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Sample records for actinium 232

  1. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces ∼100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 GeV protons

  2. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  3. Extraction of actinium with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid from hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions

    The extraction of actinium with HDEHP from Cl- and NO3- systems has been investigated. It was found that extraction of actinium from HCl solutions is much better than from HNO3 solutions. Stability constants of actinium complexes Ac(X-)+2 with Cl- and NO3- ligands were determined. Our results show that the actinium formed less stable complexes with Cl- than with NO3- ligands. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  4. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results

  5. Thorium-232

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Thorium-232

  6. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  7. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  8. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  9. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development. PMID:22697483

  10. Radium, thorium, and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manganese-oxide-coated fiber

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency with which improved manganese-oxide-coated acrylic fibers extract radium, thorium, and actinium from seawater. Tests were made using surface seawater spiked with 227Ac, 227Th and 223Ra. For sample volumes of approximately 30 liters and flow rates up to 0.5 liters per minute, radium and actinium are removed quantitatively. Approximately 80-95% of the thorium is removed under these same conditions. (Auth.)

  11. Comment: 232 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Polysphondylium pallidum Polysphondylium pallidum Polysphondylium_pallidum_L.png 232.png Hideko ... of Tsukuba) licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan 写真 提供:漆原秀子 (筑波大学) Photograph provided by Hid ...

  12. RS-232 Led Board

    Tskhvaradze, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    This article demonstrates how to develop a Microchip PIC16F84 based device that supports RS-232 interface with PC. Circuit (LED Board) design and software development will be discussed. PicBasic Pro Compiler from microEngineering Labs, Inc. is used for PIC programming. Development of LED Board Control Console using C/C++ is also briefly discussed. The project requires basic work experience with Microchip PICs, serial communication and programming.

  13. Neutron-Induced Fission of Actinium-227, Protactinium-231 and Neptunium-237: Mass Distribution

    Results of radiochemical studies on the mass distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinium-227, protactinium-231 and neptunium-237 have been presented. This work has been carried out as part of a programme to determine the mass distribution in the fission of heavy elements as a function of Z and A. All irradiations have been carried out in the core of the swimming-pool type reactor APSARA with cadmium shielding wherever necessary. Relative yields of several fission product nuclides have been obtained by a method involving a comparison of the fission product activities from the respective targets with those formed from uranium-235 simultaneously irradiated. Thermal-neutron fission yields of uranium-235 have been assumed. These results indicate a predominantly asymmetric mass distribution in all the three cases, and also a distinct though small symmetric peak in the case of actinium-227. (author)

  14. A new method for the determination of low-level actinium-227 in geological samples

    We developed a new method for the determination of 227Ac in geological samples. The method uses extraction chromatographic techniques and alpha-spectrometry and is applicable for a range of natural matrices. Here we report on the procedure and results of the analysis of water (fresh and seawater) and rock samples. Water samples were acidified and rock samples underwent total dissolution via acid leaching. A DGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) extraction chromatographic column was used for the separation of actinium. The actinium fraction was prepared for alpha spectrometric measurement via cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. Recoveries of actinium in water samples were 80 ± 8 % (number of analyses n = 14) and in rock samples 70 ± 12 % (n = 30). The minimum detectable activities (MDA) were 0.017-0.5 Bq kg-1 for both matrices. Rock sample 227Ac activities ranged from 0.17 to 8.3 Bq kg-1 and water sample activities ranged from below MDA values to 14 Bq kg-1of 227Ac. From the analysis of several standard rock and water samples with the method we found very good agreement between our results and certified values. (author)

  15. 232Z Building seismic assessments

    The 232Z Building in the 200 West Area has no documented evidence of meeting the structural design requirements for withstanding seismic loadings. The 232Z Building was originally built in 1959. This concrete block structure is south of the 234-5Z Building. The 232Z Building (Incinerator and Leach Facility) start-up occurred in 1961, and the facility has been used for the extraction and recovery of plutonium from contaminated materials. A glovebox incinerator is located in the first floor process area, and was used to incinerate dry wastes from which radioactive materials were then recovered. The design calculations for the original building are not retrievable. The objective of this evaluation is to qualify the 232Z Building in it's current configuration for the appropriate seismic loads in accordance with the requirements of SDC 4.1. The structural capacities of the masonry walls and the reinforced concrete slabs and beams of the 232Z Building exceed the dead, live and seismic demand loadings. The building complies with the UBC seismic loading requirements for the 0.20 g maximum ground acceleration earthquake

  16. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  17. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  18. 232Th, a rigid rotor

    We undertake the present work to treat 232Th with a soft rotor formula used recently by C. Bihari et. al for γ-band and modified by J.B. Gupta et. al. It describes energy in terms of moment of inertia and softness parameter

  19. Calibration of 232U solution

    A method for as certain the activity by alpha spectroscopy with semiconductor detectors, of a solution of 232U is presented. It consists of the comparison with a 233U solution activity previously measured in a gridded ionization chamber of 2π geometry. The total measurement uncertainty is about + - 0,02. (Author) 9 refs

  20. Calibration of uranium 232 solution

    A method for acertainning the activity by alpha spectroscopy with semiconductor detectors, of a solution of Uranium-232 is presented. It consists of the comparison with a Uranium-233 solution activity previously measured in a gridded ionization chamber of 2 π geometry. The total measurement uncertainty is about +- 0,02. (Author)

  1. 48 CFR 232.616 - Compromise actions.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 232.616 Compromise actions. Only the department/agency contract financing offices (see 232.070(c)) are authorized...

  2. 7 CFR 58.232 - Milk.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.232 Section 58.232 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....232 Milk. Raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.138 and,...

  3. 24 CFR 232.3 - Bathroom.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bathroom. 232.3 Section 232.3... Eligibility Requirements § 232.3 Bathroom. Not less than one full bathroom must be provided for every four residents of a board and care home or assisted living facility, and bathroom access from any bedroom...

  4. 49 CFR 232.611 - Periodic maintenance.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic maintenance. 232.611 Section 232.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... maintenance. (a) In addition to the maintenance requirements contained in § 232.303(b) through (d), a...

  5. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  6. 48 CFR 1553.232 - Contract financing.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract financing. 1553.232 Section 1553.232 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1553.232 Contract financing....

  7. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS—towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm − 1 which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  8. 48 CFR 1852.232-70 - NASA modification of FAR 52.232-12.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA modification of FAR 52... Provisions and Clauses 1852.232-70 NASA modification of FAR 52.232-12. As prescribed at 1832.412-70, make the following modifications: NASA Modification of FAR 52.232-12, (MAR 1998) (a) Basic Clause. (1) In...

  9. 9 CFR 2.32 - Personnel qualifications.

    2010-01-01

    ... least the following areas: (1) Humane methods of animal maintenance and experimentation, including: (i... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel qualifications. 2.32 Section 2.32 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 48 CFR 232.7004 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Submission and Processing of Payment Requests and Receiving Reports 232.7004 Contract clause. Except as provided in 232.7002(a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause....

  11. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person desiring to bottle, package, or repackage taxpaid wines must, before carrying on those operations,...

  12. 10 CFR 600.232 - Equipment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment. 600.232 Section 600.232 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest upon acquisition in the grantee or...

  13. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  14. Dicty_cDB: SLB232 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLB232 (Link to dictyBase) - G22385 DDB0217102 Contig-U16083-1 SLB...232P (Link to Original site) SLB232F 620 SLB232Z 733 SLB232P 1353 - - Show SLB232 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLB...Contig-U16083-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLB2-B/SLB...232Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLB232P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLB232 (SLB232Q) /CSM/SL/SLB...2-B/SLB232Q.Seq.d/ ATATATTTAAAAATAATAAAATAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACTGTATTAAAAAAAAAAAAAA TTGTAGT

  15. History of 232-F, tritium extraction processing

    In 1950 the Atomic Energy Commission authorized the Savannah River Project principally for the production of tritium and plutonium-239 for use in thermonuclear weapons. 232-F was built as an interim facility in 1953--1954, at a cost of $3.9M. Tritium extraction operations began in October, 1955, after the reactor and separations startups. In July, 1957 a larger tritium facility began operation in 232-H. In 1958 the capacity of 232-H was doubled. Also, in 1957 a new task was assigned to Savannah River, the loading of tritium into reservoirs that would be actual components of thermonuclear weapons. This report describes the history of 232-F, the process for tritium extraction, and the lessons learned over the years that were eventually incorporated into the new Replacement Tritium Facility

  16. 48 CFR 232.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clauses. 232.1110 Section 232.1110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 232.1110 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. Use the clause at 252.232-7009,...

  17. Dicty_cDB: SLE232 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLE232 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16255-1 SLE232F (Link... to Original site) SLE232F 614 - - - - - - Show SLE232 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLE232 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16255-1 Original site URL http://dict...PSSGFTDFIPSNATCSSLNCNAQQMSCKYVQQACHETSCCPDIPQC QIPATGGGPATGSATGQGTSGGTPGSCDKVNCPNGYICTIVNQLAVCVSPSSSSSSSSST ...CHETSCCPDIPQC QIPATGGGPATGSATGQGTSGGTPGSCDKVNCPNGYICTIVNQLAVCVSPSSSSSSSSST TGSHTTTGGSTTGSHTTTGGSTTGSHTTTGGSA

  18. 49 CFR 232.203 - Training requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Inspection and Testing Requirements § 232.203 Training requirements. (a... refresher training, at an interval not to exceed three years, that includes classroom and “hands-on... to be equipped with a two-way end-of-train telemetry device pursuant to subpart E of this part,...

  19. 24 CFR 232.805 - Insurance premiums.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 232.805 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED...

  20. 24 CFR 232.885 - Insurance benefits.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance benefits. 232.885 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED...

  1. 43 CFR 17.232 - Postsecondary education.

    2010-10-01

    ... promulgated by the Department of Education at 34 CFR part 104, subpart E. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postsecondary education. 17.232 Section 17... Postsecondary education. This section applies to postsecondary education and activities, including...

  2. 48 CFR 232.202-4 - Security for Government financing.

    2010-10-01

    ... financing. 232.202-4 Section 232.202-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Commercial Item Purchase Financing 232.202-4 Security for Government financing. (a)(2) When determining whether an...

  3. 48 CFR 53.232 - Contract financing (SF 1443).

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract financing (SF 1443). 53.232 Section 53.232 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.232 Contract financing (SF 1443). SF 1443...

  4. 48 CFR 232.102 - Description of contract financing methods.

    2010-10-01

    ... financing methods. 232.102 Section 232.102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 232.102 Description of contract financing methods. (e)(2) Progress...

  5. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    A technique of selenium purification from 232Th, 238U, 226,228Ra, 227Ac and 40K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  6. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz); Warot, G. [CEA-CNRS, Modane (France). Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM); Karaivanov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), Sofia (Bulgaria); Kochetov, O.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Filosofov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Sadikov, I.I. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz)

    2013-07-01

    A technique of selenium purification from {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 227}Ac and {sup 40}K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  7. Benchmark testing calculations for 232Th

    The cross sections of 232Th from CNDC and JENDL-3.3 were processed with NJOY97.45 code in the ACE format for the continuous-energy Monte Carlo Code MCNP4C. The Keff values and central reaction rates based on CENDL-3.0, JENDL-3.3 and ENDF/B-6.2 were calculated using MCNP4C code for benchmark assembly, and the comparisons with experimental results are given. (author)

  8. Geometric objects in Blender 2.32

    Vigo Anglada, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this document is to explore the way that Blender 2.32 stores the information for modeling static scenes. First, the conceptual model the system uses to store geometric objects is explained, guiding the user to inspect it using the OOPS Schematic view. The data structures Blender uses for generic objects, geometric elements, materials and different kind of links between these entities are reviewed. Special emphasis is made for the case of meshes, and the main features of the mesh ed...

  9. Calibration of 232U solution; Calibracion de una disolucion de 232U

    Galan Valera, M. P.; Acena Berrenechea, M. L.

    1988-07-01

    A method for as certain the activity by alpha spectroscopy with semiconductor detectors, of a solution of 232U is presented. It consists of the comparison with a 233U solution activity previously measured in a gridded ionization chamber of 2{pi} geometry. The total measurement uncertainty is about + - 0,02. (Author) 9 refs.

  10. Neutron data evaluation of 232Th

    Consistent evaluation of 232Th measured data base is performed. Hauser-Feshbach- Moldauer theory, coupled channel model and double-humped fission barrier model are employed. Total, differential scattering, fission, capture and (n,xn) data are consistently reproduced as a major constraint for inelastic scattering cross section estimate. The direct excitation of ground state and higher band levels is calculated within rigid rotator and soft (deformable) rotator model, respectively. Structures evident in measured neutron emission spectra are correlated with excitation of levels of Kπ=0- and Kπ=0+, 2+ bands. Prompt fission neutron spectra data are described. Average resonance parameters are provided, which reproduce evaluated cross sections in the range of 10-150 kev. (author)

  11. Fission fragment angular momentum in the neutron induced fission of 232Th and 232U

    High spin fractions (HSF) of 130,132Sb and 131,133Te have been determined in the neutron induced fission of 232Th and 232U using off-line gamma ray spectrometric technique. From the HSF, fragment angular momenta (Jrms) were deduced using statistical model analysis. From the Jrms values, deformation parameter (β) were deduced and compared with the same in the even-even and odd-even fissioning systems to examine the effect of nuclear structure and the role of odd neutron spin. In all the fissioning systems the effect of shell closure proximity and odd-even effect on Jrms was clearly observed. However, the role of odd neutron spin was not seen in even-odd fissioning systems like the odd-proton spin effect in odd-odd fissioning systems. (author)

  12. 7 CFR 2.32 - Director, Office of Homeland Security.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Director, Office of Homeland Security. 2.32 Section 2... Agency Heads § 2.32 Director, Office of Homeland Security. (a) The following delegations of authority are made by the Secretary to the Director, Office of Homeland Security: (1) Administer the...

  13. 48 CFR 232.072-3 - Cash flow forecasts.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cash flow forecasts. 232.072-3 Section 232.072-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... liquidation of loans; and (8) Estimated amount and timing of cash receipt from other sources. (f)...

  14. 48 CFR 232.501-3 - Contract price.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract price. 232.501-3 Section 232.501-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... liquidation rate, or the loss-ratio adjusted rate); or (ii) 100 percent of the funds obligated....

  15. 48 CFR 552.232-25 - Prompt Payment.

    2010-10-01

    ... electronic commerce includes all the following elements: (i) The Contractor must receive and fulfill... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.232-25 Prompt... FAR 52.232-25) Notwithstanding any other payment clause in this contract, the Government will...

  16. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  17. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  18. USB and RS232 voltage datalogger

    Lorenzo Hernández Tabares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The design and construction of a PIC microcontroller based datalogger with USB 2.0 and RS232 interfaces is presented. The datalogger has one 0 to +10VDC analogue input, 10bits ADC, Real Time Clock, 4k sample room on the microcontroller’s program flash memory and an external DC power supply. This paper proposes a cheap variant to construct such device widely used in meteorological and environmental instrumentation among others. The prototype was attached to an Ultraviolet Photometric O3 Analyzer for recording the environmental (tropospheric ozone concentration in a control station at the Havana city. Key words: datalogger, USB, enviromental ozone

  19. Nuclear data evaluation for Th-232

    In this report the methods, the analysis, and the results of the main neutron nuclear data regarding 232Th are presented, and an evaluated file in ENDF/B-IV format covering the energy range between 10-5eV and 20 MeV is supplied. This file contains evaluated data for total, elastic, inelastic, radiative capture, fission, (n,2n) and (n,3n) cross sections. In addition, the elastic angular distributions, as Legendre coefficients, the average cosine of the scattering angle (laboratory system) (anti μsub(L)), and the average logarithmic energy decrement (xi) for elastic scattering, the prompt, delayed and total average numbers of neutrons per fission, as well as the decay data and the fission yields are included. The data are presented in appropriate forms accepted by the format, namely point-wise or parametric representation. Breit-Wigner Single Level formalism for resonance treatment, optical and coupled channel models for elastic processes and double humped fission model as well as evaporation model have been also used in the data analysis. The largest part of the data are based on experimental measurements, except (n,3n) cross section. The final evaluated data set was checked against format correctness and physical consistency. (author)

  20. Flux of 238U and 232Th in Changjiang estuary

    The study of fluxes of the U, Th of Changjiang River into the East China Sea and its adjacent waters is basic work to understanding of U, Th tracer theirselves and their corresponding biogeochemical cycles process in estuaries, coastal. By sampling in the Xuliujing (i.e. the interface between fresh water and sea water) every month, 200 L water was filtered through 0.45μm fabric cartridge to collect particle nuclides. The dissolved nuclides were co-precipitated using Fe(OH)3 and MnO2. The range of 238U activity in water is 2.30-10.32 Bq·m-3, with an average of 5.48±1.19 Bq·m-3; the activity of 232Th is 1.08-2.32 Bq·m-3, with an average of 1.75±0.29 Bq·m-3. Changjiang River conveyed 238U 4.06 x 1012Bq, 232Th 1.54 x 1012 Bq into the estuary every year. Further study of the seasonal variations 238U, 232Th input to the sea, indicating that: the activity of 238U and Changjiang River estuary water flux have a certain degree of negative correlation (R2=0.65, n=12); the main source of 232Th is the weathering of the river. The activity of 232Th is large on the spring and autumn because of strong weathering in Changjiang Basin comparison with other seasons. Compared with the other estuaries in the world, the flux of 238U and 232Th of the Changjiang River estuary is large because of its large fluxes of sediments and runoff in the world. (authors)

  1. 17 CFR 232.301 - EDGAR Filer Manual.

    2010-04-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You must comply with these... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false EDGAR Filer Manual. 232.301... Filer Manual. Filers must prepare electronic filings in the manner prescribed by the EDGAR Filer...

  2. Estimated Release of Tritium from 232-F Concrete Rubble

    This report describes an estimate of the release of tritium from contaminated concrete from the demolition of the old 232-F Tritium Facility at the Savannah River Site. The estimate uses data from the scientific literature and information about tritium migration in concrete developed during studies of tritium in concrete at SRS

  3. Benchmarking ~(232)Th Evaluations With KBR and Thor Experiments

    2011-01-01

    The n+232Th evaluations from CENDL-3.1, ENDF/B-Ⅶ.0, JENDL-3.3 and JENDL-4.0 were tested with KBR series and THOR benchmark from ICSBEP Handbook. THOR is Plutonium-Metal-Fast (PMF) criticality benchmark reflected with metal thorium.

  4. Dicty_cDB: VFK232 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFK232 (Link to dictyBase) - G20591 DDB0233870 Contig-U09528-1 | Contig-U10 ... qpygtstnhlllgyrwfqrp*hddgwqwwyvqhrvrvtlflmvliecpth crm *ld*y*srdiinfnsl*shcn*srsirctriig*ii*wwfttnlg*tfikw ...

  5. 46 CFR 232.6 - Financial report filing requirement.

    2010-10-01

    ... RELATED ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Income Statement § 232.6 Financial report filing requirement. (a) Reporting Frequency and Due Dates. The contractor shall file a semiannual... generally accepted accounting principles and modified to the extent necessary to comply with this...

  6. 48 CFR 232.606 - Debt determination and collection.

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 232.606 Debt determination and collection. When transferring a case to the contract financing office, follow... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Debt determination...

  7. 48 CFR 3452.232-72 - Method of payment.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of payment. 3452... 3452.232-72 Method of payment. As prescribed in 3432.170, insert the following clause in all solicitations and contracts: Method of Payment (AUG 1987) (a) Payments under this contract will be made...

  8. 48 CFR 232.007 - Contract financing payments.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract financing... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 232.007 Contract financing payments. (a) DoD policy is to make contract financing payments as quickly as possible....

  9. 17 CFR 232.12 - Business hours of the Commission.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours of the... REGULATION S-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS General § 232.12 Business hours of the... documents may be submitted by direct transmission, via dial-up modem or Internet, to the Commission each...

  10. Evaluation of 232Th for ENDF/B-V

    The evaluation of neutron and gamma ray production cross sections of 232Th from 10-5 eV to 20 MeV is described, and the parts contributed by the author to the evaluation are discussed. All available new data have been included and the procedures used to assess the experimental data and adopt recommended values are described

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHQ232 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHQ232 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16440-1 - (Link to Original site) ... pic herpesvirus 2... 33 3.8 (Q8TS91) RecName: Full=Imidazole ... glycerol phosphate synthase sub... 33 3.8 AY170314 ...

  12. 24 CFR 232.570 - Endorsement of credit instrument.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endorsement of credit instrument... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.570 Endorsement of credit instrument. The Commissioner shall indicate his insurance of the loan by endorsing the credit instrument...

  13. 40 CFR 180.232 - Butylate; tolerances for residues.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butylate; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.232 Butylate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the herbicide butylate in...

  14. Simulation calculation of 232U productions in thorium-uranium transform process based on thermal reactor

    The decay products of 232U produced in the thorium-uranium fuel cycle emit high energy γ-rays. This affects the fuel cycle greatly. In this paper, the 232U productions in thermal reactor using thorium fuel are analyzed by ORIGEN2, SCALE5 and the code based on the Bateman method. Under normal situation, 232U is mainly produced by 232Th (n, 2n) reaction chain, and more quantity of 230Th can be transformed into 232U while the neutron spectrum is softer. The burnup calculation of CANDU reactor and PWR assembly indicates that the 232U in uranium increase with the burnup, and 230Th in fresh thorium has linear correlation with 232U/Utotal or 232U/233U at discharge burnup. (authors)

  15. 48 CFR 552.232-77 - Payment By Government Charge Card.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment By Government Charge Card. 552.232-77 Section 552.232-77 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.232-77 Payment By Government Charge...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.232 - When must DOI respond to a request for reconsideration?

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When must DOI respond to a request for reconsideration? 1000.232 Section 1000.232 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.232 When must DOI respond to a request...

  17. 43 CFR 2.32 - How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal?

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal? 2.32 Section 2.32 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Appeals § 2.32 How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal?...

  18. 22 CFR 23.2 - Endorsing remittances for deposit in the Treasury.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endorsing remittances for deposit in the Treasury. 23.2 Section 23.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.2 Endorsing remittances for deposit in the Treasury. The Office of Finance—Cashier Unit,...

  19. 48 CFR 232.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 232.006 Section 232.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... FINANCING 232.006 Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  20. 48 CFR 232.605 - Responsibilities and cooperation among Government officials.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities and cooperation among Government officials. 232.605 Section 232.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Contract Debts 232.605 Responsibilities and cooperation among Government officials. (b) Disbursing...

  1. 48 CFR 232.670 - Transfer of responsibility for debt collection.

    2010-10-01

    ... for debt collection. 232.670 Section 232.670 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 232.670 Transfer of responsibility for debt collection. Follow the procedures at PGI...

  2. 48 CFR 232.610 - Demand for payment of contract debt.

    2010-10-01

    ... contract debt. 232.610 Section 232.610 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 232.610 Demand for payment of contract debt. When issuing a demand for payment of a contract...

  3. 48 CFR 52.232-31 - Invitation To Propose Financing Terms.

    2010-10-01

    ... Financing Terms. 52.232-31 Section 52.232-31 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.232-31 Invitation To Propose Financing Terms. As prescribed in 32.205(b) and 32.206, insert the following provision: Invitation To Propose Financing Terms (OCT 1995) (a) The offeror is invited to...

  4. 48 CFR 1552.232-74 - Payments-simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition procedures financing. 1552.232-74 Section 1552.232-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 1552.232-74 Payments—simplified acquisition procedures financing. As prescribed in... acquisition procedures financing. Payments—Simplified Acquisition Procedures Financing (JUN 2006)...

  5. 48 CFR 252.232-7011 - Payments in Support of Emergencies and Contingency Operations.

    2010-10-01

    ... Emergencies and Contingency Operations. 252.232-7011 Section 252.232-7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Emergencies and Contingency Operations. As prescribed in section 232.908, use the following clause: PAYMENTS IN SUPPORT OF EMERGENCIES AND CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS (JUL 2010) (a) Definitions of pertinent...

  6. 49 CFR 232.207 - Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection. 232... Class IA brake tests—1,000-mile inspection. (a) Except as provided in § 232.213, each train shall receive a Class IA brake test performed by a qualified person, as defined in § 232.5, at a location...

  7. 48 CFR 2452.232-70 - Payment schedule and invoice submission (fixed-price).

    2010-10-01

    ... invoice submission (fixed-price). 2452.232-70 Section 2452.232-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 2452.232-70 Payment schedule and invoice submission (fixed-price). As... solicitations and contracts: Payment Schedule and Invoice Submission (Fixed-Price) (FEB 2006) (a)...

  8. 48 CFR 652.232-70 - Payment Schedule and Invoice Submission (Fixed-Price).

    2010-10-01

    ... Invoice Submission (Fixed-Price). 652.232-70 Section 652.232-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 652.232-70 Payment Schedule and Invoice Submission (Fixed-Price). As prescribed in 632.908(a), the contracting officer may insert a clause substantially the same as follows: Payment Schedule and...

  9. 36 CFR 223.232 - Disclosure of relation to other bidders.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure of relation to other bidders. 223.232 Section 223.232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 223.232 Disclosure of relation to other bidders. The Forest Service may require any prospective...

  10. 17 CFR 232.101 - Mandated electronic submissions and exceptions.

    2010-04-01

    ....S.C. 78l(h)). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 232.101 see the List of CFR... (22 U.S.C. 282k(a)) and Part 289 of this chapter; and (vi) The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development under Section 9(a) of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Act (22 U.S.C....

  11. Fission of 232Th in a spallation neutron field

    Yurevich, V. I.; Nikolaev, V. A.; Yakovlev, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    The spatial distributions of thorium fission reaction rate in a spallation neutron field of thick lead target bombarded by protons or deuterons with energy between 1.0 and 3.7 GeV were measured. Approximately a linear dependence of the thorium fission rate on the beam energy is observed. The mean fission cross section of 232Th ≈ 123 mb and it does not depend on energy and type of the beam particles.

  12. Neutron capture of 232Th in the unresolved resonance region

    The thorium cycle was mentioned in the potential needs of nuclear data for Accelerator Driven Systems (Massimo Salvatores, CEA-DEN/DDIN Cadarache, ND2001, Tsukuba, Japan, J.Nucl.Sci.Tech., S.2, p.4, 2002). A 10% uncertainty on the Th(n,γ) data can produce a 30% uncertainty on the proton current requirement to operate an ADS at the sub-critical level of eff keff ∼0.97. The strong impact of the 232Th(n,γ) data on the performance and safe operation of such systems is also discussed. An analysis of the existing experimental data reveals that the status of the 232Th capture data is far from the requested 2% uncertainty level. Recently 232Th average capture measurements, between 5-200 keV neutron energy, were performed at the FzK Karlsruhe (DE) using a total absorption detector consisting of a BaF crystal ball with 97% efficiency installed at the 3.75 MeV Van de Graaff. The experiments were carried out with two metallic discs of 232Th 0.5 and 1.0 mm thick respectively. The FzK average capture cross-section was measured between 5 - 200 keV neutron energy and the cross-section uncertainties estimated as 2% above 20 keV and 4% at 5 keV. A comparison of these measurements with the ENDF/BVI data files shows a reasonable agreement in the neutron energy range above 15 keV. However, discrepancies of up to 40% at lower neutron energies are observed. The same order of discrepancies is observed when comparing the FzK results with the results obtained by Macklin et al. at ORELA. To clarify these discrepancies we measured at IRMM the average capture cross-section at the GEel LINear Accelerator (GELINA)

  13. Collection and evaluation of nuclear data of Th-232

    Present status of the requirement to and measurement and evaluation of the nuclear data of Th-232 is presented. The accuracy and energy range of the observed data at present are not enough to the demand from reactor engineering. The data of total cross-section are given in the energy range from 1.5 to 15 MeV from the data by Foster and Fasoli. The data by Uttley for the energy less than 1.5 MeV were accepted. Recently, Whalen and Kobayashi presented new data. Optical potential parameters were deduced. Re-normalization of the capture cross-sections of Th-232 was made on the basis of the evaluated values by Matsunobu and by Kanda. The values are a little smaller than the values in ENDF/B-4. Fission cross-sections were given by Henkel up to 9 MeV, and by Rago and Pankratov for the energy range above 9 MeV. Recently, Behrens presented new data for wide energy range. The accuracy of the measured cross-sections of inelastic scattering is not enough for reactor design. The accurate values of the cross-sections of (n, 2n) reaction of Th-232 have been demanded. Resonance parameters have been measured for wide energy range. In the energy range of thermal neutrons, the capture cross-section is about 7.4 barn. The characteristics of velocity dependence of the capture cross-section in this range should be investigated. (Kato, T.)

  14. D ampersand D Characterization of the 232-F Old Tritium Facility at the Savannah River Site

    The 232-F ''Old Tritium Facility'' operated in the 1950s as the first tritium production facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 1957, the 232-F operation ceased with tritium production turned over to a larger, technologically improved facility at SRS. The 232-F Facility was abandoned in 1958 and the process areas have remained contaminated with radiological, hazardous and mixed constituents. Decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the 232-F Facility is scheduled to occur in the years 1995-1996. This paper presents the D ampersand D characterization efforts for the 232-F Facility

  15. Validation of 232Th evaluated nuclear data through benchmark experiments

    Evaluated nuclear data files for nuclides of the thorium-uranium cycle were released as a result of a coordinated research project of the International Atomic Energy Agency. To validate the data a series of benchmark test cases were analysed, with emphasis on the most important nuclides 232Th and 233U. Remaining nuclides appearing in the benchmarks were taken from the ENDF/B-VII beta-2 library, except for a few sensitivity studies where the data were taken from other sources. The results show marked improvement in the agreement with measurements, much of it coming from the new evaluations. (author)

  16. Thorium-232 in human tissues: Metabolic parameters and radiation doses

    Higher than environmental levels of 232Th have been found in autopsy samples of lungs and other organs from four former employees of a Th refinery. Working periods of the subjects ranged from 3 to 24 years, and times from end of work to death ranged from 6 to 31 years. Concentrations of 232Th in these samples and in tissues from two cases of non-occupational exposure were examined for compatibility with dosimetric models in Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICPP 1979a). The concentrations of 232Th in the lungs of the Th workers relative to the concentrations in bone or liver were much higher than calculated from the model for class Y aerosols of Th and the exposure histories of the subjects, and concentrations in the pulmonary lymph nodes were much lower than calculated for three of the Th workers and both non-occupational cases. Least-squares fits to the measured concentrations showed that the biological half-times of Th in liver, spleen, and kidneys are similar to the half-time in bone instead of the factor of 10 less suggested in Publication 30, and the fractions translocated from body fluids were found to be about 0.03, 0.02, and 0.005, respectively, when the fraction to bone was held at the suggested value of 0.7. Fitted values of the respiratory parameters differed significantly between cases and the differences were ascribable to aerosol differences. Average inhalation rates calculated for individual Th workers ranged from 50 to 110 Bq 232Th y-1, and dose equivalents as high as 9.3 Sv to the lungs, 2.0 Sv to bone surfaces, and 1.1 Sv effective dose equivalent were calculated from the inhalation rates and fitted values of the metabolic parameters. The radiation doses were about the same when calculated from parameter values fitted with an assumed translocation fraction of 0.2 from body fluids to bone instead of 0.7

  17. PC interfacing using Centronics, RS232 and game ports

    An, Pei

    1998-01-01

    The main links with your PC and the outside world are the centronic port, used for connecting the printer, the RS232 port, used for the mouse, and the games port for a joystick. This book explores how these input/output (I/O) ports can be put to use through a range of other interfacing applications. This is especially useful for laptop and palmtop PCs which cannot be fitted with internal I/O cards. A novel approach is taken by this book, combining the hardware through which the ports can be explored, and the software programming needed to carry out a range of experiments.Circuits are p

  18. 232 Th - 233 Pa separation by extraction chromatography

    Thorium and protactinium behavior in extraction chromatography systems is presented, aiming its separation by selective retention of the micro constituent on the column. TBP/alumina, TBP/voltalef UF 300, TOA/alumina and TOA/voltalef UF 300 systems were verified. Column preparation as well the 233 Pa removal conditions were settled. The best 232 Th separation from its irradiation product, 233 Pa, has been achieved by using TBP/voltalef UF 300 system. 233 Pa was selectively retained on column from 10 M HCl solutions and eluted with 3 M HCl. (author)

  19. Mass distribution in 19F induced fission of 232Th

    Formation cross sections of several fission products have been determined using the recoil catcher technique followed by γ-ray spectrometry in 19F induced fission of 232Th at Elab=95 and 112 MeV. The data show significant admixture of fission from compound nuclei formed by complete fusion as well as targetlike nuclei formed by transfer reactions. Mass distributions for both the fissioning systems have been obtained using the systematics of charge distribution in low and medium energy fission. Mass distribution for complete fusion fission is broad Gaussian whereas it is asymmetric for transfer induced fission. At 95 MeV the transfer fission constitutes about 28% of total fission cross section while at 112 MeV it is about 14%, showing that the transfer fission fraction decreases with increasing projectile energy across the barrier. The evaporation residue cross sections of the targetlike nucleus formed in the 232Th (19F, 18O) 233Pa reaction were also measured. The evaporation residue cross sections and the calculated decay probabilities of the targetlike nucleus 233Pa by PACE2 have been used to estimate the fraction of proton and α transfer fission in the total transfer fission cross section. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Gamma-spectrometric determination of 232U in uranium-bearing materials

    Zsigrai, Jozsef; Nguyen, Tam Cong; Berlizov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    The 232U content of various uranium-bearing items was measured using low-background gamma spectrometry. The method is independent of the measurement geometry, sample form and chemical composition. Since 232U is an artificially produced isotope, it carries information about previous irradiation of the material, which is relevant for nuclear forensics, nuclear safeguards and for nuclear reactor operations. A correlation between the 232U content and 235U enrichment of the investigated samples ha...

  1. Calculation of optical model potential for n+232Th reaction

    Background: Accurate nuclear data are needed for the development of molten salt reactors which use thorium as nuclear fuel. Purpose: We attempt to get an optimum set of optical potential parameters for 232Th with the incident neutron energy from 0.1 MeV to 20 MeV Methods: APMN code which based on optical theory and Hauser-Feshbach theory with width fluctuation correction was used. Steepest descent method was adopted when the code seeks the optimum optical parameters automatically. Results: The comparison between the experimental data and the calculation results before and after adjusting the optical parameters shows that the calculation results after adjusting are in better agreement with the experimental data. This set of parameters could be used for nuclear data calculation. Conclusions: Based on the results it could provide a believable set of optical parameters for the neutron data evaluation. (authors)

  2. Precise measurement and analysis of neutron transmission through 232Th

    Three sets of transmission time spectra through up to eight samples of 232Th have been measured for neutron energies from 6.0 MeV to 0.1 MeV by use of a flight-time technique over 22- and 40-m path lengths, the ORELA pulsed neutron source, and a 1-mm-thick lithium glass detector. The resulting total cross section from 0.1 to 20.0 eV seems to be smaller than that contained in the ENDF/B-V evaluation. Least-squares analysis of the transmissions from 9 to 440 eV using a multilevel Breit-Wigner formalism results in neutron widths consistent with those previously reported. An average radiation width of 25.2 MeV is obtained for 19 low-energy s-wave resonances. 3 figures, 5 tables

  3. 34 CFR 75.232 - The cost analysis; basis for grant amount.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The cost analysis; basis for grant amount. 75.232 Section 75.232 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants... objectives of the project with reasonable efficiency and economy under the budget in the...

  4. 49 CFR 232.505 - Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan. 232... § 232.505 Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan. (a) General; submission of plan. Except as... its system the operating railroad or railroads shall submit a pre-revenue service acceptance...

  5. 42 CFR 414.232 - Special payment rules for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENS).

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special payment rules for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENS). 414.232 Section 414.232 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND...

  6. [Uptake of radionuclides from soil to plant and the discovery of 226Ra, 232Th hyperaccumulator].

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Di-Yun; Song, Gang; Yue, Yu-Mei

    2011-04-01

    11 sorts of plant samples and corresponding soil samples were collected in Conghua and Taishan, Pearl River Delta. The specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K of samples were investigated by using HPGe-gamma-ray spectra analysis. The results showed that the average specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples were 151.8, 146.3, 226.6, 665.5 Bq/kg, which were higher than the average values of China and the world. The concentration of 238U in all sort of plants are very low and most of them are lower than detection limit, while the values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were high. The contents of 226Ra and 232Th in Dicranopteris dichotoma were the highest, whose average specific activity is 285.9, 986.2 Bq/kg respectively. The average bioconcentration factors (BFs)of 26Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma were 2.20, 4.23, respectively, the other 10 sort of plants have BFs of 2266Ra, 232Th were in the range of 10(-1)-10(-2). The bioconcentration factors and the translocation factors of 226Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma. were all bigger than 1, so Dicranopteris dichotoma can be defined as hyperaccumulator of 226Ra and 232Th. PMID:21717763

  7. 48 CFR 52.232-30 - Installment Payments for Commercial Items.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installment Payments for Commercial Items. 52.232-30 Section 52.232-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... requests shall be paid within 30 days of submittal of a proper request for payment. (e) Liquidation...

  8. 48 CFR 52.232-35 - Designation of Office for Government Receipt of Electronic Funds Transfer Information.

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Receipt of Electronic Funds Transfer Information. 52.232-35 Section 52.232-35 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.232-35 Designation of Office for Government Receipt of Electronic Funds Transfer Information. As prescribed in 32.1110(c), insert the following clause:...

  9. 17 CFR 232.313 - Identification of investment company type and series and/or class (or contract).

    2010-04-01

    ... company type and series and/or class (or contract). 232.313 Section 232.313 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION REGULATION S-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS Preparation of Electronic Submissions § 232.313 Identification of investment company type...

  10. DEMOLITION OF HANFORD'S 232-Z WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY

    The 232-Z Plutonium Incinerator Facility was a small, highly alpha-contaminated, building situated between three active buildings located in an operating nuclear complex. Approximately 500 personnel worked within 250 meters (800 ft) of the structure and expectations were that the project would neither impact plant operations nor result in any restrictions when demolition was complete. Precision demolition and tight controls best describe the project. The team used standard open-air demolition techniques to take the facility to slab-on-grade. Several techniques were key to controlling contamination and confining it to the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition began; using misting systems, frequently applying fixatives, and using a methodical demolition sequence and debris load-out process. Detailed air modeling was done before demolition to determine necessary facility source-term levels, establish radiological boundaries, and confirm the adequacy of the proposed demolition approach. By only removing the major source term in equipment, HEPA filters, gloveboxes, and the like, and leaving fixed contamination on the walls, ceilings and floors, the project showed considerable savings and reduced worker hazards and exposure. The ability to perform this demolition safely and without the spread of contamination provides confidence that similar operations can be performed successfully. By removing the major source terms, fixing the remaining contamination in the building, and using controlled demolition and contamination control techniques, similar structures can be demolished cost effectively and safely

  11. Angular Anisotropy and Mass Asymmetry of Thorium-232 Fission Fragments

    A large number of experimental and theoretical papers on the angular distribution of the fission fragments of nuclei indicate that it is satisfactorily described by the parameters of the fissioning nucleus at the saddle point. The problem of the effect of these parameters on the distribution of the fragments according to mass has as yet found no generally accepted solution. It remains unclear to what extent the 'good' quantum numbers characteristic of the nucleus at the saddle point remain equally ''good'' when the nucleus passes from the saddle point to the moment of breakdown. If at the saddle point the nucleus has a set of different configurations, this must be apparent in some way in the distribution of the fragments by mass and in their angular distribution (via the moment of inertia of the nucleus). The paper investigates the angular anisotropy of fragments with different masses in the fission of thorium-232 by fast neutrons. The masses of the fragments were determined by simultaneous recording of the kinetic energy of paired fragments in a double ionization chamber with grids. The direction of flight of the fragments was determined using a mechanical collimator. The neutrons causing fission had an extended spectrum, but the contribution of fissions via the (n, n'f) reaction did not exceed a few per cent. The fragments were sorted out according to energy by a two-dimensional 128 x 128 channel analyser with a memory on ferrite. The dependence of angular anisotropy on the mass of the fragments and on their kinetic energy with fixed mass is discussed. The first dependence makes it possible to judge the degree to which the saddle point affects the distribution of the fragments according to mass, while the second gives information about the degree to which the configuration of the nucleus at the moment of breakdown affects the angular anisotropy of the fragments. (author)

  12. Gamma-spectrometric determination of 232U in uranium-bearing materials

    The 232U content of various uranium-bearing items was measured using low-background gamma spectrometry. The method is independent of the measurement geometry, sample form and chemical composition. Since 232U is an artificially produced isotope, it carries information about previous irradiation of the material, which is relevant for nuclear forensics, nuclear safeguards and for nuclear reactor operations. A correlation between the 232U content and 235U enrichment of the investigated samples has been established, which is consistent with theoretical predictions. It is also shown how the correlation of the mass ratio 232U/235U vs. 235U content can be used to distinguish materials contaminated with reprocessed uranium from materials made of reprocessed uranium

  13. Gamma-spectrometric determination of 232U in uranium-bearing materials

    Zsigrai, Jozsef; Berlizov, Andriy

    2015-01-01

    The 232U content of various uranium-bearing items was measured using low-background gamma-spectrometry. The method is independent of the measurement geometry, sample form and chemical composition. Since 232U is an artificially produced isotope, it carries information about previous irradiation of the material, which is relevant for nuclear forensics, nuclear safeguards and for nuclear reactor operations. A correlation between the 232U content and 235U enrichment of the investigated samples has been established, which is consistent with theoretical predictions. It is also shown how the correlation of the mass ratio 232U/235U vs. 235U content can be used to distinguish materials contaminated with reprocessed uranium from materials made of reprocessed uranium.

  14. A study of the generation of 232U in UO2 and MOX fuels

    To clarify the generation pathway of 232U, an important nuclide for dose evaluation at various stages in the reuse of uranium, concentrations of 232U generated through various pathways were evaluated for UO2 and mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. Burnup calculation was conducted with ORIGEN2.2 code adopting ORLIBJ40 library, a set of cross-section libraries based on JENDL-4.0. It was found that differences in 232U concentrations in UO2 and MOX fuels mainly arise from differences in the initial compositions of 234U, 235U, and 236U. It was also found that the contribution of plutonium and americium isotopes in MOX fuels is small compared with that of uranium isotopes. The results clarified that the capture cross sections of 230Th, 231Pa, 235U, and 236U, as well as the (n,2n) cross sections of 237Np and 238U, have a large effect on the generation of 232U. Additional investigation showed that 232U concentration is strongly affected not only by time after irradiation but also by time before irradiation. (author)

  15. Irradiation studies of 231Pa in DHRUVA reactor for preparation of 232U

    In this paper, identification of the potential source of 231Pa, various stages of its recovery and the sample of 231Pa supplied for trial irradiation are described. For producing 232U, irradiation work is proposed in different stages of irradiation. Various trial irradiations and its results are discussed in this paper along with their specific objectives. A computational estimation of conversion efficiency of 231Pa (∼ 10μg) to 232U in DHRUVA reactor, was carried out. The computational result predicted the conversion efficiency and the results of γ-spectroscopy based analysis of the second trial sample matched well. A first level calculation was also carried out to estimate the tolerable quantity of 232Th to keep the concentration of 233U below 5% in the 232U sample. The radioactivity due to the presence of various impurities present in the sample, during the high fluence irradiation, is being estimated. The feasibility of production of the 232U isotope in DHRUVA reactor has thus been established. (author)

  16. Reformation practice of S232 SUCKER sizing machine%S232型祖克浆纱机的改造实践

    刘安君; 窦海萍

    2009-01-01

    为解决祖克S232型浆纱机织轴卷绕故障率高、烘燥温度不稳定、压浆力调节装置失控、经轴退绕张力不稳定的问题,进行了技术改造.通过采用多单元技术对织轴卷绕装置进行了两单元改造,对温控系统、压浆力凋节装置以及经轴退绕装置采用了可编程PLC控制技术,改造后提高了祖克S232型浆纱机的自动化程度,降低了设备故障率,提高了浆纱质量.

  17. Calculation of fusion time scales in 11B + 237Np, 12C + 232Th and 16O + 232Th reactions in a dynamical trajectory model

    There are several theoretical models which treat the fusion process and energy dissipation in heavy ion collision in terms of a fluctuating force represented by the coupling between macroscopic and intrinsic degrees of freedom. One such dynamical model has been developed by Feldmeier (1987), where the properties of the dissipative force are determined from a microscopic picture of particle exchange between two nuclei. The macroscopic shapes of the nuclear system are represented by axially symmetric configuration with sharp surfaces. We have used the above model to calculate the fusion time scales for the systems 11B + 237Np, 12C +232Th and 16O + 232Th at 77, 86 and 104 MeV bombarding energies to examine the effect of mass asymmetry in fusion dynamics. (author). 2 figs

  18. CSER 94-013: Classification and access to PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility and limits on characterization and disassembly activities in 232-Z burning hood

    This CSER justifies the Limited Control Facility designation for the closed Burning Hood in the PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility. If the Burning Hood is opened to characterize the plutonium distribution and geometric integrity of the internals or for disassembly of the internals, then the more rigorous Fissionable Material Facility classification is required. Two sets of requirements apply for personnel access, criticality firefighting category for water use, and fissile material movement for the two states of the Burning Hood. The parameters used in the criticality analysis are listed to establish the limits under which this CSER is valid. Determination that the Burning Hood fissile material, moderation, or internal arrangements are outside these limits requires reevaluation of these parameter values and activities at the 232-Z Incinerator Facility. When the Burning Hood is open, water entry is to be prevented by two physical barriers for each water source

  19. Production of 232U from irradiation of standard and thorium-based fuels in PWR reactors

    The production of small quantities of 232U can induce radiation protection issues in the back end of the fuel cycle, particularly for thorium-based fuels. This is due to its relatively short half life (69 years) and the emission of a high energy gamma ray of 2.6 MeV at the end of its decay chain. With the depletion code MURE, we determine the different reactions pathways, and their proportions, leading to the synthesis of 232U in UO2 and (Th,Pu)O2 fuels irradiated in a PWR. Moreover, the impact, on the 232U production, of cycle times such as time separating the fabrication of the fuel and its irradiation as well as influence of the fissile content has been investigated for UO2 fuel. The impact of the thorium ore provenance and of the plutonium quality has been studied for the (Th,Pu)O2 case. (author)

  20. Determination of 232U daughter products released from HTGR fuel during refabrication. Part 2

    During the heat treatment step of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel beads, the 233U-loaded fuel beads are exposed to temperatures as high as 17000C. Since 233U fuel beads unavoidably contain a small percentage of 232U, decay products of 232U might be released during the heat treatment step. To avoid shielding requirements, experiments were conducted using 232Th-loaded fuel beads rather than 232U-loaded fuel beads. Decay products of 232U and 232Th are the same after 228Th. Experimental data were obtained by monitoring the 583 and 2614 keV gamma emissions of 208Tl. Computer simulations of the decay process and experimental data were used to infer what relative amount of the daughter products was removed. The carbonization step (300 to 5000C) has an effect on the loss of daughter products in the conversion step. Using uncarbonized fuel beads, approximately 50 percent of 220Rn was removed at 3000C and approximately 20 percent of 220Rn was removed at 2000C. At most, 5 percent of 220Rn was removed from uncarbonized beads at 250C. Marginal 220Rn loss was detected at 1000C using pre-carbonized beads. At 14000C, 92 percent 212Pb, 70 to 90 percent 212Bi, and 0 percent 224Ra losses were observed. At 16000C, 100 percent 212Pb, 80 to 100 percent 212Bi, and 3 to 7 percent 224Ra losses were observed. At 17500C, 100 percent 212Pb, 80 to 100 percent 212Bi, and 62 percent 224Ra losses were observed. At 18000C, 100 percent 212Pb, 80 to 100 percent 212Bi, and 86 percent 224Ra losses were observed

  1. A programme of evaluation, processing and testing of nuclear data for Th-232 and U-233

    As part of the IAEA-NDS sponsored Co-ordinated Research Programme on the intercomparison of evaluations of Actinide Neutron Nucelar Data, a programme has been undertaken at RRC for Th-232 and U-233. This paper presents results highlighting the extent to which evaluations in JENDL-2, INDIAN, ENDF/B-V, ENDL-84, FRENCH SET(1969), INDL/A-83(RUMANIAN), ENDF/B-IV and JENDL-1 files are consistent with the measured value of σ/sub c//σ/sub eta/ for Th-232 at the center of THOR assembly which emphasizes transport of neutrons in the fission source energy range

  2. anti νsub(p) neutron fission of 232Th near threshold

    The average number of prompt neutrons emitted per fission, anti νsub(p), for 232Th(n,f) has been measured between 1.35 and 2.1 MeV. No large maximum in anti νsub(p) at about 1.4 MeV has been seen. The behaviour of anti νsub(p) and of anti Esub(K), the average total fragment kinetic energy, have been calculated using both a double-humped and triple-humped fission potential barrier. Significant disagreement with existing anti Esub(K) data for 232Th(n,f) is observed

  3. The novel nootropic compound DM232 (UNIFIRAM) ameliorates memory impairment in mice and rats

    Carla Ghelardini; Nicoletta Galeotti; Fulvio Gualtieri; Dina Manetti; Corrado Bucherelli; Elisabetta Baldi; Alessandro Bartolini

    2002-01-01

    The favorable pharmacological profile exhibited by piracetam stimulated the synthesis of related compounds potentially endowed with a higher nootropic potency. The antiamnesic and procognitive activity of DM232 (unifiram), a new compound structurally related to piracetam, was investigated. Mouse passive avoidance and rat Morris water maze and Social learning tests were employed. DM232 (0.001–1 mg/kg i.p. – 0.01–0.1 1mg/kg p.o.) prevented amnesia induced by scopolamine (1.5 mg/kg i.p.), mecamy...

  4. Measurement of the 232Th(n,f) subthreshold and near-subthreshold cross section

    A measurement of the 232Th(n,f) cross section for incident neutron energies between 100 eV and 1.6 MeV has been performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory electron linear accelerator. The weak subthreshold fission cross section found in this measurement confirms the model of a low first barrier in the triple-humped fission barrier which has been theoretically predicted for the (232Th+n) system. However, the appearance of a series of plateaus in the near-threshold fission cross section region presents a challenge to current barrier calculations in the 233Th compound nucleus

  5. Variation of natural 232Th excretion in non-exposed persons

    Urinary excretion of 232Th was assessed in occupationally non-exposed persons by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Measurements were performed in 55 healthy subjects. Mean daily 232Th excretion was 47±26 μBq x d-1 (range 17-121 μBq x d-1). Results obtained showed no statistically significant correlation with age and no differences were found between males and females. The impact on the assessment of intakes by workers is discussed. (author)

  6. 40 CFR 436.232 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.232 Section 436.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  7. 25 CFR 900.232 - What must an Indian tribe or tribal organization do if an organizational conflict of interest...

    2010-04-01

    ... organizational conflict of interest arises under a contract? 900.232 Section 900.232 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... What must an Indian tribe or tribal organization do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under a contract? This section only applies if the conflict was not addressed when the contract...

  8. 8 CFR 232.2 - Examination in the United States of alien applicants for benefits under the immigration laws and...

    2010-01-01

    ... with 42 CFR part 34 and any additional instructions and guidelines as may be considered necessary by... applicants for benefits under the immigration laws and other aliens. 232.2 Section 232.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL...

  9. 40 CFR 408.232 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available. 408.232 Section 408.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  10. 48 CFR 3452.232-70 - Prohibition against the use of ED funds to influence legislation or appropriations.

    2010-10-01

    ... use of ED funds to influence legislation or appropriations. 3452.232-70 Section 3452.232-70 Federal... funds to influence legislation or appropriations. The following clause is to be used in accordance with 3432.770: Prohibition Against the Use of ED Funds To Influence Legislation or Appropriations (APR...

  11. 17 CFR 232.104 - Unofficial PDF copies included in an electronic submission.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unofficial PDF copies included... Filing Requirements § 232.104 Unofficial PDF copies included in an electronic submission. (a) An... (§ 249.101 of this chapter) or a Form D (§ 239.500 of this chapter), may include one unofficial PDF...

  12. Fission product yields measurement of 232Th induced by 14.8 MeV neutron

    The relative cumulative yields of 62 fission products were determined using γ-spectrum method for 232Th induced by 14.8 MeV neutron. Using chain yields summation 200% normalization method, 47 chain yields were given, and the data precision is better than 10%. (authors)

  13. D2.3.2 Evaluation results of the LinkedUp VIDI competition

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Herder, Eelco; Marieke, Guy; Maren, Scheffel

    2014-01-01

    This document D2.3.2 is the second report of Task 2.4 - Evaluation of challenge submissions. Task 2.4 is about the actual assessment of the participating projects within the LinkedUp Veni, Vidi and Vici competition on the basis of the LinkedUp Evaluation Framework (D2.2.1). The main objective of Tas

  14. Photo fission cross-section of 232Th, 238U and 237Np

    In the present work, photo fission cross-section of 232Th, 238U and 237Np evaluated with the help of fission fragment angular distribution measurements by using Bremsstrahlung radiation from 7.4 MeV to 9.0 MeV have been carried out by employing high efficiency SSNTD technique

  15. 48 CFR 52.232-26 - Prompt payment for fixed-price architect-engineer contracts.

    2010-10-01

    ... include its TIN on the invoice only if required elsewhere in this contract. (ix) Electronic funds transfer... of Electronic Funds Transfer Information with Offer), contract clause (e.g., 52.232-33, Payment by... interest penalty in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5...

  16. 48 CFR 252.232-7003 - Electronic submission of payment requests and receiving reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.232-7003 Electronic submission of payment... administering the contract for payment has determined, in writing, that electronic submission would be unduly... non-electronic payment requests using the method or methods specified in Section G of the contract....

  17. 48 CFR 52.232-33 - Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer-Central Contractor Registration.

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.232-33 Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer—Central... Government under this contract shall be made by electronic funds transfer (EFT), except as provided in... Fedwire Transfer System. The rules governing Federal payments through the ACH are contained in 31 CFR...

  18. 48 CFR 52.232-27 - Prompt payment for construction contracts.

    2010-10-01

    ... include its TIN on the invoice only if required elsewhere in this contract. (x) Electronic funds transfer... of Electronic Funds Transfer Information with Offer), contract clause (e.g., 52.232-33, Payment by... interest penalty in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5...

  19. Seismic analysis of safety class 1 incinerator glovebox in building 232-Z 200 W Area

    This report documents the seismic evaluation for the existing safety class 1 incinerator glovebox in 232Z Building. The glovebox is no longer in use and most of the internal mechanical equipment have been removed. However, the insulation firebricks are still in the glovebox for proper disposal

  20. 230,232Th in milk, meat, and grain in Korea

    The concentrations of natural radioisotopes 230Th and 232Th in Korean foods were measured by the method of calcium oxalate co-precipitation in addition to the conventional anion-exchange method and alpha spectroscopic measurement. The 230Th concentrations (mBq/kg-fresh) in Korean foods were found to be as follows: milk 0.14-2.45, pork 2.98-8.97, beef 1.94-9.80, chicken 1.22-13.0, rice 0.43-2.35, wheat 0.53-14.4, and soybeans, 8.44-91.6. The 232Th concentrations (mBq/kg-fresh) in Korean foods were found to be as follows: milk 0.01-2.46, pork 0.28-9.32, beef 1.02-5.34, chicken 0.56-4.98, rice 0.32-2.54, wheat 0.53-20.0, and soybeans, 2.30-42.2. The annual internal dose of Th was also estimated. The annual internal dose of 230Th and 232Th in milk was about 0.006 μSv/yr and much lower than that of other countries because of the low intake of milk in Korea compared to other countries. The annual internal dose of 230Th and 232Th in the rice was about 0.043 μSv/yr and highest because rice is the staple food of Koreans. (author)

  1. 77 FR 55120 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Section 232 Healthcare Facility Insurance Program...

    2012-09-07

    ... proposed rule at 77 FR 26218, in which it submitted, for public comment, revisions to the Section 232 program regulations. On May 3, 2012, HUD also published a notice at 77 FR 26304, which proposed revisions... the regulatory text but discussed in the preamble to the proposed rule at 77 FR 26222, and...

  2. 77 FR 72920 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Section 232 Healthcare Mortgage Insurance Program: Partial...

    2012-12-07

    ... published a proposed rule at 77 FR 40301, in which it submitted for public comment a proposed revision to... 76 FR 3821. This EO requires executive agencies to analyze regulations that are ``outmoded... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 232 RIN-2502-AJ04 Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Section...

  3. 20 CFR 408.232 - When do you lose your foreign resident status?

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do you lose your foreign resident status... CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS SVB Qualification and Entitlement Residence Outside the United States § 408.232 When do you lose your foreign resident status? (a) General rule. We consider you to have lost...

  4. Symmetrical ripple constant common mode voltage modulation strategy for DCM-232 three- phase PV topology

    Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro; Muñoz Aguilar, Raúl Santiago; Vázquez Guzmán, Gerardo; Candela García, José Ignacio; Aldabas Rubira, Emiliano; Etxeberria Otadui, Ion

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a modulation strategy for the DCM-232 power converter is proposed. This modulation has as particular a symmetrical ripple and that no common mode currents are presented. Some simulation and experimental results are given in order to prove the good behavior of the topology regarding common mode voltage (CMV).

  5. 17 CFR 232.105 - Limitation on use of HTML documents and hypertext links.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation on use of HTML... Requirements § 232.105 Limitation on use of HTML documents and hypertext links. (a) Electronic filers must... exhibits to Form N-SAR in HTML. (b) Electronic filers may not include in any HTML document hypertext...

  6. CSER 95-003: Exemption from Criticality Alarm System requirement for 232-Z building

    This CSER establishes an exemption for 232-Z from the requirement for a Criticality Alarm System, because the formation of a critical configuration is not a credible event for any circumstance involving the cleaning out and removal of the Burning Hood and associated equipment

  7. 17 CFR 232.311 - Documents submitted in paper under cover of Form SE.

    2010-04-01

    ... English summary or English translation of the foreign language document in accordance with § 232.306(b) or... filing in electronic format an English translation of its latest annual budget submitted as Exhibit B to... SE (§§ 239.64, 249.444, 259.601, 269.8, and 274.403 of this chapter) no later than one business...

  8. 49 CFR 232.503 - Process to introduce new brake system technology.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Process to introduce new brake system technology... Technology § 232.503 Process to introduce new brake system technology. (a) Pursuant to the procedures... brake system technology, prior to implementing the plan. (b) Each railroad shall complete a...

  9. 232Th and 238U neutron emission cross section calculations and analysis of experimental data

    In this study, pre-equilibrium neutron-emission spectra produced by (n,xn) reactions on nuclei 232Th and 238U have been calculated. Angle-integrated cross sections in neutron induced reactions on targets 232Th and 238U have been calculated at the bombarding energies up to 18 MeV. We have investigated multiple pre-equilibrium matrix element constant from internal transition for 232Th (n,xn) neutron emission spectra. In the calculations, the geometry dependent hybrid model and the cascade exciton model including the effects of pre-equilibrium have been used. In addition, we have described how multiple pre-equilibrium emissions can be included in the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin (FKK) fully quantum-mechanical theory. By analyzing (n,xn) reaction on 232Th and 238U, with the incident energy from 2 Me V to 18 Me V, the importance of multiple pre-equilibrium emission can be seen cleady. All calculated results have been compared with experimental data. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data and found agreement with each other

  10. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  11. FUSION-LIKE PROCESSES IN THE N-14+TH-232 REACTION AT 30 MEV NUCLEON

    LEEGTE, HKW; BOONSTRA, AL; HINNEFELD, JD; KOLDENHOF, EE; SIEMSSEN, RH; SIWEKWILCZYNSKA, K; SOSIN, Z; WILCZYNSKI, J; WILSCHUT, HW

    1992-01-01

    Fusionlike processes were studied in the N-14 + Th-232 reaction at 30 MeV per nucleon. Partition of the fusionlike cross section was determined by detecting nonequilibrium charged particles with an array of phoswich detectors (plastic wall) in coincidence with fission fragments for which the folding

  12. 49 CFR 232.107 - Air source requirements and cold weather operations.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air source requirements and cold weather... AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES General Requirements § 232.107 Air source requirements and cold weather operations. (a) Monitoring plans for yard air sources. (1)...

  13. 28 CFR 2.32 - Parole to local or immigration detainers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parole to local or immigration detainers... § 2.32 Parole to local or immigration detainers. (a) When a State or local detainer is outstanding... wishes to parole a prisoner subject to a detainer filed by Federal immigration officials, the...

  14. Investigation of the (232)Th Nucleus Excitations at the FEL {gamma} - Nucleus Colliders

    Koru, H; Sultansoy, S F; Sarer, B

    2001-01-01

    The physics search potential of the FEL {gamma} - Nucleus colliders is analysed using excitations of the (232)Th nucleus. It is shown that, due to the monochromacity of FEL {gamma} beam and high statistics, proposed colliders will play an important role in the field of "traditional" nuclear physics.

  15. 12 CFR 232.3 - Financial information exception for obtaining and using medical information.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial information exception for obtaining... WITH CREDIT (REGULATION FF) § 232.3 Financial information exception for obtaining and using medical... the basis that the projected debt-to-income ratio of the consumer does not meet the...

  16. Optical isolation and surge protection of RS-232 port%RS-232端口光电隔离型电涌保护器

    王金虎; 李祥超; 刘晓东; 黄鹏良

    2011-01-01

    根据气体放电管和瞬态抑制二极管的保护特性,合理选择退耦元件参数,实现多级SPD间的能量配合,并结合光纤的保护性能设计RS-232接口的保护电路.最后利用雷电冲击试验平台LST-6kV/3 kA、ICGS冲击平台以及DF1641C函数发生器对保护电路进行实验,以验证设计的方案.实验结果表明:在加上保护器件后,通信端口的抗雷电过压能力得到了很大的提高,并且加入该保护电路以后基本不会对原电路产生插入损耗.%Lightning over-voltages are the important reasons for losses in communication port, which make it neces-sary and urgent to study into the lightning protection of communication port. According to the protection characteris-tics of gas discharge tube and transient voltage suppressor, the decoupling components are selected carefully to a-chieve the rational energy correspondence between multi-level SPD. Besides that,optical design is also considered to design protective circuit of RS-232 port. Finally,in order to verify the design scheme,the lightning impact platform called LST-6 kV/3 kA and ICGS and function generator called DF1641C are employed for the experiments. The ex-periments show that bearing capacity of lightning over-voltage of communication port RS-232 has been greatly im-proved and will not produce insertion loss to original circuit by adding the protection circuit.

  17. Measurement of 232Th(, ) and 232Th(, 2) cross-sections at neutron energies of 13.5, 15.5 and 17.28 MeV using neutron activation techniques

    Sadhana Mukerji; H Naik; S V Suryanarayana; S Chachara; B S Shivashankar; V Mulik; Rita Crasta; Sudipta Samanta; B K Nayak; A Saxena; S C Sharma; P V Bhagwat; K K Rasheed; R N Jindal; S Ganesan; A K Mohanty; A Goswami; P D Krishnani

    2012-08-01

    The 232Th(, ) reaction cross-section at average neutron energies of 13.5, 15.5 and 17.28 MeV from the 7Li(, ) reaction has been determined for the first time using activation and off-line -ray spectrometric technique. The 232Th(, 2) cross-section at 17.28 MeV neutron energy has also been determined using the same technique. The experimentally determined 232Th(, ) and 232Th(, 2) reaction cross-sections from the present work were compared with the evaluated data of ENDF/BVII and JENDL-4.0 and were found to be in good agreement. The present data, along with literature data in a wide range of neutron energies, were interpreted in terms of competition between 232Th(, ), (, ), (, ) and (, ) reaction channels. The 232Th(, ) and 232Th(, 2) reaction cross-sections were also calculated theoretically using the TALYS 1.2 computer code and were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data from the present work but were slightly higher than the literature data at lower neutron energies.

  18. Measurement of the generation ratio of 233U and the average radiation capture cross section of 232Th with 232ThO2 irradiated by fast neutrons

    Background: Thorium-Uranium cycle plays an important role in the future's power production technology. Nuclear data involved are urgently needed for engineering design and other purposes since there are obvious differences between the existing evaluated data. Macroscopic neutron integral experiment can be used as a good tool to survey the confusion. Purpose: Macroscopic neutron integral experiment based on radioactive method was carried out to measure the generation ratio of 233U nuclide and the average radiation capture cross section of 232Th while a ThO2 sample was irradiated by fast neutrons leakage from a fast critical facility. We expect that these data can be used as a reference for the research of Th-U cycle. Methods: Radiation capture reactions of 232Th nuclides occur when the nuclides are irradiated by neutrons. 233U nuclides will be generated after two cascade decays by emitting beta rays from the activation products, which are 233Th nuclides. The ThO2 sample was prepared as a slice of 20 mm×10 mm from 0.743 36-g ThO2 powders of 99.9% enriched. The neutron flux was measured by activation method which was 4.07x109 cm-2·s-1 at the sample's irradiation position while the facility worked at the power level of 180 watts. The leakage neutrons' energy distribution was calculated by MC method and it is very close to the fission spectrum with the averaged energy of 1.42 MeV. After irradiation and then a period of cooling time the gamma rays emitted from the sample were measured by an HPGe spectrometer which had been pre-calibrated. From these data the activity of 233Pa was calculated and then the generation ratio of 233U and the average radiation capture cross section of 232Th were calculated. The measured average radiation capture cross section was compared with the cross sections calculated based on the ENDFB-VH.1, CENDL-3.1, JENDL-4.0, BROND2.2 databases. Results: The measured generation ratio of 233U was 4.01×10-12 with an uncertainty of 6

  19. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K analysis in water samples from Assiut, Egypt

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in water samples, using 2”x 2” NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Water activity ranges from 0.07 to 0.59 Bq L−1 for 226Ra, 0.05 to 0.37 Bq L−1 for 232Th and 3.25 to 8.72 Bq L−1 for 40K with mean values of 2.64, 2.22 and 119.50 Bq L−1, respectively. As far as the measured gamma radionuclides is concerned, the mean annual effective doses for all analyzed samples of water are in the range of 0.02–0.08, 0.03-0.17 and 0.03-0.10 mSv yr-1 for infants, children and adults, respectively, all being lower than the reference level of the committed effective dose recommended by the WHO.

  20. Determination of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in liquid effluents from uranium mining

    A liquid scintillator αlpha spectrometer was built for the determination of Th-228, Th-230 and Th-232 in liquid effluents from Uranium mines and mills. The resolution of the αlpha spectrometer was found to be 200-300 KeV, when the scintillator was 8% T0P0, 0,77% scintimix-4 (91% PP0 and 9% Dimetil-P0P0P) and 10% of naphthalene in toluene. Aliquat-336 in xylene (30% v/v) was used to separate the thorium isotopes from other interfering radionuclides (U-238, U-234, Ra-226, Po-210). Under the extraction experimental conditions, the detection limits were 1,2 pCi/1 for Th-232, 1,2 pCi/1 for Th-230 and 0,9 pCi/1 for Th-228, for 1000 minutes of counting time. (author)

  1. Fractional absorption in gastrointestinal tract of 232Th by ingestion for Chinese man

    Objective: To estimate fractional absorption in gastrointestinal tract (f1) of 232Th by ingestion for the Chinese male adults. Methods: According to f1 calculation method in literature and results of Th concentrations in dietary foods and organ or tissues for the Chinese male adults, obtained in recent years, f1 values were estimated from the median and mean Th concentrations and compared each other. Results: the f1 value from the median and mean Th concentrations was 0.00048 and 0.00028 respectively. Conclusion: The f1 of 232Th by ingestion for the Chinese male adults should be adopted as 0.00048, being lower than estimated result from the world reference concentrations in UNSCEAR 2000 Report, but quite near to the relevant reported value from Asian countries, such as India or Japan, and supporting the latest recommended value 0.0005 by ICRP too

  2. Charge and mass distribution in 7Li induced fission of 232Th

    Formation cross sections of about forty fission products have been determined using recoil catcher technique followed by off line gamma-ray spectrometry in 7Li induced fission of 232Th at Elab=41.9, 36.6 and 31.4 MeV. The measured data have been used to deduce charge and mass distributions. Mass distribution is found to be asymmetric at all the three energies. Cross sections of evaporation residues formed in both transfer reactions (232,233,234Pa) as well as in complete fusion (234Np), have also been measured. The measured evaporation residue cross sections and the decay probabilities of target like nuclei (233,234,235Pa) formed in the various transfer reactions, as calculated by PACE2, have been used to estimate the transfer induced fission cross sections. The data indicated that the magnitude of transfer induced fission is very small

  3. NT-proBNP on Cobas h 232 in point-of-care testing

    Gils, Charlotte; Ramanathan, R.; Breindahl, T.;

    2015-01-01

    Background. NT-proBNP may be useful for ruling out heart failure in primary health care. In this study we examined the analytical quality of NT-proBNP in primary health care on the Cobas h 232 point-of-care instrument compared with measurements performed in a hospital laboratory. Materials...... and methods. Blood samples requested for NT-proBNP were collected in primary health care (n = 95) and in a hospital laboratory (n = 107). NT-proBNP was measured on-site on Cobas h 232 instruments both in primary health care centres and at the hospital laboratory and all samples were also analyzed.......5-10.7% in the hospital setting and 5.3-10.0% in the primary health care and within the analytical quality specifications, but higher than with the comparison method (...

  4. 2.3.2 Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiations

    Bernhardt, J. H.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Subsection '2.3.2 Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiations' of the Section '2.3 Biological Effects' of the Chapter '2 Radiation and Biological Effects' with the contents:

  5. Design of a general purpose (RS-232C) analog-to-digital data converter

    The purpose of this project is to design a general purpose hardware that interfaces analog devices with any desirable computer supporting the RS-232 interface. The hardware incorporates bidirectional data transmission at 1,200 bps, 2,400 bps, 4800 bps, 9,600 bps, 19,200 pbs and 38400 bps. The communication / processing software has been written in C language that incorporates the idea of the potability of the software from one environment to the other. (author)

  6. Post-neutron mass distribution for /sup 232/U(n/sub th/,f)

    Haddad, M.; Crancon, J.; Lhospice, G.; Asghar, M.

    1989-01-01

    The yields of 36 fission products in 27 mass chains produced in thermal neutron induced fission of /sup 232/U, have been determined, for the first time, via ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy. The mean number of neutrons per fission was found to be (..nu../sub T/)=2.8+-0.3. A mean proton odd-even effect delta/sub p/=(24.6+-3)% was obtained for 6 mass chains. These results are discussed in terms of existing data.

  7. Mass distribution in the quasi-mono-energetic neutron-induced fission of 232Th

    The cumulative yields of various fission products in 232Th(n, f) with average neutron energies of 6.35, 8.53 and 10.09 MeV have been determined using an off-line γ -ray spectrometric technique. The neutron beam was produced from the 7Li(p, n) reaction. From the cumulative fission yields, the mass chain yields were obtained by using charge distribution correction of medium energy. The peak-to-valley (P/V) ratio, the average value of light mass (left angle AL right angle), heavy mass (left angle AH right angle) and the average number of neutrons (left angle ν right angle) at the three different neutron energies of the present work and at other energies from the literature in the 232Th(n, f) reaction were obtained from the mass yield data. The present and the existing literature data in the 232Th(n, f) reaction at various excitation energies were compared with similar data in the 238U(n, f) reaction. The fine structure in the mass yield distribution was interpreted from the point of nuclear structure effect such as shell closure proximity and even-odd effect. The role of standard I and standard II asymmetric mode of fission was discussed. The different types of mass-yield distributions between 232Th(n, f) and 238U(n, f) reactions were explained from different types of the potential energy between the two fissioning systems. The role of excitation energy was also investigated. (orig.)

  8. Fission Product Decay Heat Calculations for Neutron Fission of 232Th

    Son, P. N.; Hai, N. X.

    2016-06-01

    Precise information on the decay heat from fission products following times after a fission reaction is necessary for safety designs and operations of nuclear-power reactors, fuel storage, transport flasks, and for spent fuel management and processing. In this study, the timing distributions of fission products' concentrations and their integrated decay heat as function of time following a fast neutron fission reaction of 232Th were exactly calculated by the numerical method with using the DHP code.

  9. Standard guide for the determination of uranium-232 in uranium hexafluoride

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This method covers the determination of 232U in uranium hexafluoride by alpha spectrometry. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Radiationless transition probabilities in muonic 208Pb, 232Th, and 238U

    The probabilities for non-radiative (n.r.) excitations Pn.r. in the muonic nuclides 208Pb, 232Th, and 238U have been determined for (μ-, γγ)-measurements by comparing the intensities of muonic X-ray transitions in single and coincidence spectra. The value of Pn.r. (3p→1s), measured for the first time, is about 90% for the actinides 232Th and 238U, but only about 8% for 208Pb. The value of Pn.r. (3d→1s) is found to be 10% for 233Th, 13% for 238U, and about 4% for 208Pb. For 208Pb a vanishing strength of the n.r. decay of the 2p-level is found, while for 232Th and for 238U n.r. strengths of about 20% and 26%, respectively, are observed. By regarding two subcomplexes of the 2p→1s transitions leading to different mean excitation energies the n.r. transition probabilities were found to be different for 238U only, 21.6% and 31.1%, respectively. (orig.)

  11. Decontamination and decommissioning assessment for the Waste Incineration Facility (Building 232-Z) Hanford Site, [Hanford], WA

    Building 232-Z is an element of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. From 1961 until 1972, plutonium-bearing combustible materials were incinerated in the building. Between 1972 and 1983, following shutdown of the incinerator, the facility was used for waste segregation activities. The facility was placed in retired inactive status in 1984 and classified as a Limited Control Facility pursuant to DOE Order 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, and 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. The current plutonium inventory within the building is estimated to be approximately 848 grams, the majority of which is retained within the process hood ventilation system. As a contaminated retired facility, Building 232-Z is included in the DOE Surplus Facility Management Program. The objective of this Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) assessment is to remove Building 232-Z, thereby elmininating the radiological and environmental hazards associated with the plutonium inventory within the structure. The steps to accomplish the plan objectives are: (1) identifying the locations of the most significant amounts of plutonium, (2) removing residual plutonium, (3) removing and decontaminating remaining building equipment, (4) dismantling the remaining structure, and (5) closing out the project

  12. Distribution of 137Cs, 40K, 238U and 232Th in soils from Northern Venezuela

    More than one hundred undisturbed soil samples form Northern Venezuela and the islands of Margarita and Los Roques have been analyzed for 137Cs, 40K, 238U and 232Th by γ-ray spectroscopy. The specimens were taken from between 5-10 cm below the earth's surface. Thus, they are valid not only for the 137Cs deposition studies but also for the estimation of the natural γ-ray dose from primordial radionuclides that form the terrestrial component. The concentrations of 40K was directly determined from its 1461 keV γ-ray, while those of 137Cs, 238U and 232Th were performed using a γ-ray from one of their daughter radionuclides: the 661 keV γ-ray of 137mBa for 137Cs, the 1760 keV γ-ray of 214Bi for 238U and the 2620 keV γ-ray of 208Tl for 232Th. Finally, the concentration values were compared with those of global estimates. (author) 15 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Caixa Postal 05508-000, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: Pscsilva@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. {sup 232} Th and {sup 228} Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. {sup 232} Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg{sup -1} with mean value of 57 {+-} 39 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 42 samples. {sup 228} Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 74 {+-} 23 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of {sup 232} Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  14. Radioactive secular equilibrium in 238U and 232Th series in granitoids from Greece

    Granitoid rocks belonging to plutons of Greece, covering a wide range of compositions and rock-types, have been studied for their specific activity (Bq/kg) of 238U and 226Ra from 238U radioactive series and 228Ra and 228Th from 232Th radioactive series by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Results on the radioactive secular equilibrium of both 238U and 232Th radioactive series are presented by studying the 226Ra/238U and 228Ra/228Th ratios. The majority of the samples are in radioactive secular equilibrium for 226Ra/238U±1σ. However, several samples exhibit 226Ra/238U ratios significantly different from 1. The distortion of the secular equilibrium in the 226Ra–238U isotopic system of those samples has occurred over the last 1 Ma, and can be associated with post-magmatic processes, mainly rock–water interactions. All studied samples have 228Ra/228Th ratios equal to unity ±1σ. Consequently, they can be considered to be in secular equilibrium for the last 40 a. - Highlights: ► Generally, a strong correlation between 238U and 226Ra is obvious. ► Post-magmatic processes caused radioactive disequilibrium in the 238U isotopic system. ► All samples are in radioactive secular equilibrium in the 232Τh isotopic system. ► There is no correlation between mineralogy, texture, colour, age and the isotopic ratios studied

  15. 232Th, 233Pa, and 234U capture cross-section measurements in moderated neutron flux

    The Th-U cycle was studied through the evolution of a 100 μg 232Th sample irradiated in a moderated neutron flux of 8.01014 n/cm2/s, intensity close to that of a thermal molten salt reactor. After 43 days of irradiation and 6 months of cooling, a precise mass spectrometric analysis, using both TIMS and MC-ICP-MS techniques, was performed, according to a rigorous methodology. The measured thorium and uranium isotopic ratios in the final irradiated sample were then compared with integral simulations based on evaluated data; an overall good agreement was seen. Four important thermal neutron-capture cross-sections were also extracted from the measurements, 232Th (7.34±0.21 b), 233Pa (38.34±1.78 b), 234U (106.12±3.34 b), and 235U (98.15±11.24 b). Our 232Th and 235U results confirmed existing values whereas the cross-sections of 233Pa and 234U (both key parameters) have been redefined

  16. Neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections of 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu

    Differential-neutron-emission cross sections of 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu are measured between approx. = 1.0 and 3.5 MeV with the angle and magnitude detail needed to provide angle-integrated emission cross sections to approx. 232Th, 233U, 235U and 238U inelastic-scattering values, poor agreement is observed for 240Pu, and a serious discrepancy exists in the case of 239Pu

  17. Update of 233U, 229-232Th and 230-233Pa Fission Data

    The influence of the 235U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) on modeling of integral benchmarks was estimated to be significant. For 233U(n,f) PFNS similar sensitivities could be envisaged. For the variety of Th/U fuels and systems, ranging from metal fast to deep thermal solutions, large positive/negative swings in calculated Keff can be expected. Th/U fuelled core criticality calculations would be sensitive to the modelled soft tail of fission neutrons or deficiency of hard tail fission neutrons, as revealed for U and Pu fuels. The deficiency of the 233U(nth,f) PFNS, adopted for the ENDF/B-VII.0. could be traced back to the 'propagation' of calculated 235U(nth,f) PFNS shape at En= 0.5 MeV. At higher energies, average energies of PFNS coincide only at ∼5 MeV, at other En the average energies and spectra shapes are drastically different. However, it might be argued that the response of the criticality benchmark calculations for the 233U thermal and fast systems would be similar to that observed for the PFNS of 239Pu. Our approach allowed to solve the longstanding problem of inconsistency of 235U integral data testing and differential prompt fission neutron spectra data, a similar approach may hold for 233U. Using modified PFNS, we may avoid arbitrary tweaking of neutron cross sections or neutron multiplicities for Th/U fuel-cycle related nuclides (233U, 229,230,231,232Th and 230,231,232,233Pa) to compensate the ill-defined shape of 233U PFNS. For metal fast benchmarks much would depend on the inelastic scattering cross section of 233U, which should be considered rather uncertain at the moment. The unrealistic evaluations of poorly investigated cross sections related to the Th/U fuel cycle could be excluded by consistent analysis of the available fission data base. The evaluation of 229,230,231,232Th(n,f) and 230,231,232,233Pa(n,f) cross sections could be supplemented by description of surrogate and ratio surrogate fission data, coming from

  18. S232祖克浆纱机的改造实践%Reformation Practice of SUCKER S232 Sizing Machine

    刘安君; 窦海萍

    2009-01-01

    为解决祖克S232浆纱机织轴卷绕故障率高、烘燥温度不稳定、压浆力调节装置失控、经轴退绕张力不稳定等问题,进行了技术改造。通过采用多单元技术对织轴卷绕装置进行了两单元改造,对温控系统、压浆力调节装置以及经轴退绕装置采用了可编程PLC控制技术,改造后提高了机器的自动化程度,降低了设备故障率,提高了浆纱质量。

  19. Studies on 232Th and 238U levels in marine algae collected from the coast of Niigata Prefecture

    To evaluate the properties of algae to concentrate radioactive elements, 14 species of algae like Sargassum were collected in the Prefecture and analyzed for their 232Th and 238U levels with Yokogawa HP4500 ICP-MS apparatus. The places of collection included those near the water discharge of an atomic power station. Mean 232Th and 238U levels were found to be 120 and 260 ng/g dry wt, respectively, and Phaeophyta showed more than several times higher 238U level than Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. There was no clear difference in 232Th levels. No difference between places of collection was observed in Sargassum 232Th or 238U level. Adsorption of 232Th particle to and incorporation of soluble 238U into algae body were suggested. Mean 232Th and 238U radioactivities were found 73 and 510 μBq/g wet wt, respectively, and the respective annual committed effective doses, 0.2 and 0.3 μSv, calculated from those values were confirmed to be enough lower than the annual public dose limit, 1 mSv. (K.H.)

  20. 基于RS232-USB转换器及LabVIEW平台下温湿度采集系统的设计%Design of test program for RS232-USB converter

    周静; 张蕾; 南洋

    2012-01-01

    本文将RS232-USB转换器及虚拟仪器技术应用于温湿度测量中,以LabVIEW为软件开发平台,以计算机为核心,配上传感器、RS232-LJSB转换器和相应软件,针对室内环境的温湿度进行实时精确的采集及测量,编写了数据处理程序和人机交互界面,将结果通过人机交互界面以数字的方式进行实时显示,显示了虚拟仪器技术在温湿度测量中应用的灵活性和其功能的强大性,同时体现了RS232-USB转换器的RS232串行口至USB口转换功能的稳定性。实验表明,该系统能实时准确地采集温湿度信息,并通过RS232口-USB口显示至PC上,达到了可视化的效果。%The application of the RS232-USB converter and virtual instrument in the measurement of temperature and humidity in the article, with LabVIEW as software development platform, using the computer as the core, with the sensor, the RS232-USB converter and the corresponding software, the indoor temperature and humidity of the environment, precise real-time collection and measurement, a data processing program and human-computer interaction interface, will the results man-machine interface to the digital approach for real-time display, display of virtual instrument technology in the measurement of temperature and humidity application flexibility and its function of the powerful ,At the same time reflects the RS232-USB converter RS232 serial port to the USB conversion function stability .Based on the experiment, the system can real-time and accurate acquisition of temperature and humidity information, and through RS232 - USB port display to the PC, achieved the visual effect.

  1. Exploring quasifission characteristics for +232Th34S forming 266Sg

    Prasad, E.; Wakhle, A.; Hinde, D. J.; Williams, E.; Dasgupta, M.; Evers, M.; Luong, D. H.; Mohanto, G.; Simenel, C.; Vo-Phuoc, K.

    2016-02-01

    Background: Fission fragments from heavy ion collisions with actinide nuclei show mass-asymmetric and mass-symmetric components. The relative probabilities of these two components vary rapidly with beam energy with respect to the capture barrier, indicating a strong dependence on the alignment of the deformed nucleus with the partner in the collisions. Purpose: To study the characteristics of the mass-asymmetric quasifission component by reproducing the experimental mass-angle distributions to investigate mass evolution and sticking times. Methods: Fission fragment mass-angle distributions were measured for the +232Th34S reaction. Simulations to match the measurements were made by using a classical phenomenological approach. Mass ratio distributions and angular distributions of the mass-asymmetric quasifission component were simultaneously fit to constrain the free parameters used in the simulation. Results: The mass-asymmetric quasifission component—predominantly originating from tip (axial) collisions with the prolate deformed 232Th —is found to be peaked near A =200 at all energies and center-of-mass angles. A Monte Carlo model using the standard mass equilibration time constant of 5.2 ×10-21 s predicts more symmetric mass splits. Three different hypotheses assuming (i) a mass halt at A =200 , (ii) a slower mass equilibration time, or (iii) a Fermi-type mass drift function reproduced the main experimental features. Conclusions: In tip collisions for the +232Th34S reaction, mass-asymmetric fission with A ˜200 is the dominant outcome. The average sticking time is found to be ˜7 ×10-21 s, independent of the scenario used for mass evolution.

  2. Photo-fission of 232Th and 238U at intermediate energies

    Deppman, A.(Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil); Andrade-II, E.; Guimaraes, V.; Demekhina, N. A.; Karapetyan, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an analysis of the yields of fission fragments induced by bremsstrahlung photons with endpoint energies of 50 and 3500 MeV on 232Th and 238U targets using the simulation code CRISP. A multimodal fission option was added to this code and an extension of the calculation to the properties of the fission products is presented. By dividing the fissioning nuclei according to their fissionability, an approach is introduced which accounts for the contribution of symmetric and ...

  3. Preparation of radionuclide 212Pb by emanation technique of 232Th

    The paper is focused on preparation of radionuclide 212Pb for its further application. 212Pb radioisotope has radiogenic origin of a series of 232Th. The given radionuclide 212Pb (10.6 h) was captured from Th-source on niobium emmanator shims by influence of electric field at a voltage of 310 V. 212Pb was then eluted from the shims to dilute solution of HNO3. 212Pb thus prepared in this way was then applied at radioindicator study of adsorption processes of clay rocks - bentonites.

  4. Hard synchrotron BL Lacs: the case of 1ES 1101-232

    Wolter, Anna; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Caccianiga, Alessandro

    2000-01-01

    The bright X-ray selected BL Lac object 1ES1101--232 shows a flat X-ray spectrum, making it detectable with high statistics over the wide BeppoSAX energy range. We have observed it in two different epochs with BeppoSAX, and found a variation of the flux of about 30% that can be explained by a change in the spectral index above the synchrotron peak. We present here the data and infer limits on the strength of the magnetic field based on models of emission for High-frequency peaked BL Lacs.

  5. Radiative capture yield of thorium-232 from 100 to 4000 ev

    The neutron capture yield in two /sup 232/Th samples (0.0008 and 0.0027 atom/b, respectively) was measured with the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator time-of-flight facility over incident neutron energies from 100 to 4000 eV. A detailed comparison of the measured capture yields with calculations based on ENDF/B-V resonance parameters suggests that above 500 eV the evaluation needs additional work; in particular, the average capture appears systematically underestimated. 28 refs

  6. Spatial variability of initial 230Th/ 232Th in modern Porites from the inshore region of the Great Barrier Reef

    Clark, Tara R.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Done, Terry J.; Jupiter, Stacy; Lough, Janice; Pandolfi, John M.

    2012-02-01

    The main limiting factor in obtaining precise and accurate uranium-series (U-series) ages of corals that lived during the last few hundred years is the ability to constrain and correct for initial thorium-230 ( 230Th 0), which is proportionally much higher in younger samples. This is becoming particularly important in palaeoecological research where accurate chronologies, based on the 230Th chronometer, are required to pinpoint changes in coral community structure and the timing of mortality events in recent time (e.g. since European settlement of northern Australia in the 1850s). In this study, thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) U-series dating of 43 samples of known ages collected from living Porites spp. from the far northern, central and southern inshore regions of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) was performed to spatially constrain initial 230Th/ 232Th ( 230Th/ 232Th 0) variability. In these living Porites corals, the majority of 230Th/ 232Th 0 values fell within error of the conservative bulk Earth 230Th/ 232Th atomic value of 4.3 ± 4.3 × 10 -6 (2 σ) generally assumed for 230Th 0 corrections where the primary source is terrestrially derived. However, the results of this study demonstrate that the accuracy of 230Th ages can be further improved by using locally determined 230Th/ 232Th 0 values for correction, supporting the conclusion made by Shen et al. (2008) for the Western Pacific. Despite samples being taken from regions adjacent to contrasting levels of land modification, no significant differences were found in 230Th/ 232Th 0 between regions exposed to varying levels of sediment during river runoff events. Overall, 39 of the total 43 230Th/ 232Th 0 atomic values measured in samples from inshore reefs across the entire region show a normal distribution ranging from 3.5 ± 1.1 to 8.1 ± 1.1 × 10 -6, with a weighted mean of 5.76 ± 0.34 × 10 -6 (2 σ, MSWD = 8.1). Considering the scatter of the data, the weighted mean value with a more

  7. Laboratory Bioaccumulation, Depuration And Total Dose Rate Of Waterborne Th-232 In Freshwater Fish Of Anabas Testudineus

    Preliminary results on the study of bioaccumulation, depuration and total dose rate of Th-232 in the whole body of Anabas testudineus are presented. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Th-232 concentration activity on the laboratory bioaccumulation, depuration and total dose rate in Anabas testudineus. Anabas testudineus adults were exposed to different waterborne Th-232 levels: 0 BqL-1 (control), 50 BqL-1 and 100 BqL-1 for 30 day (uptake phase), followed by exposure to radionuclide-free water for 30 days (loss phase). Radionuclide concentration ratios between the whole body levels and water levels, percentage of Th-232 remaining in fish were calculated and total dose rates using ERICA Assessment Tool were also estimated. The results showed the increase of waterborne Th-232 concentration corresponded to a progressive increase of Th accumulation and total dose rate (internal and external) in the whole body of Anabas testudineus. Considering the ERICA dose rate screening value of 10 μGyh-1, the findings can be concluded the estimated of total dose rate (< 5 μGyh-1) in Anabas testudineus is in order of small magnitude. Nevertheless, these preliminary results showed that the Anabas testudineus has a potential to accumulate thorium. (author)

  8. Studies of positron electron pair production in {sup 238}U + {sup 232}Th

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Following the non-observation of sharp sum-energy lines in our earlier {sup 238}U + {sup 181}Ta measurements, it was decided to pursue measurements of the {sup 238}U + {sup 232}Th system which, in the previously published work, showed the most striking evidence for near-equal-energy back-to-back pairs leading to sharp sum-energy lines. Following the refurbishing of the APEX silicon arrays and extensive tests of the rotating target wheel assembly, a major positron run took place in November 1994. Rolled 1-mg/cm{sub 2} {sup 232}Th targets were bombarded with 5.95-MeV/u {sup 238}U. The target rotation allowed up to 2 pnA of beam to be used without serious deterioration of the targets. Over 300,000 pairs were accumulated, representing an order-of-magnitude improvement in statistics over the previously published results. Preliminary analysis shows no evidence for the sharp lines at a cross section level orders of magnitude below those previously reported. The analysis of these data is currently being completed in preparation for publication.

  9. A family with an inverted tandem duplication 5q22.1q23.2.

    Schmidt, T; Bartels, I; Liehr, T; Burfeind, P; Zoll, B; Shoukier, M

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report a 3-year-old boy with short stature, developmental delay and mild facial dysmorphic signs. Karyotype analysis and array-CGH revealed a pure duplication 5q22.1q23.2 with a length of 14.25 Mb. As demonstrated by multicolor-fluorescence in situ hybridization, the duplicated segment was orientated in an inverted tandem manner. One of the 2 older half-brothers of the index patient was intellectually disabled and showed short stature as well. The mother of the siblings was only 149 cm in height. The affected half-brother as well as the mother of the siblings were tested positive for the same duplication. Duplications of the long arm of chromosome 5 are rare. There are 16 reported cases of different 5q segments with a pure duplication and no additional chromosomal imbalance. In order to refine the 5q-duplication phenotype, reported cases were recently classified in 3 groups on the basis of clinical findings and the involved chromosome segments. However, our case does not fit in any of these groups but is placed in the interjacent chromosomal area between 2 of these groups. Overall, this is the second reported family with a duplication of 5q22.1q23.2 and both families share phenotypic features like short stature, facial dysmorphic signs and speech delay. The reported family provides further information for delineating phenotype-genotype correlations of pure duplications of the 5q region. PMID:23051634

  10. Natural activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K in building materials

    Seven kinds of building materials were analysed for 238U, 232Th and 40K using a direct γ-counting method. The activity concentrations measured for 238U (30-448 Bq kg-1) and 40K (328-7541 Bq kg-1) were greater than the world average activity for soil (25 and 370 Bq kg-1, respectively) for all building materials analysed, while the activity concentrations of 232Th were found to exceed the average of 25 Bq kg-1 (soil) for red-clay brick (51 Bq kg-1) and ceiling asbestos sheet materials (162 Bq kg-1). The calculated Ra equivalent activities (Raeq) for all materials are higher than the world average value for soil (89 Bq kg-1). For red-clay brick and ceiling asbestos, the Raeq values are found to exceed the limit of 370 Bq kg-1, equivalent to a γ-dose of 1.5 mSv yr-1. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. High resolution photofission measurements in 238U and 232Th. Final report

    A novel technique for measuring the photofission cross section with very high photon energy resolution has been developed. The photons are obtained from selected resonances in the (p,γ) reaction on various light nuclei. The photon energy resolution approaches 200 eV in favorable cases. The photon energy spread at each (p,γ) resonance is approx.20 keV on the average. Measurements of the photo-fission cross sections of 232Th and 238U have been carried out in the energy range from 5.8 to 12 MeV. Intermediate structure has been found in both nuclei at excitation energies around 6 MeV. Various properties of this structure, such as average areas of resonances, their spacing, width, and the underlying bakground, as well as the experimental fission probability averaged over the intermediate structure have been found to agree with theoretical predictions based on a double-humped fission barrier. In the case of 232Th, the feature of this barrier, a rather high first hump and a deep secondary well, are quite different from those predicted by current theoretial barrier calculations. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Determination of specific concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th in mineral fertilizer samples

    The use of fertilizer is an established practice worldwide to promote agricultural productivity increased without increasing the planted area, resulting in native forests protection and increase of the food availability. Some kinds of fertilizer have in their chemical composition some radionuclides due the origin of its feedstock, such as 238U, the 232Th, and their descendants, beyond 40K. Knowledge of the radioactivity levels in the environment is great importance to know the gamma radiation dose that the human being is exposed. For identification and quantitation of radionuclides, it was used gamma spectrometry where HPGe detector was used to obtain the spectra, and LabSOCS software for calculating the detection efficiency for each energy. The values of 232Th specific concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 368.1 Bq.Kg-1, the values of 238U specific concentrations ranged from 16.0 to 647.7 Bq.Kg-1 and 40K specific concentrations ranged from 19.1 to 12713 Bq.Kg-1. Concentrations of values are consistent with those found in literature. (author)

  13. Analysis on Forensic Identification of Family Violence in 232 Cases%232例家庭暴力损伤法医学鉴定分析

    张鹏坤

    2006-01-01

    目的研究家庭暴力损伤的法医学特点.方法对232例家庭暴力案件资料按年龄、文化程度、职业、凶器、损伤部位、时间列表进行统计学处理.结果家庭暴力具有较强的隐蔽性的特点,多发生在家中及夜间;被鉴定人的心理较复杂、年龄多集中在26~35岁之间、小学到中专之间随着文化程度的增高鉴定的比例呈上升趋势,有职业者多于无职业者,城镇明显多于农村.结论被鉴定人的心理、年龄、文化程度、职业与法医学鉴定的关系密切,对遏止家庭暴力的发生具有重要意义.

  14. 基于C8051F040的CAN总线与RS-232通信设计%Design of communication between CAN bus and RS-232 based on C8051F040

    盛伟荃; 曾连荪

    2014-01-01

    为了实现对CAN总线和RS-232串口双向通信需求,提出了一种基于C8051F040单片机的数据通信方案,并完成系统设计.分析了CAN总线和RS-232串口的通信特点,介绍了单片机硬件,并对软件的设计思路与流程做了详尽描述,完成功能检测.实验结果表明,该设计达到了要求.

  15. Computational investigation of 99Mo production yield via proton irradiation of natU and 232Th targets

    Accelerators have some advantages such as safety and cheaper operating and decommissioning costs for 99Mo production. Yield theoretical calculation using computational codes can powerfully estimate usefulness of a proposed nuclear reaction for a routine manufacturing. In this work, Monte Carlo-based code was used to compute 99Mo yield in 232Th and natU proton-irradiated targets, as well as maximum applicable beam current. Results showed that the code well agrees with published experimental data. The targets can bear maximum beam current of 30 µA. Targets from 232Th provides higher 99Mo yield. - Highlights: • Accelerators have a number of advantages over nuclear reactors for 99Mo radioisotope production. • Computational yield calculation can powerfully estimate a proposed nuclear reaction usefulness. • Proton-fission induced reactions on 232Th and natU thick targets result in desirable yield of 99Mo. • Deposited heat calculations determines maximum bearable proton current by the targets

  16. Novel Mutations L228I and Y232H Cause Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Resistance in Combinational Pattern.

    Zhang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Qiwei; Wu, Hao; Lau, Terrence Chi-Kong; Liu, Xuan; Chu, Hin; Zhang, Ke; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Jin, Dong-Yan; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of drug resistance mutations is increasing after the implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. To characterize two novel mutations L228I and Y232H in the primer grip of reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1 circulating recombination form 08_BC (CRF08_BC) subtype, both mutant clones were constructed to determine their impacts on viral phenotypic susceptibility and replication capacity (RC). Results showed that the novel mutation, L228I, conferred a low-level resistance to etravirine by itself. L228I in combination with Y188C displayed a high level of cross-resistance to both nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz (EFV). The copresence of A139V and Y232H induced a moderate level of resistance to NVP and EFV. Mutations Y188C/L228I, A139V, Y232H, and A139V/Y232H reduced more than 55% of viral RC compared with that of the wild-type (WT) reference virus. Modeling study suggested that the copresence of Y188C/L228I or A139V/Y232H might induce conformational changes to RT, which might result in reduced drug susceptibility and viral RC due to abolished hydrogen bonding or complex interaction with vicinal residues. Our results demonstrated that L228I and Y232H were novel accessory nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance-related mutations and provided valuable information for clinicians to design more effective treatment to patients infected with HIV-1 subtype CRF08_BC. PMID:27067022

  17. Radioactivity of Natural Nuclides (40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra) in Coals from Eastern Yunnan, China

    Xin Wang; Qiyan Feng; Ruoyu Sun; Guijian Liu

    2015-01-01

    The naturally occurring primordial radionuclides in coals might exhibit high radioactivity, and can be exported to the surrounding environment during coal combustion. In this study, nine coal samples were collected from eastern Yunnan coal deposits, China, aiming at characterizing the overall radioactivity of some typical nuclides (i.e., 40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra) and assessing their ecological impact. The mean activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 226Ra are 63.86 (17.70–92.30 Bq· kg-...

  18. Prompt γ-rays from the Fast Neutron Induced Fission on 235,238U and 232Th

    Lebois, M.; Wilson, J. N.; Halipré, P.; Leniau, B.; Matea, I.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Verney, D.

    Preliminary results from the first experiment using the LICORNE neutron source at the IPN Orsay are presented. Prompt fission gamma rays from fast-neutron induced fission of 238U, 232Th and 235U were detected. Thick samples of around 50 g of 238U and 232Th are used for the first part of the experiment. An ionisation chamber containing ∼ 10 mg samples of 238U and 235U to provide a fission trigger is used for the second part of the experiment. Gamma rays have been detected using 17 high efficiency BaF2 detectors and 6 LaBr3 scintillator detectors.

  19. Fission Fragment Angular Distribution of 232Th(n,f) at the CERN n_TOF Facility

    Tarrío, D; Audouin, L; Duran, I.; Paradela, C.; Tassan-Got, L; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T J; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    The angular distribution of fragments emitted in neutron-induced fission of Th-232 was measured in the white spectrum neutron beam at the n\\_TOF facility at CERN. A reaction chamber based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) was used, where the detectors and the targets have been tilted 45 degrees with respect to the neutron beam direction in order to cover the full angular range of the fission fragments. A GEANT4 simulation has been developed to study the setup efficiency. The data analysis and the preliminary results obtained for the Th-232(n,f) between fission threshold and 100 MeV are presented here.

  20. Assessment of environmental radioactivity (238U, 232Th and 40K) and radiological mapping of Tata Nagar city (Jharkhand), India

    Study on the natural radioactivity concentration levels (238U, 232Th and 40K) in soil samples of Tata Nagar city obtained from seven locations at Tata Nagar city, India was undertaken and the results of the same are reported. In addition, radiological mapping of natural background gamma radiation levels was carried out throughout Tata Nagar city using vehicle based Mobile monitoring technique and the same is presented here. The activity concentrations were assayed and estimated for 238U, 232Th and 40K isotopes in Bq/Kg, using gamma ray spectrometry and the radiation dose rates were estimated. (author)

  1. 232Th(d,4n)230Pa cross-section measurements at ARRONAX facility

    Full text of publication follows. The ARRONAX cyclotron [Ref.1], acronym for 'Accelerator for Research in Radiochemistry and Oncology at Nantes Atlantique' is a new facility installed in Nantes, France. A dedicated program has been launched on production of innovative radionuclides for PET imaging and for β- and α- targeted radiotherapy using proton or α particle. Since the accelerator is also able to deliver deuteron beams up to 35 MeV, we have reconsidered the possibility to use them to produce medical isotopes. In this study, we have focused on cross section measurements using the stacked-foil technique [Ref. 2] of one isotope dedicated to alpha radio-immunotherapy (α RIT) [Ref.3], 226Th which can be produced through different routes. It's of great interest since it has been found to be a more potent alpha particle emitter for leukemia therapies than Bi213 [Ref.4]. Indeed, the 226Th decay produced a cascade of four α particles with a cumulated energy of 27.7 MeV. An additional interest is the possible use of a radionuclide generator system 230U/226Th. 230U could be produced directly via 231Pa(p, 2n)230U, and indirectly via 230Pa using proton or deuteron beams through 232Th(p, 3n)230Pa → 230U, 232Th(d, 4n)230Pa → 230U. Twelve data sets are published concerning the 230Pa cross section induced by proton [Ref 5], only one by deuteron [Ref.6]. As sometimes deuteron induced reaction gives higher cross section values, it seems interesting to focus our study on their use as projectile on 232Th target to produce 230Pa. Contaminants created during irradiation are also measured since a good optimization of the process is supposed to find the best compromise between production yield and purity of the final product. Our new sets of data are compared with the existing data [Refs.5,6] on other existing production routes and with results given by TALYS code calculations [Ref.7]. References: 1] F. Haddad and al., Eur. J. Med. Mol. Imaging (2008) 35

  2. Spectroscopy of 232U in the (p,t) reaction: More information on 0+ states

    Levon, A I; Graw, G; Yertenberger, R; Pascu, S; Thirolf, P G; Wirth, H -F

    2016-01-01

    The excitation spectra in the deformed nucleus 232U have been studied by means of the (p,t) reaction, using the Q3D spectrograph facility at the Munich Tandem accelerator. The angular distributions of tritons were measured for 162 excitations seen in the triton spectra up to 3.25 MeV. 0+ assignments are made for 13 excited states by comparison of experimental angular distributions with the calculated ones using the CHUCK3 code. Assignments up to spin 6+ are made for other states. Sequences of states are selected which can be treated as rotational bands. Moments of inertia have been derived from these sequences, whose values may be considered as evidence of the two- or one-phonon nature of these 0+ excitations. Experimental data are compared with interacting boson model (IBM) and quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM) calculations.

  3. Evaluation of the 232Th neutron capture cross section above 3 keV

    This memo describes an evaluation of the 232Th neutron capture cross section in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 20 MeV. Most existing differential measurements are reviewed, and some data are renormalized to current values of the standards. Several experimentally determined sets of average resonance parameters are also discussed. From 3 to 50 keV the evaluated cross section is described by a set of average statistical resonance parameters. Above 50 keV the evaluated capture cross section is a smooth curve which follows the trend of the most recent measurements. The evaluated capture cross section is compared with many measurements and uncertainty estimates are given

  4. Study on the formation of fission isomer via 232Th + α reaction

    The formation of fission isomer through 232Th+α reaction is studied using the distance-recoil method, employing policarbonate MAKROFOL detector. The total isomeric half-life measured has the value T1/2 = 0.23 ± 0.03 ns and an ratio of formation of isomeric fission relative to prompt fission(σi/σp =0.75x10-5). According to the energy of incident particle (Eα = 28 MeV), the cross-sections presented in the literature and the low value found for the total isomeric half-life, we attribute these half-life value to the 234U isomer (even-even nucleus). The results were compared with those existent in the literature (La69, E170, Re70, Wo70, Po70, Br71) for this isomer. (author)

  5. Measurement of the probability of 232Th ternary fission induced by fast neutrons

    Results obtained by measuring the energy dependence of the probability of 232Th ternary fission in the region of vibrational resonances are presented. The measurements were performed by using a double ionization chamber with Frisch grids and a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector. The use of digital methods for pulse processing made it possible to obtain highly reliable results. The data analysis reveals that our value of the ternary-fission probability is compatible with existing systematics, which nevertheless need some correction. The results of our measurements unambiguously indicate that local variations in the total kinetic energy of fission fragments in the region of the individual vibrational resonances cannot be explained by corresponding variations in the ternary-fission probability

  6. Integral Fission Cross Section Ratios of Th232, U236 and U238 Relative to U235 in the Neutron Spectrum Produced by 23.2 MeV Deuterons Incident on a Thick Be Metal Target

    Integral neutron fission cross section ratios have been measured for Th232 /U238 , U23S/U235 and U236/U235 in the neutron field produced by bombardment of a thick Be metal target with 23.2 MeV deuterons. Validation of Th232, U236, U23S fission cross sections in a high energy neutron continuum spectrum is the object of this work. The neutron spectrum in the irradiation site has been obtained by unfolding of the neutron induced activity of eleven selected reactions. The average standard deviation between calculated activities with SAND-II unfolding code and the experimental input activities was 2.5%. Calculated values of the fission cross section ratios were obtained from, the ENDF/B-y evaluated library of cross sections and the measured spectrum. These ratios were not sensitive (<0.7%) to quite different SAND-II input spectra assumed in the low energy spectrum range (0.5 to 2. MeV). Analysis of error sources, errors propagation and their correlations was made and the correlation matrix of the experimental results was calculated. The experimental and calculated values obtained are consistent within the errors. Examination of the fissile ratios measured in other continuum neutron spectra shows a similar consistency in the spectrum produced by 7 MeV deuterons on Be. However in Cf252 and thermal U235 fission neutron spectra, a large discrepancy is found for Th232. (author)

  7. 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K in wheat flour samples of Iraq markets

    Ali Abid Abojassim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Wheat flour is a nutritious type of food that is widely consumed by various age groups in Iraq. This study investigates the presence of long-lived gamma emitters in different type of wheat flour in Iraqi market. Materials and methods. Uranium (238 U, Thorium (232 Th and Potassium (40 K specific activity in (Bq/kg were measured in (12 different types of wheat flours that are available in Iraqi markets. The gamma spectrometry method with a NaI(Tl detector has been used for radiometric measurements. Also in this study we have calculated the internal hazard index, radium equivalent and absorbed dose rate in all samples. Results and discussion. It is found that the specific activity in wheat flour samples were varied from (1.086±0.0866 Bq/kg to (12.532±2.026 Bq/kg with an average (6.6025 Bq/kg for 238 U, For 232 Th From (0.126±0.066 Bq/kg to (4.298±0.388 Bq/kg with an average (1.9465Bq/kg and for 40 K from (41.842±5.875 Bq/kg to (264.729±3.843 Bq/kg with an average (133.097 Bq/kg. Also, it is found that the radium equivalent and the internal hazard index in wheat flour samples ranged from (3.4031 Bq/kg to (35.1523 Bq/kg with an average (19.6346 Bq/kg and from (0.0091 to (0.1219 with an average (0.0708 respectively. Conclusion. This study prove that the natural radioactivity and radiation hazard indices were lower than the safe.

  8. Data acquisition from vacuum gage controlled by RS-232 standard using LabVIEW

    This paper deals with the problem of connecting a microcontroller-based vacuum gage to a personal computer, using the RS-232 hardware standard and the software LabVIEW and his collection of virtual instruments from National Instruments. To solve the problem an instrument driver was created. This provided the customer with a perfect solution for the remote control and data acquisition from an Intel 80CXX microcontroller-based vacuum gage. The remote control making use of an IBM-PC was design and manufactured in our institute. In order to make it intelligent the device was provided with a microprocessor or a microcontroller. To fulfill the requirements a vacuum gage with an 80C31 microcontroller and two Bayard-Alpert ion gauges, for very low pressures (10-3 to 10-7 mbar) and low pressure (10 mbar to 10-3 mbar) was built. Because this microcontroller has a built-in circuitry for a serial communication, we established a serial communication between the PC (Pentium -166 MHz) and the vacuum gage, according to the RS-232 hardware standard. Optimum selection of software development tools however, was not as straightforward. Most producers use the C/C++ - language programming tool for developing instrument drivers for their intelligent devices. One of the advantages of C/C++ is its speed, but the compilation and the high-level skill required for optimum programming do not fit well with some requirements, particularly those of versatility, upgradability and user friendliness. After careful evaluation of several options, a final decision was to develop a hybrid software package using two different software development tools: LabVIEW, and assembly language. We chose LabVIEW because it is dedicated to data acquisition and communications, containing libraries for data collection, analysis, presentation and storage. The assembly language for Intel 8051's microcontrollers family is used to write the firmware for the vacuum gage and arithmetic routines. (authors)

  9. 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K in wheat flour samples of Iraq markets

    A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Wheat flour is a nutritious type of food that is widely consumed by various age groups in Iraq. This study investigates the presence of long-lived gamma emitters in different type of wheat flour in Iraqi market. Materials and methods. Uranium ( 238 U, Thorium ( 232 Th and Potassium ( 40 K specific activity in (Bq/kg were measured in (12 different types of wheat flours that are available in Iraqi markets. The gamma spectrometry method with a NaI(Tl detector has been used for radiometric measurements. Also in this study we have calculated the internal hazard index, radium equivalent and absorbed dose rate in all samples. Results and discussion. It is found that the specific activity in wheat flour samples were varied from (1.086±0.0866 Bq/kg to (12.532±2.026 Bq/kg with an average (6.6025 Bq/kg for 238 U, For 232 Th From (0.126±0.066 Bq/kg to (4.298±0.388 Bq/kg with an average (1.9465Bq/kg and for 40 K from (41.842±5.875 Bq/kg to (264.729±3.843 Bq/kg with an average (133.097 Bq/kg. Also, it is found that the radium equivalent and the internal hazard index in wheat flour samples ranged from (3.4031 Bq/kg to (35.1523 Bq/kg with an average (19.6346 Bq/kg and from (0.0091 to (0.1219 with an average (0.0708 respectively. Conclusion. This study prove that the natural radioactivity and radiation hazard indices were lower than the safe.

  10. Analysis of HIV antibody test results in 232 HIV/AIDS and their spouses or fixed sex partners%232例HIV/AIDS配偶/固定性伴HIV抗体检测结果分析

    徐智贤; 王志苏; 李春梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the infection status and sexual behavior of the HIVsexual transmission among HIV/AIDS and their spouses or fixed sex partners,and provide the basis for the prevention and spread of HIV infection.Methods:HIV antibody was detected in blood samples of HIV/AIDS cases and their spouses or fixed sex partners.Results:HIV antibody test results showed that 48 positive cases were found in 232 spouses of HIV/AIDS cases,the rate of HIV infection through sexual transmission was 20.69% (48/232).Among 31 positive male spouses,the HIV transmission rate of female-to-male was 21.68% (31/143); while in 17 positive female spouses,the HIV transmission rate of male-to-female was 19.10% (17/89).(x2 =0.222,P>0.05).The transmission rate of male-female and female-male had no significant statistical difference.HIV/AIDS and their spouses or fixed sex partners were at low education level,most were junior high school and below,accounting for 84.48% (196/232); The farmers ranked the top,accounting for 78.45% (182/232); The high peak age was between 30 and 39 years old,46.12% (107/232); The condom useage rate was extremely low.The couples with infection time interval less than three months accounted for 83.33% (40/48).Conclusion:It is effective to expand the detection range,carry out timely missionary and intervention,increase condom use for blocking the HIV transmission through sexual behaviors between spouses.%目的:掌握本市HIV/AIDS配偶/固定性伴感染现状,为预防该人群HIV感染和传播提供依据.方法:对已确认的HIV/AIDS配偶/固定性伴采血进行HIV抗体检测.结果:对232例配偶进行HIV抗体检测,检出阳性48例,配偶间传播率为20.69%(48/232).男配偶检出31例,女传男的概率为21.68%(31/143);女配偶检出17例,男传女的概率为19.10%(17/89).经x2检验,x2=0.222,P>0.05.男传女和女传男的HIV传播率差异无统计学意义.HIV/AIDS配偶/固定性伴文化

  11. 78 FR 32460 - Comment Request for Information Collection for ETA Form 232, Domestic Agricultural In-Season Wage...

    2013-05-30

    ... in an area of employment most logically correlates to the process used to determine the prevailing... handling of intrastate and interstate job clearance orders seeking workers to perform agricultural or food... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for ETA Form 232,...

  12. Measurement of fission products yields in the quasi-mono-energetic neutron-induced fission of 232Th

    Naik, H.; Mukherji, Sadhana; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Jagadeesan, K. C.; Thakare, S. V.; Sharma, S. C.

    2016-08-01

    The cumulative yields of various fission products in the 232Th(n, f) reaction at average neutron energies of 5.42, 7.75, 9.35 and 12.53 MeV have been determined by using an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The neutron beam was produced from the 7Li(p, n) reaction by using the proton energies of 7.8, 12, 16 and 20 MeV. The mass chain yields were obtained from the cumulative fission yields by using the charge distribution correction of medium energy fission. The fine structure in the mass yield distribution was interpreted from the point of nuclear structure effect. On the other hand, the higher yield around mass number 133-134 and 143-144 as well as their complementary products were explained based on the standard I and standard II asymmetric mode of fission. From the mass yield data, the average value of light mass (), heavy mass (), the average number of neutrons () and the peak-to-valley (P / V) ratios at different neutron energies of present work and literature data were obtained in the 232Th(n, f) reaction. The different parameters of the mass yield distribution in the 232Th(n, f) reaction were compared with the similar data in the 232Th(γ, f) reaction at comparable excitation energy and a surprising difference was observed.

  13. The first detection of the 232 GHz vibrationally excited H2O maser in Orion KL with ALMA

    Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the ALMA science verification data of Orion KL and found a spectral signature of the vibrationally excited H2O maser line at 232.68670 GHz (nu2=1, 5,5,0-6,4,3). This line has been detected in circumstellar envelopes of late-type stars so far but not in young stellar objects including Orion KL. Thus, this is the first detection of the 232 GHz vibrationally excited H2O maser in star-forming regions. The distribution of the 232 GHz maser is concentrated at the position of the radio Source I, which is remarkably different from other molecular lines. The spectrum shows a double-peak structure at the peak velocities of -2.1 and 13.3 km s-1. It appears to be consistent with the 22 GHz H2O masers and 43 GHz SiO masers observed around Source I. Thus, the 232 GHz H2O maser around Source I would be excited by the internal heating by an embedded protostar, being associated with either the root of the outflows/jets or the circumstellar disk around Source I, as traced by the 22 GHz H2O masers or 43 GHz SiO ...

  14. THE FIRST DETECTION OF THE 232 GHz VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED H2O MASER IN ORION KL WITH ALMA

    We investigated the ALMA science verification data of Orion KL and found a spectral signature of the vibrationally excited H2O maser line at 232.68670 GHz (ν2 = 1, 55,0-64,3). This line has been detected previously in circumstellar envelopes of late-type stars but not in young stellar objects such as Orion KL. Thus, this is the first detection of the 232 GHz vibrationally excited H2O maser in star-forming regions. The distribution of the 232 GHz maser is concentrated at the position of the radio Source I, which is remarkably different from other molecular lines. The spectrum shows a double-peak structure at the peak velocities of –2.1 and 13.3 km s–1. It appears to be consistent with the 22 GHz H2O masers and 43 GHz SiO masers observed around Source I. Thus, the 232 GHz H2O maser around Source I would be excited by the internal heating by an embedded protostar, being associated with either the root of the outflows/jets or the circumstellar disk around Source I, as traced by the 22 GHz H2O masers or 43 GHz SiO masers, respectively.

  15. The value of B(E2;3/2- → 1/2-) for 7Li

    Previous experimental information from the Coulomb excitation of the 1/2- first excited state of 7Li is discussed and reanalysed, giving B(E2;3/2- → 1/2-) = 7.59 ± 0.10e2fm4. 28 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  16. 48 CFR 52.232-34 - Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer-Other than Central Contractor Registration.

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.232-34 Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer... payment. (1) All payments by the Government under this contract shall be made by electronic funds transfer... governing Federal payments through the ACH are contained in 31 CFR part 210. (d) Suspension of payment....

  17. 42 CFR 457.232 - Refunding of Federal Share of CHIP overpayments to providers and referral of allegations of waste...

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refunding of Federal Share of CHIP overpayments to... Claims; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.232 Refunding of Federal Share of CHIP overpayments.... (a) Quarterly Federal payments to the States under title XXI (CHIP) of the Act are to be reduced...

  18. Concentration of 238U and 232Th among constituent minerals of two igneous plutonic rocks exhibiting elevated natural radioactivity levels

    The concentrations of 238U and 232Th of the constituent minerals in two plutonic rock samples, from N. Greece, exhibiting elevated levels of bulk rock natural radioactivity were determined by using LA-ICP-MS. The available data of whole rock 238U and 232Th concentrations were also used. The minerals were separated using a combination of heavy liquids of various densities, shaking table and magnetic separation techniques. The great variation in the concentrations of 238U and 232Th is probably indicative of the different distribution of U and Th within the same rock, as well as to secondary post-magmatic processes that were responsible for the redistribution of U and Th. An estimation of the contribution of each mineral constituent to the natural radioactivity levels of the bulk rock is attempted. Thorite and zircon contribute the most to the whole rock 238U and 232Th content, while the contribution of apatite is moderate. The contribution of the rest of the minerals examined (fluorite, quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, amphibole, pyroxene, magnetite and biotite) is not important. (author)

  19. Measurement of Fragment Mass Distributions in Neutron-induced Fission of 238U and 232Th at Intermediate Energies

    Conceptual analysis of accelerator-driven systems assumes extensive use of nuclear data on neutron-induced reactions at intermediate energies. In particular, information about the fission fragment yields from the 238U(n,f) and 232Th(n,f) reactions is of particular interest at neutron energies from 10 to 200 MeV. However, there is a lack of such data for both 238U and 232Th. Up to now, the intermediate energy measurements have been performed for 238U only, and there are no data for the 232Th(n,f) reaction. The aim of the work is to provide such data. Fission fragment mass distributions for the 232Th(n,f) and 238U(n,f) reactions have been measured for the incident neutron energies 32.8 MeV, 45.3 MeV and 59.9 MeV. The experiments have been performed at the neutron beam facility of the Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium. A multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber has been used as a fission fragment detector. The data obtained have been interpreted in terms of the multimodal random neck-rupture model (MMRNRM). (authors)

  20. Criticality safety control for source term reduction in Scrubber Glovebox of Building 232-Z. CSER 90-006, Addendum 1

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report addendum extends the coverage of the original CSAR (90-006) about dismantling the ductwork in 232-Z to include cleanout of the Scrubber Glovebox, with an estimated residual Pu holdup of less than 200 grams. The procedures for keeping any materials inside or removed dry is retained as part of the qualification as a Limited Control Facility

  1. 50 CFR 23.2 - How do I decide if these regulations apply to my shipment or me?

    2010-10-01

    ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Introduction § 23.2 How do I decide if these regulations... a controlled environment) listed in Appendix I, II, or III of CITES (see § 23.91)? (1) YES. Continue... wildlife or plant specimen exempted from CITES (see § 23.92)? (1) YES. The regulations in this part do...

  2. U-238, Th-232, K-40 along the main 3 km adit of the Baksan Neutrino Observatory

    Results of the U-238, Th-232, K-40 contents in the mountain rock samples along 3 km adit of the Baksan Neutrino Observatory are presented. Recommendations on selection of suitable site for the low-background underground laboratory are given

  3. Gastric cancer at a university teaching hospital in northwestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 232 cases

    Mabula Joseph B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite marked decreases in its incidence, particularly in developed countries, gastric cancer is still the second most common tumor worldwide. There is a paucity of information regarding gastric cancer in northwestern Tanzania. This study was undertaken to describe our experience, in our local setting, on the management of gastric cancer, outlining the clinicopathological and treatment outcome of these patients and suggesting ways to improve the treatment outcome. Methods This was a retrospective study of histologically confirmed cases of gastric cancer seen at Bugando Medical Centre between January 2007 and December 2011. Data were retrieved from patients’ files and analyzed using SPSS computer software version 17.0. Results A total of 232 gastric cancer patients were enrolled in the study, representing 4.5% of all malignancies. The male to female ratio was 2.9:1. The median age of patients was 52 years. The majority of the patients (92.1% presented late with advanced gastric cancer (Stages III and IV. Lymph node and distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis was recorded in 31.9% and 29.3% of cases, respectively. The antrum was the most frequent anatomical site (56.5% involved and gastric adenocarcinoma (95.1% was the most common histopathological type. Out of 232 patients, 223 (96.1% patients underwent surgical procedures for gastric cancer of which gastro-jejunostomy was the most frequent performed surgical procedure, accounting for 53.8% of cases. The use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy was documented in 56 (24.1% and 12 (5.1% patients, respectively. Postoperative complication and mortality rates were 37.1% and 18.1%, respectively. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, preoperative co-morbidity, histological grade and stage of the tumor, presence of metastases at the time of diagnosis was the main predictors of death (P P Conclusions Gastric cancer in this region shows a trend towards relative

  4. Measurement of the 232thorium capture cross section at n-TOF-CERN

    Within the context of nuclear power as a sustainable energy resource, a program of research is concentrated on a new nuclear fuel cycle based on thorium. The main advantage, as compared to the uranium cycle, is a lower production of minor actinides, of which the radiological impact on the long term constitutes a problem. At present, nuclear data libraries don't provide cross sections of a good enough quality, allowing more realistic calculations from simulations related to these reactors. The 232Th neutron capture cross section is an example. With the n-TOF collaboration, the measurement of this reaction was achieved in 2002 using two C6D6 detectors. The experimental area located at CERN, is characterized by an outstanding neutron energy resolution coupled to a high instantaneous neutron flux. The determination of the gamma-ray cascade detection efficiency, with a random behaviour, has been obtained by the use of weighting functions. These were deduced from Monte Carlo simulations with the code MCNP. Data extraction, reduction, and the description of the neutron flux have lead to the capture yield. In the resolved resonance region, the resonance parameters describing the cross section were deduced with the code SAMMY, using the R-matrix theory. In the unresolved resonance region, an uncertainty of 3,5% is found, and a comparison with recent measurements shows a good agreement. (author)

  5. Experience gained during remedial action at residential properties contaminated with Th-232 and Ra-226

    Seventeen residential properties contaminated with Th-232 and Ra-226 were decontaminated and restored by Bechtel National, Inc., during 1984 as part of the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The extent of contamination varied from only a few cubic yards of material in the edge of one lawn to extensive contamination around foundations and under basement floors. Three unusual case histories will be described in detail. In the first case, a few cubic yards of contamination were expected, but more than 100 cubic yards were found. In Case 2, contamination was found under the floor of an addition to a house. Case 3 involved a home built on a lot where contaminated soils had been used as fill material to depths of up to 10 feet. The remedial action included the removal of the basement, including the floor slab and foundation. This paper will provide details about several lessons learned during remedial action at residential properties: (a) radiological characterization surveys must be thorough; (b) interviews with owners can provide helpful information about unusual or unexpected contamination problems; (c) radiological monitoring during construction is necessary for efficient and thorough remedial action; and (d) good public relations are an important element of residential remedial action projects. While these lessons may seem to be common sense items, the circumstances that require their use are often very subtle. As the case histories show, successful remedial action requires constant vigilance and careful attention to details

  6. Resolution of USQ regarding source term in the 232-Z Waste Incinerator Building

    The 232-Z Waste Incinerator at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was used to incinerate plutonium-bearing combustible materials generated during normal plant operations. Nondestructive (NDA) measurements performed after the incinerator ceased operations indicated high plutonium loadings in exhaust ductwork near the incinerator glovebox, while the incinerator was found to have only low quantities. Measurements, following a campaign to remove some of the ductwork, resulted in markedly higher assay value for the incinerator glovebox itself. Subsequent assays confirmed the most recent results and pointed to a potential further underestimation of the holdup, in part because of attenuation due to fire brick, which could not be seen easily and which had been reported to not be present. NaI detector based measurements were used to map the deposits. Extended count times, using high resolution Ge detectors helped estimate the isotopic composition of the plutonium and quantify the deposits. Experiments were performed using a Ge detector to obtain adequate corrections for the high attenuation of the incinerator glovebox. Several neutron detectors and detector configurations were employed to understand and quantify the neutron flux. Due to the disparity that was anticipated to occur between the gamma ray and neutron assay results, radiation modeling was used to try to reconcile the divergent results. This was a third aspect of the team's effort, utilizing computer modeling to resolve discrepancies between measurement methods

  7. Analysis of 232 total fertilization failure cycles during intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Esma Sarikaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure ending with total fertilization failure is very distressfull event for both the clinician and the patient.Objective: The aim of this study was to identify independent factors which could be used to identify total fertilization failure before the day of intracytoplasmic sperm injection.Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 232 patients who were admitted to a tertiary-care hospital IVF Unit and showed total fertilization failure during intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. To sort out the interwined effects of female age, basal FSH, sperm quality, antral follicle count, starting dose of gonadotrophine, sperm extraction technique, cycle length, >14 mm follicle number, oocyte number after oocyte pick up, estradiol and progesterone level on the day of hCG and the MI, MII and GV oocyte number on the fertilization, multiple logistic regression analysis was used.Results: The total fertilization failure rate was 6% and the recurrance rate was 23%. The original model illustrated that the presence of GV oocytes, total oocyte number less than six, <2000 pg/mL E2 concentration on the day of hCG and testicular sperm extraction increases the total fertilization failure risk.Conclusion: It is very difficult to predict total fertilization failure. Sometimes even with one good quality oocyte and sperm and in the case of globozoospermia fertilization can be achieved. Not only azoospermia but also low oocyte numbers increase the chance of total fertilization failure even after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

  8. Study of the violent collisions between 63Cu+232Th at 35 MeV/nucleon

    Cibor, J.; Majka, Z.; Kozik, T.; Staszel, P.; Sosin, Z.; Hagel, K.; Li, J.; Lou, L.; Tezkratt, R.; Utley, D.; Wada, R.; Xiao, B.; Natowitz, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the decay of hot and heavy composite nuclei produced in the violent collisions between 63Cu and 232Th at 35A MeV is presented. The measurement of fission fragment correlations indicates that ~ 70% of the projectile linear momentum can be transferred to the fissioning system. Heavy reaction products were observed at a laboratory angle of θ=6° in coincidence with neutrons, light charged particles, and intermediate mass fragments. The dynamical aspects of the collisions between the projectile and target nuclei were investigated using the computer code CHIMERA which is based upon the molecular dynamics concept. Asymptotic characteristics of the reaction products were confronted with results of calculations of the tandem CHIMERA plus GEMINI codes. The data and model comparisons show that a composite system of mass as high as 275 amu and with an excitation energy ~ 1 GeV is formed in the most violent collisions. Some of the heavy reaction remnants are located on the fragment mass versus velocity plane inside the area where the evaporation residues resulting from the decay of the hot composite system are expected. A high neutron multiplicity associated with these events indicates their origin in the most dissipative events. However, a low cross section for the production of these remnants and the close similarity of their characteristics to the fission fragments do not allow more conclusive statements.

  9. Design study of Thorium-232 and Protactinium-231 based fuel for long life BWR

    Trianti, N.; Su'ud, Z.; Riyana, E. S.

    2012-06-01

    A preliminary design study for the utilization of thorium added with 231Pa based fuel on BWR type reactor has been performed. In the previous research utilization of fuel based Thorium-232 and Uranium-233 show 10 years operation time with maximum excess-reactivity about 4.075% dk/k. To increase reactor operation time and reduce excess-reactivity below 1% dk/k, Protactinium (Pa-231) is used as Burnable Poison. Protactinium-231 has very interesting neutronic properties, which enable the core to reduce initial excess-reactivity and simultaneously increase production of 233U to 231Pa in burn-up process. Optimizations of the content of 231Pa in the core enables the BWR core to sustain long period of operation time with reasonable burn-up reactivity swing. Based on the optimization of fuel element composition (Th and Pa) in various moderation ratio we can get reactor core with longer operation time, 20 ˜ 30 years operation without fuel shuffling or refuelling, with average power densities maximum of about 35 watt/cc, and maximum excess-reactivity 0.56% dk/k.

  10. Transfer reaction cross sections from the interactions of 20Ne and 22Ne with 232Th

    A target of 232Th has been bombarded with 114 MeV 22Ne and with 114 MeV and 129 MeV 20Ne beams. Recoiling reaction products were chemically isolated and the cross sections for protactinium, uranium, and neptunium isotopes were determined. The width of the cross section distributions for a given Z and their neutron-richness are the same as those for similar transfers in Ne+ 248Cm reactions. Population of low spin isomeric states is favored in these reactions over population of high spin states. As was seen in reactions with heavier targets, an increase in reaction energy does little to shift the evaporation residues toward neutron deficiency. The implications are that only primary products with little or no excitation energy and angular momentum survive the fission process to become evaporation residues in these systems, and that the production of these nuclides is more controlled by the change in the identity of the projectile than by the corresponding change in the target

  11. Two-photon laser excitation of trapped 232Th+ ions via the 402 nm resonance line

    Herrera-Sancho, O A; Zimmermann, K; Tamm, Chr; Peik, E; Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Glowacki, P

    2012-01-01

    Experiments on one- and two-photon laser excitation of 232Th+ ions in a radiofrequency ion trap are reported. As the first excitation step, the strongest resonance line at 402 nm from the 6d^2 7s J=3/2 ground state to the 6d7s7p J=5/2 state at 24874 cm^{-1} is driven by radiation from an extended cavity diode laser. Spontaneous decay of the intermediate state populates a number of low-lying metastable states, thus limiting the excited state population and fluorescence signal obtainable with continuous laser excitation. We study the collisional quenching efficiency of helium, argon, and nitrogen buffer gases, and the effect of repumping laser excitation from the three lowest-lying metastable levels. The experimental results are compared with a four-level rate equation model, that allows us to deduce quenching rates for these buffer gases. Using laser radiation at 399 nm for the second step, we demonstrate two-photon excitation to the state at 49960 cm^{-1}, among the highest-lying classified levels of Th+. Thi...

  12. Design of high-speed portable RS 232/422 signal simulator%高速便携式RS 232/422信号模拟器设计

    2013-01-01

    For the need of out⁃field troubleshooting for airborne flight test equipments or instrumentations,a high⁃speed por⁃table simulator which can simulate various aircraft’s RS 232/422 bus signals is designed based on FPGA and USB interface tech⁃nology. The signal simulator could generate 24 kinds of standard or nonstandard baud rate signals,it has USB interface,key⁃board and LED panel,and has the characteristics of easy setting,flexible operating,high reliability and low power consumption.%  为了飞行试验中机载测试设备或仪器外场排故的需要,利用FPGA和USB接口技术成功设计了可模拟当前各种飞机RS 232/422总线信号的高速便携式模拟器。该信号模拟器能产生24种标准或者非标准波特率的RS 232/422信号,拥有USB接口、键盘和LED显示屏等功能,具有设置简便,使用灵活,可靠性高以及耗电量低等特点。

  13. Natural activities of 40K, 238U and 232Th in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria

    Samples of elephant grass collected at some pasturing farmlands across different locations in Ibadan metropolis were analyzed for their natural radioactivity concentrations due to 40K, 238U and 232Th radionuclides. Radioactivity measurements were carried out using γ-ray spectroscopy. The average radioactivity concentration of 40K was found to be 64.5±8.1 Bq kg-1, 25.7±5.5 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 33.4±3.9 Bq kg-1 for 232Th. The radiological health implication to the population that may result from these values is found to be very low and almost insignificant. No artificial radionuclide, however, was detected in any of the samples, hence, measurements have been taken as representing baseline values of these radionuclides in the grass in the metropolis

  14. Clonal and horizontal spread of the blaOXA-232 gene among Enterobacteriaceae in a Korean hospital.

    Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyu Man; Lee, Jacob; Bae, Il Kwon; Kim, Jae-Seok; Kim, Han-Sung; Song, Wonkeun

    2015-05-01

    All 16 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and both Escherichia coli isolates harbored the bla(OXA-232) and bla(CTX-M-15) genes. Furthermore, all 16 K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to a unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clone and were assigned to an identical sequence type (ST14). The 2 E. coli isolates were identified as ST131 and ST457. The bla(OXA-232) gene underwent horizontal transfer to E. coli isolates via a conjugative ColE-type plasmid. The introduction of this K. pneumoniae ST14 strain to the Korean hospital was attributed to an index patient who was likely colonized during a prior hospitalization in India. PMID:25702524

  15. Measurement of 238U, 232Th and 40K in boreholes at Gosa and Lugbe, Abuja, north central Nigeria

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the suitability of different sites as locations for obtaining underground water for consumption. The analysis of 238U, 232Th and 40K from rock samples from each layer of borehole at a depth of ∼50 m at Site A borehole, S3L1-S3L6 in Gosa and 40 m at Site B borehole, S4L1-S4L5 in Lugbe, Abuja, north central Nigeria is presented. The gamma-ray spectrometry was carried out using a high-purity germanium detector coupled to a computer-based high-resolution multichannel analyzer. The activity concentrations at Site A borehole for 238U have a mean value of 26±3, ranging from 23±2 to 30±3 Bq kg-1, 232Th a mean value of 63±5, ranging from 48±4 to 76±6 Bq kg-1 and 40K a mean value of 573±72, ranging from 437±56 to 821±60 Bq kg-1. The activity concentrations at Site B borehole for 238U have a mean value of 20±2, ranging from 16±2 to 23±2 Bq kg-1, 232Th a mean value of 46±4, ranging from 43±4 to 49±4 Bq kg-1, 40K a mean value of 915±116 and ranging from 817±103 Bq kg-1 to 1011±128 Bq kg-1. It is noted that the higher activity concentrations of 232Th and 238U are found in Site A at Gosa. Site B has lower radioactivity, and it is recommended that both sites are suitable for underground water consumption. (authors)

  16. Determination of Photofission Fragment Characteristics of 234,238U and 232Th in the Barrier Region

    GÖÖK Alf

    2012-01-01

    The photofission of 232Th, 234U and 238U at excitation energies in the barrier region has been studied. The goal has been to extract information on the mass, total kinetic energy (TKE) and angular distributions of the fission fragments. The experiments were performed using bremsstrahlung, produced by an electron beam in a copper radiator at the injector of the Superconducting Darmstadt linear accelerator (S-DALINAC). Mass and TKE distributions were determined by means of the double kinet...

  17. Soil-to-root vegetable transfer factors for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 88Y in Malaysia

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) are of fundamental importance in assessing the environmental impact due to the presence of radioactivity in soil and agricultural crops. Tapioca and sweet potato, both root crops, are popular foodstuffs for a significant fraction of the Malaysian population, and result in intake of radionuclides. For the natural field conditions experienced in production of these foodstuffs, TFs and the annual effective dose were evaluated for the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and for the anthropogenic radionuclide 88Y, the latter being a component of fallout. An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptake. For soil samples from all study locations other than the experimental field, it has been shown that these contain the artificial radionuclide 88Y, although the uptake of 88Y has only been observed in the roots of the plant Manihot esculenta (from which tapioca is derived) grown in mining soil. The estimated TFs for 226Ra and 232Th for tapioca and sweet potato are very much higher than that reported by the IAEA. For all study areas, the annual effective dose from ingestion of tapioca and sweet potato are estimated to be lower than the world average (290 μSv y−1). - Highlights: • Transfer factors of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 88Y radionuclides were estimated for widely consumed root vegetables in Malaysia. • An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptakes. • The estimated TF values of 226Ra and 232Th for tapioca and sweet potato are higher than the IAEA reported values. • These site-specific TFs are of importance for model derivations for tropical regions

  18. Defense In-Depth Accident Analysis Evaluation of Tritium Facility Bldgs. 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H

    'The primary purpose of this report is to document a Defense-in-Depth (DID) accident analysis evaluation for Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facility Buildings 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H. The purpose of a DID evaluation is to provide a more realistic view of facility radiological risks to the offsite public than the bounding deterministic analysis documented in the Safety Analysis Report, which credits only Safety Class items in the offsite dose evaluation.'

  19. Study of (n,p) and (n,α) cross-sections for 232Th, 231Pa, 233U isotopes

    The study of neutron induced reaction cross-sections in the charged particle emission in this energy region will help us to understand the energy dependence of activation cross-sections in detail, thereby providing a complete database that will lead to better understanding of mechanisms of the nuclear reactions. The present study describes nuclear model calculations of (n,p) and (n,α) reaction cross-sections for 232Th, 231Pa and 233U isotopes

  20. Determination of 228Th, 232Th, and228Ra in wild mushroom from a naturally high radioactive region in Brazil

    Mushrooms are fungi which efficiently accumulate radionuclides, as verified by radiochemistry analyses of specimens collected in contaminated areas, specifically after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Many studies have demonstrated that mushrooms can be used in monitoring of ecosystem contamination and quality. The present paper is part of a broader study conducted in the Pocos de Caldas plateau region in Minas Gerais, Brazil, investigating assimilation of natural Uranium and Thorium radionuclide series by mushrooms. This region has elevated natural radioactivity due to the presence of radiological anomalies of volcanic origin. These anomalies are ore bodies containing Uranium and Thorium, the later being highly predominant. Many researchers have been conducted concerning radionuclide incorporation by agricultural products on the plateau. The present paper aims to determine 232Th, 228Th, and 228Ra radionuclides in wild mushrooms collected at different locations in the plateau region. 228Ra was determined by radiochemical separation using sulphate coprecipitation followed by beta radiometry. 232Th and 228Th were determined using anion exchange resin purification followed by alpha spectrometry. Higher values were obtained to 228Th than to 232Th. This is due to higher 228Ra mobility, which decays to 228Th. The accuracy of the analytical methods employed was evaluated using the reference sample IAEA Soil 327. These methods had high chemical recovery and high sensitivity. It was possible to confirm that mushrooms accumulate radionuclide and so can be used in environmental contamination and quality assessment. (author)

  1. Determination of fission product yields in the 14 MeV photon (Bremsstrahlung) induced fission of 232Th

    The cumulative yields of various fission products in the 232Th(γ,f) with end-point Bremsstrahlung energy of 14 MeV having have been determined using off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The end-point Bremsstrahlung energy of 14 MeV was generated by impinging the electron beam on a solid graphite beam dump of the 20 electron LINAC (ELBE) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden, Germany. From the cumulative fission yields, the mass chain yields were obtained by using charge distribution correction of medium energy. The fine structure in the mass yield distribution was interpreted from the point of nuclear structure effect such as shell closure proximity and even-odd effect. The mass yield distribution in 232Th(γ,f) is triple humped unlike 238U(γ,f), where it is double humped. This different behaviour in between 232Th* and 238U* was explained from the point of different potential energy surfaces between two systems. (author)

  2. Fission product yield distribution in the 12, 14, and 16 MeV bremsstrahlung-induced fission of 232Th

    The absolute cumulative yields of various fission products in the 12, 14, and 16 MeV bremsstrahlung-induced fission of 232Th were determined using a recoil catcher and an off-line γ -ray spectrometric technique using the ELBE electron linac of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf in Dresden, Germany. The mass chain yields were obtained from the absolute cumulative yields by correcting the charge distribution. The peak-to-valley ratio, average light mass (left angle AL right angle) and heavy mass (left angle AH right angle) values, and average number of neutrons (left angle n right angle exp) in the bremsstrahlung-induced fission of 232Th at different excitation energies were obtained from the mass chain yield data. The present study and existing literature data for the 232Th(γ, f) reaction are compared with similar data for the 238U(γ, f) reaction at various excitation energies, and surprisingly different behavior was found in the two fissioning systems. (orig.)

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document

  4. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria

    The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 232Th have been measured in different brands of fertiliser samples sold to farmers in retail markets in six commercial cities in southwestern Nigeria. Gamma ray spectroscopy was employed in the measurements of these radionuclides. The results of measurements showed that the average activity concentration of 40K in the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilisers across the cities varied from 3972.0 ±416.9 to 5089.3 ±111.3 Bq kg-1, 9.9 ±7.3 to 450.6 ±14.3 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, while for 232Th it varied from less than lower limit of detection to 15.1 ±2.8 Bq kg-1. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in single super phosphate (SSP) fertilisers and phosphate rocks were also determined. However, high activity concentrations of 226Ra were obtained in the SSP fertiliser and phosphate rocks and in particular, two brands of fertilisers from ITL/TAK and F and C companies. The values of the activity concentration of the radionuclides in the brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria are within the range of values reported in several other countries except 40K. (authors)

  5. Transfer of Radionuclides K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226 from Mining Soil to Sawi (Japanese Mustard)

    Hariandra, M.; Amin, Y. M.

    2008-05-01

    The uptake of naturally occurring thorium, radium and potassium by sawi (Japanese Mustard) from disused tin mining was studied. Both soil and sawi sample were collected from a vegetable farm located 15 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the farm has been operating for 22 years on a disused tin mining. By using a gamma spectroscopy system, the transfers of radionuclides from soil to plants were investigated. The highest values of radionuclides in the soil was K-40 which is 52.8 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 6.51 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 18.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of radionuclides in the sawi sample shows higher values as compared to the soil sample. The highest values of radionuclides in the sawi were K-40 which is 446 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 17.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 65.2 Bq kg-1. The concentration of radionuclides in soils and plants can be used for the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) were calculated and observed to be 2.68 for radium-226, 3.52 for thorium-232 and the highest which is 3.97 for potassium-40.

  6. A dispersive optical model potential for nucleon induced reactions on 238U and 232Th nuclei with full coupling

    Chiba Satoshi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A dispersive coupled-channel optical model potential (DCCOMP that couples the ground-state rotational and low-lying vibrational bands of 238U and 232Th nuclei is studied. The derived DCCOMP couples almost all excited levels below 1 MeV of excitation energy of the corresponding even-even actinides. The ground state, octupole, beta, gamma, and non-axial bands are coupled. The first two isobar analogue states (IAS populated in the quasi-elastic (p,n reaction are also coupled in the proton induced calculation, making the potential approximately Lane consistent. The coupled-channel potential is based on a soft-rotor description of the target nucleus structure, where dynamic vibrations are considered as perturbations of the rigid rotor underlying structure. Matrix elements required to use the proposed structure model in Tamura coupled-channel scheme are derived. Calculated ratio R(U238/Th232 of the total cross-section difference to the averaged σT for 238U and 232Th nuclei is shown to be in excellent agreement with measured data.

  7. Evaluation of statistical resonance parameters for 232Th in 4 to 41 keV energy region

    An exhaustive compilation of mean resonance parameters for 232Th isotope reported by different experimental groups, evaluators and users is presented. A set of mean resonance parameters is obtained for 232Th for use in reactor calculations by adjusting the p wave strength function as a function of energy region for a broad group structure corresponding to the already evaluated total and partial cross sections recommended in the ENDF/B-IV library in 4 to 41 keV energy region. The difficulties associated with the evaluation of mean resonance parameters for given evaluated cross sections in the unresolved resonance region are highlighted. A brief comparison of the American ENDF/B procedure and the German KEDAK procedure for the processing of the unresolved resonance data is also given. A possibility exists to explain part of the discrepancies between the calculated and the experimentally determined integral parameters to be due to the non-uniqueness of the mean resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region for the main fissile and fertile nuclides. It appears more satisfying to evaluate the mean resonance data (and hence the self-shielded cross sections) for a given multigroup structure used in reactor calculations unlike the ENDF/B convention. It is further recommended that the thick sample transmission and self-indication measurements be performed for 232Th in order to determine experimentally the self-shielded cross sections in the unresolved resonance region and to support the above mentioned evaluation of mean resonance parameters. (auth.)

  8. 8Dim calculations of the third barrier in $^{232}$Th and a conflict between theory and experiment on uranium nuclei

    Jachimowicz, P; Skalski, J

    2013-01-01

    We find the height of the third fission barrier $B_{III}$ and energy of the third minimum $E_{III}$ in $^{232}$Th using the macroscopic - microscopic model, very well tested in this region of nuclei. For the first time it is done on an 8-dimensional deformation hypercube. The dipole distortion is included among the shape variables to assure that no important shapes are missed. The saddle point is found on a lattice containing more than 50 million points by the immersion water flow (IWF) method. The shallow third minimum, $B_{III}-E_{III}\\approx 0.36$ MeV, agrees with experimetal data of Blons et al. This is in a sharp contrast with the status of the IIIrd minima in $^{232-236}$U: their experimental depth of $\\geq3$ MeV contradicts all realistic theoretical predictions. We emphasize the importance of repeating the experiment on $^{232}$Th, by a technique similar to that used in the uranium nuclei, for settling the puzzle of the third minima in actinides.

  9. Inelastic scattering and nucleon transfer in the system 232Th+206Pb at the Coulomb barrier

    By the experiment performed in the present thesis on the example of the system 232Th+206Pb the onset of the nuclear interaction in the region of the Coulomb barrier was studied at an incident energy of 6.3 MeV/nucleon. In the range of distances of closest approximation 15.5 fm ≤ D ≤ 38.7 fm respectively 28deg ≤ ΘCM ≤ 150deg the Coulomb excitation of the target isotope was observed. The strong absorption for 'small' distances from the reaction channel of the Coulomb excitation is confirmed by the occurrence of transfer reactions. In the studied thorium-lead system the transfer of one and two neutrons could be detected by means of the characteristic γ radiation of the isotopes 230Th and 207,208Pb with a cross section of 500 mb summed over the measurement range. The possibilities of an evaporation of neutrons from highly excited target nuclei, which could also lead to the isotope 230Th and by this influence the measurement of the 2n transfer, was also studied. The contribution of these processes to the transfer could be estimated to less than 5%. For the determination of the excitation energy, at which the transfer takes place, the transfer probabilities experimentally determined as functions of the distance of closest approximation were compared with the barrier-penetration model originally developed for sub-Coulomb transfer. Small effective neutron-binding energies of 0.6-0.8 MeV and by this high excitation energies resulted in contradiction to our model-independent measurement by means of the mean γ multiplicity and mean γ energies. (orig./HSI)

  10. Dietary 232Th and 238U intakes for Japanese as obtained in a market basket study and contributions of imported foods to internal doses

    Thorium-232 and 238U contents in four food groups were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Daily intakes of 232Th and 238U for Japanese were estimated to 2.22 mBq and 15.5 mBq per person, respectively. Furthermore, preliminary estimations were made for the effects of imported foods on internal exposures for Japanese. (author). 16 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Fission Yields of Some Isotopes in the Fission of Th232 by Reactor Neutrons

    The fission yields of the longer-lived isotopes produced in the fission of Th232 are not very well known; existing data show rather large discrepancies and/or uncertainties. Since we feel that at least some of these discrepancies arise from difficulties in measuring the absolute activities of the fission products, we measured the fission yield of 10 selected isotopes whose decay schemes are well understood. The thorium foils were irradiated in a position at the edge of the core of the SAPHIR swimming pool reactor. Following irradiation, the thorium was dissolved after addition of appropriate carriers. The fission products of interest were determined by conventional radiochemical methods that had to be modified slightly to ensure good decontamination from the abundantly formed Pa233 . The chemical yields were determined by gravimetric methods. Counting was done preferentially on a γ-spectrometer that had been calibrated at 11 different energies by standards either obtained from the IAEA or prepared by 4πβ-counting. In the case of Sr90, Ru106 and Ce144 a β-proportional counter was used that had been calibrated for these isotopes. In addition to the sought elements, Mo99 was isolated from each foil to serve as an internal monitor for the number of fissions taking place. The experiment thus gave the ratio of the yield of the sought element to the yield of Mo99. This ratio ''R'' was obtained for Sr90, Ru103, Ru106, Ag111, Pd112, I131, Cs137, Ba140, Ba141, Ce141 and Ce144, Results indicate the existence of a third peak in the yield mass curve in the region of symmetric fission. Yields of fission products relative to the Mo99 yields are given, and the absolute yields calculated by assuming y Mo99 = 2.78%. This number was derived from the work of Iyer et al., and was obtained by normalizing the area under the yield mass curve to 200%. (author)

  12. Availability of U-238 and Th-232 present in phosphogypsum used in agriculture: precision and accuracy of the methodology

    Malheiro, Luciano H.; Saueia, Catia H.R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P., E-mail: lhmalheiro@ipen.br, E-mail: chsaueia@ipen.br, E-mail: mazzilli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) can be classified as Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM), and it is obtained as a residue of the phosphate fertilizer industry. PG presents in its composition radionuclides of the natural U and Th series: mainly Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-232, Pb-210 and Po-210. The Brazilian producers stock the PG in dry stacks, posing risks to the surrounding environment. A possible solution to this problem is to reuse PG in agriculture; however, it is necessary to ensure that the radionuclides present in the PG will not be available to the agricultural products. This study is part of a research project sponsored by Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP - 2010-10587-0) entitled 'Availability of metals and radionuclides in tropical soils amended with phosphogypsum', and its objective is to evaluate the reliability of an optimal methodology to determine U-238 and Th-232 in samples of soils amended with PG through percolation with water. The methodology comprises a sequential radiochemical separation of the radionuclides present in the leachate. The UTEVA resin was used for the purification and separation of U-238 and Th-232, and the final activity concentrations were determined by alpha spectrometry. The precision and accuracy of the methodology were checked by measuring standard reference material. The results obtained for the relative error and relative standard deviation varied respectively from 2.34 % to 5.92 % and 6.10 % to 6.21 % for uranium, and from 0.42 % to 3.13 % and 9.68 % to 10.97 % for thorium. (author)

  13. Availability of U-238 and Th-232 present in phosphogypsum used in agriculture: precision and accuracy of the methodology

    Phosphogypsum (PG) can be classified as Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM), and it is obtained as a residue of the phosphate fertilizer industry. PG presents in its composition radionuclides of the natural U and Th series: mainly Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-232, Pb-210 and Po-210. The Brazilian producers stock the PG in dry stacks, posing risks to the surrounding environment. A possible solution to this problem is to reuse PG in agriculture; however, it is necessary to ensure that the radionuclides present in the PG will not be available to the agricultural products. This study is part of a research project sponsored by Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP - 2010-10587-0) entitled 'Availability of metals and radionuclides in tropical soils amended with phosphogypsum', and its objective is to evaluate the reliability of an optimal methodology to determine U-238 and Th-232 in samples of soils amended with PG through percolation with water. The methodology comprises a sequential radiochemical separation of the radionuclides present in the leachate. The UTEVA resin was used for the purification and separation of U-238 and Th-232, and the final activity concentrations were determined by alpha spectrometry. The precision and accuracy of the methodology were checked by measuring standard reference material. The results obtained for the relative error and relative standard deviation varied respectively from 2.34 % to 5.92 % and 6.10 % to 6.21 % for uranium, and from 0.42 % to 3.13 % and 9.68 % to 10.97 % for thorium. (author)

  14. Determination of photofission fragment characteristics of {sup 234,238}U and {sup 232}Th in the barrier region

    Goeoek, Alf

    2012-11-05

    The photofission of {sup 232}Th, {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U at excitation energies in the barrier region has been studied. The goal has been to extract information on the mass, total kinetic energy (TKE) and angular distributions of the fission fragments. The experiments were performed using bremsstrahlung, produced by an electron beam in a copper radiator at the injector of the Superconducting Darmstadt linear accelerator (S-DALINAC). Mass and TKE distributions were determined by means of the double kinetic energy technique using a twin Frisch grid ionization chamber. The angular distributions were derived simultaneously by measuring the drift time of ionization electrons. Results show that this drift-time method is comparable in accuracy to other more commonly used methods, but with a simplified procedure for setting up the experiment. Mass, TKE and angular distributions have been obtained from bremsstrahlung-induced fission of {sup 232}Th at average excitation energies left angle E{sub x} right angle =6.68 MeV and 7.26 MeV, for {sup 234}U at left angle E{sub x} right angle =5.80 MeV, 6.49 MeV and 7.23 MeV, and for {sup 238}U at left angle E{sub x} right angle =5.90 MeV, 6.11 MeV and 6.93 MeV. Results on fission fragment characteristics from {sup 238}U({gamma},f) show good agreement with literature data, which verifies the experimental procedure. The correlated mass and TKE data have been analyzed in terms of fission modes within the multi-modal random-neck-rupture model. The result exhibits a dominant yield of the mass asymmetric standard-2 mode in all the investigated fissioning nuclei, with a relative yield of {proportional_to}77 % in {sup 232}Th, {proportional_to}75 % in {sup 234}U and {proportional_to}67 % in {sup 238}U. No strong fluctuation of the mode yields were found as a function of the excitation energy. Correlations between mass, TKE and angular distributions have been investigated in {sup 232}Th and {sup 234}U. The correlation takes the form of an

  15. Measurement of the fission fragment angular distribution for 232Th(n,f) at the CERN n-TOF facility

    Tarrío, D; Audouin, L; Duran, I; Leong, L S; Paradela, C; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; Garcìa, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martìnez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T J; Žugec, P

    2012-01-01

    A fission reaction chamber was designed to measure the angular distribution of the fragments emitted in neutron-induced fission reactions at n_TOF. Up to ten Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters can be included and kept at controlled low-pressure gas. Counters are tilted 45º with respect to the neutron beam direction and up to nine targets can be interleaved in between. A first measurement of the 232Th(n,f) was recently done and preliminary experimental results demonstrating the suitability of the setup are presented here.

  16. X-ray variability and prediction of TeV emission in the HBL 1ES1101-232

    Wolter, A.; Tavecchio, F.; Caccianiga, A.; Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2000-01-01

    1ES1101-232 is a bright BL Lac of the High frequency peak class. We present here the results of two BeppoSAX observations in which the source has shown a variation of about 30% in flux with a corresponding spectral variability. We interpret the overall spectral energy distribution in terms of an homogeneous SSC model and, by using also the TeV upper limit from a short Mark 6 pointing, derive constraints on the physical parameters of the source, in particular on the magnetic field strength. Th...

  17. Photometric Observations and Lightcurve Analysis of Asteroids 129 Antigone, 174 Phaedra, 232 Russia, 291 Alice, and 343 Ostara

    Ruthroff, John C.

    2009-07-01

    From 2008 November through 2009 March photometric data were obtained and analyzed for five asteroids. Synodic periods were found for four of the asteroids while only a lower limit could be established for the fifth: 129 Antigone, P = 4.96 ± 0.01 h; 174 Phaedra, P = 5.75 ± 0.01 h; 232 Russia, P = 21.91 ± 0.01 h; 291 Alice, P = 4.32 ± 0.01 h; and 343 Ostara, P > 6 h.

  18. 238U, 232TH, AND 222RN concentration measured in various traditional medicinal plant preparation using nuclear track detectors

    Full text: 238U, 232Th, 222Rn concentrations were measured inside traditional medicinal plants preparations widely used by patients in classic and modern phyto therapy by using a technique based on the use of solid state nuclear track detectors. The intakes of these radionuclides have been determined for adult patients from the ingestion of the studied medical preparations. The influence of mass intake as well as pollution on the contents of the considered radionuclides was investigated. The resulting radiation doses to adult patients from the ingestion of the traditional medical preparations were evaluated.

  19. An integral experiment on thorium oxide/depleted uranium cylinders with D-T neutrons for 232Th(n, 2n) reaction

    Highlights: • An integral experiment for 232Th(n, 2n) reaction was carried out on the newly-established ThO2/depleted uranium cylinders. • 232Th(n, 2n) reaction rate distribution was obtained in the assemblies with an uncertainty of about 7%. • Experiments were analyzed by MCNP code with ENDF/B-VI.8, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-4.0 and CENDL-3.1 libraries. • Experimental results could be used to re-evaluate the cross sections of 232Th(n, 2n) reaction. - Abstract: In order to verify the evaluated cross sections of 232Th(n, 2n) reaction for the conceptual design of the thorium based subcritical blanket in the fusion–fission hybrid reactor, an integral experiment on thorium oxide/depleted uranium cylinders was carried out with D-T neutrons using the activation technique. 232Th(n, 2n) reaction rate distribution was obtained at the central axis direction in the assemblies with an uncertainty of about 7%. Experiments were analyzed by using MCNP code with ENDF/B-VI.8, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-4.0 and CENDL-3.1 libraries to validate the nuclear data libraries of 232Th(n, 2n) reaction, the calculated results with JENDL-4.0 agree with the measurements the best with discrepancies within the experimental uncertainty. The average values of C/E for the three benchmark assemblies are 1.058, 1.044 and 0.980. Calculations with different evaluated libraries in the benchmark assemblies show a large discrepancy. The experimental results can be used to re-evaluate the cross sections of the 232Th(n, 2n) reaction

  20. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K analysis in sand samples from some beaches of Great Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    The natural radioactivity in superficial beach sand samples of 7 beaches of Great Vitoria, metropolitan region of the State of Espirito Santo, southeast Brazil, was determined from the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K contents. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos, Camburi, Praia do Canto, Curva da Jurema, Itapua, Setibao and Areia Preta. Three samples of each beach were sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and stored in order to obtain secular equilibrium in the 238U and 232Th series. All samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra were analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The 232Th concentration was determined from the average concentrations of 228Ac, 212Pb and 212Bi and the 226Ra concentration was determined from the average concentrations of 214Pb and 214Bi. Preliminary results show concentrations varying from 9 Bq.kg-1 to 6035 Bq.kg-1 for 232Th, from 4 Bq.kg-1 to 575 Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra and from 13 Bq.kg-1 to 142 Bq.kg-1 for 40K. Areia Preta beach shows the highest values for 232Th, while the highest value for 226Ra was observed for Camburi beach. High values of 40K were observed for Curva da Jurema beach. (author)

  1. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in soils of Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil)

    A survey programme aimed at studying the environmental radioactivity in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Norte was undertaken. Fifty-two soil samples, together with two rock and two uraniferrous ore samples were collected from the eastern and central regions of this state. Concentrations of radioelements in samples were determined by γ-ray spectrometry. The average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in the surveyed soils were 29.2 ± 19.5 (SD), 47.8 ± 37.3, and 704 ± 437 Bq kg-1, respectively. Higher values were found in the rock samples. The distributions of 226Ra and 232Th were fitted by log-normal curves. Radiological measurements carried out with a portable scintillometer at the sampled sites revealed an average absorbed dose rate of 55 ± 27 (SD) nGy h-1. Computed dose rates obtained through the Beck formula ranged from 15-179 nGy h-1, with a mean value of 72.6 ± 38.7 (SD) nGy h-1, and their distribution fitted a log-normal curve. An annual average effective dose equivalent of 552 μSν (range: 117-1361 μSν) was estimated for 51 sites in Rio Grande do Norte. (author)

  2. Primordial radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) measurements for soils of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India.

    Badhan, K; Mehra, R

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the activity concentration and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) for the soil of different villages of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India using a high-purity germanium detector based on high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil samples have been found to be 28.58, 50.95 and 569.59 Bq kg(-1), respectively, which gives the total gamma dose rate contribution of 68.50 nGy h(-1). To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the external hazard index, the absorbed dose rate and the effective dose rate have been calculated. The calculated radium equivalent activity values are on the lower side of the recommended safe limit value of 370 Bq kg(-1) by Organization of Economic and Control Department. The calculated value of external health hazard index is lower than unity. PMID:22899219

  3. Soil-to-root vegetable transfer factors for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (88)Y in Malaysia.

    Asaduzzaman, Kh; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Y M; Bradley, D A; Mahat, R H; Nor, R M

    2014-09-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) are of fundamental importance in assessing the environmental impact due to the presence of radioactivity in soil and agricultural crops. Tapioca and sweet potato, both root crops, are popular foodstuffs for a significant fraction of the Malaysian population, and result in intake of radionuclides. For the natural field conditions experienced in production of these foodstuffs, TFs and the annual effective dose were evaluated for the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and for the anthropogenic radionuclide (88)Y, the latter being a component of fallout. An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptake. For soil samples from all study locations other than the experimental field, it has been shown that these contain the artificial radionuclide (88)Y, although the uptake of (88)Y has only been observed in the roots of the plant Manihot esculenta (from which tapioca is derived) grown in mining soil. The estimated TFs for (226)Ra and (232)Th for tapioca and sweet potato are very much higher than that reported by the IAEA. For all study areas, the annual effective dose from ingestion of tapioca and sweet potato are estimated to be lower than the world average (290 μSv y(-1)). PMID:24814722

  4. Characterization of radiation sources from the fuel cycle. Applications to the thorium fuel cycle: 232U production in solid fuels

    The thorium cycle is a good candidate for replacing the current U/Pu cycle since the fissile nucleus of the cycle, 233U, has neutronic properties favourable to a much better regeneration of fissile material in thermal reactors. Moreover, the production of minor actinides is significantly reduced. However, the use of Thorium is only viable if the spent fuel is reprocessed to recover the fissile 233U that does not exist in nature. This reprocessing will involve a heavy industrial infrastructure, particularly since thorium based spent fuel contains small quantities of 232U that is the mother of the hard gamma emitter (208Tl) of 2.6 MeV. The goal of this thesis is, firstly, to study the parameters related to the synthesis of 232U in several kind of fuels and reactors. In a second part, the thesis focuses on the impact on radioprotection of the back end of the fuel in case of switching from the current uranium (U/Pu) cycle to the thorium (Th/U) cycle. For this last purpose, CHARS (Characterization of Radioactive Sources) was developed during this thesis. This code, validated by several benchmarks, handles the calculation of radiation sources in all aspects of the fuel cycle. (author)

  5. Primordial radioactivity (238U, 232Th and 40K) measurements for soils of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India

    The aim of the present work was to study the activity concentration and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K) for the soil of different villages of Ludhiana district of Punjab (India)) using a high-purity germanium detector based on high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the soil samples have been found to be 28.58, 50.95 and 569.59 Bq kg-1, respectively, which gives the total gamma dose rate contribution of 68.50 nGy h-1. To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the external hazard index, the absorbed dose rate and the effective dose rate have been calculated. The calculated radium equivalent activity values are on the lower side of the recommended safe limit value of 370 Bq kg-1 by Organization of Economic and Control Dept.. The calculated value of external health hazard index is lower than unity. (authors)

  6. Investigation of resonance structure and Doppler-effect of cross sections for 232 Th, 235 U and 239 Pu

    The results of measuring the neutron transmissions for 232 Th, 235 U and 239 Pu metal samples carried out at the 60 m, 123 m and 1006 m flight paths of the Dubna IBR-30 booster in the neutron energy range of 2 eV - 200 keV are given and discussed. The measurements were made at the room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The batteries of 3 boron and 26 helium counters were used as detectors. The results of the calculations of analogous transmissions realized on the base of the evaluated data libraries BROND-2, ENDF/B-6 and JENDL-3 by means of the GRUCON computer program package are also given. It is concluded that the 235 U Doppler coefficients and effective total cross sections taken from measured transmissions are in a good agreement with calculation results based on the ENDF/B-6 library at energies of 2.15 eV - 200 keV. The BROND-2 and JENDL-3 parameters give the Doppler coefficients and effective cross sections which are 10-30% higher than the experimental and ENDF/B-6 ones at the resonance energies of 46.5 - 465 eV. For 239 Pu there is agreement of the experimental and calculational results within the experimental error limits. For 232 Th experimental values for the Doppler coefficients and effective cross sections are 10-15% higher than the calculated ones with all libraries in resonance energy region. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Determination of specific activity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K for assessment of environmental hazards

    Studies have been carried out using gamma-spectrometric techniques to determine the natural radioactivity in some rocks that are used as building materials in Yemen. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides namely 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the rock samples collected from different rock markets in Yemen have been determined using an NaI(Tl) detector. The concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the studied rock samples range from 22.2 to 88.8 Bq kg-1, 8.12 to 113.68 Bq kg-1 and 31.3 to 2222.3 Bq kg-1, respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides are compared with the typical world values. To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the air absorbed dose rate, the annual effective dose rate, the representative level index and the values of both external and internal hazard indices were evaluated and compared with the internationally approved values. The radium equivalent activity values of all rock samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg-1 except for one sample which is about 413.386. The values of external hazard index (Hex) and internal hazard index (Hin), absorbed doses in indoor air and the corresponding effective dose equivalents in a typical dwelling are presented. The need for further studies is also discussed. (authors)

  8. Determination of specific concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in mineral fertilizer samples

    Garcez, Ricardo W.D.; Lopes, Jose M.; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: r.w.o.g@fisica.if.uff.br, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Domingues, Alessandro M.; Lima, Marco F. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of fertilizer is an established practice worldwide to promote agricultural productivity increased without increasing the planted area, resulting in native forests protection and increase of the food availability. Some kinds of fertilizer have in their chemical composition some radionuclides due the origin of its feedstock, such as {sup 238}U, the {sup 232}Th, and their descendants, beyond {sup 40}K. Knowledge of the radioactivity levels in the environment is great importance to know the gamma radiation dose that the human being is exposed. For identification and quantitation of radionuclides, it was used gamma spectrometry where HPGe detector was used to obtain the spectra, and LabSOCS software for calculating the detection efficiency for each energy. The values of {sup 232}Th specific concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 368.1 Bq.Kg{sup -1}, the values of {sup 238}U specific concentrations ranged from 16.0 to 647.7 Bq.Kg{sup -1} and {sup 40}K specific concentrations ranged from 19.1 to 12713 Bq.Kg{sup -1}. Concentrations of values are consistent with those found in literature. (author)

  9. Natural radioactivity (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and assessment of radiological hazards in the Kestanbol granitoid, Turkey.

    Canbaz, Buket; Cam, N Füsun; Yaprak, Günseli; Candan, Osman

    2010-09-01

    The surveys of natural gamma-emitting radionuclides in rocks and soils from the Ezine plutonic area were conducted during 2007. Direct dose measurement using a survey meter was carried out simultaneously. The present study, which is part of the survey, analysed the activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in granitoid samples from all over the region by HPGe gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra ranged from 94 to 637 Bq kg(-1), those of (232)Th ranged from 120 to 601 Bq kg(-1)and those of (40)K ranged from 1074 to 1527 Bq kg(-1) in the analysed rock samples from different parts of the pluton. To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity in the samples, the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate, the radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)) and the external (H(ex)) hazard index were calculated according to the UNSCEAR 2000 report. The thorium-to-uranium concentration ratios were also estimated. PMID:20529959

  10. 238U, 232Th and 40K radioactivity level of soil and concrete floor in Zhuhai, Guangdong province, China

    In-situ gamma-ray spectrometer survey is carried out in Zhuhai, Guangdong province from 2002 to 2003 in order to estimate the radiation level of natural radionuclides. Measured area is more than 100 km2 and 970 sites with NaI(Tl) (φ75 mm x 75 mm) gamma-ray spectrometer. The specific activity of 40K, 238U and 232Th are 654.2 ± 338.0, 85.7 ± 31.6, and 159.9 ± 49.0 Bq·kg-1 in weathered granite, and 632.3 ± 75.1, 35.2 ± 14.6 and 70.2 ± 18.6 Bq·kg-1 in the sediments, respectively. Biotite Granite is the source of 40K, 238U and 232Th in the medium on ground in Zhuhai. The specific activity of natural radionuclides have significant dependence relation with geological background, such as lithology. (authors)

  11. Deactivation and cleanout of the 308 Fuels Laboratory and the 232-Z Incinerator at the Hanford site

    This paper describes the deactivation and source term reduction activities conducted over the recent past in two plutonium-contaminated Hanford Site buildings: the 308 Fuels Development Laboratory and the 232-Z Incinerator. Both of these facilities belong to the U.S. Department of Energy, and the projects are unique success stories carried out in direct support of EM-60 functions and requirements. In both cases the buildings, for different reasons, contained unacceptable amounts of plutonium, and were stabilized and placed in a safe, pre-D ampersand D (decontamination and decommissioning) mode. The concept of deactivation as the last step in the operating life of a facility will be discussed. The need for and requirements of EM-60 transition between operations and D ampersand D, the costs savings, techniques, regulations and lessons learned also will be discussed. This paper describes the strategies that led to successful source term reduction: accurate characterization, cooperation among different divisions within DOE and the Hanford Site, attention to regulations (especially unique in this case since the 232-Z Incinerator has been nominated as a Historic Structure to the National Register of Historic Places), and stakeholder concerns involving the proximity of the 308 Building to the Columbia River. The paper also weaves in the history, missions, and plutonium accumulation of the two buildings. The lessons learned are cogent to many other present and future deactivation activities across the DOE complex and indeed across the world

  12. Emanation of 232U daughter products from submicron particles of uranium oxide and thorium dioxide by nuclear recoil and inert gas diffusion

    Emanation of 232U daughter products by nuclear-recoil and inert gas diffusion from spherical particles of uranium oxide and thorium dioxide containing 1 percent 232U and having physical diameters between 0.1 and 1 μm were studied. Thorium-228 ions recoiling from the particles and 220Rn diffusing from the particles were collected and measured separately. The calculated 228Th recoil range was 0.02 μm and the 220Rn diffusion coefficient was 3 x 10-14 cm2/s in uranium oxide and thorium dioxide particles. The release of 232U daughter radionuclides from inhaled relatively insoluble particles by recoil and diffusion will significantly alter radiation doses received by critical tissues compared to the condition where radionuclide release occurs by particle dissolution only

  13. In vitro measurements of the release of 232U and its daughters from UO2 particles by dissolution, alpha-recoil and inert gas diffusion

    Three mechanisms that are potentially important in the release of 232U and its decay products from UO2 particles in the lungs were studied in vitro. Particles of UO2 uniformly labeled with 1% 232U were aerosolized and separated by aerodynamic size in a Lovelace Aerosol Particle Separator. Monodisperse size fractions ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter were used to study release of radionuclides by particle dissolution, recoil of atoms after alpha-decay and diffusion of the inert gas, 220Rn

  14. Radioactivity of 238U, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs and assessment of depleted uranium in soil of the Musandam Peninsula, Sultanate of Oman

    SALEH, Ibrahim Hindawy

    2012-01-01

    238U, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs radioactivities were determined in soil samples collected from the Musandam Peninsula, Sultanate of Oman, using a high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy system. In addition, total uranium was measured in selected soil samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The averages of radioactivity levels in the soil for 238U, 232Th, and 40K were 14.42 Bq kg-1, 9.95 Bq kg-1, 158.21 Bq kg-1, and 2770 Bq m-2 for 137Cs, respectively...

  15. Effects of DGAT1 K232A polymorphism and milking frequency on milk composition and spontaneous lipolysis in dairy cows.

    Vanbergue, E; Peyraud, J L; Guinard-Flament, J; Charton, C; Barbey, S; Lefebvre, R; Gallard, Y; Hurtaud, C

    2016-07-01

    Milk spontaneous lipolysis (SL) of milk triglycerides is induced by the lipoprotein lipase, a milk native enzyme, and leads to an accumulation of partial glycerides and free fatty acids that are responsible for the deterioration of the taste of milk products. The gene coding for diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), an enzyme implicated in triglycerides synthesis, has an important polymorphic site at the K232A locus. This gene is well known to modulate milk composition. No data are available on the effects of DGAT1 on SL. Thus, a trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of DGAT1 K232A polymorphism on milk SL upon milking frequency variations [once- (ODM) and twice-daily milking (TDM)]. Twenty-one cows were divided into 3 groups according their DGAT1 K232A genotype: 8 cows had the KK genotype of DGAT1 (KK cows), 8 had the KA genotype (KA cows), and 5 had the AA genotype (AA cows). The trial consisted in 3 successive periods: 3 wk of TDM, 3 of ODM, and 4 of TDM. Samples were collected for fat and protein contents, SL, fatty acid, and protein profiles determinations. The KK cows presented higher fat and protein contents, lower milk production, and higher κ-casein percentage. No significant difference in fatty acid composition was noted between groups. The SL was twice as high for KK cows in TDM situations (1.13 vs. 0.59 and 0.63mEq/100g of fat, respectively, for KK, KA, and AA cows during the first period of TDM, and 0.46 vs. 0.25 and 0.21mEq/100g of fat, respectively, for KK, KA, and AA during the second period of TDM). The SL remained lower in TDM2 than in TDM1. During ODM, no difference in SL was found between groups and SL remained below 0.2mEq/100g of fat. These results demonstrate the existence of a correlation between DGAT1 genotypes and spontaneous lipolysis, in interaction with an environmental factor, milking frequency, although it has not been possible to clarify the causal mechanism at this stage. PMID:27132096

  16. 232例儿童热性惊厥血清钠浓度临床分析%Clinical Analysis about Concentrations of Natrium in 232 Cases Children with Febrile Convulsions

    刘庆玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes of concentrations of natrium and its clinical significance in children with febrile convulsions. Method:Clinical data of 232 children with febrile convulsions who visited Beijing commercial aviation general hospital from 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed.Result:The concentrations of natrium of children with febrile convulsions were diffrently lower than normal,especially in children with recurrent convulsion and status convulsion whose concentrations of natrium were obviously lower than children with simple febrile convulsions. Conclusion:Varying degrees of hyponatremia occur in children with febrile convulsions. It should pay attention to correct hyponatremia in treatmen of febrile convulsions to reduce the relapse frequency and duration of febrile convulsions,so reduce the harm of brain organization.%目的:探讨热性惊厥患儿血清钠浓度变化及临床意义。方法:对北京民航总医院2010-2012年急诊治疗的232例热性惊厥患儿血清钠浓度作回顾性分析。结果:热性惊厥儿童血清钠浓度常有不同程度的降低,且惊厥反复发作及惊厥持续状态患儿的血清钠浓度明显低于单纯性热性惊厥患儿。结论:热性惊厥患儿常存在不同程度的低钠血症,在常规治疗小儿热性惊厥时应注意纠正低钠血症,以减少小儿热性惊厥的发作次数及持续时间,减轻脑组织损害。

  17. Most probable charge of fission products in proton-induced fission of 238U and 232Th

    The charge distributions of fission products in proton-induced fission of 238U and 232Th were measured in a wide mass range. The most probable charges lay on the proton-rich side in the light fragment region and on the proton-deficient side in the heavy one compared with the unchanged charge distribution hypothesis. This result implies that the charge polarization occurs in the fission process. The charge polarization was examined with respect to the ground-state Q values. The estimations by the Q values fairly well reproduced the experimental most probable charges. These results suggest that the fission path to the most favorable charge division may go through the most energetically favorable path at scission point. (author)

  18. Measurement of nuclear inelastic scattering cross section of thorium-232 for 144 keV Si-filtered neutrons

    The nuclear inelastic scattering cross section of 232Th has been measured at 144 keV using a Si-filtered neutron beam from the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). The energy spectrum of the scattered neutrons was measured with a spherical hydrogen-gas counter and a pulse-height-unfolding procedure. Data were taken at nine scattering angles from 300 to 1500 in 150 increments. The results provide new experimental information below 250 keV. The angle-integrated cross section is 0.74+-0.05 barn, which agrees with the evaluation JENDL-2 and with a coupled-channel calculation where the inelastic scattering through the direct-excitation process of the collective rotational motion of a deformed nucleus is included as well as that through the compound-nucleus-formation process. Experimental results have been obtained also for the angular dependence of the elastically scattered neutrons at 144 keV. (author)

  19. Challenges and solutions for random sampling of parameters with extremely large uncertainties and analysis of the 232Th resonance covariances

    Covariance data in the existing evaluated nuclear data libraries often include large relative uncertainties and mathematical inconsistencies, which arise especially in combination with random sampling. The 232Th evaluation from the ENDF/B-VII.1 library has been taken as an example. Possible solutions for mathematically impossible correlation matrices with negative eigenvalues and too low correlation coefficients between inherently positive parameters with large relative uncertainties are proposed. Convergence of the random sampling for lognormal distribution with extremely high relative standard deviations is slow by nature. Using weighted sampling, single parameters or a limited number of correlated parameters with large uncertainties can be sampled. Efficient sampling of a large number of correlated parameters with extremely large relative uncertainties remains unsolved

  20. Proposal and application of methodology for monitoring workers occupationally exposed to Thorium-232 and its decay products

    Thorium-232 is the parent of one of the naturally occurring decay series and is widely spread on the earth's crust, being also present in higher concentrations at some deposits located mainly in Brazil and India. The occupational exposure to this radionuclide may occur in several steps of the thorium cycle. In Brazil, there is a large number of workers that should be monitored because they manipulate directly or indirectly different kinds of ores, raw materials and products containing significant amounts of thorium in its composition. In this study, the techniques developed specifically for the in vivo and in vitro monitoring of these workers are presented together with the application of these techniques to a group of selected workers classified as occupationally exposed. It is also presented the methodology by which the results obtained with these measurements are interpreted with the objective of identifying the main pathways of incorporation and reducing the internal doses to values as low as reasonably achievable. (author)

  1. Environmental geochemistry of 238U, 232Th, 40K and some heavy metals in River Nile sediments

    Environmental geochemistry is concerned with the abundance, distribution, and mobility of chemical elements in surface materials at the surface of earth crust. This study aimed at better understanding of geochemical behavior of 238U,23'2Th and 40K in river sediments and some heavy elements with emphasis on Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. The analysis was conducted for a total of 33 bulk sediment samples from White Nile, Blue Nile and River Nile within Khartoum, the samples were fractionated into seven grain sizes each (2000-1000, 1000-500, 500-250, 250-200, 200-125, 125-100 and > 100 μm), using high resolution gamma spectrometer for radionuclides measurements, whereas Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used for heavy metals analysis. On the average, the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 17.90±5.23, 16.38±5.34 and 379.82±107.76 Bq -1Kg in White Nile, 19.56±5.04, 17.72±4.69, and 494.36±105.79 Bq -1Kg in Blue Nile and 19.27±2.88, 17.48±2.78, 359.50±83.15 Bq -1Kg in the River Nile sediments. Results revealed inverse relationship between activity concentration and grain size in White and Blue Nile, while the trend is not clear in the River Nile. In general, the variation of the measured values within single grain size was smaller in White Nile compare to Blue and River Nile sediments, and it was observed that the data are highly scattered in grain size (200-125μm). The ratio between 238U/232Th is grater than unity in the three rivers indicating that there is relative enrichment of 238U in the surface sediments. The activity concentration of the fallout radionuclide 137Cs is one order of magnitude lower in the White Nile sediments (0.89±0.96) Bq -1Kg compared to values in the Blue Nile sediments (3.60±1.55) Bq -1Kg. Comparison of the values obtained for natural radionuclides and the fallout radionuclide (137Cs in the three sites with the global data reflect low and /or insignificant difference. For heavy metal concentrations

  2. Measurement of the 232Th capture cross section in the energy region 5 keV-150 keV

    The 232Th(n,γ) neutron capture cross-section is of great importance for accelerator driven reactor (ADS) systems based on the Thorium-Uranium fuel cycle. An analysis of the required nuclear data, reveals that the status of the 232Th capture data is far from the requested 2 % uncertainty level. Recently 232Th average capture measurements, between 5-200 keV neutron energy, were performed at the FzK Karlsruhe (DE). A comparison of the measured averaged capture cross section with the evaluated data files shows a reasonable agreement in the neutron energy range above 15 keV. However, discrepancies of up to 40 % at lower neutron energies are observed. The same order of discrepancies is observed when comparing their results with the results obtained by Macklin et al. at ORELA. To clarify these discrepancies we measured at IRMM the average capture cross-section at the GEel LINear Accelerator (GELINA). The measurements were performed at a 14.37 m flight-path using the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) method. The gamma rays, originating from the 232Th(n,γ) reaction, were detected by a pair of C6D6-based liquid scintillators applying a pulse-height weighting method. The neutron flux was measured with an ionisation chamber placed at 80 cm before the Thorium sample. This chamber has a cathode loaded with two back-to-back layers of about 40 μg/cm210B. The sample consisted of a metallic natural thorium disc of 8 cm diameter and 0.5 mm thick, corresponding to a thickness of 1.588 10-3 at/b. The background for the capture measurements consists of a time independent and time dependent component. The former, mainly produced by the radioactive decay of the sample, was deduced from measurements with a closed beam. The latter was measured by replacing the thorium sample with a 0.5 mm thick 208Pb sample of the same size. Such a Pb sample has practically the same scattering probability as the thorium sample and has a negligible capture yield. Therefore, the 208Pb run provides a good estimate of

  3. Measurement of neutron-transmission spectra through 232Th from 8 MeV to 4 keV

    Neutron transmission spectra through room-temperature 232Th samples have been measured by use of the time-of-flight technique, the ORELA pulsed neutron source, and a 1-mm-thick Li-glass detector. The measurement and data reduction are described in detail. The 40-m transmission spectra through eight samples are directly compared from 15 to 4000 eV with resolution-broadened transmission spectra calculated from the ENDF/B-V total cross section. Two sets of 22-m transmission spectra through five samples are combined into one total cross section from 0.008 to 15.0 eV and compared with the ENDF/B-V evaluation. 13 figures, 12 tables

  4. Physics concept on the constellation type fissile fuels and its application to the prospective Th-232U Reactor

    In contrast with the conventional nuclear reactor which usually fuelled with on single fissile nuclide, a constellation type fissile fuels reactor consists of a parent nuclide such as 232Th or 238U and its whole family of neutron generated daughter nuclides. All of them are regarded as fissile fuels but of quite different fission ability. The concentration of each daughter nuclide is determined by its saturate concentration ratio with the parent nuclide. In such fuel system, the whole fuel consumed by neutron reaction almost completely results in fission products. In this article, some properties of such fuel system, determination of the saturate concentration of each daughter nuclide and applicability to Th-233U fueled reactor will be discussed. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  5. Avian influenza (H5N1 virus of clade 2.3.2 in domestic poultry in India.

    Shanmuga Nagarajan

    Full Text Available South Asia has experienced regular outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza virus since its first detection in India and Pakistan in February, 2006. Till 2009, the outbreaks in this region were due to clade 2.2 H5N1 virus. In 2010, Nepal reported the first outbreak of clade 2.3.2 virus in South Asia. In February 2011, two outbreaks of H5N1 virus were reported in the State of Tripura in India. The antigenic and genetic analyses of seven H5N1 viruses isolated during these outbreaks were carried out. Antigenic analysis confirmed 64 to 256-fold reduction in cross reactivity compared with clade 2.2 viruses. The intravenous pathogenicity index of the isolates ranged from 2.80-2.95 indicating high pathogenicity to chickens. Sequencing of all the eight gene-segments of seven H5N1 viruses isolated in these outbreaks was carried out. The predicted amino acid sequence analysis revealed high pathogenicity to chickens and susceptibility to the antivirals, amantadine and oseltamivir. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these viruses belong to clade 2.3.2.1 and were distinct to the clade 2.3.2.1 viruses isolated in Nepal. Identification of new clade 2.3.2 H5N1 viruses in South Asia is reminiscent of the introduction of clade 2.2 viruses in this region in 2006/7. It is now important to monitor whether the clade 2.3.2.1 is replacing clade 2.2 in this region or co-circulating with it. Continued co-circulation of various subclades of the H5N1 virus which are more adapted to land based poultry in a highly populated region such as South Asia increases the risk of evolution of pandemic H5N1 strains.

  6. V-bar in Neutron-Induced Fission of U235 and Th232, and in Photofission of U238

    The average number of prompt neutrons (v) emitted in the neutron-induced fission of U235 and Th232 and in the photofission of U238 has been measured with a large liquid scintillator as the fission neutron detector. The measurements were made relative to v for the spontaneous fission of Cf252. The v-values of U235 were measured at some different incident energies between 30 keV and 15 MeV, and the results are in agreement with measurements by Moat et al., and Hopkins and Diven. The measurements of Th232 were made for several incident neutron energies from the fission threshold at about 1.4 MeV to 15 MeV. Special interest was concentrated on the energy region near the fission threshold where the fission cross-section and the fragment angular distribution show strong variations with neutron energy. The measurements indicate that the energy dependence of b in this region may be non-linear. A measurement of v in the photofission of U238 at a gamma-ray energy of 7 MeV has been made. The result is not in agreement with measurements by Prokohorova et al. arid Lazareva et al. The spontaneous fission of Pu245 and the thermal-neutron-induced fission of Pu239 give a difference in v corresponding to 0.10 n/MeV. The result of the present investigation combined with the D-value for the spontaneous fission of U238 gives 0.10 ± 0.02 in agreement with the data obtained for the compound nucleus of Pu240. (author)

  7. Subcontracting strategy for the decontamination and decommissioning of Savannah River Site's First Tritium Extraction Facility, 232-F

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been actively proceeding with the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of various facilities and structures which were instrumental in the success of past missions at the site. The most ambitious of these efforts involves the subcontracting of the complete D and D of the first SRS Tritium Extraction Facility, identified as building 232-F. This facility operated in the mid 1950's and discontinued operations permanently in 1958. The approach utilized for this effort attempts to invoke the novel principle of open-quotes As Commercial As Reasonably Achievableclose quotes or open-quotes ACARAclose quotes. This concept of ACARA applies only the minimum essential requirements necessary to successfully perform the D and D task. Integral to this approach is the subcontractor provision for maximum flexibility in the identification of and adherence to the requirements of applicable DOE Orders, federal, state and local laws and regulations, as well as site specific procedures without violating the site contractual requirements. The technical specification prepared for this effort provides the basis for a competitively bid contract to perform the entire D and D evolution, including initial facility characterization, waste stream characterization and certification, D and D and waste disposal. Preparation and development of this specification and the subsequent Request For Proposal (RFP) was a successful team oriented endeavor. The schedule for this fast-track undertaking took three months to complete. Successful initiation of this task will be the first D and D of a facility containing both radioactive and hazardous material at an operating site within the DOE Weapons Complex. The strategy for preparing the D and D subcontract for the 232-F structure was facilitated by applying the ACARA principle. This approach resulted in the accelerated development of the specification and RFP documents, as well as minimized the complexities of

  8. Dose rate due to 226Ra, 232Th and indoor 222Rn/220Rn in Bangalore city

    Human beings have always been exposed to ionizing radiation from various natural sources of radiation and one of the major routes of internal exposures is through inhalation of radioactivity present in the atmosphere. External exposure is caused by the gamma radiation from 40K and the daughter products of 238U and 232Th. It is known that as a result of inhalation of 222Rn a daughter product of decay chain of 238U and its daughter products, the equivalent dose to the entire lung is 20% and 45% higher than the equivalent dose in other tissues. The present study is carried out in Bangalore Metropolitan, India during 2007 to till date. Activity concentrations were measured by hyper pure germanium detectors and 222Rn, 220Rn concentrations were measured by solid state nuclear track detectors. The dose conversion factors reported by UNSCEAR have been used to estimate the indoor inhalation dose rates. The absorbed dose rates due to 226Ra and 232Th ranged between 0.59 and 1.44 mSvy-1 with an AM as 0.93 mSvy-1. Whereas the dose rates during winter and summer ranged between 0.20 and 4.14 mSvy-1 with an arithmetic value 1.8 and 0.7 mSvy-1 respectively. The dose rates in lower volume rooms were ranged from 2.38 to 3.47 mSvy-1 and from 0.75 and 3.28 mSvy-1 for the rooms of higher volume. The arithmetic mean values of dose rates in lower and higher volume rooms were 2.94 ± 0.14 mSvy-1 and 1.35 ± 0.03 mSvy-1 respectively. Higher concentrations were observed in lower volume rooms than higher volume room of all the monitored locations. The detailed experimental methodology and results are discussed. (author)

  9. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th, 238U and 7Be in moss from spas in eastern Serbia in the period 2000-2012

    Čučulović Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra, 232Th, 238U and 7Be in mosses. One hundred and sixty-seven moss samples were collected between 2001 and 2012 from the territory of the Sokobanja, Banja Jošanica and Gamzigradska Banja spas. They were classified into 23 species. The activity concentrations (Bq/kg in moss from Sokobanja spa were: 40K 25-427; 226Ra 0.3-36; 232Th 1.0-37; 238U 0.4-28 and 7Be 29-210; from Banja Jošanica spa they were: 40K 90-242; 226Ra 2.4-11.7; 232Th 2.0-12.7; 238U 1.6-11.3 and 7Be 142-212; Gamzigradska Banja spa: 40K 95-351; 226Ra 8.0-21; 232Th 5.1-19; 238U 6.7-18 and 7Be 20-144. The activity concentrations of dominant natural radionuclides (potassium, radium, thorium and uranium in the moss samples were within the usual ranges for the territory of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  10. Comment on `Update of 40K and 226Ra and 232Th series $\\gamma$-to-dose conversion factors for soil'

    Malins, Alex; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    A letter to the editor of the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity on the article: E. Gasser, A. Nachab, A. Nourreddine, Ch. Roy, and A. Sellam, `Update of 40K and 226Ra and 232Th series $\\gamma$-to-dose conversion factors for soil', J. Environ. Radioactiv. 138, 68-71 (2014), DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2014.08.002.

  11. Measurement of Fragment Mass Distributions in Neutron-induced Fission of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th at Intermediate Energies

    Simutkin, V.D. [Uppsala University, P.O Box 525, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Conceptual analysis of accelerator-driven systems assumes extensive use of nuclear data on neutron-induced reactions at intermediate energies. In particular, information about the fission fragment yields from the {sup 238}U(n,f) and {sup 232}Th(n,f) reactions is of particular interest at neutron energies from 10 to 200 MeV. However, there is a lack of such data for both {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th. Up to now, the intermediate energy measurements have been performed for {sup 238}U only, and there are no data for the {sup 232}Th(n,f) reaction. The aim of the work is to provide such data. Fission fragment mass distributions for the {sup 232}Th(n,f) and {sup 238}U(n,f) reactions have been measured for the incident neutron energies 32.8 MeV, 45.3 MeV and 59.9 MeV. The experiments have been performed at the neutron beam facility of the Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium. A multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber has been used as a fission fragment detector. The data obtained have been interpreted in terms of the multimodal random neck-rupture model (MMRNRM). (authors)

  12. Proton-induced fission at 190 MeV of W-nat, Au-197, Pb-nat, Pb-208, and Th-232

    Duijvestijn, MC; Koning, AJ; Beijers, JPM; Gastal, M; van Klinken, J; Ostendorf, RW

    1999-01-01

    Proton-induced fission at 190 MeV of W-nat, Au-197, Pb-nat, Pb-208, and Th-232 is studied by means of an innovative method based on activation analysis. The fission-product mass distribution is reconstructed from the fission-product yields, which are obtained from off-line observed gamma-ray spectra

  13. Effects of the diacylglycerol o-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism on fatty acid, protein, and mineral composition of dairy cattle milk

    Bovenhuis, H.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Poulsen, N.A.; Sehested, J.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Larsen, L.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have described associations between the diacylglycerol o-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism and routinely collected milk production traits but not much is known about effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on detailed milk composition. The aim of this study was to estimate ef

  14. The direct method of concentration measurement of U-238, Th-232 and Ra-226 in geological objects with using of gamma-spectrometer

    The direct method of concentration measurement of U-238, Th-232 and Ra-226 in geological objects are presented in the paper. The method is based on the measurements of radioactivity Pa-234, Ac-228 and Ra-224 with using of high efficiency HP-Ge detector. (Authors)

  15. Target residues from the reaction of 3.65A GeV 12C with 232Th and 238U

    The cross sections for the production of about a hundred different radionuclides of 24Na - 237U range from the reaction of 3.65A GeV 12C with 232Th and 238U were measured by off-line gamma-ray spectroscopy. 5 refs.; 1 tab

  16. Comparative study of fusion barrier distribution in 16O and 18O induced reactions on 232Th and 209Bi targets

    In order to investigate the influence of projectile excitations and transfer channels, quasi-elastic excitation function measurements with 16,18O projectile on two targets, one heavy (232Th) and the other a lighter target (209Bi) at energies around their Coulomb barrier are investigated. The results are compared with a new CC code CCFULL

  17. ESPON 2.3.2: GOVERNANCE OF TERRITORIAL AND URBAN POLICIES FROM EU TO LOCAL LEVEL (2004-2006) : National Overview: France

    Santamaria, Frédéric; Bonerandi, Emmanuelle

    2005-01-01

    Rapport d'étude fourni au pilote du projet (université de Valence, Espagne) dans le cadre du programme ESPON National overview for France dealing with territorial and urban governance realised in the framework of the ESPON project 2.3.2

  18. Fission Cross Sections of {209}Bi, {232}Th, {235}U, {238}U and {237}Np for Intermediate Energy Protons and Deuterons

    Yurevich, V I; Yakovlev, R M; Sosnin, A N

    2001-01-01

    Fission cross sections of {209}Bi, {232}Th, {235}U, {238}U and {237}Np have been measured with 1.0-3.7 GeV protons and 1.0 GeV deuterons. The results are compared with other experimental data, available evaluations and predictions of the theoretical model.

  19. Familial microduplication of 17q23.1–q23.2 involving TBX4 is associated with congenital clubfoot and reduced penetrance in females.

    Peterson, Jess F; Ghaloul-Gonzalez, Lina; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; Hartman, Jessica; Surti, Urvashi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Yatsenko, Svetlana A

    2014-02-01

    Congenital clubfoot is a heterogeneous disorder that can result in functional disability, deformity, and pain if left untreated. Although the etiology is considered multifactorial in the majority of cases, a 17q23.1–q23.2 duplication has been reported in families with congenital clubfoot characterized by variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. The candidate gene within the duplicated region is TBX4, a T-box transcription factor required for normal hind limb development. We describe a familial 2.15 Mb duplication in the 17q23.1–q23.2 region identified in a mother, daughter, and two sons. The male proband was referred for genetic evaluation due to multiple congenital anomalies including bilateral clubfoot, dysplastic hips, multiple heart defects, microcephaly, midfacial hypoplasia, brain anomalies on MRI scan, seizure disorder, optic nerve hypoplasia, hearing loss, and bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Cytogenetic testing on family members identified the 17q23.1–q23.2 duplication in both older siblings and the mother. In this family both male siblings had clubfoot, while females were phenotypically normal. Although TBX4 remains the candidate gene for congenital clubfoot involving 17q23.1–q23.2 duplications, the explanation for variable expressivity and penetrance remains unknown. PMID:24592505

  20. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops at Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    The common use of phosphate fertilizers NPK and amendments in sugar cane crops in Brazilian agriculture may increase the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations in soils and their availability for plants and human food chain. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops in the Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The gamma spectrometry was utilized to measure the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentration in all samples. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer factors (TF) were quantified using the ratio between the radionuclide activity concentration in sugar cane and its activity concentration in soil. The results show that, although radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added in the sugar cane crops, if utilized in accordance with the recommended rates, their use does not lead to hazards levels in soils. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer of radionuclides occurred in the following order 40K>226Ra>232Th. Therefore, under these conditions, radionuclides intake through consumption of sugar is not hazardous to human health.

  1. Two new cases with microdeletion of 17q23.2 suggest presence of a candidate gene for sensorineural hearing loss within this region

    Schönewolf-Greulich, Bitten; Ronan, Anne; Ravn, Kristine;

    2011-01-01

    Microdeletion of the 17q23.2 region has very recently been suggested as a new emerging syndrome based on the finding of 8 cases with common phenotypes including mild-to-moderate developmental delay, heart defects, microcephaly, postnatal growth retardation, and hand, foot, and limb abnormalities...

  2. 30 CFR 285.232 - May I acquire a lease noncompetitively after responding to a Request for Interest or Call for...

    2010-07-01

    ... responding to a Request for Interest or Call for Information and Nominations under § 285.213? 285.232... after responding to a Request for Interest or Call for Information and Nominations under § 285.213? (a... response to the RFI or Call, we may inform you that there does not appear to be competitive interest,...

  3. 232Th(d,4n)230Pa cross-section measurements at ARRONAX facility for the production of 230U

    Introduction: 226Th (T1/2 = 31 min) is a promising therapeutic radionuclide since results, published in 2009, showed that it induces leukemia cells death and activates apoptosis pathways with higher efficiencies than 213Bi. 226Th can be obtained via the 230U α decay. This study focuses on the 230U production using the 232Th(d,4n)230Pa(β−)230U reaction. Methods: Experimental cross sections for deuteron-induced reactions on 232Th were measured from 30 down to 19 MeV using the stacked-foil technique with beams provided by the ARRONAX cyclotron. After irradiation, all foils (targets as well as monitors) were measured using a high-purity germanium detector. Results: Our new 230Pa cross-section values, as well as those of 232Pa and 233Pa contaminants created during the irradiation, were compared with previous measurements and with results given by the TALYS code. Experimentally, same trends were observed with slight differences in orders of magnitude mainly due to the nuclear data change. Improvements are ongoing about the TALYS code to better reproduce the data for deuteron-induced reactions on 232Th. Conclusions: Using our cross-section data points from the 232Th(d,4n)230Pa reaction, we have calculated the thick-target yield of 230U, in Bq/μA·h. This value allows now to a full comparison between the different production routes, showing that the proton routes must be preferred

  4. Intake of 238U and 232Th through the consumption of foodstuffs by tribal populations practicing slash and burn agriculture in an extremely high rainfall area

    The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 232Th, 238U was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in different food groups namely cereals, vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers cultivated and consumed by tribal population residing around the proposed uranium mine. The study area is a part of rural area K. P. Mawthabah (Domiasiat) in the west Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition without much outside influence. Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. A total of 89 samples from locally grown food products were analyzed. The concentration of 238U and 232Th in the soil of the study area was found to vary 1.6–15.5 and 2.0–5.0 times respectively to the average mean value observed in India. The estimated daily dietary intake of 238U and 232Th were 2.0 μg d−1 (25 mBq d−1) and 3.4 μg d−1 (14 mBq d−1) is comparable with reported range 0.5–5.0 μg d−1 and 0.15–3.5 μg d−1 respectively for the Asian population. - Highlights: ► 232Th, 238U were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). ► Study area located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition. ► Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. ► The estimated daily intake of 232Th and 238U in high rainfall area was found to be 3.4 and 2.0 μg respectively.

  5. Measurement of the {sup 232}thorium capture cross section at n-TOF-CERN; Mesure de la section efficace de capture neutronique du {sup 232}Th a n-TOF au CERN

    Aerts, G

    2005-09-01

    Within the context of nuclear power as a sustainable energy resource, a program of research is concentrated on a new nuclear fuel cycle based on thorium. The main advantage, as compared to the uranium cycle, is a lower production of minor actinides, of which the radiological impact on the long term constitutes a problem. At present, nuclear data libraries don't provide cross sections of a good enough quality, allowing more realistic calculations from simulations related to these reactors. The {sup 232}Th neutron capture cross section is an example. With the n-TOF collaboration, the measurement of this reaction was achieved in 2002 using two C{sub 6}D{sub 6} detectors. The experimental area located at CERN, is characterized by an outstanding neutron energy resolution coupled to a high instantaneous neutron flux. The determination of the gamma-ray cascade detection efficiency, with a random behaviour, has been obtained by the use of weighting functions. These were deduced from Monte Carlo simulations with the code MCNP. Data extraction, reduction, and the description of the neutron flux have lead to the capture yield. In the resolved resonance region, the resonance parameters describing the cross section were deduced with the code SAMMY, using the R-matrix theory. In the unresolved resonance region, an uncertainty of 3,5% is found, and a comparison with recent measurements shows a good agreement. (author)

  6. Determination of the 233Pa(n, f) reaction cross section from 0.5 to 10 MeV neutron energy using the transfer reaction 232Th(3He, p)234Pa

    The fission probability distributions of 232,233,234Pa and 231Th have been measured up to an excitation energy of 15 MeV, using the transfer reactions 232Th(3He, t)232Pa, 232Th(3He, d)233Pa, 232Th(3He, p)234Pa and 232Th(3He, 4He)231Th. From these measurements, the neutron induced fission cross sections of 231Pa, 233Pa and 230Th have been determined from the product of the fission probabilities of 232Pa, 233Pa and 231Th respectively with the calculated compound nucleus formation cross sections in the 231Pa+n, 233Pa+n and 230Th+n reactions. The validity of the applied method has been successfully tested with the existing neutron induced fission cross sections of 230Th and 231Pa. Special emphasis is put on the 233Pa(n, f) reaction which is of importance for thorium fueled nuclear reactors. Based on a statistical model analysis of the neutron induced fission cross section as a function of neutron energy, it has been possible to determine the barrier parameters of the 234Pa fissioning nucleus. Cross sections for the compound nucleus inelastic scattering 233Pa(n, n') and radiative capture 233Pa(n, γ) reactions have also been calculated and compared with recent evaluations

  7. Photoisomerization of 2-[3-(2-thioxopyrrolidin-3-ylidene)methyl]-tryptophan, a yellow pigment in salted radish roots.

    Matsuoka, Hiroki; Honzawa, Shuji; Takahashi, Asaka; Yoshikawa, Hiroko; Watanabe, Emi; Watanabe, Takeaki; Ozawa, Yoshio; Yamada, Yoichi; Iizuka, Takeshi; Uda, Yasushi

    2008-09-01

    The photostability of (E)-2-[3-(2-thioxopyrrolidin-3-ylidene)methyl]-tryptophan ((E)-TPMT), the main yellow pigment in salted radish, was studied. First we analyzed the photoproduct generated from (E)-TPMT under longwave UV irradiation. On the basis of NMR spectroscopy, the photoproduct was identified as Z-configurated TPMT, and isomerization from the Z- to the E-form was reversibly induced by Vis-light irradiation. The optimum wavelength for isomerization from the E- to the Z-form was 360-380 nm, and that for isomerization from the Z- to the E-form was 440-460 nm. The E/Z-ratios in the photostationary state under UV- and Vis-light irradiation conditions were approximately 0.95:1 and 26:1 respectively. The (Z)-isomer was more sensitive to light irradiation than the (E)-isomer in the quantum yield measurement. Yellowing was dependent on the ratio of the (Z)-isomer, because the b(*) and chroma value rose with increases in the (Z)-isomer by the colorimeters. Hence, it is possible that the formation of the (Z)-isomer contribute to the yellow color of takuan-zuke during long salting and fermentation. PMID:18776682

  8. MApping the Most Massive Overdensities (MAMMOTH) II -- Discovery of an Extremely Massive Overdensity BOSS1441 at $z=2.32$

    Cai, Zheng; Bian, Fuyan; Zabludoff, Ann; Yang, Yujin; Prochaska, J Xavier; McGreer, Ian; Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Wang, Ran; Frye, Brenda; Green, Richard; Jiang, Linhua

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological simulations suggest a strong correlation between high optical-depth Ly$\\alpha$ absorbers, which arise from the intergalactic medium (IGM), and 3-D mass overdensities on scales of $10-30$ $h^{-1}$ comoving Mpc. By examining the absorption spectra of $\\sim$ 80,000 QSO sight-lines over a volume of 0.1 Gpc$^3$ in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), we have identified an extreme overdensity, BOSS1441, which contains a rare group of strong Ly$\\alpha$ absorbers at $z=2.32\\pm 0.02$. This absorber group is associated with six QSOs at the same redshift on a 30 comoving Mpc scale. Using Mayall/MOSAIC narrowband and broadband imaging, we detect Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAEs) down to $0.7\\times L_{\\rm{Ly\\alpha}}^*$, and reveal a large-scale structure of Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAEs) in this field. Our follow-up Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) observations have spectroscopically confirmed 19 galaxies in the density peak. We show that BOSS1441 has an LAE overdensity of $10.8\\pm 2.6$ on a 15 comoving Mpc scale...

  9. 230Th, 232Th and 238U determinations in phosphoric acid fertilizer and process products by ICP-MS

    Through processing of Santa Quiteria-CE mine phosphate rock, Brazil has established a project for production of phosphoric acid fertilizer and uranium as a by-product. Under leaching conditions of phosphate rock with sulfuric acid, which is the common route for preparing phosphoric acid fertilizer, a large part of uranium, thorium and their decay products naturally present in the rock are solubilized. In order to assess the contamination potential in phosphoric acid and others process products, this paper describes a previous precipitation and direct methods for routine analysis of thorium and uranium isotopes by ICP-MS. In all samples, 230Th, 232Th and 238U were directly determined after dilution, except 230Th in phosphoric acid loaded with uranium sample, which to overcome equipment contamination effect, was determined after its separation by oxalate precipitation using lanthanum as a carrier. The results obtained by the proposed method by ICP-MS, were in good agreement when compared to alpha spectrometry for 230Th, and ICP-OES and spectrophotometry with arsenazo III for elementary uranium and thorium determinations. (author)

  10. Distribution of radioactive pollution of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in northwestern coasts of Persian Gulf, Iran

    A reconnaissance study has been made of the distribution of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs and geochemical features in soils and sediments samples at various locations in the northwestern coast of Persian Gulf. Activity concentration levels due to radionuclides were measured in 30 soil and sediment samples collected from this region. From the measured spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 40K (range from 146 to 500 Bq kg-1), 137Cs (from 5 to 20 Bq kg-1), 238U (from 21 to 65 Bq kg-1) and 232Th (from 15 to 45 Bq kg-1) with lowest limit detection (LLD) of 68, 3.2, 4.3 and 4.3 Bq kg-1, respectively. The dose rate from ambient air at the soil ranges was between 19 and 58 nGy h-1 with an average of 37.41 ± 9.66 nGy h-1

  11. Assessment of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity in soil around the Uranium Mining and Processing Facility at Tummalapalle

    By using high purity germanium detector with high resolution gamma spectroscopy, various radionuclides were estimated quantitatively in different soil samples collected around Tummalapalle mining and milling facility. The activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K as well as other radiological parameters were determined in the soil. The mean activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil were 53.22, 52.14 and 859.95 Bqkg-1, respectively, which are comparable with reported values elsewhere. The mean outdoor annual effective dose to the general public from the radionuclides present in the soil was estimated to be 0.11±0.02 mSvy-1, which is about 4.6 % of worldwide average annual exposure to natural radiation sources of 2.4 mSv as reported by UNSCEAR (2000). (author)

  12. Accelerated alpha-decay of 232U isotope achieved by exposure of its aqueous solution with gold nanoparticles to laser radiation

    Simakin, A V

    2011-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on laser-induced accelerated alpha-decay of Uranium-232 nuclei under laser exposure of Au nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of its salt. It is demonstrated that the decrease of alpha-activity strongly depends on the peak intensity of the laser radiation in the liquid and is highest at several terawatt per square centimeter. The decrease of alpha-activity of the exposed solutions is accompanied by the deviation of gamma-activities of daughter nuclides of Uranium-232 from their equilibrium values. Possible mechanisms of the laser influence on the alpha-activity are discussed on the basis of the amplification of the electric field of laser wave on metallic nanoparticles.

  13. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in rice plant components and physico-chemical effects of soil on their transportation to grains

    Mohammed Saad Alsaffar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Radioactivity distribution and transfer factor (TF in plants are crucial parameters used to assess radioactive contamination in the environment and its risks to humans. In this study, the activities of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were successfully measured via gamma-ray spectrometry on rice plant components (root, straw, husk, and grain and on corresponding soil samples collected from paddy fields in Penang, Malaysia. Soil physico-chemical characteristics (pH, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, organic matter, and soil texture were also analyzed for their estimated effects on soil–grain TF. A major fraction of the total 226Ra and 232Th activities measured as 47% and 57%, respectively, were concentrated in the roots, whereas only about 9% and 8% were distributed in the grains, correspondingly. 40K activity accumulation was about 59% in the straw and 7% in the grains. Rice soil–grain TFs were observed in the ranges of (0.06–0.36 × 10−1 for 226Ra, (0.04–0.14 × 10−1 for 232Th, and (0.74–4.72 × 10−1 for 40K. Results showed that the selected radionuclide distributions in rice are dependent on component type, and their grain concentrations are not linearly related to their soil concentrations. These findings indicated that uptake predominantly depends on soil physico-chemical characteristics.

  14. Evaluation of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 activities concentrations and radium equivalent index in several Brazilian economic wall paints

    The titanium dioxide used as the white pigment in paints is produced from the processing of ilmenite minerals. As monazite, the main ilmenite radioactive contaminant, contains 1 to 20% thorium dioxide and also some uranium traces, so, eventually, wall paints can contain radioactivity. Activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in 15 Brazilian economic wall paints samples, by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The activities concentrations in the studied samples ranged from 1.3 ± 0.2 Bq/kg to 23.4 ± 0.7 Bq/kg for 226Ra; from 2.5 ± 0.4 Bq/kg to 45.8 ± 1.5 Bq/kg for 232Th and from 5.8 ± 2.1 Bq/kg to 157 ± 22 Bq/kg for 40K. The radium equivalent index, calculated from the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations, varied from 1.30 Bq/kg up to 95.9 Bq/kg, below the value of 370 Bq/kg recommended by OECD for a safety use in residential building applications. (author)

  15. Detection of VHE gamma-ray emission from the distant blazar 1ES 1101-232 with H.E.S.S. and broadband characterisation

    Akhperjanian, A G; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Brion, E; Brown, A M; Buhler, R; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Carrigan, S; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L M; Coignet, G; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Atai, A; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubus, G; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Ferrero, E; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Funk, Seb; Funk, S; Fussling, M; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; De Jager, O C; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Khelifi, B; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemiere, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; Maurin, G; McComb, T J L; Moulin, E; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nedbal, D; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Olive, J P; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Ranchon, S; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V V; Santangelo, A; Sauge, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schroder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Spanier, F; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Superina, G; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Wagner, S J; Ward, M

    2007-01-01

    The blazar 1ES 1101-232 was observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) of Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (ACT) in 2004 and 2005, for a live time of 43 hours. VHE (E > 10^11 eV) gamma-rays were detected for the first time from this object. VHE observations of blazars are used to investigate the inner parts of the blazar jets, and also to study the extragalactic background light (EBL) in the near-infrared band. Observations in 2005 were conducted in a multiwavelength campaign, together with the RXTE satellite and optical observations. In 2004, simultaneous observations with XMM-Newton were obtained. 1ES 1101-232 was detected with H.E.S.S. with an excess of 722 photons, at a significance of 12 sigma. The measured VHE gamma-ray flux amounts to dN/dE = (5.63 +- 0.89) x 10^-13 (E/TeV)^-(2.94 +- 0.20) cm^-2 s^-1 TeV^-1, above a spectral energy threshold of 225 GeV. No significant variation of the VHE gamma-ray flux on any time scale was found. 1ES 1101-232 exhibits a very hard spectrum, and at a ...

  16. Emanation of 232U daughter products from submicrometer particles of uranium oxide and thorium dioxide by nuclear recoil and inert gas diffusion

    Emanation of 232U daughter products by nuclear recoil and inert gas diffusion from spherical, submicrometer particles of uranium oxide and thorium dioxide was studied. Monodisperse samples of particles containing 1% 232U and having physical diameters between 0.1 and 1 μm were used for the emanation measurements. Thorium-228 ions recoiling from the particles after alpha-decay of 232U were collected electrostatically on a recoil cathode. Radon-220 diffusing from the particles was swept by an airstream into a 4 l. chamber where the 220Rn daughters were collected on a second cathode. Mathematical models of radionuclide emanation from spherical particles were used to calculate the recoil range of 228Th and the diffusion coefficient of 220Rn in the particle matrix. A 228Th recoil range of 0.02 μm and a 220Rn diffusion coefficient of 3 x 10-14 cm2/sec were obtained in both uranium oxide and thorium dioxide particles. (author)

  17. Assay methods for U-238, Th-232, and Pb-210 in lead and calibration of Bi-210 bremsstrahlung emission from lead

    Orrell, John L; Arnquist, Isaac J; Eggemeyer, Tere A; Glasgow, Brian D; Hoppe, Eric W; Keillor, Martin E; Morley, Shannon M; Myers, Allan W; Overman, Cory T; Shaff, Sarah M; Thommasson, Kimbrelle S

    2015-01-01

    Assay methods for measuring 238U, 232Th, and 210Pb concentrations in refined lead are presented. The 238U and 232Th concentrations are determined using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) after anion exchange column separation of dissolved lead samples. The 210Pb concentration is inferred through {\\alpha}-spectroscopy of a daughter isotope, 210Po, after chemical precipitation separation on dissolved lead samples. Subsequent to the 210Po {\\alpha}-spectroscopy assay, a method for evaluating 210Pb concentrations in solid lead samples was developed via measurement of bremsstrahlung radiation from \\b{eta}-decay of a daughter isotope, 210Bi, by employing a 14-crystal array of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. Ten sources of refined lead were assayed. The 238U concentrations were <34 microBq/kg and the 232Th concentrations ranged <0.6-15 microBq/kg, as determined by the ICP-MS assay method. The 210Pb concentrations ranged from ~0.1-75 Bq/kg, as inferred by the 210Po ...

  18. Measurement and analysis of reactivity worth of Th232, U233 and Eu plate in the core with KUCA-Th

    The reactivity worth of 1/8''Th232, 2mmtU233 and 2mmtEU plate were measured in the center of core of B4/8''P24EU-Th-EU(5). C/E was about 0.92 to 0.95 for U233 plate and Eu plate, and about 1.0 to 1.3 for Th232 plate, respectively, higher value. The core construction consisted of the fuel region inside and it encircled with polyethylene reflector and the control and safety rods are set in the boundary. Each reactivity worth of materials was determined by the difference between the average excess reactivity of each material at loading and that of aluminum at loading. The results were expressed as the following; Δk/k = 4.931E-04 + 1.99E-05 (2 mmtU233), Δk/k = 2.979E-04 + 1.67E-05 (2 mmtEU) and Δk/k = -4.874E-04 + 1.29E-05 (1/8''Th232). The experimental values agreed with the calculated values and were reproducible to the measurement values on KUCA. (S.Y.)

  19. Determination of 238U, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations in riverbank soil along the Chao Phraya river basin in Thailand

    The activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K in riverbank soil along the Chao Phraya river basin was determined through gamma-ray spectrometry measurements made using a hyper-pure germanium detector in a low background configuration. The ranges of activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K were found to be 13.9 ↔ 76.8, 12.9 ↔ 142.9 and 178.4 ↔ 810.7 Bq kg−1, respectively. The anthropogenic radionuclide, 137Cs, was not observed in statistically significant amounts above the background level in the current study. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air at 1 m above the ground surface, the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent, the values of the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index associated with all the soil samples in the present work were evaluated. The results indicate that the radiation hazard from primordial radionuclides in all soil samples from the area studied in this current work is not significant. - Highlights: • Radioactivity in surface soils from the Chao Phraya river basin in Thailand is evaluated. • Gamma-ray spectrometric analysis is to identify decays associated with 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. • The results provide baseline measurements for any changes in future radioactivity levels

  20. A preliminary study on 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations in vegetables and fruits frequently consumed by inhabitants of Elazig Region, Turkey

    Determining radioactivity levels in foodstuffs is of great importance for the protection of human health. In addition, the literature includes few studies related to this subject in Turkey. In this study, gamma spectroscopic system was used in order to measure 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations in vegetables and fruits produced in Elazig( Region. The average activity concentrations in vegetables was calculated as 0.64 ± 0.26 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 0.65 ± 0.14 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 13.98 ± 1.22 Bq kg-1 for 40K, and 0.54 ± 0.04 Bq kg-1 for 137Cs. The average activity concentrations in fruits were 1.52 ± 0.34, 0.98 ± 0.23, 18.66 ± 1.13 and 0.59 ± 0.16 Bq kg-1, respectively for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs. Total committed effective dose value was determined as 20 and 30.55 μSv y-1, respectively for vegetables and fruits. The findings were compared with previous data reported for Turkey and other regions of the world. (author)

  1. Study of environmental natural gamma radiation dose and activity of uranium-238, thorium-232 using NaI (Tl) scintillation detector

    Exposure to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuous and unavoidable feature of life-systems on the earth. The environmental effective gamma radiation dose from terrestrial and cosmic radiation at height one foot above the earth's surface in open atmosphere has been measured at twenty different places in Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra state by using 2x2 NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. The activity of 238U and 232Th has been measured using gamma ray spectroscopy. The effective gamma radiation dose at different locations varies between, 0.286 to 0.804 mS/y, with an average value 0.512 mSv/y. The 238U activity varies from 0.466 KBq/m2 to 1.133 KBq/m2 with mean value of 0.684 KBq/m2. The 232Th activity varies from 0.552 KBq/m2 to 1.267 KBq/m2 with mean 0.8682 KBq/m2. The 238U to 232Th activity ratio varies from 0.494 to 1.47 with mean 0.898. (author)

  2. Determination of {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}Th, and{sup 228}Ra in wild mushroom from a naturally high radioactive region in Brazil

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Silva, Marco A.; Ferreira, Marcelo T., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: masilva@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: ferreira@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. of Pocos de Caldas; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.gov.b [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Mushrooms are fungi which efficiently accumulate radionuclides, as verified by radiochemistry analyses of specimens collected in contaminated areas, specifically after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Many studies have demonstrated that mushrooms can be used in monitoring of ecosystem contamination and quality. The present paper is part of a broader study conducted in the Pocos de Caldas plateau region in Minas Gerais, Brazil, investigating assimilation of natural Uranium and Thorium radionuclide series by mushrooms. This region has elevated natural radioactivity due to the presence of radiological anomalies of volcanic origin. These anomalies are ore bodies containing Uranium and Thorium, the later being highly predominant. Many researchers have been conducted concerning radionuclide incorporation by agricultural products on the plateau. The present paper aims to determine {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 228}Ra radionuclides in wild mushrooms collected at different locations in the plateau region. {sup 228}Ra was determined by radiochemical separation using sulphate coprecipitation followed by beta radiometry. {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Th were determined using anion exchange resin purification followed by alpha spectrometry. Higher values were obtained to {sup 228}Th than to {sup 232}Th. This is due to higher {sup 228}Ra mobility, which decays to {sup 228}Th. The accuracy of the analytical methods employed was evaluated using the reference sample IAEA Soil 327. These methods had high chemical recovery and high sensitivity. It was possible to confirm that mushrooms accumulate radionuclide and so can be used in environmental contamination and quality assessment. (author)

  3. Measurement of average cross section for Pa-233 (n, 2n) Pa-232 reaction to neutrons with fission-type reactor spectrum

    Among some nuclides concerning thorium fuel cycle, the reaction cross sections of Pa-233 should be thoroughly investigated because of its relatively long life of 27 days half life. In the present works, the average cross section for Pa-233(n,2n)Pa-232 reaction, which has been considered to contribute to the production of troublesome concomitant U-232, was initially measured using the Pa-233 specimen as pure as possible followed by the re-irradiation in a fission-type neutron spectrum. The purest Pa-233 was produced from the first thermal neutron irradiation of Th-oxide, which was selected from the viewpoint of low Th-230 content to avoid the production of bothering Pa-231 having a large cross section for thermal neutron capture reaction. The chemically isolated Pa-233 was immediately re-irradiated with reactor neutrons having fission-type reactor spectrum in KUR, along with some flux monitors for fast neutrons. After completely decaying out Pa-233 to U-233, the chemical purification of uranium was performed and the resultant uranium isotopes were analysed with an alpha-spectrometry. By using the activity ratios of U-232/U-233, the objective cross section was evaluated to be 52.1 mbarn with an estimated overall experimental error of 10 % after correcting the inevitable bypath reaction by small amount of Pa-231 content. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 activities concentrations and radium equivalent index in several Brazilian economic wall paints

    Fonseca, Leandro M.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: lmfonseca@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The titanium dioxide used as the white pigment in paints is produced from the processing of ilmenite minerals. As monazite, the main ilmenite radioactive contaminant, contains 1 to 20% thorium dioxide and also some uranium traces, so, eventually, wall paints can contain radioactivity. Activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in 15 Brazilian economic wall paints samples, by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The activities concentrations in the studied samples ranged from 1.3 ± 0.2 Bq/kg to 23.4 ± 0.7 Bq/kg for {sup 226}Ra; from 2.5 ± 0.4 Bq/kg to 45.8 ± 1.5 Bq/kg for {sup 232}Th and from 5.8 ± 2.1 Bq/kg to 157 ± 22 Bq/kg for {sup 40}K. The radium equivalent index, calculated from the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K concentrations, varied from 1.30 Bq/kg up to 95.9 Bq/kg, below the value of 370 Bq/kg recommended by OECD for a safety use in residential building applications. (author)

  5. Distribution of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soils of Province of Camaguey, Cuba

    A survey programme aimed at studying the environmental radioactivity in the Province of Camaguey in the eastern region of Cuba was undertaken. The average concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in the surveyed soils were 26.4, 11.5 and 210 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The man-made radionuclide found was 137 Cs and its concentration was similar to those reported in regions affected only by global radioactive fallout, (7.9 Bq.kg-1). Radiological measurements carried out with a portable ionization chamber RSS-112 at the sampled sites revealed an average outdoor absorbed dose rate of 59.0 nGy.h-1 due to cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma radiation. Computed dose rates obtained through the UNSCEAR(1993) dose coefficients range from 4-182 nGy.h-1, with a mean value of 27.8 nGy.h-1, due to natural terrestrial gamma radiation. Ratio of Indoor to Outdoor absorbed dose rates in air was 1.75. The average value of absorbed dose rate in air for the ionizing component of cosmic rays was 31.8 nGy.h-1 at sea level. Because of the 95% of the Camaguey population lives at altitudes close to sea level (10-100 m), the absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from ionizing component of cosmic rays was estimated to be 32.3 nGy.h-1. An annual average effective dose equivalent of 510 μSv was estimated for Camaguey population due to the ionizing component of cosmic and gamma terrestrial radiation. This value is lower than the 760 μSv.year-1 estimated as a world average by UNSCEAR (1993). (author)

  6. Delayed Fission Gamma-ray Characteristics of Th-232 U-233 U-235 U-238 and Pu-239

    Lane, Taylor [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Delayed fission gamma-rays play an important role in determining the time dependent ioniz- ing dose for experiments in the central irradiation cavity of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR). Delayed gamma-rays are produced from both fission product decay and from acti- vation of materials in the core, such as cladding and support structures. Knowing both the delayed gamma-ray emission rate and the time-dependent gamma-ray energy spectrum is nec- essary in order to properly determine the dose contributions from delayed fission gamma-rays. This information is especially important when attempting to deconvolute the time-dependent neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray contribution to the response of a diamond photo-conducting diode (PCD) or fission chamber in time frames of milliseconds to seconds following a reactor pulse. This work focused on investigating delayed gamma-ray character- istics produced from fission products from thermal, fast, and high energy fission of Th-232, U-233, U-235, U-238, and Pu-239. This work uses a modified version of CINDER2008, a transmutation code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to model time and energy dependent photon characteristics due to fission. This modified code adds the capability to track photon-induced transmutations, photo-fission, and the subsequent radiation caused by fission products due to photo-fission. The data is compared against previous work done with SNL- modified CINDER2008 [ 1 ] and experimental data [ 2 , 3 ] and other published literature, includ- ing ENDF/B-VII.1 [ 4 ]. The ability to produce a high-fidelity (7,428 group) energy-dependent photon fluence at various times post-fission can improve the delayed photon characterization for radiation effects tests at research reactors, as well as other applications.

  7. Physical and underway data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN232 in the Philippine Sea from 2009-04-02 to 2009-04-17 (NODC Accession 0104350)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0104350 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN232 in the Philippine Sea from 2009-04-02 to...

  8. {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th concentrations in various foodstuffs in Morocco and resulting radiation doses to the members of the public; Concentrations en {sup 238}U et {sup 232}Th dans differents aliments au Maroc et doses de radiations en resultant pour les membres du public

    Misdaq, M.A.; Elamyn, H.; Erramli, H. [Cadi Ayyad Univ., Nuclear Physics and Techniques Lab., Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco)

    2008-04-15

    Uranium ({sup 238}U) and thorium ({sup 232}Th) concentrations were measured in different foods widely consumed in Morocco by using C.R.-39 and L.R.-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (S.S.N.T.D.). Data obtained were compared to those obtained by using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (I.D.M.S.). Total daily intakes of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th for a typical food basket were estimated to be 1.3 {+-} 0.1 mBq d{sup -1} and 0.98 {+-} 0.08 mBq d{sup -1}, 1.4 {+-} 0.1 mBq d{sup -1} and 1.06 {+-} 0.08 mBq d{sup -1}, 1.7 {+-} 0.1 mBq d{sup -1} and 1.26 {+-} 0.08 mBq d{sup -1} and 2.0 {+-} 0.1 mBq d{sup -1} and 1.5 {+-} 0.1 Bq d{sup -1} for the 2-7 years, 7-12 years, 12-17 years and adult's age groups, respectively. Alpha-activities due to annual {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th intakes from the ingestion of the studied foodstuffs were determined in different organs and tissues of the human body of members of the public by using the ICRP gastrointestinal tract and systemic part models for these radionuclides. Committed equivalent doses due to annual intakes of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th were evaluated in the human body organs and tissues for different age groups of the Moroccan population by exploiting data obtained for alpha-doses deposited by 1 Bq of {sup 238}U and 1 Bq of {sup 232}Th in the considered human organs and tissues. The influence of the mass of the target tissue and activities due to {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th on the committed equivalent doses due to annual intakes of these radionuclides in the organs and tissues of the human body was studied. (authors)

  9. Assessment of environmental 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations in the region of elevated radiation background in Segamat District, Johor, Malaysia

    Extensive environmental survey and measurements of gamma radioactivity in the soil samples collected from Segamat District were conducted. Two gamma detectors were used for the measurements of background radiation in the area and the results were used in the computation of the mean external radiation dose rate and mean weighted dose rate, which are 276 nGy h−1 and 1.169 mSv y−1, respectively. A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used in the assessment of activity concentrations of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K. The results of the gamma spectrometry range from 11 ± 1 to 1210 ± 41 Bq kg−1 for 232Th, 12 ± 1 to 968 ± 27 Bq kg−1 for 226Ra, and 12 ± 2 to 2450 ± 86 Bq kg−1 for 40K. Gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations range from 170 ± 50 to 4360 ± 170 Bq kg−1 and 70 ± 20 to 4690 ± 90 Bq kg−1, respectively. These results were used in the plotting of digital maps (using ARCGIS 9.3) for isodose. The results are compared with values giving in UNSCEAR 2000. -- Highlights: • Assessment of the activities in region of elevated radiation in Segamat District. • The average dose rate found to be six times higher than the world average. • The activity of 232Th is six times world average. • The activity of 226Ra is four times and 40K is lower than world average. • A digital map plotted for isodose

  10. Fusion hybrids for generation of advanced (231Pa+232U+233U+234U)-fuel in closed (U-Pu-Th)-fuel cycle

    Technology of controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF) is traditionally regarded as a practically inexhaustible energy source. However, development, mastering, broad deployment of fast breeder reactors and closure of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) can also extend fuel base of nuclear power industry (NPI) up to practically unlimited scales. Under these conditions, it seems reasonable to introduce into a circle of the CTF-related studies the works directed towards solving some principal problems which can appear in a large-scale NPI in closed NFC. The first challenge is a large scale of operations in NFC back-end that should be reduced by achieving substantially higher fuel burn-up in power nuclear reactors. The use of 231Pa-232Th-232U-233U fuel in light-water reactor (LWR) opens a possibility of principle to reach very high (about 30% HM) or even ultra-high fuel burn-up. The second challenge is a potential unauthorized proliferation of fissionable materials. As is known, a certain remarkable quantity of 232U being introduced into uranium fraction of nuclear fuel can produce a serious barrier against switching the fuel over to non-energy purposes. Involvement of hybrid thermonuclear reactors (HTR) into NPI structure can substantially facilitate resolving these problems. If HTR will be involved into NPI structure, then main HTR mission consists not in energy generation but in production of nuclear fuel with a certain isotope composition. The present paper analyzes some neutron-physical features in production of advanced nuclear fuels in thorium HTR blankets. The obtained results demonstrated that such a nuclear fuel may be characterized by very stable neutron-multiplying properties during full LWR operation cycle and by enhanced proliferation resistance too. The paper evaluates potential benefits from involvement of HTR with thorium blanket into the international closed NFC. (author)

  11. A Hard X-ray View on Two Distant VHE Blazars: 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113

    Reimer, A.; Costamente, L.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Madejski, G.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Reimer, O.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Dorner, D.; /Wurzburg U.

    2008-05-02

    TeV-blazars are known as prominent non-thermal emitters across the entire electromagnetic spectrum with their photon power peaking in the X-ray and TeV-band. If distant, absorption of -ray photons by the extragalactic background light (EBL) alters the intrinsic TeV spectral shape, thereby affecting the overall interpretation. Suzaku observations for two of the more distant TeV-blazars known to date, 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113, were carried out in May and July 2006, respectively, including a quasi-simultaneous coverage with the state of the art Cherenkov telescope facilities. We report on the resulting data sets with emphasis on the X-ray band, and set into context to their historical behavior. During our campaign, we did not detect any significant X-ray or {gamma}-ray variability. 1ES 1101-232 was found in a quiescent state with the lowest X-ray flux ever measured. The combined XIS and HXD PIN data for 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113 clearly indicate spectral curvature up to the highest hard X-ray data point ({approx} 30 keV), manifesting as softening with increasing energy. We describe this spectral shape by either a broken power law or a log-parabolic fit with equal statistical goodness of fits. The combined 1ES 1553+113 very high energy spectrum (90-500 GeV) did not show any significant changes with respect to earlier observations. The resulting contemporaneous broadband spectral energy distributions of both TeV-blazars are discussed in view of implications for intrinsic blazar parameter values, taking into account the {gamma}-ray absorption in the EBL.

  12. Determination of radioactivity level of 238U, 232Th and 40K in surface medium in Zhuhai city by in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry

    A gamma-ray spectrometry survey with NaI(Tl) (φ75mm x 75mm) has been performed on a large scale to determine the distribution of 40K, 238U and 232Th in soil and rocks in Zhuhai, a southern Chinese city located in Guangdong Province. The survey sampled 970 sites which covered an area of more than 100 km2. The average activities of 40K. 238U and 222Th were found 655±338, 85.8±31.6, and 159.8±49.0 Bq·kg-1 in soil or cement of pavement in the urban area; 832±455, 87.3±41.6, and 179.3±40.7 Bq·kg-1 in weathered granite; 634±76.8, 35.2±14.6 and 70.2±18.6Bq·kg-1 in the Quaternary sediments in Doumen District. The average 232Th activity (159.8±49.0 Bq·kg-1) is above the average in both China (49 Bq·kg-1) and the world (30 Bq·kg-1). Terrestrial air-absorbed dose rates calculated from the above activities are 85.08±15.63, 183.33±40.80 nGy·h-1 respectively over the Quaternary sediments and weathered granite, and 163.49±30.15 nGy·h-1 in the urban area. The average calculated air-absorbed dose rate is about 12.63% larger than the value measured by a portable plastic scintillator dosemeter. The 40K, 238U and 232Th activities in surface medium are mainly originated from biotite granites, as indicated by a strong correlation between the radioactivity level and geological lithology in the surveyed area. (author)

  13. Experimental Neutron-Induced Fission Fragment Mass Yields of 232Th and 238U at Energies from 10 to 33 MeV

    Simutkin, V. D.; Pomp, S.; Blomgren, J.; Österlund, M.; R. Bevilacqua; Ryzhov, I. V.; Tutin, G. A.; Yavshits, S. G.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Onegin, M S; Meulders, J.P.; Prieels, R.

    2013-01-01

    Development of nuclear energy applications requires data for neutron-induced reactions for actinides in a wide neutron energy range. Here we describe measurements of pre-neutron emission fission fragment mass yields of 232Th and 238U at incident neutron energies from 10 to 33 MeV. The measurements were done at the quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam of the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility CYCLONE; a multi-section twin Frisch-gridded ionization chamber was used to detect fission fragments. For...

  14. Basic characterization of 233U: Determination of age and 232U content using sector field ICP-MS, gamma spectrometry and alpha spectrometry

    The possibility to determine the age, i.e. the time since the last chemical separation, of 233U was studied using two fundamentally different measurement techniques: inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gamma spectrometry. Moreover, the isotope ratio 232U/233U was measured using both alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry. For the two materials analysed, all measurement results were in agreement, i.e. consistent within the combined uncertainties. One of the materials was also measured using gamma spectrometry under field conditions. This measurement was also in agreement with the other results on this material

  15. Daily intake of /sup 234,235,238/U, /sup 228,230,232/Th and /sup 226,228/Ra by New York City residents

    The daily intake of long-lived alpha-emitting members of the U, Th and Ac series by New York City residents has been estimated from measurements of diet, water and air samples. The total daily intakes from inhalation, food and water consumption in mBq are 18 (234U), 0.7 (235U), 16 (238U), 6 (230Th), 4 (232Th) and 52 (226Ra). From this, we infer that the total daily intakes of 228Th and 228Ra are 4 and 35 mBq, respectively

  16. CSER 90-006, addendum 1: Criticality safety control for source term reduction project in the scrubber glovebox of Building 232-Z. Revision 1

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report addendum extends the coverage of the original CSER (90-006) about dismantling the ductwork in 232-Z to include cleanout of the Scrubber Glovebox, with an estimated residual Pu holdup of less than 200 grams. For conservatism and containment considerations, the provisions about waste packaging and water exclusion from the original work are retained, even though it is not credible for the Scrubber Pu content to be made critical with water added (NDA gives about 1/3 a minimum critical mass)

  17. Fission Cross-Section Measurements on Pu239, Pu241 , U232, and a Search for Fission Components in Pu238 Resonances

    Fission cross-section measurements on Pu239 and Pu241 have been carried out from sub-thermal-neutron energy to the keV region; resonance parameters are given and errors in the average values of the cross-section are discussed. The discovery of large fission components in the U232 neutron resonances stimulated a search for fission components in Pu238. The results of these experiments are given. All the measurements were performed on the Harwell time-of-flight spectrometer. (author)

  18. Analysis of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in samples of soil from some areas of Republic of Macedonia by using gamma spectrometry

    Todorovik Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the importance of the distribution and transfer of radio nuclides in soil, an attempt was made in this work to determine the concentration of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in the same. The concentrations of activity in the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radio nuclides, as follows, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in samples of soil collected from some parts of Republic of Macedonia, i.e. from three major cities in the Republic of Macedonia. The samples are taken by means of a special dosage dispenser which enables sampling of samples at a depth of 0-5 cm, 5-10cm and 10-15cm, thus disabling the sampling above these layers of soil. An identification of radio nuclides and assessment of their activity has been performed by applying gamma spectrometry. The time of counting for each sample was 65000 s. in order to obtain statistically small mistake. The spectrums were analyzed by a commercially available software GENIE-2000 received from Canberra, Austria. The activity of soil had wide range of values: 20.3 to 82.9 Bq kg-1for 226Ra, 16.1 to 82.5 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 325 to 799.0 Bq kg-1for 40К and 9.1 to 24.3 Bq kg-1for 137Cs, respectively. The concentrations of these radio nuclides have been compared with the available data from the other countries. Natural environmental radioactivity and the associated external exposure due to gamma radiation depend primarily on the geological and geographical conditions. Namely, the specific levels of terrestrial environmental radiation are related to the type of rocks from which the soils originate. The obtained data indicate that the average value of activity of 232Th is about higher than the one of 226Ra The concentration of activity of 40К in the soil has greater value than 32Th and 226Ra in all soils. The causes for the existence of 137Cs in these soils are the nuclear explosions, waste radioactive materials and other incidents. It reaches the

  19. Collective and single-particle excitations in the heavy deformable nuclei 234U, 233U, 231Th, 230Pa and 232Pa

    In this thesis five heavy deformed isotopes from the mass region A≥230, namely 234U, 233U, 231Th, 230Pa and 232Pa, were investigated by means of deuteron-induced neutron transfer reactions. The even-even isotope 234U has been studied with the 4π-γ-spectrometer MINIBALL at the Cologne Tandem accelerator. Excited nuclei in the isotope 234U were produced using the reaction 235U(d,t) at a beam energy of 11 MeV. The target thickness was 3.5 mg/cm2. The analysis of the γγ-coincidence data yielded a reinterpretation of the level scheme in 12 cases. Considering its decay characteristics, the 4+ state at an excitation energy of 1886.7 keV is a potential candidate for a two-phonon vibrational state. The isotopes 233U, 231Th, 230Pa and 232Pa were investigated at the Munich Q3D spectrometer. For each isotope an angular distribution with angles between 5 and 45 were measured. In all four cases the energy of the polarized deuteron beam (vector polarization of 80%) was 22 MeV. As targets 234U (160 μg/cm2), 230Th (140 μg/cm2) and 231Pa (140 μg/cm2) were used. The experimental angular distributions were compared to results of DWBA calculations. For the odd isotope 233U spin and parity for 33 states are assigned and in the other odd isotope 231Th 22 assignments are made. The excitation spectra of the two odd-odd isotopes 230Pa and 232Pa were investigated for the first time. For the isotope 230Pa 63 states below an excitation energy of 1.5 MeV are identified. Based on the new experimental data the Nilsson configuration of the ground state is either 1/2[530]p-5/2[633]n or 1/2[530]p+3/2[631]n. In addition 12 rotational bands are proposed and from this six values for the GM splitting energy are deduced as well as two new values for the Newby shift. In the other odd-odd isotope 232Pa 40 states below an excitation energy of 850 keV are observed and suggestions for the groundstate band and its GM partner are made. From this one GM splitting energy was determined.

  20. Cost-based optimizations of power density and target-blanket modularity for {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U-based ADEP

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    A cost-based parametric systems model is developed for an Accelerator-Driven Energy Production (ADEP) system based on a {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U fuel cycle and a molten-salt (LiF/BeF{sub 2}/ThF{sub 3}) fluid-fuel primary system. Simplified neutron-balance, accelerator, reactor-core, chemical-processing, and balance-of-plant models are combined parametrically with a simplified costing model. The main focus of this model is to examine trade offs related to fission power density, reactor-core modularity, {sup 233}U breeding rate, and fission product transmutation capacity.

  1. Quantification of transfer of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in mosses of a semi-natural ecosystem

    Dragovic, S., E-mail: sdragovic@inep.co.r [Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy - INEP, University of Belgrade, Banatska 31b, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Mihailovic, N. [Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy - INEP, University of Belgrade, Banatska 31b, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Gajic, B. [Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Land Management, Laboratory of Soil Physics, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, 11081 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-02-15

    There is a lack of appropriate data on transfer of some radionuclides on many terrestrial biota groups. To expand the available data concentration ratios of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in mosses are presented in this paper. The relationship between concentration ratios of radionuclides and physicochemical characteristics of the underlying soil was also investigated. The data on concentration ratios obtained here will provide a useful addition to the currently used database of transfer parameters, particularly for natural radionuclides.

  2. Protection level of AI H5N1 vaccine clade 2.1.3 commercial against AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 virus from Ducks to SPF chicken in laboratory conditions

    Indriani R

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2 has infected chickens in farms, causing mortality and a decrease in egg production. Vaccination is one of the strategies to control disease of AI subtype H5N1. AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 vaccine is available commercially. The effectiveness of two vaccines of AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (product A and B, and AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (Sukoharjo against AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (Sukoharjo virus SPF chickens was tested in laboratory. Four groups of SPF chickens were used in this study, there were (1 vaccinated with H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (product A, (2 vaccinated with H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (product B, (3 vaccinated with AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 and (4 unvaccinated (as a control. Each vaccinated group consisted of 10 chicken except 8 chicken for control group. SPF chicken were vaccinated with 1 dose of vaccine at 3 weeks olds, and then after 3 weeks post vaccination (at 6 weeks olds. All group of chicken were challenged with 106 EID50 per 0.1 ml via intranasal. The results showed, chicken vaccinated with H5N1 clade 2.1.3 product A and B gave 100 and 80% protection respectively, but showed challenged virus shedding, whereas vaccine of H5N1 clade 2.3.2 gave 100% protection from mortality and without virus shedding. Vaccines of AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 product A was better than vaccine product B, and when chicken vaccinated against H5N1 clade 2.3.2, H5N1 clade 2.3.2 vaccine was the best to be used. In order to protect chicken from AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3 and 2.3.2 in the field, a bivalent vaccine of H5N1 clade 2.1.3 and 2.3.2 subtypes should be developed.

  3. Use of LabSOCS for determination of specific concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th in fertilizer samples

    Use of fertilizer is an established practice worldwide to promote agricultural productivity increased without increasing the planted area, resulting in native forests protection and increase of the food availability. Some kinds of fertilizer have in their chemical composition some radionuclides due the origin of its feedstock, such as 238U, the 232Th, and their descendants, beyond 40K. Knowledge of the radioactivity levels in the environment is great importance to know the gamma radiation dose that the human being is exposed. For identification and quantitation of radionuclides, it was used gamma spectrometry where HPGe detector was used to obtain the spectra, and LabSOCS software for calculating the detection efficiency for each energy. The values of 232Th specific concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 368.1 Bq.Kg-1 , the values of 238U specific concentrations ranged from 16.0 to 647.7 Bq.Kg-1 and 40K specific concentrations ranged from 19.1 to 12713 Bq.Kg-1 . Concentrations of values are consistent with those found in literature. (author)

  4. Estimation of dose contribution from 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radon exhalation rates in soil samples from Shivalik foot hills in India.

    Chauhan, R P; Chauhan, Pooja; Pundir, Anil; Kamboj, Sunil; Bansal, Vakul; Saini, R S

    2014-01-01

    The concentration of radium, thorium and potassium and radon exhalation rates in soil samples collected from Shivalik foot hills in the states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh (India) were experimentally measured. A high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopic system was used for the measurement of natural radioactivity ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) at Inter-University Accelerator Center, New Delhi, using a coaxial n-type high-purity germanium detector (EG&G, ORTEC, Oak Ridge, USA). The mass exhalation rates (EM) of radon in soil samples from the study area measured by 'sealed canister technique' using LR-115 type II track detectors varied from 50±1 to 143±6 mBqkg(-1) h(-1). The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in various soil samples of the study area varied from 31±1.3 to 63±4.6, 53±1.8 to 78±2.6 and 472±4.8 to 630±7.0 Bq kg(-1) respectively. The results indicated some higher levels of radioactivity in Lal Dhang peak area of the hills compared with other locations under study. PMID:23893776

  5. Distribution of 238U, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs concentrations in soil samples nearby a nuclear laboratory, Capao Island, Brazil

    Oliveira Luciano S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Absolute soil concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs samples were measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The area of interest encompasses an embankment in a mangrove swamp in Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, called Capao Island, where nuclear, chemical and biological defense laboratories of the Brazilian Army Technology Center are in operation for more than 30 years. In order to ensure that no significant environmental impact has resulted from neutron physics experiments performed in a graphite exponential pile in addition to the operation of two cesium-driven irradiating facilities, radiation monitoring of the isotopes was carried out. A total of eight 250 ml soil samples were extracted within an area of 300 m x 300 m. No trace of 137Cs was detected and the measured levels of 238U were found to be close to the global mean. However, some data that slightly exceeded the expected normal range for 232Th (60 % of samples and 40K (20 % of samples should be attributed to the construction debris (cement, rocks, and sand used in the embankment at the site. Since there is no handling of those isotopes at that site or adjacent facilities that could affect their presence, it was concluded that no detectable contamination has occurred.

  6. Fragment-mass distributions in neutron-induced fission of Th232 and U238 at 33, 45, and 60 MeV

    Ryzhov, I. V.; Yavshits, S. G.; Tutin, G. A.; Kovalev, N. V.; Saulski, A. V.; Kudryashev, N. A.; Onegin, M. S.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Grudzevich, O. T.; Simutkin, V. D.; Pomp, S.; Blomgren, J.; Österlund, M.; Andersson, P.; Bevilacqua, R.; Meulders, J. P.; Prieels, R.

    2011-05-01

    We have measured fission fragment-mass yields for neutron-induced fission of Th232 and U238 at energies 32.8, 45.3, and 59.9 MeV. The experiments were done at quasimonoenergetic neutron beams of the Cyclotron Research Center at Louvain-la-Neuve. To detect the fission fragments, a multisection Frisch-gridded ionization chamber was used. The measurement and data analysis techniques are discussed in detail. The obtained mass yields are compared to model calculations with the intermediate-energy nuclear reaction code MCFX. The MCFX code is used to calculate the fraction of fissioning nuclei after cascade, preequilibrium, and statistical reaction stages. The formation of mass distributions is considered as a result of oscillations of the mass-asymmetry degree of freedom in the potential well calculated with the temperature-dependent shell correction method. The experimental results as well as the results of the model calculations demonstrate that the probability of symmetric fission increases with incident neutron energy for both nuclei. The comparison also shows that the symmetric fission is more enhanced for thorium than for uranium with increasing neutron energy. We also compare U238 results with available experimental data; the Th232 data were measured for the first time.

  7. Measurement of double-differential neutron emission cross sections of 238U, 232Th and 12C for 18 MeV neutrons

    Double-differential neutron emission cross sections of 238U, 232Th and 12C have been measured for 18-MeV incident neutrons using the neutron time-of-flight technique and Tohoku University 4.5MV Dynamitron accelerator as a pulsed neutron generator. In the experiment, energy resolution of the spectrometer was improved by employing a newly developed post-acceleration beam-chopper and by adjustment of timing property of the neutron detector. Measurements were made at laboratory angles between 30- and 145- deg., and data were obtained for secondary neutrons between 0.8 and 18 MeV. In the data processing, a care was taken for the data correction for the effects of parasitic neutrons associated with primary neutrons; the correction proved to be of special importance in the present measurement. We compared the data obtained in the present experiment with the evaluated data, JENDL-3 and ENDF/B-IV (B-V for 12C), and discussed the origin of the discrepancies. The anisotropy observed for secondary neutrons from 238U and 232Th was found to be reproduced by Kalbach-Mann systematics on the assumption of isotropy of fission neutrons. The experimental results for 12C showed marked discrepancies concerning the scattering cross sections and neutron spectrum in the continuum region. (author)

  8. Daily ingestion of 232Th, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in vegetables by inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro City

    The concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides 232Th, 238U, 210Pb, 226Ra and 228Ra were determined in the vegetables (leafy vegetables, fruit, root, bean and rice) and derived products (sugar, coffee, manioc flour, wheat flour, corn flour and pasta) consumed most by the adult inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro City. A total of 88 samples from 26 different vegetables and derived products were analyzed. The highest contribution to radionuclide intake arises from bean, wheat flour, manioc flour, carrot, rice, tomato and potato consumption. The estimated daily intakes due to the consumption of vegetables and derived products are 1.9 mBq of 232Th (0.47 μg), 2.0 mBq of 238U (0.17 μg), 19 mBq of 226Ra, 26 mBq of 210Pb and 47 mBq of 228Ra. The estimated annual effective dose due to the ingestion of vegetables and their derived products with the long-lived natural radionuclides is 14.5 μSv. Taking into account literature data for water and milk from Rio de Janeiro the dose value increases to 29 μSv, with vegetables and derived products responsible for 50% of the dose and water for 48%. 210Pb (62%) and 228Ra (24%) were found to be the main sources for internal irradiation

  9. Measurement of the intrinsic radiopurity of {sup 137}Cs/{sup 235}U/{sup 238}U/{sup 232}Th in CsI(Tl) crystal scintillators

    Zhu, Y.F. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsing Hua University, Beijing (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, S.T. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Singh, V. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Chang, W.C. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Deniz, M. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Lai, W.P. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, H.B. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, J. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsing Hua University, Beijing (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China); Li, Y.L. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsing Hua University, Beijing (China); Liao, H.Y. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, F.S. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wong, H.T. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: htwong@phys.sinica.edu.tw; Wu, S.C. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yue, Q. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsing Hua University, Beijing (China); Zhou, Z.Y. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    2006-02-15

    The inorganic crystal scintillator CsI(Tl) has been used for low energy neutrino and Dark Matter experiments, where the intrinsic radiopurity is an issue of major importance. Low-background data were taken with a CsI(Tl) crystal array at the Kuo-Sheng Reactor Neutrino Laboratory. The pulse shape discrimination capabilities of the crystal, as well as the temporal and spatial correlations of the events, provide powerful means of measuring the intrinsic radiopurity of {sup 137}Cs as well as the {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. The event selection algorithms are described, with which the decay half-lives of {sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Po, {sup 22}Rn, {sup 216}Po and {sup 212}Po were derived. The measurements of the contamination levels, their concentration gradients with the crystal growth axis, and the uniformity among different crystal samples, are reported. The radiopurity in the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series are comparable to those of the best reported in other crystal scintillators. Significant improvements in measurement sensitivities were achieved, similar to those from dedicated massive liquid scintillator detector. This analysis also provides in situ measurements of the detector performance parameters, such as spatial resolution, quenching factors, and data acquisition dead time.

  10. Determination of committed effective doses from annual intakes of 238U and 232Th from the ingestion of cereals, fruits and vegetables by using CR-39 and LR-115 II SSNTD

    Uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) concentrations were evaluated in different cereal, fruit and vegetable samples by using a method based on the calculation of the detection efficiencies of the emitted α-particles by CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and measuring the resulting track densities. The influence of the soils on which the plants grow, and the fertilizers used was investigated. Total daily intakes of 238U and 232Th for a typical food basket were estimated to be 1.16 Bq x d-1 and 0.94 Bq x d-1, respectively, corresponding to a total committed effective dose of 0.27 x 10-7 Sv x d-1. Annual committed effective doses due to 238U and 232Th originated from the ingestion of different foodstuffs were evaluated for the adult members of the population by using the ICRP ingestion dose coefficients. (author)

  11. Standard practice for the determination of 237Np, 232Th, 235U and 238U in urine by inductively coupled plasma-Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gamma ray spectrometry.

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the separation and preconcentration of neptunium-237 (237Np), thorium-232 (232Th), uranium-235 (235U) and uranium-238 (238U) from urine followed by quantitation using ICP-MS. 1.2 This practice can be used to support routine bioassay programs. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDC) for this method, taking the preconcentration factor into account, are approximately 1E-2Bq for 237Np (0.38ng), 2E-6Bq for 232Th (0.50ng), 4E-5Bq for 235U (0.50ng) and 6E-6Bq for 238U (0.48ng). 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Non-destructive determination of 235U, 238U, 232Th and 40K concentrations in various consumed nuts and their implication on radiation dose levels to the human body

    The naturally occurring radionuclides of 238,235,234U,232Th and 40K and their daughter products are a potential source of radiation found in food. We have determined these five radiation sources in five popular consumed nuts. We used the following neutron activation analysis reactions of 238U(n,γ)239U, 232Th(n,γ)233Th and 41K(n,γ)42K to determine 238U and 232Th and 40K, respectively. Using known activity ratios of uranium stable isotopes we determined the activity of 234,235U, while 40K was found by the determined concentrations of 41K in the nuts. While the radiation doses are small we have established a reliable methodology to determine these radionuclides in typical edible nuts. (author)

  13. Fiscal Year 2010 Phased Construction Completion Report for EU Z2-32 in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2010-02-01

    The Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOEIORJO 1-2161 &D2) (Zone 2 ROD) acknowledged that most of the 800 acres in Zone 2 were contaminated, but that sufficient data to confirm the levels of contamination were lacking. The Zone 2 ROD further specified that a sampling strategy for filling the data gaps would be developed. The Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOEIORIO 1 -2224&D3) (RDRJRAWP) defined the sampling strategy as the Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS), generally following the approach used for characterization of the Zone I exposure units (EUs). The Zone 2 ROD divided the Zone 2 area into seven geographic areas and 44 EUs. To facilitate the data quality objectives (DQOs) of the DVS process, the RDR/RAWP regrouped the 44 EUs into 12 DQO scoping EU groups. These groups facilitated the DQO process by placing similar facilities and their support facilities together, which allowed identification of data gaps. The EU groups were no longer pertinent after DQO planning was completed and characterization was conducted as areas became accessible. As the opportunity to complete characterization became available, the planned DVS program was completed for the EU addressed in this document (EU Z2-32). The purpose of this Phased Construction Completion Report (PCCR) is to address the following: (1) Document DVS characterization results for EU Z2-32. (2) Describe and document the risk evaluation and determine if the EU meets the Zone 2 ROD requirements for unrestricted industrial use to 10 ft bgs. (3) Identify additional areas not defined in the Zone 2 ROD that require remediation based on the DVS evaluation results. (4) Describe the remedial action performed in the K-1066-G Yard in EU Z2-32. Approximately 18.4 acres are included in the EU

  14. Study of secondary neutron interactions with 232 Th, 129 I, and 127 I nuclei with the uranium assembly " QUINTA " at 2, 4, and 8 GeV deuteron beams of the JINR Nuclotron accelerator

    Adam, J. [ASCR, Prague; Chilap, V. V. [IPTP, Dubna; Furman, M. G. [Dubna, JINR; Khushvaktov, J. [Dubna, JINR; Pronskikh, V. S. [Fermilab; Solnyshkin, A. A.. [Dubna, JINR; Stegailov, V. I. [Dubna, JINR; Suchopar, M. [ASCR, Prague; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M. [Dubna, JINR; Tyutyunnikov, S. I. [Dubna, JINR; Vrzalova, J.. [Dubna, JINR; Wagner, V. [ASCR, Prague; Zavorka, L. [Dubna, JINR

    2016-06-01

    The natural uranium assembly, "QUINTA", was irradiated with 2, 4, and 8 GeV deuterons. The 232 Th, 127 I, and 129 I samples have been exposed to secondary neutrons produced in the assembly at a 20-cm radial distance from the deuteron beam axis. The spectra of gamma rays emitted by the activated 232 Th, 127 I, and 129 I samples have been analyzed and several tens of product nuclei have been identified. For each of those products, neutron-induced reaction rates have been determined. The transmutation power for the 129 I samples is estimated. Experimental results were compared to those calculated with well-known stochastic and deterministic codes.

  15. The influence of the nature of soil and plant and pollution on the 238U, 232Th, 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in various natural honey samples using nuclear track detectors: Impact on the adult consumers

    M A Misdaq; A Mortassim

    2009-11-01

    238U and 232Th concentrations as well as 222Rn and 220Rn -activities per unit volume were measured in various natural honey samples collected from different regions in Morocco using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). These radionuclides were also measured in soils, plant flowers and nectar solutions corresponding to the honey samples studied. In addition, these radionuclides were measured in different imported honey samples. The measured 238U, 232Th, 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations ranged from (1.5 ± 0.1) mBq kg-1 to (10.6 ± 0.6) mBq kg-1, (1.1 ± 0.1) mBq kg-1 to (4.2 ± 0.2) mBq kg-1 , (1.5 ± 0.1) Bq kg-1 to (10.6 ± 0.6) Bq kg-1 and (1.1 ± 0.1) Bq kg-1 to (4.2 ± 0.2) Bq kg-1 for the honey samples studied, respectively. Annual 238U, 232Th and 222Rn intakes by Moroccan adults from the consumption of honey were assessed. The influence of the nature of soil and plant on the 238U and 232Th contents of the studied honey samples was investigated. These measurements were completed by an investigation of the 238U and 232 Th transfer between soils and plant flowers and that between plant flowers and honey, and also by the investigation of the influence of pollution due to different material dusts on 238U, 232Th and 222Rn in the honey samples studied. Committed equivalent doses due to the annual intake of 238U, 232Th and 222Rn were evaluated in the organs of adult members of the Moroccan rural population from the ingestion of the honey samples. The maximum total committed effective dose due to 238U, 232Th and 222Rn from the ingestion of natural honey by the Moroccan rural population was found to be equal to 0.64 Sv y-1 .

  16. HI-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements of U-238, TH-232, K-40 and CS-137 concentrations in soil samples from Capao Island at CTEx

    Absolute soil concentrations of U-238, Th-232, K-40 and Cs-137 samples collected from Capao Island have been measured by using Hi-Resolution Gamma HPGe Spectrometry. The area of interest encompasses an embankment in a mangrove swamp in Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, where nuclear, chemical and biological defense laboratories of the Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx) are located. In order to ensure that no significant environmental impact has resulted from neutron physics experiments performed in a graphite subcritical assembly in addition to the operation of two cesium-driven irradiating facilities, routine monitoring of those isotopes have been regularly performed. A total of eight 250 ml samples of mangrove and embankment soils were extracted from four sites of known coordinates within an area of 300 x 300 m2 and remained stored for a minimum thirty-day period to allow equilibrium to be reached. Collection and preparation of samples were made according to previously established procedures. High purity germanium detectors were used to obtain high-resolution gamma spectra and counting times were required to exceed 30 hours in order to yield sufficient statistical accuracy. Energy and efficiency calibration curves of the counting system were determined by using the GENIE 2000 software for analysis of the gamma spectrum generated by nine standard sources with a total of 11 peak energies ranging from 0.05 to 1.3 MeV. The results, corrected for background, have been expressed as absolute specific activities. All experiments have been made in the Laboratory for Identification of Radiological Agents (LIAR) at CTEx. No trace of cesium-137 has been found and the measured levels of uranium-238, in the order of 10 Bq/kg, are close to the global mean. However, some data have been found to slightly exceed the expected normal range for thorium-232 (60% of samples) and potassium-40 (20% of samples). Since there is no handling of those isotopes in the site or others that could

  17. Effects of the diacylglycerol o-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism on fatty acid, protein, and mineral composition of dairy cattle milk.

    Bovenhuis, H; Visker, M H P W; Poulsen, N A; Sehested, J; van Valenberg, H J F; van Arendonk, J A M; Larsen, L B; Buitenhuis, A J

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have described associations between the diacylglycerol o-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism and routinely collected milk production traits but not much is known about effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on detailed milk composition. The aim of this study was to estimate effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on milk fatty acid, protein, and mineral composition. We looked for effects that were significant and consistent in Danish Holstein Friesian (HF), Danish Jersey, and Dutch HF as these are likely to be true effects of the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism rather than being effects of linked loci. For fatty acid composition, significant and consistent effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism were detected on C14:0, C16:0, C15:0, C16:1, C18:1 cis-9, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) cis-9,trans-11, C18:2 cis-9,cis-12, and C18:3 cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 content (percent by weight, wt/wt %). For C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 cis-9, the DGAT1 polymorphism explained more than 10% of the phenotypic variation. Significant effects on milk protein composition in Dutch HF could not be confirmed in Danish Jersey or Danish HF. For mineral content, significant and consistent effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on calcium, phosphorus, and zinc were detected. In the Dutch HF population, the contribution of the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism to phenotypic variance was 12.0% for calcium, 8.3% for phosphorus, and 6.1% for zinc. Different from effects on fatty acid composition, effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on yields of long-chain fatty acids C18:1 cis-9, CLA cis-9,trans-11, C18:2 cis-9,cis-12, and C18:3 cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 were not significant. This indicates that effects of DGAT1 on these fatty acids are indirect, not direct, effects: DGAT1 affects de novo synthesis of fatty acids and, consequently, the contribution of the long-chain fatty acids to total fat is decreased. In addition, effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on yields of Ca, P, and Zn were not significant, which indicates that effects

  18. Simulation smuggling study for shielded sources of 235U, 238U, 232Th, 137Cs and 60Co by using gamma detection

    In the present time, smuggling and illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials are targeted by international groups and networks. Hundreds of smuggled nuclear and radioactive materials have been seized and currently recorded in the Illicit Trafficking Database (ITDB) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As a matter of fact, these materials can be used for manufacturing of dirty or Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or for sabotage and malicious purposes. This work deals with gamma detection of shielded sources containing natural 235U , 238U , standard 232Th and mixed 137Cs and 60Co sources by using HpGe and NaI detectors. The detection was carried out through the main characteristic γ- energies ; 185.7 KeV for 235U ,(63.3 ,1001 KeV) for 238U , (583 and 911.2 KeV) for 232Th, 661.6 KeV for 137Cs and (1173.2 and 1332.5 keV) for 60Co. The radioactive sources used are 30nCi of 232Th , 1.99 μCi of mixed 137Cs and 60Co source and uranyl nitrate crystals. These radioactive sources were separately hid (placed) in containers of different materials; aluminum (Al) , cupper (Cu) and iron (Fe) of different wall thickness; 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 mm. The sources were also measured together by NaI and HpGe detector. Overlapping of different gamma transitions leads to some difficulties to identify and discriminate between the investigated γ-energies particularly with using the low resolution NaI detector. The attenuation factors (I/Io), ratio of radiation intensity with and without shield (containers), were calculated for all the investigated energies. The relationship between the attenuation factor of γ-energies and the studied thickness was depicted and discussed. It was observed, as expected, that the studied gamma transitions were attenuated by the used different thickness of Fe, Cu and Al and hardly detected especially for low energy and at 18mm thickness. Generally, it can concluded that radioactive materials of small activity can easily be smuggled

  19. HI-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements of U-238, TH-232, K-40 and CS-137 concentrations in soil samples from Capao Island at CTEx

    Oliveira, Luciano S.R.; Oliveira, Celio J.V.; Vilela, Paulo R.T.; Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (DDQBN/CTEX), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear. Secao de Defesa Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Absolute soil concentrations of U-238, Th-232, K-40 and Cs-137 samples collected from Capao Island have been measured by using Hi-Resolution Gamma HPGe Spectrometry. The area of interest encompasses an embankment in a mangrove swamp in Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, where nuclear, chemical and biological defense laboratories of the Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx) are located. In order to ensure that no significant environmental impact has resulted from neutron physics experiments performed in a graphite subcritical assembly in addition to the operation of two cesium-driven irradiating facilities, routine monitoring of those isotopes have been regularly performed. A total of eight 250 ml samples of mangrove and embankment soils were extracted from four sites of known coordinates within an area of 300 x 300 m{sup 2} and remained stored for a minimum thirty-day period to allow equilibrium to be reached. Collection and preparation of samples were made according to previously established procedures. High purity germanium detectors were used to obtain high-resolution gamma spectra and counting times were required to exceed 30 hours in order to yield sufficient statistical accuracy. Energy and efficiency calibration curves of the counting system were determined by using the GENIE 2000 software for analysis of the gamma spectrum generated by nine standard sources with a total of 11 peak energies ranging from 0.05 to 1.3 MeV. The results, corrected for background, have been expressed as absolute specific activities. All experiments have been made in the Laboratory for Identification of Radiological Agents (LIAR) at CTEx. No trace of cesium-137 has been found and the measured levels of uranium-238, in the order of 10 Bq/kg, are close to the global mean. However, some data have been found to slightly exceed the expected normal range for thorium-232 (60% of samples) and potassium-40 (20% of samples). Since there is no handling of those isotopes in the site or others that

  20. Delayed neutron and delayed photon characteristics from photofission of 232Th, 235,238U, and 237Np with endpoint Bremsstrahlung photons in the giant dipole resonance region

    A renewed interest in photonuclear reactions was stimulated by applications as radioactive ion beam production, irradiation stations by high energy photons, shielding of electron accelerators, etc. Today, a particular attention is paid to the non-destructive characterization of waste barrels and the detection of nuclear materials, both based on photofission process and the associated delayed neutron (DN) and delayed photon (DP) emissions. The need of accurate and complete data for DN and DP yields and time characteristics of actinides was the motivation for an experimental campaign, started in 2004. In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method will be presented and the modeling work will be described. Experimental results for DN and DP characteristics will be compared to calculations in the case of photofission of 232Th, 235,238U, and 237Np. (authors)

  1. Mass asymmetry dependence of fusion time-scales in 11B+237Np and 12C, 16O, 19F+232Th reactions in a dynamical trajectory model

    Dynamical trajectory calculations were carried out for the reactions of 11B+237Np and 12C, 16O and 19F+232Th, having mass asymmetries on either side of the Businaro-Gallone critical mass asymmetry αBG, in order to examine the mass asymmetry dependence of fusion reactions in these systems. The compound nucleus formation times were calculated as a function of the partial wave of the reaction for all the systems. This study brings out that for systems with αBG, the formation times are significantly larger than for α>αBG, which is caused by the dynamical effects involved in the large scale shape changes taking place in the fusion process as well as due to the interplay between the thermal and the collective motion during the collision process. The calculated time scales are comparable to the experimental values derived from the pre-fission neutron multiplicity measurements. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. The dietary intake of 238U, 234U, 230Th, 232Th, 228Th and 226Ra from food and drinking water by inhabitants of the Walbrzych region

    Intake with food and water of the natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series was determined for adult population of the south-western region in Poland, where in the 1950-ies an exploration of uranium ore was conducted. Concentration of the radionuclides was determined in food products and drinking water and their annual intake was estimated on the basis of the average annual consumption. The intake of 238U, 234U and 230Th occurred mainly with water (33% to 68%), whereas the intake of 232Th, 228Th and 226Ra was mainly with vegetables, potatoes, milk and flour. From the intake and dose coefficients the annual effective doses from the ingested radionuclides were calculated. The total dose was 5.6μSv, of which 74% originated from 226Ra. (author)

  3. Daily intakes of 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th and 226Ra in the adult population of central Poland

    Activity concentration of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides was determined in foodstuffs and drinking water in central Poland. Annual and daily intake for the adult population was estimated from the concentrations determined and average annual consumption of food and water. The daily intakes (in mBq) were 22.1 (238U), 26.5 (234U), 2.38 (232Th), 4.06 (230Th), 11.2 (228Th) and 42.2 (226Ra). The intake of uranium isotopes occurred mainly with water; the main intake of thorium isotopes was with animal products, vegetables, cereals and potatoes, whereas 226Ra entered mainly with animal products, cereals and vegetables. From the intake and dose coefficients, the annual effective doses for the ingested radionuclides were calculated. The annual effective dose was 5.95 μSv, of which 72.4% originated from 226Ra

  4. Determination of environmental radioactivity (238U, 232Th and 40K) and indoor natural background radiation level in Chennai city (Tamilnadu State), India.

    Babai, K S; Poongothai, S; Punniyakotti, J

    2013-01-01

    An extensive study on the determination of the natural radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) levels in soil samples of Chennai city, India has been undertaken and the results of the same are compared with the levels reported in other Indian cities as well as other parts of the world. The radioactivity content in the soil samples, the absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, internal and external hazard indices were calculated and compared with UNSCEAR 2000 recommended values. In addition to the above, mapping of indoor natural background gamma radiation levels has been made using thermo luminescent dosemeters throughout Chennai city and the same are reported. PMID:22847868

  5. Measurement of Fragment Mass Yields in Neutron-Induced Fission of 232TH and 238U at 33, 45 and 60 Mev

    Simutkin, V. D.; Pomp, S.; Blomgren, J.; Österlund, M.; Andersson, P.; Bevilacqua, R.; Ryzhov, I. V.; Tutin, G. A.; Khlopin, V. G.; Onegin, M. S.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Meulders, J. P.; Prieels, R.

    2011-10-01

    Over the past years, a significant effort has been devoted to measurements of neutron-induced fission cross-sections at intermediate energies but there is a lack of experimental data on fission yields. Here we describe recent measurements of pre-neutron emission fragment mass distributions from intermediate energy neutron-induced fission of 232Th and 238U. The measurements have been done at the quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam of the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility CYCLONE and neutron peak energies at 32.8, 45.3 and 59.9 MeV. A multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber was used as a fission fragment detector. The measurement results are compared with available experimental data. Some TALYS code modifications done to describe the experimental results are discussed.

  6. Distribution of Natural (U-238, Th-232, Ra-226) and Technogenic (Sr-90, Cs-137) Radionuclides in Soil-Plants Complex Near Issyk-Kul Lake, Kyrgyzstan

    Jovanovic, L.; Kaldybaev, B.; Djenbaev, B.; Tilenbaev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Researches on radionuclides distribution in the soil-plants complex provide essential information in understanding human exposure to natural and technogenic sources of radiation. It is necessary in establishing regulation relating to radiation protection. The aim of this study was the radiochemical analysis of the content natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th,226Ra and technogenic radionuclides content (90Sr, 137Cs) in soils near Issyk-Kul lake (Kyrgyzstan). Results of radiochemical analyses have shown, that the concentrations of thorium-232 are fluctuating in the limits (11.7-84.1)-10-4% in the soils. The greatest concentration of thorium-232 has been found in the light chestnut soils. The content of uranium-238 in the soils near Issyk-Kul lake is fluctuating from 2.8 up to 12.7-10-4%. Radium-226 has more migration ability in comparison with other heavy natural radionuclides. According to our research the concentrations of radium-226 are fluctuating in the limits (9.4-43.0)-10-11%. The greatest concentration of radium-226 (43,0±2,8)-10-11% has been determined in the light chestnut soil. In connection with global migration of contaminating substances, including radioactive, the special attention is given long-lived radionuclides strontium-90 and caesium-137 in food-chains, and agroecosystems. Results of radiochemical analyses have shown, that specific activity of strontium-90 is fluctuating in the range of 2.9 up to 11.1 Bq/kg, and caesium-137 from 3.7 up to 14,3 Bq/kg in the soil of agroecosystems in the region of Issyk-Kul. In soil samples down to 1 meter we have observed vertical migration of these radionuclides, they were found to accumulate on the surface of soil horizon (0-5 cm) and their specific activity sharply decreases with depth. In addition in high-mountain pastures characterized by horizontal migration of cattle in profiles of soil, it was discovered that specific activity of radionuclides are lower on the slope than at the foot of the mountain. The

  7. Experimental Neutron-Induced Fission Fragment Mass Yields of 232Th and 238U at Energies from 10 to 33 MeV

    Simutkin, V D; Blomgren, J; Österlund, M; Bevilacqua, R; Ryzhov, I V; Tutin, G A; Yavshits, S G; Vaishnene, L A; Onegin, M S; Meulders, J P; Prieels, R

    2013-01-01

    Development of nuclear energy applications requires data for neutron-induced reactions for actinides in a wide neutron energy range. Here we describe measurements of pre-neutron emission fission fragment mass yields of 232Th and 238U at incident neutron energies from 10 to 33 MeV. The measurements were done at the quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam of the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility CYCLONE; a multi-section twin Frisch-gridded ionization chamber was used to detect fission fragments. For the peak neutron energies at 33, 45 and 60 MeV, the details of the data analysis and the experimental results have been published before and in this work we present data analysis in the low-energy tail of the neutron energy spectra. The preliminary measurement results are compared with available experimental data and theoretical predictions.

  8. Daily intakes of 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th and 226Ra in the adult population of central Poland

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Rosiak, L.; Suplinska, M.M.; Chrzanowski, E.; Dembinska, S. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warsaw (Poland)

    2001-06-12

    Activity concentration of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides was determined in foodstuffs and drinking water in central Poland. Annual and daily intake for the adult population was estimated from the concentrations determined and average annual consumption of food and water. The daily intakes (in mBq) were 22.1 (238U), 26.5 (234U), 2.38 (232Th), 4.06 (230Th), 11.2 (228Th) and 42.2 (226Ra). The intake of uranium isotopes occurred mainly with water; the main intake of thorium isotopes was with animal products, vegetables, cereals and potatoes, whereas 226Ra entered mainly with animal products, cereals and vegetables. From the intake and dose coefficients, the annual effective doses for the ingested radionuclides were calculated. The annual effective dose was 5.95 {mu}Sv, of which 72.4% originated from 226Ra.

  9. A four phases model to simulate the dispersion of 226Ra, 238U and 232Th in an estuary affected by phosphate rock processing

    A numerical model to simulate the dispersion of non conservative radionuclides in tidal waters has been developed. The model includes four phases: water, suspended matter and two grain size sediment fractions. Ionic exchanges between water and the solid phases have been formulated in terms of kinetic transfer coefficients instead of distribution coefficients, because the model was developed for nonequilibrium conditions. The model simultaneously solves the shallow water hydrodynamic equations, the suspended matter dispersion equation and the four equations which give the time evolution of specific activity in each phase. The model has been applied to the Odiel river (southwest Spain), where a phosphate complex releases its wastes. It gives good results in predicting concentrations of 226Ra, 238U and 232Th in water, suspended matter, distribution coefficients and Th/U mass rations. (author)

  10. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K concentrations in igneous rocks from eastern desert, Egypt and its radiological implications

    El-Arabi, A.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science Qena, South Valley University (Egypt)]. E-mail: elarabi21@yahoo.com

    2007-01-15

    By applying high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectroscopic system, the various radionuclides of the granite samples have been identified quantitatively based on the characteristic spectral peaks. The radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K concentrations measured as well as radiological parameters, for 49 granite samples were calculated. This subject is important in environmental radiological protection, since granites are widely used as building and ornamental stones. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the Um Taghir area can be classified into two regions of low and high natural radioactivity. In old granite, the measured {gamma}-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for {sup 226}Ra (from 2.9+/-1 to 31.8+/-6Bqkg{sup -1}), {sup 232}Th (range from 1.4+/-1 to 14.9+/-4Bqkg{sup -1}) and {sup 40}K (from 132+/-11 to 2080+/-46Bqkg{sup -1}), in younger granite {sup 226}Ra (from 8.9+/-3 to 9087+/-95Bqkg{sup -1}), {sup 232}Th (range from 9.8+/-3 to 3834+/-62Bqkg{sup -1}) and {sup 40}K (from 471+/-22 to 10230+/-101Bqkg{sup -1}). In Wadi Karim area these values were (14.0+/-4-227.0+/-15, 10.5+/-3-183.0+/-14 and 2299+/-48-7356+/-86Bqkg{sup -1}). The highest values of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K concentration (9087+/-95, 3834+/-62 and 10230+/-101Bqkg{sup -1},respectively) were observed in anomalies samples at Um Taghir region. Radium-equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}) in addition to the internal hazard index (H{sub in}) have also been determined. In Um Taghir samples Ra{sub eq} varies between 15 and 625Bqkg{sup -1} (old granite), 144-13982Bqkg{sup -1} (younger granite) which exceeds the permitted value (370Bqkg{sup -1}) and hazard index (H{sub in}) (0.05-1.74), (0.65-62.34) which is higher than 1, the corresponding values in Wadi Karim samples were 206-685Bqkg{sup -1} and from 0.59 to 2.46, respectively. The total absorbed dose rates in air calculated from the concentrations of the three radionuclides ranged from 8 to 6187n

  11. Neutron induced fission cross section ratios for 232Th, /sup 235,238/U, 237Np, and 239Pu from 1 to 400 MeV

    Time-of-flight measurements of neutron induced fission cross section ratios for 232Th, /sup 235,238/U, 237Np, and 239Pu, were performed using the WNR high intensity spallation neutron source located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A multiple-plate gas ionization chamber located at a 20-m flight path was used to simultaneously measure the fission rate for all samples over the energy range from 1 to 400 MeV. Because the measurements were made with nearly identical neutron fluxes, we were able to cancel many systematic uncertainties present in previous measurements. This allows us to resolve discrepancies among different data sets. In addition, these are the first neutron-induced fission cross section values for most of the nuclei at energies above 30 MeV. 8 refs., 3 figs

  12. Motor' s Headlamp Testing Based on RS232 Serial Communications%基于串口通信的摩托车前照灯检测

    王晓丽

    2009-01-01

    针对传统的摩托车灯光检测硬件电路复杂和易受干扰的不足,提出了一种新型的基于串口通信的摩托车灯光测试方法.将工控机和灯光仪利用串口线相连,在VC++6.0环境下利用MSComm控件编写RS232串口通信程序,实现了工控机对灯光仪数据的采集、数据显示和结果判断.实际运行结果表明,该方法硬件电路简单、成本低和传输数据不易受干扰.

  13. Rare-gas yields in 238U and 232Th fission by 14MeV neutrons, measured by an emanating method

    A direct method, using emanation of rare gases by uranyle stearate and thorium stearate, has been applied to the measurement of cumulative fractional yields of certain isotopes of krypton and xenon, in the fissions of 238U and 232Th by 14MeV-neutrons. The independent yields of the same isotopes were measured previously by means of isotopic on-line separation. From these results, the widths of the mass and charge distributions, the relative chain yields, the fractional cumulative yields of certain bromine and iodine isotopes, the values of Zsub(p) the most probable charge, in the isobaric chains 87-93 and 137-142, and the elemental yields of krypton and xenon were calculated

  14. The interstellar extinction in the open clusters Tr 14, Tr 15, Tr 16/Cr 232 and Cr 228 in NGC 3372. New near-infrared photometry

    Near-infrared JHKL photometry of more than 200 stars, members of the open clusters Tr14, Tr15, Tr16, Cr228 and Cr232 in the Carina Nebula are presented. From comparing these results with the available visual photometry and spectroscopy, it is found that, except in Tr15, the intracluster reddening is characterized by a 'normal' extinction law at λ > 0.5μm but is highly anomalous and variable in the U- and B-bands. This behaviour may be explained by the presence of intracluster interstellar grains 'processed' by shock waves presumably associated with the explosive history of η Carinae. All clusters are found to be at the same distance from the Sun at d = 2.4 ± 0.2 kpc or Vsub(o) - Msub(v) 11.9 ± 0.2. The total amount of reddening, though, differs significantly from cluster to cluster. (author)

  15. Delayed neutron and delayed photon characteristics from photofission of 232Th, 235,238U, and 237Np with endpoint Bremsstrahlung photons in the giant dipole resonance region

    Doré, D.; Dighe, P. M.; Berthoumieux, E.; Laborie, J.-M.; Ledoux, X.; Macary, V.; Panebianco, S.; Ridikas, D.

    2009-10-01

    A renewed interest in photonuclear reactions was stimulated by applications as radioactive ion beam production, irradiation stations by high energy photons, shielding of electron accelerators, etc. Today, a particular attention is paid to the non-destructive characterization of waste barrels and the detection of nuclear materials, both based on photofission process and the associated delayed neutron (DN) and delayed photon (DP) emissions. The need of accurate and complete data for DN and DP yields and time characteristics of actinides was the motivation for an experimental campaign, started in 2004. In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method will be presented and the modeling work will be described. Experimental results for DN and DP characteristics will be compared to calculations in the case of photofission of 232Th, 235,238U, and 237Np.

  16. Spectroscopy study after quasi-elastic collision in the system 208Pb+232Th at an incident energy of 17 MeV per nucleon

    In the present thesis by means of a particle-particle-γ and particle-particle-neutron coincidence experiment γ and neutron spectroscopic studies after quasi-elastic collisions at incident energies far above the Coulomb barrier were performed. For the study of the γ decay by the necessary correction of the Doppler shift the possibility results to study excitations in the projectile and in the target. So in the case of 232Th beside the observation of the ground state band up to the spin 14 ℎ also a very large number of transitions from vibrational side bands. From the spectra the γ emission probabilities in dependence on the distance of closest approximation were extracted. (orig./HSI)

  17. The learning of the evolution and temporary characteristics of the decay nuclei 14C, 238U, 232Th, 40K, 87Rb

    Quantum-mechanical method, which was proposing earlier for the theoretical description of the resonance scattering of the γ-quantum, was generalizing with Doppler effect using. New algorithm for the definition of the characteristic functions for the energy distribution, decay probability and decay functions elaborated. It gives possibility more precise estimate temporary characteristics of the nuclei chronometers and to define a number of the steps of the γ-absorption γ-emission in the decay process. It is give the quantum- mechanical ground of the necessity of revision of the temporary characteristics of the nuclei-chronometers. The calculations have been doing for the concrete case decay of exited nuclei 14C, 238U, 232Th, 40K, 87Rb under room temperature taking into account Doppler effect and without it. 4 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  18. Search for quasifission in 12C + 238U and 18O + 232Th reactions at near and sub-barrier energies

    The main motivation of this present work is to study the onset of quasifission process in the fissility region > 0.8. It was observed that angular distribution of fission fragments produced in reaction in this fissility region showed anomalously large anisotropies at subbarrier energies as compared to SSPM, implying presence of pre-equilibrium fission. Here, mass-angle correlation studies of 12C + 238U and 18O + 232Th reactions has been reported, forming same compound nucleus 250Cf (Fissility = 0.86), at similar excitation energy and angular momentum. The measurements were carried out in the energy range Ecm /Vb ∼ 0.88 - 1.1, where Ecm is the energy in centre of mass frame and Vb is the Coulomb barrier

  19. Assessment of radiological impact in mineral industrial plants caused by deposition of wastes with U{sup 238} and/or Th{sup 232} associated

    Ladeira, Paula C.; Alves, Rex Nazare, E-mail: rexnazare@ime.eb.b [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ruperti Junior, Nerbe J., E-mail: nruperti@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DIREJ/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Rejeitos Radioativos

    2011-07-01

    The industrial-mining facilities constantly produce, in Brazil and in abroad, wastes from its production, many times containing uranium and/or thorium associated. Due to the large quantities generated, these wastes are usually deposited at the site of the facility, close to the place where they were produced. Since the chains of radioactive U{sup 238} and Th{sup 232} with alpha-emitting radionuclides have long half-life, waste deposits associated with these elements may cause radiological impact on the man and on the environment, even in the long term. Mathematical models are often used to represent the biosphere and the transport of radionuclides near to the surface. Thus, it was decided, through the software {sup M}athematica{sup ,} to present a methodology based on the solution of Bateman equations for the calculation of radiological impact on individuals from the public exposed to contamination. The radiological impact appraisal was carried out considering a scenario of intrusion into landfills containing U{sup 238} and / or Th{sup 232} in post-operational phase of an industrial-mining installation. The critical group examined was represented by farmers who used water from an artesian well for daily consumption and which feed themselves on vegetables locally grown in clay soil. As a result, there was the exposure in pathways evaluated, a minor contribution of dose for ingestion of contaminated water. The conclusion of this work, show us that calculated doses were within the accepted international limits for the intrusion scenario. Parameters associated with mathematical models defining the choice of project to build a landfill for the purpose of deposition, whereas rates of doses can be estimated in each of the scenarios proposed. (author)

  20. Separation and quantification of 238U, 232Th and rare earths in monazite samples by ion chromatography coupled with on-line flow scintillation detector

    An alternative procedure has been described for efficient separation and quantitative determination of uranium (U), thorium (Th) and rare earth elements (REEs) in monazite mineral by high performance ion chromatographic system (IC). Different variables affecting the distribution coefficient, the retention and hence separation efficiency such as eluent flow rate and concentrations of HCl and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 containing the mobile phase were studied. The developed separation protocol of U, Th and REEs was optimized using an Ion Pac CS5 separation column followed by post-column derivatization reaction with Arsenaso III and UV-VIS spectrophotometeric detection. Comparative evaluation of U, Th and REEs concentration in monazite mineral was demonstrated using two different on-line detection modes including flow through cell scintillation detector (FSD) and UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Response of the FSD was found to be linear over the full range of activities investigated (4-100 Bq). The lower limits of detection (LLD) for the investigated radionuclides were 3.0±0.1 Bq for 238U and 6.0±0.1 Bq for 232Th. The detection of 238U and 232Th by FSD shows good agreement with the corresponding determination by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The content of ThO2 and U3O8 in monazite sample were found to be 4.7±0.1% and 0.42±0.04% using UV-VIS detector and 4.3±0.1% and 0.45±0.1% using FSD, respectively

  1. Milk fat triacylglycerols and their relations with milk fatty acid composition, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, and milk production traits.

    Tzompa-Sosa, D A; van Valenberg, H J F; van Aken, G A; Bovenhuis, H

    2016-05-01

    Milk fat (MF) triacylglycerols (TAG) determine the physical and functional properties of butter and products rich in MF. To predict these properties, it is necessary to understand the variability of fatty acids, TAG, their associations, and their effect on milk productive traits, days in milk (DIM), and genes related to fat synthesis. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study the variability of TAG using MF from individual cows and to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, DIM, and milk production traits (fat content and morning milk yield) on MF TAG profile in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. Large differences in MF TAG profiles were seen among cows. We showed that the variability of TAG is highest for low and high molecular weight TAG [TAG with carbon numbers (Cn) 26-30 and Cn52-54, respectively] and lowest for TAG with Cn38, which was the most abundant TAG. Saturation index (saturated fatty acid/unsaturated fatty acid) and the ratio C16:0/C18:1 cis-9 showed significant effects on TAG Cn34, Cn36, Cn52, and Cn54: TAG Cn34 and Cn36 increased as the saturation index and ratio C16:0/C18:1 cis-9 increased, whereas the opposite was seen for TAG Cn52 and Cn54. Moreover, the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism significantly affected TAG Cn38. We showed that the relative concentration of TAG with Cn38 was higher in cows with DGAT1 KK genotype. Production traits (fat content and morning milk yield) and DIM had no significant effect on TAG profile. This is a relevant observation because considerable increases of milk yield and fat content have been seen in the Netherlands over the last 60 yr. The large differences shown between individual cows in MF TAG profile imply differences in physical properties of MF. PMID:26971154

  2. Identifikasi Secara Serologi Galur Virus Flu Burung Subtipe H5N1 Clade 2.1.3 dan Clade 2.3.2 pada Ayam Petelur (SEROLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA STRAIN VIRUS SUBTYPE H5N1 CLADE 2.1.3 AND CLADE 2.3.2 FROM LAYER

    Aprilia Kusumastuti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to know avian influenza (AI infection in field by using serology test in threemarketing area of AI vaccines. Haemagglutination inhibition methode was used in this test. There werefour antigen strains of AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (AIstrainA/Chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006, AIstrain A/Chicken/Garut/BBVW-223/2007, AI strain A/Chicken/West Java-Nagrak/30/2007, and AI strainA/Chicken/Pekalongan/BBVW-208/2007 and 2 antigen strains of AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (AI strainA/duck/Sukoharjo/BBVW-1428-9/2012 and AI strain A/duck/Sleman/BBVW-1463-10/2012 was used inthis study for HI test. The result presents that 93,33% chicken farms in three marketing area of PT. SanbioLaboratories have positive antibody titre to AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3. This titre may be obtained fromAI clade 2.1.3 vaccination. From 15 samples, 92,86% are positive to AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2A/duck/Sukoharjo/BBVW-1428-9/2012 and 92,31% are positive to A/duck/Sleman/BBVW-1463-10/2012 evenwithout AI clade 2.3.2 vaccination. This antibody titre may be obtained from AI clade 2.1.3 vaccine crossprotection or field infection.

  3. Transfer Rates of 238U and 232Th for E. globulus, A. mearnsii, H. filipendula and Hazardous Effects of the Usage of Medicinal Plants From Around Gold Mine Dump Environs

    Victor M. Tshivhase

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant consumption can be a source of human exposure to radioactive elements such as 238U and 232Th, which can lead to internal radiation doses. The uptake of 238U and 232Th from soils to the leaf samples of three different medicinal plant species (Eucalyptus globulus, Acacia mearnsii and Hyparrhenia filipendula from the purlieu of the Princess gold mine dump, an abandoned contaminated tailings storage site (TSS, located at longitude 27°55′00″E and latitude 26°09′30″S in Davidsonville (Roodepoort, west of Johannesburg, South Africa was measured. This was done using ICP-MS spectrometry and substantial differences were observed in the soil-plant transfer factor (TF values between these radionuclides. The plant species E. globulus exhibited the highest uptake of 238U, with an average TF of 3.97, while that of H. filipendula was 0.01 and the lowest TF of 0.15 × 10−2 was measured for A. mearnsii. However, in the case of 232Th, the highest average TF was observed for A. mearnsii (0.29, followed by E. globulus (0.10 and lowest was measured for H. filipendula (0.27 × 10−2. The ratio of TF average value i.e., 238U to 232Th in the soil-plant leaves was 38.05 for E. globulus, 0.01 for A. mearnsii and 4.38 for H. filipendula.

  4. Efficacy of application of vaccine AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 on Mojosari ducks challenge against AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 in laboratory conditions

    Indriani R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 outbreaks since September 2012 caused high mortality in ducks. Vaccination is one of strategies recommended by government. However, AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 vaccine not yet available during this research, while AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 vaccines available in markets. Therefore it was important to do study on efficay of HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3. vaccines on duck at laboratory scale. Three groups of Mojosari duck were used in this study, they were 1 group vaccinated with A Vaccine, 1 group vaccinated with B Vaccine, and 1 group as control (not vaccinated. Vacination groups consisted of 9 DOD and control group was consisted of 6 DOD. Vaccination was conducted when the duck at three weeks old of age using single dose recommended by producer. At three weeks later (ducks at 6 weeks old of age all Groups of ducks were challenged with virus HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 at dose 106 EID50/ml by drops intranasaly. Result showed that Group 1 (vaccinated with A Vaccine produced 67% protection (3 out of 9 ducks died, Group 2 (vaccinated with B Vaccine produced 100% protection (non out of 9 ducks died, and Group 3 (control, not vaccinated produce 0% protection (all of 9 ducks died. This study give an alternative of choise to use AI H5N1 Clade 2.1.3 vaccine with high protection when AI H5N1 Clade 2.3.2 vaccine not available in markets to controll high mortality in ducks caused by HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 outbreaks.

  5. 2-[3-(2-取代苯基)-1H-吡唑-1-基]-4,6-二甲氧基嘧啶类化合物的合成及除草活性研究%Synthesis and Herbicidal Activities of 2-[3-(2-Substitutedphenyl)- 1H-pyrazol-yl]-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine Derivatives

    李元祥; 林龙; 陈琼

    2011-01-01

    Twenty two novel 2-[3-(2-substitutedphenyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine derivatives have been designed and synthesized using 1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethanone as starting material.All synthesized compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, MS techniques and elemental analysis.The preliminary bioassay showed that some of them exhibited certain herbicidal activities.%以邻羟基苯乙酮为起始原料,设计合成了22个新型的2-[3-(2-取代苯基)-1H-吡唑-1-基]-4,6-二甲氧基嘧啶类化合物,通过1H NMR,MS和元素分析对所合成的化合物进行了结构表征.初步生物活性测试结果表明.在试验浓度下部分化合物具有一定的除草活性.

  6. Use of LabSOCS for determination of specific concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in fertilizer samples; Uso de LabSOCS no calculo da eficiencia de detecao para determinacao da concentracao especifica de {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U e {sup 232}Th em amostras de fertilizantes

    Garcez, Ricardo Washington Dutra; Lopes, Jose Marques; Silva, Ademir Xavier da, E-mail: rgarcez@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: marqueslopez@yahoo.com.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Domingues, Alessandro Mariano; Lima, Marco Frota, E-mail: slessandrodomingues@fisica.if.uff.br, E-mail: marcofrotalima@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia

    2015-07-01

    Use of fertilizer is an established practice worldwide to promote agricultural productivity increased without increasing the planted area, resulting in native forests protection and increase of the food availability. Some kinds of fertilizer have in their chemical composition some radionuclides due the origin of its feedstock, such as {sup 238}U, the {sup 232}Th, and their descendants, beyond {sup 40}K. Knowledge of the radioactivity levels in the environment is great importance to know the gamma radiation dose that the human being is exposed. For identification and quantitation of radionuclides, it was used gamma spectrometry where HPGe detector was used to obtain the spectra, and LabSOCS software for calculating the detection efficiency for each energy. The values of {sup 232}Th specific concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 368.1 Bq.Kg{sup -1} , the values of {sup 238}U specific concentrations ranged from 16.0 to 647.7 Bq.Kg{sup -1} and {sup 40}K specific concentrations ranged from 19.1 to 12713 Bq.Kg{sup -1} . Concentrations of values are consistent with those found in literature. (author)

  7. Assessment of sedimentation rate based on disequilibrium in the {sup 232}Th decay series in an artificial pond downstream a former uranium mine

    Reyss, J.L. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement - LSCE/IPSL, Unite Mixte de Recherche 8212 CEA, CNRS, UVSQ, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Mangeret, A.; Courbet, C.; Saadi, Z.; Guillevic, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), BP 17, 92262 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Thouvenot, A. [LMGE, UMR CNRS 6023, Lab Microorganismes Genome et Environnement, 63 177 Aubiere (France)

    2014-07-01

    In rivers and lakes, sediment dynamics are very difficult to quantify by field measurements as well as by modeling studies (Olley et al. 1997 WRR 33, 1319-1326). The well-known {sup 210}Pb excess method (Appleby 2000 Limnology 59-S.1, 1-14; Perga et al. 2010 Limnol. and Ocean. 55, 803-816) cannot be used for quantifying sedimentation rates over granitic catchments as large amounts of {sup 210}Pb produced by granite weathering tend to dilute the atmospheric {sup 210}Pb. The knowledge of sedimentation rates in lakes is however very important for understanding the geochemical mechanisms involved in contaminant scavenging and remobilization at the sediment-water interface (SWI). Moreover, these measurements are crucial for developing solute transport models, especially for radionuclides and metals in pore waters and through the SWI. In order to overcome these issues, this study focuses on an artificial pound located in a granitic catchment, down-gradient from a former uranium mining site that ceased operations at the beginning of the 80's (Guillevic and Reyss 2011 ICRER 2011). Sediment sampling was carried out in this artificial lake with an UWITEC{sup R} hand corer. All the samples were dried and the activities of artificial and natural radionuclides were measured by gamma spectrometry, at the Underground Laboratory of Modane and alpha spectrometry after radiochemical purification. The profile of {sup 210}Pb activities in the sediment increased with depth in the core and did not allow to distinguish the atmospheric {sup 210}Pb from the {sup 210}Pb produced by watering processes in this uranium enriched environment. Another method for quantifying sediment accumulation rates is therefore proposed here using the disequilibrium between {sup 228}Ra (half-life of 5.75 years) and {sup 232}Th, the parent isotope. The excess of {sup 228}Ra over its respective parent {sup 232}Th has already been demonstrated by (Olley et al. 1997 WRR 33, 1319-1326) in river and lake

  8. 238U series isotopes and 232Th in carbonates and black shales from the Lesser Himalaya: implications to dissolved uranium abundances in Ganga-Indus source waters

    238U and 232Th concentrations and the extent of 238U-234U-230Th radioactive equilibrium have been measured in a suite of Precambrian carbonates and black shales from the Lesser Himalaya. These measurements were made to determine their abundances in these deposits, their contributions to dissolved uranium budget of the headwaters of the Ganga and the Indus in the Himalaya and to assess the impact of weathering on 238U-234U-230Th radioactive equilibrium in them. 238U concentrations in Precambrian carbonates range from 0.06 to 2.07 μg g-1. The 'mean' U/Ca in these carbonates is 2.9 ng U mg-1 Ca. This ratio, coupled with the assumption that all Ca in the Ganga-Indus headwaters is of carbonate origin and that U and Ca behave conservatively in rivers after their release from carbonates, provides an upper limit on the U contribution from these carbonates, to be a few percent of dissolved uranium in rivers. There are, however, a few streams with low uranium concentrations, for which the carbonate contribution could be much higher. These results suggest that Precambrian carbonates make only minor contributions to the uranium budget of the Ganga-Indus headwaters in the Himalaya on a basin wide scale, however, they could be important for particular streams. Similar estimates of silicate contribution to uranium budget of these rivers using U/Na in silicates and Na* (Na corrected for cyclic and halite contributions) in river waters show that silicates can contribute significantly (∼40% on average) to their U balance. If, however, much of the uranium in these silicates is associated with weathering resistant minerals, then the estimated silicate uranium component would be upper limits. Uranium concentration in black shales averages about 37 μg g-1. Based on this concentration, supply of U from at least ∼50 mg of black shales per liter of river water is needed to balance the average river water U concentration, 1.7 μg L-1 in the Ganga-Indus headwaters. Data on the

  9. Analyzing urine ketone of 235 medical examiners%232例体检者尿酮体阳性结果分析

    王会敏; 何柯新

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨尿酮体在体检人群不同年龄段、不同性别的分布及其与血糖的相关性.方法 对232例尿酮体为阳性的体检者按年龄及性别分组进行分析,同时与其同期检测的血糖结果 进行对比分析.结果 尿酮体阳性者以1+和2+为主;主要出现在20~50岁年龄段中;大多数尿酮体阳性者其血糖不高(≤6.1).结论 在体检人群中尿酮体阳性与血糖高低不存在相关性,尿酮体阳性并不能准确反映患者的血糖水平;尿酮体阳性主要集中在20~50岁年龄组.%Objective Objective: To explore the relationship between urine ketone and different age and gender and plasma glucose detected in the same time with urine ketone. Methods The results of totally 232 medical examiners whose urine ketone were positive were analyzed according to different ages and genders. Results The urine ketone results which are positive are 1+ and 2 + , mainly distribute the ages of 20 to 50. And great majority of them has a normal or low level of fasting plasma glucose. Conclusion The urine ketone which are positive has no relationship with plasma glucose,it can't accurately reflect the level of plasma glucose. We found that most of the groups distribute the ages of 20 to 50. The reasons probably are they have heavy work pressure and imbalanced diet. People need to pay attention to the quality of life. Having a balanced nutrition diet and eating on time will be a good life style.

  10. Determination of natural radionuclides from 238U and 232Th series, trace and major elements in sediment cores from baixada Santista and evaluation of impacted areas

    Baixada Santista is the region of higher population of the coast of Sao Paulo State, where it is located the largest port in Latin America, in the city of Santos, and the most important industrial complex of Latin America, in the city of Cubatao. This region has received in recent years a considerable load of industrial and domestic effluents in its water bodies, as a direct result of the industrial and port activities and the large population growth in recent decades, and is considered nowadays highly impacted. In the present study sediment cores were collected in the estuary of Santos-Cubatao, in the estuary of Sao Vicente, in the channel of Bertioga and Santos Bay, in order to determine the concentration of trace and major elements and natural radionuclides from the 238U and 232Th series. The techniques used were neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and gamma spectrometry, respectively. The obtained values for the elements Cr, Sb, Ta and Zn in some cores, are higher than data from literature, and can indicate a possible anthropic contribution. Comparing the obtained values of Cr and Zn elements determined in the sediment cores with the values of TEL and PEL index for sediment quality, it was verified that the studied region presents Cr levels higher than TEL in Santos-Cubatao estuary and Bertioga channel and Zn element presented values higher than TEL for some core slices of Santos-Cubatao estuary, for one core of Sao Vicente estuary, one core in Bertioga channel and Santos Bay. For the other elements, the values obtained in this study can be considered as reference values for the region. Although the element As presented higher values than the TEL in all the studied environments, the concentrations obtained are of the same order of magnitude as literature data and, therefore, can be considered also as reference values for the region. No enrichment was found for the major elements in all the ecosystems studied, with the exception for the element P

  11. Assessment of natural radionuclides concentration from 238U and 232Th series in Virginia and Burley varieties of Nicotiana tabacum L

    Brazil is the largest exporter and second largest producer of tobacco worldwide, according to the crop production of 2013/2014. The tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is used to manufacture all derivatives and the chemical composition of the resulting tobacco products varies with the type of tobacco leaves, how they are grown, the region where they are cultivated, the characteristics of preparation (compression, filter and paper) and the temperature variations resulting from the incomplete combustion of tobacco. Tobacco products are extensively used throughout the world, and the most consumed are cigarettes, cigars and narghile. The damaging effects that these products cause to human health are discussed globally, and many surveys are performed with the aim of relating the use of these products with various illnesses. There is a lack of information about the radiological characterization of the tobacco plant both in international and Brazilian literature. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of radionuclides 238U, 234U, 230Th, 22'6Ra, 210Pb and 210Po, members from the 238U decay series, and the radionuclides 232Th and 228Ra members of the 232Th decay series in the varieties Burley and Virginia, which are the most cultivated in Brazil. Plants from these varieties were cultivated in pots with organic substrate and fertilizer and also acquired from the producers and analyzed by alpha spectrometry for U and Th isotopes and 210Po determination, and gross alpha and beta counting, 228Ra, 226Ra and 210Pb determination. The whole plant, from both places, was analyzed; root, stem, leaves, as well as the organic substrate, the fertilizers, and the soil. The results for U and Th isotopes presented values below the detection limits of the methods to the leaves and stems of all plants analyzed, with measurable results only in roots, soil, and substrate. The radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po, were determined in most parts of the plants

  12. Measurement of the fission cross section induced by fast neutrons of the {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U nuclei within the innovating fuel cycles framework; Mesure de la section efficace de fission induite par neutrons rapides des noyaux {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U dans le cadre des cycles de combustible innovants

    Grosjean, C

    2005-03-15

    The thorium-U{sup 233} fuel cycle might provided safer and cleaner nuclear energy than the present Uranium/Pu fuelled reactors. Over the last 10 years, a vast campaign of measurements has been initiated to bring the precision of neutron data for the key nuclei (Th{sup 232}, Pa{sup 233} and U{sup 233}) at the level of those for the U-Pu cycle. This is the framework of these measurements, the energy dependent neutron induced fission cross section of Th{sup 232} and U{sup 233} has been measured from 1 to 7 MeV with a target accuracy lesser than 5 per cent. These measurements imply the accurate determination of the fission rate, the number of the target nuclei as well as the incident neutron flux impinging on the target, the latter has been obtained using the elastic scattering (n,p). The cross section of which is very well known in a large neutron energy domain ({approx} 0,5 % from 1 eV to 50 MeV) compared to the U{sup 235}(n,f) reaction. This technique has been applied for the first time to the Th{sup 232}(n,f) and U{sup 233}(n,f) cases. A Hauser-Feshbach statistical model has been developed. It consists of describing the different decay channels of the compound nucleus U{sup 234} from 0,01 to 10 MeV neutron energy. The parameters of this model were adjusted in order to reproduce the measured fission cross section of U{sup 233}. From these parameters, the cross sections from the following reactions could be extracted: inelastic scattering U{sup 233}(n,n'), radiative capture U{sup 233}(n,{gamma}) and U{sup 233}(n,2n). These cross sections are still difficult to measure by direct neutron reactions. The calculated values have allowed us to fill the lack of experimental data for the major fissile nucleus of the thorium cycle. (author)

  13. Synthesis, Spectral and Electrochemical Properties and DFT Studies of Two Complexes of Ruthenium with Bis-2,3-(2-PyridylPyrazine and 4-Picoline

    Chhandasi Guharoy Sarkar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of bis-2,3-(2-pyridylpyrazine (L with [Ru(dmso4Cl2] in presence of 4-picoline (L1 affords mixed- ligand complexes of the type [Ru2L(L14Cl4] in which ligand, L binds to the metal center in the bridging, bidentate N,N fashion forming two five-membered chelate rings. Along with [Ru2L(L14Cl4], another complex of the type [Ru(L12(dmso2Cl2] is formed. All the complexes are diamagnetic, and show characteristic 1H NMR signals and intense MLCT transitions in the visible region. DFT studies reveal that the HOMO of the complexes is mostly based on the metal center while the LUMO has maximum contribution from the bonded 4-picoline ligand. Cyclic voltammetry on these complexes shows a Ru(II-Ru(III oxidation on the positive side of SCE followed by a reduction of the coordinated 4-picoline ligand on the negative side of SCE.

  14. Disease-related growth factor and embryonic signaling pathways modulate an enhancer of TCF21 expression at the 6q23.2 coronary heart disease locus.

    Clint L Miller

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is the leading cause of mortality in both developed and developing countries worldwide. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have now identified 46 independent susceptibility loci for CHD, however, the biological and disease-relevant mechanisms for these associations remain elusive. The large-scale meta-analysis of GWAS recently identified in Caucasians a CHD-associated locus at chromosome 6q23.2, a region containing the transcription factor TCF21 gene. TCF21 (Capsulin/Pod1/Epicardin is a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor family, and regulates cell fate decisions and differentiation in the developing coronary vasculature. Herein, we characterize a cis-regulatory mechanism by which the lead polymorphism rs12190287 disrupts an atypical activator protein 1 (AP-1 element, as demonstrated by allele-specific transcriptional regulation, transcription factor binding, and chromatin organization, leading to altered TCF21 expression. Further, this element is shown to mediate signaling through platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR-β and Wilms tumor 1 (WT1 pathways. A second disease allele identified in East Asians also appears to disrupt an AP-1-like element. Thus, both disease-related growth factor and embryonic signaling pathways may regulate CHD risk through two independent alleles at TCF21.

  15. A case study of a typical 2.32 kW{sub P} stand-alone photovoltaic (SAPV) in composite climate of New Delhi (India)

    Chel, Arvind; Tiwari, G.N. [Center for Energy Studies (CES), Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2011-04-15

    This paper presents rigorous experimental outdoor performance of a 2.32 kW{sub P} stand-alone photovoltaic (SAPV) system in New Delhi (India) for four weather types in each month such as clear, hazy, partially cloudy/foggy and fully cloudy/foggy weather conditions respectively. The daily power generated from the existing SAPV system was experimentally found in the range of 4-6 kW h/day depending on the prevailing sky conditions. The number of days and daily power generated corresponding to four weather types in each month were used to determine monthly and subsequently annual power generation from the existing SAPV system. There are three daily load profiles with and without earth to air heat exchanger suitable for three seasons like summer (3.75-6.15 kW h/day), winter (2.79-5.19 kW h/day) and rainy (3.75 kW h/day). The hourly efficiency of the SAPV system components are determined and presented in this paper. The life cycle cost (LCC) analysis for the existing typical SAPV system is carried out to determine unit cost of electricity. The effect of annual degradation rate of PV system efficiency is also presented in this paper. The energy production factor (EPF) and the energy payback time (EPBT) of the SAPV system was also determined and presented in this paper. (author)

  16. Experimental Neutron-induced Fission Fragment Mass Yields of 232Th and 238U at Energies from 10 to 33 Me

    Simutkin, V. D.; Pomp, S.; Blomgren, J.; Österlund, M.; Bevilacqua, R.; Andersson, P.; Ryzhov, I. V.; Tutin, G. A.; Yavshits, S. G.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Onegin, M. S.; Meulders, J. P.; Prieels, R.

    2014-05-01

    Development of nuclear energy applications requires data for neutron-induced reactions for actinides in a wide neutron energy range. Here we describe measurements of pre-neutron emission fission fragment mass yields of 232Th and 238U at incident neutron energies from 10 to 33 MeV. The measurements were done at the quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam of the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility CYCLONE; a multi-section twin Frisch-gridded ionization chamber was used to detect fission fragments. For the peak neutron energies at 33, 45 and 60 MeV, the details of the data analysis and the experimental results were published in Ref. [I.V. Ryzhov, S.G. Yavshits, G.A. Tutin et al., Phys. Rev. C 83, 054603 (2011)]. In this work we present data analysis in the low-energy tail of the neutron energy spectra. The preliminary measurement results are compared with available experimental data and theoretical predictions.

  17. Specific Activity of the Naturally Occurring Radionuclides Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in Sand Samples from Quarries in Hatyai and Namom Districts, Songkhla province

    This study aims to quantitative analyze specific activity of the naturally occurring radionuclides in sand samples collected from quarries in Hatyai and Nammom districts, Songkhla province. Totally 22 sand samples were collected and analysed using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer. The specific activities for Ra226, Th232, K40 and Raeq of the sand samples from Namom ranged 34 to 90, 19 to 124, 377 to 1421 and 106 to 330 Bq/kg, respectively, and those from Hatyai ranged 12 to 21, 13 to 18, 166 to 215 and 48 to 60 Bq/kg, respectively. Results clearly showed that the specific activity of the Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in sand samples collected from Namom district are 2 to 6 times higher than those collected from Hatyai district. However, radium equivalent activities and the radiation hazard indices of the measured samples used to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these sands in constructing of dwelling were within the safety limits recommended by the UNSCEAR

  18. Speciation analysis of 129I, 137Cs, 232Th, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu in environmental soil and sediment

    The environmental mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are related to their physicochemical forms, namely species. We here present a speciation analysis of important radionuclides including 129I (also 127I), 137Cs, 232Th, 238U and plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) in soil (IAEA-375) and sediment (NIST-4354) standard reference materials and two fresh sediment samples from Øvre Heimdalsvatnet Lake, Norway. A modified sequential extraction protocol was used for the speciation analysis of these samples to obtain fractionation information of target radionuclides. Analytical results reveal that the partitioning behaviour, and thus the potential mobility and bioavailability, are exclusively featured for the individual radionuclide. Iodine is relatively mobile and readily binds to organic matter, while plutonium is mainly bound to both organic matter and nitric acid leachable fractions. Thorium is predominated in nitric acid leachable fraction and caesium is primarily observed in nitric acid and aqua regia leachable fractions and residue. Our analytical results reveal that around 50% of uranium might still remain in the residue which could not be extracted with aggressive acid, namely, aqua regia.

  19. Options for the deduction of target and intervention values for radon precursors of the 238U- and 232Th-series in soils

    Radiation protection policy in the Netherlands applies to human activities in which ionizing radiation presents a hazard, not to naturally occurring sources of radiation. The risk levels (maximum permissible risk and negligible risk) apply to sources of radiation that cause an additional risk. Translation of these levels into practical environmental quality objectives therefore implies that both the extent and the origin of the risk are determined. The distinction between the natural and the additional radiation dose is of particular interest. In this report various possibilities are described for measuring, explaining and predicting the naturally occurring concentrations of the precursors of the element radon in the two radioactive decay series starting with 238U and 232Th. Several methods are given that may be used to derive environmental quality objectives for the soil with respect to these radionuclides. These environmental quality objectives are an important basis for among other things the soil sanitation policy. The nature of the radionuclides considered may have consequences for the choice of sanitation techniques. Because possible sources and cases of soil pollution may have important consequences for the Dutch policy on soil sanitation, a short overview is given of data published on these subjects. The foundation and the control of intervention levels requires insight in the relative importance of pollution pathways. As a result, pathways have been given ample attention. 9 figs., 17 tabs., 66 refs

  20. Vertical and horizontal distribution of radionuclides (232Th, 238U and 40K) in sediment from Manjung coastal water area Perak, Malaysia

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been widely studied in marine coastal area. Due to rapid population growth and socio-economic development in Manjung area such as coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development, waste discharged from factories and agriculture runoff may contribute to increase in pollution rate. The radioactive materials from anthropogenic activities could deteriorate the quality of the marine ecosystem and thus lead to possible radiological health risk to the population. Radionuclides (232Th, 238U and 40K) content in surface and profile sediment from Manjung coastal area was determined in this study. Radionuclides in sediment from seven locations were collected using sediment core sampling and measurements were carried out using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy. The results show that the concentration of radionuclides in surface sediment and distribution trend of depth vertical profile sediment generally varies depending on locations. Enrichment factors (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and pollution index (PI) were applied to determine level of pollution of this study area. The radiological risks related to human exposure were evaluated based on external hazard index (Hex)

  1. Photoisomerization of 2-[3-(2-thioxopyrrolidin-3-ylidene)methyl]-tryptophan, a yellow pigment in salted radish [Raphanus sativus] roots

    The photostability of (E)-2-[3-(2-thioxopyrrolidin-3-ylidene)methyl]-tryptophan ((E)-TPMT), the main yellow pigment in salted radish, was studied. First we analyzed the photoproduct generated from (E)-TPMT under longwave UV irradiation. On the basis of NMR spectroscopy, the photoproduct was identified as Z-configurated TPMT, and isomerization from the Z- to the E-form was reversibly induced by Vis-light irradiation. The optimum wavelength for isomerization from the E- to the Z-form was 360-380 nm, and that for isomerization from the Z- to the E-form was 440-460 nm. The E/Z-ratios in the photostationary state under UV- and Vis-light irradiation conditions were approximately 0.95:1 and 26:1 respectively. The (Z)-isomer was more sensitive to light irradiation than the (E)-isomer in the quantum yield measurement. Yellowing was dependent on the ratio of the (Z)-isomer, because the b* and chroma value rose with increases in the (Z)-isomer by the colorimeters. Hence, it is possible that the formation of the (Z)-isomer contribute to the yellow color of takuan-zuke during long salting and fermentation

  2. Determination of uranium isotopes in urine samples from radiation workers using 232U tracer, anion-exchange resin and alpha-spectrometry

    Bioassay technique is used for the estimation of actinides present in the body based on the excretion rate of body fluids. For occupational radiation workers urine assay is the preferred method for monitoring of chronic internal exposure. Determination of low concentrations of actinides such as plutonium, americium and uranium at low level of mBq in urine by alpha-spectrometry requires pre-concentration of large volumes of urine. This paper deals with standardization of analytical method for the determination of U-isotopes in urine samples using anion-exchange resin and 232U tracer for radiochemical recovery. The method involves oxidation of urine followed by co-precipitation of uranium along with calcium phosphate. Separation of U was carried out by Amberlite, IRA-400, anion-exchange resin. U-fraction was electrodeposited and activity estimated using tracer recovery by alpha-spectrometer. Eight routine urine samples of radiation workers were analyzed and consistent radiochemical tracer recovery was obtained in the range of 51% to 67% with a mean and standard deviation of 60% and 5.4%, respectively. (author)

  3. Neutronic simulation of a research reactor core of (232Th, 235U)O2 fuel using MCNPX2.6 code

    Seyed Amir Hossein Feghhi; Marzieh Rezazadeh; Yachine Kadi; Claudio Tenreiro; Morteza Aref; Zohreh Gholamzadeh

    2013-01-01

    The small reactor design for the remote and less developed areas of the user countries should have simple features in view of the lack of infra-structure and resources. Many researchers consider long core life with no on-site refuelling activity as a primary feature for the small reactor design. Long core life can be achieved by enhancing internal conversion rate of fertile to fissile materials. For that purpose, thorium cycle can be adopted because a high fissile production rate of 233U converted from 232Th can be expected in the thermal energy region. A simple nuclear reactor core arranged 19 assemblies in hexagonal structure, using thorium-based fuel and heavy water as coolant and moderator was simulated using MCNPX2.6 code, aiming an optimized critical assembly. Optimized reflector thickness and gap between assemblies were determined to achieve minimum neutron leakage and void reactivity. The result was a more compact core, where assemblies were designed having 19-fuel pins in 1.25 pitch-to-diameter ratio. Optimum reflector thickness of 15 cm resulted in minimal neutron leakage in view of economic limitations. A 0.5 cm gap between assembles achieved more safety and 2.2% enrichment requirements. The present feasibility study suggests a thermal core of acceptable neutronic parameters to achieve a simple and safe core.

  4. Calibration factors for determination of relativistic particle induced fission rates in natU, 235U, 232Th, natPb and 197Au foils

    Calibration factors w, for determination of fission rate in metallic foils of natU, 235U, 232Th, natPb and 197Au were determined for foils in contact with synthetic mica track detectors. Proton-induced fission at proton energies of 0.7 GeV and 1.5 GeV were used. Using our experimental results as well as those of the other authors, w for different foil-mica systems were determined. Two methods were used to calculate w, relative to the calibration factor for uranium-mica system, which has been obtained in a standard neutron field of energy 14.7 MeV. One of these methods requires the knowledge of the mean range of the fission fragments in the foils of interest and other method needs information on the values of the fission cross-sections at the required energies as well as the density of the tracks recorded in the track detectors in contact with the foil surfaces. The obtained w-values were compared with Monte Carlo calculations and good agreements were found. It is shown that a calibration factor obtained at low energy neutron induced fissions in uranium isotopes deviates only by less than 10% from those obtained at relativistic proton induced fissions.

  5. Simulation smuggling study for shielded sources of 235U, 238U, 232Th, 137Cs and 60Co by using γ-detection

    This work deals with gamma detection of shielded sources of 235U, 238U, 232Th, 137Cs and 60Co by using HpGe and NaI detectors through their main characteristic energies; 185.7 keV, (63, 1001), (583 and 911), 661.6 and (1173 and 1332) KeV respectively. These radioactive sources were individually hidden in containers of aluminum (Al), iron (Fe) and cupper (Cu) of different thicknesses; 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 mm. Thin containers of lead (Pb) were also used with the same sources. The attenuation factor (I/I0), the ratio of radiation intensity with and without container or shield, was calculated for all the investigated γ-energies. The relationship between the attenuation factor and the studied thicknesses of the containers was given, depicted and discussed. Detection of the mixed sources shielded by different materials of different thicknesses was also carried out by using PDR-77 survey meter. The radiation levels were found to be within the natural background at 65cm distance from the shielded sources. Telescopic arm carrying 2x2 NaI and radiometer was also used. Generally, It can be concluded that smuggling of radioactive materials of low radioactivity can be done without detection by hiding them in containers or within scrap of Cu, Fe or even Al rather than using the conventional heavy lead shield. (author)

  6. {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U determinations in phosphoric acid fertilizer and process products by ICP-MS

    Nascimento, Marcos R.L. do; Guerreiro, Luisa M.R.; Bonifacio, Rodrigo L.; Taddei, Maria H.T., E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2015-07-01

    Through processing of Santa Quiteria-CE mine phosphate rock, Brazil has established a project for production of phosphoric acid fertilizer and uranium as a by-product. Under leaching conditions of phosphate rock with sulfuric acid, which is the common route for preparing phosphoric acid fertilizer, a large part of uranium, thorium and their decay products naturally present in the rock are solubilized. In order to assess the contamination potential in phosphoric acid and others process products, this paper describes a previous precipitation and direct methods for routine analysis of thorium and uranium isotopes by ICP-MS. In all samples, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U were directly determined after dilution, except {sup 230}Th in phosphoric acid loaded with uranium sample, which to overcome equipment contamination effect, was determined after its separation by oxalate precipitation using lanthanum as a carrier. The results obtained by the proposed method by ICP-MS, were in good agreement when compared to alpha spectrometry for {sup 230}Th, and ICP-OES and spectrophotometry with arsenazo III for elementary uranium and thorium determinations. (author)

  7. A unique de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 17, del(17)(q23.2q24.3) in a female newborn with multiple congenital anomalies

    Levin, M.L.; Shaffer, L.G.; Lewis, R.A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Contiguous gene or microdeletion syndromes occurring on chromosome 17p include the Smith-Magenis and Miller-Dieker syndromes associated with interstitial deletions of 17p11.2 and 17p13.3, respectively. Other cytogenetically visible interstitial deletions on chromosome 17 are quite rare or unique. We describe a newborn with a novel interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 17 [del(17)(q23.2q24.3)] who died on day of life 17 during a recurrent apneic episode. We have compared our patient`s phenotype and karyotype to two reported patients with deletion 17q with minor clinical overlap. The most striking clinical features of this patient were severe intrauterine growth retardation, widespread skeletal malformations (split sutures, hypoplastic acetabulae and scapulae, vertebral anomalies, and digital hypoplasia), cutis verticis gyrata, dysmorphic facial features, and oropharyngeal malformations (absent uvula and submucous cleft palate). Mild congenital heart disease and anomalous optic nerves were also present. Parental karyotyps were normal. DNA from parents and patient has been collected and cell lines established on both parents. Genes which have been previously mapped to the region that is apparently deleted in this patient include: chorionic somatomammotropin A, growth hormone (normal), acid alpha-glucosidase, apolipoprotein H, and the alpha peptide of type 4 voltage gated sodium channel. As in other clinical cytogenetic syndromes, further descriptions of patients with similar or overlapping rearrangements in this region will be necessary to delineate genotype/phenotype correlations for chromosome 17.

  8. Concentration in activity of 137 Cs, 40 K, 232 Th, 226 Ra in waste deposits of the benefits of minerals in the State of Zacatecas

    The necessity to report the changes in the contained radionuclides in the terrestrial crust, or those deposited by the atomic tests around the world, becomes clear when observing the use of material of waste of those mines. With the purpose of quantifying the concentration in activity its were meet a series of waste samples in mines of the municipalities of Zacatecas, Fresnillo, Guadalupe and Veta Grande of the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. The analysis was carried out by gamma spectrometry with a HPGe detector with a resolution of 1.9 keV corresponding to an energy of 1.33 MeV calibrated in efficiency and energy by means of a certified standard multi nuclide in activity with identical geometry to that of the samples. The times of count are of 80000 seconds, with the purpose of to reduce the relative uncertainties and to define well the interest regions. The activity of 226 Ra and 232 Th is obtained through the one 214 Bi and 228 Ac respectively, the concentration was also measured in activity of the one 40 K and the 137 Cs in units of Bq kg-1. (Author)

  9. Neutron Radiative Capture Cross Section of 232Th in the Energy Range from 0.06 to 2 MeV

    The neutron capture cross section of 232Th has been measured relative to σ(n, γ) for 197Au and σ(n,f) for 235U in the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV. Neutrons were produced by the 7Li(p,n) and T(p,n) reactions at the 4-MV Van de Graaff Accelerator of CEN Bordeaux-Gradignan. The activation technique was used, and the cross section was measured relative to the 197Au(n,γ) standard cross section up to 1 MeV. The characteristic gamma lines of the product nuclei 233Pa and 198Au were measured with a 40% high-purity germanium detector. Above this energy, the reaction 235U(n,f) was also used as a second standard, and the fission fragments were detected with a photovoltaic cell. The results, after applying the appropriate corrections, indicate that the cross sections are close to the JENDL-3 database values up to 800 keV and over 1.4 MeV. For energies in the intermediate range, our values are slightly lower than those from all the libraries

  10. Neutron radiative capture cross-section of 232Th in the energy range from 0.06 to 2 MeV

    Neutron capture cross-section of 232Th have been measured relative to σ(n,γ) for 197Au and σ(n,f) for 235U in the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV. Neutrons were produced by the 7Li(p,n) and T(p,n) reactions at the 4 MV Van de Graaff Accelerator of CEN/Bordeaux. The activation technique was used and the cross-section was measured relative to the 197Au(n,γ) standard cross-section up to 1 MeV. Above this energy, the reaction 235U(n,f) was also used as a second standard and the fission fragments were detected with a photovoltaic cell. The results after applying the appropriate corrections indicate that the cross-sections are close to the JENDL-3 database values up to 800 keV and over 1.4 MeV. For energies in the intermediate range, values are slightly lower to the ones from all the libraries. (author)

  11. Sequential determination of natural (232Th, 238U) and anthropogenic (137Cs, 90Sr, 241Am, 239+240Pu) radionuclides in environmental matrix

    A new sequential method for the determination of both natural (U, Th) and anthropogenic (Sr, Cs, Pu, Am) radionuclides has been developed for application to soil and sediment samples. The procedure was optimised using a reference sediment (IAEA-368) and reference soils (IAEA-375 and IAEA-326). Reference materials were first digested using acids (leaching), 'total' acids on hot plate, and acids in microwave in order to compare the different digestion technique. Then, the separation and purification were made by anion exchange resin and selective extraction chromatography: Transuranic (TRU) and Strontium (SR) resins. Natural and anthropogenic alpha radionuclides were separated by Uranium and Tetravalent Actinide (UTEVA) resin, considering different acid elution medium. Finally, alpha and gamma semiconductor spectrometer and liquid scintillation spectrometer were used to measure radionuclide activities. The results obtained for strontium-90, cesium-137, thorium-232, uranium- 238, plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 isotopes by the proposed method for the reference materials provided excellent agreement with the recommended values and good chemical recoveries. (authors)

  12. Vertical and horizontal distribution of radionuclides (232Th, 238U and 40K) in sediment from Manjung coastal water area Perak, Malaysia

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik

    2016-01-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been widely studied in marine coastal area. Due to rapid population growth and socio-economic development in Manjung area such as coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development, waste discharged from factories and agriculture runoff may contribute to increase in pollution rate. The radioactive materials from anthropogenic activities could deteriorate the quality of the marine ecosystem and thus lead to possible radiological health risk to the population. Radionuclides (232Th, 238U and 40K) content in surface and profile sediment from Manjung coastal area was determined in this study. Radionuclides in sediment from seven locations were collected using sediment core sampling and measurements were carried out using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy. The results show that the concentration of radionuclides in surface sediment and distribution trend of depth vertical profile sediment generally varies depending on locations. Enrichment factors (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and pollution index (PI) were applied to determine level of pollution of this study area. The radiological risks related to human exposure were evaluated based on external hazard index (Hex).

  13. Vertical and horizontal distribution of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 40}K) in sediment from Manjung coastal water area Perak, Malaysia

    Abdullah, Anisa, E-mail: coppering@ymail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been widely studied in marine coastal area. Due to rapid population growth and socio-economic development in Manjung area such as coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development, waste discharged from factories and agriculture runoff may contribute to increase in pollution rate. The radioactive materials from anthropogenic activities could deteriorate the quality of the marine ecosystem and thus lead to possible radiological health risk to the population. Radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 40}K) content in surface and profile sediment from Manjung coastal area was determined in this study. Radionuclides in sediment from seven locations were collected using sediment core sampling and measurements were carried out using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy. The results show that the concentration of radionuclides in surface sediment and distribution trend of depth vertical profile sediment generally varies depending on locations. Enrichment factors (EF), geo-accumulation index (I{sub geo}) and pollution index (PI) were applied to determine level of pollution of this study area. The radiological risks related to human exposure were evaluated based on external hazard index (H{sub ex})

  14. Capture and Fission rate of 232-Th, 238-U, 237-Np and 239-Pu from spallation neutrons in a huge block of lead.

    Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2000-01-01

    The study is centered on the research of the incineration possibility of nuclear waste, by the association of a particle accelerator with a multiplying medium of neutrons, in the project "Energy Amplifier" of C. Rubbia. It consists of the experimental determination of the rates of capture and fission of certain elements (232-Th, 238-U, 237-Np and 239-Pu) subjected to a fluence of fast spallation neutrons. These neutrons are produced by the interaction of high kinetic energy protons (several GeV) provided by the CERN-PS accelerator, on a large lead solid volume. The measurement techniques used in this work, are based on the activation of elements in the lead volume and the subsequent gamma spectroscopy of the activated elements, and also by the detection of fission fragment traces. The development, of a Monte Carlo code makes it possible, on one hand, to better understand the relevant processes, and on the other hand, to validate the code, by comparison with measurements, for the design and the construction of...

  15. Determination of the neutron capture cross sections of 232Th at 14.1 MeV and 14.8 MeV using the neutron activation method

    Lan, Chang-Lin; Peng, Meng; Lv, Tao; Yao, Ze-en; Chen, Jin-Gen; Kong, Xiang-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The 232Th(n,{\\gamma})233Th neutron capture reaction cross sections were measured at average neutron energies of 14.1 MeV and 14.8 MeV using the activation method. The neutron flux was determined using the monitor reaction 27Al(n,{\\alpha})24Na. The induced gamma-ray activities were measured using a low background gamma ray spectrometer equipped with a high resolution HPGe detector. The experimentally determined cross sections were compared with the literatures data, evaluated data of ENDF/B-VII, JENDL-4.0, and CENDL-3.1. The Excitation functions of 232Th(n,{\\gamma}) reaction were also calculated theoretically using the TALYS 1.6 computer code.

  16. Measurement of 238U and 232Th in Petrol, Gas-oil and Lubricant Samples by Using Nuclear Track Detectors and Resulting Radiation Doses to the Skin of Mechanic Workers.

    Misdaq, M A; Chaouqi, A; Ouguidi, J; Touti, R; Mortassim, A

    2015-10-01

    Workers in repair shops of vehicles (cars, buses, truck, etc.) clean carburetors, check fuel distribution, and perform oil changes and greasing. To explore the exposure pathway of (238)U and (232)Th and its decay products to the skin of mechanic workers, these radionuclides were measured inside petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant material samples by means of CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs), and corresponding annual committed equivalent doses to skin were determined. The maximum total equivalent effective dose to skin due to the (238)U and (232)Th series from the application of different petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant samples by mechanic workers was found equal to 1.2 mSv y(-1) cm(-2). PMID:26313584

  17. 放射性核素土壤-植物吸收与钍、镭富集植物的发现%Uptake of Radionuclides from Soil to Plant and the Discovery of 226Ra, 232Th Hyperaccumulator

    张志强; 陈迪云; 宋刚; 岳玉美

    2011-01-01

    11 sorts of plant samples and corresponding soil samples were collected in Conghua and Taishan, Pearl River Delta. The specific activity of 238U、226Ra、232Th and 40K of samples were investigated by using HPGe-γ-ray spectra analysis. The results showed that the average specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples were 151.8, 146. 3, 226. 6, 665.5 Bq/kg, which were higher than the average values of China and the world. The concentration of 238U in all sort of plants are very low and most of them are lower than detection limit, while the values of 226Ra, 232Th and 4OK were high. The contents of 226Ra and 232Th in Dicranopteris dichotoma were the highest, whose average specific activity is 285.9, 986. 2 Bq/kg respectively. The average bioconcentration factors (BFs)of 226Ra,232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma were 2. 20, 4.23, respectively, the other 10 sort of plants have BFs of 226Ra, 232Th were in the range of 10 -1 -10-2. The bioconcentration factors and the translocation factors of 226Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma were all bigger than 1, so Dicranopteris dichotoma can be defined as hyperaccumulator of 226Ra and 232Th.%对采集珠江三角洲从化、台山等地的11种植物以及对应的土壤样品,采用HPGe-y能谱分析了其中的天然放射性核素U、Ra、Th和K的比活度,结果表明,土壤样品中U、Ra、Th和K的平均含量为151.8、146.3、226.6和665.5Bq/kg,高于我国和世界的平均值,植物样品中的U含量较低,大多数样品低于检出限,而Ra、Th和K的平均含量相对较高.铁芒萁(Dicranopteris dichotoma)样品中Ra、Th含量最高,平均值分别为285.9 Bq/kg、968.5 Bq/kg,对应的生物富集系数(bioconcentration factor)的平均值为2.20、4.23,而其它10种植物Ra、Th的生物富集系数均在10~10的范围.铁芒萁Ra和Th的富集系数和转移系数(translocation factor)都大于1,可以认为是Ra和Th的超富集植物.

  18. Distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 230,232Th on the fractions of natural organic species soils of ChNPP alienation zone

    The experimental data determination of distribution 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am 'Chernobyl' releases and 230,232Th on the fraction of humic and fulvic acids sandy- podsolic, meadow and peaty soils taken in the exclusive zone ChNPP are presents. Soils organic matter was isolated by conventional alkali extraction (Turin's method). It was shown that, with depending of soils types 15-45 % 241Am associate with fulvic acids. In all investigated types of soils 30 - 40 % 239+240Pu connects with humic acids, as strong complexes. The distribution of environmental 230,232Th and artificial 239+240Pu on the fraction natural organic species is the same

  19. Development of sequential analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228 and its application in mineral waters

    A sequential analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228 in environmental samples and applied to the analysis of mineral waters is studied. Thorium isotopes are coprecipitated with lanthanium fluoride before counting in alpha spectrometer, the uranium isotopes are determined by alpha spectrometry following extraction with TOPO onto a polymenic membrane. Radium-226 is determined with the radom emanation technique. (M.J.C.)

  20. Use of electrodeposition for sample preparation and rejection rate prediction for assay of electroformed ultra high purity copper for 232Th and 238U prior to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS)

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge has driven the need for ultra-low background Ge detectors shielded by electroformed copper of ultra-high radiopurity (232Th and 238U into the plating bath simulates low purity copper and allows for the calculation of the electrochemical rejection rate of thorium and uranium in the electroplating system. This rejection value will help to model plating bath chemistry. (author)

  1. Development of an analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210 and its application on environmental samples

    A comparison between the environmental impact by nuclear facilities with the burden suffered from natural radioactivity calls for studying the long-lived radionuclides of the U-238 and Th-232 decay series U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210. This work describes the development of a fast isotope dilution analysis method allowing to separate with one sample solution U, Th, Ra, Pb and Po both from each other and, at the same time, from the matrix. To test its applicability, the method was used with samples consisting of soil, sediments, plants, water, carbon and air dust filter. The detection limit for the chemical yield attained of approx. 70% was 0.27 mBq per sample for Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, U-238, U-234 and Po-210. The detection limit for Pb-210 was 10 mBq per sample. On account of the influence by Ra-226 in the Ra-228 measurement and vice versa the detection limit is a function of the Ra-226 and Ra-228 concentrations, respectively, in the sample. The detection limits for the pure nuclides are 0.9 mBq per sample and 10 mBq per sample, respectively, for Ra-226 and Ra-228. (orig./HP)

  2. Recent capture cross-sections validation on 232Th from 0,1 eV to 40 keV and self-shielding effect evaluation

    Research on ADS, related new fuels and their ability for nuclear waste incineration leads to a revival of interest in nuclear cross-sections of many nuclides in a large energy range. Discrepancies observed between nuclear databases require new measurements in several cases. A complete measurement of such cross-sections including resonance resolution consists in an extensive beam time experiment associated to a long analysis. With a slowing down spectrometer associated to a pulsed neutron source, it is possible to determine a good cross-section profile in an energy range from 0.1 eV to 40 keV by making use of a slowing-down time lead spectrometer associated to a pulsed neutron source. These measurements performed at ISN (Grenoble) with the neutron source GENEPI requires only small quantities of matter (as small as 0.1 g) and about one day of beam by target. We present cross-section profile measurements and an experimental study of the self-shielding effect. A CeF3 scintillator coupled with a photomultiplier detects gamma rays from neutronic capture in the studied target. The neutron flux is also measured with a 233U fission detector and a 3He detector at symmetrical position to the PM in relation to the neutron source. Absolute flux values are given by activation of Au and W foils. The cross-section profiles can then be deduced from the target capture rate and are compared with very detailed MCNP simulations, which reproduce the experimental set-up and provide also capture rates and flux. The method is then applied to 232Th, of main interest for new fuel cycle studies, and is complementary to higher energy measurements made by D. Karamanis et al. (CENBG). Results obtained for three target thicknesses will be compared with simulations based on different data bases. Special attention will be paid to the region of unresolved resonances (>100 eV). (author)

  3. Allanite from the El Muerto Pegmatite, Oaxaca, Mexico: A Potential New Standard for 232Th-208Pb Dating by LA-ICP-MS

    Price, J.; Crowley, J. L.; Solari, L.; Prol-Ledesma, R.

    2012-12-01

    Allanite dating may be important to studies addressing tectonomagmatic evolution, provenance of monocyclic sediment, and mineral weathering. Obtaining accurate allanite ages by SIMS has been challenging and time-consuming due to the mineral's extreme chemical variability which often prevents finding adequately matrix-matched standards. Isotopic measurements by LA-ICP-MS minimize the need for standards of nearly identical composition to the unknown allanite being analyzed, and it is done relatively rapidly. Dating by LA-ICP-MS requires high quality standards for isotopic fractionation corrections. However, readily accessible and well characterized allanite standards are scarce. We investigated gemstone allanite from the El Muerto pegmatite, Oaxaca, Mexico, as a potential new geochronology standard for 232Th-208Pb allanite dating by LA-ICP-MS. Compositional homogeneity was thoroughly investigated by scanning and backscatter electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, quantitative and qualitative energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and LA-ICP-MS. The possibility of metamictization was investigated by extensive X-ray diffraction analyses. The El Muerto allanite was U-Pb dated by ID-TIMS, with common Pb ratios determined from cogenetic K-feldspar by ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS. Future work includes Th-Pb dating by ID-TIMS. The samples investigated are homogeneous with respect to major and trace elements. Major element compositional results are generally in agreement with published values, and no metamictization was identified despite the allanite being nearly 1 Ga. The only limitation of the El Muerto allanite is that it contains small, generally <100 μm, scarce inclusions of quartz, calciothorite, albite, calcite, and biotite. However, these grains are easily recognized and avoided during LA-ICP-MS analyses. Based on these results, the El Muerto allanite has the potential to serve as a standard for LA-ICP-MS dating.

  4. Seroprevalence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 subtype clade 2.3.2 on ducks and muscouvy ducks in small holders farm

    Eny Martindah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence studies of HPAI H5 subtype in ducks and muscouvy duck in smallholders farm was carried out in Serang and Tangerang District, Banten Province. The study comprised a serological survey to define the distribution and prevalence of HPAI H5 subtype infection on ducks and muscouvy ducks as well as attempted isolation of the virus from these species. Unit of sample in each stage was randomly choosen by multy stage random sample. Blood samples were taken from ducks and muscouvy ducks that had never been vaccinated, purposively. Sera were tested using Haemaglutination Inhibition Test, antigen H5N1 (clade 2.3.2, while the cloaca and trachea swab samples was injected into specific pathogens free (SPF embryonated 9-11 days old, to isolate the virus. Results showed that H5 subtype virus could be isolated from tracheal swabs of ducks in the various age groups. The seroprevalence of H5 subtype virus in Banten Province was 25.5%, in which, 24.3% occured in ducks and in muscouvy duck in the rate of 1.2%, with titer HI positive was > 3log2. Based on species, seroprevalence level HPAI H5 subtype in ducks was 3-4 times higher than the level of seroprevalence of HPAI H5 subtype in muscouvy duck, which indicated that the H5 subtype virus more likely to circulate in the ducks flock than in muscouvy duck. This study noted that both muscouvy duck and ducks appeared to play a significant role in the epidemiology of the disease.

  5. Distribution of {sup 226} Ra, {sup 232} Th, {sup 40} K and {sup 137} Cs in soils of Province of Camaguey, Cuba

    Flores, Osvaldo Brigido; Barreras Caballero, Aldo A.; Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Queipo Garcia, Maite [Ministerio da Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Camaguey (Cuba). Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear. Lab. de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Zerquera, Juan Tomas [Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    A survey programme aimed at studying the environmental radioactivity in the Province of Camaguey in the eastern region of Cuba was undertaken. The average concentrations of {sup 226} Ra, {sup 232} Th, and {sup 40} K in the surveyed soils were 26.4, 11.5 and 210 Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The man-made radionuclide found was {sup 137} Cs and its concentration was similar to those reported in regions affected only by global radioactive fallout, (7.9 Bq.kg{sup -1}). Radiological measurements carried out with a portable ionization chamber RSS-112 at the sampled sites revealed an average outdoor absorbed dose rate of 59.0 nGy.h{sup -1} due to cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma radiation. Computed dose rates obtained through the UNSCEAR(1993) dose coefficients range from 4-182 nGy.h{sup -1}, with a mean value of 27.8 nGy.h{sup -1}, due to natural terrestrial gamma radiation. Ratio of Indoor to Outdoor absorbed dose rates in air was 1.75. The average value of absorbed dose rate in air for the ionizing component of cosmic rays was 31.8 nGy.h{sup -1} at sea level. Because of the 95% of the Camaguey population lives at altitudes close to sea level (10-100 m), the absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from ionizing component of cosmic rays was estimated to be 32.3 nGy.h{sup -1}. An annual average effective dose equivalent of 510 {mu}Sv was estimated for Camaguey population due to the ionizing component of cosmic and gamma terrestrial radiation. This value is lower than the 760 {mu}Sv.year{sup -1} estimated as a world average by UNSCEAR (1993). (author)

  6. Determination of 40K, 232Th and 238U activity concentrations in ambient PM2.5 aerosols and the associated inhalation effective dose to the public in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

    Natural radioactivity of soil samples has been studied in many countries of the Arabian Peninsula, including Saudi Arabia. Radiological indices based on soil radioactivity have been widely used in these studies. However, there are no available data about natural radioactivity of fine aerosol particles in such countries. The objective of this study is to determine the activity concentrations of 40K, 232Th and 238U in airborne PM2.5 and the associated internal inhalation radiation dose to the public in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-four air samples in four locations throughout Jeddah were collected and analyzed for PM2.5 and the associated K, Th and U. The activity concentrations of the isotopes 40K, 232Th and 238U were calculated. High atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations (mean: 50.81 ± 34.02 μg/m3) were found. The natural radioactivity associated with PM2.5 due to the isotopes 40K, 232Th and 238U were 301.8 ± 76.1, 11.8 ± 4.2 and 10.8 ± 3.4 Bq/kg, respectively, and the Raeq was calculated as 44.9 ± 14.0 Bq/kg. The inhalation annual effective radiation dose to the public due to natural isotopes of the airborne PM2.5 was in the range 15.03–58.87 nSv/year, depending on the age group. Although these dose values were associated with the PM2.5 fraction only, they were higher than the world references values in air reported in the UNSCEAR, 2000 report. - Highlights: • High airborne PM2.5 concentrations over 4 months (24 samples) were found in Jeddah. • The mean activity concentrations of 40K, 232Th and 238U were assessed in PM2.5. • Effective inhalation dose due to 40K, 232Th and 238U was 59 nSv/year for adults. • Effective inhalation dose was higher than the world reference values in air. • Studying the inhalation dose due to other radioisotopes in PM2.5 is recommended

  7. 一维贫铀/聚乙烯交替系统中D-T中子诱发的232Th(n,γ)反应率的测定与分析%Determination of 232Th(n, γ) reaction rate induced by D-T neutrons in one-dimensional alternate depleted uranium/p olyethylene shells

    羊奕伟; 刘荣; 蒋励; 鹿心鑫; 王玫; 严小松

    2014-01-01

    A series of neutron integral fundamental researches of thorium nuclear data in set-ups containing thorium samples is carried out. One-dimensional alternate depleted uranium/polyethylene shells containing thorium samples are constructed by referring to the conceptual design of fusion-fission hybrid reactor, where a D-T neutron source driven by accelerator is used to simulate the fusion core of the reactor. 232Th (n,γ) reaction rates in samples located at different positions in the shells are measured in 5% uncertainty by using activated thorium sample decay γ-ray off-line measurement technique. The results show that the moderation of polyethylene to 14.1 MeV neutron will efficiently increase the capture rate of thorium, and the depleted uranium is also conducible to this increase obviously. The comparison between our measured data and the results available from mainstream nuclear data bank shows that the calculation results from ENDF/B-VI.6 and JENDL-3.3 are around 6% higher than the experimental results, while the newer ENDF/B-VII.0 will achieve better results, around 4% higher than the experimental results. We recommend the ENDF/B-VII.0 to be used in one-dimensional alternate depleted uranium/polyethylene shells related conceptual design when calculating the 232Th (n,γ) reaction rate.%开展了钍样品装置内钍核参数的积分中子学基础研究.参考混合堆概念设计搭建了内部放置了钍样品的一维贫铀/聚乙烯交替系统装置,采用加速器D-T中子源模拟聚变堆芯,利用前期开发的离线伽马测量方法测定了不同位置、不同中子谱情况下的232Th (n,γ)反应率,不确定度约为5%.结果显示,聚乙烯对14.1 MeV中子的慢化作用可有效提升钍俘获率,且贫铀对钍俘获率也有显著提升作用.实验结果与主流核数据库计算结果的对比显示, ENDF/B-VI.6和JENDL-3.3数据库的计算值比实验值平均约大6%,而较新的ENDF/B-VII.0数据库的计

  8. Determination of 232Th(n, γ) reaction rate induced by D-T neutrons in one-dimensional alternate depleted uranium/p olyethylene shells%一维贫铀/聚乙烯交替系统中D-T中子诱发的232Th(n,γ)反应率的测定与分析

    羊奕伟; 刘荣; 蒋励; 鹿心鑫; 王玫; 严小松

    2014-01-01

    A series of neutron integral fundamental researches of thorium nuclear data in set-ups containing thorium samples is carried out. One-dimensional alternate depleted uranium/polyethylene shells containing thorium samples are constructed by referring to the conceptual design of fusion-fission hybrid reactor, where a D-T neutron source driven by accelerator is used to simulate the fusion core of the reactor. 232Th (n,γ) reaction rates in samples located at different positions in the shells are measured in 5% uncertainty by using activated thorium sample decay γ-ray off-line measurement technique. The results show that the moderation of polyethylene to 14.1 MeV neutron will efficiently increase the capture rate of thorium, and the depleted uranium is also conducible to this increase obviously. The comparison between our measured data and the results available from mainstream nuclear data bank shows that the calculation results from ENDF/B-VI.6 and JENDL-3.3 are around 6% higher than the experimental results, while the newer ENDF/B-VII.0 will achieve better results, around 4% higher than the experimental results. We recommend the ENDF/B-VII.0 to be used in one-dimensional alternate depleted uranium/polyethylene shells related conceptual design when calculating the 232Th (n,γ) reaction rate.%开展了钍样品装置内钍核参数的积分中子学基础研究.参考混合堆概念设计搭建了内部放置了钍样品的一维贫铀/聚乙烯交替系统装置,采用加速器D-T中子源模拟聚变堆芯,利用前期开发的离线伽马测量方法测定了不同位置、不同中子谱情况下的232Th (n,γ)反应率,不确定度约为5%.结果显示,聚乙烯对14.1 MeV中子的慢化作用可有效提升钍俘获率,且贫铀对钍俘获率也有显著提升作用.实验结果与主流核数据库计算结果的对比显示, ENDF/B-VI.6和JENDL-3.3数据库的计算值比实验值平均约大6%,而较新的ENDF/B-VII.0数据库的计

  9. Assessment of natural radionuclides concentration from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in Virginia and Burley varieties of Nicotiana tabacum L; Avaliacao da concentracao dos radionuclideos naturais das series do {sup 238}U e {sup 232}Th nas variedades Burley e Virginia da Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Silva, Carolina Fernanda da

    2015-07-01

    Brazil is the largest exporter and second largest producer of tobacco worldwide, according to the crop production of 2013/2014. The tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is used to manufacture all derivatives and the chemical composition of the resulting tobacco products varies with the type of tobacco leaves, how they are grown, the region where they are cultivated, the characteristics of preparation (compression, filter and paper) and the temperature variations resulting from the incomplete combustion of tobacco. Tobacco products are extensively used throughout the world, and the most consumed are cigarettes, cigars and narghile. The damaging effects that these products cause to human health are discussed globally, and many surveys are performed with the aim of relating the use of these products with various illnesses. There is a lack of information about the radiological characterization of the tobacco plant both in international and Brazilian literature. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 22}'6Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, members from the {sup 238}U decay series, and the radionuclides {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra members of the {sup 232}Th decay series in the varieties Burley and Virginia, which are the most cultivated in Brazil. Plants from these varieties were cultivated in pots with organic substrate and fertilizer and also acquired from the producers and analyzed by alpha spectrometry for U and Th isotopes and {sup 210}Po determination, and gross alpha and beta counting, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb determination. The whole plant, from both places, was analyzed; root, stem, leaves, as well as the organic substrate, the fertilizers, and the soil. The results for U and Th isotopes presented values below the detection limits of the methods to the leaves and stems of all plants analyzed, with measurable results only in roots, soil, and substrate. The

  10. Preclinical evaluation and test-retest studies of [18F]PSS232, a novel radioligand for targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5)

    A novel, 18F-labelled metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) derivative of [11C]ABP688 ([11C]1), [18F]PSS232 ([18F]5), was evaluated in vitro and in vivo for its potential as a PET agent and was used in test-retest reliability studies The radiosynthesis of [18F]5 was accomplished via a one-step reaction using a mesylate precursor. In vitro stability was determined in PBS and plasma, and with liver microsomal enzymes. Metabolite studies were performed using rat brain extracts, blood and urine. In vitro autoradiography was performed on horizontal slices of rat brain using 1 and 8, antagonists for mGlu5 and mGlu1, respectively. Small-animal PET, biodistribution, and test-retest studies were performed in Wistar rats. In vivo, dose-dependent displacement studies were performed using 6 and blocking studies with 7. [18F]5 was obtained in decay-corrected maximal radiochemical yield of 37 % with a specific activity of 80 - 400 GBq/μmol. Treatment with rat and human microsomal enzymes in vitro for 60 min resulted in 20 % and 4 % of hydrophilic radiometabolites, respectively. No hydrophilic decomposition products or radiometabolites were found in PBS or plasma. In vitro autoradiography on rat brain slices showed a heterogeneous distribution consistent with the known distribution of mGlu5 with high binding to hippocampal and cortical regions, and negligible radioactivity in the cerebellum. Similar distribution of radioactivity was found in PET images. Under displacement conditions with 6, reduced [18F]5 binding was found in all brain regions except the cerebellum. 7 reduced binding in the striatum by 84 % on average. Test-retest studies were reproducible with a variability ranging from 6.8 % to 8.2 %. An extended single-dose toxicity study in Wistar rats showed no compound-related adverse effects. The new mGlu5 radiotracer, [18F]5, showed specific and selective in vitro and in vivo properties and is a promising radioligand for PET imaging of mGlu5 in humans. (orig.)

  11. Fission barrier determinations and fragment angular correlations for the 244Pu, 242Pu, 240U, 238U, 234Th, and 232Th compound nuclei from (t, pf) reactions

    Fission probabilities and the angular distribution of the fission fragments have been measured for six even-even compound nuclear systems using the (t, pf) reaction. Angular correlations of fission fragments obtained in these experiments provide information about the low-lying collective excitations or transition states at the fission barrier. The (t, p) reaction in particular leads to neutron-rich residual nuclei unobtainable by other methods. The absence of spin coupling for (t, p) reactions on even-even targets provides angular distributions with well defined structure in the region of the fission barrier. The experimental data were obtained using an 18-MeV triton beam on targets of 242Pu, 240Pu, 238U, 236U, 232Th and 230Th at Los Alamos Van-de-Graaff accelerator facility. Outgoing protons were detected at 140 deg relative to the incident triton beam. Excitation energies ranging from 3.0 to 9.0 MeV were obtained in these experiments. Fission fragment angular distributions were measured at 24 angles from 0 deg to 140 deg relative to the kinematic recoil angle. The data were fitted to a series of even Legendre polynomials W(θ) = A0 [1 + ΣL gL PL (cos θ)] and the coefficients g2 through g12 and A0 were determined as a function of excitation energy. The fission probability Pf was obtained from the ratio of A0 to the (t, p) cross-section for the target nucleus. The results exhibit well defined structure in the angular coefficients which correlates with structure in the fission probability for most of the nuclei studied. In an attempt to interpret this observed structure the experimentally determined fitting parameters Pf and g are compared with calculated results of a microscopic model. This model takes into consideration the penetrability and angular dependence of fission through each member of the various transition bands at the saddle point and appropriately sums the results for comparison with the data. The effects of barrier penetration through a two

  12. Preclinical evaluation and test-retest studies of [{sup 18}F]PSS232, a novel radioligand for targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu{sub 5})

    Milicevic Sephton, Selena; Mueller Herde, Adrienne; Keller, Claudia; Ruedisuehli, Sonja; Schibli, Roger; Kraemer, Stefanie D.; Ametamey, Simon M. [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences of ETH, PSI and USZ, Zurich (Switzerland); Mu, Linjing [University Hospital Zuerich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zuerich (Switzerland); Auberson, Yves [Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-01-15

    A novel, {sup 18}F-labelled metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu{sub 5}) derivative of [{sup 11}C]ABP688 ([{sup 11}C]1), [{sup 18}F]PSS232 ([{sup 18}F]5), was evaluated in vitro and in vivo for its potential as a PET agent and was used in test-retest reliability studies The radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]5 was accomplished via a one-step reaction using a mesylate precursor. In vitro stability was determined in PBS and plasma, and with liver microsomal enzymes. Metabolite studies were performed using rat brain extracts, blood and urine. In vitro autoradiography was performed on horizontal slices of rat brain using 1 and 8, antagonists for mGlu{sub 5} and mGlu{sub 1}, respectively. Small-animal PET, biodistribution, and test-retest studies were performed in Wistar rats. In vivo, dose-dependent displacement studies were performed using 6 and blocking studies with 7. [{sup 18}F]5 was obtained in decay-corrected maximal radiochemical yield of 37 % with a specific activity of 80 - 400 GBq/μmol. Treatment with rat and human microsomal enzymes in vitro for 60 min resulted in 20 % and 4 % of hydrophilic radiometabolites, respectively. No hydrophilic decomposition products or radiometabolites were found in PBS or plasma. In vitro autoradiography on rat brain slices showed a heterogeneous distribution consistent with the known distribution of mGlu{sub 5} with high binding to hippocampal and cortical regions, and negligible radioactivity in the cerebellum. Similar distribution of radioactivity was found in PET images. Under displacement conditions with 6, reduced [{sup 18}F]5 binding was found in all brain regions except the cerebellum. 7 reduced binding in the striatum by 84 % on average. Test-retest studies were reproducible with a variability ranging from 6.8 % to 8.2 %. An extended single-dose toxicity study in Wistar rats showed no compound-related adverse effects. The new mGlu{sub 5} radiotracer, [{sup 18}F]5, showed specific and selective in vitro and in vivo

  13. Concentration in activity of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 40} K, {sup 232} Th, {sup 226} Ra in waste deposits of the benefits of minerals in the State of Zacatecas; Concentracion en actividad de {sup 137} Cs, {sup 40} K, {sup 232} Th, {sup 226} Ra en depositos de desecho del beneficio de minerales en el Estado de Zacatecas

    Leal, B.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Ramirez, F. [UAZ, A.P. 579C, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The necessity to report the changes in the contained radionuclides in the terrestrial crust, or those deposited by the atomic tests around the world, becomes clear when observing the use of material of waste of those mines. With the purpose of quantifying the concentration in activity its were meet a series of waste samples in mines of the municipalities of Zacatecas, Fresnillo, Guadalupe and Veta Grande of the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. The analysis was carried out by gamma spectrometry with a HPGe detector with a resolution of 1.9 keV corresponding to an energy of 1.33 MeV calibrated in efficiency and energy by means of a certified standard multi nuclide in activity with identical geometry to that of the samples. The times of count are of 80000 seconds, with the purpose of to reduce the relative uncertainties and to define well the interest regions. The activity of {sup 226} Ra and {sup 232} Th is obtained through the one {sup 214} Bi and {sup 228} Ac respectively, the concentration was also measured in activity of the one {sup 40} K and the {sup 137} Cs in units of Bq kg{sup -1}. (Author)

  14. Measurement and Analysis of Specific Activities of 238U, 232Th,226Ra, 40K and 137Cs in Soil Samples from Phatthalung Province (Thailand) using Gamma Ray Spectrometry

    Full text: Specific activity of natural (238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K ) and anthropogenic radionuclide (137Cs) in 109 soil samples collected from 11 districts in Phathalung province have been measured and analyzed. Experimental results were obtained by using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system at Nuclear and Material Physics laboratory in Department of Physics Faculty of Science Thaksin University Songkhla Campus. Gamma ray radioactive standard sources 60Co, 137Cs and 133Ba were used to calibrate the measurement system. The KCl and two reference materials (RGU-1 and RGTh-1) obtained from the International Atomic Energy Agency were also used to analyze and compute the 40K, 238U (or 226Ra) and 232Th specific activity in all soil samples. The IAEA/SL-2 was also used to evaluate the specific activity of 137Cs in all soil samples. The measuring time of each sample was 10,800 seconds. It was found that specific activity ranged from 148.17 to 11276.78 Bq/kg for 40K, 58.29 to 518.45 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 8.40 to 236.19 Bq/kg for 232Th and 0.00 tp 12.39 Bq/kg for 137Cs with mean values of 3573.35 ± 203.89 Bq/kg, 135.89 ± 6.71 Bq/kg, 76.34 ± 5.32 Bq/kg and 1.05 ± 0.70 Bq/kg respectively. Furthermore, absorbed dose rate in air (D), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), and annual effective dose rate (AEDout) of this area were also evaluated by using the mean values of specific activities of the 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. Moreover, the experimental results were also compared with Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) research data, Thailand and global radioactivity measurement and evaluations. The radioactive contour maps of specific activities of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides from this study were created by using the program ArcGis Version 9.2

  15. Speciation analysis of 129I, 137Cs, 232Th, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu in environmental soil and sediment

    Qiao, Jixin; Hansen, Violeta; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2012-01-01

    The environmental mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are related to their physicochemical forms, namely species. We here present a speciation analysis of important radionuclides including 129I (also 127I), 137Cs, 232Th, 238U and plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) in soil (IAEA-375...... that the partitioning behaviour, and thus the potential mobility and bioavailability, are exclusively featured for the individual radionuclide. Iodine is relatively mobile and readily binds to organic matter, while plutonium is mainly bound to both organic matter and nitric acid leachable fractions. Thorium...

  16. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Organic Inorganic Hybrid Compound [Co(dien)2](dienH3)(H3O)7[P2Mo5O23]2·14H2O

    ZHAO Weifeng; ZHANG Lianmeng; JIN Surong

    2007-01-01

    A new compound,[Co(dien)2](dienH3)(H3O)7[P2Mo5O23]2·14H2O, has been hydrothermallly synthesized by using Na2MoO4,CoC12, H3PO4 and dien, and structurally characterized by elemental analysis,X-ray powder diffraction analysis, SEM, IR and TG analysis. The results show that the compound is composed of a polyanion [P2Mo5O23]212- , complex [Co(dien)2]2+ cation, protonated [dienH3]3+ , and forteen crystallization water molecule.

  17. Measurement of neutron-induced fission cross-sections of Th232, U238, U233 and Np237 relative to U235 from 1 MeV to 200 MeV

    Shcherbakov, O.A.; Laptev, A.B.; Petrov, G.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina, Leningrad district (Russian Federation); Fomichev, A.V.; Donets, A.Y.; Osetrov, O.I.

    1998-11-01

    The measurements of neutron-induced cross-section ratios for Th232, U238, U233 and Np237 relative to U235 have been carried out in the energy range from 1 MeV up to 200 MeV using the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer GNEIS based on 1 GeV proton synchrocyclotron. Below 20 MeV, the results of present measurements are roughly in agreement with evaluated data though there are some discrepances to be resolved. (author)

  18. Determination of the neutron fission cross-section for 233Pa from 0.5 to 10 MeV using the transfer reaction 232Th(3He,pf)234Pa

    Neutron induced fission cross-section of 233Pa in the fast neutron energy range from 0.5 to 10 MeV was determined for the first time as a two term product of the fission probability of 234Pa nucleus and the same compound nucleus formation cross-section. The first term was measured with the transfer reaction 232Th(3He,p) 234Pa while the second one was calculated. The tendency of the resulting data to agree with the existing evaluated one, is a proof for the validity of the utilised method. (author)

  19. Atomic Parameters for the $2p^53p~^2[3/2]_2 - 2p^53s~^2[3/2]^o_2$ Transition of Ne I relevant in nuclear physics

    Li, Jiguang; Wang, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    We calculated the magnetic dipole hyperfine interaction constants and the electric field gradients of $2p^53p~^2[3/2]_2$ and $2p^53s~^2[3/2]^o_2$ levels of Ne I by using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. The electronic factors contributing to the isotope shifts were also estimated for the $\\lambda = 614.5$ nm transition connecting these two states. Electron correlation and relativistic effects including the Breit interaction were investigated in details. Combining with recent measurements, we extracted the nuclear quadrupole moment values for $^{20}$Ne and $^{23}$Ne with a smaller uncertainty than the current available data. Isotope shifts in the $2p^53p~^2[3/2]_2 - 2p^53s~^2[3/2]^o_2$ transition based on the present calculated field- and mass-shift parameters are in good agreement with the experimental values. However, the field shifts in this transition are two or three orders of magnitude smaller than the mass shifts, making rather difficult to deduce changes in nuclear charge mean square r...

  20. Investigation of (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, (137)Cs, and heavy metal concentrations in Anzali international wetland using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Kamali, Mahdi; Fallahi Kapourchali, Maryam; Bagheri, Hashem; Khoram Bagheri, Mahdi; Abedini, Ali; Pakzad, Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in sediment and soil samples of the Anzali international wetland were carried out by two HPGe-gamma ray spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. The concentrations of (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs in sediment samples ranged between 1.05 ± 0.51-5.81 ± 0.61, 18.06 ± 0.63-33.36 ± .0.34, 17.57 ± 0.38-45.84 ± 6.23, 371.88 ± 6.36-652.28 ± 11.60, and 0.43 ± 0.06-63.35 ± 0.94 Bq/kg, while in the soil samples they vary between 2.36-5.97, 22.71-38.37, 29.27-42.89, 472.66-533, and 1.05-9.60 Bq/kg for (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs, respectively. Present results are compared with the available literature data and also with the world average values. The radium equivalent activity was well below the defined limit of 370 Bq/kg. The external hazard indices were found to be less than 1, indicating a low dose. Heavy metal concentrations were found to decrease in order as Fe > Mn > Sr > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Co > Cd. These measurements will serve as background reference levels for the Anzali wetland. PMID:26490904

  1. Comparative genetic mapping revealed powdery mildew resistance gene MlWE4 derived from wild emmer is located in same genomic region of Pm36 and Ml3D232 on chromosome 5BL

    ZHANG Dong; WANG Yong; CHEN Yong-xing; LIU Zhi-yong; OUYANG Shu-hong; WANG Li-li; CUI Yu; WU Qiu-hong; LIANG Yong; WANG Zhen-zhong; XIE Jing-zhong; ZHANG De-yun

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most devastating wheat diseases. Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is a promising source of disease resistance for wheat. A powdery mildew resistance gene conferring resistance to B. graminis f. sp. tritici isolate E09, originating from wild emmer wheat, has been transferred into the hexaploid wheat line WE4 through crossing and backcrossing. Genetic analyses indicated that the powdery mildew resistance was control ed by a single dominant gene, temporarily designated MlWE4. By mean of comparative genomics and bulked segregant analysis, a genetic linkage map of MlWE4 was constructed, and MlWE4 was mapped on the distal region of chromosome arm 5BL. Comparative genetic linkage maps showed that genes MlWE4, Pm36 and Ml3D232 were co-segregated with markers XBD37670 and XBD37680, indicating they are likely the same gene or al eles in the same locus. The co-segregated markers provide a starting point for chromosome landing and map-based cloning of MlWE4, Pm36 and Ml3D232.

  2. Within the framework of the new fuel cycle 232Th/233U, determination of the 233Pa(n.γ) radiative capture cross section for neutron energies ranging between 0 and 1 MeV

    The Thorium cycle Th232/U233 may face brilliant perspectives through advanced concepts like molten salt reactors or accelerator driven systems but it lacks accurate nuclear data concerning some nuclei. Pa233 is one of these nuclei, its high activity makes the direct measurement of its radiative neutron capture cross-section almost impossible. This difficulty has been evaded by considering the transfer reaction Th232(He3,p)Pa234* in which the Pa234 nucleus is produced in various excited states according to the amount of energy available in the reaction. The first chapter deals with the thorium cycle and its assets to contribute to the quenching of the fast growing world energy demand. The second chapter gives a detailed description of the experimental setting. A scintillation detector based on deuterated benzene (C6D6) has been used to counter gamma ray cascades. The third chapter is dedicated to data analysis. In the last chapter we compare our experimental results with ENDF and JENDL data and with computed values from 2 statistical models in the 0-1 MeV neutron energy range. Our results disagree clearly with evaluated data: our values are always above ENDF and JENDL data but tend to near computed values. We have also perform the measurement of the radiative neutron cross-section of Pa231 for a 110 keV neutron: σ(n,γ) 2.00 ± 0.14 barn. (A.C.)

  3. Determination of the concentration of {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in the feces of workers from a mining company of niobium and their families; Determinacao da concentracao de {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra e {sup 210}Pb na excrecao fecal de trabalhadores de uma mineradora de niobio e de seus familiares

    Oliveira, Roges de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Intrumentacao Nuclear; Melo, Dunstana R.; Juliao, Ligia M.Q.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (SEMINIRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Monitoracao Individual Interna

    2005-07-01

    The object of this study consists of an open mine from which Niobium ore (pyrochlore) is extracted and a metallurgy company, where Fe-Nb alloys are produced for export. For geological reasons, the main ore is associated to natural radionuclides U and Th, and its decay products. The concentration of {sup 234}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, including {sup 210}Pb in fecal excretion of 12:0 am, 29 workers and 13 family members were determined. The technique employed for the determination of the elements was the sequential method of radiochemical separation, followed by alpha spectrometry and counting {alpha} and {beta} in proportional detector. Statistically significant difference was observed in the concentration of {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U, in feces samples, among the group of mining workers and family members; as well as for {sup 232}Th in the feces of workers of crushing and metallurgy groups when compared with the Family Group. No statistically significant difference was detected at a concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb, in feces of any group of workers of the installation in relation to the family group.

  4. Fission products yield in the neutron-induced fission of 232Th using neutrons source from 7Li( p, n)7Be reaction at incident proton energy of 20 MeV

    This paper presents the measurement of fission product yields from the neutron induced fission of 232Th. These measurements were carried out using the neutron source from 7Li (p,n) reaction at TIFR-BARC Pelletron facility. The yields were obtained using activation and off-line gamma ray spectroscopic technique. The fission yields values are reported for twelve fission products. Activated targets were counted in highly shielded HPGe detectors over a period of several weeks to identify decaying fission products. The results obtained from the present work were compared with the similar data of mono-energetic neutrons of comparable energy from literature and are found to be in good agreement

  5. The fission cross sections of 230Th, 232Th, 233U, 234U, 236U, 238U, 237Np, 239Pu and 242Pu relative 235U at 14.74 MeV neutron energy

    The measurement of the fission cross section ratios of nine isotopes relative to 235U at an average neutron energy of 14.74 MeV is described with particular attention to the determination of corrections and to sources of error. The results are compared to ENDF/B-V and to other measurements of the past decade. The ratio of the neutron induced fission cross section for these isotopes to the fission cross section for 235U are: 230Th - 0.290 +- 1.9%; 232Th - 0.191 +- 1.9%; 233U - 1.132 +- 0.7%; 234U - 0.998 +- 1.0%; 236U - 0.791 +- 1.1%; 238U - 0.587 +- 1.1%; 237Np - 1.060 +- 1.4%; 239Pu - 1.152 +- 1.1%; 242Pu - 0.967 +- 1.0%. 40 refs., 11 tabs., 9 figs

  6. Analysis and evaluation of activity level of 134Cs, 137Cs, 232Th, 238U, 40K in aquatic products (fish, shrimp, cuttle-fish,...) of the south of Vietnam

    In recent decades, applications of improved techniques for increasing the quantity and the quality of aquatic products have shown good results but we also have experienced some unwilling influences which are decreased the quality of these products. Furthermore, impacts of using of nuclear energy in the world for peaceful purposes, nuclear accidents and nuclear weapon testings have increasing radioactive background level in the environment and in food - foodstuff, etc. So, we need to know about radioactivity level in environment to protect our health. The main goal of this study was to monitor and evaluate the activity levels of Cs-134, Cs-137, K-40, Th-232, U-238 in aquatic products of the south of Vietnam. (author)

  7. System for recovery of daughter isotopes from a source material

    Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Lewis, Leroy C [Idaho Falls, ID; Henscheid, Joseph P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-04

    A method of separating isotopes from a mixture containing at least two isotopes in a solution is disclosed. A first isotope is precipitated and is collected from the solution. A daughter isotope is generated and collected from the first isotope. The invention includes a method of producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product from a material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232. A solution is formed containing nitric acid and the material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232, and iodate is added to form a thorium iodate precipitate. A supernatant is separated from the thorium iodate precipitate and a second volume of nitric acid is added to the thorium iodate precipitate. The thorium iodate precipitate is stored and a decay product comprising actinium-225 and bismuth-213 is generated in the second volume of nitric acid, which is then separated from the thorium iodate precipitate, filtered, and treated using at least one chromatographic procedure. A system for producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product is also disclosed.

  8. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of 224Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides

  9. Bestimmung der Ionisationsenergie von Actinium und Ultraspurenanalyse von Plutonium mit resonanter Ionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS)

    Waldek, Achim Marcus

    2001-01-01

    ZusammenfassungDie Resonanzionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS) verbindet hohe Elementselektivität mit guter Nachweiseffizienz. Aufgrund dieser Eigenschaften ist die Methode für Ultraspurenanalyse und Untersuchungen an seltenen oder schwer handhabbaren Elementen gut geeignet. Für RIMS werden neutrale Atome mit monochromatischem Laserlicht ein- oder mehrfach resonant auf energetisch hoch liegende Niveaus angeregt und anschließend durch einen weiteren Laserstrahl oder durch ein elektrisches Fe...

  10. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228

    The activities of 228Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide 228Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO2 and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter 228Ra(228Ac), the daughter nuclide 228Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by 228Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9±0.1% was measured for 228Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317±0.013 cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1 g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of 228Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for 228Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure 228Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid scintillation analysis is used

  11. Linear free energy relationship applied to trivalent cations with lanthanum and actinium oxide and hydroxide structure

    Linear free energy relationships for trivalent cations with crystalline M2O3 and, M(OH)3 phases of lanthanides and actinides were developed from known thermodynamic properties of the aqueous trivalent cations, modifying the Sverjensky and Molling equation. The linear free energy relationship for trivalent cations is as ΔGf,MvX0=aMvXΔGn,M3+0+bMvX+βMvXrM3+, where the coefficients aMvX, bMvX, and βMvX characterize a particular structural family of MvX, rM3+ is the ionic radius of M3+ cation, ΔGf,MvX0 is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of MvX and ΔGn,M3+0 is the standard non-solvation free energy of the cation. The coefficients for the oxide family are: aMvX=0.2705, bMvX=-1984.75 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=197.24 (kJ/molnm). The coefficients for the hydroxide family are: aMvX=0.1587, bMvX=-1474.09 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=791.70 (kJ/molnm).

  12. Actinium: A RESTful Runtime Container for Scriptable Internet of Things Applications

    Kovatsch, Matthias; Lanter, Martin; Duquennoy, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Programming Internet of Things (IoT) applications is challenging because developers have to be knowledgeable in various technical domains, from low-power networking, over embedded operating systems, to distributed algorithms. Hence, it will be challenging to find enough experts to provide software for the vast number of expected devices, which must also be scalable and particularly safe due to the connection to the physical world. To remedy this situation, we propose an architecture that pr...

  13. New method for large scale production of medically applicable Actinium-225 and Radium-223

    Alpha-emitters (211At, 212Bi, 213Bi, 223Ra, 225Ac) are promising for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. Only two alpha decays near a cell membrane result in 50% death of cancer cell and only a single decay inside the cell is required for this. 225Ac may be used either directly or as a mother radionuclide in 213Bi isotope generator. Production of 225Ac is provided by three main suppliers - Institute for Transuranium Elements in Germany, Oak Ridge National Laboratory in USA and Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in Obninsk, Russia. The current worldwide production of 225Ac is approximately 1.7 Ci per year that corresponds to only 100-200 patients that could be treated annually. The common approach for 225Ac production is separation from mother 229Th or irradiation of 226Ra with protons in a cyclotron. Both the methods have some practical limitations to be applied routinely. 225Ac can be also produced by irradiation of natural thorium with medium energy protons . Cumulative cross sections of 225Ac, 227Ac, 227Th, 228Th formations have been obtained recently. Thorium targets (1-9 g) were irradiated by 114-91 MeV proton beam (1-50 μA) at INR linear accelerator. After dissolution in 8 M HNO3 + 0.004 M HF thorium was removed by double LLX by HDEHP in toluene (1:1). Ac and REE were pre-concentrated and separated from Ra and most fission products by DGA-Resin (Triskem). After washing out by 0.01 M HNO3 Ac was separated from REE by TRU Resin (Triskem) in 3 M HNO3 media. About 6 mCi 225Ac were separated in hot cell with chemical yield 85%. The method may be upscaled for production of Ci amounts of the radionuclide. The main impurity is 227Ac (0.1% at the EOB) but it does not hinder 225Ac from being used for medical 225Ac/213Bi generators. (author)

  14. Synthesis of chelating agents for actinium 225 complexation and its application in radioimmunotherapy

    Immunotherapy with radiolabeled antibodies should allow fairly specific targeting of certain cancers. However, iodine 131 may not be the best isotope for tumor therapy because of its limited specific activity, low beta-energy, relatively long half life and strong gamma emission. Another approach to improve therapeutic efficacy is the use of replacement isotopes with better physical properties. Chelator that can hold radio-metals with high stability under physiological conditions are essential to avoid excessive damage to non-target cells; Moreover, the development of new bifunctional chelating agents is essential for this purpose. Accordingly, our efforts have been directed, for several years, to the synthesis of original chelating agents likely to form stable complexes in vivo with the numerous potential candidates for such applications. Therefore, we have developed a new simple and efficient synthesis pathway of 2-(4-iso-thio-cyanate-benzyl)-1,4,7,10,13,16- hexa-aza-cyclo-hexadecane- 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa-acetic acid, though functionalized on the cycle by a termination allowed coupling to an antibody or any other biological substance such as a hapten. (author)

  15. Specific Activities and Radioactive Contour Maps of Natural (238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K ) and Anthropogenic (137Cs) Radionuclides in Beach Sand Samples Collected from Nai Yang Beach of Phuket Province After Tsunai Disaster

    Full text: Specific activities of natural (238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K) and artificial anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides in 50 beach sand samples collected from Nai Yang beach in Phuket province which was effected from 2004 tsunami disaster, have been studied and measured. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system and also evaluated by using the standard reference materials IAEA/RGU-1, IAEA/RGTh-1, KCL and SL-2 which were obtained from Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkhla University Hat Yai Campus. Experimental set-up and measurements were operated and carried out at Nuclear and Material Physics Laboratory in Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University Songkhla Campus. It was found that, the beach sand specific activity ranges from 862.50 to 3,356.35 Bq/kg for 40K, 3.51- 28.58 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 10.15 to 30.22 Bq/kg for 232Th and 0.00 to 2.39 Bq/kg for 137Cs with mean values of 1,843.03 ± 152.49 Bq/kg, 14.88 ± 3.30 Bq/kg, 19.19 ± 2.80 Bq/kg and 0.14 ± 0.11 Bq/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the results were also used to evaluate the absorbed dose rates in air (D), the radium equivalent (Raeq), the external hazard index (Hex) and the annual effective dose rate (AED) in all beach area. Moreover, experimental results were also compared to the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) research data, Thailand and global radioactivity measurements and evaluation, the recommended values which were proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 1979) and United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 1988, 1993, 2000). Specific activities of natural and artificial anthropogenic radionuclides in all of Nai Yang beach sand samples could be also used to create the radioactive contour maps

  16. Fission Fragment Folding Angle Distributions for the Systems 11B+237Np, 12C+236U, and 16O+232Th in the Energy Range 1.1B<2.1

    Fission fragment folding angle distributions have been measured for the systems 11B+237Np, 12C+236U, and 16O+232Th, populating the same compound nucleus (248Cf) and at similar excitation energies (Ex 45-100 MeV). The full momentum transfer and incomplete momentum transfer fusion-fission components have been separated over the bombarding energy range 1.1c.m/VB 2.1. It is observed that the largest value of the ratio of the transfer fission to the total fission is around 10 to 15% at the highest energy investigated. Over the energy range mentioned above, it is found that the transfer fission corrected fission fragment anisotropies are not significantly different from the values already obtained from the analysis of the total fission data reported earlier and hence the conclusions reached from the inclusive data remain unchanged. The anisotropy data were analyzed for the two cases corresponding to fission events with sizable fission barriers (Bf>T) and with smaller fission barriers (Bf>T). It was interesting to find that the effective moment of inertia (Jeff) values deduced from the latter component were consistent with the values from Sierk prescription used in the former case

  17. Photometry of a Galactic field at l = 232, b = -6. The old open cluster Auner 1, the Norma-Cygnus spiral arm and the signature of the warped Galactic Thick Disk

    Carraro, G; Zoccali, M; Vázquez, R; Baume, G; Carraro, Giovanni; Moitinho, Andre'; Zoccali, Manuela; Vazquez, Ruben; Baume, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    We perform a detailed photometric study of the stellar populations in a Galactic Field at l = 232, b = -6 in the Canis Major (CMa) constellation. We present the first U,B,V,I photometry of the old open cluster Auner1 and determine it to be 3.25 Gyr old and to lie at 8.9 kpc from the Sun. In the background of the cluster, at more than 9 kpc, we detect a young population most probably associated to the Norma Cygnus spiral arm. Furthermore, we detect the signature of an older population and identify its Turn Off and Red Giant Branch. This population is found to have a mean age of 7 Gyrs and a mean metallicity of Z = 0.006 . We reconstruct the geometry of the stellar distribution and argue that this older population - often associated to the Canis Major {\\it galaxy}- belongs in fact to the warped old thin/thick disk component along this line of sight.

  18. Angular correlations of fission fragments from the reactions 232Th(p,p'f) and 236U(p,p'f) at a projectile energy of 26.5 MeV

    Angular correlations of fission fragments from the reactions 232Th(p,p'f) and 236U(p,p'f) have been measured at a projectile energy of Ep=26.5 MeV and excitation energies up to the second chance fission. The scattered protons have been detected by a semiconductor telescope positioned at two different angles (vTel=90 and vTel=60 ). The fission fragments have been measured by a parallel plate avalanche detector, which was position sensitive in two dimensions. The data continuously cover the angular ranges of about -15 up to +95 for vTel=90 and about -5 up to +50 for vTel=60 with respect to the kinematical recoil axis. It succeeded to describe the changes of the angular distribution with increasing excitation energy in terms of the Transition State Model by a uniform increase of the contributions with K≠0 for both compound systems and both excitation reactions. (orig./DG)

  19. Determination of the 233Pa(n, γ) capture cross section up to neutron energies of 1 MeV using the transfer reaction 232Th(3He, p)234Pa*

    The γ-ray emission probability distribution of 234Pa* has been measured between 5.2 and 6.2 MeV excitation energy using the transfer reaction 232Th(3He, p)234Pa* at an incident 3He energy of 24 MeV. The experimental set-up is made of four liquid scintillator C6D6 detectors and four Si telescopes arranged to detect γ rays and charged particles in coincidence. In order to determine the total number of γ-ray cascades in a given nucleus, the raw experimental detected gamma-ray events have to be corrected by the weighting function technique. This weighting requires complete knowledge of the efficiency and response functions for the C6D6 detector set-up and surroundings. These have been determined experimentally using gamma-ray sources, inelastic scattering reactions and transfer reactions on light nuclei. Simulations which reproduce successfully the detector response and efficiency are presented. From these measurements, the (n, γ) capture cross section of 233Pa, in the neutron energy range 0 to 1 MeV, has been deduced via the product of the measured γ emission probability of 234Pa* with the calculated compound nucleus formation cross section of the reaction 233Pa + n. A comparison between existing data bases or recent predictions and the present results is also made

  20. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT FOR EXPOSURE UNITS Z2-24, Z2-31, Z2-32, AND Z2-36 IN ZONE 2 OF THE EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    None

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management selected Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to perform independent verification (IV) at Zone 2 of the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ORAU has concluded IV surveys, per the project-specific plan (PSP) (ORAU 2013a) covering exposure units (EUs) Z2-24, -31, -32, and -36. The objective of this effort was to verify the following. • Target EUs comply with requirements in the Zone 2 Record of Decision (ROD) (DOE 2005), as implemented by using the dynamic verification strategy presented in the dynamic work plan (DWP) (BJC 2007) • Commitments in the DWP were adequately implemented, as verified via IV surveys and soil sampling The Zone 2 ROD establishes maximum remediation level (RLmax) values and average RL (RLavg) values for the primary contaminants of concern (COCs) U-234, U-235, U-238, Cs-137, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-232, arsenic, mercury, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Table 1.1 lists Zone 2 COCs with associated RLs. Additional radiological and chemical contaminants were also identified during past characterization and monitoring actions, though the ROD does not present RLs for these potential contaminants. IV activities focused on the identification and quantification of ROD-specific COCs in surface soils, but also generated data for other analytes to support future decisions. ORAU personnel also reviewed EU-specific phased construction completion reports (PCCRs) to focus IV activities and identify potential judgmental sample locations, if any.

  1. Determination of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, (235)U and (238)U activity concentration and public dose assessment in soil samples from bauxite core deposits in Western Cameroon.

    Mekongtso Nguelem, Eric Jilbert; Moyo Ndontchueng, Maurice; Motapon, Ousmanou

    2016-01-01

    Determination of activity concentrations in twenty five (25) soil samples collected from various points in bauxite ore deposit in Menoua Division in Western of Cameroon was done using gamma spectrometry based Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe6530) detector. The average terrestrial radionuclides of (40)K, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (235)U and (238)U were measured as 671 ± 272, 125 ± 58, 157 ± 67, 6 ± 3 and 99 ± 69 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The observed activity concentrations of radionuclides were compared with other published values in the world. The outdoor absorbed dose rate in air varied from 96.1 to 321.2 nGy h(-1) with an average of 188.2 ± 59.4 nGy h(-1). The external annual effective dose rate and external hazard index were estimated as 0.23 ± 0.07 mSv year(-1) for outdoor, 0.92 ± 0.29 mSv year(-1) for indoor and 1.13 for the external hazard index, respectively. These radiological safe parameters were relatively higher than the recommended safe limits of UNSCEAR. Consequently, using of soil as building material might lead to an increase the external exposure to natural radioactivity and future applications research need to be conducted to have a global view of radioactivity level in the area before any undergoing bauxite ore exploitation. PMID:27536536

  2. 49 CFR 232.5 - Definitions.

    2010-10-01

    ... air brake hollow rod (or equivalent) or piston rod when forced outward by movement of the piston in... if its piston travel exceeds: (1) 101/2 inches for cars equipped with nominal 12-inch stroke brake cylinders; or (2) The piston travel limit indicated on the stencil, sticker, or badge plate for that...

  3. 24 CFR 232.500 - Definitions.

    2010-04-01

    ... or intermediate care facilities by the Department of Health and Human Services. (d) Fire safety loan... cost of fire safety equipment fully installed as estimated by the Secretary of Health and Human... occupancy: (i) The Life Safety Code of the National Fire Protection Association (any edition after 1966);...

  4. Transect 23:2 (autumn 2005)

    UC Natural Reserve System

    2007-01-01

    IN THIS ISSUE OF TRANSECT - (feature article) New Laser-Mapping Technology Enables "Aerial Groundtruthing" - Marine biologist Dan Costa at the TOPP of His Game - Teens Learn Leadership and Literacy in the Sierras at Sagehen Creek Field Station - Kids Star in Bug Video Produced at Valentine Reserve - Sedgwick Reserve Celebrates New All-Green Science Center

  5. Evaluated nuclear data file of Th-232

    Meadows, J.; Poenitz, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Whalen, J.; Howerton, R.

    1977-09-01

    An evaluated nuclear data file for thorium is described. The file extends over the energy range 0.049 (i.e., the inelastic-scattering threshold) to 20.0 MeV and is formulated within the framework of the ENDF system. The input data base, the evaluation procedures and judgments, and ancillary experiments carried out in conjunction with the evaluation are outlined. The file includes: neutron total cross sections, neutron scattering processes, neutron radiative capture cross sections, fission cross sections, (n;2n) and (n;3n) processes, fission properties (e.g., nu-bar and delayed neutron emission) and photon production processes. Regions of uncertainty are pointed out particularly where new measured results would be of value. The file is extended to thermal energies using previously reported resonance evaluations thereby providing a complete file for neutronic calculations. Integral data tests indicated that the file was suitable for neutronic calculations in the MeV range.

  6. Evaluated nuclear data file of Th-232

    An evaluated nuclear data file for thorium is described. The file extends over the energy range 0.049 (i.e., the inelastic-scattering threshold) to 20.0 MeV and is formulated within the framework of the ENDF system. The input data base, the evaluation procedures and judgments, and ancillary experiments carried out in conjunction with the evaluation are outlined. The file includes: neutron total cross sections, neutron scattering processes, neutron radiative capture cross sections, fission cross sections, (n;2n) and (n;3n) processes, fission properties (e.g., nu-bar and delayed neutron emission) and photon production processes. Regions of uncertainty are pointed out particularly where new measured results would be of value. The file is extended to thermal energies using previously reported resonance evaluations thereby providing a complete file for neutronic calculations. Integral data tests indicated that the file was suitable for neutronic calculations in the MeV range

  7. 25 CFR 23.2 - Definitions.

    2010-04-01

    ... of the Interior. Child custody proceeding includes: (1) Foster care placement, which shall mean any action removing an Indian child from his or her parent or Indian custodian for temporary placement in a foster home or institution or the home of a guardian or conservator where the parent or Indian...

  8. 49 CFR 232.3 - Applicability.

    2010-10-01

    ... general railroad system of transportation; (5) Tourist, scenic, historic, or excursion operations, whether... TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF... standard gage track which is part of the general railroad system of transportation. This includes...

  9. 7 CFR 23.2 - Administration.

    2010-01-01

    ... his respective State. To assure national and State coordination with programs under the Smith-Lever... be in association with the programs conducted under the Smith-Lever Act and the Hatch Act as...

  10. 33 CFR 2.32 - High seas.

    2010-07-01

    ... nations. (d) Under customary international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the... economic zones pursuant to article 58 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and unless... chapter and 46 CFR part 7. (c) For the purposes of 14 U.S.C. 89(a), 14 U.S.C. 86, 33 U.S.C. 409, and 33...

  11. Case 232: Amyloid β-related Angiitis.

    Moosavi, Bardia; Torres, Carlos; Jansen, Gerard

    2016-08-01

    History A 78-year-old woman presented to a community hospital after an unwitnessed fall at her nursing home. Initial head computed tomography (CT) performed in the emergency department showed vasogenic edema in the right temporal parietal region, which prompted her transfer to our institution for additional work-up. Further history taking revealed recurrent transient motor and sensory transient ischemic attack-like symptoms over the preceding weeks. She denied having a fever or night sweats. There was no history of infection, bleeding, immunodeficiency, intravenous drug use, alcohol or tobacco abuse, malignancy, or genetic disorders. Her medical history included memory impairment and a left posterior cerebral artery territory infarction. She was not known to have any systemic inflammatory disorder. Physical examination findings at presentation were noncontributory. She was not taking any anticoagulants or immunosuppressive medication. Pertinent hematologic laboratory investigations revealed a white blood cell count of 6.7 × 10(9), a C-reactive protein level of 29 mg/L (276.2 nmol/L) (normal value, <10 mg/L [95.2 nmol/L]), and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 35 mm per hour (normal value, 0-10 mm per hour). Shortly after this patient was admitted to our institution, she had a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain was performed the next day. PMID:27429145

  12. 33 CFR 110.232 - Southeast Alaska.

    2010-07-01

    ... require a nonself propelled vessel to be attended by a tug while moored, anchored, or remaining within the... sufficient size to permit target indication on the radar screen of commercial type radar; or (ii) Have...

  13. 32 CFR 232.8 - Limitations.

    2010-07-01

    ... otherwise prohibited by Regulation E (Electronic Fund Transfers) 12 CFR part 205; (ii) The creditor may... et seq.). (3) The creditor requires the covered borrower to submit to arbitration or imposes other onerous legal notice provisions in the case of a dispute. (4) The creditor demands unreasonable...

  14. 46 CFR 232.2 - General instructions.

    2010-10-01

    ... accepted accounting principles (promulgated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board of the American... accounting policies different from those followed for the financial statement filed with the Maritime... interpretation letter. (2) A contractor who has a question of financial accounting or reporting procedure...

  15. QTL Information Table: 232 [Q-TARO

    Full Text Available itative-trait loci mapping for nitrogen recycling in rice. J. Exp. Bot. 53, 917-925. http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/53/370/917 ... ... Kasalath C950 pha Yamaya, T., Obara, M., Nakajima, H., Sasaki, S., Hayakawa, T., and Sato, T. (2002). Genetic manipulation and quant

  16. 12 CFR 23.2 - Definitions.

    2010-01-01

    ... financing the property over the term of the lease, from: (1) Rentals; (2) Estimated tax benefits; and (3... appendix A to 12 CFR part 3 as reported in the bank's Consolidated Report of Condition and Income filed under 12 U.S.C. 161; plus (2) The balance of a bank's allowance for loan and lease losses not...

  17. 40 CFR 232.2 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ... Columbia, Guam, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of... pursuant to 33 CFR part 322; however, this exception is not applicable to dredging activities in wetlands... which facilitate compliance with the section 404(b)(1) Guidelines (40 CFR part 230),...

  18. A study of reaction rates of (n,f), (n,γ) and (n,2n) reactions in natU and 232Th by the neutron fluence produced in the graphite set-up (GAMMA-3) irradiated by 2.33 GeV deuteron beam

    Spallation neutrons produced in the collision of a 2.33GeV deuteron beam with a large lead target are moderated by a thick graphite block surrounding the target and used to activate the radioactive samples of natU and Th put at three different positions, identified as holes ''a'', ''b'' and ''c'' in the graphite block. Rates of the (n,f), (n,γ) and (n,2n) reactions in the two samples are determined using the gamma spectrometry. The ratios of the experimental reaction rates, R (n,2n)/R (n,f), for 232Th and natU are estimated in order to understand the role of the (n,x n) kind of reactions in Accelerator-Driven Sub-critical Systems. For the Th-sample, the ratio is ∝ 54 (10)% in the case of hole ''a'' and ∝ 95 (57)% in the case of hole ''b'' compared to 1.73(20)% for hole ''a'' and 0.710(9)% for hole ''b'' in the case of the natU sample. Also the ratio of fission rates in uranium to thorium, natU (n,f)/ 232Th (n,f), is ∝ 11.2 (17) in the case of hole ''a'' and 26.8(85) in hole ''b''. Similarly, the ratio 238U (n,2n)/ 232Th (n,2n) is 0.36(4) for hole ''a'' and 0.20(10) for hole ''b'' showing that 232Th is more prone to the (n,x n) reaction than 238U. All the experimental reaction rates are compared with the simulated ones by generating neutron fluxes at the three holes from MCNPX 2.6c and making use of the LA150 library of cross-sections. The experimental and calculated reaction rates of all the three reactions are in reasonably good agreement. The transmutation power, Pnorm as well as Pnorm/Pbeam of the set-up is estimated using the reaction rates of the (n, γ) and (n,2n) reactions for both the samples in the three holes and compared with some of the results of the ''Energy plus Transmutation'' set-up and TARC experiment. (orig.)

  19. Study of Thorium Utilization in a Large Scale Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    The breeding performance of 232Th in fast reactor is better than 238U, since the capture cross section of 232Th is slightly higher than 238U under the fast neutron spectrum. There are much less fission neutrons in the blanket, so the proportion of neutron with energy above 6MeV (the threshold energy of (n,2n) reaction of 232Th) is very small. Therefore, the 233U produced in fast reactor blanket would have high purity. In this paper, an large scale fast reactor core was taken as the reference core for 232Th utilization study. In the calculation results, the whole capability of 233U production is about 443kg/(GWe•a) in the blanket; at the end of the first cycle (160EFPD), the 233U production per unit mass of 232Th is about 10.71g/(kgTh), and the weight fraction of 232U in actinium is less than 0.019%. It is an attractive technology option to produce 233U in the blanket. (author)

  20. 17 CFR 232.11 - Definition of terms used in part 232.

    2010-04-01

    ... file content or the operation of any computer, computer file, computer database, computer system, computer network or software, and as otherwise set forth in the EDGAR Filer Manual. EDGAR. The term EDGAR... electronic computer instructions inserted into a computer, operating system, or program that...

  1. Otto Hansmann: Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778). (Basiswissen Pädagogik – Teilbereich Historische Pädagogik, Bd. 1.) Baltmannsweiler: Schneider 2002. 232 S., EUR 16,–. Hartmut von Hentig: Rousseau oder Die wohlgeordnete Freiheit. München: Beck 2003. 124 S., EUR 14,90. Alfred Schäfer: Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Ein pädagogisches Porträt. Weinheim/Basel: Beltz 2002. 156 S., EUR 14,90 [Rezension

    Tenorth, Heinz-Elmar

    2005-01-01

    Sammelrezension zu: Otto Hansmann: Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778). (Basiswissen Pädagogik – Teilbereich Historische Pädagogik, Bd. 1.) Baltmannsweiler: Schneider 2002. 232 S., EUR 16,–. Hartmut von Hentig: Rousseau oder Die wohlgeordnete Freiheit. München: Beck 2003. 124 S., EUR 14,90. Alfred Schäfer: Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Ein pädagogisches Porträt. Weinheim/Basel: Beltz 2002. 156 S., EUR 14,90

  2. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  3. Renal uptake of bismuth-213 and its contribution to kidney radiation dose following administration of actinium-225-labeled antibody

    Schwartz, J; O' Donoghue, J A; Humm, J L [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jaggi, J S [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Plainsboro, NJ (United States); Ruan, S; Larson, S M [Nuclear Medicine Service Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); McDevitt, M; Scheinberg, D A, E-mail: schwarj1@mskcc.org [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    Clinical therapeutic studies using {sup 225}Ac-labeled antibodies have begun. Of major concern is renal toxicity that may result from the three alpha-emitting progeny generated following the decay of {sup 225}Ac. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of {sup 225}Ac and non-equilibrium progeny in the mouse kidney after the injection of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and examine the dosimetric consequences. Groups of mice were sacrificed at 24, 96 and 144 h after injection with {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and kidneys excised. One kidney was used for gamma ray spectroscopic measurements by a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The second kidney was used to generate frozen tissue sections which were examined by digital autoradiography (DAR). Two measurements were performed on each kidney specimen: (1) immediately post-resection and (2) after sufficient time for any non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi to decay completely. Comparison of these measurements enabled estimation of the amount of excess {sup 213}Bi reaching the kidney ({gamma}-ray spectroscopy) and its sub-regional distribution (DAR). The average absorbed dose to whole kidney, determined by spectroscopy, was 0.77 (SD 0.21) Gy kBq{sup -1}, of which 0.46 (SD 0.16) Gy kBq{sup -1} (i.e. 60%) was due to non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi. The relative contributions to renal cortex and medulla were determined by DAR. The estimated dose to the cortex from non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi (0.31 (SD 0.11) Gy kBq{sup -1}) represented {approx}46% of the total. For the medulla the dose contribution from excess {sup 213}Bi (0.81 (SD 0.28) Gy kBq{sup -1}) was {approx}80% of the total. Based on these estimates, for human patients we project a kidney-absorbed dose of 0.28 Gy MBq{sup -1} following administration of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 with non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi responsible for approximately 60% of the total. Methods to reduce renal accumulation of radioactive progeny appear to be necessary for the success of {sup 225}Ac radioimmunotherapy.

  4. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  5. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  6. A Novel Cryptic Three-Way Translocation t(2;9;18(p23.2;p21.3;q21.33 with Deletion of Tumor Suppressor Genes in 9p21.3 and 13q14 in a T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Moneeb A. K. Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia often presents with pure chromosomal resolution; thus, aberrations may not be detected by banding cytogenetics. Here, a case of 26-year-old male diagnosed with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL and a normal karyotype after standard GTG-banding was studied retrospectively in detail by molecular cytogenetic and molecular approaches. Besides fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA and high resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH were applied. Thus, cryptic chromosomal aberrations not observed before were detected: three chromosomes were involved in a cytogenetically balanced occurring translocation t(2;9;18(p23.2;p21.3;q21.33. Besides a translocation t(10;14(q24;q11 was identified, an aberration known to be common in T-ALL. Due to the three-way translocation deletion of tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A/INK4A/p16, CDKN2B/INK4B/p15, and MTAP/ARF/p14 in 9p21.3 took place. Additionally RB1 in 13q14 was deleted. This patient, considered to have a normal karyotype after low resolution banding cytogenetics, was treated according to general protocol of anticancer therapy (ALL-BFM 95.

  7. The Technological Enhancement of Normally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Red Mud due to the Production of Alumina

    Maurice O. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the level of technological enhancement of normally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM in the red mud waste due to the production of alumina in Jamaica. Technological enhancements factors (TEF were determined for the uranium, thorium, actinium series, their progenies, and the nonseries potassium-40 using gamma spectrometry. The study concluded that bauxite production technologically enhances the uranium progenies Th-234, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pa-234 and the thorium-232 progenies Ac-228, Pb-212, and Bi-212 in red mud. The actinium series was technologically enhanced, but K-40 and the thorium daughter, Tl-208, were reduced. The spectrometric comparison of Tl-208 (at 510 keV was unexpected since its other photopeaks at 583 keV, 934 keV, and 968 keV were markedly different. An explanation for this anomaly is discussed. An explanation regarding the process of accumulation and fractionation of organically derived phosphate deposits and potassium-feldspar is offered to explain the spectrometric differences between the alumina product and its waste material, red mud.

  8. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    2010-10-01

    ... receivables not otherwise provided for in other accounts. Accrued accounts receivable for interest, dividends... and noncurrent accounts receivable, both from related parties and others, cash value of life insurance..., including notes and accounts receivable which are not due in the normal course of business within one...

  9. Dicty_cDB: VSC232 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available AMTIATAAAGNWNAGDTIALLIGIAMFFVLLLALLGWISRRQ*i*ttanneflxe*kkkk kknnkkiknnkkk**kkkkkkkmsn*el Translated Amino Acid sequenc...ng growth capability and preventing replicative senescence. 46 0.36 1 AX767357 |AX767357.1 Sequence 5 from Paten...t WO03044226. 46 0.36 1 AX598730 |AX598730.1 Sequence 70 from Paten...t WO02077272. 46 0.36 1 AX598678 |AX598678.1 Sequence 18 from Patent WO02077272. 46 0.36 1 AX330534 |AX330534.1 Sequenc...e 1043 from Patent WO0194629. 46 0.36 1 AR167391 |AR167391.1 Sequence 27 from patent US 6287569

  10. Dicty_cDB: VSF232 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 11 Homo sapiens cDNA clone IMAGE:2137312 3' similar to contains element MER4 MER4 repet...cDNA clone IMAGE:3645175 3' similar to contains Alu repetitive element;, mRNA sequence. 40 6e-05 2 W61144 |W61144.1 zd31c01.s1 Soare....0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> pre...vqlakvtevlcrtgsrgavtqvrveflgtaqgkertllrnvkgpvrkddilcll eterearrlr*alfi...odium yoelii cDNA clone PYCDB51, mRNA sequence. 42 9e-05 2 AI141457 |AI141457.1 qa67d06.x1 Soares_feta

  11. Dicty_cDB: SSI232 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available .10 Translated Amino Acid sequence iylfiyflfl*yyfnninsntkrwhlvkrknirellkrfslklkvvkcn*vilvn*fifa...slated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: iylfiyflfl*yyfnninsntkrwhlvkrknirellkrfslklkvvkcn*vilvn*fifa

  12. 10 CFR 72.232 - Inspection and tests.

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL... the design, fabrication, and testing of spent fuel storage casks. (c) The certificate holder and... starting fabrication of the first spent fuel storage cask under a Certificate of Compliance....

  13. The Z_k^(su(2),3/2) Parafermions

    Jacob, P.; Mathieu, P

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a novel parafermionic theory for which the conformal dimension of the basic parafermion is 3(1-1/k)/2, with k even. The structure constants and the central charges are obtained from mode-type associativity calculations. The spectrum of the completely reducible representations is also determined. The primary fields turns out to be labeled by two positive integers instead of a single one for the usual parafermionic models. The simplest singular vectors are also displayed. It is arg...

  14. 48 CFR 52.232-32 - Performance-Based Payments.

    2010-10-01

    ... sound and generally accepted accounting principles and practices: (i) Parts, materials, inventories, and... the Government under this clause. (7) The terms of this contract concerning liability for Government... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  15. 48 CFR 52.232-16 - Progress Payments.

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting principles and practices. (ii) Costs incurred by subcontractors or suppliers. (iii) Costs... accounting principles and practices. (i) Parts, materials, inventories, and work in process; (ii) Special... vested in the Government under this clause. (7) The terms of this contract concerning liability...

  16. 48 CFR 52.232-12 - Advance Payments.

    2010-10-01

    ... reasonable shall be in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, subject to any applicable... shall maintain adequate accounting control over the property on its books and records. (3) If, at any... character in the same general locality; (ii) Adequate insurance against liability on account of damage...

  17. Crystal structure and density of helium to 232 kbar

    Mao, H. K.; Wu, Y.; Jephcoat, A. P.; Hemley, R. J.; Bell, P. M.; Bassett, W. A.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of helium and hydrogen at high pressure are topics of great interest to the understanding of planetary interiors. These materials constitute 95 percent of the entire solar system. A technique was presented for the measurement of X-ray diffraction from single-crystals of low-Z condenses gases in a diamond-anvil cell at high pressure. The first such single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements on solid hydrogen to 26.5 GPa were presented. The application of this technique to the problem of the crystal structure, equation of state, and phase diagram of solid helium is reported. Crucial for X-ray diffraction studies of these materials is the use of a synchrotron radiation source which provides high brillance, narrow collimation of the incident and diffracted X-ray beams to reduce the background noise, and energy-dispersive diffraction techniques with polychromatic (white) radiation, which provides high detection efficiency.

  18. Crystal structure and density of helium to 232 kbar

    The properties of helium and hydrogen at high pressure are topics of great interest to the understanding of planetary interiors. These materials constitute 95 percent of the entire solar system. A technique was presented for the measurement of X-ray diffraction from single-crystals of low-Z condenses gases in a diamond-anvil cell at high pressure. The first such single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements on solid hydrogen to 26.5 GPa were presented. The application of this technique to the problem of the crystal structure, equation of state, and phase diagram of solid helium is reported. Crucial for X-ray diffraction studies of these materials is the use of a synchrotron radiation source which provides high brillance, narrow collimation of the incident and diffracted X-ray beams to reduce the background noise, and energy-dispersive diffraction techniques with polychromatic (white) radiation, which provides high detection efficiency

  19. 24 CFR 232.860 - Commissioner's right to require acceleration.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commissioner's right to require... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES,...

  20. Dicty_cDB: CFK232 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ---IXKQNXLDDMXIXINPKVADGKXIIXLXXAXGAAXXXFXNXXGX Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ---yfx...tkxfg*ygyxyqsxgc*wxkxhsigxcxwxcxxixxqxxrxq Frame B: ---IXKQNXLDDMXIXINPKVADGKXIIXLXXAXGAAXXXFXNXXGX Frame C: