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Sample records for actinium 232

  1. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  2. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces ∼100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 GeV protons

  3. Extraction of actinium with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid from hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions

    The extraction of actinium with HDEHP from Cl- and NO3- systems has been investigated. It was found that extraction of actinium from HCl solutions is much better than from HNO3 solutions. Stability constants of actinium complexes Ac(X-)+2 with Cl- and NO3- ligands were determined. Our results show that the actinium formed less stable complexes with Cl- than with NO3- ligands. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  4. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results

  5. Thorium-232

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Thorium-232

  6. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  8. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  9. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development. PMID:22697483

  10. Radium, thorium, and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manganese-oxide-coated fiber

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency with which improved manganese-oxide-coated acrylic fibers extract radium, thorium, and actinium from seawater. Tests were made using surface seawater spiked with 227Ac, 227Th and 223Ra. For sample volumes of approximately 30 liters and flow rates up to 0.5 liters per minute, radium and actinium are removed quantitatively. Approximately 80-95% of the thorium is removed under these same conditions. (Auth.)

  11. Comment: 232 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Polysphondylium pallidum Polysphondylium pallidum Polysphondylium_pallidum_L.png 232.png Hideko ... of Tsukuba) licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan 写真 提供:漆原秀子 (筑波大学) Photograph provided by Hid ...

  12. RS-232 Led Board

    Tskhvaradze, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    This article demonstrates how to develop a Microchip PIC16F84 based device that supports RS-232 interface with PC. Circuit (LED Board) design and software development will be discussed. PicBasic Pro Compiler from microEngineering Labs, Inc. is used for PIC programming. Development of LED Board Control Console using C/C++ is also briefly discussed. The project requires basic work experience with Microchip PICs, serial communication and programming.

  13. Neutron-Induced Fission of Actinium-227, Protactinium-231 and Neptunium-237: Mass Distribution

    Results of radiochemical studies on the mass distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinium-227, protactinium-231 and neptunium-237 have been presented. This work has been carried out as part of a programme to determine the mass distribution in the fission of heavy elements as a function of Z and A. All irradiations have been carried out in the core of the swimming-pool type reactor APSARA with cadmium shielding wherever necessary. Relative yields of several fission product nuclides have been obtained by a method involving a comparison of the fission product activities from the respective targets with those formed from uranium-235 simultaneously irradiated. Thermal-neutron fission yields of uranium-235 have been assumed. These results indicate a predominantly asymmetric mass distribution in all the three cases, and also a distinct though small symmetric peak in the case of actinium-227. (author)

  14. A new method for the determination of low-level actinium-227 in geological samples

    We developed a new method for the determination of 227Ac in geological samples. The method uses extraction chromatographic techniques and alpha-spectrometry and is applicable for a range of natural matrices. Here we report on the procedure and results of the analysis of water (fresh and seawater) and rock samples. Water samples were acidified and rock samples underwent total dissolution via acid leaching. A DGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) extraction chromatographic column was used for the separation of actinium. The actinium fraction was prepared for alpha spectrometric measurement via cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. Recoveries of actinium in water samples were 80 ± 8 % (number of analyses n = 14) and in rock samples 70 ± 12 % (n = 30). The minimum detectable activities (MDA) were 0.017-0.5 Bq kg-1 for both matrices. Rock sample 227Ac activities ranged from 0.17 to 8.3 Bq kg-1 and water sample activities ranged from below MDA values to 14 Bq kg-1of 227Ac. From the analysis of several standard rock and water samples with the method we found very good agreement between our results and certified values. (author)

  15. 232Z Building seismic assessments

    The 232Z Building in the 200 West Area has no documented evidence of meeting the structural design requirements for withstanding seismic loadings. The 232Z Building was originally built in 1959. This concrete block structure is south of the 234-5Z Building. The 232Z Building (Incinerator and Leach Facility) start-up occurred in 1961, and the facility has been used for the extraction and recovery of plutonium from contaminated materials. A glovebox incinerator is located in the first floor process area, and was used to incinerate dry wastes from which radioactive materials were then recovered. The design calculations for the original building are not retrievable. The objective of this evaluation is to qualify the 232Z Building in it's current configuration for the appropriate seismic loads in accordance with the requirements of SDC 4.1. The structural capacities of the masonry walls and the reinforced concrete slabs and beams of the 232Z Building exceed the dead, live and seismic demand loadings. The building complies with the UBC seismic loading requirements for the 0.20 g maximum ground acceleration earthquake

  16. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  17. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  18. Calibration of 232U solution

    A method for as certain the activity by alpha spectroscopy with semiconductor detectors, of a solution of 232U is presented. It consists of the comparison with a 233U solution activity previously measured in a gridded ionization chamber of 2π geometry. The total measurement uncertainty is about + - 0,02. (Author) 9 refs

  19. 232Th, a rigid rotor

    We undertake the present work to treat 232Th with a soft rotor formula used recently by C. Bihari et. al for γ-band and modified by J.B. Gupta et. al. It describes energy in terms of moment of inertia and softness parameter

  20. Calibration of uranium 232 solution

    A method for acertainning the activity by alpha spectroscopy with semiconductor detectors, of a solution of Uranium-232 is presented. It consists of the comparison with a Uranium-233 solution activity previously measured in a gridded ionization chamber of 2 π geometry. The total measurement uncertainty is about +- 0,02. (Author)

  1. 48 CFR 232.616 - Compromise actions.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 232.616 Compromise actions. Only the department/agency contract financing offices (see 232.070(c)) are authorized...

  2. 49 CFR 232.611 - Periodic maintenance.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic maintenance. 232.611 Section 232.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... maintenance. (a) In addition to the maintenance requirements contained in § 232.303(b) through (d), a...

  3. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  4. 7 CFR 58.232 - Milk.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.232 Section 58.232 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....232 Milk. Raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.138 and,...

  5. 24 CFR 232.3 - Bathroom.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bathroom. 232.3 Section 232.3... Eligibility Requirements § 232.3 Bathroom. Not less than one full bathroom must be provided for every four residents of a board and care home or assisted living facility, and bathroom access from any bedroom...

  6. 48 CFR 1553.232 - Contract financing.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract financing. 1553.232 Section 1553.232 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1553.232 Contract financing....

  7. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS—towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm − 1 which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  8. 48 CFR 1852.232-70 - NASA modification of FAR 52.232-12.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA modification of FAR 52... Provisions and Clauses 1852.232-70 NASA modification of FAR 52.232-12. As prescribed at 1832.412-70, make the following modifications: NASA Modification of FAR 52.232-12, (MAR 1998) (a) Basic Clause. (1) In...

  9. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person desiring to bottle, package, or repackage taxpaid wines must, before carrying on those operations,...

  10. 10 CFR 600.232 - Equipment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment. 600.232 Section 600.232 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest upon acquisition in the grantee or...

  11. 9 CFR 2.32 - Personnel qualifications.

    2010-01-01

    ... least the following areas: (1) Humane methods of animal maintenance and experimentation, including: (i... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel qualifications. 2.32 Section 2.32 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  12. 48 CFR 232.7004 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Submission and Processing of Payment Requests and Receiving Reports 232.7004 Contract clause. Except as provided in 232.7002(a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause....

  13. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  14. Dicty_cDB: SLB232 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLB232 (Link to dictyBase) - G22385 DDB0217102 Contig-U16083-1 SLB...232P (Link to Original site) SLB232F 620 SLB232Z 733 SLB232P 1353 - - Show SLB232 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLB...Contig-U16083-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLB2-B/SLB...232Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLB232P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLB232 (SLB232Q) /CSM/SL/SLB...2-B/SLB232Q.Seq.d/ ATATATTTAAAAATAATAAAATAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACTGTATTAAAAAAAAAAAAAA TTGTAGT

  15. History of 232-F, tritium extraction processing

    In 1950 the Atomic Energy Commission authorized the Savannah River Project principally for the production of tritium and plutonium-239 for use in thermonuclear weapons. 232-F was built as an interim facility in 1953--1954, at a cost of $3.9M. Tritium extraction operations began in October, 1955, after the reactor and separations startups. In July, 1957 a larger tritium facility began operation in 232-H. In 1958 the capacity of 232-H was doubled. Also, in 1957 a new task was assigned to Savannah River, the loading of tritium into reservoirs that would be actual components of thermonuclear weapons. This report describes the history of 232-F, the process for tritium extraction, and the lessons learned over the years that were eventually incorporated into the new Replacement Tritium Facility

  16. 48 CFR 232.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clauses. 232.1110 Section 232.1110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 232.1110 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. Use the clause at 252.232-7009,...

  17. Dicty_cDB: SLE232 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLE232 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16255-1 SLE232F (Link... to Original site) SLE232F 614 - - - - - - Show SLE232 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLE232 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16255-1 Original site URL http://dict...PSSGFTDFIPSNATCSSLNCNAQQMSCKYVQQACHETSCCPDIPQC QIPATGGGPATGSATGQGTSGGTPGSCDKVNCPNGYICTIVNQLAVCVSPSSSSSSSSST ...CHETSCCPDIPQC QIPATGGGPATGSATGQGTSGGTPGSCDKVNCPNGYICTIVNQLAVCVSPSSSSSSSSST TGSHTTTGGSTTGSHTTTGGSTTGSHTTTGGSA

  18. 24 CFR 232.805 - Insurance premiums.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 232.805 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED...

  19. 24 CFR 232.885 - Insurance benefits.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance benefits. 232.885 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED...

  20. 43 CFR 17.232 - Postsecondary education.

    2010-10-01

    ... promulgated by the Department of Education at 34 CFR part 104, subpart E. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postsecondary education. 17.232 Section 17... Postsecondary education. This section applies to postsecondary education and activities, including...

  1. 49 CFR 232.203 - Training requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Inspection and Testing Requirements § 232.203 Training requirements. (a... refresher training, at an interval not to exceed three years, that includes classroom and “hands-on... to be equipped with a two-way end-of-train telemetry device pursuant to subpart E of this part,...

  2. 48 CFR 232.202-4 - Security for Government financing.

    2010-10-01

    ... financing. 232.202-4 Section 232.202-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Commercial Item Purchase Financing 232.202-4 Security for Government financing. (a)(2) When determining whether an...

  3. 48 CFR 53.232 - Contract financing (SF 1443).

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract financing (SF 1443). 53.232 Section 53.232 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.232 Contract financing (SF 1443). SF 1443...

  4. 48 CFR 232.102 - Description of contract financing methods.

    2010-10-01

    ... financing methods. 232.102 Section 232.102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 232.102 Description of contract financing methods. (e)(2) Progress...

  5. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    A technique of selenium purification from 232Th, 238U, 226,228Ra, 227Ac and 40K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  6. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz); Warot, G. [CEA-CNRS, Modane (France). Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM); Karaivanov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), Sofia (Bulgaria); Kochetov, O.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Filosofov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Sadikov, I.I. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz)

    2013-07-01

    A technique of selenium purification from {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 227}Ac and {sup 40}K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  7. Benchmark testing calculations for 232Th

    The cross sections of 232Th from CNDC and JENDL-3.3 were processed with NJOY97.45 code in the ACE format for the continuous-energy Monte Carlo Code MCNP4C. The Keff values and central reaction rates based on CENDL-3.0, JENDL-3.3 and ENDF/B-6.2 were calculated using MCNP4C code for benchmark assembly, and the comparisons with experimental results are given. (author)

  8. Geometric objects in Blender 2.32

    Vigo Anglada, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this document is to explore the way that Blender 2.32 stores the information for modeling static scenes. First, the conceptual model the system uses to store geometric objects is explained, guiding the user to inspect it using the OOPS Schematic view. The data structures Blender uses for generic objects, geometric elements, materials and different kind of links between these entities are reviewed. Special emphasis is made for the case of meshes, and the main features of the mesh ed...

  9. Calibration of 232U solution; Calibracion de una disolucion de 232U

    Galan Valera, M. P.; Acena Berrenechea, M. L.

    1988-07-01

    A method for as certain the activity by alpha spectroscopy with semiconductor detectors, of a solution of 232U is presented. It consists of the comparison with a 233U solution activity previously measured in a gridded ionization chamber of 2{pi} geometry. The total measurement uncertainty is about + - 0,02. (Author) 9 refs.

  10. Neutron data evaluation of 232Th

    Consistent evaluation of 232Th measured data base is performed. Hauser-Feshbach- Moldauer theory, coupled channel model and double-humped fission barrier model are employed. Total, differential scattering, fission, capture and (n,xn) data are consistently reproduced as a major constraint for inelastic scattering cross section estimate. The direct excitation of ground state and higher band levels is calculated within rigid rotator and soft (deformable) rotator model, respectively. Structures evident in measured neutron emission spectra are correlated with excitation of levels of Kπ=0- and Kπ=0+, 2+ bands. Prompt fission neutron spectra data are described. Average resonance parameters are provided, which reproduce evaluated cross sections in the range of 10-150 kev. (author)

  11. Fission fragment angular momentum in the neutron induced fission of 232Th and 232U

    High spin fractions (HSF) of 130,132Sb and 131,133Te have been determined in the neutron induced fission of 232Th and 232U using off-line gamma ray spectrometric technique. From the HSF, fragment angular momenta (Jrms) were deduced using statistical model analysis. From the Jrms values, deformation parameter (β) were deduced and compared with the same in the even-even and odd-even fissioning systems to examine the effect of nuclear structure and the role of odd neutron spin. In all the fissioning systems the effect of shell closure proximity and odd-even effect on Jrms was clearly observed. However, the role of odd neutron spin was not seen in even-odd fissioning systems like the odd-proton spin effect in odd-odd fissioning systems. (author)

  12. 48 CFR 232.072-3 - Cash flow forecasts.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cash flow forecasts. 232.072-3 Section 232.072-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... liquidation of loans; and (8) Estimated amount and timing of cash receipt from other sources. (f)...

  13. 48 CFR 232.501-3 - Contract price.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract price. 232.501-3 Section 232.501-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... liquidation rate, or the loss-ratio adjusted rate); or (ii) 100 percent of the funds obligated....

  14. 48 CFR 552.232-25 - Prompt Payment.

    2010-10-01

    ... electronic commerce includes all the following elements: (i) The Contractor must receive and fulfill... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.232-25 Prompt... FAR 52.232-25) Notwithstanding any other payment clause in this contract, the Government will...

  15. 7 CFR 2.32 - Director, Office of Homeland Security.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Director, Office of Homeland Security. 2.32 Section 2... Agency Heads § 2.32 Director, Office of Homeland Security. (a) The following delegations of authority are made by the Secretary to the Director, Office of Homeland Security: (1) Administer the...

  16. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  17. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  18. USB and RS232 voltage datalogger

    Lorenzo Hernández Tabares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The design and construction of a PIC microcontroller based datalogger with USB 2.0 and RS232 interfaces is presented. The datalogger has one 0 to +10VDC analogue input, 10bits ADC, Real Time Clock, 4k sample room on the microcontroller’s program flash memory and an external DC power supply. This paper proposes a cheap variant to construct such device widely used in meteorological and environmental instrumentation among others. The prototype was attached to an Ultraviolet Photometric O3 Analyzer for recording the environmental (tropospheric ozone concentration in a control station at the Havana city. Key words: datalogger, USB, enviromental ozone

  19. Nuclear data evaluation for Th-232

    In this report the methods, the analysis, and the results of the main neutron nuclear data regarding 232Th are presented, and an evaluated file in ENDF/B-IV format covering the energy range between 10-5eV and 20 MeV is supplied. This file contains evaluated data for total, elastic, inelastic, radiative capture, fission, (n,2n) and (n,3n) cross sections. In addition, the elastic angular distributions, as Legendre coefficients, the average cosine of the scattering angle (laboratory system) (anti μsub(L)), and the average logarithmic energy decrement (xi) for elastic scattering, the prompt, delayed and total average numbers of neutrons per fission, as well as the decay data and the fission yields are included. The data are presented in appropriate forms accepted by the format, namely point-wise or parametric representation. Breit-Wigner Single Level formalism for resonance treatment, optical and coupled channel models for elastic processes and double humped fission model as well as evaporation model have been also used in the data analysis. The largest part of the data are based on experimental measurements, except (n,3n) cross section. The final evaluated data set was checked against format correctness and physical consistency. (author)

  20. Flux of 238U and 232Th in Changjiang estuary

    The study of fluxes of the U, Th of Changjiang River into the East China Sea and its adjacent waters is basic work to understanding of U, Th tracer theirselves and their corresponding biogeochemical cycles process in estuaries, coastal. By sampling in the Xuliujing (i.e. the interface between fresh water and sea water) every month, 200 L water was filtered through 0.45μm fabric cartridge to collect particle nuclides. The dissolved nuclides were co-precipitated using Fe(OH)3 and MnO2. The range of 238U activity in water is 2.30-10.32 Bq·m-3, with an average of 5.48±1.19 Bq·m-3; the activity of 232Th is 1.08-2.32 Bq·m-3, with an average of 1.75±0.29 Bq·m-3. Changjiang River conveyed 238U 4.06 x 1012Bq, 232Th 1.54 x 1012 Bq into the estuary every year. Further study of the seasonal variations 238U, 232Th input to the sea, indicating that: the activity of 238U and Changjiang River estuary water flux have a certain degree of negative correlation (R2=0.65, n=12); the main source of 232Th is the weathering of the river. The activity of 232Th is large on the spring and autumn because of strong weathering in Changjiang Basin comparison with other seasons. Compared with the other estuaries in the world, the flux of 238U and 232Th of the Changjiang River estuary is large because of its large fluxes of sediments and runoff in the world. (authors)

  1. Dicty_cDB: CHQ232 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHQ232 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16440-1 - (Link to Original site) ... pic herpesvirus 2... 33 3.8 (Q8TS91) RecName: Full=Imidazole ... glycerol phosphate synthase sub... 33 3.8 AY170314 ...

  2. Dicty_cDB: VFK232 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFK232 (Link to dictyBase) - G20591 DDB0233870 Contig-U09528-1 | Contig-U10 ... qpygtstnhlllgyrwfqrp*hddgwqwwyvqhrvrvtlflmvliecpth crm *ld*y*srdiinfnsl*shcn*srsirctriig*ii*wwfttnlg*tfikw ...

  3. 46 CFR 232.6 - Financial report filing requirement.

    2010-10-01

    ... RELATED ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Income Statement § 232.6 Financial report filing requirement. (a) Reporting Frequency and Due Dates. The contractor shall file a semiannual... generally accepted accounting principles and modified to the extent necessary to comply with this...

  4. 48 CFR 232.606 - Debt determination and collection.

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 232.606 Debt determination and collection. When transferring a case to the contract financing office, follow... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Debt determination...

  5. 17 CFR 232.301 - EDGAR Filer Manual.

    2010-04-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You must comply with these... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false EDGAR Filer Manual. 232.301... Filer Manual. Filers must prepare electronic filings in the manner prescribed by the EDGAR Filer...

  6. Estimated Release of Tritium from 232-F Concrete Rubble

    This report describes an estimate of the release of tritium from contaminated concrete from the demolition of the old 232-F Tritium Facility at the Savannah River Site. The estimate uses data from the scientific literature and information about tritium migration in concrete developed during studies of tritium in concrete at SRS

  7. Benchmarking ~(232)Th Evaluations With KBR and Thor Experiments

    2011-01-01

    The n+232Th evaluations from CENDL-3.1, ENDF/B-Ⅶ.0, JENDL-3.3 and JENDL-4.0 were tested with KBR series and THOR benchmark from ICSBEP Handbook. THOR is Plutonium-Metal-Fast (PMF) criticality benchmark reflected with metal thorium.

  8. 24 CFR 232.570 - Endorsement of credit instrument.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endorsement of credit instrument... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.570 Endorsement of credit instrument. The Commissioner shall indicate his insurance of the loan by endorsing the credit instrument...

  9. Evaluation of 232Th for ENDF/B-V

    The evaluation of neutron and gamma ray production cross sections of 232Th from 10-5 eV to 20 MeV is described, and the parts contributed by the author to the evaluation are discussed. All available new data have been included and the procedures used to assess the experimental data and adopt recommended values are described

  10. 48 CFR 3452.232-72 - Method of payment.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of payment. 3452... 3452.232-72 Method of payment. As prescribed in 3432.170, insert the following clause in all solicitations and contracts: Method of Payment (AUG 1987) (a) Payments under this contract will be made...

  11. 48 CFR 232.007 - Contract financing payments.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract financing... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 232.007 Contract financing payments. (a) DoD policy is to make contract financing payments as quickly as possible....

  12. 17 CFR 232.12 - Business hours of the Commission.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours of the... REGULATION S-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS General § 232.12 Business hours of the... documents may be submitted by direct transmission, via dial-up modem or Internet, to the Commission each...

  13. 40 CFR 180.232 - Butylate; tolerances for residues.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butylate; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.232 Butylate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the herbicide butylate in...

  14. Simulation calculation of 232U productions in thorium-uranium transform process based on thermal reactor

    The decay products of 232U produced in the thorium-uranium fuel cycle emit high energy γ-rays. This affects the fuel cycle greatly. In this paper, the 232U productions in thermal reactor using thorium fuel are analyzed by ORIGEN2, SCALE5 and the code based on the Bateman method. Under normal situation, 232U is mainly produced by 232Th (n, 2n) reaction chain, and more quantity of 230Th can be transformed into 232U while the neutron spectrum is softer. The burnup calculation of CANDU reactor and PWR assembly indicates that the 232U in uranium increase with the burnup, and 230Th in fresh thorium has linear correlation with 232U/Utotal or 232U/233U at discharge burnup. (authors)

  15. 22 CFR 23.2 - Endorsing remittances for deposit in the Treasury.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endorsing remittances for deposit in the Treasury. 23.2 Section 23.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.2 Endorsing remittances for deposit in the Treasury. The Office of Finance—Cashier Unit,...

  16. 48 CFR 232.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 232.006 Section 232.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... FINANCING 232.006 Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  17. 48 CFR 232.605 - Responsibilities and cooperation among Government officials.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities and cooperation among Government officials. 232.605 Section 232.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Contract Debts 232.605 Responsibilities and cooperation among Government officials. (b) Disbursing...

  18. 48 CFR 232.670 - Transfer of responsibility for debt collection.

    2010-10-01

    ... for debt collection. 232.670 Section 232.670 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 232.670 Transfer of responsibility for debt collection. Follow the procedures at PGI...

  19. 48 CFR 232.610 - Demand for payment of contract debt.

    2010-10-01

    ... contract debt. 232.610 Section 232.610 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 232.610 Demand for payment of contract debt. When issuing a demand for payment of a contract...

  20. 48 CFR 552.232-77 - Payment By Government Charge Card.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment By Government Charge Card. 552.232-77 Section 552.232-77 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.232-77 Payment By Government Charge...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.232 - When must DOI respond to a request for reconsideration?

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When must DOI respond to a request for reconsideration? 1000.232 Section 1000.232 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.232 When must DOI respond to a request...

  2. 43 CFR 2.32 - How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal?

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal? 2.32 Section 2.32 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Appeals § 2.32 How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal?...

  3. 36 CFR 223.232 - Disclosure of relation to other bidders.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure of relation to other bidders. 223.232 Section 223.232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 223.232 Disclosure of relation to other bidders. The Forest Service may require any prospective...

  4. 48 CFR 2452.232-70 - Payment schedule and invoice submission (fixed-price).

    2010-10-01

    ... invoice submission (fixed-price). 2452.232-70 Section 2452.232-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 2452.232-70 Payment schedule and invoice submission (fixed-price). As... solicitations and contracts: Payment Schedule and Invoice Submission (Fixed-Price) (FEB 2006) (a)...

  5. 48 CFR 652.232-70 - Payment Schedule and Invoice Submission (Fixed-Price).

    2010-10-01

    ... Invoice Submission (Fixed-Price). 652.232-70 Section 652.232-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 652.232-70 Payment Schedule and Invoice Submission (Fixed-Price). As prescribed in 632.908(a), the contracting officer may insert a clause substantially the same as follows: Payment Schedule and...

  6. 48 CFR 252.232-7011 - Payments in Support of Emergencies and Contingency Operations.

    2010-10-01

    ... Emergencies and Contingency Operations. 252.232-7011 Section 252.232-7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Emergencies and Contingency Operations. As prescribed in section 232.908, use the following clause: PAYMENTS IN SUPPORT OF EMERGENCIES AND CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS (JUL 2010) (a) Definitions of pertinent...

  7. 48 CFR 52.232-31 - Invitation To Propose Financing Terms.

    2010-10-01

    ... Financing Terms. 52.232-31 Section 52.232-31 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.232-31 Invitation To Propose Financing Terms. As prescribed in 32.205(b) and 32.206, insert the following provision: Invitation To Propose Financing Terms (OCT 1995) (a) The offeror is invited to...

  8. 48 CFR 1552.232-74 - Payments-simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition procedures financing. 1552.232-74 Section 1552.232-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 1552.232-74 Payments—simplified acquisition procedures financing. As prescribed in... acquisition procedures financing. Payments—Simplified Acquisition Procedures Financing (JUN 2006)...

  9. 49 CFR 232.207 - Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection. 232... Class IA brake tests—1,000-mile inspection. (a) Except as provided in § 232.213, each train shall receive a Class IA brake test performed by a qualified person, as defined in § 232.5, at a location...

  10. Fission of 232Th in a spallation neutron field

    Yurevich, V. I.; Nikolaev, V. A.; Yakovlev, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    The spatial distributions of thorium fission reaction rate in a spallation neutron field of thick lead target bombarded by protons or deuterons with energy between 1.0 and 3.7 GeV were measured. Approximately a linear dependence of the thorium fission rate on the beam energy is observed. The mean fission cross section of 232Th ≈ 123 mb and it does not depend on energy and type of the beam particles.

  11. 17 CFR 232.101 - Mandated electronic submissions and exceptions.

    2010-04-01

    ....S.C. 78l(h)). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 232.101 see the List of CFR... (22 U.S.C. 282k(a)) and Part 289 of this chapter; and (vi) The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development under Section 9(a) of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Act (22 U.S.C....

  12. Neutron capture of 232Th in the unresolved resonance region

    The thorium cycle was mentioned in the potential needs of nuclear data for Accelerator Driven Systems (Massimo Salvatores, CEA-DEN/DDIN Cadarache, ND2001, Tsukuba, Japan, J.Nucl.Sci.Tech., S.2, p.4, 2002). A 10% uncertainty on the Th(n,γ) data can produce a 30% uncertainty on the proton current requirement to operate an ADS at the sub-critical level of eff keff ∼0.97. The strong impact of the 232Th(n,γ) data on the performance and safe operation of such systems is also discussed. An analysis of the existing experimental data reveals that the status of the 232Th capture data is far from the requested 2% uncertainty level. Recently 232Th average capture measurements, between 5-200 keV neutron energy, were performed at the FzK Karlsruhe (DE) using a total absorption detector consisting of a BaF crystal ball with 97% efficiency installed at the 3.75 MeV Van de Graaff. The experiments were carried out with two metallic discs of 232Th 0.5 and 1.0 mm thick respectively. The FzK average capture cross-section was measured between 5 - 200 keV neutron energy and the cross-section uncertainties estimated as 2% above 20 keV and 4% at 5 keV. A comparison of these measurements with the ENDF/BVI data files shows a reasonable agreement in the neutron energy range above 15 keV. However, discrepancies of up to 40% at lower neutron energies are observed. The same order of discrepancies is observed when comparing the FzK results with the results obtained by Macklin et al. at ORELA. To clarify these discrepancies we measured at IRMM the average capture cross-section at the GEel LINear Accelerator (GELINA)

  13. Collection and evaluation of nuclear data of Th-232

    Present status of the requirement to and measurement and evaluation of the nuclear data of Th-232 is presented. The accuracy and energy range of the observed data at present are not enough to the demand from reactor engineering. The data of total cross-section are given in the energy range from 1.5 to 15 MeV from the data by Foster and Fasoli. The data by Uttley for the energy less than 1.5 MeV were accepted. Recently, Whalen and Kobayashi presented new data. Optical potential parameters were deduced. Re-normalization of the capture cross-sections of Th-232 was made on the basis of the evaluated values by Matsunobu and by Kanda. The values are a little smaller than the values in ENDF/B-4. Fission cross-sections were given by Henkel up to 9 MeV, and by Rago and Pankratov for the energy range above 9 MeV. Recently, Behrens presented new data for wide energy range. The accuracy of the measured cross-sections of inelastic scattering is not enough for reactor design. The accurate values of the cross-sections of (n, 2n) reaction of Th-232 have been demanded. Resonance parameters have been measured for wide energy range. In the energy range of thermal neutrons, the capture cross-section is about 7.4 barn. The characteristics of velocity dependence of the capture cross-section in this range should be investigated. (Kato, T.)

  14. D ampersand D Characterization of the 232-F Old Tritium Facility at the Savannah River Site

    The 232-F ''Old Tritium Facility'' operated in the 1950s as the first tritium production facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 1957, the 232-F operation ceased with tritium production turned over to a larger, technologically improved facility at SRS. The 232-F Facility was abandoned in 1958 and the process areas have remained contaminated with radiological, hazardous and mixed constituents. Decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the 232-F Facility is scheduled to occur in the years 1995-1996. This paper presents the D ampersand D characterization efforts for the 232-F Facility

  15. Thorium-232 in human tissues: Metabolic parameters and radiation doses

    Higher than environmental levels of 232Th have been found in autopsy samples of lungs and other organs from four former employees of a Th refinery. Working periods of the subjects ranged from 3 to 24 years, and times from end of work to death ranged from 6 to 31 years. Concentrations of 232Th in these samples and in tissues from two cases of non-occupational exposure were examined for compatibility with dosimetric models in Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICPP 1979a). The concentrations of 232Th in the lungs of the Th workers relative to the concentrations in bone or liver were much higher than calculated from the model for class Y aerosols of Th and the exposure histories of the subjects, and concentrations in the pulmonary lymph nodes were much lower than calculated for three of the Th workers and both non-occupational cases. Least-squares fits to the measured concentrations showed that the biological half-times of Th in liver, spleen, and kidneys are similar to the half-time in bone instead of the factor of 10 less suggested in Publication 30, and the fractions translocated from body fluids were found to be about 0.03, 0.02, and 0.005, respectively, when the fraction to bone was held at the suggested value of 0.7. Fitted values of the respiratory parameters differed significantly between cases and the differences were ascribable to aerosol differences. Average inhalation rates calculated for individual Th workers ranged from 50 to 110 Bq 232Th y-1, and dose equivalents as high as 9.3 Sv to the lungs, 2.0 Sv to bone surfaces, and 1.1 Sv effective dose equivalent were calculated from the inhalation rates and fitted values of the metabolic parameters. The radiation doses were about the same when calculated from parameter values fitted with an assumed translocation fraction of 0.2 from body fluids to bone instead of 0.7

  16. PC interfacing using Centronics, RS232 and game ports

    An, Pei

    1998-01-01

    The main links with your PC and the outside world are the centronic port, used for connecting the printer, the RS232 port, used for the mouse, and the games port for a joystick. This book explores how these input/output (I/O) ports can be put to use through a range of other interfacing applications. This is especially useful for laptop and palmtop PCs which cannot be fitted with internal I/O cards. A novel approach is taken by this book, combining the hardware through which the ports can be explored, and the software programming needed to carry out a range of experiments.Circuits are p

  17. Validation of 232Th evaluated nuclear data through benchmark experiments

    Evaluated nuclear data files for nuclides of the thorium-uranium cycle were released as a result of a coordinated research project of the International Atomic Energy Agency. To validate the data a series of benchmark test cases were analysed, with emphasis on the most important nuclides 232Th and 233U. Remaining nuclides appearing in the benchmarks were taken from the ENDF/B-VII beta-2 library, except for a few sensitivity studies where the data were taken from other sources. The results show marked improvement in the agreement with measurements, much of it coming from the new evaluations. (author)

  18. 232 Th - 233 Pa separation by extraction chromatography

    Thorium and protactinium behavior in extraction chromatography systems is presented, aiming its separation by selective retention of the micro constituent on the column. TBP/alumina, TBP/voltalef UF 300, TOA/alumina and TOA/voltalef UF 300 systems were verified. Column preparation as well the 233 Pa removal conditions were settled. The best 232 Th separation from its irradiation product, 233 Pa, has been achieved by using TBP/voltalef UF 300 system. 233 Pa was selectively retained on column from 10 M HCl solutions and eluted with 3 M HCl. (author)

  19. Mass distribution in 19F induced fission of 232Th

    Formation cross sections of several fission products have been determined using the recoil catcher technique followed by γ-ray spectrometry in 19F induced fission of 232Th at Elab=95 and 112 MeV. The data show significant admixture of fission from compound nuclei formed by complete fusion as well as targetlike nuclei formed by transfer reactions. Mass distributions for both the fissioning systems have been obtained using the systematics of charge distribution in low and medium energy fission. Mass distribution for complete fusion fission is broad Gaussian whereas it is asymmetric for transfer induced fission. At 95 MeV the transfer fission constitutes about 28% of total fission cross section while at 112 MeV it is about 14%, showing that the transfer fission fraction decreases with increasing projectile energy across the barrier. The evaporation residue cross sections of the targetlike nucleus formed in the 232Th (19F, 18O) 233Pa reaction were also measured. The evaporation residue cross sections and the calculated decay probabilities of the targetlike nucleus 233Pa by PACE2 have been used to estimate the fraction of proton and α transfer fission in the total transfer fission cross section. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Gamma-spectrometric determination of 232U in uranium-bearing materials

    Zsigrai, Jozsef; Nguyen, Tam Cong; Berlizov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    The 232U content of various uranium-bearing items was measured using low-background gamma spectrometry. The method is independent of the measurement geometry, sample form and chemical composition. Since 232U is an artificially produced isotope, it carries information about previous irradiation of the material, which is relevant for nuclear forensics, nuclear safeguards and for nuclear reactor operations. A correlation between the 232U content and 235U enrichment of the investigated samples ha...

  1. Calculation of optical model potential for n+232Th reaction

    Background: Accurate nuclear data are needed for the development of molten salt reactors which use thorium as nuclear fuel. Purpose: We attempt to get an optimum set of optical potential parameters for 232Th with the incident neutron energy from 0.1 MeV to 20 MeV Methods: APMN code which based on optical theory and Hauser-Feshbach theory with width fluctuation correction was used. Steepest descent method was adopted when the code seeks the optimum optical parameters automatically. Results: The comparison between the experimental data and the calculation results before and after adjusting the optical parameters shows that the calculation results after adjusting are in better agreement with the experimental data. This set of parameters could be used for nuclear data calculation. Conclusions: Based on the results it could provide a believable set of optical parameters for the neutron data evaluation. (authors)

  2. Precise measurement and analysis of neutron transmission through 232Th

    Three sets of transmission time spectra through up to eight samples of 232Th have been measured for neutron energies from 6.0 MeV to 0.1 MeV by use of a flight-time technique over 22- and 40-m path lengths, the ORELA pulsed neutron source, and a 1-mm-thick lithium glass detector. The resulting total cross section from 0.1 to 20.0 eV seems to be smaller than that contained in the ENDF/B-V evaluation. Least-squares analysis of the transmissions from 9 to 440 eV using a multilevel Breit-Wigner formalism results in neutron widths consistent with those previously reported. An average radiation width of 25.2 MeV is obtained for 19 low-energy s-wave resonances. 3 figures, 5 tables

  3. 48 CFR 52.232-30 - Installment Payments for Commercial Items.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installment Payments for Commercial Items. 52.232-30 Section 52.232-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... requests shall be paid within 30 days of submittal of a proper request for payment. (e) Liquidation...

  4. 49 CFR 232.505 - Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan. 232... § 232.505 Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan. (a) General; submission of plan. Except as... its system the operating railroad or railroads shall submit a pre-revenue service acceptance...

  5. 42 CFR 414.232 - Special payment rules for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENS).

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special payment rules for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENS). 414.232 Section 414.232 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND...

  6. 34 CFR 75.232 - The cost analysis; basis for grant amount.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The cost analysis; basis for grant amount. 75.232 Section 75.232 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants... objectives of the project with reasonable efficiency and economy under the budget in the...

  7. [Uptake of radionuclides from soil to plant and the discovery of 226Ra, 232Th hyperaccumulator].

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Di-Yun; Song, Gang; Yue, Yu-Mei

    2011-04-01

    11 sorts of plant samples and corresponding soil samples were collected in Conghua and Taishan, Pearl River Delta. The specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K of samples were investigated by using HPGe-gamma-ray spectra analysis. The results showed that the average specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples were 151.8, 146.3, 226.6, 665.5 Bq/kg, which were higher than the average values of China and the world. The concentration of 238U in all sort of plants are very low and most of them are lower than detection limit, while the values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were high. The contents of 226Ra and 232Th in Dicranopteris dichotoma were the highest, whose average specific activity is 285.9, 986.2 Bq/kg respectively. The average bioconcentration factors (BFs)of 26Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma were 2.20, 4.23, respectively, the other 10 sort of plants have BFs of 2266Ra, 232Th were in the range of 10(-1)-10(-2). The bioconcentration factors and the translocation factors of 226Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma. were all bigger than 1, so Dicranopteris dichotoma can be defined as hyperaccumulator of 226Ra and 232Th. PMID:21717763

  8. DEMOLITION OF HANFORD'S 232-Z WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY

    The 232-Z Plutonium Incinerator Facility was a small, highly alpha-contaminated, building situated between three active buildings located in an operating nuclear complex. Approximately 500 personnel worked within 250 meters (800 ft) of the structure and expectations were that the project would neither impact plant operations nor result in any restrictions when demolition was complete. Precision demolition and tight controls best describe the project. The team used standard open-air demolition techniques to take the facility to slab-on-grade. Several techniques were key to controlling contamination and confining it to the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition began; using misting systems, frequently applying fixatives, and using a methodical demolition sequence and debris load-out process. Detailed air modeling was done before demolition to determine necessary facility source-term levels, establish radiological boundaries, and confirm the adequacy of the proposed demolition approach. By only removing the major source term in equipment, HEPA filters, gloveboxes, and the like, and leaving fixed contamination on the walls, ceilings and floors, the project showed considerable savings and reduced worker hazards and exposure. The ability to perform this demolition safely and without the spread of contamination provides confidence that similar operations can be performed successfully. By removing the major source terms, fixing the remaining contamination in the building, and using controlled demolition and contamination control techniques, similar structures can be demolished cost effectively and safely

  9. 48 CFR 52.232-35 - Designation of Office for Government Receipt of Electronic Funds Transfer Information.

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Receipt of Electronic Funds Transfer Information. 52.232-35 Section 52.232-35 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.232-35 Designation of Office for Government Receipt of Electronic Funds Transfer Information. As prescribed in 32.1110(c), insert the following clause:...

  10. 17 CFR 232.313 - Identification of investment company type and series and/or class (or contract).

    2010-04-01

    ... company type and series and/or class (or contract). 232.313 Section 232.313 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION REGULATION S-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS Preparation of Electronic Submissions § 232.313 Identification of investment company type...

  11. Angular Anisotropy and Mass Asymmetry of Thorium-232 Fission Fragments

    A large number of experimental and theoretical papers on the angular distribution of the fission fragments of nuclei indicate that it is satisfactorily described by the parameters of the fissioning nucleus at the saddle point. The problem of the effect of these parameters on the distribution of the fragments according to mass has as yet found no generally accepted solution. It remains unclear to what extent the 'good' quantum numbers characteristic of the nucleus at the saddle point remain equally ''good'' when the nucleus passes from the saddle point to the moment of breakdown. If at the saddle point the nucleus has a set of different configurations, this must be apparent in some way in the distribution of the fragments by mass and in their angular distribution (via the moment of inertia of the nucleus). The paper investigates the angular anisotropy of fragments with different masses in the fission of thorium-232 by fast neutrons. The masses of the fragments were determined by simultaneous recording of the kinetic energy of paired fragments in a double ionization chamber with grids. The direction of flight of the fragments was determined using a mechanical collimator. The neutrons causing fission had an extended spectrum, but the contribution of fissions via the (n, n'f) reaction did not exceed a few per cent. The fragments were sorted out according to energy by a two-dimensional 128 x 128 channel analyser with a memory on ferrite. The dependence of angular anisotropy on the mass of the fragments and on their kinetic energy with fixed mass is discussed. The first dependence makes it possible to judge the degree to which the saddle point affects the distribution of the fragments according to mass, while the second gives information about the degree to which the configuration of the nucleus at the moment of breakdown affects the angular anisotropy of the fragments. (author)

  12. Gamma-spectrometric determination of 232U in uranium-bearing materials

    Zsigrai, Jozsef; Berlizov, Andriy

    2015-01-01

    The 232U content of various uranium-bearing items was measured using low-background gamma-spectrometry. The method is independent of the measurement geometry, sample form and chemical composition. Since 232U is an artificially produced isotope, it carries information about previous irradiation of the material, which is relevant for nuclear forensics, nuclear safeguards and for nuclear reactor operations. A correlation between the 232U content and 235U enrichment of the investigated samples has been established, which is consistent with theoretical predictions. It is also shown how the correlation of the mass ratio 232U/235U vs. 235U content can be used to distinguish materials contaminated with reprocessed uranium from materials made of reprocessed uranium.

  13. Gamma-spectrometric determination of 232U in uranium-bearing materials

    The 232U content of various uranium-bearing items was measured using low-background gamma spectrometry. The method is independent of the measurement geometry, sample form and chemical composition. Since 232U is an artificially produced isotope, it carries information about previous irradiation of the material, which is relevant for nuclear forensics, nuclear safeguards and for nuclear reactor operations. A correlation between the 232U content and 235U enrichment of the investigated samples has been established, which is consistent with theoretical predictions. It is also shown how the correlation of the mass ratio 232U/235U vs. 235U content can be used to distinguish materials contaminated with reprocessed uranium from materials made of reprocessed uranium

  14. A study of the generation of 232U in UO2 and MOX fuels

    To clarify the generation pathway of 232U, an important nuclide for dose evaluation at various stages in the reuse of uranium, concentrations of 232U generated through various pathways were evaluated for UO2 and mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. Burnup calculation was conducted with ORIGEN2.2 code adopting ORLIBJ40 library, a set of cross-section libraries based on JENDL-4.0. It was found that differences in 232U concentrations in UO2 and MOX fuels mainly arise from differences in the initial compositions of 234U, 235U, and 236U. It was also found that the contribution of plutonium and americium isotopes in MOX fuels is small compared with that of uranium isotopes. The results clarified that the capture cross sections of 230Th, 231Pa, 235U, and 236U, as well as the (n,2n) cross sections of 237Np and 238U, have a large effect on the generation of 232U. Additional investigation showed that 232U concentration is strongly affected not only by time after irradiation but also by time before irradiation. (author)

  15. Irradiation studies of 231Pa in DHRUVA reactor for preparation of 232U

    In this paper, identification of the potential source of 231Pa, various stages of its recovery and the sample of 231Pa supplied for trial irradiation are described. For producing 232U, irradiation work is proposed in different stages of irradiation. Various trial irradiations and its results are discussed in this paper along with their specific objectives. A computational estimation of conversion efficiency of 231Pa (∼ 10μg) to 232U in DHRUVA reactor, was carried out. The computational result predicted the conversion efficiency and the results of γ-spectroscopy based analysis of the second trial sample matched well. A first level calculation was also carried out to estimate the tolerable quantity of 232Th to keep the concentration of 233U below 5% in the 232U sample. The radioactivity due to the presence of various impurities present in the sample, during the high fluence irradiation, is being estimated. The feasibility of production of the 232U isotope in DHRUVA reactor has thus been established. (author)

  16. Reformation practice of S232 SUCKER sizing machine%S232型祖克浆纱机的改造实践

    刘安君; 窦海萍

    2009-01-01

    为解决祖克S232型浆纱机织轴卷绕故障率高、烘燥温度不稳定、压浆力调节装置失控、经轴退绕张力不稳定的问题,进行了技术改造.通过采用多单元技术对织轴卷绕装置进行了两单元改造,对温控系统、压浆力凋节装置以及经轴退绕装置采用了可编程PLC控制技术,改造后提高了祖克S232型浆纱机的自动化程度,降低了设备故障率,提高了浆纱质量.

  17. Calculation of fusion time scales in 11B + 237Np, 12C + 232Th and 16O + 232Th reactions in a dynamical trajectory model

    There are several theoretical models which treat the fusion process and energy dissipation in heavy ion collision in terms of a fluctuating force represented by the coupling between macroscopic and intrinsic degrees of freedom. One such dynamical model has been developed by Feldmeier (1987), where the properties of the dissipative force are determined from a microscopic picture of particle exchange between two nuclei. The macroscopic shapes of the nuclear system are represented by axially symmetric configuration with sharp surfaces. We have used the above model to calculate the fusion time scales for the systems 11B + 237Np, 12C +232Th and 16O + 232Th at 77, 86 and 104 MeV bombarding energies to examine the effect of mass asymmetry in fusion dynamics. (author). 2 figs

  18. CSER 94-013: Classification and access to PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility and limits on characterization and disassembly activities in 232-Z burning hood

    This CSER justifies the Limited Control Facility designation for the closed Burning Hood in the PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility. If the Burning Hood is opened to characterize the plutonium distribution and geometric integrity of the internals or for disassembly of the internals, then the more rigorous Fissionable Material Facility classification is required. Two sets of requirements apply for personnel access, criticality firefighting category for water use, and fissile material movement for the two states of the Burning Hood. The parameters used in the criticality analysis are listed to establish the limits under which this CSER is valid. Determination that the Burning Hood fissile material, moderation, or internal arrangements are outside these limits requires reevaluation of these parameter values and activities at the 232-Z Incinerator Facility. When the Burning Hood is open, water entry is to be prevented by two physical barriers for each water source

  19. Production of 232U from irradiation of standard and thorium-based fuels in PWR reactors

    The production of small quantities of 232U can induce radiation protection issues in the back end of the fuel cycle, particularly for thorium-based fuels. This is due to its relatively short half life (69 years) and the emission of a high energy gamma ray of 2.6 MeV at the end of its decay chain. With the depletion code MURE, we determine the different reactions pathways, and their proportions, leading to the synthesis of 232U in UO2 and (Th,Pu)O2 fuels irradiated in a PWR. Moreover, the impact, on the 232U production, of cycle times such as time separating the fabrication of the fuel and its irradiation as well as influence of the fissile content has been investigated for UO2 fuel. The impact of the thorium ore provenance and of the plutonium quality has been studied for the (Th,Pu)O2 case. (author)

  20. Determination of 232U daughter products released from HTGR fuel during refabrication. Part 2

    During the heat treatment step of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel beads, the 233U-loaded fuel beads are exposed to temperatures as high as 17000C. Since 233U fuel beads unavoidably contain a small percentage of 232U, decay products of 232U might be released during the heat treatment step. To avoid shielding requirements, experiments were conducted using 232Th-loaded fuel beads rather than 232U-loaded fuel beads. Decay products of 232U and 232Th are the same after 228Th. Experimental data were obtained by monitoring the 583 and 2614 keV gamma emissions of 208Tl. Computer simulations of the decay process and experimental data were used to infer what relative amount of the daughter products was removed. The carbonization step (300 to 5000C) has an effect on the loss of daughter products in the conversion step. Using uncarbonized fuel beads, approximately 50 percent of 220Rn was removed at 3000C and approximately 20 percent of 220Rn was removed at 2000C. At most, 5 percent of 220Rn was removed from uncarbonized beads at 250C. Marginal 220Rn loss was detected at 1000C using pre-carbonized beads. At 14000C, 92 percent 212Pb, 70 to 90 percent 212Bi, and 0 percent 224Ra losses were observed. At 16000C, 100 percent 212Pb, 80 to 100 percent 212Bi, and 3 to 7 percent 224Ra losses were observed. At 17500C, 100 percent 212Pb, 80 to 100 percent 212Bi, and 62 percent 224Ra losses were observed. At 18000C, 100 percent 212Pb, 80 to 100 percent 212Bi, and 86 percent 224Ra losses were observed

  1. The novel nootropic compound DM232 (UNIFIRAM) ameliorates memory impairment in mice and rats

    Carla Ghelardini; Nicoletta Galeotti; Fulvio Gualtieri; Dina Manetti; Corrado Bucherelli; Elisabetta Baldi; Alessandro Bartolini

    2002-01-01

    The favorable pharmacological profile exhibited by piracetam stimulated the synthesis of related compounds potentially endowed with a higher nootropic potency. The antiamnesic and procognitive activity of DM232 (unifiram), a new compound structurally related to piracetam, was investigated. Mouse passive avoidance and rat Morris water maze and Social learning tests were employed. DM232 (0.001–1 mg/kg i.p. – 0.01–0.1 1mg/kg p.o.) prevented amnesia induced by scopolamine (1.5 mg/kg i.p.), mecamy...

  2. A programme of evaluation, processing and testing of nuclear data for Th-232 and U-233

    As part of the IAEA-NDS sponsored Co-ordinated Research Programme on the intercomparison of evaluations of Actinide Neutron Nucelar Data, a programme has been undertaken at RRC for Th-232 and U-233. This paper presents results highlighting the extent to which evaluations in JENDL-2, INDIAN, ENDF/B-V, ENDL-84, FRENCH SET(1969), INDL/A-83(RUMANIAN), ENDF/B-IV and JENDL-1 files are consistent with the measured value of σ/sub c//σ/sub eta/ for Th-232 at the center of THOR assembly which emphasizes transport of neutrons in the fission source energy range

  3. anti νsub(p) neutron fission of 232Th near threshold

    The average number of prompt neutrons emitted per fission, anti νsub(p), for 232Th(n,f) has been measured between 1.35 and 2.1 MeV. No large maximum in anti νsub(p) at about 1.4 MeV has been seen. The behaviour of anti νsub(p) and of anti Esub(K), the average total fragment kinetic energy, have been calculated using both a double-humped and triple-humped fission potential barrier. Significant disagreement with existing anti Esub(K) data for 232Th(n,f) is observed

  4. Measurement of the 232Th(n,f) subthreshold and near-subthreshold cross section

    A measurement of the 232Th(n,f) cross section for incident neutron energies between 100 eV and 1.6 MeV has been performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory electron linear accelerator. The weak subthreshold fission cross section found in this measurement confirms the model of a low first barrier in the triple-humped fission barrier which has been theoretically predicted for the (232Th+n) system. However, the appearance of a series of plateaus in the near-threshold fission cross section region presents a challenge to current barrier calculations in the 233Th compound nucleus

  5. Variation of natural 232Th excretion in non-exposed persons

    Urinary excretion of 232Th was assessed in occupationally non-exposed persons by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Measurements were performed in 55 healthy subjects. Mean daily 232Th excretion was 47±26 μBq x d-1 (range 17-121 μBq x d-1). Results obtained showed no statistically significant correlation with age and no differences were found between males and females. The impact on the assessment of intakes by workers is discussed. (author)

  6. 40 CFR 436.232 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.232 Section 436.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  7. 25 CFR 900.232 - What must an Indian tribe or tribal organization do if an organizational conflict of interest...

    2010-04-01

    ... organizational conflict of interest arises under a contract? 900.232 Section 900.232 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... What must an Indian tribe or tribal organization do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under a contract? This section only applies if the conflict was not addressed when the contract...

  8. 40 CFR 408.232 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available. 408.232 Section 408.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  9. 8 CFR 232.2 - Examination in the United States of alien applicants for benefits under the immigration laws and...

    2010-01-01

    ... with 42 CFR part 34 and any additional instructions and guidelines as may be considered necessary by... applicants for benefits under the immigration laws and other aliens. 232.2 Section 232.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL...

  10. 48 CFR 3452.232-70 - Prohibition against the use of ED funds to influence legislation or appropriations.

    2010-10-01

    ... use of ED funds to influence legislation or appropriations. 3452.232-70 Section 3452.232-70 Federal... funds to influence legislation or appropriations. The following clause is to be used in accordance with 3432.770: Prohibition Against the Use of ED Funds To Influence Legislation or Appropriations (APR...

  11. 230,232Th in milk, meat, and grain in Korea

    The concentrations of natural radioisotopes 230Th and 232Th in Korean foods were measured by the method of calcium oxalate co-precipitation in addition to the conventional anion-exchange method and alpha spectroscopic measurement. The 230Th concentrations (mBq/kg-fresh) in Korean foods were found to be as follows: milk 0.14-2.45, pork 2.98-8.97, beef 1.94-9.80, chicken 1.22-13.0, rice 0.43-2.35, wheat 0.53-14.4, and soybeans, 8.44-91.6. The 232Th concentrations (mBq/kg-fresh) in Korean foods were found to be as follows: milk 0.01-2.46, pork 0.28-9.32, beef 1.02-5.34, chicken 0.56-4.98, rice 0.32-2.54, wheat 0.53-20.0, and soybeans, 2.30-42.2. The annual internal dose of Th was also estimated. The annual internal dose of 230Th and 232Th in milk was about 0.006 μSv/yr and much lower than that of other countries because of the low intake of milk in Korea compared to other countries. The annual internal dose of 230Th and 232Th in the rice was about 0.043 μSv/yr and highest because rice is the staple food of Koreans. (author)

  12. 77 FR 55120 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Section 232 Healthcare Facility Insurance Program...

    2012-09-07

    ... proposed rule at 77 FR 26218, in which it submitted, for public comment, revisions to the Section 232 program regulations. On May 3, 2012, HUD also published a notice at 77 FR 26304, which proposed revisions... the regulatory text but discussed in the preamble to the proposed rule at 77 FR 26222, and...

  13. 77 FR 72920 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Section 232 Healthcare Mortgage Insurance Program: Partial...

    2012-12-07

    ... published a proposed rule at 77 FR 40301, in which it submitted for public comment a proposed revision to... 76 FR 3821. This EO requires executive agencies to analyze regulations that are ``outmoded... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 232 RIN-2502-AJ04 Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Section...

  14. 20 CFR 408.232 - When do you lose your foreign resident status?

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do you lose your foreign resident status... CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS SVB Qualification and Entitlement Residence Outside the United States § 408.232 When do you lose your foreign resident status? (a) General rule. We consider you to have lost...

  15. Symmetrical ripple constant common mode voltage modulation strategy for DCM-232 three- phase PV topology

    Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro; Muñoz Aguilar, Raúl Santiago; Vázquez Guzmán, Gerardo; Candela García, José Ignacio; Aldabas Rubira, Emiliano; Etxeberria Otadui, Ion

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a modulation strategy for the DCM-232 power converter is proposed. This modulation has as particular a symmetrical ripple and that no common mode currents are presented. Some simulation and experimental results are given in order to prove the good behavior of the topology regarding common mode voltage (CMV).

  16. 17 CFR 232.105 - Limitation on use of HTML documents and hypertext links.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation on use of HTML... Requirements § 232.105 Limitation on use of HTML documents and hypertext links. (a) Electronic filers must... exhibits to Form N-SAR in HTML. (b) Electronic filers may not include in any HTML document hypertext...

  17. CSER 95-003: Exemption from Criticality Alarm System requirement for 232-Z building

    This CSER establishes an exemption for 232-Z from the requirement for a Criticality Alarm System, because the formation of a critical configuration is not a credible event for any circumstance involving the cleaning out and removal of the Burning Hood and associated equipment

  18. 17 CFR 232.311 - Documents submitted in paper under cover of Form SE.

    2010-04-01

    ... English summary or English translation of the foreign language document in accordance with § 232.306(b) or... filing in electronic format an English translation of its latest annual budget submitted as Exhibit B to... SE (§§ 239.64, 249.444, 259.601, 269.8, and 274.403 of this chapter) no later than one business...

  19. 17 CFR 232.104 - Unofficial PDF copies included in an electronic submission.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unofficial PDF copies included... Filing Requirements § 232.104 Unofficial PDF copies included in an electronic submission. (a) An... (§ 249.101 of this chapter) or a Form D (§ 239.500 of this chapter), may include one unofficial PDF...

  20. Fission product yields measurement of 232Th induced by 14.8 MeV neutron

    The relative cumulative yields of 62 fission products were determined using γ-spectrum method for 232Th induced by 14.8 MeV neutron. Using chain yields summation 200% normalization method, 47 chain yields were given, and the data precision is better than 10%. (authors)

  1. D2.3.2 Evaluation results of the LinkedUp VIDI competition

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Herder, Eelco; Marieke, Guy; Maren, Scheffel

    2014-01-01

    This document D2.3.2 is the second report of Task 2.4 - Evaluation of challenge submissions. Task 2.4 is about the actual assessment of the participating projects within the LinkedUp Veni, Vidi and Vici competition on the basis of the LinkedUp Evaluation Framework (D2.2.1). The main objective of Tas

  2. Photo fission cross-section of 232Th, 238U and 237Np

    In the present work, photo fission cross-section of 232Th, 238U and 237Np evaluated with the help of fission fragment angular distribution measurements by using Bremsstrahlung radiation from 7.4 MeV to 9.0 MeV have been carried out by employing high efficiency SSNTD technique

  3. 48 CFR 52.232-26 - Prompt payment for fixed-price architect-engineer contracts.

    2010-10-01

    ... include its TIN on the invoice only if required elsewhere in this contract. (ix) Electronic funds transfer... of Electronic Funds Transfer Information with Offer), contract clause (e.g., 52.232-33, Payment by... interest penalty in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5...

  4. 48 CFR 252.232-7003 - Electronic submission of payment requests and receiving reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.232-7003 Electronic submission of payment... administering the contract for payment has determined, in writing, that electronic submission would be unduly... non-electronic payment requests using the method or methods specified in Section G of the contract....

  5. 48 CFR 52.232-33 - Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer-Central Contractor Registration.

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.232-33 Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer—Central... Government under this contract shall be made by electronic funds transfer (EFT), except as provided in... Fedwire Transfer System. The rules governing Federal payments through the ACH are contained in 31 CFR...

  6. 48 CFR 52.232-27 - Prompt payment for construction contracts.

    2010-10-01

    ... include its TIN on the invoice only if required elsewhere in this contract. (x) Electronic funds transfer... of Electronic Funds Transfer Information with Offer), contract clause (e.g., 52.232-33, Payment by... interest penalty in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5...

  7. Seismic analysis of safety class 1 incinerator glovebox in building 232-Z 200 W Area

    This report documents the seismic evaluation for the existing safety class 1 incinerator glovebox in 232Z Building. The glovebox is no longer in use and most of the internal mechanical equipment have been removed. However, the insulation firebricks are still in the glovebox for proper disposal

  8. 28 CFR 2.32 - Parole to local or immigration detainers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parole to local or immigration detainers... § 2.32 Parole to local or immigration detainers. (a) When a State or local detainer is outstanding... wishes to parole a prisoner subject to a detainer filed by Federal immigration officials, the...

  9. Investigation of the (232)Th Nucleus Excitations at the FEL {gamma} - Nucleus Colliders

    Koru, H; Sultansoy, S F; Sarer, B

    2001-01-01

    The physics search potential of the FEL {gamma} - Nucleus colliders is analysed using excitations of the (232)Th nucleus. It is shown that, due to the monochromacity of FEL {gamma} beam and high statistics, proposed colliders will play an important role in the field of "traditional" nuclear physics.

  10. 232Th and 238U neutron emission cross section calculations and analysis of experimental data

    In this study, pre-equilibrium neutron-emission spectra produced by (n,xn) reactions on nuclei 232Th and 238U have been calculated. Angle-integrated cross sections in neutron induced reactions on targets 232Th and 238U have been calculated at the bombarding energies up to 18 MeV. We have investigated multiple pre-equilibrium matrix element constant from internal transition for 232Th (n,xn) neutron emission spectra. In the calculations, the geometry dependent hybrid model and the cascade exciton model including the effects of pre-equilibrium have been used. In addition, we have described how multiple pre-equilibrium emissions can be included in the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin (FKK) fully quantum-mechanical theory. By analyzing (n,xn) reaction on 232Th and 238U, with the incident energy from 2 Me V to 18 Me V, the importance of multiple pre-equilibrium emission can be seen cleady. All calculated results have been compared with experimental data. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data and found agreement with each other

  11. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  12. 12 CFR 232.3 - Financial information exception for obtaining and using medical information.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial information exception for obtaining... WITH CREDIT (REGULATION FF) § 232.3 Financial information exception for obtaining and using medical... the basis that the projected debt-to-income ratio of the consumer does not meet the...

  13. 49 CFR 232.503 - Process to introduce new brake system technology.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Process to introduce new brake system technology... Technology § 232.503 Process to introduce new brake system technology. (a) Pursuant to the procedures... brake system technology, prior to implementing the plan. (b) Each railroad shall complete a...

  14. FUSION-LIKE PROCESSES IN THE N-14+TH-232 REACTION AT 30 MEV NUCLEON

    LEEGTE, HKW; BOONSTRA, AL; HINNEFELD, JD; KOLDENHOF, EE; SIEMSSEN, RH; SIWEKWILCZYNSKA, K; SOSIN, Z; WILCZYNSKI, J; WILSCHUT, HW

    1992-01-01

    Fusionlike processes were studied in the N-14 + Th-232 reaction at 30 MeV per nucleon. Partition of the fusionlike cross section was determined by detecting nonequilibrium charged particles with an array of phoswich detectors (plastic wall) in coincidence with fission fragments for which the folding

  15. 49 CFR 232.107 - Air source requirements and cold weather operations.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air source requirements and cold weather... AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES General Requirements § 232.107 Air source requirements and cold weather operations. (a) Monitoring plans for yard air sources. (1)...

  16. Optical isolation and surge protection of RS-232 port%RS-232端口光电隔离型电涌保护器

    王金虎; 李祥超; 刘晓东; 黄鹏良

    2011-01-01

    根据气体放电管和瞬态抑制二极管的保护特性,合理选择退耦元件参数,实现多级SPD间的能量配合,并结合光纤的保护性能设计RS-232接口的保护电路.最后利用雷电冲击试验平台LST-6kV/3 kA、ICGS冲击平台以及DF1641C函数发生器对保护电路进行实验,以验证设计的方案.实验结果表明:在加上保护器件后,通信端口的抗雷电过压能力得到了很大的提高,并且加入该保护电路以后基本不会对原电路产生插入损耗.%Lightning over-voltages are the important reasons for losses in communication port, which make it neces-sary and urgent to study into the lightning protection of communication port. According to the protection characteris-tics of gas discharge tube and transient voltage suppressor, the decoupling components are selected carefully to a-chieve the rational energy correspondence between multi-level SPD. Besides that,optical design is also considered to design protective circuit of RS-232 port. Finally,in order to verify the design scheme,the lightning impact platform called LST-6 kV/3 kA and ICGS and function generator called DF1641C are employed for the experiments. The ex-periments show that bearing capacity of lightning over-voltage of communication port RS-232 has been greatly im-proved and will not produce insertion loss to original circuit by adding the protection circuit.

  17. Measurement of 232Th(, ) and 232Th(, 2) cross-sections at neutron energies of 13.5, 15.5 and 17.28 MeV using neutron activation techniques

    Sadhana Mukerji; H Naik; S V Suryanarayana; S Chachara; B S Shivashankar; V Mulik; Rita Crasta; Sudipta Samanta; B K Nayak; A Saxena; S C Sharma; P V Bhagwat; K K Rasheed; R N Jindal; S Ganesan; A K Mohanty; A Goswami; P D Krishnani

    2012-08-01

    The 232Th(, ) reaction cross-section at average neutron energies of 13.5, 15.5 and 17.28 MeV from the 7Li(, ) reaction has been determined for the first time using activation and off-line -ray spectrometric technique. The 232Th(, 2) cross-section at 17.28 MeV neutron energy has also been determined using the same technique. The experimentally determined 232Th(, ) and 232Th(, 2) reaction cross-sections from the present work were compared with the evaluated data of ENDF/BVII and JENDL-4.0 and were found to be in good agreement. The present data, along with literature data in a wide range of neutron energies, were interpreted in terms of competition between 232Th(, ), (, ), (, ) and (, ) reaction channels. The 232Th(, ) and 232Th(, 2) reaction cross-sections were also calculated theoretically using the TALYS 1.2 computer code and were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data from the present work but were slightly higher than the literature data at lower neutron energies.

  18. Measurement of the generation ratio of 233U and the average radiation capture cross section of 232Th with 232ThO2 irradiated by fast neutrons

    Background: Thorium-Uranium cycle plays an important role in the future's power production technology. Nuclear data involved are urgently needed for engineering design and other purposes since there are obvious differences between the existing evaluated data. Macroscopic neutron integral experiment can be used as a good tool to survey the confusion. Purpose: Macroscopic neutron integral experiment based on radioactive method was carried out to measure the generation ratio of 233U nuclide and the average radiation capture cross section of 232Th while a ThO2 sample was irradiated by fast neutrons leakage from a fast critical facility. We expect that these data can be used as a reference for the research of Th-U cycle. Methods: Radiation capture reactions of 232Th nuclides occur when the nuclides are irradiated by neutrons. 233U nuclides will be generated after two cascade decays by emitting beta rays from the activation products, which are 233Th nuclides. The ThO2 sample was prepared as a slice of 20 mm×10 mm from 0.743 36-g ThO2 powders of 99.9% enriched. The neutron flux was measured by activation method which was 4.07x109 cm-2·s-1 at the sample's irradiation position while the facility worked at the power level of 180 watts. The leakage neutrons' energy distribution was calculated by MC method and it is very close to the fission spectrum with the averaged energy of 1.42 MeV. After irradiation and then a period of cooling time the gamma rays emitted from the sample were measured by an HPGe spectrometer which had been pre-calibrated. From these data the activity of 233Pa was calculated and then the generation ratio of 233U and the average radiation capture cross section of 232Th were calculated. The measured average radiation capture cross section was compared with the cross sections calculated based on the ENDFB-VH.1, CENDL-3.1, JENDL-4.0, BROND2.2 databases. Results: The measured generation ratio of 233U was 4.01×10-12 with an uncertainty of 6

  19. NT-proBNP on Cobas h 232 in point-of-care testing

    Gils, Charlotte; Ramanathan, R.; Breindahl, T.;

    2015-01-01

    Background. NT-proBNP may be useful for ruling out heart failure in primary health care. In this study we examined the analytical quality of NT-proBNP in primary health care on the Cobas h 232 point-of-care instrument compared with measurements performed in a hospital laboratory. Materials...... and methods. Blood samples requested for NT-proBNP were collected in primary health care (n = 95) and in a hospital laboratory (n = 107). NT-proBNP was measured on-site on Cobas h 232 instruments both in primary health care centres and at the hospital laboratory and all samples were also analyzed.......5-10.7% in the hospital setting and 5.3-10.0% in the primary health care and within the analytical quality specifications, but higher than with the comparison method (...

  20. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K analysis in water samples from Assiut, Egypt

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in water samples, using 2”x 2” NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Water activity ranges from 0.07 to 0.59 Bq L−1 for 226Ra, 0.05 to 0.37 Bq L−1 for 232Th and 3.25 to 8.72 Bq L−1 for 40K with mean values of 2.64, 2.22 and 119.50 Bq L−1, respectively. As far as the measured gamma radionuclides is concerned, the mean annual effective doses for all analyzed samples of water are in the range of 0.02–0.08, 0.03-0.17 and 0.03-0.10 mSv yr-1 for infants, children and adults, respectively, all being lower than the reference level of the committed effective dose recommended by the WHO.

  1. Determination of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in liquid effluents from uranium mining

    A liquid scintillator αlpha spectrometer was built for the determination of Th-228, Th-230 and Th-232 in liquid effluents from Uranium mines and mills. The resolution of the αlpha spectrometer was found to be 200-300 KeV, when the scintillator was 8% T0P0, 0,77% scintimix-4 (91% PP0 and 9% Dimetil-P0P0P) and 10% of naphthalene in toluene. Aliquat-336 in xylene (30% v/v) was used to separate the thorium isotopes from other interfering radionuclides (U-238, U-234, Ra-226, Po-210). Under the extraction experimental conditions, the detection limits were 1,2 pCi/1 for Th-232, 1,2 pCi/1 for Th-230 and 0,9 pCi/1 for Th-228, for 1000 minutes of counting time. (author)

  2. Fractional absorption in gastrointestinal tract of 232Th by ingestion for Chinese man

    Objective: To estimate fractional absorption in gastrointestinal tract (f1) of 232Th by ingestion for the Chinese male adults. Methods: According to f1 calculation method in literature and results of Th concentrations in dietary foods and organ or tissues for the Chinese male adults, obtained in recent years, f1 values were estimated from the median and mean Th concentrations and compared each other. Results: the f1 value from the median and mean Th concentrations was 0.00048 and 0.00028 respectively. Conclusion: The f1 of 232Th by ingestion for the Chinese male adults should be adopted as 0.00048, being lower than estimated result from the world reference concentrations in UNSCEAR 2000 Report, but quite near to the relevant reported value from Asian countries, such as India or Japan, and supporting the latest recommended value 0.0005 by ICRP too

  3. Charge and mass distribution in 7Li induced fission of 232Th

    Formation cross sections of about forty fission products have been determined using recoil catcher technique followed by off line gamma-ray spectrometry in 7Li induced fission of 232Th at Elab=41.9, 36.6 and 31.4 MeV. The measured data have been used to deduce charge and mass distributions. Mass distribution is found to be asymmetric at all the three energies. Cross sections of evaporation residues formed in both transfer reactions (232,233,234Pa) as well as in complete fusion (234Np), have also been measured. The measured evaporation residue cross sections and the decay probabilities of target like nuclei (233,234,235Pa) formed in the various transfer reactions, as calculated by PACE2, have been used to estimate the transfer induced fission cross sections. The data indicated that the magnitude of transfer induced fission is very small

  4. Design of a general purpose (RS-232C) analog-to-digital data converter

    The purpose of this project is to design a general purpose hardware that interfaces analog devices with any desirable computer supporting the RS-232 interface. The hardware incorporates bidirectional data transmission at 1,200 bps, 2,400 bps, 4800 bps, 9,600 bps, 19,200 pbs and 38400 bps. The communication / processing software has been written in C language that incorporates the idea of the potability of the software from one environment to the other. (author)

  5. Post-neutron mass distribution for /sup 232/U(n/sub th/,f)

    Haddad, M.; Crancon, J.; Lhospice, G.; Asghar, M.

    1989-01-01

    The yields of 36 fission products in 27 mass chains produced in thermal neutron induced fission of /sup 232/U, have been determined, for the first time, via ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy. The mean number of neutrons per fission was found to be (..nu../sub T/)=2.8+-0.3. A mean proton odd-even effect delta/sub p/=(24.6+-3)% was obtained for 6 mass chains. These results are discussed in terms of existing data.

  6. 2.3.2 Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiations

    Bernhardt, J. H.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Subsection '2.3.2 Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiations' of the Section '2.3 Biological Effects' of the Chapter '2 Radiation and Biological Effects' with the contents:

  7. Fission Product Decay Heat Calculations for Neutron Fission of 232Th

    Son, P. N.; Hai, N. X.

    2016-06-01

    Precise information on the decay heat from fission products following times after a fission reaction is necessary for safety designs and operations of nuclear-power reactors, fuel storage, transport flasks, and for spent fuel management and processing. In this study, the timing distributions of fission products' concentrations and their integrated decay heat as function of time following a fast neutron fission reaction of 232Th were exactly calculated by the numerical method with using the DHP code.

  8. Standard guide for the determination of uranium-232 in uranium hexafluoride

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This method covers the determination of 232U in uranium hexafluoride by alpha spectrometry. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Mass distribution in the quasi-mono-energetic neutron-induced fission of 232Th

    The cumulative yields of various fission products in 232Th(n, f) with average neutron energies of 6.35, 8.53 and 10.09 MeV have been determined using an off-line γ -ray spectrometric technique. The neutron beam was produced from the 7Li(p, n) reaction. From the cumulative fission yields, the mass chain yields were obtained by using charge distribution correction of medium energy. The peak-to-valley (P/V) ratio, the average value of light mass (left angle AL right angle), heavy mass (left angle AH right angle) and the average number of neutrons (left angle ν right angle) at the three different neutron energies of the present work and at other energies from the literature in the 232Th(n, f) reaction were obtained from the mass yield data. The present and the existing literature data in the 232Th(n, f) reaction at various excitation energies were compared with similar data in the 238U(n, f) reaction. The fine structure in the mass yield distribution was interpreted from the point of nuclear structure effect such as shell closure proximity and even-odd effect. The role of standard I and standard II asymmetric mode of fission was discussed. The different types of mass-yield distributions between 232Th(n, f) and 238U(n, f) reactions were explained from different types of the potential energy between the two fissioning systems. The role of excitation energy was also investigated. (orig.)

  10. Distribution of 137Cs, 40K, 238U and 232Th in soils from Northern Venezuela

    More than one hundred undisturbed soil samples form Northern Venezuela and the islands of Margarita and Los Roques have been analyzed for 137Cs, 40K, 238U and 232Th by γ-ray spectroscopy. The specimens were taken from between 5-10 cm below the earth's surface. Thus, they are valid not only for the 137Cs deposition studies but also for the estimation of the natural γ-ray dose from primordial radionuclides that form the terrestrial component. The concentrations of 40K was directly determined from its 1461 keV γ-ray, while those of 137Cs, 238U and 232Th were performed using a γ-ray from one of their daughter radionuclides: the 661 keV γ-ray of 137mBa for 137Cs, the 1760 keV γ-ray of 214Bi for 238U and the 2620 keV γ-ray of 208Tl for 232Th. Finally, the concentration values were compared with those of global estimates. (author) 15 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Caixa Postal 05508-000, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: Pscsilva@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. {sup 232} Th and {sup 228} Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. {sup 232} Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg{sup -1} with mean value of 57 {+-} 39 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 42 samples. {sup 228} Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 74 {+-} 23 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of {sup 232} Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  12. Radiationless transition probabilities in muonic 208Pb, 232Th, and 238U

    The probabilities for non-radiative (n.r.) excitations Pn.r. in the muonic nuclides 208Pb, 232Th, and 238U have been determined for (μ-, γγ)-measurements by comparing the intensities of muonic X-ray transitions in single and coincidence spectra. The value of Pn.r. (3p→1s), measured for the first time, is about 90% for the actinides 232Th and 238U, but only about 8% for 208Pb. The value of Pn.r. (3d→1s) is found to be 10% for 233Th, 13% for 238U, and about 4% for 208Pb. For 208Pb a vanishing strength of the n.r. decay of the 2p-level is found, while for 232Th and for 238U n.r. strengths of about 20% and 26%, respectively, are observed. By regarding two subcomplexes of the 2p→1s transitions leading to different mean excitation energies the n.r. transition probabilities were found to be different for 238U only, 21.6% and 31.1%, respectively. (orig.)

  13. Decontamination and decommissioning assessment for the Waste Incineration Facility (Building 232-Z) Hanford Site, [Hanford], WA

    Building 232-Z is an element of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. From 1961 until 1972, plutonium-bearing combustible materials were incinerated in the building. Between 1972 and 1983, following shutdown of the incinerator, the facility was used for waste segregation activities. The facility was placed in retired inactive status in 1984 and classified as a Limited Control Facility pursuant to DOE Order 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, and 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. The current plutonium inventory within the building is estimated to be approximately 848 grams, the majority of which is retained within the process hood ventilation system. As a contaminated retired facility, Building 232-Z is included in the DOE Surplus Facility Management Program. The objective of this Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) assessment is to remove Building 232-Z, thereby elmininating the radiological and environmental hazards associated with the plutonium inventory within the structure. The steps to accomplish the plan objectives are: (1) identifying the locations of the most significant amounts of plutonium, (2) removing residual plutonium, (3) removing and decontaminating remaining building equipment, (4) dismantling the remaining structure, and (5) closing out the project

  14. Radioactive secular equilibrium in 238U and 232Th series in granitoids from Greece

    Granitoid rocks belonging to plutons of Greece, covering a wide range of compositions and rock-types, have been studied for their specific activity (Bq/kg) of 238U and 226Ra from 238U radioactive series and 228Ra and 228Th from 232Th radioactive series by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Results on the radioactive secular equilibrium of both 238U and 232Th radioactive series are presented by studying the 226Ra/238U and 228Ra/228Th ratios. The majority of the samples are in radioactive secular equilibrium for 226Ra/238U±1σ. However, several samples exhibit 226Ra/238U ratios significantly different from 1. The distortion of the secular equilibrium in the 226Ra–238U isotopic system of those samples has occurred over the last 1 Ma, and can be associated with post-magmatic processes, mainly rock–water interactions. All studied samples have 228Ra/228Th ratios equal to unity ±1σ. Consequently, they can be considered to be in secular equilibrium for the last 40 a. - Highlights: ► Generally, a strong correlation between 238U and 226Ra is obvious. ► Post-magmatic processes caused radioactive disequilibrium in the 238U isotopic system. ► All samples are in radioactive secular equilibrium in the 232Τh isotopic system. ► There is no correlation between mineralogy, texture, colour, age and the isotopic ratios studied

  15. 232Th, 233Pa, and 234U capture cross-section measurements in moderated neutron flux

    The Th-U cycle was studied through the evolution of a 100 μg 232Th sample irradiated in a moderated neutron flux of 8.01014 n/cm2/s, intensity close to that of a thermal molten salt reactor. After 43 days of irradiation and 6 months of cooling, a precise mass spectrometric analysis, using both TIMS and MC-ICP-MS techniques, was performed, according to a rigorous methodology. The measured thorium and uranium isotopic ratios in the final irradiated sample were then compared with integral simulations based on evaluated data; an overall good agreement was seen. Four important thermal neutron-capture cross-sections were also extracted from the measurements, 232Th (7.34±0.21 b), 233Pa (38.34±1.78 b), 234U (106.12±3.34 b), and 235U (98.15±11.24 b). Our 232Th and 235U results confirmed existing values whereas the cross-sections of 233Pa and 234U (both key parameters) have been redefined

  16. Update of 233U, 229-232Th and 230-233Pa Fission Data

    The influence of the 235U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) on modeling of integral benchmarks was estimated to be significant. For 233U(n,f) PFNS similar sensitivities could be envisaged. For the variety of Th/U fuels and systems, ranging from metal fast to deep thermal solutions, large positive/negative swings in calculated Keff can be expected. Th/U fuelled core criticality calculations would be sensitive to the modelled soft tail of fission neutrons or deficiency of hard tail fission neutrons, as revealed for U and Pu fuels. The deficiency of the 233U(nth,f) PFNS, adopted for the ENDF/B-VII.0. could be traced back to the 'propagation' of calculated 235U(nth,f) PFNS shape at En= 0.5 MeV. At higher energies, average energies of PFNS coincide only at ∼5 MeV, at other En the average energies and spectra shapes are drastically different. However, it might be argued that the response of the criticality benchmark calculations for the 233U thermal and fast systems would be similar to that observed for the PFNS of 239Pu. Our approach allowed to solve the longstanding problem of inconsistency of 235U integral data testing and differential prompt fission neutron spectra data, a similar approach may hold for 233U. Using modified PFNS, we may avoid arbitrary tweaking of neutron cross sections or neutron multiplicities for Th/U fuel-cycle related nuclides (233U, 229,230,231,232Th and 230,231,232,233Pa) to compensate the ill-defined shape of 233U PFNS. For metal fast benchmarks much would depend on the inelastic scattering cross section of 233U, which should be considered rather uncertain at the moment. The unrealistic evaluations of poorly investigated cross sections related to the Th/U fuel cycle could be excluded by consistent analysis of the available fission data base. The evaluation of 229,230,231,232Th(n,f) and 230,231,232,233Pa(n,f) cross sections could be supplemented by description of surrogate and ratio surrogate fission data, coming from

  17. Neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections of 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu

    Differential-neutron-emission cross sections of 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu are measured between approx. = 1.0 and 3.5 MeV with the angle and magnitude detail needed to provide angle-integrated emission cross sections to approx. 232Th, 233U, 235U and 238U inelastic-scattering values, poor agreement is observed for 240Pu, and a serious discrepancy exists in the case of 239Pu

  18. S232祖克浆纱机的改造实践%Reformation Practice of SUCKER S232 Sizing Machine

    刘安君; 窦海萍

    2009-01-01

    为解决祖克S232浆纱机织轴卷绕故障率高、烘燥温度不稳定、压浆力调节装置失控、经轴退绕张力不稳定等问题,进行了技术改造。通过采用多单元技术对织轴卷绕装置进行了两单元改造,对温控系统、压浆力调节装置以及经轴退绕装置采用了可编程PLC控制技术,改造后提高了机器的自动化程度,降低了设备故障率,提高了浆纱质量。

  19. Studies on 232Th and 238U levels in marine algae collected from the coast of Niigata Prefecture

    To evaluate the properties of algae to concentrate radioactive elements, 14 species of algae like Sargassum were collected in the Prefecture and analyzed for their 232Th and 238U levels with Yokogawa HP4500 ICP-MS apparatus. The places of collection included those near the water discharge of an atomic power station. Mean 232Th and 238U levels were found to be 120 and 260 ng/g dry wt, respectively, and Phaeophyta showed more than several times higher 238U level than Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. There was no clear difference in 232Th levels. No difference between places of collection was observed in Sargassum 232Th or 238U level. Adsorption of 232Th particle to and incorporation of soluble 238U into algae body were suggested. Mean 232Th and 238U radioactivities were found 73 and 510 μBq/g wet wt, respectively, and the respective annual committed effective doses, 0.2 and 0.3 μSv, calculated from those values were confirmed to be enough lower than the annual public dose limit, 1 mSv. (K.H.)

  20. 基于RS232-USB转换器及LabVIEW平台下温湿度采集系统的设计%Design of test program for RS232-USB converter

    周静; 张蕾; 南洋

    2012-01-01

    本文将RS232-USB转换器及虚拟仪器技术应用于温湿度测量中,以LabVIEW为软件开发平台,以计算机为核心,配上传感器、RS232-LJSB转换器和相应软件,针对室内环境的温湿度进行实时精确的采集及测量,编写了数据处理程序和人机交互界面,将结果通过人机交互界面以数字的方式进行实时显示,显示了虚拟仪器技术在温湿度测量中应用的灵活性和其功能的强大性,同时体现了RS232-USB转换器的RS232串行口至USB口转换功能的稳定性。实验表明,该系统能实时准确地采集温湿度信息,并通过RS232口-USB口显示至PC上,达到了可视化的效果。%The application of the RS232-USB converter and virtual instrument in the measurement of temperature and humidity in the article, with LabVIEW as software development platform, using the computer as the core, with the sensor, the RS232-USB converter and the corresponding software, the indoor temperature and humidity of the environment, precise real-time collection and measurement, a data processing program and human-computer interaction interface, will the results man-machine interface to the digital approach for real-time display, display of virtual instrument technology in the measurement of temperature and humidity application flexibility and its function of the powerful ,At the same time reflects the RS232-USB converter RS232 serial port to the USB conversion function stability .Based on the experiment, the system can real-time and accurate acquisition of temperature and humidity information, and through RS232 - USB port display to the PC, achieved the visual effect.

  1. Exploring quasifission characteristics for +232Th34S forming 266Sg

    Prasad, E.; Wakhle, A.; Hinde, D. J.; Williams, E.; Dasgupta, M.; Evers, M.; Luong, D. H.; Mohanto, G.; Simenel, C.; Vo-Phuoc, K.

    2016-02-01

    Background: Fission fragments from heavy ion collisions with actinide nuclei show mass-asymmetric and mass-symmetric components. The relative probabilities of these two components vary rapidly with beam energy with respect to the capture barrier, indicating a strong dependence on the alignment of the deformed nucleus with the partner in the collisions. Purpose: To study the characteristics of the mass-asymmetric quasifission component by reproducing the experimental mass-angle distributions to investigate mass evolution and sticking times. Methods: Fission fragment mass-angle distributions were measured for the +232Th34S reaction. Simulations to match the measurements were made by using a classical phenomenological approach. Mass ratio distributions and angular distributions of the mass-asymmetric quasifission component were simultaneously fit to constrain the free parameters used in the simulation. Results: The mass-asymmetric quasifission component—predominantly originating from tip (axial) collisions with the prolate deformed 232Th —is found to be peaked near A =200 at all energies and center-of-mass angles. A Monte Carlo model using the standard mass equilibration time constant of 5.2 ×10-21 s predicts more symmetric mass splits. Three different hypotheses assuming (i) a mass halt at A =200 , (ii) a slower mass equilibration time, or (iii) a Fermi-type mass drift function reproduced the main experimental features. Conclusions: In tip collisions for the +232Th34S reaction, mass-asymmetric fission with A ˜200 is the dominant outcome. The average sticking time is found to be ˜7 ×10-21 s, independent of the scenario used for mass evolution.

  2. Photo-fission of 232Th and 238U at intermediate energies

    Deppman, A.(Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil); Andrade-II, E.; Guimaraes, V.; Demekhina, N. A.; Karapetyan, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an analysis of the yields of fission fragments induced by bremsstrahlung photons with endpoint energies of 50 and 3500 MeV on 232Th and 238U targets using the simulation code CRISP. A multimodal fission option was added to this code and an extension of the calculation to the properties of the fission products is presented. By dividing the fissioning nuclei according to their fissionability, an approach is introduced which accounts for the contribution of symmetric and ...

  3. Radiative capture yield of thorium-232 from 100 to 4000 ev

    The neutron capture yield in two /sup 232/Th samples (0.0008 and 0.0027 atom/b, respectively) was measured with the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator time-of-flight facility over incident neutron energies from 100 to 4000 eV. A detailed comparison of the measured capture yields with calculations based on ENDF/B-V resonance parameters suggests that above 500 eV the evaluation needs additional work; in particular, the average capture appears systematically underestimated. 28 refs

  4. Preparation of radionuclide 212Pb by emanation technique of 232Th

    The paper is focused on preparation of radionuclide 212Pb for its further application. 212Pb radioisotope has radiogenic origin of a series of 232Th. The given radionuclide 212Pb (10.6 h) was captured from Th-source on niobium emmanator shims by influence of electric field at a voltage of 310 V. 212Pb was then eluted from the shims to dilute solution of HNO3. 212Pb thus prepared in this way was then applied at radioindicator study of adsorption processes of clay rocks - bentonites.

  5. Hard synchrotron BL Lacs: the case of 1ES 1101-232

    Wolter, Anna; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Caccianiga, Alessandro

    2000-01-01

    The bright X-ray selected BL Lac object 1ES1101--232 shows a flat X-ray spectrum, making it detectable with high statistics over the wide BeppoSAX energy range. We have observed it in two different epochs with BeppoSAX, and found a variation of the flux of about 30% that can be explained by a change in the spectral index above the synchrotron peak. We present here the data and infer limits on the strength of the magnetic field based on models of emission for High-frequency peaked BL Lacs.

  6. Spatial variability of initial 230Th/ 232Th in modern Porites from the inshore region of the Great Barrier Reef

    Clark, Tara R.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Done, Terry J.; Jupiter, Stacy; Lough, Janice; Pandolfi, John M.

    2012-02-01

    The main limiting factor in obtaining precise and accurate uranium-series (U-series) ages of corals that lived during the last few hundred years is the ability to constrain and correct for initial thorium-230 ( 230Th 0), which is proportionally much higher in younger samples. This is becoming particularly important in palaeoecological research where accurate chronologies, based on the 230Th chronometer, are required to pinpoint changes in coral community structure and the timing of mortality events in recent time (e.g. since European settlement of northern Australia in the 1850s). In this study, thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) U-series dating of 43 samples of known ages collected from living Porites spp. from the far northern, central and southern inshore regions of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) was performed to spatially constrain initial 230Th/ 232Th ( 230Th/ 232Th 0) variability. In these living Porites corals, the majority of 230Th/ 232Th 0 values fell within error of the conservative bulk Earth 230Th/ 232Th atomic value of 4.3 ± 4.3 × 10 -6 (2 σ) generally assumed for 230Th 0 corrections where the primary source is terrestrially derived. However, the results of this study demonstrate that the accuracy of 230Th ages can be further improved by using locally determined 230Th/ 232Th 0 values for correction, supporting the conclusion made by Shen et al. (2008) for the Western Pacific. Despite samples being taken from regions adjacent to contrasting levels of land modification, no significant differences were found in 230Th/ 232Th 0 between regions exposed to varying levels of sediment during river runoff events. Overall, 39 of the total 43 230Th/ 232Th 0 atomic values measured in samples from inshore reefs across the entire region show a normal distribution ranging from 3.5 ± 1.1 to 8.1 ± 1.1 × 10 -6, with a weighted mean of 5.76 ± 0.34 × 10 -6 (2 σ, MSWD = 8.1). Considering the scatter of the data, the weighted mean value with a more

  7. Studies of positron electron pair production in {sup 238}U + {sup 232}Th

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Following the non-observation of sharp sum-energy lines in our earlier {sup 238}U + {sup 181}Ta measurements, it was decided to pursue measurements of the {sup 238}U + {sup 232}Th system which, in the previously published work, showed the most striking evidence for near-equal-energy back-to-back pairs leading to sharp sum-energy lines. Following the refurbishing of the APEX silicon arrays and extensive tests of the rotating target wheel assembly, a major positron run took place in November 1994. Rolled 1-mg/cm{sub 2} {sup 232}Th targets were bombarded with 5.95-MeV/u {sup 238}U. The target rotation allowed up to 2 pnA of beam to be used without serious deterioration of the targets. Over 300,000 pairs were accumulated, representing an order-of-magnitude improvement in statistics over the previously published results. Preliminary analysis shows no evidence for the sharp lines at a cross section level orders of magnitude below those previously reported. The analysis of these data is currently being completed in preparation for publication.

  8. A family with an inverted tandem duplication 5q22.1q23.2.

    Schmidt, T; Bartels, I; Liehr, T; Burfeind, P; Zoll, B; Shoukier, M

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report a 3-year-old boy with short stature, developmental delay and mild facial dysmorphic signs. Karyotype analysis and array-CGH revealed a pure duplication 5q22.1q23.2 with a length of 14.25 Mb. As demonstrated by multicolor-fluorescence in situ hybridization, the duplicated segment was orientated in an inverted tandem manner. One of the 2 older half-brothers of the index patient was intellectually disabled and showed short stature as well. The mother of the siblings was only 149 cm in height. The affected half-brother as well as the mother of the siblings were tested positive for the same duplication. Duplications of the long arm of chromosome 5 are rare. There are 16 reported cases of different 5q segments with a pure duplication and no additional chromosomal imbalance. In order to refine the 5q-duplication phenotype, reported cases were recently classified in 3 groups on the basis of clinical findings and the involved chromosome segments. However, our case does not fit in any of these groups but is placed in the interjacent chromosomal area between 2 of these groups. Overall, this is the second reported family with a duplication of 5q22.1q23.2 and both families share phenotypic features like short stature, facial dysmorphic signs and speech delay. The reported family provides further information for delineating phenotype-genotype correlations of pure duplications of the 5q region. PMID:23051634

  9. Determination of specific concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th in mineral fertilizer samples

    The use of fertilizer is an established practice worldwide to promote agricultural productivity increased without increasing the planted area, resulting in native forests protection and increase of the food availability. Some kinds of fertilizer have in their chemical composition some radionuclides due the origin of its feedstock, such as 238U, the 232Th, and their descendants, beyond 40K. Knowledge of the radioactivity levels in the environment is great importance to know the gamma radiation dose that the human being is exposed. For identification and quantitation of radionuclides, it was used gamma spectrometry where HPGe detector was used to obtain the spectra, and LabSOCS software for calculating the detection efficiency for each energy. The values of 232Th specific concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 368.1 Bq.Kg-1, the values of 238U specific concentrations ranged from 16.0 to 647.7 Bq.Kg-1 and 40K specific concentrations ranged from 19.1 to 12713 Bq.Kg-1. Concentrations of values are consistent with those found in literature. (author)

  10. High resolution photofission measurements in 238U and 232Th. Final report

    A novel technique for measuring the photofission cross section with very high photon energy resolution has been developed. The photons are obtained from selected resonances in the (p,γ) reaction on various light nuclei. The photon energy resolution approaches 200 eV in favorable cases. The photon energy spread at each (p,γ) resonance is approx.20 keV on the average. Measurements of the photo-fission cross sections of 232Th and 238U have been carried out in the energy range from 5.8 to 12 MeV. Intermediate structure has been found in both nuclei at excitation energies around 6 MeV. Various properties of this structure, such as average areas of resonances, their spacing, width, and the underlying bakground, as well as the experimental fission probability averaged over the intermediate structure have been found to agree with theoretical predictions based on a double-humped fission barrier. In the case of 232Th, the feature of this barrier, a rather high first hump and a deep secondary well, are quite different from those predicted by current theoretial barrier calculations. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Natural activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K in building materials

    Seven kinds of building materials were analysed for 238U, 232Th and 40K using a direct γ-counting method. The activity concentrations measured for 238U (30-448 Bq kg-1) and 40K (328-7541 Bq kg-1) were greater than the world average activity for soil (25 and 370 Bq kg-1, respectively) for all building materials analysed, while the activity concentrations of 232Th were found to exceed the average of 25 Bq kg-1 (soil) for red-clay brick (51 Bq kg-1) and ceiling asbestos sheet materials (162 Bq kg-1). The calculated Ra equivalent activities (Raeq) for all materials are higher than the world average value for soil (89 Bq kg-1). For red-clay brick and ceiling asbestos, the Raeq values are found to exceed the limit of 370 Bq kg-1, equivalent to a γ-dose of 1.5 mSv yr-1. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Laboratory Bioaccumulation, Depuration And Total Dose Rate Of Waterborne Th-232 In Freshwater Fish Of Anabas Testudineus

    Preliminary results on the study of bioaccumulation, depuration and total dose rate of Th-232 in the whole body of Anabas testudineus are presented. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Th-232 concentration activity on the laboratory bioaccumulation, depuration and total dose rate in Anabas testudineus. Anabas testudineus adults were exposed to different waterborne Th-232 levels: 0 BqL-1 (control), 50 BqL-1 and 100 BqL-1 for 30 day (uptake phase), followed by exposure to radionuclide-free water for 30 days (loss phase). Radionuclide concentration ratios between the whole body levels and water levels, percentage of Th-232 remaining in fish were calculated and total dose rates using ERICA Assessment Tool were also estimated. The results showed the increase of waterborne Th-232 concentration corresponded to a progressive increase of Th accumulation and total dose rate (internal and external) in the whole body of Anabas testudineus. Considering the ERICA dose rate screening value of 10 μGyh-1, the findings can be concluded the estimated of total dose rate (< 5 μGyh-1) in Anabas testudineus is in order of small magnitude. Nevertheless, these preliminary results showed that the Anabas testudineus has a potential to accumulate thorium. (author)

  13. Analysis on Forensic Identification of Family Violence in 232 Cases%232例家庭暴力损伤法医学鉴定分析

    张鹏坤

    2006-01-01

    目的研究家庭暴力损伤的法医学特点.方法对232例家庭暴力案件资料按年龄、文化程度、职业、凶器、损伤部位、时间列表进行统计学处理.结果家庭暴力具有较强的隐蔽性的特点,多发生在家中及夜间;被鉴定人的心理较复杂、年龄多集中在26~35岁之间、小学到中专之间随着文化程度的增高鉴定的比例呈上升趋势,有职业者多于无职业者,城镇明显多于农村.结论被鉴定人的心理、年龄、文化程度、职业与法医学鉴定的关系密切,对遏止家庭暴力的发生具有重要意义.

  14. 基于C8051F040的CAN总线与RS-232通信设计%Design of communication between CAN bus and RS-232 based on C8051F040

    盛伟荃; 曾连荪

    2014-01-01

    为了实现对CAN总线和RS-232串口双向通信需求,提出了一种基于C8051F040单片机的数据通信方案,并完成系统设计.分析了CAN总线和RS-232串口的通信特点,介绍了单片机硬件,并对软件的设计思路与流程做了详尽描述,完成功能检测.实验结果表明,该设计达到了要求.

  15. Computational investigation of 99Mo production yield via proton irradiation of natU and 232Th targets

    Accelerators have some advantages such as safety and cheaper operating and decommissioning costs for 99Mo production. Yield theoretical calculation using computational codes can powerfully estimate usefulness of a proposed nuclear reaction for a routine manufacturing. In this work, Monte Carlo-based code was used to compute 99Mo yield in 232Th and natU proton-irradiated targets, as well as maximum applicable beam current. Results showed that the code well agrees with published experimental data. The targets can bear maximum beam current of 30 µA. Targets from 232Th provides higher 99Mo yield. - Highlights: • Accelerators have a number of advantages over nuclear reactors for 99Mo radioisotope production. • Computational yield calculation can powerfully estimate a proposed nuclear reaction usefulness. • Proton-fission induced reactions on 232Th and natU thick targets result in desirable yield of 99Mo. • Deposited heat calculations determines maximum bearable proton current by the targets

  16. Novel Mutations L228I and Y232H Cause Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Resistance in Combinational Pattern.

    Zhang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Qiwei; Wu, Hao; Lau, Terrence Chi-Kong; Liu, Xuan; Chu, Hin; Zhang, Ke; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Jin, Dong-Yan; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of drug resistance mutations is increasing after the implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. To characterize two novel mutations L228I and Y232H in the primer grip of reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1 circulating recombination form 08_BC (CRF08_BC) subtype, both mutant clones were constructed to determine their impacts on viral phenotypic susceptibility and replication capacity (RC). Results showed that the novel mutation, L228I, conferred a low-level resistance to etravirine by itself. L228I in combination with Y188C displayed a high level of cross-resistance to both nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz (EFV). The copresence of A139V and Y232H induced a moderate level of resistance to NVP and EFV. Mutations Y188C/L228I, A139V, Y232H, and A139V/Y232H reduced more than 55% of viral RC compared with that of the wild-type (WT) reference virus. Modeling study suggested that the copresence of Y188C/L228I or A139V/Y232H might induce conformational changes to RT, which might result in reduced drug susceptibility and viral RC due to abolished hydrogen bonding or complex interaction with vicinal residues. Our results demonstrated that L228I and Y232H were novel accessory nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance-related mutations and provided valuable information for clinicians to design more effective treatment to patients infected with HIV-1 subtype CRF08_BC. PMID:27067022

  17. Prompt γ-rays from the Fast Neutron Induced Fission on 235,238U and 232Th

    Lebois, M.; Wilson, J. N.; Halipré, P.; Leniau, B.; Matea, I.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Verney, D.

    Preliminary results from the first experiment using the LICORNE neutron source at the IPN Orsay are presented. Prompt fission gamma rays from fast-neutron induced fission of 238U, 232Th and 235U were detected. Thick samples of around 50 g of 238U and 232Th are used for the first part of the experiment. An ionisation chamber containing ∼ 10 mg samples of 238U and 235U to provide a fission trigger is used for the second part of the experiment. Gamma rays have been detected using 17 high efficiency BaF2 detectors and 6 LaBr3 scintillator detectors.

  18. Radioactivity of Natural Nuclides (40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra) in Coals from Eastern Yunnan, China

    Xin Wang; Qiyan Feng; Ruoyu Sun; Guijian Liu

    2015-01-01

    The naturally occurring primordial radionuclides in coals might exhibit high radioactivity, and can be exported to the surrounding environment during coal combustion. In this study, nine coal samples were collected from eastern Yunnan coal deposits, China, aiming at characterizing the overall radioactivity of some typical nuclides (i.e., 40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra) and assessing their ecological impact. The mean activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 226Ra are 63.86 (17.70–92.30 Bq· kg-...

  19. Assessment of environmental radioactivity (238U, 232Th and 40K) and radiological mapping of Tata Nagar city (Jharkhand), India

    Study on the natural radioactivity concentration levels (238U, 232Th and 40K) in soil samples of Tata Nagar city obtained from seven locations at Tata Nagar city, India was undertaken and the results of the same are reported. In addition, radiological mapping of natural background gamma radiation levels was carried out throughout Tata Nagar city using vehicle based Mobile monitoring technique and the same is presented here. The activity concentrations were assayed and estimated for 238U, 232Th and 40K isotopes in Bq/Kg, using gamma ray spectrometry and the radiation dose rates were estimated. (author)

  20. Fission Fragment Angular Distribution of 232Th(n,f) at the CERN n_TOF Facility

    Tarrío, D; Audouin, L; Duran, I.; Paradela, C.; Tassan-Got, L; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T J; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    The angular distribution of fragments emitted in neutron-induced fission of Th-232 was measured in the white spectrum neutron beam at the n\\_TOF facility at CERN. A reaction chamber based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) was used, where the detectors and the targets have been tilted 45 degrees with respect to the neutron beam direction in order to cover the full angular range of the fission fragments. A GEANT4 simulation has been developed to study the setup efficiency. The data analysis and the preliminary results obtained for the Th-232(n,f) between fission threshold and 100 MeV are presented here.

  1. 232Th(d,4n)230Pa cross-section measurements at ARRONAX facility

    Full text of publication follows. The ARRONAX cyclotron [Ref.1], acronym for 'Accelerator for Research in Radiochemistry and Oncology at Nantes Atlantique' is a new facility installed in Nantes, France. A dedicated program has been launched on production of innovative radionuclides for PET imaging and for β- and α- targeted radiotherapy using proton or α particle. Since the accelerator is also able to deliver deuteron beams up to 35 MeV, we have reconsidered the possibility to use them to produce medical isotopes. In this study, we have focused on cross section measurements using the stacked-foil technique [Ref. 2] of one isotope dedicated to alpha radio-immunotherapy (α RIT) [Ref.3], 226Th which can be produced through different routes. It's of great interest since it has been found to be a more potent alpha particle emitter for leukemia therapies than Bi213 [Ref.4]. Indeed, the 226Th decay produced a cascade of four α particles with a cumulated energy of 27.7 MeV. An additional interest is the possible use of a radionuclide generator system 230U/226Th. 230U could be produced directly via 231Pa(p, 2n)230U, and indirectly via 230Pa using proton or deuteron beams through 232Th(p, 3n)230Pa → 230U, 232Th(d, 4n)230Pa → 230U. Twelve data sets are published concerning the 230Pa cross section induced by proton [Ref 5], only one by deuteron [Ref.6]. As sometimes deuteron induced reaction gives higher cross section values, it seems interesting to focus our study on their use as projectile on 232Th target to produce 230Pa. Contaminants created during irradiation are also measured since a good optimization of the process is supposed to find the best compromise between production yield and purity of the final product. Our new sets of data are compared with the existing data [Refs.5,6] on other existing production routes and with results given by TALYS code calculations [Ref.7]. References: 1] F. Haddad and al., Eur. J. Med. Mol. Imaging (2008) 35

  2. Measurement of the probability of 232Th ternary fission induced by fast neutrons

    Results obtained by measuring the energy dependence of the probability of 232Th ternary fission in the region of vibrational resonances are presented. The measurements were performed by using a double ionization chamber with Frisch grids and a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector. The use of digital methods for pulse processing made it possible to obtain highly reliable results. The data analysis reveals that our value of the ternary-fission probability is compatible with existing systematics, which nevertheless need some correction. The results of our measurements unambiguously indicate that local variations in the total kinetic energy of fission fragments in the region of the individual vibrational resonances cannot be explained by corresponding variations in the ternary-fission probability

  3. Evaluation of the 232Th neutron capture cross section above 3 keV

    This memo describes an evaluation of the 232Th neutron capture cross section in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 20 MeV. Most existing differential measurements are reviewed, and some data are renormalized to current values of the standards. Several experimentally determined sets of average resonance parameters are also discussed. From 3 to 50 keV the evaluated cross section is described by a set of average statistical resonance parameters. Above 50 keV the evaluated capture cross section is a smooth curve which follows the trend of the most recent measurements. The evaluated capture cross section is compared with many measurements and uncertainty estimates are given

  4. Study on the formation of fission isomer via 232Th + α reaction

    The formation of fission isomer through 232Th+α reaction is studied using the distance-recoil method, employing policarbonate MAKROFOL detector. The total isomeric half-life measured has the value T1/2 = 0.23 ± 0.03 ns and an ratio of formation of isomeric fission relative to prompt fission(σi/σp =0.75x10-5). According to the energy of incident particle (Eα = 28 MeV), the cross-sections presented in the literature and the low value found for the total isomeric half-life, we attribute these half-life value to the 234U isomer (even-even nucleus). The results were compared with those existent in the literature (La69, E170, Re70, Wo70, Po70, Br71) for this isomer. (author)

  5. Spectroscopy of 232U in the (p,t) reaction: More information on 0+ states

    Levon, A I; Graw, G; Yertenberger, R; Pascu, S; Thirolf, P G; Wirth, H -F

    2016-01-01

    The excitation spectra in the deformed nucleus 232U have been studied by means of the (p,t) reaction, using the Q3D spectrograph facility at the Munich Tandem accelerator. The angular distributions of tritons were measured for 162 excitations seen in the triton spectra up to 3.25 MeV. 0+ assignments are made for 13 excited states by comparison of experimental angular distributions with the calculated ones using the CHUCK3 code. Assignments up to spin 6+ are made for other states. Sequences of states are selected which can be treated as rotational bands. Moments of inertia have been derived from these sequences, whose values may be considered as evidence of the two- or one-phonon nature of these 0+ excitations. Experimental data are compared with interacting boson model (IBM) and quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM) calculations.

  6. Data acquisition from vacuum gage controlled by RS-232 standard using LabVIEW

    This paper deals with the problem of connecting a microcontroller-based vacuum gage to a personal computer, using the RS-232 hardware standard and the software LabVIEW and his collection of virtual instruments from National Instruments. To solve the problem an instrument driver was created. This provided the customer with a perfect solution for the remote control and data acquisition from an Intel 80CXX microcontroller-based vacuum gage. The remote control making use of an IBM-PC was design and manufactured in our institute. In order to make it intelligent the device was provided with a microprocessor or a microcontroller. To fulfill the requirements a vacuum gage with an 80C31 microcontroller and two Bayard-Alpert ion gauges, for very low pressures (10-3 to 10-7 mbar) and low pressure (10 mbar to 10-3 mbar) was built. Because this microcontroller has a built-in circuitry for a serial communication, we established a serial communication between the PC (Pentium -166 MHz) and the vacuum gage, according to the RS-232 hardware standard. Optimum selection of software development tools however, was not as straightforward. Most producers use the C/C++ - language programming tool for developing instrument drivers for their intelligent devices. One of the advantages of C/C++ is its speed, but the compilation and the high-level skill required for optimum programming do not fit well with some requirements, particularly those of versatility, upgradability and user friendliness. After careful evaluation of several options, a final decision was to develop a hybrid software package using two different software development tools: LabVIEW, and assembly language. We chose LabVIEW because it is dedicated to data acquisition and communications, containing libraries for data collection, analysis, presentation and storage. The assembly language for Intel 8051's microcontrollers family is used to write the firmware for the vacuum gage and arithmetic routines. (authors)

  7. 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K in wheat flour samples of Iraq markets

    Ali Abid Abojassim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Wheat flour is a nutritious type of food that is widely consumed by various age groups in Iraq. This study investigates the presence of long-lived gamma emitters in different type of wheat flour in Iraqi market. Materials and methods. Uranium (238 U, Thorium (232 Th and Potassium (40 K specific activity in (Bq/kg were measured in (12 different types of wheat flours that are available in Iraqi markets. The gamma spectrometry method with a NaI(Tl detector has been used for radiometric measurements. Also in this study we have calculated the internal hazard index, radium equivalent and absorbed dose rate in all samples. Results and discussion. It is found that the specific activity in wheat flour samples were varied from (1.086±0.0866 Bq/kg to (12.532±2.026 Bq/kg with an average (6.6025 Bq/kg for 238 U, For 232 Th From (0.126±0.066 Bq/kg to (4.298±0.388 Bq/kg with an average (1.9465Bq/kg and for 40 K from (41.842±5.875 Bq/kg to (264.729±3.843 Bq/kg with an average (133.097 Bq/kg. Also, it is found that the radium equivalent and the internal hazard index in wheat flour samples ranged from (3.4031 Bq/kg to (35.1523 Bq/kg with an average (19.6346 Bq/kg and from (0.0091 to (0.1219 with an average (0.0708 respectively. Conclusion. This study prove that the natural radioactivity and radiation hazard indices were lower than the safe.

  8. 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K in wheat flour samples of Iraq markets

    A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Wheat flour is a nutritious type of food that is widely consumed by various age groups in Iraq. This study investigates the presence of long-lived gamma emitters in different type of wheat flour in Iraqi market. Materials and methods. Uranium ( 238 U, Thorium ( 232 Th and Potassium ( 40 K specific activity in (Bq/kg were measured in (12 different types of wheat flours that are available in Iraqi markets. The gamma spectrometry method with a NaI(Tl detector has been used for radiometric measurements. Also in this study we have calculated the internal hazard index, radium equivalent and absorbed dose rate in all samples. Results and discussion. It is found that the specific activity in wheat flour samples were varied from (1.086±0.0866 Bq/kg to (12.532±2.026 Bq/kg with an average (6.6025 Bq/kg for 238 U, For 232 Th From (0.126±0.066 Bq/kg to (4.298±0.388 Bq/kg with an average (1.9465Bq/kg and for 40 K from (41.842±5.875 Bq/kg to (264.729±3.843 Bq/kg with an average (133.097 Bq/kg. Also, it is found that the radium equivalent and the internal hazard index in wheat flour samples ranged from (3.4031 Bq/kg to (35.1523 Bq/kg with an average (19.6346 Bq/kg and from (0.0091 to (0.1219 with an average (0.0708 respectively. Conclusion. This study prove that the natural radioactivity and radiation hazard indices were lower than the safe.

  9. Integral Fission Cross Section Ratios of Th232, U236 and U238 Relative to U235 in the Neutron Spectrum Produced by 23.2 MeV Deuterons Incident on a Thick Be Metal Target

    Integral neutron fission cross section ratios have been measured for Th232 /U238 , U23S/U235 and U236/U235 in the neutron field produced by bombardment of a thick Be metal target with 23.2 MeV deuterons. Validation of Th232, U236, U23S fission cross sections in a high energy neutron continuum spectrum is the object of this work. The neutron spectrum in the irradiation site has been obtained by unfolding of the neutron induced activity of eleven selected reactions. The average standard deviation between calculated activities with SAND-II unfolding code and the experimental input activities was 2.5%. Calculated values of the fission cross section ratios were obtained from, the ENDF/B-y evaluated library of cross sections and the measured spectrum. These ratios were not sensitive (<0.7%) to quite different SAND-II input spectra assumed in the low energy spectrum range (0.5 to 2. MeV). Analysis of error sources, errors propagation and their correlations was made and the correlation matrix of the experimental results was calculated. The experimental and calculated values obtained are consistent within the errors. Examination of the fissile ratios measured in other continuum neutron spectra shows a similar consistency in the spectrum produced by 7 MeV deuterons on Be. However in Cf252 and thermal U235 fission neutron spectra, a large discrepancy is found for Th232. (author)

  10. Analysis of HIV antibody test results in 232 HIV/AIDS and their spouses or fixed sex partners%232例HIV/AIDS配偶/固定性伴HIV抗体检测结果分析

    徐智贤; 王志苏; 李春梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the infection status and sexual behavior of the HIVsexual transmission among HIV/AIDS and their spouses or fixed sex partners,and provide the basis for the prevention and spread of HIV infection.Methods:HIV antibody was detected in blood samples of HIV/AIDS cases and their spouses or fixed sex partners.Results:HIV antibody test results showed that 48 positive cases were found in 232 spouses of HIV/AIDS cases,the rate of HIV infection through sexual transmission was 20.69% (48/232).Among 31 positive male spouses,the HIV transmission rate of female-to-male was 21.68% (31/143); while in 17 positive female spouses,the HIV transmission rate of male-to-female was 19.10% (17/89).(x2 =0.222,P>0.05).The transmission rate of male-female and female-male had no significant statistical difference.HIV/AIDS and their spouses or fixed sex partners were at low education level,most were junior high school and below,accounting for 84.48% (196/232); The farmers ranked the top,accounting for 78.45% (182/232); The high peak age was between 30 and 39 years old,46.12% (107/232); The condom useage rate was extremely low.The couples with infection time interval less than three months accounted for 83.33% (40/48).Conclusion:It is effective to expand the detection range,carry out timely missionary and intervention,increase condom use for blocking the HIV transmission through sexual behaviors between spouses.%目的:掌握本市HIV/AIDS配偶/固定性伴感染现状,为预防该人群HIV感染和传播提供依据.方法:对已确认的HIV/AIDS配偶/固定性伴采血进行HIV抗体检测.结果:对232例配偶进行HIV抗体检测,检出阳性48例,配偶间传播率为20.69%(48/232).男配偶检出31例,女传男的概率为21.68%(31/143);女配偶检出17例,男传女的概率为19.10%(17/89).经x2检验,x2=0.222,P>0.05.男传女和女传男的HIV传播率差异无统计学意义.HIV/AIDS配偶/固定性伴文化

  11. Measurement of Fragment Mass Distributions in Neutron-induced Fission of 238U and 232Th at Intermediate Energies

    Conceptual analysis of accelerator-driven systems assumes extensive use of nuclear data on neutron-induced reactions at intermediate energies. In particular, information about the fission fragment yields from the 238U(n,f) and 232Th(n,f) reactions is of particular interest at neutron energies from 10 to 200 MeV. However, there is a lack of such data for both 238U and 232Th. Up to now, the intermediate energy measurements have been performed for 238U only, and there are no data for the 232Th(n,f) reaction. The aim of the work is to provide such data. Fission fragment mass distributions for the 232Th(n,f) and 238U(n,f) reactions have been measured for the incident neutron energies 32.8 MeV, 45.3 MeV and 59.9 MeV. The experiments have been performed at the neutron beam facility of the Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium. A multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber has been used as a fission fragment detector. The data obtained have been interpreted in terms of the multimodal random neck-rupture model (MMRNRM). (authors)

  12. 42 CFR 457.232 - Refunding of Federal Share of CHIP overpayments to providers and referral of allegations of waste...

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refunding of Federal Share of CHIP overpayments to... Claims; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.232 Refunding of Federal Share of CHIP overpayments.... (a) Quarterly Federal payments to the States under title XXI (CHIP) of the Act are to be reduced...

  13. Criticality safety control for source term reduction in Scrubber Glovebox of Building 232-Z. CSER 90-006, Addendum 1

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report addendum extends the coverage of the original CSAR (90-006) about dismantling the ductwork in 232-Z to include cleanout of the Scrubber Glovebox, with an estimated residual Pu holdup of less than 200 grams. The procedures for keeping any materials inside or removed dry is retained as part of the qualification as a Limited Control Facility

  14. 78 FR 32460 - Comment Request for Information Collection for ETA Form 232, Domestic Agricultural In-Season Wage...

    2013-05-30

    ... in an area of employment most logically correlates to the process used to determine the prevailing... handling of intrastate and interstate job clearance orders seeking workers to perform agricultural or food... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for ETA Form 232,...

  15. Measurement of fission products yields in the quasi-mono-energetic neutron-induced fission of 232Th

    Naik, H.; Mukherji, Sadhana; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Jagadeesan, K. C.; Thakare, S. V.; Sharma, S. C.

    2016-08-01

    The cumulative yields of various fission products in the 232Th(n, f) reaction at average neutron energies of 5.42, 7.75, 9.35 and 12.53 MeV have been determined by using an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The neutron beam was produced from the 7Li(p, n) reaction by using the proton energies of 7.8, 12, 16 and 20 MeV. The mass chain yields were obtained from the cumulative fission yields by using the charge distribution correction of medium energy fission. The fine structure in the mass yield distribution was interpreted from the point of nuclear structure effect. On the other hand, the higher yield around mass number 133-134 and 143-144 as well as their complementary products were explained based on the standard I and standard II asymmetric mode of fission. From the mass yield data, the average value of light mass (), heavy mass (), the average number of neutrons () and the peak-to-valley (P / V) ratios at different neutron energies of present work and literature data were obtained in the 232Th(n, f) reaction. The different parameters of the mass yield distribution in the 232Th(n, f) reaction were compared with the similar data in the 232Th(γ, f) reaction at comparable excitation energy and a surprising difference was observed.

  16. The first detection of the 232 GHz vibrationally excited H2O maser in Orion KL with ALMA

    Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the ALMA science verification data of Orion KL and found a spectral signature of the vibrationally excited H2O maser line at 232.68670 GHz (nu2=1, 5,5,0-6,4,3). This line has been detected in circumstellar envelopes of late-type stars so far but not in young stellar objects including Orion KL. Thus, this is the first detection of the 232 GHz vibrationally excited H2O maser in star-forming regions. The distribution of the 232 GHz maser is concentrated at the position of the radio Source I, which is remarkably different from other molecular lines. The spectrum shows a double-peak structure at the peak velocities of -2.1 and 13.3 km s-1. It appears to be consistent with the 22 GHz H2O masers and 43 GHz SiO masers observed around Source I. Thus, the 232 GHz H2O maser around Source I would be excited by the internal heating by an embedded protostar, being associated with either the root of the outflows/jets or the circumstellar disk around Source I, as traced by the 22 GHz H2O masers or 43 GHz SiO ...

  17. THE FIRST DETECTION OF THE 232 GHz VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED H2O MASER IN ORION KL WITH ALMA

    We investigated the ALMA science verification data of Orion KL and found a spectral signature of the vibrationally excited H2O maser line at 232.68670 GHz (ν2 = 1, 55,0-64,3). This line has been detected previously in circumstellar envelopes of late-type stars but not in young stellar objects such as Orion KL. Thus, this is the first detection of the 232 GHz vibrationally excited H2O maser in star-forming regions. The distribution of the 232 GHz maser is concentrated at the position of the radio Source I, which is remarkably different from other molecular lines. The spectrum shows a double-peak structure at the peak velocities of –2.1 and 13.3 km s–1. It appears to be consistent with the 22 GHz H2O masers and 43 GHz SiO masers observed around Source I. Thus, the 232 GHz H2O maser around Source I would be excited by the internal heating by an embedded protostar, being associated with either the root of the outflows/jets or the circumstellar disk around Source I, as traced by the 22 GHz H2O masers or 43 GHz SiO masers, respectively.

  18. The value of B(E2;3/2- → 1/2-) for 7Li

    Previous experimental information from the Coulomb excitation of the 1/2- first excited state of 7Li is discussed and reanalysed, giving B(E2;3/2- → 1/2-) = 7.59 ± 0.10e2fm4. 28 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  19. 48 CFR 52.232-34 - Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer-Other than Central Contractor Registration.

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.232-34 Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer... payment. (1) All payments by the Government under this contract shall be made by electronic funds transfer... governing Federal payments through the ACH are contained in 31 CFR part 210. (d) Suspension of payment....

  20. Concentration of 238U and 232Th among constituent minerals of two igneous plutonic rocks exhibiting elevated natural radioactivity levels

    The concentrations of 238U and 232Th of the constituent minerals in two plutonic rock samples, from N. Greece, exhibiting elevated levels of bulk rock natural radioactivity were determined by using LA-ICP-MS. The available data of whole rock 238U and 232Th concentrations were also used. The minerals were separated using a combination of heavy liquids of various densities, shaking table and magnetic separation techniques. The great variation in the concentrations of 238U and 232Th is probably indicative of the different distribution of U and Th within the same rock, as well as to secondary post-magmatic processes that were responsible for the redistribution of U and Th. An estimation of the contribution of each mineral constituent to the natural radioactivity levels of the bulk rock is attempted. Thorite and zircon contribute the most to the whole rock 238U and 232Th content, while the contribution of apatite is moderate. The contribution of the rest of the minerals examined (fluorite, quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, amphibole, pyroxene, magnetite and biotite) is not important. (author)

  1. 50 CFR 23.2 - How do I decide if these regulations apply to my shipment or me?

    2010-10-01

    ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Introduction § 23.2 How do I decide if these regulations... a controlled environment) listed in Appendix I, II, or III of CITES (see § 23.91)? (1) YES. Continue... wildlife or plant specimen exempted from CITES (see § 23.92)? (1) YES. The regulations in this part do...

  2. U-238, Th-232, K-40 along the main 3 km adit of the Baksan Neutrino Observatory

    Results of the U-238, Th-232, K-40 contents in the mountain rock samples along 3 km adit of the Baksan Neutrino Observatory are presented. Recommendations on selection of suitable site for the low-background underground laboratory are given

  3. Gastric cancer at a university teaching hospital in northwestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 232 cases

    Mabula Joseph B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite marked decreases in its incidence, particularly in developed countries, gastric cancer is still the second most common tumor worldwide. There is a paucity of information regarding gastric cancer in northwestern Tanzania. This study was undertaken to describe our experience, in our local setting, on the management of gastric cancer, outlining the clinicopathological and treatment outcome of these patients and suggesting ways to improve the treatment outcome. Methods This was a retrospective study of histologically confirmed cases of gastric cancer seen at Bugando Medical Centre between January 2007 and December 2011. Data were retrieved from patients’ files and analyzed using SPSS computer software version 17.0. Results A total of 232 gastric cancer patients were enrolled in the study, representing 4.5% of all malignancies. The male to female ratio was 2.9:1. The median age of patients was 52 years. The majority of the patients (92.1% presented late with advanced gastric cancer (Stages III and IV. Lymph node and distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis was recorded in 31.9% and 29.3% of cases, respectively. The antrum was the most frequent anatomical site (56.5% involved and gastric adenocarcinoma (95.1% was the most common histopathological type. Out of 232 patients, 223 (96.1% patients underwent surgical procedures for gastric cancer of which gastro-jejunostomy was the most frequent performed surgical procedure, accounting for 53.8% of cases. The use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy was documented in 56 (24.1% and 12 (5.1% patients, respectively. Postoperative complication and mortality rates were 37.1% and 18.1%, respectively. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, preoperative co-morbidity, histological grade and stage of the tumor, presence of metastases at the time of diagnosis was the main predictors of death (P P Conclusions Gastric cancer in this region shows a trend towards relative

  4. Study of the violent collisions between 63Cu+232Th at 35 MeV/nucleon

    Cibor, J.; Majka, Z.; Kozik, T.; Staszel, P.; Sosin, Z.; Hagel, K.; Li, J.; Lou, L.; Tezkratt, R.; Utley, D.; Wada, R.; Xiao, B.; Natowitz, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the decay of hot and heavy composite nuclei produced in the violent collisions between 63Cu and 232Th at 35A MeV is presented. The measurement of fission fragment correlations indicates that ~ 70% of the projectile linear momentum can be transferred to the fissioning system. Heavy reaction products were observed at a laboratory angle of θ=6° in coincidence with neutrons, light charged particles, and intermediate mass fragments. The dynamical aspects of the collisions between the projectile and target nuclei were investigated using the computer code CHIMERA which is based upon the molecular dynamics concept. Asymptotic characteristics of the reaction products were confronted with results of calculations of the tandem CHIMERA plus GEMINI codes. The data and model comparisons show that a composite system of mass as high as 275 amu and with an excitation energy ~ 1 GeV is formed in the most violent collisions. Some of the heavy reaction remnants are located on the fragment mass versus velocity plane inside the area where the evaporation residues resulting from the decay of the hot composite system are expected. A high neutron multiplicity associated with these events indicates their origin in the most dissipative events. However, a low cross section for the production of these remnants and the close similarity of their characteristics to the fission fragments do not allow more conclusive statements.

  5. Design study of Thorium-232 and Protactinium-231 based fuel for long life BWR

    Trianti, N.; Su'ud, Z.; Riyana, E. S.

    2012-06-01

    A preliminary design study for the utilization of thorium added with 231Pa based fuel on BWR type reactor has been performed. In the previous research utilization of fuel based Thorium-232 and Uranium-233 show 10 years operation time with maximum excess-reactivity about 4.075% dk/k. To increase reactor operation time and reduce excess-reactivity below 1% dk/k, Protactinium (Pa-231) is used as Burnable Poison. Protactinium-231 has very interesting neutronic properties, which enable the core to reduce initial excess-reactivity and simultaneously increase production of 233U to 231Pa in burn-up process. Optimizations of the content of 231Pa in the core enables the BWR core to sustain long period of operation time with reasonable burn-up reactivity swing. Based on the optimization of fuel element composition (Th and Pa) in various moderation ratio we can get reactor core with longer operation time, 20 ˜ 30 years operation without fuel shuffling or refuelling, with average power densities maximum of about 35 watt/cc, and maximum excess-reactivity 0.56% dk/k.

  6. Transfer reaction cross sections from the interactions of 20Ne and 22Ne with 232Th

    A target of 232Th has been bombarded with 114 MeV 22Ne and with 114 MeV and 129 MeV 20Ne beams. Recoiling reaction products were chemically isolated and the cross sections for protactinium, uranium, and neptunium isotopes were determined. The width of the cross section distributions for a given Z and their neutron-richness are the same as those for similar transfers in Ne+ 248Cm reactions. Population of low spin isomeric states is favored in these reactions over population of high spin states. As was seen in reactions with heavier targets, an increase in reaction energy does little to shift the evaporation residues toward neutron deficiency. The implications are that only primary products with little or no excitation energy and angular momentum survive the fission process to become evaporation residues in these systems, and that the production of these nuclides is more controlled by the change in the identity of the projectile than by the corresponding change in the target

  7. Measurement of the 232thorium capture cross section at n-TOF-CERN

    Within the context of nuclear power as a sustainable energy resource, a program of research is concentrated on a new nuclear fuel cycle based on thorium. The main advantage, as compared to the uranium cycle, is a lower production of minor actinides, of which the radiological impact on the long term constitutes a problem. At present, nuclear data libraries don't provide cross sections of a good enough quality, allowing more realistic calculations from simulations related to these reactors. The 232Th neutron capture cross section is an example. With the n-TOF collaboration, the measurement of this reaction was achieved in 2002 using two C6D6 detectors. The experimental area located at CERN, is characterized by an outstanding neutron energy resolution coupled to a high instantaneous neutron flux. The determination of the gamma-ray cascade detection efficiency, with a random behaviour, has been obtained by the use of weighting functions. These were deduced from Monte Carlo simulations with the code MCNP. Data extraction, reduction, and the description of the neutron flux have lead to the capture yield. In the resolved resonance region, the resonance parameters describing the cross section were deduced with the code SAMMY, using the R-matrix theory. In the unresolved resonance region, an uncertainty of 3,5% is found, and a comparison with recent measurements shows a good agreement. (author)

  8. Experience gained during remedial action at residential properties contaminated with Th-232 and Ra-226

    Seventeen residential properties contaminated with Th-232 and Ra-226 were decontaminated and restored by Bechtel National, Inc., during 1984 as part of the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The extent of contamination varied from only a few cubic yards of material in the edge of one lawn to extensive contamination around foundations and under basement floors. Three unusual case histories will be described in detail. In the first case, a few cubic yards of contamination were expected, but more than 100 cubic yards were found. In Case 2, contamination was found under the floor of an addition to a house. Case 3 involved a home built on a lot where contaminated soils had been used as fill material to depths of up to 10 feet. The remedial action included the removal of the basement, including the floor slab and foundation. This paper will provide details about several lessons learned during remedial action at residential properties: (a) radiological characterization surveys must be thorough; (b) interviews with owners can provide helpful information about unusual or unexpected contamination problems; (c) radiological monitoring during construction is necessary for efficient and thorough remedial action; and (d) good public relations are an important element of residential remedial action projects. While these lessons may seem to be common sense items, the circumstances that require their use are often very subtle. As the case histories show, successful remedial action requires constant vigilance and careful attention to details

  9. Resolution of USQ regarding source term in the 232-Z Waste Incinerator Building

    The 232-Z Waste Incinerator at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was used to incinerate plutonium-bearing combustible materials generated during normal plant operations. Nondestructive (NDA) measurements performed after the incinerator ceased operations indicated high plutonium loadings in exhaust ductwork near the incinerator glovebox, while the incinerator was found to have only low quantities. Measurements, following a campaign to remove some of the ductwork, resulted in markedly higher assay value for the incinerator glovebox itself. Subsequent assays confirmed the most recent results and pointed to a potential further underestimation of the holdup, in part because of attenuation due to fire brick, which could not be seen easily and which had been reported to not be present. NaI detector based measurements were used to map the deposits. Extended count times, using high resolution Ge detectors helped estimate the isotopic composition of the plutonium and quantify the deposits. Experiments were performed using a Ge detector to obtain adequate corrections for the high attenuation of the incinerator glovebox. Several neutron detectors and detector configurations were employed to understand and quantify the neutron flux. Due to the disparity that was anticipated to occur between the gamma ray and neutron assay results, radiation modeling was used to try to reconcile the divergent results. This was a third aspect of the team's effort, utilizing computer modeling to resolve discrepancies between measurement methods

  10. Analysis of 232 total fertilization failure cycles during intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Esma Sarikaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure ending with total fertilization failure is very distressfull event for both the clinician and the patient.Objective: The aim of this study was to identify independent factors which could be used to identify total fertilization failure before the day of intracytoplasmic sperm injection.Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 232 patients who were admitted to a tertiary-care hospital IVF Unit and showed total fertilization failure during intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. To sort out the interwined effects of female age, basal FSH, sperm quality, antral follicle count, starting dose of gonadotrophine, sperm extraction technique, cycle length, >14 mm follicle number, oocyte number after oocyte pick up, estradiol and progesterone level on the day of hCG and the MI, MII and GV oocyte number on the fertilization, multiple logistic regression analysis was used.Results: The total fertilization failure rate was 6% and the recurrance rate was 23%. The original model illustrated that the presence of GV oocytes, total oocyte number less than six, <2000 pg/mL E2 concentration on the day of hCG and testicular sperm extraction increases the total fertilization failure risk.Conclusion: It is very difficult to predict total fertilization failure. Sometimes even with one good quality oocyte and sperm and in the case of globozoospermia fertilization can be achieved. Not only azoospermia but also low oocyte numbers increase the chance of total fertilization failure even after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

  11. Two-photon laser excitation of trapped 232Th+ ions via the 402 nm resonance line

    Herrera-Sancho, O A; Zimmermann, K; Tamm, Chr; Peik, E; Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Glowacki, P

    2012-01-01

    Experiments on one- and two-photon laser excitation of 232Th+ ions in a radiofrequency ion trap are reported. As the first excitation step, the strongest resonance line at 402 nm from the 6d^2 7s J=3/2 ground state to the 6d7s7p J=5/2 state at 24874 cm^{-1} is driven by radiation from an extended cavity diode laser. Spontaneous decay of the intermediate state populates a number of low-lying metastable states, thus limiting the excited state population and fluorescence signal obtainable with continuous laser excitation. We study the collisional quenching efficiency of helium, argon, and nitrogen buffer gases, and the effect of repumping laser excitation from the three lowest-lying metastable levels. The experimental results are compared with a four-level rate equation model, that allows us to deduce quenching rates for these buffer gases. Using laser radiation at 399 nm for the second step, we demonstrate two-photon excitation to the state at 49960 cm^{-1}, among the highest-lying classified levels of Th+. Thi...

  12. Design of high-speed portable RS 232/422 signal simulator%高速便携式RS 232/422信号模拟器设计

    2013-01-01

    For the need of out⁃field troubleshooting for airborne flight test equipments or instrumentations,a high⁃speed por⁃table simulator which can simulate various aircraft’s RS 232/422 bus signals is designed based on FPGA and USB interface tech⁃nology. The signal simulator could generate 24 kinds of standard or nonstandard baud rate signals,it has USB interface,key⁃board and LED panel,and has the characteristics of easy setting,flexible operating,high reliability and low power consumption.%  为了飞行试验中机载测试设备或仪器外场排故的需要,利用FPGA和USB接口技术成功设计了可模拟当前各种飞机RS 232/422总线信号的高速便携式模拟器。该信号模拟器能产生24种标准或者非标准波特率的RS 232/422信号,拥有USB接口、键盘和LED显示屏等功能,具有设置简便,使用灵活,可靠性高以及耗电量低等特点。

  13. Natural activities of 40K, 238U and 232Th in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria

    Samples of elephant grass collected at some pasturing farmlands across different locations in Ibadan metropolis were analyzed for their natural radioactivity concentrations due to 40K, 238U and 232Th radionuclides. Radioactivity measurements were carried out using γ-ray spectroscopy. The average radioactivity concentration of 40K was found to be 64.5±8.1 Bq kg-1, 25.7±5.5 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 33.4±3.9 Bq kg-1 for 232Th. The radiological health implication to the population that may result from these values is found to be very low and almost insignificant. No artificial radionuclide, however, was detected in any of the samples, hence, measurements have been taken as representing baseline values of these radionuclides in the grass in the metropolis

  14. Clonal and horizontal spread of the blaOXA-232 gene among Enterobacteriaceae in a Korean hospital.

    Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyu Man; Lee, Jacob; Bae, Il Kwon; Kim, Jae-Seok; Kim, Han-Sung; Song, Wonkeun

    2015-05-01

    All 16 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and both Escherichia coli isolates harbored the bla(OXA-232) and bla(CTX-M-15) genes. Furthermore, all 16 K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to a unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clone and were assigned to an identical sequence type (ST14). The 2 E. coli isolates were identified as ST131 and ST457. The bla(OXA-232) gene underwent horizontal transfer to E. coli isolates via a conjugative ColE-type plasmid. The introduction of this K. pneumoniae ST14 strain to the Korean hospital was attributed to an index patient who was likely colonized during a prior hospitalization in India. PMID:25702524

  15. Measurement of 238U, 232Th and 40K in boreholes at Gosa and Lugbe, Abuja, north central Nigeria

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the suitability of different sites as locations for obtaining underground water for consumption. The analysis of 238U, 232Th and 40K from rock samples from each layer of borehole at a depth of ∼50 m at Site A borehole, S3L1-S3L6 in Gosa and 40 m at Site B borehole, S4L1-S4L5 in Lugbe, Abuja, north central Nigeria is presented. The gamma-ray spectrometry was carried out using a high-purity germanium detector coupled to a computer-based high-resolution multichannel analyzer. The activity concentrations at Site A borehole for 238U have a mean value of 26±3, ranging from 23±2 to 30±3 Bq kg-1, 232Th a mean value of 63±5, ranging from 48±4 to 76±6 Bq kg-1 and 40K a mean value of 573±72, ranging from 437±56 to 821±60 Bq kg-1. The activity concentrations at Site B borehole for 238U have a mean value of 20±2, ranging from 16±2 to 23±2 Bq kg-1, 232Th a mean value of 46±4, ranging from 43±4 to 49±4 Bq kg-1, 40K a mean value of 915±116 and ranging from 817±103 Bq kg-1 to 1011±128 Bq kg-1. It is noted that the higher activity concentrations of 232Th and 238U are found in Site A at Gosa. Site B has lower radioactivity, and it is recommended that both sites are suitable for underground water consumption. (authors)

  16. Determination of Photofission Fragment Characteristics of 234,238U and 232Th in the Barrier Region

    GÖÖK Alf

    2012-01-01

    The photofission of 232Th, 234U and 238U at excitation energies in the barrier region has been studied. The goal has been to extract information on the mass, total kinetic energy (TKE) and angular distributions of the fission fragments. The experiments were performed using bremsstrahlung, produced by an electron beam in a copper radiator at the injector of the Superconducting Darmstadt linear accelerator (S-DALINAC). Mass and TKE distributions were determined by means of the double kinet...

  17. Soil-to-root vegetable transfer factors for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 88Y in Malaysia

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) are of fundamental importance in assessing the environmental impact due to the presence of radioactivity in soil and agricultural crops. Tapioca and sweet potato, both root crops, are popular foodstuffs for a significant fraction of the Malaysian population, and result in intake of radionuclides. For the natural field conditions experienced in production of these foodstuffs, TFs and the annual effective dose were evaluated for the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and for the anthropogenic radionuclide 88Y, the latter being a component of fallout. An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptake. For soil samples from all study locations other than the experimental field, it has been shown that these contain the artificial radionuclide 88Y, although the uptake of 88Y has only been observed in the roots of the plant Manihot esculenta (from which tapioca is derived) grown in mining soil. The estimated TFs for 226Ra and 232Th for tapioca and sweet potato are very much higher than that reported by the IAEA. For all study areas, the annual effective dose from ingestion of tapioca and sweet potato are estimated to be lower than the world average (290 μSv y−1). - Highlights: • Transfer factors of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 88Y radionuclides were estimated for widely consumed root vegetables in Malaysia. • An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptakes. • The estimated TF values of 226Ra and 232Th for tapioca and sweet potato are higher than the IAEA reported values. • These site-specific TFs are of importance for model derivations for tropical regions

  18. Defense In-Depth Accident Analysis Evaluation of Tritium Facility Bldgs. 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H

    'The primary purpose of this report is to document a Defense-in-Depth (DID) accident analysis evaluation for Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facility Buildings 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H. The purpose of a DID evaluation is to provide a more realistic view of facility radiological risks to the offsite public than the bounding deterministic analysis documented in the Safety Analysis Report, which credits only Safety Class items in the offsite dose evaluation.'

  19. Study of (n,p) and (n,α) cross-sections for 232Th, 231Pa, 233U isotopes

    The study of neutron induced reaction cross-sections in the charged particle emission in this energy region will help us to understand the energy dependence of activation cross-sections in detail, thereby providing a complete database that will lead to better understanding of mechanisms of the nuclear reactions. The present study describes nuclear model calculations of (n,p) and (n,α) reaction cross-sections for 232Th, 231Pa and 233U isotopes

  20. Evaluation of statistical resonance parameters for 232Th in 4 to 41 keV energy region

    An exhaustive compilation of mean resonance parameters for 232Th isotope reported by different experimental groups, evaluators and users is presented. A set of mean resonance parameters is obtained for 232Th for use in reactor calculations by adjusting the p wave strength function as a function of energy region for a broad group structure corresponding to the already evaluated total and partial cross sections recommended in the ENDF/B-IV library in 4 to 41 keV energy region. The difficulties associated with the evaluation of mean resonance parameters for given evaluated cross sections in the unresolved resonance region are highlighted. A brief comparison of the American ENDF/B procedure and the German KEDAK procedure for the processing of the unresolved resonance data is also given. A possibility exists to explain part of the discrepancies between the calculated and the experimentally determined integral parameters to be due to the non-uniqueness of the mean resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region for the main fissile and fertile nuclides. It appears more satisfying to evaluate the mean resonance data (and hence the self-shielded cross sections) for a given multigroup structure used in reactor calculations unlike the ENDF/B convention. It is further recommended that the thick sample transmission and self-indication measurements be performed for 232Th in order to determine experimentally the self-shielded cross sections in the unresolved resonance region and to support the above mentioned evaluation of mean resonance parameters. (auth.)

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document

  2. Determination of 228Th, 232Th, and228Ra in wild mushroom from a naturally high radioactive region in Brazil

    Mushrooms are fungi which efficiently accumulate radionuclides, as verified by radiochemistry analyses of specimens collected in contaminated areas, specifically after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Many studies have demonstrated that mushrooms can be used in monitoring of ecosystem contamination and quality. The present paper is part of a broader study conducted in the Pocos de Caldas plateau region in Minas Gerais, Brazil, investigating assimilation of natural Uranium and Thorium radionuclide series by mushrooms. This region has elevated natural radioactivity due to the presence of radiological anomalies of volcanic origin. These anomalies are ore bodies containing Uranium and Thorium, the later being highly predominant. Many researchers have been conducted concerning radionuclide incorporation by agricultural products on the plateau. The present paper aims to determine 232Th, 228Th, and 228Ra radionuclides in wild mushrooms collected at different locations in the plateau region. 228Ra was determined by radiochemical separation using sulphate coprecipitation followed by beta radiometry. 232Th and 228Th were determined using anion exchange resin purification followed by alpha spectrometry. Higher values were obtained to 228Th than to 232Th. This is due to higher 228Ra mobility, which decays to 228Th. The accuracy of the analytical methods employed was evaluated using the reference sample IAEA Soil 327. These methods had high chemical recovery and high sensitivity. It was possible to confirm that mushrooms accumulate radionuclide and so can be used in environmental contamination and quality assessment. (author)

  3. Determination of fission product yields in the 14 MeV photon (Bremsstrahlung) induced fission of 232Th

    The cumulative yields of various fission products in the 232Th(γ,f) with end-point Bremsstrahlung energy of 14 MeV having have been determined using off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The end-point Bremsstrahlung energy of 14 MeV was generated by impinging the electron beam on a solid graphite beam dump of the 20 electron LINAC (ELBE) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden, Germany. From the cumulative fission yields, the mass chain yields were obtained by using charge distribution correction of medium energy. The fine structure in the mass yield distribution was interpreted from the point of nuclear structure effect such as shell closure proximity and even-odd effect. The mass yield distribution in 232Th(γ,f) is triple humped unlike 238U(γ,f), where it is double humped. This different behaviour in between 232Th* and 238U* was explained from the point of different potential energy surfaces between two systems. (author)

  4. Fission product yield distribution in the 12, 14, and 16 MeV bremsstrahlung-induced fission of 232Th

    The absolute cumulative yields of various fission products in the 12, 14, and 16 MeV bremsstrahlung-induced fission of 232Th were determined using a recoil catcher and an off-line γ -ray spectrometric technique using the ELBE electron linac of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf in Dresden, Germany. The mass chain yields were obtained from the absolute cumulative yields by correcting the charge distribution. The peak-to-valley ratio, average light mass (left angle AL right angle) and heavy mass (left angle AH right angle) values, and average number of neutrons (left angle n right angle exp) in the bremsstrahlung-induced fission of 232Th at different excitation energies were obtained from the mass chain yield data. The present study and existing literature data for the 232Th(γ, f) reaction are compared with similar data for the 238U(γ, f) reaction at various excitation energies, and surprisingly different behavior was found in the two fissioning systems. (orig.)

  5. A dispersive optical model potential for nucleon induced reactions on 238U and 232Th nuclei with full coupling

    Chiba Satoshi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A dispersive coupled-channel optical model potential (DCCOMP that couples the ground-state rotational and low-lying vibrational bands of 238U and 232Th nuclei is studied. The derived DCCOMP couples almost all excited levels below 1 MeV of excitation energy of the corresponding even-even actinides. The ground state, octupole, beta, gamma, and non-axial bands are coupled. The first two isobar analogue states (IAS populated in the quasi-elastic (p,n reaction are also coupled in the proton induced calculation, making the potential approximately Lane consistent. The coupled-channel potential is based on a soft-rotor description of the target nucleus structure, where dynamic vibrations are considered as perturbations of the rigid rotor underlying structure. Matrix elements required to use the proposed structure model in Tamura coupled-channel scheme are derived. Calculated ratio R(U238/Th232 of the total cross-section difference to the averaged σT for 238U and 232Th nuclei is shown to be in excellent agreement with measured data.

  6. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria

    The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 232Th have been measured in different brands of fertiliser samples sold to farmers in retail markets in six commercial cities in southwestern Nigeria. Gamma ray spectroscopy was employed in the measurements of these radionuclides. The results of measurements showed that the average activity concentration of 40K in the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilisers across the cities varied from 3972.0 ±416.9 to 5089.3 ±111.3 Bq kg-1, 9.9 ±7.3 to 450.6 ±14.3 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, while for 232Th it varied from less than lower limit of detection to 15.1 ±2.8 Bq kg-1. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in single super phosphate (SSP) fertilisers and phosphate rocks were also determined. However, high activity concentrations of 226Ra were obtained in the SSP fertiliser and phosphate rocks and in particular, two brands of fertilisers from ITL/TAK and F and C companies. The values of the activity concentration of the radionuclides in the brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria are within the range of values reported in several other countries except 40K. (authors)

  7. Transfer of Radionuclides K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226 from Mining Soil to Sawi (Japanese Mustard)

    Hariandra, M.; Amin, Y. M.

    2008-05-01

    The uptake of naturally occurring thorium, radium and potassium by sawi (Japanese Mustard) from disused tin mining was studied. Both soil and sawi sample were collected from a vegetable farm located 15 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the farm has been operating for 22 years on a disused tin mining. By using a gamma spectroscopy system, the transfers of radionuclides from soil to plants were investigated. The highest values of radionuclides in the soil was K-40 which is 52.8 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 6.51 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 18.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of radionuclides in the sawi sample shows higher values as compared to the soil sample. The highest values of radionuclides in the sawi were K-40 which is 446 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 17.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 65.2 Bq kg-1. The concentration of radionuclides in soils and plants can be used for the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) were calculated and observed to be 2.68 for radium-226, 3.52 for thorium-232 and the highest which is 3.97 for potassium-40.

  8. 8Dim calculations of the third barrier in $^{232}$Th and a conflict between theory and experiment on uranium nuclei

    Jachimowicz, P; Skalski, J

    2013-01-01

    We find the height of the third fission barrier $B_{III}$ and energy of the third minimum $E_{III}$ in $^{232}$Th using the macroscopic - microscopic model, very well tested in this region of nuclei. For the first time it is done on an 8-dimensional deformation hypercube. The dipole distortion is included among the shape variables to assure that no important shapes are missed. The saddle point is found on a lattice containing more than 50 million points by the immersion water flow (IWF) method. The shallow third minimum, $B_{III}-E_{III}\\approx 0.36$ MeV, agrees with experimetal data of Blons et al. This is in a sharp contrast with the status of the IIIrd minima in $^{232-236}$U: their experimental depth of $\\geq3$ MeV contradicts all realistic theoretical predictions. We emphasize the importance of repeating the experiment on $^{232}$Th, by a technique similar to that used in the uranium nuclei, for settling the puzzle of the third minima in actinides.

  9. Inelastic scattering and nucleon transfer in the system 232Th+206Pb at the Coulomb barrier

    By the experiment performed in the present thesis on the example of the system 232Th+206Pb the onset of the nuclear interaction in the region of the Coulomb barrier was studied at an incident energy of 6.3 MeV/nucleon. In the range of distances of closest approximation 15.5 fm ≤ D ≤ 38.7 fm respectively 28deg ≤ ΘCM ≤ 150deg the Coulomb excitation of the target isotope was observed. The strong absorption for 'small' distances from the reaction channel of the Coulomb excitation is confirmed by the occurrence of transfer reactions. In the studied thorium-lead system the transfer of one and two neutrons could be detected by means of the characteristic γ radiation of the isotopes 230Th and 207,208Pb with a cross section of 500 mb summed over the measurement range. The possibilities of an evaporation of neutrons from highly excited target nuclei, which could also lead to the isotope 230Th and by this influence the measurement of the 2n transfer, was also studied. The contribution of these processes to the transfer could be estimated to less than 5%. For the determination of the excitation energy, at which the transfer takes place, the transfer probabilities experimentally determined as functions of the distance of closest approximation were compared with the barrier-penetration model originally developed for sub-Coulomb transfer. Small effective neutron-binding energies of 0.6-0.8 MeV and by this high excitation energies resulted in contradiction to our model-independent measurement by means of the mean γ multiplicity and mean γ energies. (orig./HSI)

  10. Dietary 232Th and 238U intakes for Japanese as obtained in a market basket study and contributions of imported foods to internal doses

    Thorium-232 and 238U contents in four food groups were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Daily intakes of 232Th and 238U for Japanese were estimated to 2.22 mBq and 15.5 mBq per person, respectively. Furthermore, preliminary estimations were made for the effects of imported foods on internal exposures for Japanese. (author). 16 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs