for fissile materials. Because of these differences, it is important to classify material in its appropriate category. The establishment of a definition of what is waste and what is fissile material will provide the guidance for appropriate management of these materials. Wastes are defined in this report as materials containing sufficiently small masses or low concentrations of fissile materials such that they can be managed as typical radioactive waste. Concentrated fissile materials are defined herein as materials containing sufficient fissile content such as to warrant special handling to address nuclear criticality, safeguards, and arms control concerns

  1. Numerical simulations of groundwater flow and solute transport in the Lake 233 aquifer

    A three-dimensional numerical flow model of the Lake 233 aquifer underlying the site of the proposed Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure (IRUS) for low level waste disposal is developed. A reference hydraulic conductivity distribution incorporating the key stratigraphic units and field estimates of recharge from Lake 233 are used as model input. The model was calibrated against the measured hydraulic head distribution, the flowpath of a historic 90Sr plume in the aquifer and measured groundwater velocities. (author). 23 refs., 4 tabs., 31 figs

  2. Registration of the Soft Red Winter Wheat Germplasm MD01W233-06-1 Resistant to Fusarium Head Blight

    MD01W233-06-1 (Reg. No., PI ) is a soft red winter wheat (SRWW) (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm line developed at the University of Maryland and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station in 2009. MD01W233-06-1 was selected from a cross of ‘McCormick’/ ‘Choptank’ made in 2001. McCorm...

  3. Breeding of 233U in the thorium–uranium fuel cycle in VVER reactors using heavy water

    A method is proposed for achieving optimal neutron kinetics and efficient isotope transmutation in the 233U–232Th oxide fuel of water-moderated reactors with variable water composition (D2O, H2O) that ensures breeding of the 233U and 235U isotopes. The method is comparatively simple to implement

  4. 16 CFR 23.3 - Misuse of the terms “hand-made,” “hand-polished,” etc.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the terms âhand-made,â âhand-polished,â etc. 23.3 Section 23.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE...-made,” “hand-polished,” etc. (a) It is unfair or deceptive to represent, directly or by...

  5. Breeding of 233U in the thorium-uranium fuel cycle in VVER reactors using heavy water

    Marshalkin, V. E.; Povyshev, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    A method is proposed for achieving optimal neutron kinetics and efficient isotope transmutation in the 233U-232Th oxide fuel of water-moderated reactors with variable water composition (D2O, H2O) that ensures breeding of the 233U and 235U isotopes. The method is comparatively simple to implement.

  6. Breeding of {sup 233}U in the thorium–uranium fuel cycle in VVER reactors using heavy water

    Marshalkin, V. E., E-mail: marshalkin@vniief.ru; Povyshev, V. M. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A method is proposed for achieving optimal neutron kinetics and efficient isotope transmutation in the {sup 233}U–{sup 232}Th oxide fuel of water-moderated reactors with variable water composition (D{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}O) that ensures breeding of the {sup 233}U and {sup 235}U isotopes. The method is comparatively simple to implement.

  7. 77 FR 67394 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233...

    2012-11-09

    ... Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sale 231, Oil and Gas Lease Sales... Supplemental EIS for oil and gas lease sales tentatively scheduled in 2013 and 2014 in the WPA and CPA offshore... environmental and socioeconomic analyses for proposed WPA Lease Sale 233 and proposed CPA Lease Sale 231,...

  8. 45 CFR 233.53 - Support and maintenance assistance (including home energy assistance) in AFDC.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support and maintenance assistance (including home... § 233.53 Support and maintenance assistance (including home energy assistance) in AFDC. (a) General. At State option, certain support and maintenance assistance (including home energy assistance) may...

  9. D2.3.3 Evaluation results of the LinkedUp VICI competition

    Drachsler, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This document D2.3.3 is the final report of Task 2.4 – Evaluation of challenge submissions. Task 2.4 is about the actual assessment of the participating projects within the LinkedUp Veni, Vidi and Vici competition on the basis of the LinkedUp Evaluation Framework (D2.2.1). The main objective of Task

  10. 46 CFR 153.233 - Separation of tanks from machinery, service and other spaces.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of tanks from machinery, service and other... Design and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 153.233 Separation of tanks from machinery, service and... joint: (1) Machinery spaces. (2) Service spaces. (3) Accommodation spaces. (4) Spaces for...

  11. Investigations on production of 233U using few pin thoria in existing PHWRs

    Thorium is not a fissile material and cannot be used to either start or sustain the chain reaction. Therefore, a reactor using thorium would also need either enriched uranium or plutonium to sustain the chain reaction until enough of the thorium has converted to fissile 233U. In order to retrieve and reprocess the irradiated fuel, the bundle is designed with few thoria pins and rest SEU pins. In the present study, different pin configurations of thoria in 19 and 37 element fuel clusters of Indian PHWRs have been considered. The lattice calculations have been done using the multi-group transport theory code CLUB. The variations of k∞ versus burn up are depicted in the paper. The production of 233U (considering also the decay of 233Pa into 233U) is also shown. Average discharge burn ups of the order 20 and 17 GWd/Te can be achieved with the use of thoria pins in 19 and 37 element fuel clusters respectively with appropriate bundle shift scheme. Derating of power is required during operation because of bundle power restrictions. It is found that 1 pin thoria configuration is preferable from the point of view of fuel requirements and power reduction consideration. Since 37 element fuel cluster used in 540 MWe PHWR fuel has large margins in bundle power, the restriction in power operation is much less than 19 element fuel cluster used in 220 MWe PHWR

  12. 78 FR 18232 - Amendment of VOR Federal Airway V-233, Springfield, IL

    2013-03-26

    ... depiction of the airway. When V- 233 was amended in the Federal Register of August 8, 2005 (70 FR 45527... Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  13. 16 CFR 233.2 - Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons.

    2010-01-01

    ... GUIDES AGAINST DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.2 Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons. (a... fountain pens at $10, it is not dishonest for retailer Doe to advertise: “Brand X Pens, Price Elsewhere $10... here would be deceptive, since the price charged by the small suburban outlets would have no...

  14. Recovery of 233U from waste and minimization of modifier with supercritical fluid extraction

    The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method was used to remove 233U from a real time tissue paper waste generated in our laboratory and resulted in about 97% of extraction efficiency. Optimization of modifier flow rate was carried out to minimize the generation of secondary liquid waste, a significant endeavour in the context of large-scale waste treatment plant. (author)

  15. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides the information and instructions to be used for sampling and analysis activities in the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility. The information and instructions herein are separated into three parts and address the Data Quality Objective (DQO) Summary Report, Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAP), and SAP

  16. Measured and calculated fission-product poisoning in neutron-irradiated uranium-233

    Samples of 233U and of natural thorium have been irradiated in high neutron-flux facilities, in both soft and hard neutron spectra, and for both short and long exposure times. Included are exposures resulting in depletions of more than 90 percent of the 233U in the fissile material and burnups of more than 30,000 MWd/MT in the fertile material. Fission-product poison cross sections in two energy groups (thermal and epithermal) exhibit differences between measurement and calculation that are believed to be attributable to a lack of adequate information on important fission products in the literature. Experimental results for transient absorbers in irradiated 233U give at least 20,000 b for the neutron absorption resonance integral of 149Pm. This is a factor of 15 higher than that obtained by a 1/v extrapolation of the thermal cross sections. For transient 135Xe, the measured absorption is 7.5 percent higher than that calculated using ENDF/B-IV data. Information is also provided concerning such matters as fission yields and neutron absorption of neodymium isotopes, the existence of significant transient fission-product poisons other than 135Xe and 149Sm, and the shielding of 233U by 232Th. Such shielding suggests the need for a change in the energy dependence of the 232Th thermal-neutron cross section

  17. Comparison on decay process of explosive products for 233U and weapon-grade plutonium

    Comparison on the nuclear explosive products' radioactivity, biological hazard potential , energy deposition after nuclear explosion between the model of 233U and the model of weapon- grade plutonium was made. The detail analysis of the process of above physics quantities in the model of weapon-grade Plutonium was also given

  18. Use of nuclear recoil for separating 228Ra, 224Ra, and 233Pa from colloidal thorium

    By using α-recoil it is possible to separate by dialysis the α disintegration products (224 Ra; 228 Ra) of thorium from colloidal thorium hydroxide.The use of n, γ recoil allows the separation of 233Pa produced by the neutron irradiation of thorium, on condition that the colloidal thorium hydroxide is irradiated in the presence of a dispersing. (author)

  19. Radiological safety experience in the fabrication of alloy plate fuels bearing 233U/Pu

    The first incidence of 233U-bearing fuel fabrication in India was the production of aluminum-clad Al-233U alloy fuel for the Kamini research reactor. The reactor physics experiments for this fuel are now being carried out in the Purnima III critical assembly, where Al-Pu alloy plate fuels will also be used. Both types of fuels were fabricated in the radiometallurgy laboratories of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The hazard potential of each step, evaluated from the site-specific radiological field data, is summarized. The parameters analyzed for this purpose include external and internal radiation hazards, contamination hazards, age of fuel material (i.e., time after separation), and experimental thermoluminescent detector exposure data. Gamma spectrometric data of the finished fuel plates were also analyzed for their utility in checking the material inventory. The collective dose equivalent from the fabrication operations for 12 subassemblies (9 bearing 233U and 3 bearing plutonium) was 67 mSv, arising from external exposures only. The internal exposure was nil. Fabrication of fuel plates constituted >60% of the total exposure. Fabrication of fuel subassemblies and quality control inspection at all the stages accounted for the remaining radiation exposure. Handling of 233U/Pu-bearing fuels is likely to increase in the years ahead in India. In this context, analysis of radiological field data has yielded useful guidelines for future work

  20. Study of electrodeposition technique to prepare alpha-counting plates of uranium 233

    The electrodeposition technique to prepare alpha-counting plates of 233U for its determination is presented. To determine the optimum conditions for plating 233U the effects of such parameters as current density, pH of eletrotype, salt concentration, time of electrolysis and distance electrodes were studied. A carrier method was developed to attain a quantitative electrodeposition of 233U from aqueous solutions into alpha counting paltes. A single and incremental addition of natural uranium and thorium as carrier were studied. All samples were prepared using a electrodeposition cell manufactured at the IPEN, especially for use in electroplating tracer actinides. This cell is made of a metal-lucite to contain the electrolyte, which bottom is a polished brass disk coated with a Ni film serving as the cathode. A Pt wire anode is fixed on the top of the cell. The electroplated samples were alpha-counted using a surface barrier detector. A recovery of more than 99% was obtained in specific conditions. The plating procedure produced deposits which were firmly distributed over the plate area. The method was applied to determine tracer amounts of 233U from oxalate and nitrate solutions coming from chemical processing irradiated thorium. (Author)

  1. 48 CFR 852.233-70 - Protest content/alternative dispute resolution.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protest content... Provisions and Clauses § 852.233-70 Protest content/alternative dispute resolution. As prescribed in 833.106, insert the following provision: Protest Content/Alternative Dispute Resolution (JAN 2008) (a) Any...

  2. Strategy for the future use and disposition of Uranium-233: History, inventories, storage facilities, and potential future uses

    This document provides background information on the man-made radioisotope 233U. It is one of a series of four reports that map out potential national strategies for the future use and disposition of 233U pending action under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The scope of this report is separated 233U, where separated refers to nonwaste 233U or 233U that has been separated from fission products. Information on other 233U, such as that in spent nuclear fuel (SNF), is included only to recognize that it may be separated at a later date and then fall under the scope of this report. The background information in this document includes the historical production and current inventory of 233U, the uses of 233U, and a discussion of the available facilities for storing 233U. The considerations for what fraction of the current inventory should be preserved for future use depend on several issues. First, 233U always contains a small amount of the contaminant isotope 232U. The decay products of 232U are highly radioactive and require special handling. The current inventory has a variety of qualities with regard to 232U content, ranging from 1 to about 200 ppm (on a total uranium basis). It is preferable to use 233U with the minimum amount of 232U in all applications. The second issue pertains to other isotopes of uranium mixed in with the 233U, specifically 235U and 238U. A large portion of the inventory has a high quantity of 235U associated with it. The presence of bulk amounts of 235U complicates storage because of the added volume needing safeguards and criticality controls. Isotopic dilution using DU may remove safeguards and criticality concerns, but it increases the overall mass and may limit applications that depend on the fissile nature of 233U. The third issue concerns the packaging of the material. There is no standard packaging (although one is being developed); consequently, the inventory exists in a variety of packages. For some applications, the

  3. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act. 233.145 Section 233.145 Public Welfare... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.145 Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A,...

  4. Review of thorium-U233 cycle thermal reactor benchmark studies

    A survey is made of many existing integral experiments for U233 systems and thorium-uranium based fuel systems. The aim is to understand to what extent they give a consistent test of ENDF/B-IV nuclear data. A principal result is the ENDF/B-IV leads to an underprediction of leakage. Extensive results from testing alternate thorium data sets are presented. For one evaluation due to Leonard they depict a possibly growing discrepance between measured integral parameters such as rho02 and I'232 and the differential data, which underpredicts them. Sensitivities to other nuclear data components, notably the fission neutron spectrum, were determined. A new harder U233 spectrum significantly reduces a bias trend in K/sub eff/ vs. leakage

  5. Review of thorium-U233 cycle thermal reactor benchmark studies (AWBA Development Program)

    A survey is made of existing integral experiments for U233 systems and thorium-uranium based fuel systems. The aim is to understand to what extent they give a consistent test of ENDF/B-IV nuclear data. A principal result is that ENDF/B-IV leads to an underprediction of neutron leakage. Results from testing alternate thorium data sets are presented. For one evaluation due to Leonard, the results depict a possible growing discrepancy between measured integral parameters such as rho02 and I232 and the differential data, which underpredicts these parameters. Sensitivities to other nuclear data components, notably the fission neutron spectrum, were determined. A new harder U233 spectrum significantly reduces a bias trend in K/sub eff/ vs leakage

  6. Emerging new options for harnessing the Th-233U cycle in India

    The recent development of the concept of Fusion Breeders especially the invention of the Fission Suppressed Blanket, coupled with parallel rapid strides in fusion technology (particularly of Tokamaks) has given a welcome new boost to the prospects of harnessing the Th-233U cycle. Their studies show that even sub-Lawson Fusion Breeders which are net consumers of electrical energy will be good enough to give adequate growth rates of nuclear generating capacity, provided the fusion bred 233U is used in either fast or thermal breeders of thermal near-breeders having high conversion ratios (>0.98). The paper presents an overview of the main results of studies underway in these areas both at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay and the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam

  7. Study of the excited levels of 233Pa by the 237Np alpha decay

    The excited levels in 233Pa following the 237Np alpha decay have been studied, by performing different experiences to complete available data and supply new information. Thus, two direct alpha spectrum measurement, one alpha-gamma bidimensional coincidence experiment, three gamma-gamma and gamma-X ray coincidences and some other measurements of the gamma spectrum, direct and coincident with alpha-particles have been made. These last experiences have allowed to obviate usual radiochemical separation methods, the 233Pa radioactive descendent interferences being eliminated by means of the coincidence technic. As a result, a primary decay scheme has been elaborated, including 15 new gamma transitions and two new levels, not observed in the most recent works. (Author) 60 refs

  8. 233Pa(n, f) cross section up to En=8.5 MeV

    The energy dependence of the neutron-induced fission cross section of 233Pa has been measured directly for the first time from the fission threshold up to En=8.5 MeV. This reaction plays an important role in the thorium-uranium fuel cycle, and is thus of interest for the design and modeling of advanced reactor and transmutation facilities. The existing information in the ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3.3 evaluated nuclear data files differ by a factor of two for the 233Pa(n, f) cross section values and show different fission threshold energies. Our new experimental data give lower cross section values than both evaluations and resolves the question about the threshold energy. In addition to the experimental investigation, also a new theoretical calculation of the reaction cross section has been performed with the statistical model code STATIS, showing a good agreement with the experimental data

  9. ALARA Review for the Decontamination, Deactivation and Housekeeping of the 233-S Viewing Room

    A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Safety and Health Procedures, Procedure 1.22, 'Planning Radiological Work', when radiological conditions exceed trigger level. The level of contamination inside the viewing room of the 233-S Facility meets this criterion. This ALARA review is for task instructions 1997-03-18-005-8.3.1, 'Instructions for Routine Entries and Minor Maintenance Work at 233-S,' and 8.3.2, 'Instructions for Deactivation, Decon, and Housekeeping in Viewing Room.' The radiological work permit (RWP) request broke the two task instructions into nine separate tasks. The nine tasks identified in the RWP request were used to estimate airborne concentrations and the total exposure

  10. Analysis of the BNL ThO2-233U exponential experiments

    The BNL ThO2--3 w/o 233U light-water-moderated exponential experiments were analyzed to evaluate (1) cross section library sets for 233U and 232Th, and (2) correlations with measured ThO2 resonance integral data. A total of six cross section library sets were evaluated, including ENDF/B-2 and ENDF/B-3 libraries for 232Th, ENDF/B-2 library for 233U, and ThO2 resonance integral correlations based on data by Weitman and Pettus, Hardy and Palowitch, and corrections to the latter data by Steen. A modified version of the LEOPARD code was used throughout this analysis. The principle results of this work are as follows: (1) The library set containing ENDF/B-2 data for 233U and ENDF/B-3 data for 232Th, together with ThO2 resonance integral correlation based on Steen's corrections to the Hardy and Palowitch data, yields the best agreement with measurements, giving an average k/sub eff/ of 0.9975 with a standard deviation of 0.0067 for the 21 analyzed configurations. (2) With respect to this ''best'' set, the ENDF/B-2 232Th data is less reactive than the corresponding ENDF/B-3 data by approximately 0.1 percent Δk. (3) The ThO2 resonance integral correlation based on data by Weitman and Pettus yields resonance integrals that are consistently higher than those produced by the correlation with Steen's values, even though the latter is normalized to an infinitely dilute resonance integral of 85.9 barns (0.5 ev cutoff), while the former is normalized to a corresponding value of 80 barns. Thus, with respect to the ''best'' set, the ThO2 resonance integral correlation based on the Weitman and Pettus data is less reactive by approximately 0.7 percent Δk

  11. Measurement and analysis of anti ν energy dependence for 233U, 238U, 239Pu

    The energy dependence of the average yield of prompt neutrons per fission (anti ν) for U233, U238 and Pu239 in the incident neutron energy range (Esub(n)) up to 5 MeV has been studied using an electrostatic accelerator. The recommended curves for anti ν (Esub(n)) has been obtained with the help of the polynomial least square method fitting. The resons of deviations from the linear dependence have been analysed

  12. Final purification of 233U from thorium by Dowex 50x4 in Thorex process

    The 233U product obtained after a single cycle 5% tributyl phosphate/shell sol T extraction, scrubbing and stripping often contains significant amount of thorium as impurity. Further purification is normally carried out using ion exchange. The present paper summarises the results of the studies carried out to find out the various factors responsible for the extraordinary binding of thorium ion at the exchanger site while exploring the possibility of eluting total thorium using HNO3 alone

  13. Core design options for high conversion BWRs operating in Th–233U fuel cycle

    Highlights: • BWR core operating in a closed self-sustainable Th–233U fuel cycle. • Seed blanket optimization that includes assembly size array and axial dimensions. • Fully coupled MC with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules. • Thermal-hydraulic analysis includes MCPR observation. -- Abstract: Several options of fuel assembly design are investigated for a BWR core operating in a closed self-sustainable Th–233U fuel cycle. The designs rely on an axially heterogeneous fuel assembly structure consisting of a single axial fissile zone “sandwiched” between two fertile blanket zones, in order to improve fertile to fissile conversion ratio. The main objective of the study was to identify the most promising assembly design parameters, dimensions of fissile and fertile zones, for achieving net breeding of 233U. The design challenge, in this respect, is that the fuel breeding potential is at odds with axial power peaking and the core minimum critical power ratio (CPR), hence limiting the maximum achievable core power rating. Calculations were performed with the BGCore system, which consists of the MCNP code coupled with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules. A single 3-dimensional fuel assembly having reflective radial boundaries was modeled applying simplified restrictions on the maximum centerline fuel temperature and the CPR. It was found that axially heterogeneous fuel assembly design with a single fissile zone can potentially achieve net breeding, while matching conventional BWR core power rating under certain restrictions to the core loading pattern design

  14. Characteristics of Modular Fast Reactor SVBR-100 Using Thorium-Uranium (233) Fuel

    Natural reserves of thorium are three times as much as those of uranium. For that reason, thorium is a very promising raw material for manufacturing an artificial fissionable isotope of uranium-233 that is formed when neutrons are absorbed by thorium. Many countries are investigating characteristics of reactors using thorium-uranium (233) fuel. First, breeding ratio (BR) is of interest because only when BR = 1, the reactor can operate in a closed fuel cycle in a mode of fuel self-providing without makeup by other fissionable isotopes. The report presents the results of calculations of neutron-physical and thermal-hydraulic characteristics of SVBR-100 - lead-bismuth cooled small power modular fast reactor using thorium-uranium (233) fuel. Reactor SVBR-100 has specific properties of inherent self-protection and passive safety. The NPP modular power-units, which power equals to a value divisible by 100 MWe, can be constructed on the basis of reactor modules SVBR-100. (author)

  15. ALARA review for the decontamination and decommissioning of the 233-S pipe trench

    The 233-S Facility was completed in 1955 to expand plutonium production by further concentrating the plutonium nitrate product solution from the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Plant. The facility is radiologically contaminated because of operations and accidents. Isolation from REDOX and removal of the product transfer lines from the pipe trench is the second step in the decontamination and decommissioning of the entire 233-S Facility. The work scope is to isolate all piping from REDOX and then to remove all the piping/equipment from the pipe trench. The building is presently a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility. A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Procedure No. 1.22, Planning Radiological Work, when radiological conditions exceed trigger levels. The level of contamination inside the pipe trench and the process fluid piping is unknown. The potential exists to exceed the level of loose surface contamination, which requires a formal ALARA review when opening the pipe trench and cutting of piping commences. This ALARA review is for task instruction 1997-03-18-009 Revision 1, 233-S Pipe Trench Decon and Pipe Removal

  16. Criticality safety validation: Simple geometry, single unit {sup 233}U systems

    Putman, V.L.

    1997-06-01

    Typically used LMITCO criticality safety computational methods are evaluated for suitability when applied to INEEL {sup 233}U systems which reasonably can be modeled as simple-geometry, single-unit systems. Sixty-seven critical experiments of uranium highly enriched in {sup 233}U, including 57 aqueous solution, thermal-energy systems and 10 metal, fast-energy systems, were modeled. These experiments include 41 cylindrical and 26 spherical cores, and 41 reflected and 26 unreflected systems. No experiments were found for intermediate-neutron-energy ranges, or with interstitial non-hydrogenous materials typical of waste systems, mixed {sup 233}U and plutonium, or reflectors such as steel, lead, or concrete. No simple geometry experiments were found with cubic or annular cores, or approximating infinite sea systems. Calculations were performed with various tools and methodologies. Nine cross-section libraries, based on ENDF/B-IV, -V, or -VI.2, or on Hansen-Roach source data, were used with cross-section processing methods of MCNP or SCALE. The k{sub eff} calculations were performed with neutral-particle transport and Monte Carlo methods of criticality codes DANT, MCNP 4A, and KENO Va.

  17. Measurement of 233U fission spectrum-averaged cross sections for some threshold reactions

    The 233U fission spectrum-averaged cross sections for twelve threshold reactions were measured relative to the average cross section of 0.688 ± 0.040 mb for the 27Al(n,α)24Na reaction. The reference value was obtained by calculation using the energy dependent cross section in the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL) Dosimetry File and the Watt-type fission spectrum in ENDF/B-VI. General agreement was seen between the measured and the calculated fission-spectrum averaged cross sections. However, there exist discrepancies of more than 10% between the measured and the calculated average cross sections for the 24Mg(n,p)24Na, 47Ti(n,p)47Sc, and 64Zn(n,p)64Cu reactions. The tendencies in the calculated-to-measured ratios are similar to those for 235U fission spectrum-averaged cross sections the authors previously measured. The measured average cross sections were also applied for the spectrum adjustment of the 233U fission neutrons using the Neutron Unfolding Package Code (NEUPAC). The adjusted spectrum is close to the Watt-type fission spectrum of 233U within the uncertainties of the obtained spectrum, although there exist some fluctuations in the ratio spectrum of the adjusted to the Watt-type

  18. Neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections of 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu

    Differential-neutron-emission cross sections of 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu are measured between approx. = 1.0 and 3.5 MeV with the angle and magnitude detail needed to provide angle-integrated emission cross sections to approx. 232Th, 233U, 235U and 238U inelastic-scattering values, poor agreement is observed for 240Pu, and a serious discrepancy exists in the case of 239Pu

  19. The calculation of prompt fission neutron spectrum for 233U(n,f) reaction by the semi-empirical method

    Chen, Yong-Jing; Min, Jia; Liu, Ting-Jin; Shu, Neng-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    The prompt fission neutron spectra for neutron-induced fission of 233U for low energy neutrons (below 6 MeV) are calculated using the nuclear evaporation theory with a semi-empirical method, in which the partition of the total excitation energy between the fission fragments for the nth+233U fission reactions are determined with the available experimental and evaluation data. The calculated prompt fission neutron spectra agree well with the experimental data. The proportions of high- energy ou...

  20. The study of 233Pa having the effect on reactivity swings during reactors start up and shutdown

    233Pa is an important nuclide in the Th-U conversion chain with a long half-life (27.4 d) and has large neutron absorption cross section, which influence the Th-U conversion ratio fuel and the operation of a Th-U fuelled reactor. On the basis of transport diffusion module and burn up module of the Dragon package, which gets the direct ratio relation- ship between 233Th, 233Pa and 233U concentration and the neutron flux levels, and gets the 233Pa having the effect on re activity swings during reactors start up and shutdown. The higher the neutron flux levels, the greater the loss of reactivity after reactors start up and the more significant increase of reactivity after reactors shutdown. Through the study of the 233Pa having the effect on reactivity swings during reactors start up and shutdown, it provides reference data for reactors using Th-U fuel with safe operation when reactors start up and shutdown. (authors)

  1. M233I Mutation in the β-Tubulin of Botrytis cinerea Confers Resistance to Zoxamide.

    Cai, Meng; Lin, Dong; Chen, Lei; Bi, Yang; Xiao, Lu; Liu, Xi-li

    2015-01-01

    Three phenotypes were detected in 161 Botrytis cinerea field isolates, including Zox(S)Car(S) (sensitive to zoxamide and carbendazim), Zox(S)Car(R) (sensitive to zoxamide and resistant to carbendazim), and Zox(R)Car(R) (resistant to zoxamide and carbendazim), but not Zox(R)Car(S) (resistant to zoxamide and sensitive to carbendazim). The baseline sensitivity to zoxamide was determined with a mean EC50 of 0.76 μg/ml. Two stable Zox(R)Car(S) isolates were obtained with a resistance factor of 13.28 and 20.43; there was a fitness penalty in mycelial growth rate, sporulation, virulence and sclerotium production. The results suggest that the resistance risk of B. cinerea to zoxamide is low where benzimidazoles have not been used. E198V, E198K and M233I, were detected in the β-tubulin of Zox(S)Car(R), Zox(R)Car(R), Zox(R)Car(S), respectively. Molecular docking indicated that position 198 in β-tubulin were targets for both zoxamide and carbendazim. The mutations at 198 prevented formation of hydrogen bonds between β-tubulin and carbendazim (E198V/K), and changed the conformation of the binding pocket of zoxamide (E198K). M233I had no effect on the binding of carbendazim but resulted in loss of a hydrogen bond between zoxamide and F200. M233 is suggested to be a unique target site for zoxamide and be very important in the function of β tubulin. PMID:26596626

  2. A programme of evaluation, processing and testing of nuclear data for Th-232 and U-233

    As part of the IAEA-NDS sponsored Co-ordinated Research Programme on the intercomparison of evaluations of Actinide Neutron Nucelar Data, a programme has been undertaken at RRC for Th-232 and U-233. This paper presents results highlighting the extent to which evaluations in JENDL-2, INDIAN, ENDF/B-V, ENDL-84, FRENCH SET(1969), INDL/A-83(RUMANIAN), ENDF/B-IV and JENDL-1 files are consistent with the measured value of σ/sub c//σ/sub eta/ for Th-232 at the center of THOR assembly which emphasizes transport of neutrons in the fission source energy range

  3. Simultaneous measurement of the neutron capture and fission yields of {sup 233}U

    Berthoumieux, E.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.A.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.A.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Calvino, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapic, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Kappeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martinez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O' Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M.T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K

    2008-07-01

    We have measured the neutron capture and fission cross section of {sup 233}U at the neutron time-of-flight facility n-TOF at CERN in the energy range from 1 eV to 1 MeV with high accuracy by using a high performance 4{pi} BaF{sub 2} Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) as a detection device. The method, based on the shape analysis of the TAC energy response, allowing to disentangle between {gamma}'s originating from fission and capture will be presented as well as the first very preliminary results. (authors)

  4. Simultaneous measurement of the neutron capture and fission yields of 233U

    We have measured the neutron capture and fission cross section of 233U at the neutron time-of-flight facility n-TOF at CERN in the energy range from 1 eV to 1 MeV with high accuracy by using a high performance 4π BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) as a detection device. The method, based on the shape analysis of the TAC energy response, allowing to disentangle between γ's originating from fission and capture will be presented as well as the first very preliminary results. (authors)

  5. Gastrointestinal absorption and retention of plutonium-238 and uranium-233 in neonatal swine

    Newborn swine absorbed as much as one-half of a gavaged dose of 238Pu nitrate within 6 to 12 hr, and another one-fourth of the dose was retained in the stomach for up to 24 hr after intragastric administration. The small intestine accumulated one-third of the dose within 36 hr. Animals gavaged between 5 and 21 days of age absorbed decreasing amounts, especially at 14 and 21 days. Absorption of 233Pu (gavaged as the nitrate) by day-old pigs was similar to that of 238Pu

  6. Fabrication of zero power reactor fuel elements containing 233U3O8 powder

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, under contract with Argonne National Laboratory, completed the fabrication of 1743 fuel elements for use in their Zero Power Reactor. The contract also included recovery of 20 kg of 233U from rejected elements. This report describes the steps associated with conversion of purified uranyl nitrate (as solution) to U3O8 powder (suitable for fuel) and subsequent charging, sealing, decontamination, and testing of the fuel elements (packets) preparatory to shipment. The nuclear safety, radiation exposures, and quality assurance aspects of the program are discussed

  7. Shutdown margin for high conversion BWRs operating in Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle

    Shaposhnik, Y., E-mail: shaposhy@bgu.ac.il [NRCN – Nuclear Research Center Negev, POB 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Shwageraus, E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Elias, E. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City 32000, Haifa (Israel)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • BWR core operating in a closed self-sustainable Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle. • Shutdown Margin in Th-RBWR design. • Fully coupled MC with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules. • Thermal–hydraulic analysis includes MCPR observation. - Abstract: Several reactivity control system design options are explored in order to satisfy shutdown margin (SDM) requirements in a high conversion BWRs operating in Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle (Th-RBWR). The studied core has an axially heterogeneous fuel assembly structure with a single fissile zone “sandwiched” between two fertile blanket zones. The utilization of an originally suggested RBWR Y-shape control rod in Th-RBWR is shown to be insufficient for maintaining adequate SDM to balance the high negative reactivity feedbacks, while maintaining fuel breeding potential, core power rating, and minimum Critical Power Ratio (CPR). Implementation of alternative reactivity control materials, reducing axial leakage through non-uniform enrichment distribution, use of burnable poisons, reducing number of pins as well as increasing pin diameter are also shown to be incapable of meeting the SDM requirements. Instead, an alternative assembly design, based on Rod Cluster Control Assembly with absorber rods was investigated. This design matches the reference ABWR core power and has adequate shutdown margin. The new concept was modeled as a single three-dimensional fuel assembly having reflective radial boundaries, using the BGCore system, which consists of the MCNP code coupled with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules.

  8. 232Th, 233Pa, and 234U capture cross-section measurements in moderated neutron flux

    The Th-U cycle was studied through the evolution of a 100 μg 232Th sample irradiated in a moderated neutron flux of 8.01014 n/cm2/s, intensity close to that of a thermal molten salt reactor. After 43 days of irradiation and 6 months of cooling, a precise mass spectrometric analysis, using both TIMS and MC-ICP-MS techniques, was performed, according to a rigorous methodology. The measured thorium and uranium isotopic ratios in the final irradiated sample were then compared with integral simulations based on evaluated data; an overall good agreement was seen. Four important thermal neutron-capture cross-sections were also extracted from the measurements, 232Th (7.34±0.21 b), 233Pa (38.34±1.78 b), 234U (106.12±3.34 b), and 235U (98.15±11.24 b). Our 232Th and 235U results confirmed existing values whereas the cross-sections of 233Pa and 234U (both key parameters) have been redefined

  9. A novel GH secretagogue, A233, exhibits enhanced growth activity and innate immune system stimulation in teleosts fish.

    Martinez, Rebeca; Ubieta, Kenia; Herrera, Fidel; Forellat, Alina; Morales, Reynold; de la Nuez, Ania; Rodriguez, Rolando; Reyes, Osvaldo; Oliva, Ayme; Estrada, Mario P

    2012-09-01

    In teleosts fish, secretion of GH is regulated by several hypothalamic factors that are influenced by the physiological state of the animal. There is an interaction between immune and endocrine systems through hormones and cytokines. GH in fish is involved in many physiological processes that are not overtly growth related, such as saltwater osmoregulation, antifreeze synthesis, and the regulation of sexual maturation and immune functions. This study was conducted to characterize a decapeptide compound A233 (GKFDLSPEHQ) designed by molecular modeling to evaluate its function as a GH secretagogue (GHS). In pituitary cell culture, the peptide A233 induces GH secretion and it is also able to increase superoxide production in tilapia head-kidney leukocyte cultures. This effect is blocked by preincubation with the GHS receptor antagonist [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP6. Immunoneutralization of GH by addition of anti-tilapia GH monoclonal antibody blocked the stimulatory effect of A233 on superoxide production. These experiments propose a GH-mediated mechanism for the action of A233. The in vivo biological action of the decapeptide was also demonstrated for growth stimulation in goldfish and tilapia larvae (Ptilapia larvae treated with this novel molecule. The decapeptide A233 designed by molecular modeling is able to function as a GHS in teleosts and enhance parameters of the innate immune system in the fish larvae. PMID:22707376

  10. Assessment of the available 233U cross-section evaluations in the calculation of critical benchmark experiments

    In this report we investigate the adequacy of the available 233U cross-section data for calculation of experimental critical systems. The 233U evaluations provided in two evaluated nuclear data libraries, the U.S. Data Bank [ENDF/B (Evaluated Nuclear Data Files)] and the Japanese Data Bank [JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library)] are examined. Calculations were performed for six thermal and ten fast experimental critical systems using the Sn transport XSDRNPM code. To verify the performance of the 233U cross-section data for nuclear criticality safety application in which the neutron energy spectrum is predominantly in the epithermal energy range, calculations of four numerical benchmark systems with energy spectra in the intermediate energy range were done. These calculations serve only as an indication of the difference in calculated results that may be expected when the two 233U cross-section evaluations are used for problems with neutron spectra in the intermediate energy range. Additionally, comparisons of experimental and calculated central fission rate ratios were also made. The study has suggested that an ad hoc 233U evaluation based on the JENDL library provides better overall results for both fast and thermal experimental critical systems

  11. Assessment of the Available (Sup 233)U Cross Sections Evaluations in the Calculation of Critical Benchmark Experiments

    Leal, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    In this report we investigate the adequacy of the available {sup 233}U cross-section data for calculation of experimental critical systems. The {sup 233}U evaluations provided in two evaluated nuclear data libraries, the U. S. Data Bank [ENDF/B (Evaluated Nuclear Data Files)] and the Japanese Data Bank [JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library)] are examined. Calculations were performed for six thermal and ten fast experimental critical systems using the Sn transport XSDRNPM code. To verify the performance of the {sup 233}U cross-section data for nuclear criticality safety application in which the neutron energy spectrum is predominantly in the epithermal energy range, calculations of four numerical benchmark systems with energy spectra in the intermediate energy range were done. These calculations serve only as an indication of the difference in calculated results that may be expected when the two {sup 233}U cross-section evaluations are used for problems with neutron spectra in the intermediate energy range. Additionally, comparisons of experimental and calculated central fission rate ratios were also made. The study has suggested that an ad hoc {sup 233}U evaluation based on the JENDL library provides better overall results for both fast and thermal experimental critical systems.

  12. Contribution to the study of 233U production with MOX-ThPu fuel in PWR reactor. Transition scenarios towards Th/233U iso-generating concepts in thermal spectrum. Development of the MURE fuel evolution code

    If nuclear power is to provide a significant fraction of the growing world energy demand, only through the breeding concept can the development of sustainable nuclear energy become a reality. The study of such a transition, from present-day nuclear technologies to future breeding concepts is therefore pertinent. Among these future concepts, those using the thorium cycle Th/U-233 in a thermal neutron spectrum are of particular interest; molten-salt type thermal reactors would allow for breeding while requiring comparatively low initial inventories of U-233. The upstream production of U-233 can be obtained through the use of thorium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel in present-day light water reactors. This work presents, firstly, the development of the MURE evolution code system, a C++ object-oriented code that allows the study, through Monte Carlo (M.C.) simulation, of nuclear reactors and the evolution of their fuel under neutron irradiation. The M.C. methods are well-suited for the study of any reactor, whether it'd be an existing reactor using a new kind of fuel or a future concept altogether, the simulation is only dependent on nuclear data. Exact and complex geometries can be simulated and continuous energy particle transport is performed. MURE is an interface with MCNP, the well-known and validated transport code, that allows, among other functionalities, to simulate constant power and constant reactivity evolutions. Secondly, the study of MOX ThPu fuel in a conventional light water reactor (REP) is presented; it explores different plutonium concentrations and isotopic qualities in order to evaluate their safety characteristics. Simulation of their evolution allows us to quantify the production of U-233 at the end of burnup. Last, different french scenarios validating a possible transition towards a park of thermal Th/U-233 breeders, are presented. In these scenarios, U-233 is produced in ThPu moxed light water reactors. (author)

  13. Calculation of the neutron induced fission cross-section of 233Pa up to 20 MeV

    Since very recently, direct measurements of the 233Pa(n,f) cross-section are available in the energy range from 1.0 to 8.5 MeV. This has stimulated a new, self-consistent, neutron cross-section evaluation for the n+233Pa system, in the incident neutron energy range 0.01-20 MeV. Since higher fission chances are involved also the lighter Pa-isotopes had to be re-evaluated in a consistent manner. The results are quite different compared to earlier evaluation attempts. Since 233Pa is a key isotope in the thorium based fuel cycle the quality of its reaction cross-sections is important for the modeling of future advanced fuel and reactor concepts. The present status of the evaluated libraries is that they differ by a factor of two in the absolute fission cross-section and also in the threshold energy value

  14. Analysis of Hydrogen Generation and Accumulation in U-233 Tube Vaults

    The purpose of the 233U Safe Storage Program is to enhance the safe storage of 233U-bearing materials. This report describes the work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Radiochemical Development Facility (RDF) to address questions related to possible hydrogen generation and accumulation in 233U tube vaults. The objective of this effort was to verify assumptions in the mathematical model used to estimate the hydrogen content of the gaseous atmosphere that possibly could occur inside the tube vaults in Building 3019 and to evaluate proposed measures for mitigating any hydrogen concerns. A mathematical model was developed using conservative assumptions to evaluate possible hydrogen generation and accumulation in the tube vaults. The model concluded that an equilibrium concentration would be established below the lower flammability limit (LFL) of 4.1% hydrogen. The major assumptions used in the model that were validated are as follows: (1) The shield plug does not form a seal with the tube vault wall, thus allowing the hydrogen gas to diffuse past the shield plug to the upper section of the tube vault. (2) The tube vault end-cap leaks sufficiently to allow air to be drawn into the tube vault by the off-gas system, thereby purging hydrogen from the upper section of the tube vault. (3) Any hydrogen gas generated completely mixes with the other gases present in the lower section of the tube vault and does not stratify beneath the shield plug. (4) The diffusion coefficient determined from the literature for constant diffusion of hydrogen in air is valid. The coefficient is corrected for temperatures from 0 to 25 C. Another assumption used in the model, that hydrogen generated by radiolytic decomposition of hydrogen-bearing materials (e.g., moisture and plastic) leaks from the cans under steady-state condition, as opposed to a sudden release resulting from rupture of the can(s), was beyond the scope of this investigation. Several parameters from the original model

  15. High conversion Th–U233 fuel for current generation of PWRs: Part II – 3D full core analysis

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional full core analysis of high conversion Th–U233 PWR was performed. • Thermal–hydraulic safety margins were evaluated. • Feasibility of achieving conversion ratio close to unity was demonstrated. • The major tradeoffs are lower power output and shorter fuel cycle. - Abstract: This study explores a possibility of designing a high conversion (HC) Th–U233 core for current generation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Increasing the conversion ratio in existing PWRs can potentially improve the utilization of natural resources, through the exploitation of vast thorium reserves and reduction in natural uranium demand. HC can be achieved through the use of heterogeneous seed-blanket (SB) Th–U233 fuel assembly design, where the supercritical seed works as a neutron supplier, while the subcritical blanket acts as U233 breeder. One of the main challenges associated with the heterogeneous SB fuel assembly designs is significant power imbalance between the seed and blanket regions caused by the high concentration of fissile material in the seed region and consequently requiring a substantial reduction in the core average power density. The main objectives of the current work are: (1) to design a high conversion SB Th–U233 fuel assembly which is directly retrofittable into existing PWRs without introducing significant modifications into the core and plant design; (2) to estimate the reasonably achievable core power density level at which reactor safety is not compromised by performing 3D coupled neutronic and thermal–hydraulic (T–H) analysis of a typical PWR core fully loaded with HC Th–U233 SB fuel. Part II of the two-part paper reports on the steady-state whole core analysis of 100% Th–U233 fueled PWR. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility in principle of achieving conversion ratio close to unity for a Th–U233 PWR core operating at power density of 60 W/cc, in three-batch annual fuel cycle and without

  16. 233U mass yield measurements around and within the symmetry region with the ILL Lohengrin spectrometer

    Chebboubi, A.; Kessedjian, G.; Sage, C.; Bernard, D.; Blanc, A.; Faust, H.; Köster, U.; Litaize, O.; Mutti, P.; Serot, O.

    2016-03-01

    The study of fission yields has a major impact on the characterization and understanding of the fission process and is mandatory for reactor applications. The LPSC in collaboration with ILL and CEA has developed a measurement program on fission fragment distributions at the Lohengrin spectrometer of the ILL, with a special focus on the masses constituting the heavy peak. We will present in this paper our measurement of the very low fission yields in the symmetry mass region and the heavy mass wing of the distribution for 233U thermal neutron induced fission. The difficulty due to the strong contamination by other masses with much higher yields will be addressed in the form of a new analysis method featuring the required contaminant correction. The apparition of structures in the kinetic energy distributions and possible interpretations will be discussed, such as a possible evidence of fission modes.

  17. Shutdown Margin for High Conversion BWRs Operating in Th-233U Fuel Cycle

    Shaposhnik, Yaniv; Elias, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Several reactivity control system design options are explored in order to satisfy shutdown margin (SDM) requirements in a high conversion BWRs operating in Th-233U fuel cycle (Th-RBWR). The studied has an axially heterogeneous fuel assembly structure with a single fissile zone sandwiched between two fertile blanket zones. The utilization of an originally suggested RBWR Y-shape control rod in Th-RBWR is shown to be insufficient for maintaining adequate SDM to balance the high negative reactivity feedbacks, while maintaining fuel breeding potential, core power rating, and minimum Critical Power Ratio (CPR). Instead, an alternative assembly design, also relying on heterogeneous fuel zoning, is proposed for achieving fissile inventory ratio (FIR) above unity, adequate SDM and meeting minimum CPR limit at thermal core output matching the ABWR power. The new concept was modeled as a single 3-dimensional fuel assembly having reflective radial boundaries, using the BGCore system, which consists of the MCNP code coupl...

  18. Amster: a molten-salt reactor concept generating its own 233U and incinerating transuranium elements

    In the coming century, sustainable development of atomic energy will require the development of new types of reactors able to exceed the limits of the existing reactor types, be it in terms of optimum use of natural fuel resources, reduction in the production of long-lived radioactive waste, or economic competitiveness. Of the various candidates with the potential to meet these needs, molten-salt reactors are particularly attractive, in the light of the benefits they offer, arising from two fundamental features: - A liquid fuel does away with the constraints inherent in solid fuel, leading to a drastic simplification of the fuel cycle, in particular making in possible to carry out on-line pyrochemical reprocessing; - Thorium cycle and thermal spectrum breeding. The MSBR concept proposed by ORNL in the 1970's thus gave a breeding factor of 1.06, with a doubling time of about 25 years. However, given the tight neutron balance of the thorium cycle (the η of 233U is about 2.3), MSBR performance is only possible if there are strict constraints set on the in-line reprocessing unit: all the 233Pa must be removed from the core so that it can decay on the 233U in no more than about ten days (or at least 15 tonnes of salt to be extracted from the core daily), and the absorbing fission products, in particular the rare earths, must be extracted in about fifty days. With the AMSTER MSR concept, which we initially developed for incinerating transuranium elements, we looked to reduce the mass of salt to be reprocessed in order to minimise the size and complexity of the reprocessing unit coupled to the reactor, and the quantity of transuranium elements sent for disposal, as this is directly proportional to the mass of salt reprocessed for extraction of the fission products. Given that breeding was not an absolute necessity, because the reactor can be started by incinerating the transuranium elements from the spent fuel assemblies of current reactors, or if necessary by loading

  19. 233U mass yield measurements around and within the symmetry region with the ILL Lohengrin spectrometer

    Chebboubi A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of fission yields has a major impact on the characterization and understanding of the fission process and is mandatory for reactor applications. The LPSC in collaboration with ILL and CEA has developed a measurement program on fission fragment distributions at the Lohengrin spectrometer of the ILL, with a special focus on the masses constituting the heavy peak. We will present in this paper our measurement of the very low fission yields in the symmetry mass region and the heavy mass wing of the distribution for 233U thermal neutron induced fission. The difficulty due to the strong contamination by other masses with much higher yields will be addressed in the form of a new analysis method featuring the required contaminant correction. The apparition of structures in the kinetic energy distributions and possible interpretations will be discussed, such as a possible evidence of fission modes.

  20. Health physics experience during recovery of 233U from irradiated thorium rods

    Recovery of 233U from the irradiated thorium rods (46 numbers) received from Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) was carried out successfully at Reprocessing Development Laboratory (RDL), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR). The reprocessing was done in five stages viz., charging of fuel rods into charging flask, decladding, dissolution, solvent extraction and reconversion. The complete operation, being first of its kind, undertaken at the centre needed extensive health physics surveillance and supervision at each stage of the operation. The operational radiation protection methods followed and the experience gained during this initial campaign in area and personnel monitoring, air monitoring and contamination are discussed. The results of routine stack monitoring and analysis of waste generated in the process are given. Special operations like decommissioning of the glove box are highlighted. A brief description of unusual occurrences is also given. (author)

  1. Aerosols generated by 239PU and 233U droplets burning in air

    The inhalation hazards of radioactive aerosols produced by the explosive disruption and subsequent combustion of metallic plutonium in air are not adequately understood. Results of a study to determine whether uranium can be substituted for plutonium in such a situation in which experiments were performed under identical conditions with laser-ignited, single, freely falling droplets of 239Pu and 233U are reported. The total amounts of aerosol produced were studied quantitatively as a function of time during the combustion. Also, particle size distributions of selected aerosols were studied with aerodynamic particle separation techniques. Results showed that the ultimate quantity of aerosols, their final particle size distributions, and depositions as a function of time are not identical mainly because of the different vapor pressures of the metals, and the unlike degrees of violence of the explosions of the droplets

  2. Measurement and calculation of the 233Pa fission cross-section for advanced fuel cycles

    The energy dependence of the neutron-induced fission cross-section of 233Pa has been measured directly for the first time from the fission threshold up to 8.5 MeV. This fission cross-section is a key ingredient in feasibility studies on fast reactors and accelerator driven systems based on the Th-U fuel cycle. The results are at strong variance with the existing evaluations. The new experimental data give lower cross-section values and resolve the question about the threshold energy. Additionally a new theoretical calculation of the reaction cross-section has been performed with the statistical model code STATIS, showing a very good agreement with the experimental data. (authors)

  3. 233U fuel production and 30-year utilization without reprocessing and refuelling using heavy water coolant

    This study examines the physics of a thorium fuel cycle based on generating the initial fissile (233U) fuel inventory in a Deuterium-Tritium fusion device and on operating a 600 MWth fission reactor. For both phases of the fuel cycle, the fuel form is an aqueous slurry consisting of thorium oxide micro-particles dispersed into heavy water. The slurry is the fuel carrier and the coolant. After 180 full power days in the fusion driven device, the fuel enrichment is 1.4%. The enrichments is defined as the ratio between the fissile actinides mass and the total actinides mass. After the removal of fission products, the 1.4% enriched slurry thorium-uranium fuel can be used for longer than 30 full power years in a 600 MWth critical reactor core, without adding any fissile material. The critical reactor has three zones: inner fissile, central fertile, and outer reflector. (author)

  4. Final characterization report for the non-process areas of the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility

    This report addresses the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility characterization survey data collected from January 21, 1997 through February 3, 1997. The characterization activities evaluated the radiological status and identified the hazardous materials locations. The scope of this report is limited to the nonprocess areas in the facility, which include the special work permit (SWP) change room, toilet, equipment room, electrical cubicle, control room, and pipe gallery. A portion of the roof (excluding the roof over the process hood and viewing room) was also included. Information in this report will be used to identify waste streams, provide specific chemical and radiological data to aid in planning decontamination and demolition activities, and allow proper disposal of the demolition debris, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

  5. Batch extraction studies for the recovery of 233U from thoria irradiated in PHWR

    Batch equilibrium studies were carried out to optimise the extraction parameters for the recovery of 233U from thoria irradiated in PHWR. The thorium concentration and the acidity of the feed was adjusted to ca. 100 g/l and 4 M nitric acid respectively. The concentration of uranium was in the range of 1.4 g/L and it contained long lived fission product like 144Ce-144Pr, 134Cs, 137Cs, 106Ru-106Rh, 105Eu, 154Eu, 90Sr-90Y and 125Sb. 3% TBP in dodecane was used as the solvent. Four stages of batch extraction was followed by a single scrub stage of 4 M nitric acid. The scrubbed organic was stripped with 0.01 M HNO3 thrice. The stripped product was concentrated by evaporation and passed through a cation exchanger to remove the residual thorium. The results of the studies are discussed in detail. (author)

  6. Thermal-Neutron-Induced Fission of U235, U233 and Pu239

    We have used solid-state detectors to measure the kinetic energies of the coincident fission fragments in the thermal-neutron-induced fission of U235, U233 and Pu239. Special care has been taken to eliminate spurious-events near symmetry to give an accurate measure of such quantities as the average total kinetic energy at symmetry. For each fissioning system over 106 events were recorded. As a result the statistics are good enough to see definite evidence for fine structure over a wide range of masses and energies. The data have been analysed to give mass yield curves, average kinetic energies as a function of mass, and other quantities of interest. For each fissioning system the average total kinetic energy goes through a maximum for a heavy fragment mass of about 132 and for the corresponding light fragment mass. There is a pronounced minimum at symmetry, although not as deep as that found in time-of-flight experiments. The difference between the maximum average kinetic energy and that at symmetry is about 32 MeV for U235, 18 MeV for U233 and 20 MeV for Pu239. The dispersion of kinetic energies at symmetry is also smaller than that found in time-of-flight experiments. Fine structure is apparent in two different representations of the data. The energy spectrum of heavy fragments in coincidence with light fragment energies is greater than the most probable value. This structure becomes more pronounced as the light fragment energy increases. The mass yield curves for a given total kinetic energy show a structure suggesting a preference for fission fragments with masses ∼134, ∼140 and ∼145 (and their light fragment partners). Much of the structure observed can be understood by considering a semi-empirical mass surface and a simple model for the nuclear configuration at the saddle point. (author)

  7. Investigation of the fission yields of the fast neutron-induced fission of 233U

    As a stars, a survey of the different methods of investigations of the fission product yields and the experimental data status have been studied, showing advantages and shortcomings for the different approaches. An overview of the existing models for the fission product distributions has been as well intended. The main part of this thesis was the measurement of the independent yields of the fast neutron-induced fission of233U, never investigated before this work. The experiment has been carried out using the mass separator OSIRIS (Isotope Separator On-Line). Its integrated ion-source and its specific properties required an analysis of the delay-parameter and ionisation efficiency for each chemical species. On the other hand, this technique allows measurement of independent yields and cumulative yields for elements from Cu to Ba, covering most of the fission yield distribution. Thus, we measured about 180 independent yields from Zn (Z=30) to Sr (Z=38) in the mass range A=74-99 and from Pd (Z=46) to Ba (Z=56) in the mass range A=113-147, including many isomeric states. An additional experiment using direct γ-spectroscopy of aggregates of fission products was used to determine more than 50 cumulative yields of element with half-life from 15 min to a several days. All experimental data have been compared to estimates from a semi-empirical model, to calculated values and to evaluated values from the European library JEF 2.2. Furthermore, a study of both thermal and fast neutron-induced fission of 233U measured at Studsvik, the comparison of the OSIRIS and LOHENGRIN facilities and the trends in new data for the Reactors Physics have been discussed. (author)

  8. Measurement of average cross section for Pa-233 (n, 2n) Pa-232 reaction to neutrons with fission-type reactor spectrum

    Among some nuclides concerning thorium fuel cycle, the reaction cross sections of Pa-233 should be thoroughly investigated because of its relatively long life of 27 days half life. In the present works, the average cross section for Pa-233(n,2n)Pa-232 reaction, which has been considered to contribute to the production of troublesome concomitant U-232, was initially measured using the Pa-233 specimen as pure as possible followed by the re-irradiation in a fission-type neutron spectrum. The purest Pa-233 was produced from the first thermal neutron irradiation of Th-oxide, which was selected from the viewpoint of low Th-230 content to avoid the production of bothering Pa-231 having a large cross section for thermal neutron capture reaction. The chemically isolated Pa-233 was immediately re-irradiated with reactor neutrons having fission-type reactor spectrum in KUR, along with some flux monitors for fast neutrons. After completely decaying out Pa-233 to U-233, the chemical purification of uranium was performed and the resultant uranium isotopes were analysed with an alpha-spectrometry. By using the activity ratios of U-232/U-233, the objective cross section was evaluated to be 52.1 mbarn with an estimated overall experimental error of 10 % after correcting the inevitable bypath reaction by small amount of Pa-231 content. (author)

  9. 29 CFR 2.33 - Responsibilities of DOL, DOL social service providers and State and local governments...

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Responsibilities of DOL, DOL social service providers and... Organizations; Protection of Religious Liberty of Department of Labor Social Service Providers and Beneficiaries § 2.33 Responsibilities of DOL, DOL social service providers and State and local...

  10. 16 CFR 233.3 - Advertising retail prices which have been established or suggested by manufacturers (or other...

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST DECEPTIVE PRICING § 233.3..., therefore, deceptive. Typically, a list price is a price at which articles are sold, if not everywhere, then... insubstantial volume of sales in the area, advertising of the list price would be deceptive. (g) On the...

  11. Health physics surveillance during recovery of 233U from irradiated thorium rods at reprocessing development lab, IGCAR

    Second campaign for the recovery of 233U from the irradiated rods from CIRUS and DHRUVA reactors at BARC, was carried out successfully at Reprocessing Development Laboratory (RDL) at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR). Health physics surveillance was provided all through the operation. The operational radiation protection methods followed and the experience gained during the campaign are discussed in this paper. (author)

  12. 45 CFR 233.34 - Computing the assistance payment in the initial one or two months (AFDC).

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computing the assistance payment in the initial... § 233.34 Computing the assistance payment in the initial one or two months (AFDC). A State shall compute...) If the initial month is computed prospectively as in paragraph (a) of this section, the second...

  13. Heavy coolant fast neutron reactor BRUS-150 for minor actinides burning and U-233 build-up

    The present paper deals with the calculational research into the performance of fast reactor BRUS-150 cooled with liquid metal coolant eutectic lead-bismuth alloy with reference to minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) transmutation and isotopic pure U 233 build up. (authors). 10 refs., 2 figs

  14. Application of the SCALE TSUNAMI Tools for the Validation of Criticality Safety Calculations Involving 233U

    Mueller, Don [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Hollenbach, Daniel F [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    The Radiochemical Development Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been storing solid materials containing 233U for decades. Preparations are under way to process these materials into a form that is inherently safe from a nuclear criticality safety perspective. This will be accomplished by down-blending the {sup 233}U materials with depleted or natural uranium. At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, a study has been performed using the SCALE sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools to demonstrate how these tools could be used to validate nuclear criticality safety calculations of selected process and storage configurations. ISOTEK nuclear criticality safety staff provided four models that are representative of the criticality safety calculations for which validation will be needed. The SCALE TSUNAMI-1D and TSUNAMI-3D sequences were used to generate energy-dependent k{sub eff} sensitivity profiles for each nuclide and reaction present in the four safety analysis models, also referred to as the applications, and in a large set of critical experiments. The SCALE TSUNAMI-IP module was used together with the sensitivity profiles and the cross-section uncertainty data contained in the SCALE covariance data files to propagate the cross-section uncertainties ({Delta}{sigma}/{sigma}) to k{sub eff} uncertainties ({Delta}k/k) for each application model. The SCALE TSUNAMI-IP module was also used to evaluate the similarity of each of the 672 critical experiments with each application. Results of the uncertainty analysis and similarity assessment are presented in this report. A total of 142 experiments were judged to be similar to application 1, and 68 experiments were judged to be similar to application 2. None of the 672 experiments were judged to be adequately similar to applications 3 and 4. Discussion of the uncertainty analysis and similarity assessment is provided for each of the four applications. Example upper subcritical limits (USLs) were

  15. Measurement of neutron capture and fission cross sections of 233U in the resonance region

    Tsekhanovich I.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of studies concerning new fuel cycles and nuclear wastes incineration experimental data of the α ratio between capture and fission cross sections of 233U reactions play an important role in the Th/U cycle. The safety evaluation and the detailed performance assessment for the generation IV nuclear-energy system based on 232Th cycle strongly depend on this ratio. Since the current data are scarce and sometimes contradictory, new experimental studies are required. The measurement will take place at the neutron time-of-flight facility GELINA at Geel, designed to perform neutron cross section measurements with high incident neutron-energy resolution. A dedicated high efficiency fission ionization chamber (IC as fission fragment detector and six C6D6 liquid scintilators sensitive to γ-rays and neutrons will be used. The method, based on the IC energy response study, allowing to distinguish between gammas originating from fission and capture, in the resonance region, will be presented.

  16. Numbers of prompt neutrons per fission for U233, U235, Pu239, and Cf252

    An absolute measurement of #-v#, the average number of prompt neutrons emitted per fission, is being made for the spontaneous fission of Cf262. The relative values of #-v# are being measured for neutron-induced fission of U233, U235, and Pu239, and are being compared with the spontaneous fission #-v# of Cf252. Neutrons with energies between thermal and 15 MeV are used. Particular emphasis is put on studying the dependence of #-v# on the incident neutron energy. A fission counter containing the appropriate isotope is placed in the centre of a large cadmium-loade d liquid scintillator. Through the fissionable isotope is passed a collimated beam of neutrons. Fission events, identified by pulses from the fission counter, open an electronic gate between the large liquid scintillator and a scaler. Scintillator pulses due to capture in the scintillating solution of thermalized fission neutrons are counted during the gate. The fission neutrons are detected almost independently of energy and with very high efficiency. With this technique values of #-v# to an accuracy of 1 % are expected. (author)

  17. Site-Specific Health and Safety Plan, 233-S Decontamination and Decommissioning

    The 233-S Facility operated from January 1952 until July 1967, at which time the building entered the U.S. Department of Energy's Surplus Facility Management Program as a retired facility. The facility has since undergone severe degradation due to exposure to extreme weather conditions. A freeze and thaw cycle occurred at the Hanford Site during February 1996, which caused cracking failure of portions of the building roof. This resulted in significant infiltration of water into the facility, which creates a pathway for potential release of radioactive material into the environment (air and/or ground). Additionally, the weather caused existing cracks in concrete structures of the building to lengthen, thereby increasing the potential for failed confinement of the building's radioactive material. Differential settlement has also occurred, causing portions of the facility to separate from the main building structure, increasing the potential for release of radioactive material to the environment. An expedited response is proposed to remove this threat and ensure protection of human health and the environment

  18. Measurements of neutron induced capture and fission reactions on $^{233}$ U (EAR1)

    The $^{233}$U plays the essential role of ssile nucleus in the Th-U fuel cycle, which has been proposed as a safer and cleaner alternative to the U-Pu fuel cycle. Considered the scarce data available to assess the capture cross section, a measurement was proposed and successfully performed at the n_TOF facility at CERN using the 4$\\pi$ Total Absorp- tion Calorimeter (TAC). The measurement was extremely dicult due to the need to accurately distinguish between capture and fission $\\gamma$-rays without any additional discrim-ination tool and the measured capture cross section showed a signicant disagreement in magnitude when compared with the ENDF/B-VII.1 library despite the agreement in shape. We propose a new measurement that is aimed at providing a higher level of dis-crimination between competing nuclear reactions, to extend the neutron energy range and to obtain more precise and accurate data, thus fullling the demands of the "NEA High Priority Nuclear Data Request List". The setup is envisaged as a combin...

  19. Thermoionic emission characteristics of uranium with application to its determination by MSID technique using 233U tracer

    Experimental details of the uranium determination in geological samples (50-1500 ppm range) by mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique (MSID) employing 233U tracer are presented. For this purpose the thermoionic emission characteristics of uranium in various filament arrangements like simple plane, filament boat, double, are studied and the most efficient one selected for the isotope dilution analysis. The various experimental procedures involved in the MSID like sample dissolution, chemical separation and mass spectrometric analysis are developed and optimised. The experimental results on the uranium determination by MSID with 233U tracer yielded precision and accuracy of 0,5% and 1% respectively. The importance of the sampling in the precise and accuracy determination of uranium in geological samples, where it is heterogeneously distributed, is discussed. (author)

  20. Qualification and initial characterization of a high-purity 233U spike for use in uranium analyses

    Several high-purity 233U items potentially useful as isotope dilution mass spectrometry standards for safeguards, non-proliferation, and nuclear forensics measurements are identified and rescued from downblending. By preserving the supply of 233U materials of different pedigree for use as source materials for certified reference materials (CRMs), it is ensured that the safeguards community has high quality uranium isotopic standards required for calibration of the analytical instruments. One of the items identified as a source material for a high-purity CRM is characterized for the uranium isotope-amount ratios using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Additional verification measurements on this material using quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) are also performed. As a result, the comparison of the ICPMS uranium isotope-amount ratios with the TIMS data, with much smaller uncertainties, validated the ICPMS measurement practices. ICPMS is proposed for the initial screening of the purity of items in the rescue campaign

  1. ALARA Review of the Activation/Repair of Fire Detectors in Zone Three at the 233-S Facility

    A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Procedure 1.22, 'Planning Radiological Work', when radiological conditions exceed trigger levels. The level of contamination inside the viewing room meets this criterion. This ALARA review is for task instruction 1997-03-18-005-8.3.3 (mini task instruction to a living work package), 'Instructions for D ampersand D Support of Fire Detector Troubleshooting and Minor Maintenance Work at 233-S,' and DynCorp 2G-98-7207C, '233-S Reconnect Smoke Detectors Zone 3.' The Radiological Work Permit (RWP) request broke these two task instructions into four separate tasks. The four tasks identified in the RWP request were used to estimate airborne concentrations and the total exposure

  2. Determination of the 233Pa(n,f) reaction cross-section for thorium-fuelled reactors

    A direct measurement of the energy-dependent neutron-induced fission cross-section of 233Pa has been performed for the first time. The 233Pa isotope plays a key role in the thorium fuel cycle, serving as an intermediate isotope in the formation of the uranium fuel material. Since fission is one of the reactions determining the balance of nuclei at a given time, the cross-section is of vital importance for any calculation of a thorium-fuel-based nuclear-power device. In a first measurement series, four energies between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV were measured. The resulting average above-threshold cross-section found is lower than all literature values. (authors)

  3. Cross sections and neutron yields for U233, U235 and Pu239 at 2200 m/sec

    The experimental information on the 2200 m/sec values for σabs, σf, α, ν and η for 233U , 235U and 23 been collected and discussed. The values will later be used in an evaluation of a 'best' set of data. In appendix the isotopic abundances of the uranium isotopes are discussed and also the alpha activities of the uranium isotopes and Pu-239

  4. Photofission cross sections of U-233 and Pu-239 near threshold induced by gamma-rays from thermal neutron capture

    The photofission cross sections of U-233 and PU-239 have been studied using monochromatic photons produced by thermal neutron capture in several materials placed in a radial beam hole of the IEA-R1, 2 MW pool type research reactor, in the energy interval from 5.43 MeV to 9.72 MeV. The gamma flux incident on the samples were measured using a (3X3) inch. NaI(Tl) crystal. The photofission fragments were detected in MAKROFOL-KG (solid state nuclear track detector) etched 30 min. in a KOH (35%wt) solution at 600C. The efficiency of the detector was obtained using a Californium-252 calibrated source and its value was (0.4323 ± 3%). The tracks were counted by means of an automatic spark counting. Analyzing the photofission data we have observed similarities between the cross sections obtained for the two samples in comparison with other authors. A structure was also observed in the U-233 cross section near the energy of 7.23 MeW. Acoording to the liquid drop model the height of the simple fission barrier were determined: (5.6 ± 0.2) MeV and (5.7 ± 0.2) MeV for U-233 and Pu-239 respectively. The relative fissionability of the samples to U-238 were also determined in each excitation energy and showed to be energy independent: (2.12 +-0.25) for U-233, and (3.32+-0.41) for Pu-239. (author)

  5. Defense In-Depth Accident Analysis Evaluation of Tritium Facility Bldgs. 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H

    'The primary purpose of this report is to document a Defense-in-Depth (DID) accident analysis evaluation for Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facility Buildings 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H. The purpose of a DID evaluation is to provide a more realistic view of facility radiological risks to the offsite public than the bounding deterministic analysis documented in the Safety Analysis Report, which credits only Safety Class items in the offsite dose evaluation.'

  6. Study of (n,p) and (n,α) cross-sections for 232Th, 231Pa, 233U isotopes

    The study of neutron induced reaction cross-sections in the charged particle emission in this energy region will help us to understand the energy dependence of activation cross-sections in detail, thereby providing a complete database that will lead to better understanding of mechanisms of the nuclear reactions. The present study describes nuclear model calculations of (n,p) and (n,α) reaction cross-sections for 232Th, 231Pa and 233U isotopes

  7. Molecular Gas and Dust in the Massive Star Forming Region S 233 IR

    Rui-Qing Mao; Qin Zeng

    2004-01-01

    The massive star forming region S 233 IR is observed in the molecular lines CO J = 2-1, 3-2, NH3 (1,1), (2,2) and the 870μm dust continuum. Four submillimeter continuum sources, labelled SMM 1-4, are revealed in the 870μm dust emission. The main core, SMM1, is found to be associated with a deeply embedded near infrared cluster in the northeast; while the weaker source SMM2 coincides with a more evolved cluster in the southwest. The best fit spectral energy distribution of SMM1 gives an emissivity ofβ = 1.6, and temperatures of 32 K and 92 K for the cold- and hot-dust components. An SMM1 core mass of 246 M⊙ and a total mass of 445 M⊙ are estimated from the 870 μm dust continuum emission.SMM1 is found to have a temperature gradient decreasing from inside out, indicative of the presence of interior heating sources. The total outflow gas mass as traced by the CO J - 3-2 emission is estimated to be 35 M⊙. Low velocity outflows are also found in the NH3 (1,1) emission. The non-thermal dominant NH3 line width as well as the substantial core mass suggest that the SMM1 core is a "turbulent,massive dense core", in the process of forming a group or a cluster of stars. The much higher star formation efficiency found in the southwest cluster supports the suggestion that this cluster is more evolved than the northeast one. Large near infrared photometric variations found in the source PCS-IR93, a previously found highly polarized nebulosity, indicate an underlying star showing the FU Orionis type of behavior.

  8. Neutronic optimization in high conversion Th-233U fuel assembly with simulated annealing

    This paper reports on fuel design optimization of a PWR operating in a self sustainable Th-233U fuel cycle. Monte Carlo simulated annealing method was used in order to identify the fuel assembly configuration with the most attractive breeding performance. In previous studies, it was shown that breeding may be achieved by employing heterogeneous Seed-Blanket fuel geometry. The arrangement of seed and blanket pins within the assemblies may be determined by varying the designed parameters based on basic reactor physics phenomena which affect breeding. However, the amount of free parameters may still prove to be prohibitively large in order to systematically explore the design space for optimal solution. Therefore, the Monte Carlo annealing algorithm for neutronic optimization is applied in order to identify the most favorable design. The objective of simulated annealing optimization is to find a set of design parameters, which maximizes some given performance function (such as relative period of net breeding) under specified constraints (such as fuel cycle length). The first objective of the study was to demonstrate that the simulated annealing optimization algorithm will lead to the same fuel pins arrangement as was obtained in the previous studies which used only basic physics phenomena as guidance for optimization. In the second part of this work, the simulated annealing method was used to optimize fuel pins arrangement in much larger fuel assembly, where the basic physics intuition does not yield clearly optimal configuration. The simulated annealing method was found to be very efficient in selecting the optimal design in both cases. In the future, this method will be used for optimization of fuel assembly design with larger number of free parameters in order to determine the most favorable trade-off between the breeding performance and core average power density. (authors)

  9. Fc Gamma Receptor 3B (FCGR3Bc.233C>A-rs5030738) Polymorphism Modifies the Protective Effect of Malaria Specific Antibodies in Ghanaian Children

    Adu, Bright; Jepsen, Micha Phill Grønholm; Gerds, Thomas A;

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) cross-linking with Fc gamma receptor IIIB (FcγRIIIB) triggers neutrophil degranulation, releasing reactive oxygen species with high levels associated with protection against malaria. The FCGR3B-c.233C>A polymorphism thought to influence the interaction between IgG and FcγRI....../AC individuals compared with 233CC children. This genotype related effect modification may significantly influence malaria sero-epidemiological and vaccine trial studies....

  10. Investigation of tritium and 233U breeding in a fission-fusion hybrid reactor fuelling with ThO2

    In the world, thorium reserves are three times more than natural Uranium reserves. It is planned in the near future that nuclear reactors will use thorium as a fuel. Thorium is not a fissile isotope because it doesn't make fission with thermal neutrons so it could be converted to 233U isotope which has very high quality fission cross-section with thermal neutrons. 233U isotope can be used in present LWRs as an enrichment fuel. In the fusion reactors, tritium is the most important fossil fuel. Because tritium is not natural isotope, it has to be produced in the reactor. The purpose of this work is to investigate the tritium and 233U breeding in a fission-fusion hybrid reactor fuelling with ThO2 for Δt=10 days during a reactor operation period in five years. The neutronic analysis is performed on an experimental hybrid blanket geometry. In the center of the hybrid blanket, there is a line neutron source in a cylindrical cavity, which simulates the fusion plasma chamber where high energy neutrons (14.1 MeV) are produced. The conventional fusion reaction delivers the external neutron source for blankets following, 2D + 3T →? 4He (3.5 MeV) + n (14.1 MeV). (1) The fuel zone made up of natural-ThO2 fuel and it is cooled with different coolants. In this work, five different moderator materials, which are Li2BeF4, LiF-NaF-BeF2, Li20Sn80, natural Lithium and Li17Pb83, are used as coolants. The radial reflector, called tritium breeding zones, is made of different Lithium compounds and graphite in sandwich structure. In the work, eight different Lithium compounds were used as tritium breeders in the tritium breeding zones, which are Li3N, Li2O, Li2O2, Li2TiO3, Li4SiO3, Li2ZrO3, LiBr and LiH. Neutron transport calculations are conducted in spherical geometry with the help of SCALE4.4A SYSTEM by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with code CSAS and XSDRNPM, under consideration of unresolved and resolved resonances, in S8-P3 approximation with Gaussian quadratures using

  11. Neutron-induced fission cross section of 233Pa between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV.

    Tovesson, F; Hambsch, F J; Oberstedt, A; Fogelberg, B; Ramström, E; Oberstedt, S

    2002-02-11

    The energy dependent neutron-induced fission cross section of 233Pa has for the first time been measured directly with monoenergetic neutrons. This nuclide is an important intermediary in a thorium based fuel cycle, and its fission cross section is a key parameter in the modeling of future advanced fuel and reactor concepts. A first experiment resulted in four cross section values between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV, establishing a fission threshold in excess of 1 MeV. Significant discrepancies were found with a previous indirect experimental determination and with model estimates. PMID:11863801

  12. Photonuclear reactions of U-233 and Pu-239 near threshold induced by thermal neutron capture gamma rays

    The photonuclear cross sections of U-293 and Pu-239 have been studied by using monochromatic and discrete photons, in the energy interval from 5.49 to 9.72 MeV, produced by thermal neutron capture. The gamma fluxes incident on the samples were measured using a ( 3 x 3 )'' NaI (TI) crystal. The photofission fragments were detected in Makrofol-Kg (SSNTD). A possible structure was observed in the U-233 cross sections, near 7.23 MeV. The relative fissionability of the nuclides was determined at each excitation energy and shown to be energy independent: ( 2.12 ± 0.25) for U-233 and ( 3.32 ± 0.41 ) for Pu-239. The angular distribution of photofission fragments of Pu-239 were measured at two mean excitation energies of 5.43 and 7.35 MeV. An anisotropic distribution of ( 12.2 ± 3.6 ) % was observed at 5.43 MeV. The total neutron cross sections were measured by using a long counter detector. The photoneutron cross sections were calculated by using energy dependent neutron multiplicities values, γ(E), obtained in the literature. The competition Γn/γf was also determined at each excitation energy, and shown to be energy independent: ( 0.54 ± 0.05 ) for U-233 and ( 0.44 ± 0.05 ) for Pu-239, and were correlated to the parameters Z sup(2)/A, ( Ef'-Bn'), A. According to the FUJIMOTO-YAMAGUCHI and CONSTANT NUCLEAR TEMPERATURE models, the nuclear temperatures were calculated. The total photoabsorption cross sections were also calculated as a sum of the photofission and photoneutron cross sections at each energy excitation. From these results the competition Γf/ΓA, called fission probability Pf, were obtained: ( 0.66 ± 0.02) for U-233 and ( 0.70 ± 0.02 ) for Pu-239. (author)

  13. Fractional independent yields of 141La and 142La from thermal-neutron-induced fission of 233U

    The fractional independent yields of 141La and 142La from thermal-neutron-induced fission of 233U were found to be 0.026 +- 0.006 and 0.068 +- 0.010, respectively. These yields are consistent with charge distributions for which σ = 0.56 +- 0.02 and 0.52 +- 0.02, respectively. These results are in good agreement with similar yields measured for fission of 235U, but not with those from fission of 249Cf. (author)

  14. Neutron-induced fission cross section of 233Pa between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV

    The energy dependent neutron-induced fission cross section of P233a has for the first time been measured directly with monoenergetic neutrons. This nuclide is an important intermediary in a thorium based fuel cycle, and its fission cross section is a key parameter in the modeling of future advanced fuel and reactor concepts. A first experiment resulted in four cross section values between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV, establishing a fission threshold in excess of 1 MeV. Significant discrepancies were found with a previous indirect experimental determination and with model estimates

  15. Fission, total and neutron capture cross section measurements at ORELA for {sup 233}U, {sup 27}Al and natural chlorine

    Guber, K.H.; Spencer, R.R.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, D.C.; Santos, G. Dos; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1998-08-01

    The authors have made use of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) to measure the fission cross section of {sup 233}U in the neutron energy range of 0.36 eV to {approximately} 700 keV. This paper reports integral data and average cross sections. In addition they measured the total neutron cross section of {sup 27}Al and natural chlorine, as well as the capture cross section of Al over an energy range from 100 eV up to about 400 keV.

  16. Within the framework of the new fuel cycle 232Th/233U, determination of the 233Pa(n.γ) radiative capture cross section for neutron energies ranging between 0 and 1 MeV

    The Thorium cycle Th232/U233 may face brilliant perspectives through advanced concepts like molten salt reactors or accelerator driven systems but it lacks accurate nuclear data concerning some nuclei. Pa233 is one of these nuclei, its high activity makes the direct measurement of its radiative neutron capture cross-section almost impossible. This difficulty has been evaded by considering the transfer reaction Th232(He3,p)Pa234* in which the Pa234 nucleus is produced in various excited states according to the amount of energy available in the reaction. The first chapter deals with the thorium cycle and its assets to contribute to the quenching of the fast growing world energy demand. The second chapter gives a detailed description of the experimental setting. A scintillation detector based on deuterated benzene (C6D6) has been used to counter gamma ray cascades. The third chapter is dedicated to data analysis. In the last chapter we compare our experimental results with ENDF and JENDL data and with computed values from 2 statistical models in the 0-1 MeV neutron energy range. Our results disagree clearly with evaluated data: our values are always above ENDF and JENDL data but tend to near computed values. We have also perform the measurement of the radiative neutron cross-section of Pa231 for a 110 keV neutron: σ(n,γ) 2.00 ± 0.14 barn. (A.C.)

  17. The structure, phase transition and molecular dynamics of [C(NH2)3]3[Sb2Br9

    The crystal structures of [C(NH2)3]3[Sb2Br9] (Gu3Sb2Br9) at 300 K and of [C(NH2)3]3[Sb2Cl9] (Gu3Sb2Cl9) at 90 and 300 K are determined. The compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group: C 2/c. The structure is composed of Sb2X93- (X = Cl, Br) ions, which form two-dimensional layers through the crystal, and guanidinium cations. In Gu3Sb2Br9 the structural phase transformation of the first-order type is detected at 435/450 K (on cooling/heating) by the DSC and dilatometric techniques. The dielectric relaxation process in the frequency range between 75 kHz and 5 MHz over the low temperature phase indicates reorientations of weakly distorted guanidinium cations. The proton 1H NMR second-moment and spin-lattice relaxation time, T1, temperature runs for the polycrystalline Gu3Sb2Br9 sample indicate a complex cation motion. A significant dynamical non-equivalence of two guanidinium cations was found. The possible mechanism of the phase transition in Gu3Sb2Br9 is discussed on the basis of the results presented

  18. The structure, phase transition and molecular dynamics of [C(NH2)3]3[Sb2Br9

    Szklarz, P.; Zaleski, J.; Jakubas, R.; Bator, G.; Medycki, W.; Falinska, K.

    2005-04-01

    The crystal structures of [C(NH2)3]3[Sb2Br9] (Gu3Sb2Br9) at 300 K and of [C(NH2)3]3[Sb2Cl9] (Gu3Sb2Cl9) at 90 and 300 K are determined. The compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group: C 2/c. The structure is composed of Sb2X93- (X = Cl, Br) ions, which form two-dimensional layers through the crystal, and guanidinium cations. In Gu3Sb2Br9 the structural phase transformation of the first-order type is detected at 435/450 K (on cooling/heating) by the DSC and dilatometric techniques. The dielectric relaxation process in the frequency range between 75 kHz and 5 MHz over the low temperature phase indicates reorientations of weakly distorted guanidinium cations. The proton 1H NMR second-moment and spin-lattice relaxation time, T1, temperature runs for the polycrystalline Gu3Sb2Br9 sample indicate a complex cation motion. A significant dynamical non-equivalence of two guanidinium cations was found. The possible mechanism of the phase transition in Gu3Sb2Br9 is discussed on the basis of the results presented.

  19. Measurement of the ionization yield of nuclear recoils in liquid argon at 80 and 233 keV

    Bondar, A; Dolgov, A; Grishnyaev, E; Polosatkin, S; Shekhtman, L; Shemyakina, E; Sokolov, A

    2014-01-01

    The energy calibration of nuclear recoil detectors is of primary importance to rare-event experiments such as those of direct dark matter search and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. In particular, such a calibration is performed by measuring the ionization yield of nuclear recoils in liquid Ar and Xe detection media, using neutron elastic scattering off nuclei. In the present work, the ionization yield for nuclear recoils in liquid Ar has for the first time been measured in the higher energy range, at 80 and 233 keV, using a two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detector (CRAD) and DD neutron generator. The ionization yield in liquid Ar at an electric field of 2.3 kV/cm amounted to 7.8+/-1.1 and 9.7+/-1.3 e-/keV at 80 and 233 keV respectively. Neither Jaffe model for nuclear recoil-induced ionization nor that of Thomas-Imel can consistently describe the energy dependence of the ionization yield.

  20. Emission probabilities of the KX-rays following the decay of 237 Np in equilibrium with 233 Pa

    Following participation in the international EUROMET project No. 416 and after our recent paper, concerning the measurement of the emission probability values of the main gamma-rays of 237 Np in equilibrium with 233 Pa, a complementary work has been done in the frame of the collaboration LNHB-VNIIM-KRI-IFIN (with the support of 'Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres' of France). The purpose was to determine the photon emission probabilities for the KX-rays following the decay of these two nuclides. Two different analysis methods have been used. At first, the KX-rays region was analyzed by fitting Voigt functions according to a least squares procedure, included in 'COLEGRAM' deconvolution code. In the second case, the analysis was performed by using full response functions. Thus, the work allowed the determination of the photon emission probabilities with a relative uncertainty of about 2%. This accurate set of data is useful in calculations related to the atomic level scheme of 237 Np/233 Pa and in X-ray spectrometry based applications. (authors)

  1. Environmental Assessment for the U-233 Disposition, Medical Isotope Production, and Building 3019 Complex Shutdown at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    The purpose of the proposed action evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA) is the processing of uranium-233 (233U) stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and other small quantities of similar material currently stored at other U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in order to render it suitable for safe, long-term, economical storage. The 233U is stored within Bldg. 3019A, which is part of the Bldg. 3019 Complex. The location of the Bldg. 3019 Complex is shown on Fig. 1.1. Additionally, the proposed action would increase the availability of medical isotopes needed for research and treatment and place the Bldg. 3019 Complex in safe and stable shutdown for transfer to the DOE program for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). DOE has determined that there is no programmatic use for the 233U currently in storage at ORNL other than as a possible source of medical isotopes. Since 233U is a special nuclear material, continued long-term storage of the ORNL inventory in its current configuration represents a significant financial liability for DOE. Continued long-term storage in Bldg. 3019A would require major capital upgrades and retrofits to critical facility systems that have deteriorated due to aging or that may not meet current standards. Storing the material in its current form requires significant annual operating expenses to meet the material-handling requirements and to provide protection against nuclear criticality accidents or theft of the material. The ORNL inventory of 233U represents most of the readily available source of thorium-229 (229Th) in the Western Hemisphere. Actinum-225 (225Ac) and its daughter product, bismuth-213 (213Bi), are isotopes in the decay chain of 233U/229Th that are showing significant promise for ongoing cancer research, including clinical trials for treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia. These isotopes are also being explored for treatment of other cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys. Figure 1

  2. Contribution to the study of {sup 233}U production with MOX-ThPu fuel in PWR reactor. Transition scenarios towards Th/{sup 233}U iso-generating concepts in thermal spectrum. Development of the MURE fuel evolution code; Contribution a l'etude de la production d'{sup 233}U en combustible MOX-ThPu en reacteur a eau sous pression. Scenarios de transition vers des concepts isogenerateurs Th/{sup 233}U en spectre thermique. Developpement du code MURE d'evolution du combustible

    Michel-Sendis, F

    2006-12-15

    If nuclear power is to provide a significant fraction of the growing world energy demand, only through the breeding concept can the development of sustainable nuclear energy become a reality. The study of such a transition, from present-day nuclear technologies to future breeding concepts is therefore pertinent. Among these future concepts, those using the thorium cycle Th/U-233 in a thermal neutron spectrum are of particular interest; molten-salt type thermal reactors would allow for breeding while requiring comparatively low initial inventories of U-233. The upstream production of U-233 can be obtained through the use of thorium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel in present-day light water reactors. This work presents, firstly, the development of the MURE evolution code system, a C++ object-oriented code that allows the study, through Monte Carlo (M.C.) simulation, of nuclear reactors and the evolution of their fuel under neutron irradiation. The M.C. methods are well-suited for the study of any reactor, whether it'd be an existing reactor using a new kind of fuel or a future concept altogether, the simulation is only dependent on nuclear data. Exact and complex geometries can be simulated and continuous energy particle transport is performed. MURE is an interface with MCNP, the well-known and validated transport code, that allows, among other functionalities, to simulate constant power and constant reactivity evolutions. Secondly, the study of MOX ThPu fuel in a conventional light water reactor (REP) is presented; it explores different plutonium concentrations and isotopic qualities in order to evaluate their safety characteristics. Simulation of their evolution allows us to quantify the production of U-233 at the end of burnup. Last, different french scenarios validating a possible transition towards a park of thermal Th/U-233 breeders, are presented. In these scenarios, U-233 is produced in ThPu moxed light water reactors. (author)

  3. Basic characterization of 233U: Determination of age and 232U content using sector field ICP-MS, gamma spectrometry and alpha spectrometry

    The possibility to determine the age, i.e. the time since the last chemical separation, of 233U was studied using two fundamentally different measurement techniques: inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gamma spectrometry. Moreover, the isotope ratio 232U/233U was measured using both alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry. For the two materials analysed, all measurement results were in agreement, i.e. consistent within the combined uncertainties. One of the materials was also measured using gamma spectrometry under field conditions. This measurement was also in agreement with the other results on this material

  4. Cost-based optimizations of power density and target-blanket modularity for {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U-based ADEP

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    A cost-based parametric systems model is developed for an Accelerator-Driven Energy Production (ADEP) system based on a {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U fuel cycle and a molten-salt (LiF/BeF{sub 2}/ThF{sub 3}) fluid-fuel primary system. Simplified neutron-balance, accelerator, reactor-core, chemical-processing, and balance-of-plant models are combined parametrically with a simplified costing model. The main focus of this model is to examine trade offs related to fission power density, reactor-core modularity, {sup 233}U breeding rate, and fission product transmutation capacity.

  5. Investigation of the fission yields of the fast neutron-induced fission of {sup 233}U; Mesure de la distribution en masse et en charge des produits de la fission rapide de l'{sup 233}U

    Galy, J

    1999-09-01

    As a stars, a survey of the different methods of investigations of the fission product yields and the experimental data status have been studied, showing advantages and shortcomings for the different approaches. An overview of the existing models for the fission product distributions has been as well intended. The main part of this thesis was the measurement of the independent yields of the fast neutron-induced fission of{sup 233}U, never investigated before this work. The experiment has been carried out using the mass separator OSIRIS (Isotope Separator On-Line). Its integrated ion-source and its specific properties required an analysis of the delay-parameter and ionisation efficiency for each chemical species. On the other hand, this technique allows measurement of independent yields and cumulative yields for elements from Cu to Ba, covering most of the fission yield distribution. Thus, we measured about 180 independent yields from Zn (Z=30) to Sr (Z=38) in the mass range A=74-99 and from Pd (Z=46) to Ba (Z=56) in the mass range A=113-147, including many isomeric states. An additional experiment using direct {gamma}-spectroscopy of aggregates of fission products was used to determine more than 50 cumulative yields of element with half-life from 15 min to a several days. All experimental data have been compared to estimates from a semi-empirical model, to calculated values and to evaluated values from the European library JEF 2.2. Furthermore, a study of both thermal and fast neutron-induced fission of {sup 233}U measured at Studsvik, the comparison of the OSIRIS and LOHENGRIN facilities and the trends in new data for the Reactors Physics have been discussed. (author)

  6. Fission cross-section measurements on 233U and minor actinides at the CERN n-TOF facility

    Neutron-induced fission cross-sections of minor actinides have been measured at the white neutron source n-TOF at CERN, Geneva. The studied isotopes include 233U, interesting for Th/U based nuclear fuel cycles, 241,243Am and 245Cm, relevant for transmutation and waste reduction studies in new generation fast reactors (Gen-IV) or Accelerator Driven Systems. The measurements take advantage of the unique features of the n-TOF facility, namely the wide energy range, the high instantaneous neutron flux and the low background. Results for the involved isotopes are reported from ∼30 meV to around 1 MeV neutron energy. The measurements have been performed with a dedicated Fission Ionization Chamber (FIC), relative to the standard cross-section of the 235U fission reaction, measured simultaneously with the same detector. Results are here reported. (authors)

  7. Multiplicity and energy of neutrons from {sup 233}U(n{sub th},f) fission fragments

    Nishio, Katsuhisa; Kimura, Itsuro; Nakagome, Yoshihiro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The correlation between fission fragments and prompt neutrons from the reaction {sup 233}U(n{sub th},f) was measured with improved accuracy. The results determined the neutron multiplicity and emission energy as a function of fragment mass and total kinetic energy. The average energy as a function of fragment mass followed a nearly symmetric distribution centered about the equal mass-split and formed a remarkable contrast with the saw-tooth distribution of the average neutron multiplicity. The neutron multiplicity from the specified fragment decreases linearly with total kinetic energy, and the slope of multiplicity with kinetic energy had the minimum value at about 130 u. The level density parameter versus mass determined from the neutron data showed a saw-tooth structure with the pronounced minimum at about 128 and generally followed the formula by Gilbert and Cameron, suggesting that the neutron emission process was very much affected by the shell-effect of the fission fragment. (author)

  8. Determination of the 233Pa(n, f) reaction cross section from 0.5 to 10 MeV neutron energy using the transfer reaction 232Th(3He, p)234Pa

    The fission probability distributions of 232,233,234Pa and 231Th have been measured up to an excitation energy of 15 MeV, using the transfer reactions 232Th(3He, t)232Pa, 232Th(3He, d)233Pa, 232Th(3He, p)234Pa and 232Th(3He, 4He)231Th. From these measurements, the neutron induced fission cross sections of 231Pa, 233Pa and 230Th have been determined from the product of the fission probabilities of 232Pa, 233Pa and 231Th respectively with the calculated compound nucleus formation cross sections in the 231Pa+n, 233Pa+n and 230Th+n reactions. The validity of the applied method has been successfully tested with the existing neutron induced fission cross sections of 230Th and 231Pa. Special emphasis is put on the 233Pa(n, f) reaction which is of importance for thorium fueled nuclear reactors. Based on a statistical model analysis of the neutron induced fission cross section as a function of neutron energy, it has been possible to determine the barrier parameters of the 234Pa fissioning nucleus. Cross sections for the compound nucleus inelastic scattering 233Pa(n, n') and radiative capture 233Pa(n, γ) reactions have also been calculated and compared with recent evaluations

  9. Utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium with breeding of the 233U isotope in the VVER reactors using thorium and heavy water

    A method for joint utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium in the thorium–uranium—plutonium oxide fuel of a water-moderated reactor with a varying water composition (D2O, H2O) is proposed. The method is characterized by efficient breeding of the 233U isotope and safe reactor operation and is comparatively simple to implement

  10. Utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium with breeding of the 233U isotope in the VVER reactors using thorium and heavy water

    Marshalkin, V. E.; Povyshev, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    A method for joint utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium in the thorium-uranium—plutonium oxide fuel of a water-moderated reactor with a varying water composition (D2O, H2O) is proposed. The method is characterized by efficient breeding of the 233U isotope and safe reactor operation and is comparatively simple to implement.

  11. New calculation for the neutron-induced fission cross section of 233Pa between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV

    The 233Pa(n,f) cross section, a key ingredient for fast reactors and accelerators driven systems, was measured recently with relatively good accuracy [F. Tovesson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 062502 (2002)]. The results are at strong variance with accepted evaluations and an existing indirect experiment. This circumstance led us to perform a quite detailed and complete evaluation of the 233Pa(n,f) cross section between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV, where use of our newly developed routines for the parametrization of the nuclear surface and the calculation of deformation parameters and level densities (including low-energy discrete levels) were made. The results show good quantitative and excellent qualitative agreement with the experimental direct data obtained by Tovesson et al. [F. Tovesson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 062502 (2002)]. Additionally, our methodology opens new possibilities for the analysis of subthreshold fission and above threshold second-chance fission for both 233Pa and its decay product 233U, as well as other strategically important fissionable nuclides

  12. Measurement of the fission cross section induced by fast neutrons of the {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U nuclei within the innovating fuel cycles framework; Mesure de la section efficace de fission induite par neutrons rapides des noyaux {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U dans le cadre des cycles de combustible innovants

    Grosjean, C

    2005-03-15

    The thorium-U{sup 233} fuel cycle might provided safer and cleaner nuclear energy than the present Uranium/Pu fuelled reactors. Over the last 10 years, a vast campaign of measurements has been initiated to bring the precision of neutron data for the key nuclei (Th{sup 232}, Pa{sup 233} and U{sup 233}) at the level of those for the U-Pu cycle. This is the framework of these measurements, the energy dependent neutron induced fission cross section of Th{sup 232} and U{sup 233} has been measured from 1 to 7 MeV with a target accuracy lesser than 5 per cent. These measurements imply the accurate determination of the fission rate, the number of the target nuclei as well as the incident neutron flux impinging on the target, the latter has been obtained using the elastic scattering (n,p). The cross section of which is very well known in a large neutron energy domain ({approx} 0,5 % from 1 eV to 50 MeV) compared to the U{sup 235}(n,f) reaction. This technique has been applied for the first time to the Th{sup 232}(n,f) and U{sup 233}(n,f) cases. A Hauser-Feshbach statistical model has been developed. It consists of describing the different decay channels of the compound nucleus U{sup 234} from 0,01 to 10 MeV neutron energy. The parameters of this model were adjusted in order to reproduce the measured fission cross section of U{sup 233}. From these parameters, the cross sections from the following reactions could be extracted: inelastic scattering U{sup 233}(n,n'), radiative capture U{sup 233}(n,{gamma}) and U{sup 233}(n,2n). These cross sections are still difficult to measure by direct neutron reactions. The calculated values have allowed us to fill the lack of experimental data for the major fissile nucleus of the thorium cycle. (author)

  13. Measurement of the $^{233}$U neutron capture cross section at the n_TOF facility at CERN

    Carrapiço, Carlos; Berthoumieux, Eric; Gonçalves, Isabel; Gunsing, Frank

    2012-12-12

    The Thorium-Uranium (Th-U) fuel cycle has been envisaged as an alternative to the Uranium-Plutonium (U-Pu) fuel cycle for electricity generation using nuclear power reactors. Indeed, thorium can be used as a nuclear fuel, and several studies and R&D programs seem to provide evidence on the sustainability of the Th-U fuel cycle, due to (i) the natural abundance of Thorium, (ii) the improved proliferation resistance offered by the Th-U fuel cycle relative to the U-Pu fuel cycle, (iii) the better neutronics performance of the Th-U fuel cycle throughout the whole neutron energy range compared to the U-Pu fuel cycle, (iv) the lower radiotoxicity of the generated spent fuel in reactors with Th-U fuel cycle and, consequently (v) better economics and public acceptance of the reactors operated using the Th-U fuel cycle compared to those using the U-Pu fuel cycle (prior to the Generation IV nuclear reactors). In a nuclear reactor operated using the Th-U fuel cycle, $^{233}$U is a key nuclide governing the neutr...

  14. Dissolution of unirradiated UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} doped with {sup 233}U under reducing conditions

    Ollila, K. [VTT Processes (Finland); Oversby, V.M. [VMO Konsult (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to determine an upper limit to the dissolution rate of UO{sub 2} under reducing conditions appropriate to those in a geologic repository for spent fuel disposal in Finland and Sweden. Test duration ranged from 52 to 140 days. The total amount of U recovered in each test was converted into a dissolution rate per year for the sample. The dissolution rate was then used to calculate an expected lifetime for the samples under the test conditions. The dissolution rate did not depend on the length of the testing period. Rather, the dissolution rate appeared to decrease as the samples were exposed to sequential testing periods. This indicates that the results are still influenced by transient effects such as high-energy surface sites, which implies that the dissolution rates measured are upper limits. The sample lifetimes calculated from the last two testing periods, which had a total of 269 days, ranged from 7 to 10 million years. There was no indication of an effect of alpha radiolysis on the dissolution rate results for samples with doping levels of 0, 5, and 10% {sup 233}U.

  15. Ammonia excitation imaging of shocked gas towards the W28 gamma-ray source HESS J1801-233

    Maxted, Nigel I; Rowell, Gavin P; Nicholas, Brent P; Burton, Michael G; Walsh, Andrew; Fukui, Yasuo; Kawamura, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    We present 12 mm Mopra observations of the dense (>10^3 cm^-3 ) molecular gas towards the north-east (NE) of the W28 supernova remnant (SNR). This cloud is spatially well-matched to the TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1801-233 and is known to be a SNR-molecular cloud interaction region. Shock-disruption is evident from broad NH3 (1,1) spectral line-widths in regions towards the W28 SNR, while strong detections of spatially-extended NH3(3,3), NH3(4,4) and NH3(6,6) inversion emission towards the cloud strengthen the case for the existence of high temperatures within the cloud. Velocity dispersion measurements and NH3(n,n)/(1,1) ratio maps, where n=2, 3, 4 and 6, indicate that the source of disruption is from the side of the cloud nearest to the W28 SNR, suggesting that it is the source of cloud-disruption. Towards part of the cloud, the ratio of ortho to para-NH3 is observed to exceed 2, suggesting gas-phase NH3 enrichment due to NH3 liberation from dust grain mantles. The measured NH3 abundance with respect to H2 i...

  16. A 233 km Circumference Tunnel for $e^+$$e^-$, $p$$\\bar {p}$, and $\\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ Colliders

    Lyons, George T

    2011-01-01

    In 2001 a cost analysis survey was conducted to build a 233km circumference tunnel in northern Illinois in which to build a Very Large Hadron Collider. Ten years later I have reexamined the proposal, taking into consideration the technological advancements in all the aspects of construction cost analysis. I outline the implementations of $e^+ e^-$, $p{\\bar{p}}$, and $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ collider rings in the tunnel using 21${\\rm{st}}$ century technology. The $e^+e^-$ collider employs a Crab Waist Crossing, ultra low emittance damped bunches, 12 GV of superconducting RF, and 0.026 Tesla low coercivity grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. The $p{\\bar{p}}$ collider uses the high intensity Fermilab $\\bar{p}$ source, exploits high cross sections for $p\\bar{p}$ production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconductor magnets run with liquid neon. The $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ ring ramps the $p{\\bar{p}}$ magnets at 8 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of SRF, and mitigates neutrino radiation w...

  17. Evaluation of the thermal-neutron constants for 233U, 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu

    A consistent set of best values of the 2200 meter/second neutron cross sections, Westcott g-factors, and fission neutron yields for 233U, 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu are presented. A least squares fitting program, LSF, is used to obtain the best fit and to estimate the sensitivity of these fissile parameters to the quoted uncertainties in experimental data. The half-lives of the uranium and plutonium nuclides have been evaluated and these have been used to reassess the significant experimental data. The latest revision of the spontaneous fission neutron yield anti nu, of 252Cf and the foil thickness corrections to the fission neutron yield ratios of fissile nuclei to 252Cf are included. These lead to greater consistency in the data used for anti nu (252Cf). Similarly, the 234U half-life as revised leads to improved consistency in the 235U fission cross section. Comparison is made with the values from ENDF/B-V and other evaluations

  18. Reforma tributária: os efeitos macroeconômicos e setoriais da PEC 233/2008

    Nelson Leitão Paes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A despeito de um histórico desalentador, o atual governo enviou nova proposta de reforma tributária ao Congresso Nacional, a PEC 233/2008. A proposta unifica alguns tributos federais do consumo no IVA-F, simplifica e diminui drasticamente a legislação do ICMS, alivia a tributação sobre a folha de pagamento e bens essenciais e desonera investimentos. Para a análise do impacto destas mudanças, foi construído um modelo de equilíbrio geral, que contempla 55 firmas no lado produtivo da economia. Os resultados sugerem que do lado agregado haverá modesta expansão do produto, consumo, emprego e investimento, com pequena perda de arrecadação e aumento de bem-estar. Houve substanciais alterações no produto setorial, com uma tendência de aumento dos setores industrial e agropecuário em detrimento dos serviços.

  19. Storage and disposition of weapons usable fissile materials (FMD) PEIS: Blending of U-233 to <12% or <5% enrichment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Data report, Draft: Version 1

    Uranium-233 (U-233), a uranium isotope, is a fissionable material capable of fueling nuclear reactors or being utilized in the manufacturing of nuclear weapons. As such, it is controlled as a special nuclear material. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) currently store the Department of Energy's (DOE's) supply of unirradiated U-233 fuel materials. Irradiated U-233 is covered by the national spent nuclear fuel (SNF) program and is not in the scope of this report. The U-233 stored at ORNL is relatively pure uranium oxide in the form of powder or monolithic solids. This material is currently stored in stainless steel canisters of variable lengths measuring about 3 inches in diameter. The ORNL material enrichment varies with some material containing considerable amounts of U-235. The INEL material is fuel from the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Program and consists of enriched uranium and thorium oxides in zircaloy cladding. The DOE inventory of U-233 contains trace quantities of U-232, and daughter products from the decay of U-232 and U-233, resulting in increased radioactivity over time. These increased levels of radioactivity generally result in the need for special handling considerations

  20. Growth, optical, magnetic and electrical properties of CuFe2.33In9.67S17.33 single crystal

    Bodnar, I. V.; Jaafar, M. A.; Pauliukavets, S. A.; Trukhanov, S. V.; Victorov, I. A.

    2015-08-01

    Studies of the optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of a CuFe2.33In9.67S17.33 single crystal in 5-300 K temperature and 0-14 T field ranges are carried out. The nature of the change of spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient is found. Bandgap is determined, which is equal 1.5 eV. It is established that the studied sample is paramagnetic. In the main state ferromagnetic correlations of a near order are found, which are characteristic for spin glass with a freezing temperature in an area of 9 K. The magnetic ordering temperature is about 11 K. The sample studied is a semiconductor with 15.2 kΩ · cm resistivity at room temperature. The magnetic and electrical states’ formation mechanism for a CuFe2.33In9.67S17.33 single crystal is proposed.

  1. Determination of the extraction efficiency for $^{233}$U source $\\alpha$-recoil ions from the MLL buffer-gas stopping cell

    von der Wense, Lars; Laatiaoui, Mustapha; Thirolf, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Following the $\\alpha$ decay of $^{233}$U, $^{229}$Th recoil ions are shown to be extracted in a significant amount from the MLL buffer-gas stopping cell. The produced recoil ions and subsequent daughter nuclei are mass purified with the help of a customized quadrupole mass spectrometer. The combined extraction and mass-purification efficiency for $^{229}$Th$^{3+}$ is determined via MCP-based measurements and via the direct detection of the $^{229}$Th $\\alpha$ decay. A large value of $(10\\pm2)$\\% for the combined extraction and mass-purification efficiency of $^{229}$Th$^{3+}$ is obtained at a mass resolution of about 1 u/e. In addition to $^{229}$Th, also other $\\alpha$-recoil ions of the $^{233,232}$U decay chains are addressed.

  2. Coulomb effects in isobaric cold fission from reactions 233U(nth,f), 235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f) and 252Cf(sf)

    Montoya, Modesto

    2014-01-01

    The Coulomb effect hypothesis, formerly used to interpret fluctuations in the curve of maximal total kinetic energy as a function of light fragment mass in reactions 233U(nth,f), 235U(nth,f) and 239Pu(nth,f), is confirmed in high kinetic energy as well as in low excitation energy windows, respectively. Data from reactions 233U(nth,f), 235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f) and 252Cf(sf) show that, between two isobaric fragmentations with similar Q-values, the more asymmetric charge split reaches the higher value of total kinetic energy. Moreover, in isobaric charge splits with different Q-values, similar preference for asymmetrical fragmentations is observed in low excitation energy windows.

  3. Neutron-induced fission cross-section of 233U in the energy range 0.5n< 20 MeV

    The neutron-induced fission cross-section of 233U has been measured at the CERN n-TOF facility relative to the standard fission cross-section of 235U between 0.5 and 20MeV. The experiment was performed with a fast ionization chamber for the detection of the fission fragments and to discriminate against α -particles from the natural radioactivity of the samples. The high instantaneous flux and the low background of the n-TOF facility result in data with uncertainties of ∼ 3%, which were found in good agreement with previous experiments. The high quality of the present results allows to improve the evaluation of the 233U (n,f) cross-section and, consequently, the design of energy systems based on the Th/U cycle. (orig.)

  4. Interstitial 1q23.3q24.1 deletion in a patient with renal malformation, congenital heart disease, and mild intellectual disability.

    Mackenroth, Luisa; Hackmann, Karl; Klink, Barbara; Weber, Julia Sara; Mayer, Brigitte; Schröck, Evelin; Tzschach, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Interstitial deletions including chromosome region 1q23.3q24.1 are rare. Only eight patients with molecularly characterized deletions have been reported to date. Their phenotype included intellectual disability/developmental delay, growth retardation, microcephaly, congenital heart disease, and renal malformations. We report on a female patient with mild developmental delay, congenital heart disease, and bilateral renal hypoplasia in whom an interstitial de novo deletion of approximately 2.7 Mb in 1q23.3q24.1 was detected by array CGH. This is the smallest deletion described in this region so far. Genotype-phenotype comparison with previously published patients allowed us to propose LMX1A and RXRG as potential candidate genes for intellectual disability, PBX1 as a probable candidate gene for renal malformation, and enabled us to narrow down a chromosome region associated with microcephaly. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27255444

  5. Neutron-induced fission cross-section of {sup 233}U in the energy range 0.5

    Belloni, F.; Milazzo, P.M.; Abbondanno, U.; Fujii, K.; Moreau, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Trieste (Italy); Calviani, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Legnaro (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Colonna, N.; Marrone, S.; Meaze, M.H.; Tagliente, G.; Terlizzi, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Bari (Italy); Mastinu, P.; Gramegna, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy); Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.; Gunsing, F.; Pancin, J.; Perrot, L.; Plukis, A. [CEA, Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Alvarez, H.; Cano-Ott, D.; Duran, I.; Embid-Segura, M.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Paradela, C. [Univ. de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago (Spain); Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Guerrero, C.; Martinez, T.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technologicas, Madrid (Spain); Andrzejewski, J.; Marganiec, J. [Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Audouin, L.; Dillmann, I.; Heil, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Mosconi, M.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wisshak, K. [Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology, Campus Nord, Karlsruhe (Germany); Badurek, G.; Jericha, E.; Leeb, H.; Oberhummer, H.; Pigni, M.T. [Technische Univ. Wien, Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Univ., Wien (Austria); Baumann, P.; David, S.; Kerveno, M.; Lukic, S.; Rudolf, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/IN2P3 - IReS, Strasbourg (France); Becvar, F.; Krticka, M. [Charles Univ., Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Calvino, F.; Cortes, G.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Capote, R. [NAPC/Nuclear Data Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Univ. de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Carrapico, C.; Goncalves, I.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Tavora, L.; Vaz, P. [Inst. Tecnologico e Nuclear, Lisbon (Portugal)] [and others

    2011-01-15

    The neutron-induced fission cross-section of {sup 233}U has been measured at the CERN n-TOF facility relative to the standard fission cross-section of {sup 235}U between 0.5 and 20MeV. The experiment was performed with a fast ionization chamber for the detection of the fission fragments and to discriminate against {alpha} -particles from the natural radioactivity of the samples. The high instantaneous flux and the low background of the n-TOF facility result in data with uncertainties of {approx} 3%, which were found in good agreement with previous experiments. The high quality of the present results allows to improve the evaluation of the {sup 233}U (n,f) cross-section and, consequently, the design of energy systems based on the Th/U cycle. (orig.)

  6. Preparation of 2'-O-succinyl[8-3H]cGMP and of 2'-O-([2,3-3H]succinyl)cGMP

    The methods are described of the preparation of 2'-O-succinyl[8-3H]cGMP of a molar activity of 416 GBq mmol-1 and 2'-O-([2,3-3H]succinyl)cGMP of a molar activity of 1.722 TBq mmol-1. In tracer tests the effect was studied of molar concentration of succinic anhydride on reaction yield. Also identified were reaction conditions under which the isotopic exchange of tritium in [8-3H]cGMP is limited [2,3-3H]succinic anhydride was prepared by tritiation of maleinic anhydride in anhydrous dioxane catalyzed by 10% Pd/C. (author). 1 fig., 7 tabs., 6 refs

  7. Development of a method for recovery of 233U from thorium oxalate cake in reconversion step of reprocessing of irradiated thorium rods

    A method is developed for the selective leaching of 233U from a thorium oxalate cake. The leaching capacity of ammonium carbonate and nitric acid have been investigated, showing that (NH4)2CO3 leads to higher recovery. The maximum leaching efficiency is obtained using 0.5% ammonium carbonate, with a minimal thorium pick-up. A uranium recovery of 94% is obtained after three consecutive contact experiments in carbonate media, with minimal thorium uptake in the leachate. This process was applied to an actual plant stream, allowing the reduction of the 233U α-activity from 5.64 to 0.3 μCi/g of thorium oxalate cake. (author)

  8. Investigation of the prompt neutron emission mechanism in low energy fission of 235,233U(nth, f) and 252Cf(sf)

    Val’ski G.V.; Gagarski A.M.; Shcherbakov O.A.; Vorobyev A.S.; Petrov G.A.

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to measure prompt neutron angular and energy distributions from thermal neutron-induced fission of 235,233U in correlation with the fission fragments. These distributions have been analyzed with the assumption of neutron isotropic emission from accelerated fission fragments. The performed analysis demonstrates that all obtained results can be described within 5% accuracy using this assumption. This discrepancy is approximately constant and doesn’t de...

  9. Analysis of the Fission Cross-Section of U233 for Neutrons of Energies Between 1.7 and 30 eV

    The cross-section of U233 for resonance neutrons was analysed by the least-squares method. The paper discusses the need for using a multilevel formalism, and considers the statistical distributions of level spacing and partial widths. By the use of a study of level spacing as a starting point, particular attention is paid to the possibility of obtaining information on the relationship of populations of resonances of different spin. (author)

  10. Utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium with breeding of the {sup 233}U isotope in the VVER reactors using thorium and heavy water

    Marshalkin, V. E., E-mail: marshalkin@vniief.ru; Povyshev, V. M. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A method for joint utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium in the thorium–uranium—plutonium oxide fuel of a water-moderated reactor with a varying water composition (D{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}O) is proposed. The method is characterized by efficient breeding of the {sup 233}U isotope and safe reactor operation and is comparatively simple to implement.

  11. Monte Carlo analysis of direct measurements of the fission neutron yield per absorption by 233U and 235U of monochromatic neutrons

    Monte Carlo analysis of the measurements of Smith et al. of the number of fission neutrons produced per neutron absorbed, eta, for 2200 m/sec neutrons absorbed by 233U and 235U yields: eta2200233 = 2.2993 +- 0.0082 and eta2200235 = 2.0777 +- 0.0064. The standard deviations include Monte Carlo, cross section, and experimental uncertainties. The Monte Carlo analysis was confirmed by calculating measured quantities used by the experimentalists in determining eta2200

  12. Measurement of neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 233}U and {sup 245}Cm with the FIC detector at the CERN n-TOF facility

    Calviani, M.; Karadimos, D.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calvino, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapic, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Kappeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martinez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O' Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M.T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K

    2008-07-01

    A series of measurements of neutron induced fission cross section of various transuranic isotopes have been performed at the CERN n-TOF spallation neutron facility, in the energy range from thermal to nearly 250 MeV. The experimental apparatus consists in a fast ionization chamber (FIC), used as a fission fragment detector with a high efficiency. Good discrimination between alphas and fission fragments can be obtained with a simple amplitude threshold. In order to allow the monitoring of the neutron beam and to extract the n-TOF neutron flux, the well known cross section of the {sup 235}U(n,f) reaction, considered as a fission standard, has been used. Preliminary results for the cross section are shown for some selected isotopes such as {sup 235}U, {sup 233}U and {sup 245}Cm in the energy range from 0.050 eV to about 2 MeV. These results for {sup 235}U, {sup 233}U and {sup 245}Cm show results consistent with databases in the resonance region, with no normalization required for {sup 233}U. In the case of {sup 245}Cm, for the energy range between thermal and 20 eV, we obtained the first experimental data ever published, while showing a good agreement with previous data in the region above that value.

  13. Measurement of neutron induced fission of 235U, 233U and 245Cm with the FIC detector at the CERN n-TOF facility

    A series of measurements of neutron induced fission cross section of various transuranic isotopes have been performed at the CERN n-TOF spallation neutron facility, in the energy range from thermal to nearly 250 MeV. The experimental apparatus consists in a fast ionization chamber (FIC), used as a fission fragment detector with a high efficiency. Good discrimination between alphas and fission fragments can be obtained with a simple amplitude threshold. In order to allow the monitoring of the neutron beam and to extract the n-TOF neutron flux, the well known cross section of the 235U(n,f) reaction, considered as a fission standard, has been used. Preliminary results for the cross section are shown for some selected isotopes such as 235U, 233U and 245Cm in the energy range from 0.050 eV to about 2 MeV. These results for 235U, 233U and 245Cm show results consistent with databases in the resonance region, with no normalization required for 233U. In the case of 245Cm, for the energy range between thermal and 20 eV, we obtained the first experimental data ever published, while showing a good agreement with previous data in the region above that value.

  14. Measurement and analysis of reactivity worth of Th232, U233 and Eu plate in the core with KUCA-Th

    The reactivity worth of 1/8''Th232, 2mmtU233 and 2mmtEU plate were measured in the center of core of B4/8''P24EU-Th-EU(5). C/E was about 0.92 to 0.95 for U233 plate and Eu plate, and about 1.0 to 1.3 for Th232 plate, respectively, higher value. The core construction consisted of the fuel region inside and it encircled with polyethylene reflector and the control and safety rods are set in the boundary. Each reactivity worth of materials was determined by the difference between the average excess reactivity of each material at loading and that of aluminum at loading. The results were expressed as the following; Δk/k = 4.931E-04 + 1.99E-05 (2 mmtU233), Δk/k = 2.979E-04 + 1.67E-05 (2 mmtEU) and Δk/k = -4.874E-04 + 1.29E-05 (1/8''Th232). The experimental values agreed with the calculated values and were reproducible to the measurement values on KUCA. (S.Y.)

  15. U3-U5-PU9-CRITICALS, Critical Dimensions of Systems containing U235, Pu239, and U233

    Description: Compilation of critical data obtained from experiments performed in a number of laboratories during the period of 1945 through 1985. It supplements the Nuclear Safety Guide [Report. TID-7016 (Rev. 2)(ref.2) in presenting critical data on which recommendations of the Guide are based. This report gives critical data without safety factors, and is no substitute for the Guide or for the related document, The American National Standard for Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactors (ref.3). This standard is supported by publications of H. K. Clark that interpret criticality information for Pu, U-233 and U-235 systems (ref.4-6). Information for guiding the safety design of equipment for handling the three common fissile materials appears to a certain extent in the Nuclear Safety Guide, and with greater detail in several handbooks (ref.7). Other publications specify conditions for unique processes with particular fissionable material (ref.8). Experiments of several types which contribute results applicable to nuclear design and to safety problems have been described by Callihan (ref.9). Critical measurements with materials of interest in desired configurations yield information of greatest usefulness and accuracy. In some cases, calculated results are desirable to fill in experimental data or to extend them. Where they appear in the reports, they are identified as calculations because of the uncertainty associated with them. Calculated extensions of experimental data are included to show the nature of trends, not to substitute for results of experiments. They should be used with caution. A fundamental aim of this document is to illustrate relationships among critical data. The compilation and correlation of data for this purpose, from many measurements in a number of laboratories, require a certain amount of normalization or reduction to common terms. Frequently, for example, the effects of variations in geometry or

  16. Quantifying UV-B flux over the Late Triassic Carnian Pluvial Extinction Event (c. 233-229 Ma).

    Miller, Charlotte; Fraser, Wesley; Jardine, Phil; Kürschner, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    The geological record contains numerous episodes of global environmental change associated with pronounced transient perturbations to the global carbon cycle, some of which are closely linked with ocean acidification and mass extinction. Here, we focus on the Late Triassic mass extinction during the Carnian Pluvial Event (CPE) which occurred c. 233-229 million-years-ago (Ma). The CPE extinction remains one of the least studied and most controversial biotic crises due primarily to the lack of well-dated sedimentary successions. The CPE interval features a -4 o δ13C excursion, which is interpreted as a massive atmospheric injection of 13C-depleted carbon from the Wrangellia Flood Basalts. The associated increase in atmospheric pCO2 may then have accelerated the hydrological cycle, resulting in increased weathering and enhanced siliciclastic delivery to shallow carbonate basins. Volcanic activity is known to significantly alter the amount of incoming solar UV-B radiation via dimming processes, the destruction of ozone and increased cloud formation via the addition of cloud condensation nuclei to the atmosphere. To reconstruct variations in UV-B flux we have measured the abundance of phenolic components (UV-B absorbing compounds) contained within the cell wall of Ovalipollis pollen grains across the CPE, from samples taken from the Lunz region (Austria). These phenolic components are part of the defensive system of plants, where the abundance of phenolics increases with elevated UV-B flux. Our preliminary data indicate i) that the highest abundance of phenolics occur in the latter stages of the CPE, ii) the abundance of phenolics are highly variable throughout the CPE, and iii) the abundance of phenolics broadly increase towards the end of the Late Triassic. Here we will discuss the significance of the obtained data in terms of palaeoclimatic variability and the impact of volcanism during the Carnian Pluvial Event.

  17. Delayed Fission Gamma-ray Characteristics of Th-232 U-233 U-235 U-238 and Pu-239

    Lane, Taylor [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Delayed fission gamma-rays play an important role in determining the time dependent ioniz- ing dose for experiments in the central irradiation cavity of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR). Delayed gamma-rays are produced from both fission product decay and from acti- vation of materials in the core, such as cladding and support structures. Knowing both the delayed gamma-ray emission rate and the time-dependent gamma-ray energy spectrum is nec- essary in order to properly determine the dose contributions from delayed fission gamma-rays. This information is especially important when attempting to deconvolute the time-dependent neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray contribution to the response of a diamond photo-conducting diode (PCD) or fission chamber in time frames of milliseconds to seconds following a reactor pulse. This work focused on investigating delayed gamma-ray character- istics produced from fission products from thermal, fast, and high energy fission of Th-232, U-233, U-235, U-238, and Pu-239. This work uses a modified version of CINDER2008, a transmutation code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to model time and energy dependent photon characteristics due to fission. This modified code adds the capability to track photon-induced transmutations, photo-fission, and the subsequent radiation caused by fission products due to photo-fission. The data is compared against previous work done with SNL- modified CINDER2008 [ 1 ] and experimental data [ 2 , 3 ] and other published literature, includ- ing ENDF/B-VII.1 [ 4 ]. The ability to produce a high-fidelity (7,428 group) energy-dependent photon fluence at various times post-fission can improve the delayed photon characterization for radiation effects tests at research reactors, as well as other applications.

  18. Design of a passive residual heat removal system for the FUJI-233Um molten salt reactor system

    Highlights: • A passive decay heat removal system for a small molten salt reactor is analyzed. • The system uses water as a coolant and an air cooler as final heat sink. • If the diameter of the coolant pipes is chosen correctly, problems of thermal shock can be avoided. • Safe cooling for a period of at least 10 days can be achieved. • The possibility of draining the primary system is an important safety feature of molten salt reactors. - Abstract: This paper discusses the design and analysis of a passive decay heat removal system for a Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) of 450 MWth. Following the disaster at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power station, it is clear that the public will demand improved safety performance if nuclear power is to be accepted as a sustainable source of CO2-free energy. In this scope, thorium-based MSRs have very promising properties in the area of passive safety, resource availability and proliferation resistance. Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) systems can be equipped with an emergency salt drain tank. Under any severe accident, all the fuel salt can be drained by gravity into the drain tank, thus, the primary system can be safely emptied of fissile materials and fission products. The ultimate safety can be assured by the integrity of the fuel salt in the drain tank or in other words, the capability of residual heat removal from the fuel salt in the drain tank. From this point of view, we investigated the feasibility of a passive residual heat removal system for the drain tank of an MSR (FUJI-233Um of 450 MWth). We concluded that a system comprising a large drain tank and 60, large-diameter coolant tubes can withstand the thermal shock due to the hot fuel salt, and therefore we conclude that system is feasible

  19. Fiscal Year 2008 Phased Construction Completion Report for EU Z2-33 in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2008-09-11

    The Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2161&D2) (Zone 2 ROD) acknowledged that most of the 800 acres in Zone 2 were contaminated, but that sufficient data to confirm the levels of contamination were lacking. The Zone 2 ROD further specified that a sampling strategy for filling the data gaps would be developed. The Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2224&D3) (Zone 2 RDR/RAWP) defined the sampling strategy as the Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS), generally following the approach used for characterization of the Zone 1 exposure units (EUs). The Zone 2 ROD divided the Zone 2 area into seven geographic areas and 44 EUs. To facilitate the data quality objectives (DQOs) of the DVS process, the Zone 2 RDR/RAWP regrouped the 44 EUs into 12 DQO scoping EU groups. These groups facilitated the DQO process by placing similar facilities and their support facilities together and allowing identification of data gaps. The EU groups were no longer pertinent after DQO planning was completed and characterization was conducted as areas became accessible. As the opportunity to complete characterization became available, the planned DVS program and remedial actions (RAs) were completed for EU Z2-33. Remedial action was also performed at two additional areas in adjacent EU Z2-42 because of their close proximity and similar nature to a small surface soil RA in EU Z2-33. Remedial actions for building slabs performed in EU Z2-33 during fiscal year (FY) 2007 were reported in the Fiscal Year 2007 Phased Construction Completion Report for the Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2723&D1). Recommended RAs for EU Z2-42 were described in the Fiscal Year 2006 Phased Construction

  20. Case 233: Blastomycosis.

    Mouser, Hans; Miller, Frank H; Berggruen, Senta M

    2016-09-01

    History A 35-year-old man from the upper Midwest region of the United States who had no relevant medical history initially presented to an acute care clinic with multiple small tender skin lesions. His temperature was 38.1°C, and physical examination revealed several small fluctuant masses that were draining purulent material. Skin culture of one of the draining lesions was performed at this time, but there was no subsequent bacterial growth. A diagnosis of furunculosis was made, and Bactrim (sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim; AR Scientific, Philadelphia, Pa) and a regimen of chlorhexidine washes were prescribed. Two weeks later, the number of skin lesions had increased, and the patient had begun to experience night sweats and fevers. After an episode of hemoptysis and some unusual pain in the patient's right testicle, he presented to the emergency department. At this time, chest radiographs were obtained. The patient was admitted for additional work-up, and computed tomographic (CT) images of the chest were obtained. Physical examination at the time of admission revealed scattered 1-3-cm firm pink hyperpigmented subcutaneous nodules, several of which had overlying pustules. This examination was also notable for a palpable fullness within the right testicle. The patient was afebrile at admission. He denied a history of contact with sick people, illicit drug use, or recent travel. His social history was notable for a 20-pack-year smoking history and a recent relocation to a neighborhood with several new construction sites. Laboratory evaluation revealed leukocytosis (white blood cell count, 15.4 × 10(9)/L; normal range, [3.5-10.5] × 10(9)/L), a chemistry panel revealed a low sodium level (132 mEq/L [132 mmol/L]; normal range, 134-142 mEq/L [134-142 mmol/L]), and serum α-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin levels were normal. Ultrasonography (US) of the scrotum was performed. Serum analysis was negative for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and type 2 RNA, and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and rapid plasma regain test results were negative. Blood cultures were negative for bacterial growth. On the basis of chest CT findings, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage was performed. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the abdomen also was performed to further evaluate a focal area of hypoenhancement within the pancreatic tail seen on chest CT images. PMID:27533292

  1. Progress in the Development of a Heavy-Water Moderated and Cooled Thorium-Uranium-233 Converter

    On account of its excellent neutron economy the heavy-water reactor is suitable for development as a high-gain converter or as a breeder in the thorium-uranium-233 cycle. In the Federal Republic of Germany work on these lines is being carried out at the Jülich Nuclear Research Centre in co-operation with the Siemens Company. Prominence is being given to a pressure-vessel reactor moderated and cooled by heavy water. Contrary to natural uranium types the thorium reactor will have a quasi-homogeneous core structure and a much lower heavy-water content and therefore will be in appearance more similar to a light-water reactor. With a quasi-homogeneous lattice and the fact that flux peaks are more easily avoided in a D2O core than in an H2O one, the mean specific fuel power (which is decisive for the economic efficiency of a thorium reactor) attains a higher value than in reactors with clustered fuel elements or in light-water reactors. The D2O-thorium reactor will have core power densities in the range of those attained in boiling light-water reactors. This power density is greater than in any other advanced converter. Development work can be based on the well-known technology of water-cooled reactors and on operating experience with the multipurpose reactor (MZFR) at Karlsruhe. The total time and cost required for the development of the heavy-water reactor towards a thorium-uranium-converter or breeder is therefore relatively small. This type will profit in particular from the great progress made in recent years with Zircaloy-canned ceramic fuel rods and with fuel element development. At minimum fuel cycle costs in the range of 1 mill/kWh, including costs for D2O inventory, the specific consumption of 235U for maintaining a reprocessed equilibrium cycle is calculated to be 0.20 g 235U/MWd, including diffusion tails. Calculation methods are shown to be in good agreement with lattice experiments carried out in the Siemens Argonaut Reactor at Garching. On account of the

  2. Dissolution rates of unirradiated UO2, UO2 doped with 233U, and spent fuel under normal atmospheric conditions and under reducing conditions using an isotope dilution method

    The experimental results given in this report allow us to draw the following conclusions. 1) Tests using unirradiated fuel pellet materials from two different manufacturers gave very different dissolution rates under air atmosphere testing. Tests for fragments of pellets from different pellets made by the same manufacturer gave good agreement. This indicates that details of the manufacturing process have a large effect on the behavior of unirradiated UO2 in dissolution experiments. Care must be taken in interpreting differences in results obtained in different laboratories because the results may be affected by manufacturing effects. 2) Long-term tests under air atmosphere have begun to show the effects of precipitation. Further testing will be needed before the samples reach steady state. 3) Testing of unirradiated UO2 in systems containing an iron strip to produce reducing conditions gave [U] less than detection limits (235U added as spike was recovered, indicating that 90% of the spike had precipitated onto the solid sample or the iron strip. 9) Tests of UO2 pellet materials containing 233U to provide an alpha decay activity similar to that expected for spent fuel 3000 and 10,000 years after disposal showed that the pellet materials behaved as expected under air atmosphere conditions, showing that the manufacturing method was successful. 10) Early testing of the 233U-doped materials under reducing conditions showed relatively rapid (30 minute) dissolution of small amounts of U at the start of the puff test procedure. Results of analyses of an acidified fraction of the same solutions after 1 or 2 weeks holding indicate that the solutions were inhomogeneous, indicating the presence of colloidal material or small grains of solid. 11) Samples from the 233U-doped tests initially indicated dissolution of solid during the first week of testing, with some indication of more rapid dissolution of the material with the higher doping. 12) The second cycle of testing of the

  3. Measurement of the generation ratio of 233U and the average radiation capture cross section of 232Th with 232ThO2 irradiated by fast neutrons

    Background: Thorium-Uranium cycle plays an important role in the future's power production technology. Nuclear data involved are urgently needed for engineering design and other purposes since there are obvious differences between the existing evaluated data. Macroscopic neutron integral experiment can be used as a good tool to survey the confusion. Purpose: Macroscopic neutron integral experiment based on radioactive method was carried out to measure the generation ratio of 233U nuclide and the average radiation capture cross section of 232Th while a ThO2 sample was irradiated by fast neutrons leakage from a fast critical facility. We expect that these data can be used as a reference for the research of Th-U cycle. Methods: Radiation capture reactions of 232Th nuclides occur when the nuclides are irradiated by neutrons. 233U nuclides will be generated after two cascade decays by emitting beta rays from the activation products, which are 233Th nuclides. The ThO2 sample was prepared as a slice of 20 mm×10 mm from 0.743 36-g ThO2 powders of 99.9% enriched. The neutron flux was measured by activation method which was 4.07x109 cm-2·s-1 at the sample's irradiation position while the facility worked at the power level of 180 watts. The leakage neutrons' energy distribution was calculated by MC method and it is very close to the fission spectrum with the averaged energy of 1.42 MeV. After irradiation and then a period of cooling time the gamma rays emitted from the sample were measured by an HPGe spectrometer which had been pre-calibrated. From these data the activity of 233Pa was calculated and then the generation ratio of 233U and the average radiation capture cross section of 232Th were calculated. The measured average radiation capture cross section was compared with the cross sections calculated based on the ENDFB-VH.1, CENDL-3.1, JENDL-4.0, BROND2.2 databases. Results: The measured generation ratio of 233U was 4.01×10-12 with an uncertainty of 6

  4. Evaluation of fission cross sections and covariances for {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Matsunobu, Hiroyuki [Data Engineering, Inc. (Japan); Murata, Toru [AITEL Corporation, Tokyo (JP)] [and others

    2000-02-01

    A simultaneous evaluation code SOK (Simultaneous evaluation on KALMAN) has been developed, which is a least-squares fitting program to absolute and relative measurements. The SOK code was employed to evaluate the fission cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu for the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.3. Procedures of the simultaneous evaluation and the experimental database of the fission cross sections are described. The fission cross sections obtained were compared with evaluated values given in JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI. (author)

  5. Neutron-induced fission cross sections of 233U and 243Am in the energy range 0.5 Mev En 20 MeV @ n_TOF

    Belloni, F; Milazzo, P M; Calviani, M; Colonna, N; Mastinu, P; Abbondanno, U; Aerts, G; Álvarez, H; Álvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Assimakopoulos, P; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvár, F; Berthoumieux, E; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapiço, C; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Cortes, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillmann, I; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dridi, W; Duran, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Goncalves, I; González-Romero, E; Gramegna, F; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Igashira, M; Jericha, E; Käppeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Kerveno, M; Koehler, P; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lampoudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mengoni, A; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Pigni, M T; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Praena, J; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Santos, C; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stephan, C; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vazl, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vincente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2011-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross-sections of actinides have been recently measured at the neutron time of flight facility n_TOF at CERN in the frame of a research project involving isotopes relevant for nuclear astrophysics and nuclear technologies. Fission fragments are detected by a gas counter with good discrimination between nuclear fission products and background events. Neutron-induced fission cross-sections of 233U and 243Am were determined relative to 235U. The present paper reports the results obtained at neutron energies between 0.5 and 20 MeV.

  6. Fission barrier formula and its application to thorium based fuel cycle: calculation of fission cross sections for 233Pa (n, f) reaction

    Recently, direct measurements of fission cross-sections for 233Pa (n, f) reaction are available which stimulated the calculation of fission cross-sections for this reaction. For this calculation we have derived an analytical barrier formula based on microscopic-macroscopic description by fitting the actinide fission barrier data for the double humped barrier. Pairing effects have also been taken into account. The cross sections calculated for using the analytical barrier formula with the code EMPIRE 2.19 give better agreement with the available measurements. (author)

  7. Study of the excited levels of 233{sup P}a by the 237{sup N}p alpha decay; Estudio de los niveles excitados en el 233{sup P}a por la desintegracion alfa del 237{sup N}p

    Gonzalez, J.; Gaeta, R.; Vano, E.; Los Arcos, J. M.

    1978-07-01

    The excited levels in 233{sup P}a following the 237{sup N}p alpha decay have been studied, by performing different experiences to complete available data and supply new information. Thus, two direct alpha spectrum measurement, one alpha-gamma bidimensional coincidence experiment, three gamma-gamma and gamma-X ray coincidences and some other measurements of the gamma spectrum, direct and coincident with alpha-particles have been made. These last experiences have allowed to obviate usual radiochemical separation methods, the 233{sup P}a radioactive descendent interferences being eliminated by means of the coincidence technic. As a result, a primary decay scheme has been elaborated, including 15 new gamma transitions and two new levels, not observed in the most recent works. (Author) 60 refs.

  8. A 233U/236U/242Pu/244Pu spike for isotopic and isotope dilution analysis by mass spectrometry with internal calibration

    The Khlopin Radium Institute prepared on behalf of the IAEA a synthetic mixture of 233U, 236U, 242Pu and 244Pu isotopes. The isotopic composition and elemental concentration of uranium and plutonium were certified on the basis of analyses done by four laboratories of the IAEA Network, using mass spectrometry with internal standardization. The certified values for 233U/236U ratio and the 236U chemical concentration have a coefficient of variation of 0.05%. The latter is fixed by the uncertainty in the 235U/238U ratio of NBS500 used as internal standard. The coefficients of variation of the 244Pu/242Pu ratio and the 242Pu chemical concentration are respectively 0.10% and 0.16% and limited by the uncertainty in the 240Pu/239Pu ratio of NBS947. This four isotope mixture was used as an internal standard as well as a spike, to analyze 30 batches of LWR spent fuel solutions. The repeatability of the mass spectrometric measurements have a coefficient of variation of 0.025% for the uranium concentration, and of 0.039% for the plutonium concentration. The spiking and treatment errors had a coefficient of variation of 0.048%. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  9. The energy amplifier: A solid-phase, accelerator driven, sub critical Th/233 U breeder for nuclear energy production with minimal actinide waste

    We describe a hybrid system consisting of a medium current (1-10 mA), medium energy (1 GeV) proton accelerator feeding a subcritical assembly consisting of Thorium (or another fertile element) and a moderator medium (e.g. light water). Under conditions of moderate neutron flux (1014 ncm-2), we show by a computer simulation that a stable equilibrium evolves whereby the concentration of fissile 233U which is bred from Thorium is stable at about 1.3%. The 233U produces energy by fission and is continuously regenerated in-situ without resorting to any chemical separation. It is shown that the energy produced is several times larger than the energy required to power the proton accelerator, hence the name Energy Amplifier that we have chosen for that system. We have paid particular attention to the question of toxicity and show that this system will result in very small quantities of Plutonium and higher actinide waste. We also show the composition of actinides produced makes this system particularly resistant to nuclear weapons proliferation. This safe subcritical system is based on an abundant and inexpensive resource which is natural Thorium and can be built using present day technology

  10. Recent Experiments on the Beta Activity of Fission Products from the Thermal-Neutron Fission of U233, U235 and Pu239

    The build-up of beta-activity of fission products from the low-energy fission of U233 and U235 has been measured as a function of the lime t after starting the irradiation of the fissionable material with thermal neutrons. By differentiating the beta-activity divided by the constant fission product rate one obtains the mean beta-decay rate β(t) per fission as a function of the time t after fission. The uranium targets were mounted within a 4π proportional counter, coincident conversion electrons and γ-rays being thereby eliminated. The background of fast neutrons and γ-rays was strongly reduced by using a neutron beam tube with a liquid nitrogen-cooled bismuth single crystal filter. The fission product rate was measured with the same counter. The measurements cover the time interval from 0.01 s to 10 h. The results are compared with other experimental data and existing theories. The total number of beta-decays per fission was found to be 5.25 ± 0.2 and 5.93 ± 0.2 for U233 and U235 respectively compared with theoretical values of 5.27 and 6.10 respectively. (author)

  11. Third case of 8q23.3-q24.13 deletion in a patient with Langer-Giedion syndrome phenotype without TRPS1 gene deletion.

    Pereza, Nina; Severinski, Srećko; Ostojić, Saša; Volk, Marija; Maver, Aleš; Dekanić, Kristina Baraba; Kapović, Miljenko; Peterlin, Borut

    2012-03-01

    Langer-Giedion syndrome (LGS) is a contiguous gene syndrome caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 8q23.3-q24.11 involving TRPS1 and EXT1 genes. We report on a girl with LGS phenotype and a 7.5 Mb interstitial deletion at chromosome 8q23.3-q24.13. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) revealed a deletion encompassing only the EXT1 and not the TRPS1 gene. Even though the deletion of TRPS1 and EXT1 genes is responsible for craniofacial and skeletal features of LGS, there have been previous reports of patients with LGS phenotype and 8q24 deletions leaving the TRPS1 gene intact. To our knowledge, this is the third such case. Our patient differs from previously reported LGS patients without TRPS1 gene deletion in that she has the typical LGS facial dysmorphism and skeletal abnormalities. However, the girl is of normal height and has only a mild developmental delay. Additionally, she has dyslalia and premature adrenarche classified as Tanner stage 3 premature pubarche which have not yet been described as features of LGS. We examine the molecular breakpoints and phenotypes of our patient and previously reported cases. PMID:22315192

  12. CANDU REAKTÖRLERİNDE ThO2 ve 233UO2 YAKIT KARIŞIMI KULLANIMININ İNCELENMESİ

    ŞAHİN, Necmettin

    2013-01-01

    Bu çalışmada; (Th+233U)O2 yakıt karışımının CANDU reaktörlerinde kullanılabilirliği ve reaktör başarımınaetkisi araştırılmıştır. Bunun için yakıt olarak %98 ThO2 + %2 233UO2 yakıt karışımı kullanılmıştır. Nötronikveriler, tek boyutlu SCALE 4.4a nükleer hesaplama kodu yardımıyla elde edilmiştir. Reaktör kritiklik ve yanmaderecesi değerleri tam güçte 20 yıl için hesaplanmıştır. Yapılan hesaplamalar sonucunda, reaktör kritikliğinink∞=~1,3 le başladığı ve 2. yıl sonundan itibaren 20 yıl boyunca k...

  13. Study of the mass, isotopic and kinetic energy distributions of the 233U(nth, f) and 241Pu(nth, f) fission products measured at the Lohengrin mass spectrometer (ILL)

    Fission product yields are significant nuclear data for neutronic simulations. The purpose of this work is to improve fission yield knowledge for two fissile nuclei: 241Pu and 233U. Those are respectively involved in the uranium and thorium nuclear fuel cycle. The measurements are performed at the Lohengrin mass spectrometer of the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) located in Grenoble. The spectrometer is combined with an ionization chamber to measure mass yields of 241Pu and 233U and with a gamma spectrometry set-up to determine isotopic yields of 233U. A new analysis method of experimental data has been developed in order to control systematics and to reduce experimental biases. For the first time, the experimental variance-covariance matrix of our measured fission yields could be deduced. (author)

  14. Collective and single-particle excitations in the heavy deformable nuclei 234U, 233U, 231Th, 230Pa and 232Pa

    In this thesis five heavy deformed isotopes from the mass region A≥230, namely 234U, 233U, 231Th, 230Pa and 232Pa, were investigated by means of deuteron-induced neutron transfer reactions. The even-even isotope 234U has been studied with the 4π-γ-spectrometer MINIBALL at the Cologne Tandem accelerator. Excited nuclei in the isotope 234U were produced using the reaction 235U(d,t) at a beam energy of 11 MeV. The target thickness was 3.5 mg/cm2. The analysis of the γγ-coincidence data yielded a reinterpretation of the level scheme in 12 cases. Considering its decay characteristics, the 4+ state at an excitation energy of 1886.7 keV is a potential candidate for a two-phonon vibrational state. The isotopes 233U, 231Th, 230Pa and 232Pa were investigated at the Munich Q3D spectrometer. For each isotope an angular distribution with angles between 5 and 45 were measured. In all four cases the energy of the polarized deuteron beam (vector polarization of 80%) was 22 MeV. As targets 234U (160 μg/cm2), 230Th (140 μg/cm2) and 231Pa (140 μg/cm2) were used. The experimental angular distributions were compared to results of DWBA calculations. For the odd isotope 233U spin and parity for 33 states are assigned and in the other odd isotope 231Th 22 assignments are made. The excitation spectra of the two odd-odd isotopes 230Pa and 232Pa were investigated for the first time. For the isotope 230Pa 63 states below an excitation energy of 1.5 MeV are identified. Based on the new experimental data the Nilsson configuration of the ground state is either 1/2[530]p-5/2[633]n or 1/2[530]p+3/2[631]n. In addition 12 rotational bands are proposed and from this six values for the GM splitting energy are deduced as well as two new values for the Newby shift. In the other odd-odd isotope 232Pa 40 states below an excitation energy of 850 keV are observed and suggestions for the groundstate band and its GM partner are made. From this one GM splitting energy was determined.

  15. Investigation of the prompt neutron emission mechanism in low energy fission of 235,233U(nth, f and 252Cf(sf

    Val’ski G.V.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments has been performed to measure prompt neutron angular and energy distributions from thermal neutron-induced fission of 235,233U in correlation with the fission fragments. These distributions have been analyzed with the assumption of neutron isotropic emission from accelerated fission fragments. The performed analysis demonstrates that all obtained results can be described within 5% accuracy using this assumption. This discrepancy is approximately constant and doesn’t depend on fragment mass and the total kinetic energy (TKE. Some minor peculiarities of angular distribution may be interpreted as a result of anisotropy of the fission neutron angular distribution in the fragment center-of-mass system.

  16. Measurements of the yields of the light fission products from the reaction 233U(nsub(th),f) by a ionization chamber

    The aim of this thesis was to develop a new measuring apparature and measuring method which allows to study together with the mass separator 'Lohengrin' at the high flux reactor in Grenoble in realizable measurement times detailedly the unknown mass, nuclear charge, and energy distributions of the fission products resulting from the fission of 233U with thermal neutrons. First the yields and the energy distributions of the masses, thereafter the yields and the energy distributions of the isobaric nuclear charges of the light fission products in the mass range 79<=Asub(L)<=106 are measured. The measuring method for the determination of the mass yields consists of a energy measurement of the fission products separated in the mass separator by a ionization chamber. The isobaric nuclear charges and their yields are determined by the nuclear-charge-specific energy-loss method from the residual-energy spectra behind an absorber. (orig./HSI)

  17. Two Novel Tyrosinase Inhibitory Sesquiterpenes Induced by CuCl2 from a Marine-Derived Fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. Z233

    Min Sun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new sesquiterpenes, 1β,5α,6α,14-tetraacetoxy-9α-benzoyloxy-7β H-eudesman-2β,11-diol (1 and 4α,5α-diacetoxy-9α-benzoyloxy-7βH-eudesman-1β,2β,11, 14-tetraol (2, were produced as stress metabolites in the cultured mycelia of Pestalotiopsis sp. Z233 isolated from the algae Sargassum horneri in response to abiotic stress elicitation by CuCl2. Their structures were established by spectroscopic means. New compounds 1 and 2 showed tyrosinase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 14.8 µM and 22.3 µM.

  18. Measurement of Neutron Induced Fission of 235U, 233U and 245Cm with the FIC Detector at the CERN n()TOF Facility

    A series of measurements of neutron induced fission cross section of various TRU isotopes have been performed at the CERN n()TOF spallation neutron facility, in the energy range from thermal to nearly 250 MeV. The experimental apparatus consists in a fast ionization chamber (FIC), used as a fission fragment detector with a high efficiency. Good discrimination between alphas and fission fragments can be obtained with a simple amplitude threshold. In order to allow the monitoring of the neutron beam and to extract the n()TOF neutron flux, the well known cross section of the 235U(n,f) reaction, considered as a fission standard, has been used. Preliminary results for the cross section are shown for some selected isotopes such as 235U, 233U and 245Cm in the energy range from 0.050 eV to about 2 MeV.

  19. Three core concepts for producing uranium-233 in commercial pressurized light water reactors for possible use in water-cooled breeder reactors

    Selected prebreeder core concepts are described which could be backfit into a reference light water reactor similar to current commercial reactors, and produce uranium-233 for use in water-cooled breeder reactors. The prebreeder concepts were selected on the basis of minimizing fuel system development and reactor changes required to permit a backfit. The fuel assemblies for the prebreeder core concepts discussed would occupy the same space envelope as those in the reference core but contain a 19 by 19 array of fuel rods instead of the reference 17 by 17 array. An instrument well and 28 guide tubes for control rods have been allocated to each prebreeder fuel assembly in a pattern similar to that for the reference fuel assemblies. Backfit of these prebreeder concepts into the reference reactor would require changes only to the upper core support structure while providing flexibility for alternatives in the type of fuel used

  20. Fission Cross-section Measurements of (233)U, (245)Cm and (241,243)Am at CERN n_TOF Facility

    Calviani, M; Andriamonje, S; Chiaveri, E; Vlachoudis, V; Colonna, N; Meaze, M H; Marrone, S; Tagliente, G; Terlizzi, R; Belloni, F; Abbondanno, U; Fujii, K; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Aerts, G; Berthoumieux, E; Dridi, W; Gunsing, F; Pancin, J; Perrot, L; Plukis, A; Alvarez, H; Duran, I; Paradela, C; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Cano-Ott, D; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Guerrero, C; Martinez, T; Villamarin, D; Vicente, M C; Andrzejewski, J; Marganiec, J; Assimakopoulos, P; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Papachristodoulou, C; Patronis, N; Audouin, L; David, S; Ferrant, L; Isaev, S; Stephan, C; Tassan-Got, L; Badurek, G; Jericha, E; Leeb, H; Oberhummer, H; Pigni, M T; Baumann, P; Kerveno, M; Lukic, S; Rudolf, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M; Calvino, F; Capote, R; Carrillo De Albornoz, A; Marques, L; Salgado, J; Tavora, L; Vaz, P; Cennini, P; Dahlfors, M; Ferrari, A; Gramegna, F; Herrera-Martinez, A; Kadi, Y; Mastinu, P; Praena, J; Sarchiapone, L; Wendler, H; Chepel, V; Ferreira-Marques, R; Goncalves, I; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Neves, F; Cortes, G; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Couture, A; Cox, J; O'brien, S; Wiescher, M; Dillman, I; Heil, M; Kappeler, F; Mosconi, M; Plag, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wisshak, K; Dolfini, R; Rubbia, C; Domingo-Pardo, C; Tain, J L; Eleftheriadis, C; Savvidis, I; Frais-Koelbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Furman, W; Konovalov, V; Goverdovski, A; Ketlerov, V; Haas, B; Haight, R; Reifarth, R; Igashira, M; Koehler, P; Kossionides, E; Lampoudis, C; Lozano, M; Quesada, J; Massimi, C; Vannini, G; Mengoni, A; Oshima, M; Papadopoulos, C; Vlastou, R; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Plompen, A; Rullhusen, P; Rauscher, T; Rosetti, M; Ventura, A

    2011-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross-sections of minor actinides have been measured using the n_TOF white neutron source at CERN, Geneva, as part of a large experimental program aiming at collecting new data relevant for nuclear astrophysics and for the design of advanced reactor systems. The measurements at n_TOF take advantage of the innovative features of the n_TOF facility, namely the wide energy range, high instantaneous neutron flux and good energy resolution. Final results on the fission cross-section of 233U, 245Cm and 243Am from thermal to 20 MeV are here reported, together with preliminary results for 241Am. The measurement have been performed with a dedicated Fast Ionization Chamber (FIC), a fission fragment detector with a very high efficiency, relative to the very well known cross-section of 235U, measured simultaneously with the same detector.

  1. Monte Carlo analysis of direct measurements of the thermal eta (.025 eV) for 233U and 235U (LWBR development program)

    Significant inconsistencies have been observed between measured values of eta and of ν, which are related by eta = ν/(1+α). In support of the LWBR program, manganese bath measurements of eta of 233U and 235U employing monoenergetic 0.025 eV neutrons were analyzed using Monte Carlo methods and ENDF-4 cross sections. The calculated (eta*/eta2200) ratios are essentially independent of the values assumed for eta2200. The standard deviation on our calculated values of eta includes Monte Carlo, cross section, and experimental uncertainties. The Monte Carlo analysis was confirmed by calculating measured quantities used by the experimentalists in their reduction of eta* to eta. (4 figures, 12 tables) (U.S.)

  2. R-MATRIX RESONANCE ANALYSIS AND STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE RESONANCE PARAMETERS OF 233U IN THE NEUTRON ENERGY RANGE FROM THERMAL TO 600 eV

    Leal, L.C.

    2001-02-27

    The R-matrix resonance analysis of experimental neutron transmission and cross sections of {sup 233}U, with the Reich-Moore Bayesian code SAMMY, was extended up to the neutron energy of 600 eV by taking advantage of new high resolution neutron transmission and fission cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). The experimental data base is described. In addition to the microscopic data (time-of-flight measurements of transmission and cross sections), some experimental and evaluated integral quantities were included in the data base. Tabulated and graphical comparisons between the experimental data and the SAMMY calculated cross sections are given. The ability of the calculated cross sections to reproduce the effective multiplication factors k{sub eff} for various thermal, intermediate, and fast systems was tested. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters were examined and recommended values of the average s-wave resonance parameters are given.

  3. Structure, phase transitions and molecular dynamics of [C(NH2)3]3[M2I9], M = Sb, Bi

    Two novel guanidinium iodoantimonate(III) and iodobismuthate(III) crystals, [C(NH2)3]3[Sb2I9] and [C(NH2)3]3[Bi2I9], have been synthesized and their structures have been determined by means of single-crystal x-ray diffraction studies at three temperatures (293, 348 and 362 K). Both compounds appeared to be isomorphous in corresponding phases. The crystal structure of the title compounds is composed of discrete M2I93- (M = Sb, Bi) anions and C(NH2)3+ guanidinium cations. A non-equivalence of two guanidinium cations has been found. Both guanidinium analogs exhibit a rich sequence of phase transitions. In Gu3Sb2I9, three solid-solid structural phase transformations of the first order type are detected at 119/121, 341/344 and 355/362 K (on cooling/heating) by the DSC and dilatometric techniques. Gu3Bi2I9 displays four first order phase transitions: 179/185, 202/215, 287/291 and 358/368 K. The low temperature phases appear to have ferroic (ferroelastic) properties. The prototypic paraelastic phase for both compounds belongs to hexagonal symmetry (space group P63/mmc). The dielectric response has been measured in a wide frequency region (100 Hz-1 MHz), but no dielectric dispersion has been detected. Possible mechanisms of the phase transitions in Gu3M2I9 (M = Sb, Bi) are discussed on the basis of the presented results

  4. Structure, phase transitions and molecular dynamics of [C(NH2)3]3[M2I9], M = Sb, Bi

    Szklarz, P.; Pietraszko, A.; Jakubas, R.; Bator, G.; Zieliński, P.; Gałazka, M.

    2008-06-01

    Two novel guanidinium iodoantimonate(III) and iodobismuthate(III) crystals, [C(NH2)3]3[Sb2I9] and [C(NH2)3]3[Bi2I9], have been synthesized and their structures have been determined by means of single-crystal x-ray diffraction studies at three temperatures (293, 348 and 362 K). Both compounds appeared to be isomorphous in corresponding phases. The crystal structure of the title compounds is composed of discrete M2I93- (M = Sb, Bi) anions and C(NH2)3+ guanidinium cations. A non-equivalence of two guanidinium cations has been found. Both guanidinium analogs exhibit a rich sequence of phase transitions. In Gu3Sb2I9, three solid-solid structural phase transformations of the first order type are detected at 119/121, 341/344 and 355/362 K (on cooling/heating) by the DSC and dilatometric techniques. Gu3Bi2I9 displays four first order phase transitions: 179/185, 202/215, 287/291 and 358/368 K. The low temperature phases appear to have ferroic (ferroelastic) properties. The prototypic paraelastic phase for both compounds belongs to hexagonal symmetry (space group P63/mmc). The dielectric response has been measured in a wide frequency region (100 Hz-1 MHz), but no dielectric dispersion has been detected. Possible mechanisms of the phase transitions in Gu3M2I9 (M = Sb, Bi) are discussed on the basis of the presented results.

  5. Distinct Patterns of Association of Variants at 11q23.3 Chromosomal Region with Coronary Artery Disease and Dyslipidemia in the Population of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Rayabarapu Pranav Chand

    Full Text Available In our attempt to comprehensively understand the nature of association of variants at 11q23.3 apolipoprotein gene cluster region, we genotyped a prioritized set of 96 informative SNPs using Fluidigm customized SNP genotyping platform in a sample of 508 coronary artery disease (CAD cases and 516 controls. We found 12 SNPs as significantly associated with CAD at P <0.05, albeit only four (rs2849165, rs17440396, rs6589566 and rs633389 of these remained significant after Benjamin Hochberg correction. Of the four, while rs6589566 confers risk to CAD, the other three SNPs reduce risk for the disease. Interaction of variants that belong to regulatory genes BUD13 and ZPR1 with APOA5-APOA4 intergenic variants is also observed to significantly increase the risk towards CAD. Further, ROC analysis of the risk scores of the 12 significant SNPs suggests that our study has substantial power to confer these genetic variants as predictors of risk for CAD, as illustrated by AUC (0.763; 95% CI: 0.729-0.798, p = <0.0001. On the other hand, the protective SNPs of CAD are associated with elevated Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Total Cholesterol levels, hence with dyslipidemia, in our sample of controls, which may suggest distinct effects of the variants at 11q23.3 chromosomal region towards CAD and dyslipidemia. It may be necessary to replicate these findings in the independent and ethnically heterogeneous Indian samples in order to establish this as an Indian pattern. However, only functional analysis of the significant variants identified in our study can provide more precise understanding of the mechanisms involved in the contrasting nature of their effects in manifesting dyslipidemia and CAD.

  6. Distinct Patterns of Association of Variants at 11q23.3 Chromosomal Region with Coronary Artery Disease and Dyslipidemia in the Population of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Pranav Chand, Rayabarapu; Kumar, Arramraju Sreenivas; Anuj, Kapadia; Vishnupriya, Satti; Mohan Reddy, Battini

    2016-01-01

    In our attempt to comprehensively understand the nature of association of variants at 11q23.3 apolipoprotein gene cluster region, we genotyped a prioritized set of 96 informative SNPs using Fluidigm customized SNP genotyping platform in a sample of 508 coronary artery disease (CAD) cases and 516 controls. We found 12 SNPs as significantly associated with CAD at P <0.05, albeit only four (rs2849165, rs17440396, rs6589566 and rs633389) of these remained significant after Benjamin Hochberg correction. Of the four, while rs6589566 confers risk to CAD, the other three SNPs reduce risk for the disease. Interaction of variants that belong to regulatory genes BUD13 and ZPR1 with APOA5-APOA4 intergenic variants is also observed to significantly increase the risk towards CAD. Further, ROC analysis of the risk scores of the 12 significant SNPs suggests that our study has substantial power to confer these genetic variants as predictors of risk for CAD, as illustrated by AUC (0.763; 95% CI: 0.729-0.798, p = <0.0001). On the other hand, the protective SNPs of CAD are associated with elevated Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Total Cholesterol levels, hence with dyslipidemia, in our sample of controls, which may suggest distinct effects of the variants at 11q23.3 chromosomal region towards CAD and dyslipidemia. It may be necessary to replicate these findings in the independent and ethnically heterogeneous Indian samples in order to establish this as an Indian pattern. However, only functional analysis of the significant variants identified in our study can provide more precise understanding of the mechanisms involved in the contrasting nature of their effects in manifesting dyslipidemia and CAD. PMID:27257688

  7. Complete genomic sequences of Campylobacter jejuni strains RM3196 (233.94) and RM3197 (308.95) that were isolated from patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    An infection with Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj) is a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans and also the most prevalent infection preceding Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). This study describes the complete genomic sequences of Cjj HS:41 strains RM3196 (233.94) and RM3197 (308...

  8. Mass balance analysis of Th-233U based MSR (Molten-Salt Reactor) cycle (THORIMS-NES) transferred from present U-Pu based LWRs (Light Water Reactor)

    Nuclear power can play a substantial role in countering global warming. There are still unsolved problems such as safety, nuclear proliferation, radioactive-waste under using U-Pu system. Transition from U-Pu LWR (Light Water Reactor) system to Th-233U MSR (Molten-Salt Reactor) system has been analysed in view of the utilization of fissile in form of Pu fuel salt applying the simplified FREGAT process to the spent fuel of LWR. AMSB (Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder) was also applied as a fissile producer. All fissile in spent fuel can be used by Th-U MSR system so as not to remain storage of spent fuel after retirement of LWR system. The maximum capacity of Th-U MSR system will reach to about 20 x 103 GWe. However storage of spent fuel will remain for the case of rapid growth of Th-U MSR system even though the maximum capacity is large enough. AMSB will start operation about 20 years after the beginning of Th-U MSR system but the timing can be greatly advanced with the scenario of LWR system. Th-U MSR system can be implemented by using the fissile material in spent fuel from LWRs. Detailed assessment of other materials, performance of facilities, strategies of non-proliferation will be needed for the future improvement.

  9. Multiwavelength investigation of a near-solar metallicity sub-DLA at z =1.3647 towards PKS 0237-233

    Srianand, R; Petitjean, P; Srianand, Raghunathan; Gupta, Neeraj; Petitjean, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    We searched for 21-cm absorption associated with the z_abs = 1.3647 absorption system toward PKS 0237-233 using the GMRT. A high quality UVES spectrum shows that C I and C I* are detected at this redshift together with C II*, Mg I, Mg II, Si II, Al II, Fe II and Mn II. The complex profiles, spread over ~300 km/s, are fitted with 21 Voigt profile components. None of these components are detected in 21-cm absorption down to a detection limit of \\tau(3\\sigma)\\le 3x10^{-3} (or N(HI)/T_S -0.33. Using photoionization models constrained by the fine-structure excitations of C I and C II, and the 21-cm optical depth, we show that the C I absorption arises predominantly either in WIM or WNM in ionization and thermal equilibrium with the meta-galactic UV background dominated by QSOs and star forming galaxies. The estimated thermal pressure of the gas is of the same order of magnitude over different velocity ranges through the absorption profile (2.6\\le log [P/k cm^{-3} K]\\le 4.0). The gas-phase metallicity corrected for...

  10. Molecular level characterization of diatom-associated biopolymers that bind 234Th, 233Pa, 210Pb, and 7Be in seawater: A case study with Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Chuang, Chia-Ying; Santschi, Peter H.; Xu, Chen; Jiang, Yuelu; Ho, Yi-Fang; Quigg, Antonietta; Guo, Laodong; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Ayranov, Marin; Schumann, Dorothea

    2015-09-01

    In order to investigate the importance of biogenic silica associated biopolymers on the scavenging of radionuclides, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was incubated together with the radionuclides 234Th, 233Pa, 210Pb, and 7Be during their growth phase. Normalized affinity coefficients were determined for the radionuclides bound with different organic compound classes (i.e., proteins, total carbohydrates, uronic acids) in extracellular (nonattached and attached exopolymeric substances), intracellular (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate extractable), and frustule embedded biopolymeric fractions (BF). Results indicated that radionuclides were mostly concentrated in frustule BF. Among three measured organic components, Uronic acids showed the strongest affinities to all tested radionuclides. Confirmed by spectrophotometry and two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence-nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, the frustule BF were mainly composed of carboxyl-rich, aliphatic-phosphoproteins, which were likely responsible for the strong binding of many of the radionuclides. Results from this study provide evidence for selective absorption of radionuclides with different kinds of diatom-associated biopolymers acting in concert rather than as a single compound. This clearly indicates the importance of these diatom-related biopolymers, especially frustule biopolymers, in the scavenging and fractionation of radionuclides used as particle tracers in the ocean.

  11. Emission probabilities of gamma rays from the decay of 233Pa and 238Np, and the thermal neutron capture cross section of 237Np

    In order to determine the thermal neutron capture cross section of 237Np, the relevant γ emission probabilities of the 312-keV γ-ray from the decay of 233Pa and the 984-keV γ-ray from the decay of 238Np are deduced from the ratio of the emission rate to the activity. The emission rate and activity are measured with a Ge detector and a Si detector, respectively. The measured emission probability for 312-keV γ-ray is 41.6±0.9% and that for 984-keV γ-ray is 25.2±0.5%. The emission probabilities are used to correct the thermal neutron capture cross section of 237Np reported previously, and gives 168±6b. The neutron capture cross section is also determined as 169±6b by α-ray spectroscopic method. The measured emission probabilities and capture cross section are compared with others from references. By averaging these values deduced by different methods, the value of 169±4b is recommended as the thermal neutron capture cross section of 237Np for 2,200 m/s neutrons. (author)

  12. Determination of the 233Pa(n, f) reaction cross-section from 10.5 to 16.5 MeV neutron energy by surrogate ratio method

    In the present work, we have employed surrogate ratio method to derive 233Pa(n,f) cross sections from the measurement of the ratio of the fission decay probabilities of 234Pa and 236U compound systems at same excitation energy over the excitation energy range of 16.0 MeV to 22.0 MeV, that are formed in 232Th(6Li, α)-234Pa and 232Th(6Li, d)-236U transfer reactions

  13. Determination of the 233Pa(n,f) reaction cross section from 11.5 to 16.5 MeV neutron energy by the hybrid surrogate ratio approach

    A new hybrid surrogate ratio approach has been employed to determine neutron-induced fission cross sections of 233Pa in the energy range of 11.5 to 16.5 MeV for the first time. The fission probability of 234Pa and 236U compound nuclei produced in 232Th(6Li, α)234Pa and 232Th(6Li, d)236U transfer reaction channels has been measured at Elab=38.0 MeV in the excitation energy range of 17.0 to 22.0 MeV within the framework of the absolute surrogate method. The 233Pa(n,f) cross sections are then deduced from the measured fission decay probability ratios of 234Pa and 236U compound nuclei using the surrogate ratio method. The 233Pa(n,f) cross section data from the present experiment along with the data from the literature, covering the neutron energy range of 1.0 to 16.5 MeV have been compared with the predictions of statistical model code EMPIRE-2.19. While the present data are consistent with the model predictions, there is a discrepancy between the earlier experimental data and EMPIRE-2.19 predictions in the neutron energy range of 7.0 to 10.0 MeV

  14. Chemical and spectrochemical production analysis of ThO2 and 233UO2-ThO2 pellets for the light water breeder reactor core for Shippingport (LWBR development program)

    The Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory has utilized wet chemical, emission spectrochemical, and mass spectrometric analytical techniques for the production analysis of the ThO2 and 233UO2-ThO2 (1 to 6 wt percent 233UO2) pellets for the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core for Shippingport. Proof of the fuel breeding concept necessitates measurement of precise and accurate chemical characterization of all fuel pellets before core life. Chemistry's efforts toward this goal are presented in three main sections: (1) general discussions relating the chemical requirements for ThO2 and 233UO2-ThO2 core materials to the analytical capabilities, (2) technical discussions of the chemical and instrumental technology applied for the analysis of aluminum, boron, calcium, carbon, chloride plus bromide, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, fluoride, gadolinium, iron, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen, samarium, silicon, titanium, vanadium, thorium, and uranium (total, trace, and uranium VI), and (3) a formal presentation of the analytical procedures as applied to the LWBR Development Program. (U.S.)

  15. The Energies, Angular Distribution and Yields of the Prompt Neutrons from Individual Fragments in the Thermal-Neutron Fission of U233 and U235

    An apparatus for simultaneously recording the velocities of both fission fragments and the velocity of a neutron at any one of four angles to the fragment direction has been used to investigate the neutron-emission properties of individual fragments. Early results for U233 exhibit the saw-tooth variation of v, the neutron yield per fragment, observed in the spontaneous fission of Cf252 The yields in the vicinity of mass 130 are consistent with no neutrons being emitted from these fragments. Unlike the neutron yields, the average neutron kinetic energy is symmetric about the symmetric mass point, being high near this point and low at the most probable mass division. The paradox between very small yields and high apparent nuclear temperatures has been qualitatively explained on the basis of a model that takes account of shell structure in the level densities and assumes that at the time of scission the fragments are cold but in some cases highly deformed, in others nearly spherical. The model is supported by the fact that in fissions with more than the average total excitation energy, the fragments near mass 130 and 80 receive much less than half the increase in energy and the other fragment of the pair much more. The experiment is now being conducted with U235 under considerably improved conditions. The background per channel under the neutron spectrum has been reduced by nearly a factor of three, so that 0.39 of all recorded events in the 10° detector are useful neutron events with a corresponding increase in statistical accuracy. Better time resolution in the fragment system (1.5 ns, full width at half maximum) has allowed the. flight paths to be shortened to 125 and 100 cm (formerly 145-145 cm) with a concomitant higher countings rate. (author)

  16. The effect of dissolved hydrogen on the dissolution of 233U doped UO2(s) high burn-up spent fuel and MOX fuel

    In this report the results of the experimental work carried out in a large EU-research project (SFS, 2001-2004) on spent fuel stability in the presence of various amounts of near field hydrogen are presented. Studies of the dissolution of 233U doped UO2(s) simulating 'old' spent fuel were carried out as static leaching tests, autoclave tests with various hydrogen concentrations and electrochemical tests. The results of the leaching behaviour of a high burn-up spent fuel pellet in 5 M NaCl solutions in the presence of 3.2 bar H2 pressure and of MOX fuel in dilute synthetic groundwater under 53 bar H2 pressure are also presented. In all the experimental studies carried out in this project, a considerable effect of hydrogen in the dissolution rates of radioactive materials was observed. The experimental results obtained in this project with a-doped UO2, high burn-up spent fuel and MOX fuel together with literature data give a reliable background to use fractional alteration/dissolution rates for spent fuel of the order of 10-6/yr - 10-8/yr with a recommended value of 4x10-7/yr for dissolved hydrogen concentrations above 10-3 M and Fe(II) concentrations typical for European repository concepts. Finally, based on a review of the experimental data and available literature data, potential mechanisms of the hydrogen effect are also discussed. The work reported in this document was performed as part of the Project SFS of the European Commission 5th Framework Programme under contract no FIKW-CT-2001-20192 SFS. It represents the deliverable D10 of the experimental work package 'Key experiments using a-doped UO2 and real spent fuel', coordinated by SKB with the participation of ITU, FZK-INE, ENRESA, CIEMAT, ARMINES-SUBATECH and SKB

  17. Fusion hybrids for generation of advanced (231Pa+232U+233U+234U)-fuel in closed (U-Pu-Th)-fuel cycle

    Technology of controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF) is traditionally regarded as a practically inexhaustible energy source. However, development, mastering, broad deployment of fast breeder reactors and closure of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) can also extend fuel base of nuclear power industry (NPI) up to practically unlimited scales. Under these conditions, it seems reasonable to introduce into a circle of the CTF-related studies the works directed towards solving some principal problems which can appear in a large-scale NPI in closed NFC. The first challenge is a large scale of operations in NFC back-end that should be reduced by achieving substantially higher fuel burn-up in power nuclear reactors. The use of 231Pa-232Th-232U-233U fuel in light-water reactor (LWR) opens a possibility of principle to reach very high (about 30% HM) or even ultra-high fuel burn-up. The second challenge is a potential unauthorized proliferation of fissionable materials. As is known, a certain remarkable quantity of 232U being introduced into uranium fraction of nuclear fuel can produce a serious barrier against switching the fuel over to non-energy purposes. Involvement of hybrid thermonuclear reactors (HTR) into NPI structure can substantially facilitate resolving these problems. If HTR will be involved into NPI structure, then main HTR mission consists not in energy generation but in production of nuclear fuel with a certain isotope composition. The present paper analyzes some neutron-physical features in production of advanced nuclear fuels in thorium HTR blankets. The obtained results demonstrated that such a nuclear fuel may be characterized by very stable neutron-multiplying properties during full LWR operation cycle and by enhanced proliferation resistance too. The paper evaluates potential benefits from involvement of HTR with thorium blanket into the international closed NFC. (author)

  18. The effect of dissolved hydrogen on the dissolution of {sup 233}U doped UO{sub 2}(s) high burn-up spent fuel and MOX fuel

    Carbol, P. [Inst. for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Spahiu, K. (ed.) [and others

    2005-03-01

    In this report the results of the experimental work carried out in a large EU-research project (SFS, 2001-2004) on spent fuel stability in the presence of various amounts of near field hydrogen are presented. Studies of the dissolution of {sup 233}U doped UO{sub 2}(s) simulating 'old' spent fuel were carried out as static leaching tests, autoclave tests with various hydrogen concentrations and electrochemical tests. The results of the leaching behaviour of a high burn-up spent fuel pellet in 5 M NaCl solutions in the presence of 3.2 bar H{sub 2} pressure and of MOX fuel in dilute synthetic groundwater under 53 bar H{sub 2} pressure are also presented. In all the experimental studies carried out in this project, a considerable effect of hydrogen in the dissolution rates of radioactive materials was observed. The experimental results obtained in this project with a-doped UO{sub 2}, high burn-up spent fuel and MOX fuel together with literature data give a reliable background to use fractional alteration/dissolution rates for spent fuel of the order of 10{sup -6}/yr - 10{sup -8}/yr with a recommended value of 4x10{sup -7}/yr for dissolved hydrogen concentrations above 10{sup -3} M and Fe(II) concentrations typical for European repository concepts. Finally, based on a review of the experimental data and available literature data, potential mechanisms of the hydrogen effect are also discussed. The work reported in this document was performed as part of the Project SFS of the European Commission 5th Framework Programme under contract no FIKW-CT-2001-20192 SFS. It represents the deliverable D10 of the experimental work package 'Key experiments using a-doped UO{sub 2} and real spent fuel', coordinated by SKB with the participation of ITU, FZK-INE, ENRESA, CIEMAT, ARMINES-SUBATECH and SKB.

  19. Expeditious method to determine uranium in the process control samples of chemical plant separating (233)U from thoria irradiated in power reactors.

    Kedari, C S; Kharwandikar, B K; Banerjee, K

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of U in the samples containing a significant proportion of (232)U and high concentration of Th is of great concern. Transmutation of Th in the nuclear power reactor produces a notable quantity of (232)U (half life 68.9 years) along with fissile isotope (233)U. The decay series of (232)U is initiated with (228)Th (half life 1.9 year) and it is followed by several short lived α emitting progenies, (224)Ra, (220)Rn, (216)Po, (212)Bi and (212)Po. Even at the smallest contamination of (228)Th in the sample, a very high pulse rate of α emission is obtained, which is to be counted for the radiometric determination of [U]. A commercially available anionic type of extractant Alamine®336 is used to obtain the selective extraction of U from other alpha active elements and fission products present in the sample. Experimental conditions of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) are optimized for obtaining maximum decontamination and recovery of U in the organic phase. The effect of some interfering ionic impurities in the sample on the process of separation is investigated. Depending on the level of the concentration of U in the samples, spectrophotometry or radiometry methods are adopted for its determination after separation by LLE. Under optimized experimental conditions, i.e. 5.5M HCl in the aqueous phase and 0.27M Alamin®336 in the organic phase, the recovery of U is about 100%, the decontamination factor with respect to Th is >2000 and the extraction of fission products like (90)Sr, (144)Ce and (134,137)Cs is negligible. The detection limit for [U] using α radiometry is 10mg/L, even in presence of >100g/L of Th in the sample. Accuracy and precision for the determination of U is also assessed. Reproducibility of results is within 5%. This method shows very good agreement with the results obtained by mass spectrometry. PMID:27591623

  20. A replication study of GWAS-derived lipid genes in Asian Indians: the chromosomal region 11q23.3 harbors loci contributing to triglycerides.

    Timothy R Braun

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association scans (GWAS and meta-analysis studies on European populations have identified many genes previously implicated in lipid regulation. Validation of these loci on different global populations is important in determining their clinical relevance, particularly for development of novel drug targets for treating and preventing diabetic dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease (CAD. In an attempt to replicate GWAS findings on a non-European sample, we examined the role of six of these loci (CELSR2-PSRC1-SORT1 rs599839; CDKN2A-2B rs1333049; BUD13-ZNF259 rs964184; ZNF259 rs12286037; CETP rs3764261; APOE-C1-C4-C2 rs4420638 in our Asian Indian cohort from the Sikh Diabetes Study (SDS comprising 3,781 individuals (2,902 from Punjab and 879 from the US. Two of the six SNPs examined showed convincing replication in these populations of Asian Indian origin. Our study confirmed a strong association of CETP rs3764261 with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (p = 2.03×10(-26. Our results also showed significant associations of two GWAS SNPs (rs964184 and rs12286037 from BUD13-ZNF259 near the APOA5-A4-C3-A1 genes with triglyceride (TG levels in this Asian Indian cohort (rs964184: p = 1.74×10(-17; rs12286037: p = 1.58×10(-2. We further explored 45 SNPs in a ∼195 kb region within the chromosomal region 11q23.3 (encompassing the BUD13-ZNF259, APOA5-A4-C3-A1, and SIK3 genes in 8,530 Asian Indians from the London Life Sciences Population (LOLIPOP (UK and SDS cohorts. Five more SNPs revealed significant associations with TG in both cohorts individually as well as in a joint meta-analysis. However, the strongest signal for TG remained with BUD13-ZNF259 (rs964184: p = 1.06×10(-39. Future targeted deep sequencing and functional studies should enhance our understanding of the clinical relevance of these genes in dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG and, consequently, diabetes and CAD.

  1. Calculation of the fission cross section for 233U and the interpretation of fragment anisotropy and fine structure in anti νsub(p) and anti Esub(k)

    The fission cross section of 233U has been calculated using a new version of the statistical model and recent data for inelastic scattering levels and fission barrier parameters. The calculation accurately reproduces the experimental fission cross section. The calculated partial cross section for fission through different saddle point states (JKπ) has been used in the explanation of structure in average number of fission prompt neutrons anti νsub(p) and average total fission fragment kinetic energy anti Esub(k) and the energy dependence of the fission fragment anisotropy

  2. Synthesis of methyl [(chloro-2 ethyl)-3 nitroso-3 Ureido]-3 Didesoxy-2,3 α-D-Arabino-hexopyrannoside labelled with carbon-14 or carbon-13 (CY 233 - SR 90008)

    CY 233 (Ecomustine or SR 90098) is a new antitumour nitrosourea: it is characterized by a 2-chloroethylnitrosourea substituent on a dideoxycarbohydrate. It has been labelled with 14C on a) the carbonyl group of the urea in four stages starting with 14COCl2, b) the second carbon of the chloroethyl group in four stages starting with [14C] ethanolamine, and c) on the methyl group on the anomeric centre of the carbohydrate in three stages starting with 14CH3OH. The final position was also labelled with 13C starting with 13CH3OH. These differently labelled compounds are suitable for mechanistic studies of antitumour activity. (author)

  3. Preliminary results of calculations for heavy-water nuclear-power-plant reactors employing 235U, 233U, and 232Th as a fuel and meeting requirements of a nonproliferation of nuclear weapons

    Ioffe, B. L.; Kochurov, B. P.

    2012-02-01

    A physical design is developed for a gas-cooled heavy-water nuclear reactor intended for a project of a nuclear power plant. As a fuel, the reactor would employ thorium with a small admixture of enriched uranium that contains not more than 20% of 235U. It operates in the open-cycle mode involving 233U production from thorium and its subsequent burnup. The reactor meets the conditions of a nonproliferation of nuclear weapons: the content of fissionable isotopes in uranium at all stages of the process, including the final one, is below the threshold for constructing an atomic bomb, the amount of product plutonium being extremely small.

  4. Measurement of neutron-induced fission cross-sections of Th232, U238, U233 and Np237 relative to U235 from 1 MeV to 200 MeV

    Shcherbakov, O.A.; Laptev, A.B.; Petrov, G.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina, Leningrad district (Russian Federation); Fomichev, A.V.; Donets, A.Y.; Osetrov, O.I.

    1998-11-01

    The measurements of neutron-induced cross-section ratios for Th232, U238, U233 and Np237 relative to U235 have been carried out in the energy range from 1 MeV up to 200 MeV using the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer GNEIS based on 1 GeV proton synchrocyclotron. Below 20 MeV, the results of present measurements are roughly in agreement with evaluated data though there are some discrepances to be resolved. (author)

  5. Decree No85-968 of 27 August 1986 amending Article R.233-83 of the Labour Code and defining the health and safety conditions to be met by gamma industrial radiography equipment

    This Decree, amending Article R 233-83 of the Labour Code, applies to gamma-ray industrial radiography equipment whether mobile or fixed. It contains specific technical conditions concerning the equipment, in particular, safety devices located at the entry and exit points of the source's shield. The equipment must carry a notice mentioning''Radioactive''prepared by the constructor or the importer of the source, which explains the conditions for handling, setting-up, use and maintenance of the source, including the frequency of revisions. The Decree entered into force on 1 June 1986. (NEA)

  6. Determination of the neutron fission cross-section for 233Pa from 0.5 to 10 MeV using the transfer reaction 232Th(3He,pf)234Pa

    Neutron induced fission cross-section of 233Pa in the fast neutron energy range from 0.5 to 10 MeV was determined for the first time as a two term product of the fission probability of 234Pa nucleus and the same compound nucleus formation cross-section. The first term was measured with the transfer reaction 232Th(3He,p) 234Pa while the second one was calculated. The tendency of the resulting data to agree with the existing evaluated one, is a proof for the validity of the utilised method. (author)

  7. Comparative effectiveness of incretin-based therapies and the risk of death and cardiovascular events in 38,233 metformin monotherapy users.

    Gamble, John-Michael; Thomas, Jamie M; Twells, Laurie K; Midodzi, William K; Majumdar, Sumit R

    2016-06-01

    There is limited comparative effectiveness evidence to guide approaches to managing diabetes in individuals failing metformin monotherapy. Our aim was to compare the incidence of all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) among new metformin monotherapy users initiating a dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), sulfonylurea (SU), thiazolidinedione, or insulin.We conducted a cohort study using the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Participants included a cohort of 38,233 new users of metformin monotherapy who initiated a 2nd antidiabetic agent between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 with follow-up until death, disenrollment, therapy discontinuation, or study end-date. A subcohort of 21,848 patients with linked hospital episode statistics (HES) and Office of National Statistics (ONS) data were studied to include MACE and cardiovascular-related death. The primary exposure contrasts, defined a priori, were initiation of a DPP4i versus an SU and initiation of a GLP-1RA versus an SU following metformin monotherapy. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relative differences in time to mortality and MACE between exposure contrasts, adjusting for important baseline patient factors and comedications used during follow-up.The main study cohort consisted of 6213 (16%) patients who initiated a DPP4i, 25,916 initiated an SU (68%), 4437 (12%) initiated a TZD, 487 (1%) initiated a GLP-1RA, 804 (2%) initiated insulin, and 376 (1%) initiated a miscellaneous agent as their 2nd antidiabetic agent. Mean age was 62 years, 59% were male, and mean glycated hemoglobin was 8.8% (92.6 mmol/mol). Median follow-up was 2.7 years (interquartile range 1.3-4.2). Mortality rates were 8.2 deaths/1000 person-years for DPP4i and 19.1 deaths/1000 person-years for SU initiators. Adjusted hazards ratio (aHR) for mortality in DPP4i versus SU initiators = 0.58, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.73, P

  8. Measurement of the Neutron Capture Cross Sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm with a Total Absorption Calorimeter at n_TOF

    Beer, H; Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Rapp, W; Embid, M; Dababneh, S

    2002-01-01

    Accurate and reliable neutron capture cross section data for actinides are necessary for the poper design, safety regulation and precise performance assessment of transmutation devices such as Fast Critical Reactors or Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The goal of this proposal is the measurement of the neutron capture cross sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm at n_TOF with an accuracy of 5~\\%. $^{233}$U plays an essential role in the Th fuel cycle, which has been proposed as a safer and cleaner alternative to the U fuel cycle. The capture cross sections of $^{237}$Np,$^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm play a key role in the design and optimization of a strategy for the Nuclear Waste Transmutation. A high accuracy can be achieved at n_TOF in such measurements due to a combination of features unique in the world: high instantaneous neutron fluence and excellent energy resolution of the facility, innovative Data Acquisition System based on flash ADCs and t...

  9. Determination of the 233Pa(n, γ) capture cross section up to neutron energies of 1 MeV using the transfer reaction 232Th(3He, p)234Pa*

    The γ-ray emission probability distribution of 234Pa* has been measured between 5.2 and 6.2 MeV excitation energy using the transfer reaction 232Th(3He, p)234Pa* at an incident 3He energy of 24 MeV. The experimental set-up is made of four liquid scintillator C6D6 detectors and four Si telescopes arranged to detect γ rays and charged particles in coincidence. In order to determine the total number of γ-ray cascades in a given nucleus, the raw experimental detected gamma-ray events have to be corrected by the weighting function technique. This weighting requires complete knowledge of the efficiency and response functions for the C6D6 detector set-up and surroundings. These have been determined experimentally using gamma-ray sources, inelastic scattering reactions and transfer reactions on light nuclei. Simulations which reproduce successfully the detector response and efficiency are presented. From these measurements, the (n, γ) capture cross section of 233Pa, in the neutron energy range 0 to 1 MeV, has been deduced via the product of the measured γ emission probability of 234Pa* with the calculated compound nucleus formation cross section of the reaction 233Pa + n. A comparison between existing data bases or recent predictions and the present results is also made

  10. Fase aguda da doença de Chagas na Amazônia brasileira: estudo de 233 casos do Pará, Amapá e Maranhão observados entre 1988 e 2005 Acute phase of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon region: study of 233 cases from Pará, Amapá and Maranhão observed between 1988 and 2005

    Ana Yecê das Neves Pinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 233 casos de fase aguda da doença de Chagas, oriundos do Pará, Amapá e Maranhão, observados no período de 1988 a 2005, cento e sessenta deles retrospectivamente de 1988 a 2002 e setenta e três prospectivamente de 2003 a 2005. Entre os casos estudados 78,5% (183/233 faziam parte de surtos provavelmente por transmissão oral, acometendo em média 4 pessoas e 21,5% (50/233 eram casos isolados. Foram considerados casos agudos aqueles que apresentaram exames parasitológicos diretos (a fresco, gota espessa ou Quantitative Buffy Coat - QBC e/ou IgM anti-Trypanosoma cruzi positivos. Foram feitos ainda xenodiagnósticos em 224 pacientes e hemoculturas em 213. Todos foram avaliados clinica e epidemiologicamente. As manifestações clínicas mais freqüentes foram febre (100%, cefaléia (92,3%, mialgia (84,1%, palidez (67%, dispnéia (58,4%, edema de membros inferiores (57,9%, edema de face (57,5% dor abdominal (44,2%, miocardite (39,9% e exantema (27%. O eletrocardiograma mostrou alterações de repolarização ventricular em 38,5% dos casos, baixa voltagem de QRS em 15,4% e desvio de SAQRS em 11,5%, extra-sístoles ventriculares em 5,8%, bradicardia em 5,8% e taquicardia em 5,8%, bloqueio de ramo direito em 4,8% e fibrilação atrial em 4,8%. A alteração mais freqüente vista no ecocardiograma foi o derrame pericárdico em 46,2% dos casos. Treze (5,6% pacientes evoluíram para o óbito, 10 (76,9% dos quais por comprometimento cardiovascular, dois por complicações de origem digestiva e um de causa mal definida.Two hundred and thirty-three cases of the acute phase of Chagas disease, from Pará, Amapá and Maranhão, were observed between 1988 and 2005. One hundred and sixty were studied retrospectively from 1988 to 2002 and seventy-three were prospectively followed up from 2003 to 2005. Among the cases studied, 78.5% (183/233 formed part of outbreaks, probably due to oral transmission (affecting a mean of 4 individuals, and 21

  11. Développement d'un dispositif expérimental dédié à la mesure des sections efficaces de capture et de fission de l'233u dans le domaine des résonances résolues

    Companis, Iulia

    2013-01-01

    233 U est le noyau fissile produit dans le cycle du combustible 232 T h/233 U qui a été proposé comme une alternative plus sûre et plus propre du cycle 238 U/239 P u. La connaissance précise de la section efficace de capture de neutrons de cet isotope est requise avec une haute précision pour la conception et le développement de réacteurs utilisant ce cycle du combustible. Les deux seuls jeux de données expérimentales fiables pour la section efficace de capture de l'233 U montrent des écarts ...

  12. Preliminary study of the α ratio measurement, ratio of the neutron capture cross section to the fission one for 233U, on the PEREN platform. Development and study of the experimental setup

    Producing nuclear energy in order to reduce anthropic CO2 emission and to meet high energy demand, implies three conditions to the nuclear plants of the IV. generation: safety improvements, radioactive waste minimization, and fuel breeding for a sustainable use of the resources. The Thorium fuel cycle used in Molten Salt Reactors seems promising. Many numerical studies based on probabilistic codes are carried out in order to analyse the behaviour of such reactors. Nevertheless, one of the most important parameters is badly known: the alpha ratio of 233U, ratio of the neutron capture cross section to fission one for 233U. This key-parameter is necessary to calculate the breeding ratio and thus, the deployment capacities of those reactors. This Ph-D thesis was intended to prepare a precise measurement of the alpha ratio of 233U between 1 eV and 10 keV. Preliminary measurements have been performed on the experimental platform PEREN. This experimental environment is composed of a lead slowing-down time spectrometer associated with an intense pulsed neutron generator. Capture and fission rates are measured thanks to eight scintillators with their photomultipliers, surrounding a fission chamber. A software analysis sets the coincidence rate between the scintillators. In order to understand perfectly the experimental setup, preliminary tests using a 235U fission chamber have been done. This experiment resulted in a very low signal to background ratio (1 %). The background coming from the scintillators themselves seriously handicapped the measurement. Another series of experiment has been done with scintillators 5 times thinner. Nevertheless, the signal to background ratio should still be increased to measure the capture of 235U. To make sure that the experimental setup has totally been understood, we made many comparisons between experimental results and simulations. Two simulation codes were mainly used: MCNP and GEANT4. We paid special attention to quantify the

  13. Preliminary study of the {alpha} ratio measurement, ratio of the neutron capture cross section to the fission one for {sup 233}U, on the PEREN platform. Development and study of the experimental setup; Etude preliminaire de la mesure du rapport {alpha}, rapport de la section efficace moyenne de capture sur celle de fission de l'{sup 233}U, sur la plateforme PEREN. Developpement et etude du dispositif experimental

    Cognet, M.A

    2007-12-15

    Producing nuclear energy in order to reduce anthropic CO{sub 2} emission and to meet high energy demand, implies three conditions to the nuclear plants of the IV. generation: safety improvements, radioactive waste minimization, and fuel breeding for a sustainable use of the resources. The Thorium fuel cycle used in Molten Salt Reactors seems promising. Many numerical studies based on probabilistic codes are carried out in order to analyse the behaviour of such reactors. Nevertheless, one of the most important parameters is badly known: the alpha ratio of {sup 233}U, ratio of the neutron capture cross section to fission one for {sup 233}U. This key-parameter is necessary to calculate the breeding ratio and thus, the deployment capacities of those reactors. This Ph-D thesis was intended to prepare a precise measurement of the alpha ratio of {sup 233}U between 1 eV and 10 keV. Preliminary measurements have been performed on the experimental platform PEREN. This experimental environment is composed of a lead slowing-down time spectrometer associated with an intense pulsed neutron generator. Capture and fission rates are measured thanks to eight scintillators with their photomultipliers, surrounding a fission chamber. A software analysis sets the coincidence rate between the scintillators. In order to understand perfectly the experimental setup, preliminary tests using a {sup 235}U fission chamber have been done. This experiment resulted in a very low signal to background ratio (1 %). The background coming from the scintillators themselves seriously handicapped the measurement. Another series of experiment has been done with scintillators 5 times thinner. Nevertheless, the signal to background ratio should still be increased to measure the capture of {sup 235}U. To make sure that the experimental setup has totally been understood, we made many comparisons between experimental results and simulations. Two simulation codes were mainly used: MCNP and GEANT4. We paid

  14. Complex three-way translocation involving MLL, ELL, RREB1, and CMAHP genes in an infant with acute myeloid leukemia and t(6;19;11)(p22.2;p13.1;q23.3)

    Tuborgh, A; Meyer, C; Marschalek, R;

    2013-01-01

    Rearrangements affecting the MLL gene in hematological malignancies are associated with poor prognosis. Most often they are reciprocal translocations and more rarely complex forms involving at least 3 chromosomes. We describe an unusual case with cutaneous leukemic infiltrates that waxed and waned...... until progression to acute myeloid leukemia, AML-M5. The leukemic cells harbored a novel apparent 3-way translocation t(6;19;11)(p22.2;p13.1;q23.3). We utilized advanced molecular cytogenetic methods including 24-color karyotyping, high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and DNA...... initial stages of disease before clear morphological signs of bone marrow involvement. The patient responded well to therapy and remains in remission>6 years from diagnosis. This apparent 3-way translocation is remarkable because of its rarity and presentation with myeloid sarcoma, and may, as more cases...

  15. The fission cross sections of 230Th, 232Th, 233U, 234U, 236U, 238U, 237Np, 239Pu and 242Pu relative 235U at 14.74 MeV neutron energy

    The measurement of the fission cross section ratios of nine isotopes relative to 235U at an average neutron energy of 14.74 MeV is described with particular attention to the determination of corrections and to sources of error. The results are compared to ENDF/B-V and to other measurements of the past decade. The ratio of the neutron induced fission cross section for these isotopes to the fission cross section for 235U are: 230Th - 0.290 +- 1.9%; 232Th - 0.191 +- 1.9%; 233U - 1.132 +- 0.7%; 234U - 0.998 +- 1.0%; 236U - 0.791 +- 1.1%; 238U - 0.587 +- 1.1%; 237Np - 1.060 +- 1.4%; 239Pu - 1.152 +- 1.1%; 242Pu - 0.967 +- 1.0%. 40 refs., 11 tabs., 9 figs

  16. Procedure for preparation of 3-fluor-D-alanine, 2-deutero-3-fluor-D-alanine and 2,3,3-trideutero-3-fluor-D-alanine and their salts

    Procedures for the preparation of 3-fluor-D-alanine, 2-deutero-3-fluor-D-alanine and 2,3,3-trideutero-3-fluor-D-alanine, and salts of these compounds, are described. These new compounds are useful antibacterial substances not only applicable in the disinfection of pharmaceutical, dental and medical equipment, but also in the treatment of diseases caused by bacteria, and may be administered orally. While 3-fluor-L-alanine metabolises rapidly with toxic results, 3-fluor-D-alanine is much more slowly broken down in vivo and is not harmful in normal doses. Further it has been found that deuteration gives new deutero-analogues which are less subject to metabolic breaking down and still retain the antibacterial strength of the original compound. The in vivo activity is thereby increased and maintained. (JIW)

  17. Concept of a demonstrational hybrid reactor—a tokamak with molten-salt blanket for {sup 233}U fuel production: 1. Concept of a stationary Tokamak as a neutron source

    Azizov, E. A.; Gladush, G. G., E-mail: gladush@triniti.ru; Dokuka, V. N.; Khayrutdinov, R. R. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation, Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    On the basis of current understanding of physical processes in tokamaks and taking into account engineering constraints, it is shown that a low-cost facility of a moderate size can be designed within the adopted concept. This facility makes it possible to achieve the power density of neutron flux which is of interest, in particular, for solving the problem of {sup 233}U fuel production from thorium. By using a molten-salt blanket, the important task of ensuring the safe operation of such a reactor in the case of possible coolant loss is accomplished. Moreover, in a hybrid reactor with the blanket based on liquid salts, the problem of periodic refueling that is difficult to perform in solid blankets can be solved.

  18. Concept of a demonstrational hybrid reactor—a tokamak with molten-salt blanket for 233U fuel production: 1. Concept of a stationary Tokamak as a neutron source

    Azizov, E. A.; Gladush, G. G.; Dokuka, V. N.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    On the basis of current understanding of physical processes in tokamaks and taking into account engineering constraints, it is shown that a low-cost facility of a moderate size can be designed within the adopted concept. This facility makes it possible to achieve the power density of neutron flux which is of interest, in particular, for solving the problem of 233U fuel production from thorium. By using a molten-salt blanket, the important task of ensuring the safe operation of such a reactor in the case of possible coolant loss is accomplished. Moreover, in a hybrid reactor with the blanket based on liquid salts, the problem of periodic refueling that is difficult to perform in solid blankets can be solved.

  19. Concept of a demonstrational hybrid reactor—a tokamak with molten-salt blanket for 233U fuel production: 1. Concept of a stationary Tokamak as a neutron source

    On the basis of current understanding of physical processes in tokamaks and taking into account engineering constraints, it is shown that a low-cost facility of a moderate size can be designed within the adopted concept. This facility makes it possible to achieve the power density of neutron flux which is of interest, in particular, for solving the problem of 233U fuel production from thorium. By using a molten-salt blanket, the important task of ensuring the safe operation of such a reactor in the case of possible coolant loss is accomplished. Moreover, in a hybrid reactor with the blanket based on liquid salts, the problem of periodic refueling that is difficult to perform in solid blankets can be solved

  20. Multilevel analysis of the 233U and 235U capture and fission cross-sections and statistical properties of the Kapur-Peierls-type resonance parameters for the S-wave cross-sections of the fissile isotopes

    At the 1966 Conference on Nuclear Data for Reactors, simultaneous measurements of the capture and fission cross-sections of 233U and 235U were presented. Those measurements have now been analysed with the multilevel formalism developed by Adler and Adler. To obtain consistent sets of resonance parameters the capture and fission data were least-square fitted simultaneously. This analysis was carried out to 60 eV for 233U and to 100 eV for 235U. The main purpose of this analysis was to provide a simple and precise analytical description of the very complex structure of the fission and capture cross-sections of 233U and 235U at low energy. Such an analytical description should be useful to calculate reaction rates in nuclear reactors and to compare experimental data taken with different energy resolutions or at different sample temperatures. For the low-energy resonances of 233U and 235U, the neutron width is always smaller, by at least two orders of magnitude, than the total width. Thus, the total cross-section, for those isotopes, can be approximated as the sum of the absorption cross-section and the potential scattering cross-section. Hence it is possible to compute the total cross-section from the resonance parameters obtained by fitting the fission and capture cross-sections. The total cross-section of 235U computed by this method is compared to the data from a transmission measurement done at Saclay, with the sample at 77 deg. K. The computed total cross-section of 233U is compared with transmission data obtained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the Material Testing Reactor. Such comparisons between data obtained by different experimental techniques illustrate the internal consistency of the low-energy cross-sections of the two main uranium fissile isotopes. The physical interpretation of the resonance parameters is somewhat ambiguous, because such multilevel fits are by no means unique. This is particularly true for 233U since, for this nucleus, the

  1. Dissolution rates of unirradiated UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2} doped with {sup 233}U, and spent fuel under normal atmospheric conditions and under reducing conditions using an isotope dilution method

    Ollila, Kaija [VTT Processes, Helsinki (Finland); Albinsson, Yngve [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Oversby, Virginia [VMO Konsult, Stockholm (Sweden); Cowper, Mark [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-01

    additional meaningful data. 8) A test procedure that used several short exposures of the sample to solution - the puff test procedure - gave results that showed very little recovery of the spike solution at the end of the tests. Only 10% of the {sup 235}U added as spike was recovered, indicating that 90% of the spike had precipitated onto the solid sample or the iron strip. 9) Tests of UO{sub 2} pellet materials containing {sup 233}U to provide an alpha decay activity similar to that expected for spent fuel 3000 and 10,000 years after disposal showed that the pellet materials behaved as expected under air atmosphere conditions, showing that the manufacturing method was successful. 10) Early testing of the {sup 233}U-doped materials under reducing conditions showed relatively rapid (30 minute) dissolution of small amounts of U at the start of the puff test procedure. Results of analyses of an acidified fraction of the same solutions after 1 or 2 weeks holding indicate that the solutions were inhomogeneous, indicating the presence of colloidal material or small grains of solid. 11) Samples from the {sup 233}U-doped tests initially indicated dissolution of solid during the first week of testing, with some indication of more rapid dissolution of the material with the higher doping. 12) The second cycle of testing of the {sup 233}U-doped materials also showed dissolution occurring during the dilution stages of the puff test. The subsequent week of testing also showed small amounts of further dissolution, with hints that the doped samples were dissolving faster than the undoped samples. 13) At the end of 2 weeks of cycle 2 the remaining solution and solid was transferred to a new reaction vessel, the solution was made up to original volume, and a new dose of spike was added. The results of analyses of [U] and isotopic composition show that the measured U is that expected from dilution of the original solution plus adding the spike. 14) Samples taken during 2 weeks of testing of

  2. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of(3S,4R,Z)-3,6-dimethyl-2-(3-methylbut-2-enylidene)-2,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydrobenzofuran-3,4-diol

    CHEN Lei; FANG Hu-Biao; HUANG Nian-Yu; WANG Jun-Zhi; ZOU Kun

    2011-01-01

    The title compound of(3S,4R,Z)-3,6-dimethyl-2-(3-methylbut-2-enylidene)-2,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydrobenzofuran-3,4-diol,C15H22O3,as a potential gastric cytoprotective agent has been synthesized by the reduction of bisabolangelone in methanol with sodium borohydride.The title compound was characterized by IR and NMR spectra.Meanwhile,the crystal was obtained and determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction.Crystal data:monoclinic system,space group P21 with a = 6.0692(12),b = 8.9954(18),c = 13.182(3) ,β = 92.59(3)°,V = 718.9(2) 3,Z = 2,F(000) = 272,Dc = 1.156 g/cm3,μ = 0.633 mm-1,R = 0.0362 and wR = 0.1051 for 9490 independent reflections(Rint = 0.0172) and 2461 observed reflections(I 2σ(I)).Intermolecular O-H…O interactions link the molecules into one-dimensional infinite chains running along the b axis,which contributes to the stability of the crystal structure.

  3. Measurements of Cross Sections and Decay Properties of the Isotopes of Elements 112, 114 and 116 Produced in the Fusion Reactions $^{233,238}$U, $^{242}$Pu, and $^{248}$Cm + $^{48}$Ca

    Oganessian, Yu T; Utyonkov, V K; Lobanov, Yu V; Abdullin, F S; Polyakov, A N; Shirokovsky, I V; Tsyganov, Yu S; Gulbekyan, G G; Bogomolov, S L; Gikal, B N; Mezentsev, A N; Iliev, S; Subbotin, V G; Sukhov, A M; Voinov, A A; Buklanov, G V; Subotic, K M; Zagrebaev, V I; Itkis, M G; Patin, J B; Moody, K J; Wild, J F; Stoyer, M A; Stoyer, N J; Shaughnessy, D A; Kenneally, J M; Wilk, P A; Lougheed, R W; Ilkaev, R I; Vesnovskii, S P

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the dependence of the production cross-sections of the isotopes $^{282,283}$112 and $^{286,287}$114 on the excitation energy of the compound nuclei $^{286}$112 and $^{290}$114. The maximum cross-section values of the \\textit{xn}-evaporation channels for the reaction $^{238}$U($^{48}$Ca, \\textit{xn})$^{286 - x}$112 were measured to be: $\\sigma _{3n}=2.5_{-1.1}^{ + 1.8} $pb and $\\sigma _{4n}=0.6_{ - 0.5}^{ + 1.6} $ pb; for the reaction $^{242}$Pu($^{48}$Ca, \\textit{xn})$^{290 - x}$114: $\\sigma _{2n}\\sim 0.5$ pb, $\\sigma _{3n}=3.6_{- 1.7}^{ + 3.4} $ pb and $\\sigma _{4n}=4.5_{ - 1.9}^{ + 3.6} $ pb. In the reaction $^{233}$U($^{48}$Ca, 2--4$n$)$^{277 - 279}$112 at $E^*=34.9\\pm $2.2 MeV we measured an upper cross-section limit of $\\sigma _{xn} \\leqslant 0.6$ pb. The observed shift of the excitation energy associated with the maximum sum evaporation residue cross section $\\sigma _{\\rm {ER}}(E^*)$ to values significantly higher than that associated with the calculated Coulomb barrier can be caused by ...

  4. Neutron-induced fission cross section measurement of 233U, 241Am and 243Am in the energy range 0.5 MeV En 20 MeV at nTOF at CERN

    Belloni, F. [Instituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare-Italy and CEA-France; Milazzo, P. M. [Instituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare, Trieste, Italy; Calviani, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy and CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Colonna, N. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari, Italy; Mastinu, P. F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy; Abbondanno, U. [Instituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare, Trieste, Italy; Aerts, G. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette; Alvarez, H. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Alvarez-Velarde, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technol., Madrid, Spain; Andriamonje, S. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette; Andrzejewski, J. [University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland; Assimakopoulos, P. A. [University of Ioannina, Greece; Audouin, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scidntifique/IN2P3-IPN, Orsay, France; Badurek, G. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Barbagallo, M. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari, Italy; Baumann, P. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Becvar, F. [Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; Berthoumieux, E. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette; Calvino, F. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain; Cerutti, F. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Cano-Ott, D. [CIEMAT, Spain; Capote, R. [IAEA-Vienna, Austria and Universidad de Sevilla, Spain; Carrapico, C. [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Carrillo de Albornoz, A. [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Cennini, P. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Chepel, V. [University of Ciombra, Portugal; Chiaveri, E. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Cortes, G. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain; Couture, A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Cox, J. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Dahlfors, M. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; David, S. [CNRS, Orsay, France; Dillmann, I. [Institut fur Kernphysik, Karlsruhe, Germany; Dolfini, R. [Universita di Pavia, Italy; Domingo-Pardo, C. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia; Koehler, Paul [ORNL; The n_TOF Collaboration, [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland

    2012-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross section measurements of 233U, 243Am and 241Am relative to 235U have been carried out at the neutron time-of-flight facility n TOF at CERN. A fast ionization chamber has been employed. All samples were located in the same detector; therefore the studied elements and the reference 235U target are subject to the same neutron beam.

  5. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Copper (Ⅱ) Compound with 3,3'-Azobispyridine Ligand[Cu(NO3)2(H2O)2(3,3'-azpy)2

    李宝龙; 郎建平; 王寿武; 徐正; 陈久桐

    2003-01-01

    The title complex [Cu(NO3)2(H2O)2(3,3'-azpy)2] (3,3'-azpy = 3,3'-azobispyridine) has been synthesized and characterized, and its crystal belongs to the triclinic system, space group P ī with the following crystallographic parameters: a = 7.4161(2), b = 8.1754(3), c = 10.7545(4) A。,α= 92.958(2),β= 109.978(1),γ = 93.369(2)°, V = 609.96(4) A。3, C20H20N10CuO8, Mr = 592.00, Dc = 1.612 g/cm3, μ(MoKα)= 0.964 mm-1, F(000) = 303, Z = 1, the final R = 0.0494 and wR = 0.1269 for 1945 observed reflections (I > 2((I)). X-ray analysis reveals that the Cu atom adopts a distorted octahedral (4 + 2) coordination. The four closer donor atoms include two N atoms of 3,3'-azpy and two Oatoms of the coordination aqua with the Cu-N and Cu-O distances of 2.014(3) and 1.974(3)A。, respectively. Two longer out-of-plane Cu-O bonds (2.450(3) A。) from nitrate complete the strongly distorted octahedral coordination of the Cu atom. Hydrogen bonds are formed through H atoms of each coordination aqua with the remaining N atoms of 3,3'-azpy and O atoms of nitrate. A two-dimensional network is constructed by hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions.

  6. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Lift, except M-bags; First-Class Mail International; Global Bulk Economy, except M-bags; certain Global Direct mail as specified by customer contract; and International Transit Mail. (4) Unsealed mail... International; Global Express Guaranteed items containing only documents; Priority Mail International...

  7. Energy Magazine. V. 23(3)

    The permanent secretariat of OLADE, with financial support of the European Commission, will carry out the National Energetic Information System , through which the tools will be developed for the elaboration and administration of the energy statistics in the member states of the organization. It is also included a vision on the action program in energy for the Caribbean to unify efforts and to coordinate actions leading the energy development and the diversification of the energy supply in order to satisfy their requirements. A section of the magazine, it is dedicated to the transformation experienced by the energy sector in Peru

  8. QTL Information Table: 233 [Q-TARO

    Full Text Available spl11 Others Others spotted leaf B)Fine DHL IR64 Azucena R1709 CDO459 pha Zeng, L., Yin, Z., Che ... mic gene Spl11 to a 160-kb DNA segment of the rice genome . Mol Genet Genomics 268, 253-261. ...

  9. 45 CFR 233.60 - Institutional status.

    2010-10-01

    ... patient in an institution for tuberculosis or mental diseases. (ii) Federal financial participation under... has not attained 65 years of age and who is a patient in an institution for tuberculosis or mental..., or a patient in an institution for tuberculosis or mental diseases; (ii) Whether an institution...

  10. 12 CFR 233.2 - Definitions.

    2010-01-01

    ... are defined in 12 CFR 229.2. For purposes of this part, “check” also includes an electronic...) Internet gambling business means the business of placing, receiving or otherwise knowingly transmitting a... bank”) are defined as those terms are defined in 12 CFR part 210, appendix B....

  11. 40 CFR 233.32 - Public notice.

    2010-07-01

    ... proposed discharge. (2) In addition, by providing notice in at least one other way (such as advertisement... interested parties in evaluating the likely impact of the proposed activity. (e) Notice of public...

  12. Overexpression of the catalytically impaired Taspase1 T234V or Taspase1 D233A variants does not have a dominant negative effect in T(4;11 leukemia cells.

    Carolin Bier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chromosomal translocation t(4;11(q21;q23 is associated with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia of infants. The resulting AF4•MLL oncoprotein becomes activated by Taspase1 hydrolysis and is considered to promote oncogenic transcriptional activation. Hence, Taspase1's proteolytic activity is a critical step in AF4•MLL pathophysiology. The Taspase1 proenzyme is autoproteolytically processed in its subunits and is assumed to assemble into an αββα-heterodimer, the active protease. Therefore, we investigated here whether overexpression of catalytically inactive Taspase1 variants are able to interfere with the proteolytic activity of the wild type enzyme in AF4•MLL model systems. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The consequences of overexpressing the catalytically dead Taspase1 mutant, Taspase1(T234V, or the highly attenuated variant, Taspase1(D233A, on Taspase1's processing of AF4•MLL and of other Taspase1 targets was analyzed in living cancer cells employing an optimized cell-based assay. Notably, even a nine-fold overexpression of the respective Taspase1 mutants neither inhibited Taspase1's cis- nor trans-cleavage activity in vivo. Likewise, enforced expression of the α- or β-subunits showed no trans-dominant effect against the ectopically or endogenously expressed enzyme. Notably, co-expression of the individual α- and β-subunits did not result in their assembly into an enzymatically active protease complex. Probing Taspase1 multimerization in living cells by a translocation-based protein interaction assay as well as by biochemical methods indicated that the inactive Taspase1 failed to assemble into stable heterocomplexes with the wild type enzyme. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results demonstrate that inefficient heterodimerization appears to be the mechanism by which inactive Taspase1 variants fail to inhibit wild type Taspase1's activity in trans. Our work favours strategies targeting Taspase1's catalytic activity

  13. Comparison of the response (in terms of accumulation, cellular and genetic impacts) of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii after exposure to a metallic pollutant (cadmium) and to a radiological pollutant (uranium 238 and 233)

    The study of the effects of radionuclides and metals on organisms is necessary for the evaluation of their toxicity and their ecological threats. We first aimed to study the impacts of cadmium (Cd) and Uranium (U) on different biological levels of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii after acute and chronic exposures. We evaluated their impacts on mitochondria, oxidative stress responses, on histological structures, and the survival rates. We tried to connect these effects between them and to the bioaccumulation in the gills and the hepato pancreas. We also tried to discriminate the chemo and the radiotoxicity of U by exposing crayfish to either depleted or enriched U (233U: presenting a higher specific activity) using the same criteria of effects. We demonstrated that the gene mt encoding for the metallothionein was always over-expressed in the presence of Cd. Therefore, it seems to be a good bio-marker of Cd toxicity in P. clarkii. The follow up of mitochondrial genes expressions (12s, atp6 and cox1), showed that both metals affect mitochondria and that their mechanisms of action do not seem to be always the same. We also observed that U generates more oxidative stress than Cd when comparing the expression levels of genes encoding for antioxidants (sod (Mn) and mt) and the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, the catalase, the glutathione peroxidase and the glutathione S transferase. However, the symptoms of histo-pathological damages after Cd and U contamination were similar in both conditions. After comparing the survival rates of the crayfish, we concluded that Cd was more toxic than the radioelement. Moreover, we demonstrated that the toxic effect of U on P. clarkii exposed to a low environmental concentration is mainly due to its chemo-toxicity rather than to its radiotoxicity. We established that, the molecular answers vary according to the intensity and the duration of the chemical stress applied to the organisms. We suggested the use of the

  14. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of 224Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides

  15. Bestimmung der Ionisationsenergie von Actinium und Ultraspurenanalyse von Plutonium mit resonanter Ionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS)

    Waldek, Achim Marcus

    2001-01-01

    ZusammenfassungDie Resonanzionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS) verbindet hohe Elementselektivität mit guter Nachweiseffizienz. Aufgrund dieser Eigenschaften ist die Methode für Ultraspurenanalyse und Untersuchungen an seltenen oder schwer handhabbaren Elementen gut geeignet. Für RIMS werden neutrale Atome mit monochromatischem Laserlicht ein- oder mehrfach resonant auf energetisch hoch liegende Niveaus angeregt und anschließend durch einen weiteren Laserstrahl oder durch ein elektrisches Fe...

  16. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228

    The activities of 228Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide 228Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO2 and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter 228Ra(228Ac), the daughter nuclide 228Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by 228Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9±0.1% was measured for 228Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317±0.013 cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1 g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of 228Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for 228Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure 228Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid scintillation analysis is used

  17. Linear free energy relationship applied to trivalent cations with lanthanum and actinium oxide and hydroxide structure

    Linear free energy relationships for trivalent cations with crystalline M2O3 and, M(OH)3 phases of lanthanides and actinides were developed from known thermodynamic properties of the aqueous trivalent cations, modifying the Sverjensky and Molling equation. The linear free energy relationship for trivalent cations is as ΔGf,MvX0=aMvXΔGn,M3+0+bMvX+βMvXrM3+, where the coefficients aMvX, bMvX, and βMvX characterize a particular structural family of MvX, rM3+ is the ionic radius of M3+ cation, ΔGf,MvX0 is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of MvX and ΔGn,M3+0 is the standard non-solvation free energy of the cation. The coefficients for the oxide family are: aMvX=0.2705, bMvX=-1984.75 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=197.24 (kJ/molnm). The coefficients for the hydroxide family are: aMvX=0.1587, bMvX=-1474.09 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=791.70 (kJ/molnm).

  18. Actinium: A RESTful Runtime Container for Scriptable Internet of Things Applications

    Kovatsch, Matthias; Lanter, Martin; Duquennoy, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Programming Internet of Things (IoT) applications is challenging because developers have to be knowledgeable in various technical domains, from low-power networking, over embedded operating systems, to distributed algorithms. Hence, it will be challenging to find enough experts to provide software for the vast number of expected devices, which must also be scalable and particularly safe due to the connection to the physical world. To remedy this situation, we propose an architecture that pr...

  19. New method for large scale production of medically applicable Actinium-225 and Radium-223

    Alpha-emitters (211At, 212Bi, 213Bi, 223Ra, 225Ac) are promising for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. Only two alpha decays near a cell membrane result in 50% death of cancer cell and only a single decay inside the cell is required for this. 225Ac may be used either directly or as a mother radionuclide in 213Bi isotope generator. Production of 225Ac is provided by three main suppliers - Institute for Transuranium Elements in Germany, Oak Ridge National Laboratory in USA and Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in Obninsk, Russia. The current worldwide production of 225Ac is approximately 1.7 Ci per year that corresponds to only 100-200 patients that could be treated annually. The common approach for 225Ac production is separation from mother 229Th or irradiation of 226Ra with protons in a cyclotron. Both the methods have some practical limitations to be applied routinely. 225Ac can be also produced by irradiation of natural thorium with medium energy protons . Cumulative cross sections of 225Ac, 227Ac, 227Th, 228Th formations have been obtained recently. Thorium targets (1-9 g) were irradiated by 114-91 MeV proton beam (1-50 μA) at INR linear accelerator. After dissolution in 8 M HNO3 + 0.004 M HF thorium was removed by double LLX by HDEHP in toluene (1:1). Ac and REE were pre-concentrated and separated from Ra and most fission products by DGA-Resin (Triskem). After washing out by 0.01 M HNO3 Ac was separated from REE by TRU Resin (Triskem) in 3 M HNO3 media. About 6 mCi 225Ac were separated in hot cell with chemical yield 85%. The method may be upscaled for production of Ci amounts of the radionuclide. The main impurity is 227Ac (0.1% at the EOB) but it does not hinder 225Ac from being used for medical 225Ac/213Bi generators. (author)

  20. Synthesis of chelating agents for actinium 225 complexation and its application in radioimmunotherapy

    Immunotherapy with radiolabeled antibodies should allow fairly specific targeting of certain cancers. However, iodine 131 may not be the best isotope for tumor therapy because of its limited specific activity, low beta-energy, relatively long half life and strong gamma emission. Another approach to improve therapeutic efficacy is the use of replacement isotopes with better physical properties. Chelator that can hold radio-metals with high stability under physiological conditions are essential to avoid excessive damage to non-target cells; Moreover, the development of new bifunctional chelating agents is essential for this purpose. Accordingly, our efforts have been directed, for several years, to the synthesis of original chelating agents likely to form stable complexes in vivo with the numerous potential candidates for such applications. Therefore, we have developed a new simple and efficient synthesis pathway of 2-(4-iso-thio-cyanate-benzyl)-1,4,7,10,13,16- hexa-aza-cyclo-hexadecane- 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa-acetic acid, though functionalized on the cycle by a termination allowed coupling to an antibody or any other biological substance such as a hapten. (author)

  1. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    A technique of selenium purification from 232Th, 238U, 226,228Ra, 227Ac and 40K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  2. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz); Warot, G. [CEA-CNRS, Modane (France). Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM); Karaivanov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), Sofia (Bulgaria); Kochetov, O.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Filosofov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Sadikov, I.I. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz)

    2013-07-01

    A technique of selenium purification from {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 227}Ac and {sup 40}K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  3. Short communication an interferon-γ ELISPOT assay with two cytotoxic T cell epitopes derived from HTLV-1 tax region 161-233 discriminates HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients from asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers in a Peruvian population.

    Best, Ivan; López, Giovanni; Talledo, Michael; MacNamara, Aidan; Verdonck, Kristien; González, Elsa; Tipismana, Martín; Asquith, Becca; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Vanham, Guido; Clark, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic and progressive disorder caused by the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). In HTLV-1 infection, a strong cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response is mounted against the immunodominant protein Tax. Previous studies carried out by our group reported that increased IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) responses against the region spanning amino acids 161 to 233 of the Tax protein were associated with HAM/TSP and increased HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL). An exploratory study was conducted on 16 subjects with HAM/TSP, 13 asymptomatic carriers (AC), and 10 HTLV-1-seronegative controls (SC) to map the HAM/TSP-associated CTL epitopes within Tax region 161-233. The PVL of the infected subjects was determined and the specific CTL response was evaluated with a 6-h incubation IFN-γ ELISPOT assay using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with 16 individual overlapping peptides covering the Tax region 161-233. Other proinflammatory and Th1/Th2 cytokines were also quantified in the supernatants by a flow cytometry multiplex assay. In addition, a set of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles that bind with high affinity to the CTL epitopes of interest was determined using computational tools. Univariate analyses identified an association between ELISPOT responses to two new CTL epitopes, Tax 173-185 and Tax 181-193, and the presence of HAM/TSP as well as an increased PVL. The HLA-A*6801 allele, which is predicted to bind to the Tax 181-193 peptide, was overpresented in the HAM/TSP patients tested. PMID:21453202

  4. Etude des distributions en masse, charge nucléaire et énergie cinétique des produits de fission de l'233U(nth,f) et du 241Pu(nth,f) mesurées auprès du spectromètre de masse Lohengrin (ILL)

    Martin, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Les rendements des produits de fission font partie des données nucléaires sur lesquellesreposent les simulations neutroniques. L’objectif de cette thèse est d’apporter de nouvellesmesures de rendements de fission de deux noyaux fissiles : le 241Pu et l’233U. Ces noyauxappartiennent respectivement au cycle du combustible de l’uranium et à celui du thorium.Ces mesures ont été réalisées auprès du spectromètre de masse Lohengrin de l’InstitutLaue Langevin (ILL) à Grenoble. Le spectromètre est com...

  5. Measurements of cross sections and decay properties of the isotopes of elements 112, 114, and 116 produced in the fusion reactions 233,238U, 242Pu, and 248Cm+48Ca

    We have studied the dependence of the production cross sections of the isotopes 282,283112 and 286,287114 on the excitation energy of the compound nuclei 286112 and 290114. The maximum cross section values of the xn-evaporation channels for the reaction 238U(48Ca,xn)286-x112 were measured to be σ3n=2.5-1.1+1.8 pb and σ4n=0.6-0.5+1.6 pb; for the reaction 242Pu(48Ca,xn)290-x114: σ2n∼0.5 pb, σ3n=3.6-1.7+3.4 pb, and σ4n=4.5-1.9+3.6 pb. In the reaction 233U(48Ca,2-4n)277-279112 at E*=34.9=2.2 MeV we measured an upper cross section limit of σxn≤0.6 pb. The observed shift of the excitation energy associated with the maximum sum evaporation residue cross section σER(E*) to values significantly higher than that associated with the calculated Coulomb barrier can be caused by the orientation of the deformed target nucleus in the entrance channel of the reaction. An increase of σER in the reactions of actinide targets with 48Ca is consistent with the expected increase of the survivability of the excited compound nucleus upon closer approach to the closed neutron shell N=184. In the present work we detected 33 decay chains arising in the decay of the known nuclei 282112, 283112, 286114, 287114, and 288114. In the decay of 287114(α)→283112(α)→279110(SF), in two cases out of 22, we observed decay chains of four and five sequential α transitions that end in spontaneous fission of 271Sg (Tα/SF=2.4-1.0+4.3 min) and 267Rf (TSF∼2.3 h), longer decay chains than reported previously. We observed the new nuclide 292116 (Tα=18-6+16 ms,Eα=10.66±0.07 MeV) in the irradiation of the 248Cm target at a higher energy than in previous experiments. The observed nuclear decay properties of the nuclides with Z=104-118 are compared with theoretical nuclear mass calculations and the systematic trends of spontaneous fission properties. As a whole, they give a consistent pattern of decay of the 18 even-Z neutron-rich nuclides with Z=104-118 and N=163-177. The experiments were

  6. Measurements of cross sections and decay properties of the isotopes of elements 112, 114 and 116 produced in the fusion reactions 233,238U, 242Pu, and 248Cm + 48Ca

    We have studied the dependence of the production cross sections of the isotopes 282,283112 and 286,287114 on the excitation energy of the compound nuclei 286112 and 290114. The maximum cross-section values of the xn-evaporation channels for the reaction 238U(48Ca, xn)286-x112 were measured to be: σ3n = 2.5-1.1+1.8 pb and σ4n = 0.6-0.5+1.6 pb; for the reaction 242Pu(48Ca, xn)290-x114: σ2n ∼ 0.5 pb, σ3n 3.6-1.7+3.4 pb and σ4n = 4.5-1.9+3.6 pb. In the reaction 233U(48Ca, 2-4n)277-279112 at E* = 34.9±2.2 MeV we measured an upper cross-section limit of σxn ≤ 0.6 pb. The observed shift of the excitation energy associated with the maximum sum evaporation residue cross section σER(E*) to values significantly higher than that associated with the calculated Coulomb barrier can be caused by the orientation of the deformed target nucleus in the entrance channel of the reaction. An increase of σER in the reactions of actinide targets with 48Ca is consistent with the expected increase of the survivability of the excited compound nucleus upon closer approach to the closed neutron shell N = 184. In the present work we detected 33 decay chains arising in the decay of the known nuclei: 282112, 283112, 286114, and 288114. In the decay of 287114(α) → 283112(α) → 279110(SF), in two cases out of 22, we observed decay chains of four and five sequential α transitions that end in spontaneous fission of 271Sg(Tα/SF = 2.4 -1.0+4.3 min) and 267Rf(TSF ∼ 2.3 h), longer decay chains than reported previously. We observed the new nuclide 292116(Tα = 18-6+16 ms, Eα = 10.66 ± 0.07 MeV in the irradiation of 248Cm target at a higher energy than in previous experiments. The observed nuclear decay properties of the nuclides with Z = 104-118 are compared with theoretical nuclear mass calculations and the systematic trends of spontaneous fission properties. As a whole, they give a consistent pattern of decay of the 18 even-Z neutron-rich nuclides with Z = 104-118 and N = 163

  7. Two mixed-ligand lanthanide–hydrazone complexes: [Pr(NCS3(pbh2]·H2O and [Nd(NCS(NO3(pbh2(H2O]NO3·2.33H2O [pbh is N′-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidenebenzohydrazide, C13H11N3O

    Damianos G. Paschalidis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The gel-mediated syntheses and crystal structures of [N′-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene-κNbenzohydrazide-κ2N′,O]tris(thiocyanato-κNpraseodymium(III monohydrate, [Pr(NCS3(C13H11N3O2]·H2O, (I, and aqua(nitrato-κ2O,O′[N′-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene-κNbenzohydrazide-κ2N′,O](thiocyanato-κNneodymium(III nitrate 2.33-hydrate, [Nd(NCS(NO3(C13H11N3O2(H2O]NO3·2.33H2O, (II, are reported. The Pr3+ ion in (I is coordinated by two N,N,O-tridentate N′-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidenebenzohydrazide (pbh ligands and three N-bonded thiocyanate ions to generate an irregular PrN7O2 coordination polyhedron. The Nd3+ ion in (II is coordinated by two N,N,O-tridentate pbh ligands, an N-bonded thiocyanate ion, a bidentate nitrate ion and a water molecule to generate a distorted NdN5O5 bicapped square antiprism. The crystal structures of (I and (II feature numerous hydrogen bonds, which lead to the formation of three-dimensional networks in each case.

  8. Measurement and correlation of the (p, ρ, T) relation of liquid cyclohexane, toluene, and ethanol in the temperature range from 233.15 K to 473.15 K at pressures up to 30 MPa for use as density reference liquids

    Comprehensive (p, ρ, T) measurements on cyclohexane, toluene, and ethanol were carried out in the homogeneous liquid phase for temperatures from 233.15 K to 473.15 K at pressures up to 30 MPa. The measurements were performed by using an accurate single-sinker densimeter based on the Archimedes' buoyancy principle. The total uncertainty of the measurements in density was estimated to be 0.015% (level of confidence 95%). Based on the experimental results, accurate correlation equations for the density of the three liquids have been established; their uncertainty is 0.020%. Comparisons with previous results of other experimentalists and with values calculated from current equations of state are presented. In this context it is also shown that the density of a liquid can vary slightly depending on the batch of the liquid used for the measurements. The purpose of this work was to provide accurate correlation equations for the densities of the three selected liquids so that these liquids can be used as density reference liquids for the calibration of densimeters and, in particular, for the calibration of vibrating-tube densimeters.

  9. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  10. Renal uptake of bismuth-213 and its contribution to kidney radiation dose following administration of actinium-225-labeled antibody

    Schwartz, J; O' Donoghue, J A; Humm, J L [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jaggi, J S [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Plainsboro, NJ (United States); Ruan, S; Larson, S M [Nuclear Medicine Service Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); McDevitt, M; Scheinberg, D A, E-mail: schwarj1@mskcc.org [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    Clinical therapeutic studies using {sup 225}Ac-labeled antibodies have begun. Of major concern is renal toxicity that may result from the three alpha-emitting progeny generated following the decay of {sup 225}Ac. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of {sup 225}Ac and non-equilibrium progeny in the mouse kidney after the injection of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and examine the dosimetric consequences. Groups of mice were sacrificed at 24, 96 and 144 h after injection with {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and kidneys excised. One kidney was used for gamma ray spectroscopic measurements by a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The second kidney was used to generate frozen tissue sections which were examined by digital autoradiography (DAR). Two measurements were performed on each kidney specimen: (1) immediately post-resection and (2) after sufficient time for any non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi to decay completely. Comparison of these measurements enabled estimation of the amount of excess {sup 213}Bi reaching the kidney ({gamma}-ray spectroscopy) and its sub-regional distribution (DAR). The average absorbed dose to whole kidney, determined by spectroscopy, was 0.77 (SD 0.21) Gy kBq{sup -1}, of which 0.46 (SD 0.16) Gy kBq{sup -1} (i.e. 60%) was due to non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi. The relative contributions to renal cortex and medulla were determined by DAR. The estimated dose to the cortex from non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi (0.31 (SD 0.11) Gy kBq{sup -1}) represented {approx}46% of the total. For the medulla the dose contribution from excess {sup 213}Bi (0.81 (SD 0.28) Gy kBq{sup -1}) was {approx}80% of the total. Based on these estimates, for human patients we project a kidney-absorbed dose of 0.28 Gy MBq{sup -1} following administration of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 with non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi responsible for approximately 60% of the total. Methods to reduce renal accumulation of radioactive progeny appear to be necessary for the success of {sup 225}Ac radioimmunotherapy.

  11. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  12. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHI233 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available equence (All Frames) Frame A: kkkfinkpknrifvil**vkestnhqiqikkq*knnkik*kkkkkklqilqlqlqpqiii iii*nqi*qlingyqkkkhfqnvimkf*kreksyqfgnkk...tig*w*ck**ill* kykemyrcwllyasg*mrekkyllhpr**ticnlssfnwfnsss*ilylq*icfnl*kly *nnh*c*i*lvirigsklf*tki...fp*knkrnnsksskii*w***w***w***kinklinf knkikyfnliy*mfkk Frame C: kkiyk*TKKQDICYFIMSKRKHESSD...k*nili*yikclkk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bit...i leqslmlnligy*nwlqvilnknlslkkqkkqfkelkdyivvvvvvvvvvviknk*inkf *k*nkif*fnilnv*k Frame B: kknl*inqktgyllfyne*kkariirfk*ksnek

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHG233 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available sequence. 66 2e-18 3 BM056853 |BM056853.1 2154-85 hindgut and Malpighian tubule subtracted cDNA library Ctenocephalides...pighian tubule subtracted cDNA library Ctenocephalides felis cDNA clone 2193-94, ...mRNA sequence. 90 9e-14 1 BM058379 |BM058379.1 2191-29 hindgut and Malpighian tubule subtracted cDNA library Ctenocephalides

  15. Dicty_cDB: VHN233 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 0 m3b: 0.00 m_ : 1.00 28.0 %: cytoplasmic 28.0 %: nuclear 20.0 %: plasma membrane 8.0 %: extracellular, incl...7e-13 BC114006_1( BC114006 |pid:none) Bos taurus L-pipecolic acid oxidas... 76 9e-13 protein update 2009. 7....GMQYKVLTAQEIMEEYPFRNIPSNHQGVFAPDNGVIN LPLVLRSLYKLCLQYGCKMV--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frame...Value CU638744_413( CU638744 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 204 2e-51 Y18574_4( Y18574 |pid:none) Streptomyces tendae...... 76 7e-13 AF134593_1( AF134593 |pid:none) Homo sapiens L-pipecolic acid oxid... 7

  16. Dicty_cDB: VFE233 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 1 BD183626 |BD183626.1 Material for diagnosing malaria and immune antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodium.... 76 6e-61 10 BD183625 |BD183625.1 Material for diagnosing malaria and immune antigen for suppressing growth of plasmodium

  17. 45 CFR 233.101 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    2010-10-01

    ... subdivisions of the State, in which he or she attended, full-time, an elementary school, a secondary school, or... instruction for individuals who have not graduated from a secondary school or obtained an equivalent degree... absence, or incapacity of a parent may receive cash assistance under the AFDC program during the...

  18. 39 CFR 233.2 - Circulars and rewards.

    2010-07-01

    ... drugs, or proceeds from the sale of illegal drugs. Money Laundering, $50,000. Mailing or causing to be... controlled substances. (iii) Post office burglary. (iv) Stealing or unlawful possession of mail or money or..., counterfeiting, forging, unlawful uttering or passing of postal money orders; or the unlawful use,...

  19. Dicty_cDB: VSF233 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available R... 36 0.49 (Q9STB6) RecName: Full=Profilin-2; AltName: Full=Pollen allergen... 35 1.1 NRL( 1ACF ) Profilin...3.22 Translated Amino Acid sequence mmiksnqdqlhlllks*vit*eimvikilisc*nqldlilrikknnnnnki*msll... Frames) Frame A: mmiksnqdqlhlllks*vit*eimvikilisc*nqldlilrikknnnnnki*msllk*IN KKK--- ---mmiksnqdqlhlllks*vit*eimvikili...sc*nqldlilrikknnnnnki*msl Frame B: ***sptrisctyc*kvr*llkr*wllry*ylvktn*i*f*elkkiiiiikfkch...k*IN KKK--- ---DDKVQPGSAALIVEKLGDYLRDNGY*dinillkpirfnfkn*kk*****nlnvt Translated Amino Acid sequence (All

  20. Dicty_cDB: SSJ233 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available tosoma mansoni cDNA clone MG1-0105U-A350-B05.B, mRNA sequence. 78 3e-10 1 AC133927 |AC133927.1 Magnaporthe gris...ces. 54 1e-09 2 AQ162438 |AQ162438.1 mgxb0013A03r CUGI Rice Blast BAC Library Magnaporthe grisea genomic clo...ne mgxb0013A03r, genomic survey sequence. 54 1e-09 2 AQ162555 |AQ162555.1 mgxb0013O10r CUGI Rice Blast BAC Library Magnaporthe gris....1 mgxb0004A10f CUGI Rice Blast BAC Library Magnaporthe grisea genomic clone mgxb...eqyrkfknfesrimvatn ifgrgidiervnvvinydmaesadtylhrvgragrfgtkglaisfvpskedpvleqvqsk fvvsikel

  1. 39 CFR 233.7 - Forfeiture authority and procedures.

    2010-07-01

    .... 5312(a)(3), or (2) any conveyance which was used to import, export, transport, or store any controlled... was used to import, export, transport, or store any controlled substance the Postal Inspection Service... mitigation to the extent such regulation is inconsistent with this section. (2) Definitions. As used in...

  2. Dicty_cDB: SFC233 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available d Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: hcwptgnfyf**qykykisyigyvvyfcvwvdfiiylf*ssflfviyftfitqnthktht hknthshinkytiikeerkwrkerv...eififsnntnirflildtwctfvfgwillfiyfnhhfyl*yisllshkthtkhtl tkththt*intq**kkkengekkeyifck***r*yiirrfk*fyktwynytr*dckct*r rvitnd*c*igteis...drttl itrclysrgssrq**tttnstsir**yw*ikeieiitq*ke*rylfdstlsr*itiscrt itisktic*iirtk*feinrnqtilynlqyl*r*entfrk*...nvkw*ninkrsnnsy hkmpllkrifktvidnnkfnkhsivilvn*rn*nyysikrieisl*fnvismnyhlvpny ynik...59415_1( AK159415 |pid:none) Mus musculus osteoclast-like cell ... 158 5e-37 AK085701_1( AK085701 |pid:none)

  3. 42 CFR 456.233 - Initial continued stay review date.

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals... must provide that— (a) When a recipient is admitted to the mental hospital under admission review... will be reviewed; (b) If an individual applies for Medicaid while in the mental hospital, the...

  4. 48 CFR 1352.233-70 - Agency protests.

    2010-10-01

    ... protests. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1333.103(a), insert the following provision: Agency Protests (APR 2010) (a) An agency protest may be filed with either: (1) The contracting officer, or (2) at a level above... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency protests....

  5. 45 CFR 233.50 - Citizenship and alienage.

    2010-10-01

    ... (OAA); title IV-A (AFDC); title X (AB); title XIV (APTD); and title XVI (AABD-disabled) of the Social... assistance applicant for OAA, AB, APTD, or AABD, or (3) An applicant for AFDC who is not a Cuban and...

  6. Study of Thorium Utilization in a Large Scale Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    The breeding performance of 232Th in fast reactor is better than 238U, since the capture cross section of 232Th is slightly higher than 238U under the fast neutron spectrum. There are much less fission neutrons in the blanket, so the proportion of neutron with energy above 6MeV (the threshold energy of (n,2n) reaction of 232Th) is very small. Therefore, the 233U produced in fast reactor blanket would have high purity. In this paper, an large scale fast reactor core was taken as the reference core for 232Th utilization study. In the calculation results, the whole capability of 233U production is about 443kg/(GWe•a) in the blanket; at the end of the first cycle (160EFPD), the 233U production per unit mass of 232Th is about 10.71g/(kgTh), and the weight fraction of 232U in actinium is less than 0.019%. It is an attractive technology option to produce 233U in the blanket. (author)

  7. A study of reaction rates of (n,f), (n,γ) and (n,2n) reactions in natU and 232Th by the neutron fluence produced in the graphite set-up (GAMMA-3) irradiated by 2.33 GeV deuteron beam

    Spallation neutrons produced in the collision of a 2.33GeV deuteron beam with a large lead target are moderated by a thick graphite block surrounding the target and used to activate the radioactive samples of natU and Th put at three different positions, identified as holes ''a'', ''b'' and ''c'' in the graphite block. Rates of the (n,f), (n,γ) and (n,2n) reactions in the two samples are determined using the gamma spectrometry. The ratios of the experimental reaction rates, R (n,2n)/R (n,f), for 232Th and natU are estimated in order to understand the role of the (n,x n) kind of reactions in Accelerator-Driven Sub-critical Systems. For the Th-sample, the ratio is ∝ 54 (10)% in the case of hole ''a'' and ∝ 95 (57)% in the case of hole ''b'' compared to 1.73(20)% for hole ''a'' and 0.710(9)% for hole ''b'' in the case of the natU sample. Also the ratio of fission rates in uranium to thorium, natU (n,f)/ 232Th (n,f), is ∝ 11.2 (17) in the case of hole ''a'' and 26.8(85) in hole ''b''. Similarly, the ratio 238U (n,2n)/ 232Th (n,2n) is 0.36(4) for hole ''a'' and 0.20(10) for hole ''b'' showing that 232Th is more prone to the (n,x n) reaction than 238U. All the experimental reaction rates are compared with the simulated ones by generating neutron fluxes at the three holes from MCNPX 2.6c and making use of the LA150 library of cross-sections. The experimental and calculated reaction rates of all the three reactions are in reasonably good agreement. The transmutation power, Pnorm as well as Pnorm/Pbeam of the set-up is estimated using the reaction rates of the (n, γ) and (n,2n) reactions for both the samples in the three holes and compared with some of the results of the ''Energy plus Transmutation'' set-up and TARC experiment. (orig.)

  8. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  9. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    Nicholas, R.G.; Lacy, N.H.; Butz, T.R.; Brandon, N.E.

    2004-10-06

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  10. 45 CFR 233.110 - Foster care maintenance and adoption assistance.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foster care maintenance and adoption assistance... maintenance and adoption assistance. (a) State plan requirements. A State plan under title IV-A of the Social... Security Act, and operates a foster care maintenance and adoption assistance program in conformity...

  11. Suspended-Bed Reactor preliminary design, 233U--232Th cycle. Final report (revised)

    The preliminary design Suspended-Bed Reactor is described. Coated particles about 2 mm in diameter are used as the fuel. The coatings consist of three layers: (1) low density pyrolytic graphite, 70 μ thick, (2) silicon carbide pressure vessel, 30 μ thick, and (3) ZrC layer, 50 μ thick, to protect the pressure vessel from moisture and oxygen. The fuel kernel can be either uranium-thorium dicarbide or metal. The coated particles are suspended by helium gas (coolant) in a cluster of pressurized tubes. The upward flow of helium fluidizes the coated particles. As the flow rate increases, the bed of particles is lifted upward to the core section. The particles are restrained at the upper end of the core by a suitable screen. The overall particle density in the core is just enough for criticality condition. Should the helium flow cease, the bed in the core section will collapse, and the particles will flow downward into the section where the increased physical spacings among the tubes brings about a safe shutdown. By immersing this section of the tubes in a large graphite block to serve as a heat sink, dissipation of decay heat becomes manageable. This eliminates the need for emergency core cooling systems

  12. Critical dimensions of systems containing 235U, 239Pu, and 233U: 1986 Revision

    This report is primarily a compilation of critical data obtained from experiments performed in a number of laboratories during the period of 1945 through 1985. It supplements the Nuclear Safety Guide [Report TID-7016 (Rev. 2)] in presenting critical data on which recommendations of the Guide are based. It must be emphasized that this report gives critical data without safety factors, so it is no substitute for the Guide or for the related document, The American National Standard for Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactors. Critical measurements with materials of interest in desired configurations yield information of greatest usefulness and accuracy. Where it is not feasible to obtain the desired critical data, for example, as a result of safety restrictions, subcritical data may be directly applicable, and in some cases may be extrapolated to approximate critical conditions. Critical conditions also may be approximated from the distribution of neutrons introduced into a subcritical assembly. These ''exponential experiments'' may be the only alternative where the quantity of material required is too great for a critical experiment. Calculated extensions of experimental data are included to show the nature of trends, not to substitute for results of experiments. They should be used with caution. A fundamental aim of this document is to illustrate relationships among critical data. The compilation and correlation of data for this purpose, from many measurements in a number of laboratories, require a certain amount of normalization or reduction to common terms. Frequently, for example, the effects of variations in geometry or density must be removed to show trends in data. The manner in which these alterations may be made is discussed in the early section Relations for Conversion to Standard Conditions. 195 refs

  13. Rapid oxygenation of Earths atmosphere 2.33 billion years ago

    Luo, Genming; Ono, Shuhei; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Wang, David T.; Xie, Shucheng; Summons, Roger E.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O[subscript 2]) is, and has been, a primary driver of biological evolution and shapes the contemporary landscape of Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. Although “whiffs” of oxygen have been documented in the Archean atmosphere, substantial O2 did not accumulate irreversibly until the Early Paleoproterozoic, during what has been termed the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE). The timing of the GOE and the rate at which this oxygenation took place have been poorly constrained until now. ...

  14. 40 CFR 233.36 - Modification, suspension or revocation of permits.

    2010-07-01

    ... in ownership or operational control of a project or activity where the Director determines that no... the permit beyond 5 years from its original effective date and does not result in any increase in the... the factors to be considered are: (1) Permittee's noncompliance with any of the terms or conditions...

  15. SU-E-J-233: A Facility for Radiobiological Experiments in a Large Magnetic Field

    Carlone, M; Heaton, R; Keller, H [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Wouters, B [Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Jaffray, D [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: There is considerable interest in developing medical linear accelerators with integrated image guidance by MRI. Less work has been done on the fundamental biology of cell survival in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The purpose of this work is to describe an experimental system capable of measuring cell survival response in the types of MRI-linac systems currently under development. Methods: We have integrated a cobalt irradiator with a solenoid magnet. The solenoid magnet has inner diameter of 10 cm. To enable measurement of the biological effects as a function of depth, we are utilizing the sliced gel technique, in which cells are embedded and fixed within a gelatin matrix. Irradiated cells at defined positions (sub mm resolution) can subsequently be recovered and assessed for cell survival or other biological effects. Results: The magnetic field profile in the solenoid has a peak magnetic field 36 cm below the top edge of the magnet bore and can be placed at and SAD of 100 cm. At a solenoid current of 35 A, the peak magnetic field is 0.25 T. The dose rate of the cobalt irradiator is 16 cGy/min at 100 cm SAD. EBT3 film was used to demonstrate the system functionality. It was irradiated at 1 cm depth at 100 cm SSD with a 4×4 field to 1.5 Gy in a 0.25 T magnetic field. The dose profile was similar between this film and the control exposure without magnetic field. Conclusion: Integrating a cobalt irradiator with a high field magnet is demonstrated. The magnetic field at the cobalt defining head was minimal and did not interfere with the functioning of this unit. Cell survival experiments can be reproduced exactly in the presence or absence of a magnetic field since a resistive magnet is used.

  16. Pulse height effects in the measurement of U-233 fission cross sections

    Partial fission cross sections were calculated for different energy cuts in the fission fragment distribution. Statistically significant differences exist between different cuts. Some levels previously assumed to be single were split into two or more structures. It was concluded that fission cross sections are sensitive to pulse height bias and that level parameters calculated from biased measurements (when not all fragments are detected) may be in error. (2 figures) (U.S.)

  17. 45 CFR 233.10 - General provisions regarding coverage and eligibility.

    2010-10-01

    ... to participate because of the failure of a local authority to apply such State plan provisions. (2...) Deprived of parental support or care by reason of the death, continued absence from the home, or...

  18. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YOR285W, YDR233C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Full Text Available YOR285W - Protein of unknown function, localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane Rows with t ... ; null mutant has an altered (mostly cisternal) ER morphology ; member of the RTNLA (reticulon-like A) subfamily ... ; null mutant has an altered (mostly cisternal) ER morphology ; member of the RTNLA (reticulon-like A) subfamily ...

  19. PROJECT EXPERIENCE REPORT DEMOLITION OF HANFORDS 233-S PLUTONIUM CONCENTRATION FACILITY

    This report provides a summary of the preparation, operations, innovative work practices, and lessons learned associated with demolition of the 2334 Plutonium Concentration Facility. This project represented the first open-air demolition of a highly-contaminated plutonium facility at the Hanford Site. This project may also represent the first plutonium facility in the US. Department of Energy (DOE) complex to have been demolished without first decontaminating surfaces to near ''free release'' standards. Demolition of plutonium contaminated structures, if not properly managed, can subject cleanup personnel and the environment to significant risk. However, with proper sequencing and innovative use of commercially available equipment, materials, and services, this project demonstrated that a plutonium processing facility can be demolished while avoiding the need to perform extensive decontamination or to construct large enclosures. This project utilized an excavator with concrete shears, diamond circular saws, water misting and fogging equipment, commercially available fixatives and dust suppressants, conventional mobile crane and rigging services, and near real-time modeling of meteorological and radiological conditions. Following a significant amount of preparation, actual demolition of the 2333 Facility began in October 2003 and was completed in late April 2004. The knowledge and experience gained on this project are important to the Hanford Site as additional plutonium processing facilities are scheduled for demolition in the near future. Other sites throughout the DOE Complex may also be faced with similar challenges. Numerous innovations and effective work practices were implemented on this project. Accordingly, a series of ''Lessons Learned and Innovative Practices Fact Sheets'' were developed and are included as an appendix to this report. This collection of fact sheets is not intended to capture every innovative work practice and lesson learned, but rather to describe those that the project believes to be of most benefit to future DOE projects. These fact sheets cover a number of specific topics within the subject areas noted below: (1) Project Management; (2) Organization Structure and Responsibilities; (3) Demolition Approach and Equipment; (4) Planning and Scheduling; (5) Site Preparation and Infrastructure; (6) Radiological Controls; (7)Industrial Safety and Health; and (8) Waste Management

  20. AB233. PDE5-Is for erectile dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Yang, Xingliang; Yuan, Jiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Male patients with multiple sclerosis commonly suffered sexual dysfunction. Phosphodiesterase five inhibitors are efficacious and widely used for erectile dysfunction in general population and even post-TURPT patients. However, whether PDE5-Is is effective for MS-associated ED is still unclear. Methods PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched and relevant studies were evaluated for the efficacy and safety of PDE5-Is on MS-associated ED. Results Sildenafil and tadalafil were used for the treatment of MS-associated ED in reported trials. In Safarinejad trial, sildenafil was slightly better than placebo regarding improved erections, successful penetration and successful sexual attempts. For side-effects, patients in sildenafil group showed significantly high proportion and the main AE was headache. In Fowler and Lombardi trials, sildenafil and tadalafil were used for treatment of MS-associated ED respectively. Both trials showed that PDE5-Is could improve erection or quality of life for patients and his partners. Although adverse events reported in two trials, no patient discontinued because of AEs. Conclusions PDE5-Is seems to be an effective for those MS-associated ED patients. However, the detail mechanism and long-term efficacy is still unknown.

  1. 12 CFR 233.6 - Non-exclusive examples of policies and procedures.

    2010-01-01

    ... determination regarding the risk the commercial customer presents of engaging in an Internet gambling business... that the commercial customer presents a minimal risk of engaging in an Internet gambling business. (ii... an Internet gambling business, in which case it obtains the documentation in either paragraph...

  2. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YER081W, YPL233W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Full Text Available oins kinetochore subunits contacting DNA to those contacting microtubules; requir...tacting DNA to those contacting microtubules; required for accurate chromosome segr...t of the MIND kinetochore complex (Mtw1p Including Nnf1p-Nsl1p-Dsn1p) which joins kinetochore subunits con

  3. Measuring the Th-229 nuclear isomer transition with U-233 doped crystals

    Stellmer, Simon; Kazakov, Georgy; Sterba, Johannes; Schumm, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We propose a simple approach to measure the energy of the few-eV isomeric state in Th-229. To this end, U-229 nuclei are doped into VUV-transparent crystals, where they undergo alpha decay into Th-229, and, with a probability of 2%, populate the isomeric state. These Th-229m nuclei may decay into the nuclear ground state under emission of the sought-after VUV gamma, whose wavelength can be determined with a spectrometer. Based on measurements of the optical transmission of U:CaF2 crystals in the VUV range, we expect a signal at least 2 orders of magnitude larger compared to current schemes using surface-implantation of recoil nuclei. The signal background is dominated by Cherenkov radiation induced by beta decays of the thorium decay chain. We estimate that, even if the isomer undergoes radiative de-excitation with a probability of only 0.1%, the VUV gamma can be detected within a reasonable measurement time.

  4. Editorial Revista Contaduría y Administración 233

    López Herrera Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Existen diversos aspectos que resultan ser de importancia para alcanzar los diversos objetivos que los administradores de organizaciones públicas o privadas, lucrativas o no lucrativas, deben cumplir. Evidentemente la satisfacción del cliente o usuario es uno de los aspectos clave. Una de las ideas que ha alcanzado un alto grado de consenso desde hace ya varios años, a juzgar por lo vasto de la literatura dedicada a ese punto, es que en esa satisfacción juega un papel primordial y crítico el ...

  5. SU-E-T-233: Modeling Linac Couch Effects On Attenuation and Skin Dose

    Purpose: Treatment couch tops in medical LINAC rooms lead to attenuation to beams penetrating them, plus higher skin dose which can become a significant concern with the high fraction doses associated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy. This work measures the attenuation and shallow depth dose due to a BrainLab couch, and studies the modeling of the couch top in our treatment planning system (TPS) as a uniform solid material with homogeneous density. Methods: LINAC photon beams of size 10×10 cm and nominal energy 6 MV were irradiated from different gantry angles on a stack of solid water. Depth dose were measured with two types of parallel plate chambers, MPPK and Markus. In the Philips Pinnacle TPS, the couch was modeled as a slab with varying thickness and density. A digital phantom of size 30×30×10 cm with density 1 g/cc was created to simulate the measurement setup. Both the attenuation and skin dose effects due to the couch were studied. Results: An orthogonal attenuation rate of 3.2% was observed with both chamber measurements. The attenuation can be modeled by couch models of varying thicknesses. Once the orthogonal attenuation was modeled well, the oblique beam attenuation in TPS agreed with measurement within 1.5%. The depth dose at shallow depth (0.5 cm) was also shown to be modeled correctly within 1.5% of the measurement using a 12 mm thick couch model with density of 0.9 g/cc. Agreement between calculation and measurement diverges at very shallow depths (≤1 mm) but remains acceptable (<5%) with the aforementioned couch model parameters. Conclusion: Modeling the couch top as a uniform solid in a treatment planning system can predict both the attenuation and surface dose simultaneously well within clinical tolerance in the same model

  6. 19 CFR 10.233 - Articles eligible for preferential tariff treatment.

    2010-04-01

    ... U.S. Note 2(b), Subchapter II, Chapter 98, HTSUS (see § 10.26): (1) Footwear not designated on... for leather-related articles. If, after it is determined that an article described in paragraph...

  7. Chiroptical Properties of Cryptophane-223 and -233 Investigated by ECD, VCD, and ROA Spectroscopy.

    Brotin, Thierry; Daugey, Nicolas; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Jeanneau, Erwann; Ducasse, Laurent; Buffeteau, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    Enantiopure cryptophane derivatives 1 and 2, possessing linkers of different nature (ethylenedioxy and propylenedioxy) connecting the two cyclotribenzylenes (CTB) units, were separated by HPLC using chiral stationary phases. X-ray crystallographic structures of the four enantiomers (+)-1, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 have been obtained, allowing the unambiguous determination of their absolute configuration (AC) in the solid state. The chiroptical properties of compounds 1 and 2 were determined from polarimetry, electronic circular dichroism (ECD), vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), and Raman optical activity (ROA) experiments and were compared to those of cryptophane-A (3) derivative. VCD, ROA and ECD spectra of 1 and 2 were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations, respectively, to confirm the AC of the cryptophane derivatives in solution. The (+)-PP and (-)-MM configurations were established for compounds 1 and 2 in chloroform solution, as already reported for the two enantiomers of 3. This result is in agreement with the X-ray structures of the two enantiomers of 1 and 2. PMID:26091242

  8. 49 CFR 23.3 - What do the terms used in this part mean?

    2010-10-01

    ..., Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or..., Eskimos, Aleuts, or Native Hawaiians; (iv) “Asian-Pacific Americans,” which includes persons whose origins..., Kirbati, Juvalu, Nauru, Federated States of Micronesia, or Hong Kong; (v) “Subcontinent Asian...

  9. 48 CFR 952.233-4 - Notice of protest file availability.

    2010-10-01

    ... Accountability Office (GAO) in accordance with 4 CFR part 21, any actual or prospective offeror may request the Department of Energy to provide it with reasonable access to the protest file pursuant to 48 CFR 33.104(a)(3... prospective offerors in accordance with the requirements of 48 CFR 33.104(a)(3)(ii). The Department will...

  10. 45 CFR 233.107 - Restriction in payment to households headed by a minor parent.

    2010-10-01

    ... supportive living arrangement in order to receive, AFDC unless: (1) The minor parent has no living parent or... or the parent's having made application for AFDC; (4) The physical or emotional health or safety of... guardian, or other adult relative, or in an adult-supervised supportive living arrangement, then AFDC...

  11. 233U Breeding in a Modified Prometheus-L IFE Reactor

    Übeyli, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    In this study. neutronic analysis of a hybrid version of the PROMETHEUS-LIFE reactor is investigated by using thorium fuels namely, ThN, ThC2 and ThF4. Calculations of neutronic data per DT fusion neutron are performed by using SCALE 4.3 Code. Despite a partial replacement of the tritium breeding zone by the fissile fuel breeding zone, tritium breeding remains still >

  12. TINGKAT KANDUNGAN UNSUR RADIOAKTIF AIR SUNGAI AYUNG DI DENPASAR BALI

    Dewa Nyoman Alit Ardana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ayung river is one of the longest rivers in Bali. The upstream of the river is in regency of Bangli, Badung, Buleleng, Tabananand downstream is located in Padang Galak beach, East Denpasar Sub-regency. As the sample of the study, the water of the river wastaken from the stream entering the city of Denpasar. The sample was taken in five different points and for each point was taken twice. Thefirst was taken at 5 p.m, and the second was at 6 a.m. This study aims at finding out the rate of radioactive content of Ayung river water inthe city of Denpasar.The water sample was analyzed in Radiometry Analysis Group of Radiation Physics and environmental research centre andNuclear Technique Development, Jalan Taman Sari 71 Bandung – 40132. The process of counting was conducted in this place in order toknow the rate of the element activities and then identification of elements contens in the sample. The result of the counting and identifyingwas compered with standard grade of radioactivity in the area.The element of identification result and the amount of activity rate found showed that the element were natural radioactiveelements, the content: 40K (Kalium-40, 234Th (Thorium-234, 233Th (Thorium-233, 228Ac (Actinium-288, 114mIn (Indium-114m. Thehighest activity of radioactive elements in each sample point: in E2 point content element 40K with the activity 2.08 Bq/lt, in point A1 234Thwith the activity 16.34 Bq/lt, in point E1 containts 233Th with activity 598.29 Bq/lt, in point E1 and E2 contain 228Ac with the activity939.63 Bq/lt. The height of activity value of the counting and identifying elements was still under the rate of the highest level.The result of the study showed that radioactive elements 40K had the tendency of increasing radioactivity. The same thinghappened to 233Th at the peak of energi 185.00 keV. The content of its radioactive tends to exist in each point of sample point and theactivity tends to increase. Though the rate of

  13. Study on laser atomic spectroscopy

    Laser atomic spectroscopic study on actinium element has been performed in many areas of spectroscopy. The study on characteristic of atomic vapor has been proceeded for copper atom and the spatial density distribution of copper vapor is measured. This experimental data has been compared with the theoretically calculated data. In spectroscopic experiment, the first and second excited states for actinium element are identified and the most efficient ionization scheme for actinium element is identified. In addition, the corrosion problem for filament material due to the heating of the actinium element has been studied. (Author)

  14. Removal of actinium from europium for the determination of specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki

    Measurements of specific radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as 152Eu and 60Co have been carried out to check the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for the atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima (exposed to uranium bomb) and Nagasaki (exposed to plutonium bomb). The use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry, however, has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic-bomb and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic-bomb, and the chemical procedure has been successful for the materials exposed to atomic-bomb within 1400 m in slant distance from the explosion point. As for Nagasaki, materials exposed in the distances farther than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, determination of specific radioactivity of 152Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to Nagasaki atomic-bomb at a distant place from the explosion point was undertaken. But, because of radioactive decay during this ∝60 years since 1945 and long distance from the explosion point, the present specific radioactivity of 152Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be ∝3 x 10-4 Bq-152Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem is interferences from daughters of 227Ac (half-life: 21.8 y) in the measurement of ultra low-level radioactivity of 152Eu. Hence, our chemical procedure to obtain Eu-enriched counting source should be improved, and much attention is being denoted to removal of Ac from Eu. (orig.)

  15. Angular distribution and inertia parameters i Alpha-induced fission of 232Th, 233U, and 238U

    Rahimi Farhad M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the selected fission fragment angular distribution from alpha induced fission is made by using an exact theoretical expression. Theoretical anisotropics obtained with transition state modes are compared with their corresponding experimental values. The agreement between the calculated and experimental values is very good. The values of the statistical parameter K02 are used for calculation of the inertia parameters. The results indicate an increase in the moment of inertia.

  16. Reproductive phenology of 233 species from four herbaceous–shrubby communities in the Gran Sabana Plateau of Venezuela

    Ramírez, Nelson; Briceño, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Herbaceous–shrubby communities in the Gran Sabana (Great Savanna) Plateau of Venezuela grow under non-zonal conditions. We speculated that this would produce specific patterns of reproductive phenology within these different soil–climate–vegetation associations. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the reproductive phenology patterns of four herbaceous–shrubby communities are determined by climate, plant life-forms and soil properties. Methodology The reproductive p...

  17. Co-processing, catalytic reduction and remote controlled oxalate precipitation - a new route for 233U/Th MOX

    Reprocessing and recycling of fissile and fertile nuclides together without their individual separation is considered to be one of the few proliferation resistant approaches for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. The present paper explores the possibility of reducing the uranium to U4+ catalytically using H2 gas, co-precipitating both Th and U as oxalate and final conversion to oxide

  18. 78 FR 21969 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233...

    2013-04-12

    ... MMAA104000 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Authority: This NOA is...

  19. Analysis of thorium/U-233 lattices and cores in a breeder/burner heavy water reactor

    Due to the inevitable dwindling of uranium resources, advanced fuel cycles in the current generation of reactors stand to be of great benefit in the future. Heavy water moderated reactors have much potential to make use of thorium, a currently unexploited resource. Core fuelling configurations of a Heavy Water Reactor based on the self-sufficient thorium fuel cycle were simulated using the DRAGON and DONJON reactor physics codes. Three heterogeneously fuelled reactors and one homogeneously fuelled reactor were studied. (author)

  20. Aquastress D2.3.3 - Integrated water balance models for water stress adapted to test sites

    S. Schmidt; Rosso, P.; S. Loubier; Preziosi, E.; Tarnacki, K.; Van den Wyngaert, I.

    2008-01-01

    This report is based on the report Milestone 2.3-1 of the Aquastress project (Schmidt et al, 2005), which presented an inventory of examples of water balance models and gave a list of criteria to characterise hydrological models, and on the report Deliverable 2.3-1 of the Aquastress project (Schmidt et al, 2006), which describes the concept of the water balance model and the structure of the water stress assessment in the domestic, industrial, agricultural and (semi)natural ecosystem sectors....

  1. SU-E-J-233: Effect of Brachytherapy Seed Artifacts in T2 and Proton Density Maps in MR Images

    Purpose: This study aims at investigating the influence of brachytherapy seeds on T2 and proton density (PD) maps generated from MR images. Proton density maps can be used to extract water content. Since dose absorbed in tissue surrounding low energy brachytherapy seeds are highly influenced by tissue composition, knowing the water content is a first step towards implementing a heterogeneity correction algorithm using MR images. Methods: An LDR brachytherapy (IsoAid Advantage Pd-103) seed was placed in the middle of an agar-based gel phantom and imaged using a 3T Philips MR scanner with a 168-channel head coil. A multiple echo sequence with TE=20, 40, 60, 80, 100 (ms) with large repetition time (TR=6259ms) was used to extract T2 and PD maps. Results: Seed artifacts were considerably reduced on T2 maps compared to PD maps. The variation of PD around the mean was obtained as −97% to 125% (±1%) while for T2 it was recorded as −71% to 24% (±1%). Conclusion: PD maps which are required for heterogeneity corrections are susceptible to artifacts from seeds. Seed artifacts on T2 maps, however, are significantly reduced due to not being sensitive to B0 field variation

  2. Picosecond time evolution of photoexcitations at 2.33 eV in α-sexithyenil thin films

    Lanzani, G.; Danieli, R.; Muccini, M.; Taliani, C.

    1993-11-01

    Picosecond time dynamics of the isotropic as well as the anisotropic transient absorption saturation have been measured in an α-sexithyenil (T6) thin film at room temperature by photoinduced absorption and resonant Kerr-gate experiments. Strongly damped photoacoustical oscillations have been detected superimposed on the photobleaching signal, providing a way to evaluate the sound speed in T6 films along the normal to the substrate; VS~=16 Å/ps. A stretched exponential function has been used to describe the time recovery of the total photoexcited population yielding a time constant τ=3.5 ns with an exponent α=0.5. This is indicative of dispersive diffusion towards recombination centers via intermolecular hopping; the Kerr-gate transmission decay provides an estimate of the photoexcitation diffusion constant, namely, D=6×10-3 cm2/s.

  3. 2.33 长期卧床患者上消化道运动功能分析

    李延青; 韩炜; 卢雪峰; 李君曼; 李学会

    2001-01-01

    目的系统观察我院各科长期卧床患者上消化道运动及分泌功能的变化及转归,以更好的指导临床治疗.方法 1.观察组:长期卧床患者(卧床时间≥30天,且平卧时间≤20小时/日 )19例,均为我院ICU、神经内科、保健科、心内科、骨外科术后病人.其中男性12例、女性 7例,年龄17~67岁,平均年龄44.5岁.入院时均无消化系统症状和手术史,并排除糖尿病和甲亢等内分泌疾患.2.方法:采用Digitrapper MK Ⅲ 24h pH监测仪、BILITEC 2000 24 h胆汁测定仪、Digitrapper 24h胃电图仪(均为瑞典CTD-Synecties公司产品)于入院时分别测定患者上消化道运动和分泌状态.结果入院时:24h胃电图示主频2.99±0.41,其中正常节律占68.49%、胃动过速占10.83%、胃动过缓占20.67%.24h pH监测示24h pH<4的总次数(GERN)42±8. 91、pH<4的时间占监测的时间百分比(GERT%)1.8±0.76%、DeMeester评分9.8±4.23. 24h胆汁返流测定示返流(吸光值≥0.14)次数16.5±10.6、返流>5min次数4.2±3.2、返流总时间%6.9±4.5%.出院时:24h胃电图示主频1.93±0.38,其中正常节律占54.2 3%、胃运过速占4.46%、胃动过缓占41.30%.24h pH监测示GERN 78±13.22、GERT 4.8 1.56、dEmEESTERYGUHWV 18.2±4.22.24h胆汁返流测定示返流次数49.7±35.1、返流>5min次数7.1±4.2、返流总时间%22.9±15.6%.入院时与出院时比较,P<0.05 .结论长期卧床患者是住院病人中的特殊群体.本研究提示长期卧床后患者胃电节律变慢、酸和胆汁的返流量增多,而使病人渐感腹胀、返酸、口苦、纳差.对不能久坐的患者,我们发现半卧位(床头角度≥30度)可很好地防止返流症状的发生.

  4. Laparoskopi ved formodet appendicitis acuta. Erfaringer med de 233 første laparoskopier på en universitetsafdeling

    Pedersen, A G; Petersen, O B; Wara, P;

    1996-01-01

    assessed inflamed appendix, laparoscopic appendicectomy was attempted. One hundred and forty-eight proved successful, whereas 34 were converted to an open operation, mainly because of limited experience with the laparoscopic technique. Wound infection occurred in two and intraperitoneal abscess in four...

  5. 233 The Evaluation of Allergen Sensitivity in Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Allergic Asthma Patients in Antalya, Turkey

    Yalcin, Arzu Didem; Polat, Hasan Hüseyin; Kamaci, Fulya; Bisgin, Atil; Gorczynski, Reginald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem which has 2 forms; seasonal and perennial. The prevalence and etiology of allergic rhinitis varies from region to region and affect 10 to 20% of the population approximately. The prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic eye disease were detected as 8.2%, 10.8% and 7.5% respectively in Antalya, the south coast of Turkey. Methods The study was conducted in Antalya between 10th of November 2009 and 20th of September 2010. 866 o...

  6. 233 The Evaluation of Allergen Sensitivity in Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Allergic Asthma Patients in Antalya, Turkey

    Yalcin, Arzu Didem; Polat, Hasan Hüseyin; Kamaci, Fulya; Bisgin, Atil; Gorczynski, Reginald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem which has 2 forms; seasonal and perennial. The prevalence and etiology of allergic rhinitis varies from region to region and affect 10 to 20% of the population approximately. The prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic eye disease were detected as 8.2%, 10.8% and 7.5% respectively in Antalya, the south coast of Turkey. Methods The study was conducted in Antalya between 10th of November 2009 and 20th of September 2010. 866 of 2862 patients who had allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma were enrolled in the study due to having high total IgE levels in blood conducted at the Allergy-Immunology Division of Antalya Research and Training Hospital. Allergen-spesific subcutaneous immunotherapy was given 626 of 866 patients. Results Of the 866 patients studied, 66.1 % were females. Most of the cases had declaired that the rhinitis symptomes were due to pollens and house dust the second most common irritant. Also the cases have said that their symptoms got worse with exposure to dust, smoke, heavy odors, perfumes, and detergents. Most of the patients have said that air pollution was the most important factor that exacerbated the symptoms of rhinitis and asthma. While there is a comparison between the age and SPT positivity, Aspergillus fumigatus and Dpteronyssinus sensitivity was statistically different in the mites and fungal mixture dermal test groups. As a result, in the study group of 866 allergic rhinitis patients, only the Plantagolanceolata, Corylusavellana, Aspergillus fumigatus, Dpteronyssinus and cockroach sensitivity was significantly varies with the age. Conclusions In allergic diseases; we all know that allergens may have regional variations. That's why; the allergen profiles of the regions must be determined and the dermal Prick tests must be prepared accordingly. Mostly grass and cereal mixtures and mites are responsible from the allergic rhinitis cases due to our observations in our clinic. The other important allergens that are linked to the flora and climate of the region are olive and the cockroaches. High asthma prevalence in people living in shanties and in housewives may be due to exposure to house dust mites.

  7. SU-E-J-233: Effect of Brachytherapy Seed Artifacts in T2 and Proton Density Maps in MR Images

    Mashouf, S [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Dept of Radiation Oncology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fatemi-Ardekani, A [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Song, W [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Dept of Radiation Oncology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study aims at investigating the influence of brachytherapy seeds on T2 and proton density (PD) maps generated from MR images. Proton density maps can be used to extract water content. Since dose absorbed in tissue surrounding low energy brachytherapy seeds are highly influenced by tissue composition, knowing the water content is a first step towards implementing a heterogeneity correction algorithm using MR images. Methods: An LDR brachytherapy (IsoAid Advantage Pd-103) seed was placed in the middle of an agar-based gel phantom and imaged using a 3T Philips MR scanner with a 168-channel head coil. A multiple echo sequence with TE=20, 40, 60, 80, 100 (ms) with large repetition time (TR=6259ms) was used to extract T2 and PD maps. Results: Seed artifacts were considerably reduced on T2 maps compared to PD maps. The variation of PD around the mean was obtained as −97% to 125% (±1%) while for T2 it was recorded as −71% to 24% (±1%). Conclusion: PD maps which are required for heterogeneity corrections are susceptible to artifacts from seeds. Seed artifacts on T2 maps, however, are significantly reduced due to not being sensitive to B0 field variation.

  8. Termination of Safeguards on ULWBR Material

    Ivan R. Thomas; Ernest L. Laible

    2008-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management, has approved the disposition of 31 metric tons of Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (ULWBR) material in canisters stored within dry wells of the Underground Fuel Storage Facility at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). This unirradiated material consists primarily of ceramic pellets of thorium oxide in stainless steel cladding, but it also contains 300 kilograms of uranium that is 98 wt% U-233. The ULWBR material was not processed at the INTEC because it was incompatible with prior chemical separation schemes. Other economical recovery options have not been identified, and expressions of interest for consolidating the material with existing projects at other DOE sites have not been received. The U-233 could be used for producing the medical isotope Actinium-225, but the proof-of-principle demonstration and follow-on pilot program have not been developed to the point of requiring production quantities of U-233. Consequently, the selected disposition of the ULWBR material was burial as Low Level Waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which required terminating safeguards controls for the contained Category II quantity of Attractiveness Level D special nuclear material (SNM). The requested termination followed the twelve point evaluation criteria of the Historical Defense Program Discard Guidance and included a security analysis for evaluating the risks of theft, diversion, and radiological sabotage associated with the material. Continuity of knowledge in the book inventory was assured by documenting that the original shipper’s measurements accurately reflected the quantities of materials received and that the ULWBR materials had remained under adequate physical protection and had been subject to periodic physical inventories. The method selected for substantiating the book values as the basis for terminating safeguards was the nondestructive assay used during physical

  9. Generator method of 225Ac production without a carrier for nuclear medicine

    The two-steps isotope generator scheme of 225Ac production from 229Th has been developed. The first step is used for separation of thorium, actinium, radium and daughter decay products (DDP), and removals of parent radionuclide. The second step provides additional separation of actinium from traces of radium and DDP, and conversion of actinium in the nitrate form. The chosen solutions provide optimal conditions for carry out of process. The yield of the 225Ac was 99.9% at minimal losses of parent 229Th (less than 0.1%)

  10. Genetic mapping of a susceptibility locus for disc herniation and spastic paraplegia on 6q23.3-q24.1

    Zortea, M.; Vettori, A; Trevisan, C; Bellini, S.; Vazza, G.; Armani, M; Simonati, A; Mostacciuolo, M

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that a genetic factor(s) or a familial predisposition may contribute to the clinical manifestations of disc herniation; moreover, no genetic linkage between spinal disc herniation and spastic paraplegia has ever been described.

  11. Dynamic analysis of muscular lymphokinetic activities in the treatment of lymphedema of the upper limbs - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p233

    Maria de Fátima Guerreiro Godoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the resting and working pressures associated to a restrain mechanism, in patients suffering from lymphedema of the upper limbs, postbreast cancer treatment, whilst performing occupational and day-to-day self-care activities. Six female patients under treatment of lymphedema due to surgical, radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer, in the age group between 32 and 76 years (mean 54 years old, ± 31.11 were selected. A compression sleeve of “gorgurão” (cotton-polyester material was applied as a restrain mechanism. The occupational and daily personal care activities evaluated were those common to all participants. These activities included washingup, cooking in a small pan, sweeping the floor using the affected arm, brushing the teeth, brushing the hair, washing small items of clothes, ironing clothes and making the bed. For statistical analysis, mean and standard deviation between resting pressures and minimum and maximum working pressures were determined. The two-tailed student t-test and variance analysis were used for repeated measurements. The Bonferroni limit was used in the analysis of the variables to calculate the alpha error, with a value of 5%, considered statistically significant. All of the analyzed activities associated to the “gorgurão” compression sleeve generated both resting and working pressures (p <0.005. In conclusion, the occupational daily life tasks used in the present study generate resting and working pressures and can be used as a form of treatment of the lymphedema.

  12. 8 CFR 233.6 - Aliens entering Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of...

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aliens entering Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of Public Law 110-229, âConsolidated Natural... of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of Public Law 110-229, “Consolidated...

  13. Measurement of the Ratio of Fissions in U238 to Fissions in U233 Using 1.60 Mev Gamma Rays of the Fission Product La140

    This paper describes a method for measuring δ28, the ratios of fissions in U238 to fissions in U235. The method was developed as a part of the D2O lattice programme at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) ; however, it can be used for measurements in any thermal reactor of natural or slightly enriched uranium. The fast fission factor in uranium cannot be measured directly. It is, however, related to δ28 which can be measured: ϵ =1 + Cδ28 , where C is a constant involving nuclear properties of U238 and U235: Previous methods of measuring δ28 utilize a comparison of fission-product gamma or beta activity in foils of differing U235 concentration irradiated within a fuel rod in the lattice. A double fission chamber is then used to relate the U238 and U235 fission product activity to the ratio of the corresponding fission rates. Most of the experimental uncertainty associated with the measurement of δ28 a is generally attributed to the fission chamber calibration. The method developed at MIT avoids the need for a fission chamber calibration and is accomplished directly with foils irradiated within a fuel rod in the lattice. Two foils of differing U235 concentration are irradiated and allowed to cool for at least a week. The relative activity of the 1.60 MeV gamma ray of the fission product La140 is determined for the two foils. This ratio, the foil weights and atomic densities, and the ratio of fission yields β25/β28 for La140 are then used to determine δ28. This value of δ28 is used to calibrate simpler measurements in which the relative gamma activity above 0.72 MeV is determined for sets of foils irradiated in fuel rods of the lattices of interest. The energy 0.72 MeV is a convenient discrimination level, as it is the maximum energy of Bremsstrahlung from 2.3-d Np239. This method appears to offer the advantages of direct measurement and increased accuracy (the major uncertainty being the ratio of β25/β28 La140). In addition, the results can be improved as better fission product yield ratio data become available, and the method facilitates comparison of δ28 values obtained by different laboratories. (author). (author)

  14. Influence of Sample Preparation on Assay of Functional Phenolic Phytochemicals (American Chemical Society, 233rd National Meeting & Exposition, March 25-29, 2007, Chicago, IL)

    Phenolics are one of the most diverse groups of phytochemicals that are ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. Phenolic phytochemicals are known to exhibit a wide range of health protective effects. Approximately 8000 different phenolics compounds have been isolated from natural re...

  15. Crystal structure of [1,1':3',1''-ter-phenyl]-2',3,3''-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid.

    Decato, Daniel A; Berryman, Orion B

    2015-09-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C21H14O6, com-prises two symmetrically independent mol-ecules that form a locally centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonded dimer, with the planes of the corresponding carb-oxy-lic acid groups rotated by 15.8 (1) and 17.5 (1)° relative to those of the adjacent benzene rings. The crystal as a whole, however, exhibits a noncentrosymmetric packing, described by the polar space group Pca21. The dimers form layers along the ab plane, being inter-connected by hydrogen bonds involving the remaining carb-oxy-lic acid groups. The plane of the central carb-oxy-lic acid group forms dihedral angles of 62.5 (1) and 63.0 (1)° with those of the adjacent benzene rings and functions as a hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor. As a donor, it inter-connects adjacent layers, while as an acceptor it stabilizes the packing within the layers. The 'distal' carb-oxy-lic acid groups are nearly coplanar with the planes of the adjacent benzene rings, forming dihedral angles of 1.8 (1) and 7.1 (1)°. These groups also form intra- and inter-layer hydrogen bonds, but with 'reversed' functionality, as compared with the central carb-oxy-lic acid groups. PMID:26396894

  16. catena-Poly[[[aqua[3-(3-hydroxyphenylprop-2-enoato]samarium(III]-bis[μ2-3-(3-hydroxyphenylprop-2-enoato

    Yi-Hang Wen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The title SmIII compound, {[Sm(C9H7O33(H2O]·H2O}n, was obtained under hydrothermal conditions. Its structure is isotypic with the analogous Eu complex. The latter was reported incorrectly in space group P1 by Yan et al. [J. Mol. Struct. (2008, 891, 298–304]. This was corrected by Marsh [Acta Cryst. B65, 782–783] to P-1. The SmIII ion is nine-coordinated by O atoms from one coordinating water molecule and the remaining ones from the 3-(3-hydroxyphenylprop-2-enoatate anions (one bidentate, two bidentate and bridging, two monodentate bridging, leading to a distorted tricapped trigonal–prismatic coordination polyhedron surrounded by solvent water molecules. In the crystal, extensive intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid separation = 3.9393 (1 Å] lead to the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  17. Radiochemical method for the simultaneous determination of 233U, 236U, 237Np, 236Pu, 238Pu, and 239Pu in biological materials

    A radiochemical method has been developed for the determination of multiple isotopes of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium in biological materials. The elements are separated from the other sample constituents and from each other by anion exchange in halide media. Their recoveries are monitored by isotopic diluents. The amounts of the analyte and diluent isotopes of each element are measured alpha spectrometrically. The interelemental separation factors are generally greater than 102, and the recovery of each element ranges from 60% to 90%. 4 references, 1 table

  18. Systematic study of the fusion barriers for helium projectile fusing with targets in the mass range 12 ≤ A ≤ 233

    Nuclear physics deals with the study of structure of nuclei as well as interactions among these nuclei and their nucleons. This study is quite helpful in the formation of super-heavy elements, which are synthesized either by cold fusion reactions or by hot fusion reactions. Fusion barriers play significant role in deciding the fate of a fusion reaction. These fusion barriers can be derived from the total interaction potential, which is sum of attractive nuclear potential and repulsive Coulomb potential. Our aim is to give pocket formulae, which can be used to directly estimate the barrier parameters. With this aim in our mind, we parameterize the fusion barriers for helium induced reactions using various proximity potentials

  19. A genome-wide association study identifies colorectal cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 10p14 and 8q23.3

    Tomlinson, I.P.M.; Webb, E.; Carvajal-Carmona, L.; Broderick, P.; Howarth, K.; Pittman, A.M.; Spain, S.; Lubbe, S.; Walter, A.; Sullivan, K.; Jaeger, E.; Fielding, S.; Rowan, A.; Vijayakrishnan, J.; Domingo, E.; Chandler, I.; Kemp, Z.; Qureshi, M.; Farrington, S.M.; Tenesa, A.; Prendergast, J.G.D.; Barnetson, R.A.; Penegar, S.; Barclay, E.; Wood, W.; Martin, L.; Gorman, M.; Thomas, H.; Peto, J.; Bishop, D.T.; Gray, R.; Maher, E.R.; Lucassen, A.; Kerr, D.; Evans, D.G.R.; Schafmayer, C.; Buch, S.; Völzke, H.; Hampe, J.; Schreber, S.; John, U.; Koessler, T.; Pharoah, P.; van Wezel, T.; Morreau, H.; Wijnen, J.T.; Hopper, J.L.; Southey, M.C.; Giles, G.G.; Severi, G.; Castellví-Bel, S.; Ruiz-Ponte, C.; Carracedo, A.; Castells, A.; Försti, A.; Hemminki, K.; Vodička, Pavel; Naccarati, Alessio; Lipton, L.; Ho, J.W.C.; Cheng, K.K.; Sham, P.C.; Luk, J.; Agúndez, J.A.G.; Ladero, J.M.; de la Hoya, M.; Caldés, T.; Niittymäki, I.; Tuupanene, S.; Karhu, A.; Aaltonen, L.; Cazier, J.B.; Campbell, H.; Dunlop, M.G.; Houlston, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 5 (2008), s. 623-630. ISSN 1061-4036 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Colorectal cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 30.259, year: 2008

  20. Capacity study of sorption of radionuclides 137{sup C}s, 233{sup U}, 75{sup S}e and 60{sup C}o in concrete and mortar; Estudio de la capacidad de sorcion de los radionucleidos 137{sup C}s, 233{sup U}, 75{sup S}e y 60{sup C}o en hormign y mortero

    Rojo, H.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Missana, T.; Mingarro, M.; Alonso, U.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.; Lopez, T.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we consider and mortar similar in composition to those used in the storage of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level of the Cabril (Cordoba) and presents the results of tests of selected radionuclides sorption.

  1. 78 FR 64175 - Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Further Continuing Appropriations...

    2013-10-28

    ... agreements. 233.14 Arbitration. 233.15 Notice. 233.16 Governing Law. Appendix A to Part 233--Application for... Payment and Further Guaranteed Payments, in each case from the date of default with respect to such... mail at the address set forth in the Note Register. ] Sec. 233.16 Governing Law. This Guarantee...

  2. I. The metabolic properties of plutonium and allied materials

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1948-05-24

    This report on the metabolic properties of plutonium and related radioactive materials presents experimental information in the following areas: radioautographic studies; tracer studies (with tables of accumulation in tissues) of actinium, radio-zirconium, technetium, radio-rubidium, radio-germanium, beryllium, and cadmium; decontamination and bone metabolism studies; and radio-chemical isolation.

  3. 1H NMR relaxometry and quadrupole relaxation enhancement as a sensitive probe of dynamical properties of solids—[C(NH2)3]3Bi2I9 as an example

    Florek-Wojciechowska, M.; Wojciechowski, M.; Jakubas, R.; Brym, Sz.; Kruk, D.

    2016-02-01

    1H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry has been applied to reveal information on dynamics and structure of Gu3Bi2I9 ([Gu = C(NH2)3] denotes guanidinium cation). The data have been analyzed in terms of a theory of quadrupole relaxation enhancement, which has been extended here by including effects associated with quadrupole (14N) spin relaxation caused by a fast fluctuating component of the electric field gradient tensor. Two motional processes have been identified: a slow one occurring on a timescale of about 8 × 10-6 s which has turned out to be (almost) temperature independent, and a fast process in the range of 10-9 s. From the 1H-14N relaxation contribution (that shows "quadrupole peaks") the quadrupole parameters, which are a fingerprint of the arrangement of the anionic network, have been determined. It has been demonstrated that the magnitude of the quadrupole coupling considerably changes with temperature and the changes are not caused by phase transitions. At the same time, it has been shown that there is no evidence of abrupt changes in the cationic dynamics and the anionic substructure upon the phase transitions.

  4. (1)H NMR relaxometry and quadrupole relaxation enhancement as a sensitive probe of dynamical properties of solids--[C(NH2)3]3Bi2I9 as an example.

    Florek-Wojciechowska, M; Wojciechowski, M; Jakubas, R; Brym, Sz; Kruk, D

    2016-02-01

    (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry has been applied to reveal information on dynamics and structure of Gu3Bi2I9 ([Gu = C(NH2)3] denotes guanidinium cation). The data have been analyzed in terms of a theory of quadrupole relaxation enhancement, which has been extended here by including effects associated with quadrupole ((14)N) spin relaxation caused by a fast fluctuating component of the electric field gradient tensor. Two motional processes have been identified: a slow one occurring on a timescale of about 8 × 10(-6) s which has turned out to be (almost) temperature independent, and a fast process in the range of 10(-9) s. From the (1)H-(14)N relaxation contribution (that shows "quadrupole peaks") the quadrupole parameters, which are a fingerprint of the arrangement of the anionic network, have been determined. It has been demonstrated that the magnitude of the quadrupole coupling considerably changes with temperature and the changes are not caused by phase transitions. At the same time, it has been shown that there is no evidence of abrupt changes in the cationic dynamics and the anionic substructure upon the phase transitions. PMID:26851925

  5. 1H NMR relaxometry and quadrupole relaxation enhancement as a sensitive probe of dynamical properties of solids—[C(NH2)3]3Bi2I9 as an example

    1H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry has been applied to reveal information on dynamics and structure of Gu3Bi2I9 ([Gu = C(NH2)3] denotes guanidinium cation). The data have been analyzed in terms of a theory of quadrupole relaxation enhancement, which has been extended here by including effects associated with quadrupole (14N) spin relaxation caused by a fast fluctuating component of the electric field gradient tensor. Two motional processes have been identified: a slow one occurring on a timescale of about 8 × 10−6 s which has turned out to be (almost) temperature independent, and a fast process in the range of 10−9 s. From the 1H-14N relaxation contribution (that shows “quadrupole peaks”) the quadrupole parameters, which are a fingerprint of the arrangement of the anionic network, have been determined. It has been demonstrated that the magnitude of the quadrupole coupling considerably changes with temperature and the changes are not caused by phase transitions. At the same time, it has been shown that there is no evidence of abrupt changes in the cationic dynamics and the anionic substructure upon the phase transitions

  6. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: fabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing uranium-233 and thorium

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model High-Temperature Gas-Cooled (HTGR) fuel fabrication plants and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term ''as low as reasonably achievable'' as it applies to these nuclear facilities. The base cases of the two model plants, a fresh fuel fabrication plant and a refabrication plant, are representative of current proposed commercial designs or are based on technology that is being developed to fabricate uranium, thorium, and graphite into fuel elements. The annual capacities of the fresh fuel plant and the refabrication plant are 450 and 245 metric tons of heavy metal (where heavy metal is uranium plus thorium), as charged to about fifty 1000-MW(e) HTGRs. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plants in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The capital and annual costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding reductions in dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, the cost/benefit of each case, calculated as additional cost of radwaste system divided by the reduction in dose commitment, is tabulated or the dose commitment is plotted with cost as the variable. The status of each of the radwaste treatment methods is discussed. 48 figures, 74 tables

  7. E. La Stella, Dizionario storico di deonomastica. Vocaboli derivati da nomi propri, con le corrispondenti forme francesi, inglesi, spagnole e tedesche, Firenze, Leo S. Olschki Editore, 1984, pp. 233, s.i.p.

    Renato Gendre

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La pietra miliare nello studio dei vocaboli romanzi di derivazione onomastica - con particolare riguardo all'Italia e alla Francia - resta Dal nome proprio al nome comune di Bruno Migliorini. E' chiaro però, che l'esigenza di un aggiornamento di questo lavoro, pur bello e per tanti aspetti insuperabile, era sentita dagli studiosi dopo oltre mezzo secolo dalla pubblicazione, nonostante il Supplementoaggiunto dall 'Autore stesso nella 'ristampa fotostatica' del volume.

  8. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing U-233 and thorium

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel reprocessing plant and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in defining the term as low as reasonably achievable as it applies to this nuclear facility. The base case is representative of conceptual, developing technology of head-end graphite-burning operations and of extensions of solvent-extraction technology of current designs for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing plants. The model plant has an annual capacity of 450 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM, where heavy metal is uranium plus thorium), as charged to about fifty 1000-MW(e) HTGRs. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The capital and annual costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding reductions in dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, the cost/benefit of each case, calculated as additional cost of radwaste system divided by the reduction in dose commitment, is tabulated or the dose commitment is plotted with cost as the variable. The status of each of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed

  9. Health hazard evaluation report No. HHE-80-233-793, Davis Bessie Nuclear Power Station, Toledo Edison Company, United Engineers and Contractors Company (UE and C), Oak Harbor, Ohio

    Cone, J.; Hartle, R.

    1981-01-01

    Personal air samples were analyzed and employees were given medical evaluations at Davis Bessie Nuclear Power Station (SIC-4911) in Oak Harbor, Ohio. Requests for evaluation were made by a union representative of the United Engineers and Contractors and a union representative of employees of Toledo Edison Company, working on site at the power station, to evaluate employee skin and scalp problems due to exposure to ceramic wood fibers. Preliminary surveys were conducted on September 24 and 25, 1980 and a follow-up survey was performed on October 16, 1980. Environmental evaluation consisted of gravimetric analyses of personal air samples for airborne ceramic wool fibers. A total of 400 production and maintenance workers and varying numbers of construction workers were exposed to the fibers during installation of insulation which was completed at the time of the survey. The three personal air samples showed no accumulation of particulates and fibers detected were nonrespirable. Medical evaluations were conducted in 52 workers and scalp scrapings were obtained from 43 workers. Thirty seven workers had histories suggestive of irritant dermatitis of the scalp; 24 workers had physical findings consistent with the diagnosis. Of the 43 scalp samples, 18 were contaminated with organisms of the gut, perineum, skin or respiratory tract. Dermatitis was directly related to the history of dust exposure. The authors conclude that a potential health hazard exists for employees from exposure to ceramic wool fiber. Recommendations include provision of handwashing facilities and protective clothing for employees, and installation of an impermeable covering for the ceramic wool fiber.

  10. DE MIGUEL GONZÁLEZ, R. y DONERT, K. (EDITORES (2014 Innovative Learning Geography in Europe: New Challenges for the 21st Century. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 233 pp. ISBN (13: 978-1-4438-5508-2.

    María Luisa Gómez Ruiz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available   Este libro editado por los profesores Rafael de Miguel y Karl Donert muestra un gran abanico de posibilidades para aprender geografía desarrollando métodos y técnicas innovadoras propias de las oportunidades que ofrece el siglo XXI. El alcance de todas ellas es cada vez más amplio gracias a las nuevas y emergentes tecnologías que favorecen cada vez más el acceso a la información geográfica o geoinformación y a los recursos geo-media. 

  11. (S-4-[(3aR,4S,7aR-4-Methoxy-6-methyl-3-methylene-2-oxo-2,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydrobenzofuran-5-yl]pentyl Acetate

    Xin Guo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new etherified 1-O-acetylbritannilactone (ABL analogue 2 was semi-synthesized by a mild etherification reaction. The structure of the newly synthesized analogue was identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis. 2 exhibited similar cytotoxicity against HCT116, SGC-7901 and HeLa human cancer cell lines with ABL.

  12. JUAN M. LOPE BLANCH. El habla de Diego de Ordaz. Contribución a la historia del español americano. México, UNAM. 1985. 233 p.

    J. L. R.

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Este libro reúne los trabajos publicados por Lope Blanch en revistas especializadas y homenajes académicos acerca del idiolecto de este importante americano nacido en tierras leonesas hacia 1480, colonizador de las Antillas, expedicionario a Tierra Firme y a Cuba, conquistador de México y explorador del Orinoco. La base documental está constituida por siete cartas autógrafasque L.B. publica al final del libro en una cuidadosa transcripción que corrige defectos de una edición anterior.

  13. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing U-233 and thorium

    Davis, W. Jr.; Blanco, R.E.; Finney, B.C.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-05-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel reprocessing plant and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in defining the term as low as reasonably achievable as it applies to this nuclear facility. The base case is representative of conceptual, developing technology of head-end graphite-burning operations and of extensions of solvent-extraction technology of current designs for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing plants. The model plant has an annual capacity of 450 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM, where heavy metal is uranium plus thorium), as charged to about fifty 1000-MW(e) HTGRs. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The capital and annual costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding reductions in dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, the cost/benefit of each case, calculated as additional cost of radwaste system divided by the reduction in dose commitment, is tabulated or the dose commitment is plotted with cost as the variable. The status of each of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed.

  14. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: fabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing uranium-233 and thorium

    Roddy, J.W.; Blanco, R.E.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Seagren, R.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-06-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model High-Temperature Gas-Cooled (HTGR) fuel fabrication plants and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term ''as low as reasonably achievable'' as it applies to these nuclear facilities. The base cases of the two model plants, a fresh fuel fabrication plant and a refabrication plant, are representative of current proposed commercial designs or are based on technology that is being developed to fabricate uranium, thorium, and graphite into fuel elements. The annual capacities of the fresh fuel plant and the refabrication plant are 450 and 245 metric tons of heavy metal (where heavy metal is uranium plus thorium), as charged to about fifty 1000-MW(e) HTGRs. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plants in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The capital and annual costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding reductions in dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, the cost/benefit of each case, calculated as additional cost of radwaste system divided by the reduction in dose commitment, is tabulated or the dose commitment is plotted with cost as the variable. The status of each of the radwaste treatment methods is discussed. 48 figures, 74 tables.

  15. Sorption studies of radioelements on geological materials

    Batch sorption experiments have been carried out to study the sorption of uranium, technetium, curium, neptunium, actinium, protactinium, polonium, americium and plutonium onto bentonite, granodiorite and tuff. Mathematical modelling using the HARPHRQ program and the HATCHES database was carried out to predict the speciation of uranium and technetium in the equilibrated seawater, and neptunium, americium and plutonium in the rock equilibrated water. Review of the literature for thermodynamic data for curium, actinium, protactinium and polonium was carried out. Where sufficient data were available, predictions of the speciation and solubility were made. This report is a summary report of the experimental work conducted by AEA Technology during April 1991-March 1998, and the main results have been presented at Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings and published as proceedings of them. (author)

  16. Investigation for determining the retention properties of rock over the ASSE II mine for dissolved radionuclides

    For a model consideration of groundwater movement and the associated transport of dissolved substance in deep groundwater, the retention properties of the ASSE II mine for radionuclides dissolved in water were determined. A series of properties of rocks were examined and described for this purpose. Apart from the chemical, mineralogical and petrophysical characteristics of the rocks, the retention was determined by 3 different methods and stated in the form of distribution coefficients for specific elements. A comparison of the results of vibration and diffusion experiments gave good agreement, while the results in through column experiments only reached the same order of magnitude after an expensive determination with the aid of a place concentration distribution. The distribution coefficients for the elements carbon, selenium, strontium, technetium, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, proto-actinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium are listed and collected for model rock packages. (orig./HP)

  17. Sorption studies of radioelements on geological materials

    Berry, J. A; 油井 三和; 北村 暁

    2007-01-01

    Batch sorption experiments have been carried out to study the sorption of uranium, technetium, curium, neptunium, actinium, protactinium, polonium, americium and plutonium onto bentonite, granodiorite and tuff. Mathematical modelling using the HARPHRQ program and the HATCHES database was carried out to predict the speciation of uranium and technetium in the equilibrated seawater, and neptunium, americium and plutonium in the rock equilibrated water. Review of the literature for thermodynamic ...

  18. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Boiko R.S.; Barabash A.S.; Belli P.; Bernabei R.; Cappella F.; Cerulli R.; Danevich F.A.; Incicchitti A.; Laubenstein M.; Mokina V.M.; Nisi S.; Poda D.V.; Polischuk O.G.; Tretyak V.I.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search), 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β). The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical an...

  19. LASL experience in decontamination of the environment

    This discussion represents one part of a major effort in soil decontamination at the Los Alamos site. A contaminated industrial waste line in the Los Alamos townsite was removed, and a plutonium incineration facility, and a filter building contaminated with actinium-227 were dismantled. The former plutonium handling facility has been decontaminated, and canyons and an old firing site contaminated with strontium-90 have been surveyed

  20. Study of the origin of elements of the uranium-235 family observed in excess in the vicinity of the experimental nuclear EL4 reactor under dismantling. Lessons got at this day and conclusions; Etude de l'origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes en exces dans les environs du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement. Enseignements retires a ce jour et conclusion

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This study resumes the discovery of an excess of actinium 227 found around by EL4 nuclear reactor actually in dismantling. The search for the origin of this excess revealed a real inquiry of investigation during three years. Because a nuclear reactor existed in this area a particular attention will have concerned this region. The doubt became the line of conduct to find the answer to the human or natural origin of this excess. Finally and against any evidence, it appears that the origin of this phenomenon was natural, consequence of the particular local geology. The detail of the different investigations is given: search of a possible correlation with the composition of elevations constituent of lanes, search (and underlining) of new sites in the surroundings of the Rusquec pond and the Plouenez station, study of the atmospheric deposits under winds of the nuclear power plant and in the east direction, search of a possible relationship with the gaseous effluents of the nuclear power plant in the past, historical study of radioactive effluents releases in the fifty last years by the analysis of the sedimentary deposits in the Saint-Herbiot reservoir, search of a possible correlation between the excess of actinium 227 and the nuclear power plant activity; search of a possible correlation with a human activity without any relationship with the nuclear activities, search of a correlation with the underground waters, search of a correlation with the geological context, collect of information on the possible transfers in direction of the food chain, determination of the radiological composition of the underground waters ( not perturbed by human activity), search of the cause of an excess of actinium 227 in the old channel of liquid effluents release of the nuclear power plant. The results are given and discussed. And contrary to all expectations the origin of the excess of actinium 227 is completely natural. (N.C.)

  1. The discoveries of uranium 237 and symmetric fission — From the archival papers of Nishina and Kimura

    IKEDA, Nagao

    2011-01-01

    Shortly before the Second World War time, Nishina reported on a series of prominent nuclear physical and radiochemical studies in collaboration with Kimura. They artificially produced 231Th, a member of the natural actinium series of nuclides, by bombarding thorium with fast neutrons. This resulted in the discovery of 237U, a new isotope of uranium, by bombarding uranium with fast neutrons, and confirmed that 237U disintegrates into element 93 with a mass number of 237. They also identified t...

  2. History of the unraveling of the natural decay series

    Milestones in the subject of radioactivity, which were important to the unraveling of natural decay series, have been identified and described. The interplay between all these issues is very complex, and some aspects of the development of the uranium series is discussed as an example, the thorium and actinium series evolved in a similar way from research by many of the same people. All three series as understood in 1913 are compared with their present-day representation. (orig.)

  3. History of the unraveling of the natural decay series

    Milestones in the subject of radioactivity, which were important to the unraveling of natural decay series, have been identified and described. The interplay between all these issues is very complex, and some aspects of the development of the uranium series is discussed as an example, the thorium and actinium series evolved in a similar way from research by many of the same people. All three series as understood in 1913 are compared with their present-day representation. (author)

  4. System for recovery of daughter isotopes from a source material

    Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Lewis, Leroy C [Idaho Falls, ID; Henscheid, Joseph P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-04

    A method of separating isotopes from a mixture containing at least two isotopes in a solution is disclosed. A first isotope is precipitated and is collected from the solution. A daughter isotope is generated and collected from the first isotope. The invention includes a method of producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product from a material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232. A solution is formed containing nitric acid and the material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232, and iodate is added to form a thorium iodate precipitate. A supernatant is separated from the thorium iodate precipitate and a second volume of nitric acid is added to the thorium iodate precipitate. The thorium iodate precipitate is stored and a decay product comprising actinium-225 and bismuth-213 is generated in the second volume of nitric acid, which is then separated from the thorium iodate precipitate, filtered, and treated using at least one chromatographic procedure. A system for producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product is also disclosed.

  5. Behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water (Crouzille, Limousin). Geochemical implications

    Understanding natural radionuclides behaviour in surface water is a required step to achieve uranium mine rehabilitation and preserve water quality. The first objective of this thesis is to determine which are the radionuclides sources in a drinking water reservoir. The second objective is to improve the knowledge about the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides, especially actinium. The investigated site is a brook (Sagnes, Limousin, France) which floods a peat bog contaminated by a former uranium mine and which empties into the Crouzille lake. It allows studying radionuclides transport in surface water and radionuclides retention through organic substance or water reservoir. Radionuclides distribution in particulate, colloidal and dissolved phases is determined thanks to ultra-filtrations. Gamma spectrometry allows measuring almost all natural radionuclides with only two counting stages. However, low activities of 235U series radionuclides impose the use of very low background well-type Ge detectors, such as those of the Underground Laboratory of Modane (France). Firstly, this study shows that no or few radionuclides are released by the Sagnes peat bog, although its radioactivity is important. Secondly, it provides details on the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water. More specifically, it provides the first indications of actinium solubility in surface water. Actinium's behaviour is very close to uranium's even if it is a little less soluble. (author)

  6. AcEST: DK947833 [AcEST

    Full Text Available YMU02A01NGRM0001_E08 609 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRM0001_E08. 5' end seq ... ositives = 56/85 (65%) Frame = +2 Query: 233 HPSYFQMIS EAILALKERTGSSQIAITKFIEAKYKSVLPANFKKLLLVQLRXXXXXXXXX ... ositives = 52/86 (60%) Frame = +2 Query: 233 HPSYFQMIS EAILALKERTGSSQIAITKFIEAKYKSVLPANFKKLLLVQLRXXXXXXXXX ... 61%), Gaps = 4/84 (4%) Frame = +2 Query: 233 HPSYFQMIS EAILALKERTGSSQIAITKFIEAKYKSVLPANFKKLLLVQLRXXXXXXXXX ... ositives = 50/84 (59%) Frame = +2 Query: 233 HPSYFQMIS EAILALKERTGSSQIAITKFIEAKYKSVLPANFKKLLLVQLRXXXXXXXXX ...

  7. Canadian Healthcare Practitioners’ Access to Evidence Based Information Is Inequitable. A Review of: Chatterley, T., Storie, D., Chambers, T., Buckingham, J., Shiri, A., & Dorgan, M. (2012. Health information support provided by professional associations in Canada. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 29(3, 233-241.

    Maria Melssen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine what services and resources are available to health professionals through national Canadian and Alberta based health professional associations and licensing colleges and if those resources and services are being used. Also, to assess the associations’ perceptions of what resources and services Canadian health professionals actually need and if those needs are being met, membership satisfaction with the resources and services provided, and challenges the associations have with providing resources and services.Design – Structured telephone interview.Setting – Health professional associations and licensing colleges in Canada.Subjects – 23 health professional associations: 9 Alberta-based associations and 14 national-level professional associations and licensing colleges.Methods – A librarian, communications officer, or another individual in a comparable position at each association was invited via email to participate in the study. Individuals willing to participate in the interview were emailed the interview questions in advance. Telephone interviews were conducted in July and August of 2009. For those who did not respond to the email request or who did not wish to participate in the interviews, information was collected from the association’s website.Main Results – Of the 23 contacted associations 12 agreed to be interviewed: less than 50% response rate. Data was collected from websites of seven associations that either declined to be interviewed or did not respond to the authors’ email request. Data were unavailable for four associations due to data being in members only sections of the websites. Data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively.Resources and services provided by the associations and licensing colleges range from none to reference services provided by a librarian and access to licensed databases.None of the three licensing colleges or the two provincial associations interviewed maintains usage statistics or surveys their members. Nor do they grant access to licensed databases or offer information services, such as having a librarian or other information professional available to answer reference questions or to perform mediated literature searches. The two provincial associations and the three licensing colleges interviewed do supply information pertinent to health professionals, for example insurance information and funding.Seven national associations were interviewed: two permit access to databases developed by that association and three grant access to licensed databases such as Medline. All seven national associations provide access to journals (four of the seven only provide access to their own association’s journal and five offer information services. Four maintain usage statistics and five survey their members.Of the seven associations not interviewed, none grant access to licensed databases and one permits access to databases developed by that association. Five provide access to their own association’s journal and one provides book loans. Only one offers information services. Cost and the priority to provide resources to staff over members are barriers when trying to provide association members’ services and resources.Conclusion – Health professionals’ access to health information varies depending on the professional’s area of specialization, location in Canada, and particular association memberships. There is no consistency as to what health information is available to all health professionals in Canada, specifically Alberta. The majority of the associations do not provide resources and services, nor do they survey members to assess their usage, desires, needs, or satisfaction with resources and services. Usage rates are low for the associations that do track resource and service usage.A resource list of freely available online health information should be generated to mitigate existing disparities without accruing additional cost factors. Also, a partnership between hospital and academic libraries with various associations is needed to promote the usage of licensed and freely available resources accessible at institutions.This study has several limitations. The low response rate and excluding associations and licensing colleges in other provinces make this an incomplete assessment of all associations which provide resources and services to health professionals in Canada, specifically Alberta. To compensate for this deficit, the authors had collected information from seven associations’ websites; however, because much of the needed information was within members-only pages, some data may be missing. Due to the study’s limitations, further research is needed to better assess health professionals’ information needs and barriers to their use of available resources and services.

  8. meso-4,4'-Dimethoxy-2,2'-{[(3aR,7aS)- 2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-benzimidazole- 1,3-diyl]bis(methylene)}- diphenol

    Rivera, A.; Quiroga, D.; Ríos-Motta, J.; Kučeráková, Monika; Dušek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 7 (2013), o1057-o1058. ISSN 1600-5368 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : single-crystal X-ray study * T = 120 K * mean sigma(C–C) = 0.003 A * R factor = 0.031 * wR factor = 0.080 * data -to-parameter ratio = 13.0 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.347, year: 2011

  9. meso-4,4′-Difluoro-2,2′-{[(3aR,7aS-2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-1,3-benzimidazole-1,3-diyl]bis(methylene}diphenol

    Augusto Rivera

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C21H24F2N2O2, there are two intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds involving the N atoms of the imidazolidine ring and the hydroxy groups. The crystal studied was a meso compound obtained by the reaction of the aminal (2S,7R,11S,16R-1,8,10,17-tetraazapentacyclo[8.8.1.18,17.02,7.011,16]cosane with 4-fluorophenol. The imidazolidine ring has a twisted conformation with a CH—CH—N—CH2 torsion angle of 44.99 (14° and, surprisingly, the lone pairs of the N atoms are disposed in a syn isomerism, making the title compound an exception to the typical `rabbit-ear effect' in 1,2-diamines. In the crystal, molecules are linked via C—H...F hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the c-axis direction. These chains are linked via another C—H...F hydrogen bond, forming a three-dimensional network.

  10. 4,4′-Diiodo-2,2′-[(3aR,7aR-2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-1,3-benzimidazole-1,3-diylbis(methylene]diphenol

    Augusto Rivera

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C21H24I2N2O2, the two N atoms of the imidazolidine moiety are linked to the hydroxy groups by intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen-bonding interactions. The cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation and the heterocyclic ring to which it is fused has a twisted envelope conformation.

  11. The absolute total delayed neutron yields, relative abundances and half-lives of delayed neutron groups in 6- and 8-group model format from neutron induced fission of 232Th, 233U, 236U, 239Pu, and 241Am in the energy range from 0.35 MeV (or threshold energy) to 5 MeV

    The latest evaluation of delayed neutron constants was made for main fuel nuclides (235U, 238U, 239Pu) within an working group under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency’s (NEA) Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC), Subgroup 6 (SG6) in 1999 [1]. As a result of this work the total delayed yields for the above nuclides were essentially corrected as compared with Tuttle’s recommended data set [2]. For the total delayed yields from 238U correction is +5.6%, for thermal induced fission of 239Pu - +3.4% and for fast neutron induced fission of 239Pu - +3.2%. This is a direct indication that there is a need for a continuing effort on delayed neutron data improving. From now, this will be mainly directed at satisfying new requirements emerging from the current trends in reactor technology, such as: the use of high burn-up fuel, the burning of plutonium stocks, the general growing interest in fuel recycling strategies, and new concept of actinide burners

  12. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Educ ation, 2013, 5(3, 233-248. ISSN:1307 9298 Copyright © IEJEE www.iejee.com Relationship among Students’ Attitudes, Intentions and Behaviors towards the Inclusion of Peers with Disabilities, in Mainstream Physical Education Classes

    Evangelos BEBETSOS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Students’ attitudes, intentions and behaviours towards their peers with disabilities are important to their mutual co existence and development. The aim of this study was to investigate a whetherstudents’ attitudes and intentions towards their schoolmates with disabilities are related to their general and modified behavior in mainstream physical education classes, and b if the former variables could serve as predictors of the latter. The participants, 172 children without disabilities(Mage=11.15,SD=.70, completed the revised version of the Planned Behavior Theory questionnaire(PBT and the Children’s’ Attitudes towards Inclusion in Physical Education – Revised questionnaire(CAIPE R. Although results revealed several correlations among the variables under study, only general attitudes accounted for both general and modified behavior, and attitudes for modified behavior. These findings could assist in educating students to develop and perform appropriate behaviours towards their peers in order to facilitate their co existence, and their mutual developmentand learning.

  13. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Educ ation, 2013, 5(3), 233-248. ISSN:1307 9298 Copyright © IEJEE www.iejee.com Relationship among Students’ Attitudes, Intentions and Behaviors towards the Inclusion of Peers with Disabilities, in Mainstream Physical Education Classes

    Evangelos BEBETSOS; Derri , Vassiliki; Stratos ZAFEIRIADIS; Pavlos KYRGIRIDIS

    2013-01-01

    Students’ attitudes, intentions and behaviours towards their peers with disabilities are important to their mutual co existence and development. The aim of this study was to investigate a) whetherstudents’ attitudes and intentions towards their schoolmates with disabilities are related to their general and modified behavior in mainstream physical education classes, and b) if the former variables could serve as predictors of the latter. The participants, 172 children without disabilities(Mage=...

  14. meso-4,4′-Dimethoxy-2,2′-{[(3aR,7aS-2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-benzimidazole-1,3-diyl]bis(methylene}diphenol

    Augusto Rivera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C23H30N2O4, a di-Mannich base derived from 4-methoxyphenol and cis-1,2-diaminecyclohexane, has a perhydrobenzimidazolidine nucleus, in which the cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation and the heterocyclic ring has a half-chair conformation with a C—N—C—C torsion angles of −48.14 (15 and −14.57 (16°. The mean plane of the heterocycle makes dihedral angles of 86.29 (6 and 78.92 (6° with the pendant benzene rings. The molecular structure of the title compound shows the presence of two interactions between the N atoms of the imidazolidine ring and the hydroxyl groups through intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds with graph-set motif S(6. The unobserved lone pairs of the N atoms are presumed to be disposed in a syn conformation, being only the second example of an exception to the typical `rabbit-ears' effect in 1,2-diamines.

  15. Di-n-butyl 4,4´-dihydroxy-3,3´-{[(3aRS,7aRS )-2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H -1,3-benzimidazole-1,3-diyl]bis(methylene)}dibenzoate

    Rivera, A.; Quiroga, D.; Ríos-Motta, J.; Fejfarová, Karla; Dušek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 67, Part 9 (2011), o2297-u2304. ISSN 1600-5368 Grant ostatní: AVČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Mannich bases * crystal structure * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.347, year: 2011

  16. 4,4’-Dichloro-2,2’-[(3aR,7aR /3aS,7aS )-2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-1,3-benzimidazole-1,3-diyl)bis(methylene)]diphenol

    Rivera, A.; Quiroga, D.; Ríos-Motta, J.; Dušek, Michal; Fejfarová, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 66, Part 10 (2010), o2643/1-o2643/9. ISSN 1600-5368 Grant ostatní: AVČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : structure analysis * single-crystal x-ray diffraction * racemic twin * hydrogen bond Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.413, year: 2010

  17. A visibilidade e representação social das religiões nos selos postais brasileiros (The visibility and social representations of religions in Brazil postage stamps.DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n25p233

    Diego Andres Salcedo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este trabalho analisa a forma com a qual o selo postal brasileiro contribuiu para a construção de representações da religião católica em relação a outras práticas religiosas. Foi considerado, para isso, a concepção deste artefato enquanto media, texto semiótico e sua estreita relação com o discurso religioso. O corpus é composto por selos postais comemorativos brasileiros emitidos durante o século XX. A sua identificação e análise foi feita a partir do catálogo RHM. Entre o ano de 1900 e 2000, os Correios emitiram 2354 selos postais do tipo comemorativo. A partir da observação e identificação de recorrências religiosas foram compilados 222 selos postais comemorativos. O estudo correlacionou a recorrente temática religiosa com o contexto histórico brasileiro, considerando o declínio do catolicismo como maioria religiosa no país e às representações das práticas religiosas nas mídias. A conclusão indica a influência da Conferência Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil, junto ao Ministério das Comunicações e dos Correios do Brasil, consagrando e enaltecendo a visibilidade de personalidades, eventos e a práxis católica, como um discurso único e superior às demais práticas religiosas. Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Abstract This paper analyses the way in which postal Brazilian stamps have contributed to the construction of representations of the catholic religion regarding other religious practices. In this sense, the conception of these stamps was taken into account as media, semioptical texts in close relation with the religious speech. The corpus is composed by postal commemorative Brazilian stamps issued during the twentieth century. The identification and analyzes of the stamps were made through RHM catalogue.  Between the year of 1900 and 2000, the Brazilian post offices issued 2.354 commemorative postage stamps. From the observation and identification of religious recurrences 222 commemorative stamps were compiled. The study correlated the recurring religious theme with the historical Brazilian context, taking into account the decline of the Catholicism as the major religion in Brazil and also the representations of the religious practices in the media. The conclusion of this paper indicates the influence of the National Conference of the Bishops of Brazil regarding the Ministry of the Communications, establishing and enforcing the visibility of Brazilian personalities, events, and also of catholic practices taken as special and superior in comparison with other religious practices.Key-words: Brazil; Religion; Postage Stamps; Social Representation; Visibility.

  18. Methyl 5-ferrocenyl-5a-hydroxy-1-methyl-10-oxo-2,3,3a,4,5a,10-hexahydro-1H-indeno[1,2:2′,3′]furo[3′,4′-b]pyrrole-3a-carboxylate

    E. Theboral Sugi Kamala

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Fe(C5H5(C21H20NO5], the pyrrolidine and cyclopentanone rings exhibit a twist conformation. The pyrrolidine ring is almost perpendicular to the cyclopentanone ring, making a dihedral angle of 81.91 (6°. The molecular conformation is stabilized by an intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond and C—H...O interactions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular C—H...O interactions.

  19. meso-4,4´-Difluoro-2,2´-{[(3aR,7aS )-2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-1,3-benzimidazole-1,3-diyl]bis(methylene)}diphenol

    Rivera, A.; Quiroga, D.; Ríos-Motta, J.; Kučeráková, Monika; Dušek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 69, Part 2 (2013), "o217"-"sub-8". ISSN 1600-5368 Grant ostatní: AVČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : single- crystal X-ray study * T = 120 K * mean sigma(C–C) = 0.002 A * R factor = 0.030 * wR factor = 0.077 * data-to-parameter ratio = 12.7 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.347, year: 2011

  20. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  1. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO2 as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with 231Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise

  2. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  3. The identification of soil radionuclides in the area of Puspiptek and surrounding

    The area of PUSPIPTEK and the surrounding are potentially exposed by radionuclides, because the operation of the nuclear research plant. The PPTN Serpong was operated long than 10 years, therefore soil radioactivity need to evaluate. The determination of radioactivity in the soil samples which be taken from research location using gamma spectrometry on June-August. The result of the research identified natural radionuclides K-40; Thorium decay series Ac-228, Bi-212, Pb-212, Tl-208, Ra-224 and Rn-220; Uranium decay series Bi-214, Pa-234, Pb-214 and Actinium decay series Bi-211, Po-211. There are no identification radionuclides produce from the activation of PPTN Serpong

  4. Thorium and the Third Fuel

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    1970-01-01

    This booklet discusses energy sources for nuclear power plants. Uranium-235 by itself will not be able to handle the energy needs. The two man-made supplements that can be used for nuclear power plants energy sources are plutonium and uranium-233. Uranium-233 is an isotope that appears as a result of radioactive decay after neutrons have been absorbed in thorium-232. This uranium-233 is called the third fuel.

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the Sandia National Laboratories and surrounding area

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during March and April 1993. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey includes the areas covered by a previous survey in 1981. The results of the aerial survey show a background exposure rate which varies between 5 and 18 μR/h plus an approximate 6 μR/h contribution from cosmic rays. The major radioactive isotopes found in this survey were: potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228, which are all naturally-occurring isotopes, and cobalt-60, cesium-137, and excess amounts of thallium-208 and actinium-228, which are due to human actions in the survey area. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from this survey's gamma ray measurements agree almost exactly with the exposure rates inferred from the 1981 survey. In addition to the aerial measurements, another survey team conducted in situ and soil sample radiation measurements at three sites within the survey perimeter. These ground-based measurements agree with the aerial measurements within ± 5%

  6. Mixed valency of the RE and Ac ions in solid states

    Full text: This review is devoted to consideration of the methods and results of the theoretical and experimental investigations of the electronic state of the rare earths and actinium ions in the separate compound. The methods of the high resolution X ray spectroscopy were used for our consideration. Energy of the X ray lines of the rare earths and actinium ions in free state and solid states was study carefully. Valency shifts of X Ray lines under change of electronic state of nf - ions in different oxide, fluoride and chloride compounds were determined for K -, L- and M - lines for these ions with accuracy near 10 -100 MeV. We studied the electronic state of nf- ions which is changed from '+2' to '+4' and determined the concentration of ions in different electronic state. Relative error for theoretical energy of the most lines for HFP - approach in comparison with experiment is less than 0.5%, and deviation for concentration is less than 5%

  7. A study of uranium and thorium migration at the Koongarra uranium deposit with application to actinide transport from nuclear waste repositories

    One way to gain confidence in modelling possible radionuclide releases is to study natural systems which are similar to components of the multibarrier waste repository. Several such analogues are currently under study and these provide useful data about radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment. One such system is the Koongarra uranium deposit in the Northern Territory. In this dissertation, the migration of actinides, primarily uranium and thorium, has been studied as an analogue for the behaviour of transuranics in the far-field of a waste repository. The major findings of this study are: 1. the main process retarding uranium migration in the dispersion fan at Koongarra is sorption, which suppresses dissolved uranium concentrations well below solubility limits, with ferrihydrite being a major sorbing phase; 2. thorium is extremely immobile, with very low dissolved concentrations and corresponding high distribution ratios for 230Th. Overall, it is estimated that colloids are relatively unimportant in Koongarra groundwater. Uranium migrates mostly as dissolved species, whereas thorium and actinium are mostly adsorbed to larger, relatively immobile particles and the stationary phase. However, of the small amount of 230Th that passes through a 1μm filter, a significant proportion is associated with colloidal particles. Actinium appears to be slightly more mobile than thorium and is associated with colloids to a greater extent, although generally present in low concentrations. These results support the possibility of colloidal transport of trivalent and tetravalent actinides in the vicinity of a nuclear waste repository. 112 refs., 23 tabs., 32 figs

  8. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Boiko R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search, 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β. The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  9. The Technological Enhancement of Normally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Red Mud due to the Production of Alumina

    Maurice O. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the level of technological enhancement of normally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM in the red mud waste due to the production of alumina in Jamaica. Technological enhancements factors (TEF were determined for the uranium, thorium, actinium series, their progenies, and the nonseries potassium-40 using gamma spectrometry. The study concluded that bauxite production technologically enhances the uranium progenies Th-234, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pa-234 and the thorium-232 progenies Ac-228, Pb-212, and Bi-212 in red mud. The actinium series was technologically enhanced, but K-40 and the thorium daughter, Tl-208, were reduced. The spectrometric comparison of Tl-208 (at 510 keV was unexpected since its other photopeaks at 583 keV, 934 keV, and 968 keV were markedly different. An explanation for this anomaly is discussed. An explanation regarding the process of accumulation and fractionation of organically derived phosphate deposits and potassium-feldspar is offered to explain the spectrometric differences between the alumina product and its waste material, red mud.

  10. Low background counting of 222Rn, 220Rn and 219Rn with electrostatic counters

    Mong, Brian; EXO-200 Collaboration; nEXO Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. Supported by NSERC Project Grants ``Search for Double Beta Decay with EXO.''

  11. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Boiko, R. S.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search), 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β). The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides) was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  12. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature.

    Lisa A Waddell

    Full Text Available The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016 has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations 56.6% (132/233, pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis 38.2% (89/233 and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus 18.5% (43/233. There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233, surveillance for ZIKV (13/233, diagnostic tests (12/233 and transmission (10/233. Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233, of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233 used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health.

  13. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature

    2016-01-01

    The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations) 56.6% (132/233), pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis) 38.2% (89/233) and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus) 18.5% (43/233). There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233), surveillance for ZIKV (13/233), diagnostic tests (12/233) and transmission (10/233). Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233), of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233) used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health. PMID:27244249

  14. Program Management Educational Needs of Idaho Business and Marketing Teachers

    Kitchel, Allen; Cannon, John; Duncan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived program management professional development needs of Idaho secondary business/marketing teachers (N = 233) in order to guide pre-service curriculum development and in-service training activities. Sixty-two percent (n = 146) of the 233 teachers completed a modified version of Joerger's (2002)…

  15. Drug: D07806 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D07806 Drug Dexmethylphenidate (INN) C14H19NO2 233.1416 233.3062 D07806.gif Psychostimulant ATC ... OANALEPTICS N06B PSYCHOSTIMULANTS, AGENTS USED FOR ADHD ... AND NOOTROPICS N06BA Centrally acting sympathomime ...

  16. Summary and conclusions

    Rao, D.G.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Neprochnov, Y.P; Subrahmanyam, C.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_233.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_233.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  17. GETDB: 113556 [GETDB

    Full Text Available titute of Genetics. FM7c Link to clone table - 1 233 Link to cluster table 233 1 Request - CNS+PNS in stg 15. limited...nic Expression CNS+PNS in stg 15. limited to posterior midline in stg 10 bro. Larval GFP subset of PNS? two

  18. HORMONAL ACTIVITIES OF NOVEL BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS AND THEIR BIODEGRADATION BY WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Ezechiáš, Martin; Svobodová, Kateřina; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2012), s. 233-233. ISSN 1843-3707. [ Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology. 10.04.2012-12.04.2012, Bologna] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : white rot fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  19. 77 FR 73976 - Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests; Idaho; Crooked River Valley Rehabilitation Project

    2012-12-12

    ... project area. Maintain campsites in the project area. Preserve heritage resource areas as identified by.... The Forest may consider converting the ] existing Road 233 to a trail or completely decommissioning... may consider converting the existing Road 233 to a trail or completely decommissioning the road....

  20. Ecology of marine deposit feeders. Ed. by G. Lopez, C. Taghon and J. Levinton

    Royan, J

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Indian_J_Mar_Sci_19_233.pdf.txt stream_source_info Indian_J_Mar_Sci_19_233.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...