WorldWideScience

Sample records for actinium 230

  1. Extraction of actinium with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid from hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions

    The extraction of actinium with HDEHP from Cl- and NO3- systems has been investigated. It was found that extraction of actinium from HCl solutions is much better than from HNO3 solutions. Stability constants of actinium complexes Ac(X-)+2 with Cl- and NO3- ligands were determined. Our results show that the actinium formed less stable complexes with Cl- than with NO3- ligands. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  2. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results

  3. MGT 230 Uop Material - mgt230dotcom

    honey

    2015-01-01

    MGT 230 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.mgt230.com   MGT 230 Week 1 Discussion Question 1 MGT 230 Week 1 Discussion Question 2 MGT 230 Week 1 Individual Assignment Decision Making Process Paper MGT 230 Week 2 Discussion Question 1 MGT 230 Week 2 Discussion Question 2 MGT 230 Week 2 Learning Team Reflection Summary MGT 230 Week 2 Learning Team Internal and External Factors Paper MGT 230 Week 3 Discussion Question 1 MGT 230 ...

  4. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  5. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  6. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development. PMID:22697483

  8. Radium, thorium, and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manganese-oxide-coated fiber

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency with which improved manganese-oxide-coated acrylic fibers extract radium, thorium, and actinium from seawater. Tests were made using surface seawater spiked with 227Ac, 227Th and 223Ra. For sample volumes of approximately 30 liters and flow rates up to 0.5 liters per minute, radium and actinium are removed quantitatively. Approximately 80-95% of the thorium is removed under these same conditions. (Auth.)

  9. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces ∼100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 GeV protons

  10. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  11. Neutron-Induced Fission of Actinium-227, Protactinium-231 and Neptunium-237: Mass Distribution

    Results of radiochemical studies on the mass distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinium-227, protactinium-231 and neptunium-237 have been presented. This work has been carried out as part of a programme to determine the mass distribution in the fission of heavy elements as a function of Z and A. All irradiations have been carried out in the core of the swimming-pool type reactor APSARA with cadmium shielding wherever necessary. Relative yields of several fission product nuclides have been obtained by a method involving a comparison of the fission product activities from the respective targets with those formed from uranium-235 simultaneously irradiated. Thermal-neutron fission yields of uranium-235 have been assumed. These results indicate a predominantly asymmetric mass distribution in all the three cases, and also a distinct though small symmetric peak in the case of actinium-227. (author)

  12. HTT230 phoenix Material-htt230dotcom

    sandy

    2015-01-01

    HTT 230 Entire Course (UOP) For more course tutorials visit www.htt230.com HTT 230 Week 1 CheckPoint: Primary Financial Statements HTT 230 Week 2 Assignment: Rosabella and Canyon Hotel Concept Checks HTT 230 Week 2 CheckPoint: The Sarbanes-Oxley Act HTT 230 Week 2 CheckPoint: The CP3 Accounting System HTT 230 Week 3 CheckPoint: Credit Card Research HTT 230 Week 3 CheckPoint: Crescendo Concept Check HTT 230 Week 4 Assignment: Watree Lodge and Greenville Rest...

  13. A new method for the determination of low-level actinium-227 in geological samples

    We developed a new method for the determination of 227Ac in geological samples. The method uses extraction chromatographic techniques and alpha-spectrometry and is applicable for a range of natural matrices. Here we report on the procedure and results of the analysis of water (fresh and seawater) and rock samples. Water samples were acidified and rock samples underwent total dissolution via acid leaching. A DGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) extraction chromatographic column was used for the separation of actinium. The actinium fraction was prepared for alpha spectrometric measurement via cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. Recoveries of actinium in water samples were 80 ± 8 % (number of analyses n = 14) and in rock samples 70 ± 12 % (n = 30). The minimum detectable activities (MDA) were 0.017-0.5 Bq kg-1 for both matrices. Rock sample 227Ac activities ranged from 0.17 to 8.3 Bq kg-1 and water sample activities ranged from below MDA values to 14 Bq kg-1of 227Ac. From the analysis of several standard rock and water samples with the method we found very good agreement between our results and certified values. (author)

  14. BCOM 230 Course Tutorial / tutorialrank

    welcome1351

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   BCOM 230 Week 1 Individual Assignment Behavior and Communication Paper (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 1 DQ 1 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 1 DQ 2 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 1 DQ 3 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 2 Individual Assignment Memo Review (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 2 DQ 1 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 2 DQ 2(UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 2 DQ 3 (UOP Course) ...

  15. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  16. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  17. HTT 230 UOP Tutorial/ Uoptutorial

    Moon,, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com     HTT 230 Week 1 CheckPoint: Primary Financial Statements HTT 230 Week 2 Assignment: Rosabella and Canyon Hotel Concept Checks HTT 230 Week 2 CheckPoint: The Sarbanes-Oxley Act HTT 230 Week 2 CheckPoint: The CP3 Accounting System HTT 230 Week 3 CheckPoint: Credit Card Research HTT 230 Week 3 CheckPoint: Crescendo Concept Check HTT 230 Week 4 Assignment: Watree Lodge and Greenville Restaura...

  18. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS—towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm − 1 which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  19. HTT 230 UOP Coureses/UOP Help

    royal8

    2015-01-01

    HTT 230 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com       HTT 230 Week 1 CheckPoint: Primary Financial Statements HTT 230 Week 2 Assignment: Rosabella and Canyon Hotel Concept Checks HTT 230 Week 2 CheckPoint: The CP3 Accounting System HTT 230 Week 3 CheckPoint: Credit Card Research HTT 230 Week 3 CheckPoint: Crescendo Concept Check HTT 230 Week 4 Assignment: Watree Lodge and Greenville Restaurant Concept Checks ...

  20. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  1. BCOM 230 UOP Course Tutorial / Tutorialrank

    charles

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   BCOM 230 Week 1 Individual Assignment Behavior and Communication Paper (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 1 DQ 1 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 1 DQ 2 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 1 DQ 3 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 2 Individual Assignment Memo Review (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 2 DQ 1 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 2 DQ 2(UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 2 DQ 3 (UOP Course) ...

  2. HTT 230 UOP Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    kutti

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com     HTT 230 Week 1 CheckPoint: Primary Financial Statements HTT 230 Week 2 Assignment: Rosabella and Canyon Hotel Concept Checks HTT 230 Week 2 CheckPoint: The CP3 Accounting System HTT 230 Week 3 CheckPoint: Credit Card Research HTT 230 Week 3 CheckPoint: Crescendo Concept Check HTT 230 Week 4 Assignment: Watree Lodge and Greenville Restaurant Concept Checks HTT 230 Week 4 CheckPoint: The...

  3. MKT 230 ASH Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+ ASHFORD MKT 230 Week 1 CheckPoint Marketing Concepts ASHFORD MKT 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ASHFORD MKT 230 Week 2 CheckPoint Decision Time at Qode ASHFORD MKT 230 Week 2 Assignment Marketing Plan Exercise ASHFORD MKT 230 Week 3 CheckPoint Consumer Decision Making Process ASHFORD MKT 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ASHFORD MKT 230 Week 4 CheckPoint Customer Relationship Mana...

  4. SCI 230 ENTIRE COURSE *INTRODUCTION TO LIFE SCIENCE* UPDATE COURSE

    SCI 230 ENTIRE COURSE

    2016-01-01

    http://www.helperstudy.com/products/sci-230 SCI 230 ALL DQS SCI 230 WEEK 1 ASSIGNMENT THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD SCI 230 WEEK 1 CHECKPOINT LEVELS OF LIFE SCI 230 WEEK 1 CHECKPOINT THEORIES OF BIOLOGY SCI 230 WEEK 2 CHECKPOINT PLANTS VS. ANIMALS SCI 230 WEEK 3 ASSIGNMENT PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION SCI 230 WEEK 3 CHECKPOINT MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS SCI 230 WEEK 3 EXERCISE UNESCO RESEARCH SCI 230 WEEK 4 CHECKPOINT MENDEL ON PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE SCI 2...

  5. 49 CFR 230.95 - Guides.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guides. 230.95 Section 230.95 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Driving Gear § 230.95 Guides. Guides shall...

  6. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse...

  7. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47... Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall be stamped on the steam dome or manhole flange. If the builder's number cannot be obtained,...

  8. 40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44... Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous... by increasing the level of suspended particulates. Coral organisms are extremely sensitive to...

  9. 49 CFR 230.62 - Dry pipe.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dry pipe. 230.62 Section 230.62 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.62 Dry pipe. Dry pipes subject to pressure shall be examined at each annual inspection to...

  10. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.230 Production step. Production step means,...

  11. 42 CFR 431.230 - Maintaining services.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintaining services. 431.230 Section 431.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Applicants and Recipients Procedures § 431.230 Maintaining services. (a) If the agency mails the 10-day or...

  12. 29 CFR 99.230 - Audit costs.

    2010-07-01

    ... principles circulars, the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR)(48 CFR parts 30 and 31), or other applicable... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audit costs. 99.230 Section 99.230 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Audits § 99.230...

  13. 24 CFR 3.230 - Transition plans.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transition plans. 3.230 Section 3.230 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Coverage § 3.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 3.225 applies...

  14. 40 CFR 230.97 - Management.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management. 230.97 Section 230.97... Losses of Aquatic Resources § 230.97 Management. (a) Site protection. (1) The aquatic habitats, riparian.... For government property, long-term protection may be provided through federal facility...

  15. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  16. 32 CFR 230.5 - Responsibilities.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 230.5 Section 230.5 National... FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS ON DOD INSTALLATIONS § 230.5 Responsibilities. (a) The Under Secretary of Defense... affect the morale and welfare of DoD personnel. (d) DoD Component responsibilities pertaining to...

  17. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piston travel. 230.76 Section 230.76... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.76 Piston travel. (a) Minimum piston travel. The minimum piston travel shall be sufficient to provide proper brake shoe clearance when the brakes are released....

  18. 22 CFR 230.14 - Arbitration.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arbitration. 230.14 Section 230.14 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.14 Arbitration. Any... arbitration to be held in Washington, DC in accordance with the then prevailing rules of the...

  19. 40 CFR 230.22 - Water.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water. 230.22 Section 230.22... Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.22 Water. (a) Water is the part of the aquatic... the liquid phase and is contained by the substrate. Water forms part of a dynamic aquatic...

  20. 40 CFR 230.4 - Organization.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organization. 230.4 Section 230.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL General § 230.4 Organization....

  1. 49 CFR 230.39 - Broken staybolts.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broken staybolts. 230.39 Section 230.39... Staybolts § 230.39 Broken staybolts. (a) Maximum allowable number of broken staybolts. No boiler shall be allowed to remain in service with two broken staybolts located within 24 inches of each other, as...

  2. 49 CFR 230.82 - Fire doors.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire doors. 230.82 Section 230.82 Transportation... Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.82 Fire doors. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive shall have a fire door which shall latch securely when closed and which shall be maintained in a safe...

  3. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

  4. 46 CFR 183.230 - Temperature ratings.

    2010-10-01

    ...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION General Requirements § 183.230 Temperature ratings. Temperature ratings of electrical equipment must meet the requirements of 46 CFR 111.01-15. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature ratings. 183.230 Section 183.230...

  5. 12 CFR 230.8 - Advertising.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 230.8 Section 230.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An...

  6. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  7. 12 CFR 230.4 - Account disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Account disclosures. 230.4 Section 230.4 Banks... IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.4 Account disclosures. (a) Delivery of account disclosures—(1) Account opening. (i) General. A depository institution shall provide account disclosures to a...

  8. Dicty_cDB: SSA230 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSA230 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U04338-1 SSA230E (Link to Original site) SSA...230F 286 SSA230Z 485 SSA230P 771 SSA230E 683 Show SSA230 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSA...nal site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSA2-B/SSA230Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSA...230E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSA230 (SSA230Q) /CSM/SS/SSA2-B/SSA...degsntehsikeiinhvfqkdkdllylisvaedpitfpssaisavvvsetlkaierkhks ilinranlknlgvqnvkallgxgnhvgeavikaar*ksyslsggweg

  9. BCOM 230 UOP Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    apj

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   BCOM 230 Week 1 Individual Assignment Behavior and Communication Paper (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 1 DQ 1 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 1 DQ 2 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 1 DQ 3 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 2 Individual Assignment Memo Review (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 2 DQ 1 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 2 DQ 2(UOP Course)

  10. MKT 230 UOP Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    apj

    2015-01-01

    ASHFORD MKT 230 Week 1 CheckPoint Marketing Concepts ASHFORD MKT 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ASHFORD MKT 230 Week 2 CheckPoint Decision Time at Qode ASHFORD MKT 230 Week 2 Assignment Marketing Plan Exercise ASHFORD MKT 230 Week 3 CheckPoint Consumer Decision Making Process

  11. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section...

  12. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts...

  13. 40 CFR 230.20 - Substrate.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substrate. 230.20 Section 230.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Physical...

  14. 38 CFR 41.230 - Audit costs.

    2010-07-01

    ..., the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) (48 CFR parts 30 and 31), or other applicable cost principles... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Audit costs. 41.230 Section 41.230 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED)...

  15. 23 CFR 230.403 - Applicability.

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability. 230.403 Section 230.403 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS Construction Contract... apply to all nonexempt direct Federal and Federal-aid highway construction contracts and...

  16. 40 CFR 230.32 - Other wildlife.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other wildlife. 230.32 Section 230.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on...

  17. 40 CFR 230.43 - Vegetated shallows.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vegetated shallows. 230.43 Section 230.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts...

  18. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud flats. 230.42 Section 230.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on...

  19. 23 CFR 230.121 - Reports.

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports. 230.121 Section 230.121 Highways FEDERAL... Reports. (a) Employment reports on Federal-aid highway construction contracts not subject to “Hometown” or... reporting requirements. FHWA Form PR-1391, Federal-Aid Highway Construction Contractors Annual EEO...

  20. BCOM 230 UOP Course Tutorial/TutotorialRank

    jhoni

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating:A+   BCOM 230 Week 1 Individual Assignment Behavior and Communication Paper (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 1 DQ 1 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 1 DQ 2 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 1 DQ 3 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 2 Individual Assignment Memo Review (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 2 DQ 1 (UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 2 DQ 2(UOP Course) BCOM 230 Week 2 DQ 3 (UOP Course) ...

  1. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  2. Dicty_cDB: SSI230 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSI230 (Link to dictyBase) - G01247 DDB0187826 Contig-U11777-1 SSI...230E (Link to Original site) SSI230F 521 SSI230Z 583 SSI230P 1104 SSI230E 1071 Show SSI230 Library SS (L...ink to library) Clone ID SSI230 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G01247 dictyBase ID DDB0187826 Link t...o Contig Contig-U11777-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSI2-B/SSI...230Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSI230E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSI230 (SSI

  3. 40 CFR 1042.230 - Engine families.

    2010-07-01

    ....230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... aftertreatment (for example, catalytic converter or particulate trap). (5) Combustion chamber design. (6) Nominal... aftertreatment system (oxidation catalyst, particulate trap), and characteristics of the aftertreatment...

  4. β-delayed fission from 230Ac

    ThO2 is irradiated with 60 MeV/u 18O beams. 230Ra is produced via the multi-nucleon transfer and dissipative fragmentation reactions of the target. 230Ra is radio-chemical separated from ThO2 and the other reaction products. The thin Ra sources are prepared. The mica fission track detectors are exposed to the Ra sources. γ-rays of Ra decay in the sources are measured by a HPGe detector. The mica foil is etched in HF solution. The etched mica foil is scanned with an optical microscope. The fission tracks that should come from β-delayed fission of 230Ac are observed. The β-delayed fission probability of 230Ac is determined to be (1.19 +- 0.85) x 10-8

  5. HTT 230 uop course tutorial/uop helP

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com       HTT 230 Week 1 CheckPoint: Primary Financial Statements HTT 230 Week 2 Assignment: Rosabella and Canyon Hotel Concept Checks HTT 230 Week 2 CheckPoint: The CP3 Accounting System HTT 230 Week 3 CheckPoint: Credit Card Research HTT 230 Week 3 CheckPoint: Crescendo Concept Check HTT 230 Week 4 Assignment: Watree Lodge and Greenville Restaurant Concept Checks HTT 230 Week 4 CheckPoint:...

  6. Surface segregation in HAYNES 230 alloy

    The surface segregation in the Ni-based alloy HAYNES 230 was studied by Auger Electron Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy between 400 and 1100 deg. C. The qualitative variations of the surface contents of S, P, W, Mo, N, Si, and Mn were determined as a function of annealing temperature and time. It was found that at 925 deg. C the maximum coverage of sulphur at the alloy surface is in the range 0.06-0.15 monolayers. Chromium evaporation from the HAYNES 230 surface under UHV conditions is clearly evidenced for annealing at 1100 deg. C

  7. Surface segregation in HAYNES 230 alloy

    Pop, D.; Wolski, K.

    2006-12-01

    The surface segregation in the Ni-based alloy HAYNES 230 was studied by Auger Electron Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy between 400 and 1100 °C. The qualitative variations of the surface contents of S, P, W, Mo, N, Si, and Mn were determined as a function of annealing temperature and time. It was found that at 925 °C the maximum coverage of sulphur at the alloy surface is in the range 0.06-0.15 monolayers. Chromium evaporation from the HAYNES 230 surface under UHV conditions is clearly evidenced for annealing at 1100 °C.

  8. 9 CFR 2.30 - Registration.

    2010-01-01

    ... shall file an annual report of its status (active or inactive). A research facility shall notify the AC... intends to use live animals for research, tests, experiments, or teaching, the university or college... WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.30 Registration. (a) Requirements and procedures. (1)...

  9. 50 CFR 230.2 - Definitions.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.2 Definitions. Aboriginal subsistence whaling means whaling authorized by paragraph 13 of the Schedule annexed to and constituting a part of the Convention... the Whaling Convention Act; or (4) Any Coast Guard personnel accompanying and acting under...

  10. 50 CFR 230.3 - General prohibitions.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.3 General prohibitions. (a) No person shall engage in whaling in a manner that violates the Convention, any regulation of the Commission, or this part. (b) No person shall engage in whaling without first having obtained a license or scientific research...

  11. Linn 230 miljoni krooni paines / Priit Rajalo

    Rajalo, Priit, 1975-

    2000-01-01

    Riik on nõus võtma enne tähtaega tagasi Tartu soojalaenu. Tartu linn loodab saada laenu põhiosa ja seni tasumata intresside maksmiseks vajaliku 230 miljonit krooni, müües Tartu Keskatlamaja aktsiad

  12. 49 CFR 230.46 - Badge plates.

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.46 Badge plates. A metal badge plate showing the allowed steam pressure shall be attached to the boiler backhead in the cab. If boiler backhead is lagged, the lagging and jacket shall be cut away...

  13. 49 CFR 230.43 - Gauge siphon.

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.43 Gauge siphon. The steam gauge supply pipe shall have a siphon on it of ample capacity to prevent steam from entering the gauge. The supply pipe shall directly enter the boiler and be maintained...

  14. 49 CFR 230.35 - Pressure testing.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.35 Pressure testing. The temperature of the steam locomotive boiler shall be raised to at least 70 deg. F any time hydrostatic pressure is applied to the boiler....

  15. 23 CFR 230.105 - Applicability.

    2010-04-01

    ... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity on Federal and Federal-Aid Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) § 230.105 Applicability. (a) Federal-aid highway construction projects. This subpart applies to all Federal-aid...

  16. 23 CFR 230.107 - Policy.

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity on Federal and Federal-Aid Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) § 230.107 Policy. (a) Direct Federal and Federal-aid highway construction projects. It is the policy of the FHWA to...

  17. 23 CFR 230.101 - Purpose.

    2010-04-01

    ... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity on Federal and Federal-Aid Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) § 230.101...-aid highway construction contracts, except for those contracts awarded under 23 U.S.C. 117, and to...

  18. 36 CFR 230.7 - Program practices.

    2010-07-01

    ... PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Stewardship Incentive Program § 230.7 Program practices. (a) Practices for... to each are as follows: (1) Landowner Forest Stewardship Plan Development (SIP1), which identifies... regeneration, planting, or direct seeding for conservation purposes and sustainable timber production....

  19. 2 CFR 230.50 - Information contact.

    2010-01-01

    ... Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.50 Information contact. Further information concerning this part may be obtained by contacting the Office of Federal Financial Management,...

  20. 40 CFR 230.11 - Factual determinations.

    2010-07-01

    ... possible loss of environmental values (§ 230.20) and actions to minimize impact (subpart H) shall also be... impact of a particular discharge may constitute a minor change in itself, the cumulative effect of... surface runoff from residential or commercial developments on fill, and leachate and runoff from...

  1. 40 CFR 230.74 - Actions related to technology.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions related to technology. 230.74 Section 230.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.74 Actions related to technology. Discharge technology should be adapted...

  2. 49 CFR 230.93 - Pistons and piston rods.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pistons and piston rods. 230.93 Section 230.93... Tenders Driving Gear § 230.93 Pistons and piston rods. (a) Maintenance and testing. Pistons and piston rods shall be maintained in safe and suitable condition for service. Piston rods shall be inspected...

  3. 49 CFR 230.52 - Water glass valves.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water glass valves. 230.52 Section 230.52... Water Glasses and Gauge Cocks § 230.52 Water glass valves. All water glasses shall be equipped with no more than two valves capable of isolating the water glass from the boiler. They shall also be...

  4. 49 CFR 230.56 - Water glass lamps.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water glass lamps. 230.56 Section 230.56... Water Glasses and Gauge Cocks § 230.56 Water glass lamps. All water glasses must be supplied with a suitable lamp properly located to enable the engine crew to easily see the water in the glass....

  5. 49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 230.77 Section 230.77... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.77 Foundation brake gear. (a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear...) Distance above the rails. No part of the foundation brake gear of the steam locomotive or tender shall...

  6. 49 CFR 230.71 - Orifice testing of compressors.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Orifice testing of compressors. 230.71 Section 230... Locomotives and Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.71 Orifice testing of compressors. (a) Frequency of testing. The compressor or compressors shall be tested for capacity by orifice test as often as...

  7. 49 CFR 230.60 - Time of washing.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time of washing. 230.60 Section 230.60... Washing Boilers § 230.60 Time of washing. (a) Frequency of washing. All boilers shall thoroughly be washed... inspection. The date of the boiler wash shall be noted on the FRA Form No. 1 or FRA Form No. 3. (See...

  8. 33 CFR 110.230 - Puget Sound Area, Wash.

    2010-07-01

    ... citations affecting § 110.230, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound Area, Wash. 110.230... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.230 Puget Sound Area, Wash. (a) The anchorage...

  9. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Columbia River, Wash. 162.230 Section 162.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.230 Columbia River, Wash....

  10. 49 CFR 230.32 - Time and method of inspection.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time and method of inspection. 230.32 Section 230... Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.32 Time and method of inspection. (a) Time of inspection. The entire... other components interfering with the provision of inspection access shall be removed at this...

  11. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  12. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    2010-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  13. 49 CFR 230.115 - Feed water tanks.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Feed water tanks. 230.115 Section 230.115... Tenders Steam Locomotive Tanks § 230.115 Feed water tanks. (a) General provisions. Tanks shall be... water. Feed water tanks shall be equipped with a device that permits the measurement of the quantity...

  14. 17 CFR 230.459 - Calculation of effective date.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of effective date. 230.459 Section 230.459 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Filings; Fees; Effective Date § 230.459 Calculation...

  15. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76 Section 230.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human...

  16. 15 CFR 230.5 - Terms and shipping.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms and shipping. 230.5 Section 230.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE... MATERIALS Purchase Procedure § 230.5 Terms and shipping. (a) Prices are given in the SP 260...

  17. 29 CFR 779.230 - Franchise and other arrangements.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise and other arrangements. 779.230 Section 779.230... Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.230 Franchise and other.... The quotation in § 779.229 from the Senate Report shows that Congress recognized that some...

  18. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender frames shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. (b) Height difference....

  19. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance and inspection. Frames, decks, plates, tailpieces, pedestals, and braces shall be maintained in a safe...

  20. 17 CFR 230.135a - Generic advertising.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Generic advertising. 230.135a Section 230.135a Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.135a Generic advertising. (a) For the purposes only...

  1. 33 CFR 104.230 - Drill and exercise requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... the substantial and active participation of relevant company and vessel security personnel, and may.... 104.230 Section 104.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.230 Drill and...

  2. 17 CFR 230.425 - Filing of certain prospectuses and communications under § 230.135 in connection with business...

    2010-04-01

    ... and communications under § 230.135 in connection with business combination transactions. 230.425... and communications under § 230.135 in connection with business combination transactions. (a) All... use except as provided in paragraph (d)(1) of this section. A communication limited to the...

  3. Observation of β-delayed fission from 230Ac

    β-delayed fission for 230Ac was searched. 230Ra was produced via multinucleon transfer reaction by 60 MeV/u 18O ion irradiation of 232Th target. Thin 230Ra→230Ac sources of 108 atoms were acquired through radiochemical separations. The mica track detectors were used to record the fission events. The β-delayed fission nucleus 230Ac was identified via the observed two fission events and the measured γ-ray spectra. Its β-delayed fission probability was obtained to be (1.19 +- 0.85) x 10-8

  4. Determination of Th-230 in water

    On of the current goals of the Radiochemistry Division of CDTN is to acquire capability in determining contaminants of high radiotoxicity in different matrixes. The method described here was developed in order to determine Th-230 in water, one of the decay products of the uranium series, belongs to the most restrictive class of radionuclides, on account of its alpha emission and half-life of 8 x 104 years. The method conesists of two radiochemical steps, one electrodeposition step and alpha spectrometry with the use of a surface-barrier detector. Water samples with internal Th-230 standards were analysed and the results showed good reproducibility with erros a around 10% and alfa detection efficiency of 12%. The lower detection limit is around 0,4 Bq/l. (author)

  5. A precursor of β-delayed fission:230Ac

    2002-01-01

    The 230Ra has been produced via multinucleon transfer and dissipativefragmentation of heavy target in the 60 MeV/u 18O ion reaction with natural thorium.The radium was radiochemically separated from irradiated thorium targets. 230Acwas obtained by 230Ra β-→ 230Ac. Thin Ra sources were prepared for observing fissionfragments from β-delayed fission of 230Ac. The sources were exposed to the micafission track detectors and measured by a HPGe γ detector. The two fission eventswere obtained and could been assigned to theβ-delayed fission of 230Ac. The β-delayedfission probability of 230Ac was determined to be (1.19+0.85) × 10-8.

  6. Determination for β-delayed fission probability of 230Ac

    袁双贵; 杨维凡; 徐岩冰; 肖永厚; 罗亦孝

    2002-01-01

    The 230Ra has been produced via 232Th-2p reaction induced by 60 MeV/u 18O ion irradia-tion of natural thorium. The radium was radiochemically separated from the mixture of thorium andreaction products. Thin Ra sources in which 230Ac was got through 230Ra β- → 230Ac were pre-pared for observing fission fragments from β-delayed fission of 230Ac. The sources were exposedto the mica fission track detectors and measured by the HPGe γ detector. The precursor 230Ac wasidentified by means of observed two fission events as well as γ spectra, and the β-delayed fissionprobability of 230Ac was obtained to be (1.19±0.85) × 10-8.

  7. 40 CFR 1033.230 - Grouping locomotives into engine families.

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Certifying Engine Families § 1033.230... exhaust aftertreatment system (oxidation catalyst, particulate trap), and characteristics of...

  8. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to...

  9. 36 CFR 230.3 - National program administration.

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Stewardship Incentive Program § 230.3 National program... Program funding to be made available for landowner forest stewardship plan development (§ 230.7(a)(1) of... Program participant information, the management of accounting ledgers, and the disbursement of payment...

  10. 40 CFR 230.52 - Water-related recreation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water-related recreation. 230.52... Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.52 Water-related recreation. (a) Water-related recreation... or fill disposal is to impair or destroy the resources which support recreation activities....

  11. 50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aboriginal subsistence whaling. 230.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.4 Aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) No person shall engage in aboriginal subsistence whaling, except a whaling captain licensed pursuant...

  12. 50 CFR 230.8 - Reporting by whaling captains.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting by whaling captains. 230.8... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.8 Reporting by whaling captains. (a) The relevant Native American whaling organization shall require each whaling captain licensed pursuant to §...

  13. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    2010-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The... following any hydrostatic test where the pressure exceeds MAWP. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section...

  14. 23 CFR 230.409 - Contract compliance review procedures.

    2010-04-01

    ... on previous PR-1391's (23 CFR part 230, subpart A, appendix C) Review Reports and Hometown Plan... 230.409 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL... female labor forces within a reasonable recruitment area; (3) Working on projects that include...

  15. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  16. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  17. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  18. 20 CFR 637.230 - Use of incentive bonuses.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of incentive bonuses. 637.230 Section 637... TITLE V OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Program Planning and Operation § 637.230 Use of incentive... information collection and compilation, recordkeeping, or the preparation of applications for...

  19. Dicty_cDB: VSG230 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSG230 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U05201-1 VSG230P (Link to Original ... nmvetkf*tipfsiysfsyn*tkrm*kticcyps*km*iccfk*fkfncc vtl *nl**fskiwccnfkyscth**IYFRLSQCRLDIKKK--- ---HXSGKXV ... nmvetkf*tipfsiysfsyn*tkrm*kticcyps*km*iccfk*fkfncc vtl *nl**fskiwccnfkyscth**IYFRLSQCRLDIKKK--- ---prvrkxs ... lsptgtpvsd apweigdhvstwwrpnfepslfpyipshitkpkeckklfvvtl pekckfavsnnlsliav slyeiynnsqrygavissipalisrytfvylnv ...

  20. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of steel or wrought-iron shell plates is not known, it shall be taken at 50,000 psi for steel and...

  1. 36 CFR 230.4 - State program administration.

    2010-07-01

    ...) State Foresters may use existing resource inventories, landowner surveys, and other relevant planning... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State program administration. 230.4 Section 230.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. Dicty_cDB: AFG230 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFG230 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16287-1 AFG230F (Link to Original ... gfememerk*ketr*ti**tkhcnwsssnlla*vctil*y*ikrst ngt*pvt **hqrkp*nvvmkiplv*f--- Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E ...

  3. 40 CFR 230.5 - General procedures to be followed.

    2010-07-01

    ... components which characterize the non-living environment of the candidate site, the substrate and the water... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General procedures to be followed. 230.5 Section 230.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN...

  4. 17 CFR 230.156 - Investment company sales literature.

    2010-04-01

    ... 10b-5 thereunder (17 CFR part 240), it is unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, by the use... literature. 230.156 Section 230.156 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... literature. (a) Under the federal securities laws, including section 17(a) of the Securities Act of 1933...

  5. 6 CFR 27.230 - Risk-based performance standards.

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based performance standards. 27.230 Section 27.230 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY... the facility and that discourages abuse through established disciplinary measures; (4) Deter,...

  6. Determination of specific activity of 230Th in uranium ore samples

    2000-01-01

    A new method suitable for determining specific activity of 230Th in uranium ore samples is built. The method is characterized by adding the 230Th/ 232Th standard dilution agent with lower activity ratio (Its 230Th/ 232Th activity ratio and 230Th have been known) to the samples and using isotopic dilution analysis. The method can be applied to analyses of 230Th specific activity in various 230Th/ 232Th activity ratio samples. The precision can also be improved.

  7. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  8. 49 CFR 230.51 - Number and location.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Water Glasses and Gauge Cocks § 230.51 Number and location. Every boiler shall be equipped with at...

  9. 49 CFR 230.42 - Location of gauges.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.42 Location of gauges. Every boiler shall have at least one steam gauge which...

  10. 49 CFR 230.44 - Time of testing.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.44 Time of testing. Steam gauges shall be tested prior to being installed or...

  11. 23 CFR 230.113 - Implementation of supportive services.

    2010-04-01

    ... 230.113 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity on Federal and Federal-Aid Construction Contracts (Including... construction contractors, subcontractors, and trainees, for recruiting, counseling, remedial...

  12. 40 CFR 230.45 - Riffle and pool complexes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Special Aquatic Sites § 230.45 Riffle and pool complexes. (a) Steep gradient sections...

  13. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    2010-07-01

    ... SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.21 Suspended...

  14. 40 CFR 230.40 - Sanctuaries and refuges.

    2010-07-01

    ... 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Special Aquatic Sites § 230.40 Sanctuaries and refuges. (a) Sanctuaries and refuges consist...

  15. 46 CFR 172.230 - Character of damage.

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO BULK CARGOES Special Rules Pertaining to Great Lakes Dry Bulk Cargo Vessels § 172.230 Character... transverse watertight bulkhead spaced closer than the longitudinal extent of collision penetration...

  16. Production of U-230/Th-226 for targeted alpha therapy

    Morgenstern, A.; Abbas, K.; Bruchertseifer, F.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Simonelli, F.; Štursa, Jan; Apostolidis, C.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 34, Suppl. 2 (2007), S260-S260. ISSN 1619-7070. [20th Annual Congress of the European-Association-of- Nuclear - Medicine . 13.10.2007–17.10.2007, Copenhagen] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : U-230/Th-226 * alpha therapy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear , Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  17. 50 CFR 230.1 - Purpose and scope.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.1 Purpose and scope. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to implement the Whaling Convention Act (16 U.S.C. 916 et seq.) by prohibiting whaling except for aboriginal subsistence whaling allowed by the International Whaling...

  18. 49 CFR 230.31 - Flues to be removed.

    2010-10-01

    ... inspecting the entire interior of the boiler and its bracing. After removing the flues, the steam locomotive..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.31 Flues to be removed. (a) Inspection of the boiler interior. During the...

  19. 49 CFR 230.64 - Leaks under lagging.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Leaks § 230.64 Leaks under lagging. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall take out of service at once any boiler that has developed a leak under the lagging due to a crack in the shell, or...

  20. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge or dead weight tester. While under test load at the MAWP of the boiler to which the gauge will be...

  1. 50 CFR 230.6 - Quotas and other restrictions.

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.6 Quotas and other restrictions. (a) Quotas for aboriginal subsistence whaling shall be set in accordance with the regulations of the Commission. Quotas shall be allocated to each whaling village or captain by the appropriate Native...

  2. 17 CFR 230.405 - Definitions of terms.

    2010-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 230.405, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... to or purchase such a security; or any such warrant or right; or any put, call, straddle, or other..., or the average of the bid and asked prices of common equity, in the principal market for the...

  3. Dicty_cDB: VFM230 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFM230 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12300-1 - (Link to Original site) ... ( DV435461 ) NADD187TR Aedes aegypti infected with Dengue ... viru... 50 0.100 1 dna update 2009. 3.30 Homology ...

  4. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    2010-10-01

    ...) Determination of capacity. Safety relief valve capacity may be determined by making an accumulation test with the fire in good, bright condition and all steam outlets closed. Additional safety relief valve... Safety Relief Valves § 230.48 Number and capacity. (a) Number and capacity. Every boiler shall...

  5. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.

    2010-10-01

    ... safety relief valve shall be set to open at a pressure not exceeding the MAWP. Safety relief valves shall... glass. (d) Labeling of lowest set pressure. The set pressure of the lowest safety relief valve shall be... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setting of safety relief valves. 230.49...

  6. 36 CFR 230.9 - Payment to landowners.

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 230.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND... certification by the Service Representative that a practice has been completed in accordance with specifications... needed to meet the objectives of the landowner forest stewardship plan; or (2) The landowner...

  7. 40 CFR 170.230 - Pesticide safety training for handlers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for handlers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.230 Pesticide safety... of restricted-use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter. (2) A handler who satisfies the...

  8. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration, in such a way as to reduce the fitness of the water for consumption. Water can be rendered... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    2010-07-01

    ... specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. This may involve using an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230... flow meter. (a) Application. You may use measured raw exhaust flow, as follows: (1) Use the...

  10. 36 CFR 230.21 - Implementation of the program.

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Urban and Community Forestry Assistance Program § 230.21 Implementation of the program. (a) The Urban and Community Forestry Assistance Program is implemented through the..., Cooperative Agreements, and Other Agreements Handbook (FSH 1509.11). The Forest Service Manual and...

  11. 24 CFR 235.230 - Condition of multifamily structure.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condition of multifamily structure... Involving Condominium Units § 235.230 Condition of multifamily structure. (a) When a family unit is conveyed... principal rating organization doing business in the state. If the property is located in a state which...

  12. Schweizer Gesetze das Wesentliche der Schweizer Gesetzgebung in 230 Gesetztexten

    Suisse

    1999-01-01

    Ce CD-Rom contient 230 textes représentant les plus importantes lois et ordonnances du Recueil systématique fédéral (RS) : Constitution fédérale, Code civil, Code des obligations, Code pénal ...

  13. 24 CFR 964.230 - Audit and administrative requirements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Audit and administrative... Program § 964.230 Audit and administrative requirements. (a) TOP grant recipients. The HUD Inspector... purpose of audit or other examinations. (1) Grant recipients must comply with the requirements of...

  14. 46 CFR 16.230 - Random testing requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... under the reporting requirements of 46 CFR 16.500 for two consecutive calendar years indicate that the... is 25 percent, and the data received under the reporting requirements of 46 CFR 16.500 for any... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Random testing requirements. 16.230 Section...

  15. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    2010-07-01

    ... Impacts on Biological Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.30 Threatened and endangered species. (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or a... the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior (codified annually at 50 CFR...

  16. 33 CFR 96.230 - What objectives must a safety management system meet?

    2010-07-01

    ... management system meet? 96.230 Section 96.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... management system meet? The safety management system must: (a) Provide for safe practices in vessel operation... management system....

  17. 46 CFR 8.230 - Minimum standards for a recognized classification society.

    2010-10-01

    ... society. 8.230 Section 8.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTION ALTERNATIVES Recognition of a Classification Society § 8.230 Minimum standards for a recognized classification society. (a) In order to receive recognition by the Coast Guard...

  18. 49 CFR 230.17 - One thousand four hundred seventy-two (1472) service day inspection.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false One thousand four hundred seventy-two (1472) service day inspection. 230.17 Section 230.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General General Inspection Requirements § 230.17 One thousand four hundred...

  19. 33 CFR 209.230 - Use of reservoir areas for recreation.

    2010-07-01

    ... in 36 CFR parts 311 to 326. Licenses and leases are granted under the law containing conditions and... recreation. 209.230 Section 209.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.230 Use of reservoir areas for...

  20. 46 CFR 128.230 - Penetrations of hulls and watertight bulkheads-materials and pressure design.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penetrations of hulls and watertight bulkheads-materials and pressure design. 128.230 Section 128.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.230 Penetrations of hulls...

  1. Construction of recombinant ZNF230/GFP fused plasmids and their expression and cellular localization

    Xu, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Si-Zhong; Qiu, Wei-Min;

    2004-01-01

    cutting, the mutated human and mouse ZNF230(znf230) were inserted into mammalian expression plasmid pEGFP-N1. Thus we constructed the plasmid with fusion gene of ZNF230 and green fluorescent protein(GFP). Then the Cos cell was transfected with the fused gene by liposome. Fluorescence microscopy showed...

  2. 39 CFR 230.3 - Cooperation with the Office of Inspector General.

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperation with the Office of Inspector General. 230.3 Section 230.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL General Policy and Authority § 230.3 Cooperation with the Office of...

  3. 17 CFR 230.462 - Immediate effectiveness of certain registration statements and post-effective amendments.

    2010-04-01

    .... (e) An automatic shelf registration statement, including an automatic shelf registration statement... certain registration statements and post-effective amendments. 230.462 Section 230.462 Commodity and... Filings; Fees; Effective Date § 230.462 Immediate effectiveness of certain registration statements...

  4. 36 CFR 230.42 - Cost-share assistance application and payment procedures.

    2010-07-01

    ... application and payment procedures. 230.42 Section 230.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.42 Cost... time period specified in the State priority plan, not to exceed 12 months. (f) Upon certification...

  5. 28 CFR 2.30 - False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release.

    2010-07-01

    ... Prisoners and Parolees § 2.30 False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release. If... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release. 2.30 Section 2.30 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE,...

  6. 38 CFR 17.230 - Contingency backup to the Department of Defense.

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contingency backup to the Department of Defense. 17.230 Section 17.230 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Sharing of Medical Facilities, Equipment, and Information § 17.230 Contingency backup...

  7. SPRINT RA 230: Methodology for knowledge based developments

    SPRINT RA 230: A Methodology for Knowledge Based Developments, funded by the European Commission, was set up to investigate the use of KBS in the engineering industry. Its aim was to find out low KBS were currently used and what people's conceptions of them was, to disseminate current knowledge and to recommend further research into this area. A survey (by post and face to face interviews) was carried out under SPRINT RA 230 to investigate requirements for more intelligent software. In the survey we looked both at how people think about Knowledge Based Systems (KBS), what they find useful and what is not useful, and what current expertise problems or limitations of conventional software might suggest KBS solutions. (orig./DG)

  8. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 230 - Civil Penalty Schedule

    2010-10-01

    ... minimum piston travel 1,000 1,500 (b) Excessive piston travel when steam locomotive is stationary 1,000 2..., fastened 1,000 1,500 230.93Pistons and piston rods: (a) Failure to properly inspect, maintain, renew 1,000... prior to welding 1,000 2,000 (c) Bearings and bushings 1,000 1,500 (d) Rod side motion: Excessive...

  9. Dicty_cDB: AFL230 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available im test: 0 Number of HSP's gapped (non-prelim): 0 length of query: 247 length of database: 80,480,566 effective HSP length: 17 effect...ive length of query: 230 effective length of database: 78,821,179 effective search space: 18128871170 effect...h of database: Z,316,359,891 effective HSP length: 22 effective length of query: 225 effective length of database: Y,489,630,911 effe...ctive search space: 9335166954975 effective search space used: 9335166954975 T: 0 A...ive search space used: 18128871170 T: 0 A: 0 X1: 6 (11.9

  10. Corona performance of a compact 230-kV line

    Permitting requirements and the acquisition of new rights-of-way for transmission facilities has in recent years become increasingly difficult for most utilities, including Puget Sound Power and Light Company. In order to maintain a high degree of reliability of service while being responsive to public concerns regarding the siting of high voltage (HV) transmission facilities, Puget Power has found it necessary to more heavily rely upon the use of compact lines in franchise corridors. Compaction does, however, precipitant increased levels of audible noise (AN) and radio and TV interference (RI and TVI) due to corona on the conductors and insulator assemblies. Puget Power relies upon the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Corona and Field Effects computer program to calculate AN and RI for new lines. Since there was some question of the program's ability to accurately represent quiet 230-kV compact designs, a joint project was undertaken with BPA to verify the program's algorithms. Long-term measurements made on an operating Puget Power 230-kV compact line confirmed the accuracy of BPA's AN model; however, the RI measurements were much lower than predicted by the BPA computer and other programs. This paper also describes how the BPA computer program can be used to calculate the voltage needed to expose insulator assemblies to the correct electric field in single test setups in HV laboratories

  11. Shielding measurements for a 230 MeV proton beam

    Energetic secondary neutrons produced as protons interact with accelerator components and patients dominate the radiation shielding environment for proton radiotherapy facilities. Due to the scarcity of data describing neutron production, attenuation, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent values, these parameters were measured for 230 MeV proton bombardment of stopping length Al, Fe, and Pb targets at emission angles of 0 degree, 22 degree, 45 degree, and 90 degree in a thick concrete shield. Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters with volumes ranging from 1 cm3 to 1000 cm3 were used to obtain microdosimetric spectra from which absorbed dose and radiation quality are deduced. Does equivalent values and attenuation lengths determined at depth in the shield were found to vary sharply with angle, but were found to be independent of target material. Neutron dose and radiation length values are compared with Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations performed using the Los Alamos High Energy Transport Code (LAHET). Calculations used 230 MeV protons incident upon an Fe target in a shielding geometry similar to that used in the experiment. LAHET calculations overestimated measured attenuation values at 0 degree, 22 degree, and 45 degree, yet correctly predicted the attenuation length at 90 degree. Comparison of the mean radiation quality estimated with the Monte Carlo calculations with measurements suggest that neutron quality factors should be increased by a factor of 1.4. These results are useful for the shielding design of new facilities as well as for testing neutron production and transport calculations

  12. 40 CFR 230.54 - Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites, and similar preserves. 230.54 Section 230.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF...

  13. 49 CFR 230.40 - Time and method of staybolt testing.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time and method of staybolt testing. 230.40... Appurtenances Staybolts § 230.40 Time and method of staybolt testing. (a) Time of hammer testing—(1) General... bearers are removed for any other reason, however, the bolts shall be inspected at that time. (b)...

  14. 46 CFR 122.230 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 122.230 Section... Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.230 Report of accident to aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under the jurisdiction of the Coast Guard, or is...

  15. 46 CFR 185.230 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 185.230 Section 185.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under...

  16. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63... Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts shall be inspected at each annual inspection, or any other time that conditions warrant....

  17. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... construction projects only). (a) On-the-job special training provisions. State highway agencies will...

  18. 10 CFR 72.230 - Procedures for spent fuel storage cask submittals.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for spent fuel storage cask submittals. 72.230... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.230 Procedures for spent fuel storage cask...

  19. 40 CFR 436.230 - Applicability; description of the magnesite subcategory.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the magnesite subcategory. 436.230 Section 436.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  20. 24 CFR 990.230 - PHAs that will experience a subsidy reduction.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PHAs that will experience a subsidy reduction. 990.230 Section 990.230 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT THE...

  1. 49 CFR 230.65 - Steam blocking view of engine crew.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam blocking view of engine crew. 230.65 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Leaks § 230.65 Steam blocking view of engine crew. The steam locomotive owner...

  2. 17 CFR 230.497 - Filing of investment company prospectuses-number of copies.

    2010-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 230.497, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... copies. (a) Five copies of every form of prospectus sent or given to any person prior to the effective... investment company advertisement under § 230.482 shall be filed under this paragraph (a) (but not as part...

  3. 42 CFR 414.230 - Determining a period of continuous use.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining a period of continuous use. 414.230 Section 414.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment...

  4. 5 CFR 230.401 - Agency authority to take personnel actions in a national emergency disaster.

    2010-01-01

    ... actions in a national emergency disaster. 230.401 Section 230.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... personnel actions in a national emergency disaster. (a) Upon an attack on the United States, agencies are... organizations during a period of disaster without regard to any regulation or instruction of OPM, except...

  5. 49 CFR 1544.230 - Fingerprint-based criminal history records checks (CHRC): Flightcrew members.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fingerprint-based criminal history records checks (CHRC): Flightcrew members. 1544.230 Section 1544.230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  6. 40 CFR 230.61 - Chemical, biological, and physical evaluation and testing.

    2010-07-01

    ... for adverse environmental impact at the proposed disposal site, a comparison of the biological... evaluation and testing. 230.61 Section 230.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... environmental effects. If the General Evaluation indicates the presence of a sufficiently large number...

  7. 36 CFR 230.36 - State priority plan-purpose and scope.

    2010-07-01

    ... forest inventory and analysis reports on the forest resources found within the State; (2) A description... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State priority plan-purpose and scope. 230.36 Section 230.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  9. 30 CFR 285.230 - May I request a lease if there is no Call?

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I request a lease if there is no Call? 285.230 Section 285.230 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Call? You may submit an unsolicited request for a commercial lease or a limited lease under this...

  10. 17 CFR 230.136 - Definition of certain terms in relation to assessable stock.

    2010-04-01

    ... relation to assessable stock. 230.136 Section 230.136 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... certain terms in relation to assessable stock. (a) An offer, offer to sell, or offer for sale of... shall not be deemed to include the offering or sale of assessable stock, at public auction or...

  11. Dicty_cDB: SLD230 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available alue N ( AU052384 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLD230. 268 6e-68 2 ( AU052130 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug... cDNA, clone SLA579. 268 7e-68 2 ( AU033673 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLB2...96. 268 7e-68 2 ( AU034239 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLC311. 26...8 7e-68 2 ( AU052966 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLF396. 268 7e-68 2 ( AU053398 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug... cDNA, clone SLI557. 268 7e-68 2 ( AU034057 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone S

  12. Calculation of 230Th U isochrons, ages, and errors

    Ludwig, K. R.; Titterington, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    If analytical errors are responsible for the scatter of points on a 230Th-234U-238U isochron diagram, the isochron should be fitted by a technique that 1. (1) weights the points according to their analytical errors and error correlations, and 2. (2) either takes into account the presence of some of the same data in two coupled XY isochrons or (equivalently) uses a single, three-dimensional XYZ isochron. A method based on maximum-likelihood estimation is presented that fulfills these requirements, and the relevant equations for errors in age and initial 234U 238U are given. Equations for estimating the necessary isotope-ratio errors and error-correlations for both alpha-spectrometric and mass-spectrometric data are also developed. ?? 1994.

  13. Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians

    Mathieson, Iain; Lazaridis, Iosif; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Patterson, Nick; Roodenberg, Songül Alpaslan; Harney, Eadaoin; Stewardson, Kristin; Fernandes, Daniel; Novak, Mario; Sirak, Kendra; Gamba, Cristina; Jones, Eppie R.; Llamas, Bastien; Dryomov, Stanislav; Pickrel, Joseph; Arsuaga, Juan Luís; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Carbonell, Eudald; Gerritsen, Fokke; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Kuznetsov, Pavel; Lozano, Marina; Meller, Harald; Mochalov, Oleg; Moiseyev, Vayacheslav; Rojo Guerra, Manuel A.; Roodenberg, Jacob; Vergès, Josep Maria; Krause, Johannes; Cooper, Alan; Alt, Kurt W.; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Haak, Wolfgang; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA makes it possible to directly witness natural selection by analyzing samples from populations before, during and after adaptation events. Here we report the first scan for selection using ancient DNA, capitalizing on the largest genome-wide dataset yet assembled: 230 West Eurasians dating to between 6500 and 1000 BCE, including 163 with newly reported data. The new samples include the first genome-wide data from the Anatolian Neolithic culture whose genetic material we extracted from the DNA-rich petrous bone and who we show were members of the population that was the source of Europe’s first farmers. We also report a complete transect of the steppe region in Samara between 5500 and 1200 BCE that allows us to recognize admixture from at least two external sources into steppe populations during this period. We detect selection at loci associated with diet, pigmentation and immunity, and two independent episodes of selection on height. PMID:26595274

  14. MFTF 230 kV pulsed power substation

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory includes a Sustaining Neutral Beam Power Supply System (SNBPSS) consisting of 24 power-supply sets. The System will operate in long pulses (initially .5 seconds and eventually 30 seconds) at high power (200 MW), which will necessitate a large source of ac power. To meet this requirement, a new 230-kV substation is also being built at LLL. The constraints of cost, equipment protection, short operating lifetime (10 years), and reliability dictated a unique substation design. Its unusual features include provisions for fast fault detection and tripping, a capability for limiting ground fault current, low impedance, and economical design

  15. 17 CFR 230.166 - Exemption from section 5(c) for certain communications in connection with business combination...

    2010-04-01

    ...) Communications. In a registered offering involving a business combination transaction, any communication made in...) for certain communications in connection with business combination transactions. 230.166 Section 230... in connection with business combination transactions. Preliminary Note: This section is...

  16. 232Th(d,4n)230Pa cross-section measurements at ARRONAX facility for the production of 230U

    Introduction: 226Th (T1/2 = 31 min) is a promising therapeutic radionuclide since results, published in 2009, showed that it induces leukemia cells death and activates apoptosis pathways with higher efficiencies than 213Bi. 226Th can be obtained via the 230U α decay. This study focuses on the 230U production using the 232Th(d,4n)230Pa(β−)230U reaction. Methods: Experimental cross sections for deuteron-induced reactions on 232Th were measured from 30 down to 19 MeV using the stacked-foil technique with beams provided by the ARRONAX cyclotron. After irradiation, all foils (targets as well as monitors) were measured using a high-purity germanium detector. Results: Our new 230Pa cross-section values, as well as those of 232Pa and 233Pa contaminants created during the irradiation, were compared with previous measurements and with results given by the TALYS code. Experimentally, same trends were observed with slight differences in orders of magnitude mainly due to the nuclear data change. Improvements are ongoing about the TALYS code to better reproduce the data for deuteron-induced reactions on 232Th. Conclusions: Using our cross-section data points from the 232Th(d,4n)230Pa reaction, we have calculated the thick-target yield of 230U, in Bq/μA·h. This value allows now to a full comparison between the different production routes, showing that the proton routes must be preferred

  17. 17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities. 230.139 Section 230.139 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.139 Publications...

  18. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    2010-07-01

    ...-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Compensation Rules § 553.230 Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days—section 7(k). (a) For... 28 consecutive days, no overtime compensation is required under section 7(k) until the number...

  19. 17 CFR 230.506 - Exemption for limited offers and sales without regard to dollar amount of offering.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption for limited offers and sales without regard to dollar amount of offering. 230.506 Section 230.506 Commodity and... Securities Act of 1933 § 230.506 Exemption for limited offers and sales without regard to dollar amount...

  20. 77 FR 38838 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 230.110-Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting...

    2012-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 230.110--Registration of Blood... Administration (FDA) is announcing the withdrawal of the compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled ``Sec. 230.110.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert L. Hummel, Division of Compliance Policy (HFC-230), Food...

  1. Sedimentation rates and age modeling of Late Quaternary marine sediments with unsupported 230Th

    230Th is a radionuclide of the 238U decay series, characterized by natural abundance in sediments and a half-life of 75,380 years, suitable for direct evaluation of sedimentation rates and sediment ages in a time scale of 700,000 years before the present. 230Th cycle creates a contrast between supported and unsupported 230Th in the sedimentary matrix due to the different geochemical behaviors of 230Th and its parent, 234U. This study aimed at establishing and validating a mathematical model that evaluates sedimentation rates and age modeling based on 230Th data retrieved from a sediment core sampled in the southeastern Brazilian continental margin. The validation of the age modeling of this method was made through a statistical comparison between its results and those of benthic foraminifera δ 18O record technique, widely used for sediment dating and determination of sedimentation rates. It was observed that the model of unsupported 230Th was successful in determining Late Quaternary sedimentation rates and ages in a confidence level of 95 %. It was possible to determine several breaking points in unsupported 230Th vertical profile, and it was shown that those divides correspond to some major intervals between glacial and interglacial periods when compared with the benthic foraminifera record. (author)

  2. Remeasurement of thorium-230 in the pore water of Lacnor tailings

    A resampling of the Lacnor tailings management area was undertaken under a comprehensive quality assurance programme to establish levels of thorium 230 in pore water. A quality assurance programme was established for field sampling, sample handling and transport, and laboratory procedures and reporting. The external audit was used to evaluate analytical bias (on synthetic and field samples) and precision (by comparison of duplicate-duplicate results). Accuracy was assessed using synthetic samples. The external audit indicates that thorium 230 measurements by the main laboratory are not significantly different from the interlaboratory average within standard statistical limits. The results of the audit are based on measurement of environmental samples and known synthetic samples. This shows that present and previous measurements of thorium 230 varying from 0,1 to 150 Bq/L are valid data. A qualitative interpretation of the controls on thorium 230 geochemistry is provided in terms of control by thorium 232 and thorium dioxide(c) solid phase. Generic dose estimates for consumption of water containing thorium 230 are made but require refinement ot account for the actual pH of the drinking water and the degree of dilution of the pore water. The results of this project indicate that the performance of the laboratory that will conduct future thorium 230 measurements can be assessed satisfactorily with a smaller scale external laboratory assurance programme. The programme should include replicate samples sent to each laboratory and interlaboratory comparison on samples having high and low values of thorium 230

  3. 基于TCS230便携式颜色测量系统设计%Design of Portable Color Measurement System Based on TCS230

    季峰

    2015-01-01

    介绍了TCS230可编程颜色测量芯片的工作原理。基于TCS230的工作原理,以89c51单片机为控制单元,设计出便携式颜色测量系统。系统采用24c02存储器存放TCS230的白平衡调整因子,避免了每次开机时的白平衡调试,颜色测量结果通过LCD1602显示。所设计的系统具有使用元器件少、体积小、成本低等优点。%The working principle of TCS230 programmable color measuring chip is introduced.Based on the working principle,a design of portable color measurement system is proposed by using 89c51 single-chip mi-crocomputer as control unit.The system uses the 24c02 memory to store the white balance adjustment factor of TCS230,which avoids the white balance adjustment when the system starts every time.And the measured results are displayed by LCD1602.The designed system has the advantages of less components,smal size and low cost.

  4. Mechanisms of TL for production of the 230 {sup o}C peak in natural sodalite

    Cano, Nilo F., E-mail: nilocano@dfn.if.usp.b [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Professional School of Physics, University of San Agustin of Arequipa, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Blak, Ana R. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ayala-Arenas, Jorge S. [Professional School of Physics, University of San Agustin of Arequipa, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Watanabe, Shigueo [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    The thermoluminescence (TL) peak in natural sodalite near 230 {sup o}C, which appears only after submitted to thermal treatments and to gamma irradiation, has been studied in parallel with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum appearing under the same procedure. This study revealed a full correlation between the 230 {sup o}C TL peak and the eleven hyperfine lines from EPR spectrum. In both case, the centers disappear at the same temperature and are restored after gamma irradiation. A complete model for the 230 {sup o}C TL peak is presented and discussed. In addition to the correlation and TL model, specific characteristics of the TL peaks are described.

  5. Separation of 230Th (ionium) from uranium ores sulfuric acid and in nitric acid solutions

    230Th (ionium) is of interest for production of 231Pa, the Pa isotope with the longest half life, and for production of 232U which can be used in radionuclide batteries. Two procedures are presented which have been worked out for separation of 230Th from sulfuric acid and from nitric acid solutions. In the first case the effluents from the anion exchange resins are the starting material for recorvery of 230Th, in the second case the cation exchange resins which are for purification of U. The procedures selected are simple, economic and can be performed in any uranium mill or uranium purification plant without additional investments. (orig.)

  6. Search for β-delayed fission of the heavy neutron-rich isotope 230Ac

    The 230Ra has been produced via multinucleon transfer reaction and dissipative fragmentation by 60 MeV/u 18O ion irradiation of 232Th targets. The radium was radiochemically separated from the mixture of thorium and reaction products. Thin Ra sources were prepared and exposed to the mica fission track detectors, and measured by a HPGe gamma detector. It is likely that the β-delayed fission of 230Ac was observed for the first time and the β-delayed fission probability of 230Ac was tentatively found to be (1.19±0.40) x 10-8. (orig.)

  7. Search for {beta}-delayed fission of the heavy neutron-rich isotope {sup 230}Ac

    Shuanggui Yuan; Weifan Yang; Yanbing Xu; Qiangyan Pan; Bing Xiong; Jianjun He; Dong Wang; Yingjun Li; Taotao Ma; Zhenguo Yang [Academia Sinica, Lanzhou, GS (China). Inst. of Modern Physics

    2001-01-01

    The {sup 230}Ra has been produced via multinucleon transfer reaction and dissipative fragmentation by 60 MeV/u {sup 18}O ion irradiation of {sup 232}Th targets. The radium was radiochemically separated from the mixture of thorium and reaction products. Thin Ra sources were prepared and exposed to the mica fission track detectors, and measured by a HPGe gamma detector. It is likely that the {beta}-delayed fission of {sup 230}Ac was observed for the first time and the {beta}-delayed fission probability of {sup 230}Ac was tentatively found to be (1.19{+-}0.40) x 10{sup -8}. (orig.)

  8. Therapeutic Effect of 131I for 230 Patients with Hyperthyroidism

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of 131I in treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism and analysis the factors that influence the effect, 230 cases of hyperthyroidism were treated with 131I, and were followed-up at 1.5, 3, 6, 12 months and even longer time after 131I radiotherapy. The serum levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH were detected in all cases. The results showed that 181 patients were cured (78.6%), 22 patients were improved (9.5%), 23 cases developed early hypothyroidism(10.0%),and 4 cases developed later hypothyroidism. 12 cases in 27 patients with hypothyroidism treated with thyroxin were recovered, but the other 15 cases need to be given permanent treatment. The factors which influence 131I radiotherapeutic effect include the patient age, course of disease,application of ATD, size and quality of thyroid, and the level of thyroid hormone. The patients should be followed up to prevent occurrence of hypothyroidism. The early hypothyroidism should be treated in order to decrease the permanent hypothyroidism rate. (authors)

  9. Relationship between ISO 230-2/-6 Test Results and Positioning Accuracy of Machine Tools Using LaserTRACER

    Hau-Wei Lee; Jr-Rung Chen; Shan-Peng Pan; Hua-Chung Liou; Po-Er Hsu

    2016-01-01

    To test the positioning accuracy and repeatability of the linear axes of machine tools, ISO (International Standards Organization) 230-2 and ISO 230-6 are usually adopted. Auto-tracking laser interferometers (ATLI) can perform the testing for the positioning accuracy and the repeatability including x-, y- and z-axes according to ISO 230-2 as well as xy, xz, yz, and xyz diagonal lines following ISO 230-6. LaserTRACER is a kind of ATLI. One of the steps of the ISO 230-2 and -6 tests using Laser...

  10. 238U-230Th-226Ra radioactive disequilibria in the products from 1707 eruption of Fuji volcano, Japan

    Time scale of magmatic processes in the 1707 eruptive activity of Fuji volcano, Japan, was estimated by the 238U-230Th-226Ra disequilibria observed in the 1707 volcanic products. The activity ratios of 226Ra/230Th in the products were larger than unity, being enriched in 226Ra relative to 230Th. The decay-corrected 226Ra/230Th activity ratio to the time of the eruption versus 238U/230Th activity ratio diagram for the 1707 volcanic products showed a positive correlation, suggesting that the 238U/230Th-226Ra disequilibria occurred during the magma genesis of Fuji volcano. The 230Th-226Ra disequilibria in the 1707 volcanic products suggested that the time scale from the magma genesis to the eruption, including the melting of the mantle wedge, magma storage and magmatic differentiation from basalt to andesite, was less than 8000 years. (author)

  11. 34 CFR 230.1 - What is the Troops-to-Teacher program?

    2010-07-01

    ... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INNOVATION FOR TEACHER QUALITY Troops-to-Teachers Program § 230... lieu of a stipend, DANTES may pay a bonus of $10,000 to a participant who agrees to teach in a...

  12. 17 CFR 230.236 - Exemption of shares offered in connection with certain transactions.

    2010-04-01

    ... stock dividend, stock split, reverse stock split, conversion, merger or similar transaction, shall be... Exemptions § 230.236 Exemption of shares offered in connection with certain transactions. Shares of stock...

  13. Seismic upgrading of WWER 440-230 structures, units 1/2, Kozloduy NPP

    The purpose of this paper is to present final results from a big amount of computational work in connection with the investigations of the possibilities for upgrading of WWER 440-230 structures, units 1/2, Kozloduy NPP. (author)

  14. Automatic Color Sorting Machine Using TCS230 Color Sensor And PIC Microcontroller

    Kunhimohammed C K; Muhammed Saifudeen K K; Sahna S; Gokul M S; Shaeez Usman Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    Sorting of products is a very difficult industrial process. Continuous manual sorting creates consistency issues. This paper describes a working prototype designed for automatic sorting of objects based on the color. TCS230 sensor was used to detect the color of the product and the PIC16F628A microcontroller was used to control the overall process. The identification of the color is based on the frequency analysis of the output of TCS230 sensor. Two conveyor belts were used, each ...

  15. Incipient corrosion behavior of Haynes 230 under a controlled reducing atmosphere at high temperatures

    Tung, Hsiao-Ming; Stubbins, James F.

    2012-08-01

    In situ thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the incipient corrosion behavior of alloy 230 exposed under a reducing environment in a temperature range of 850-1000 °C. Both oxidation and loss of alloying elements of alloy 230 were observed to occur concurrently in these conditions. The surface oxide which formed on the substrate does not appear to be as effective in providing a protective layer during the incipient corrosion period.

  16. Performance analysis of WWER-440/230 nuclear power plants

    This report examines one particular design, the WWER-440/230, the first generation of commercial WWERs, essentially comparable to the western PWR. This design was installed widely in eastern Europe with a total of 16 unites being completed in what are now Armenia, Bulgaria, Germany (the former German Democratic Republic) the Slovak Republic and Russia. The plants in Armenia and Germany (the former German Democratic Republic) have been closed down, but particularly in Bulgaria and to a lesser extent the Slovak Republic the remaining plants supply a significant proportion of the electricity of the country and decisions to close them could not be taken lightly. The aim of this report is twofold: first to determine whether the impression given by these good overall performance indicators is confirmed using more detailed indicators covering a wide range of factors; second, to see to what extent good performance can be attributed to the industrial and institutional environment in which these plants were designed, built and operated. Particular attention is paid to identifying factors that may impact the quality of the service provided, especially those factors under management control which can be strongly influenced by current and future policy changes and those factors that are beyond the plant management control but could have influenced the performance of the power plants. Issues concerning the safety of these plants are of considerable importance, but they remain outside the scope of this report. Conclusions and recommendations formulated by the IAEA related to WWER safety are contained in the series of reports prepared in the framework of the Extrabudgetary Programme on WWER Safety. A programme progress report was published in 1994 (IAEA-TECDOC-773). Refs, figs, tabs

  17. Treatment of sarcoids in equids: 230 cases (2008-2013).

    Haspeslagh, Maarten; Vlaminck, Lieven E M; Martens, Ann M

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes following treatment of sarcoids in equids and to identify risk factors for treatment failure in these patients. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 230 equids with 614 sarcoids. PROCEDURES Records were searched to identify equids treated for ≥ 1 sarcoid between 2008 and 2013. A standardized protocol was used to determine treatment choice (electrosurgery, electrosurgery with intralesional placement of cisplatin-containing beads, topical administration of imiquimod or acyclovir, cryosurgery, bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine injection, or intralesional injection of platinum-containing drugs). Data regarding animal, tumor, treatment, and outcome variables were collected. Complete tumor regression without recurrence for ≥ 6 months was considered a successful outcome. Success rates were calculated; binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for treatment failure and to compare effects of the 2 topical treatments. A χ(2) test was used to compare effects of the number of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine or cisplatin-containing drug injections on outcome. RESULTS The overall success rate was 460 of 614 (74.9%). Electrosurgical excision resulted in the highest treatment success rate (277/319 [86.8%]); odds of treatment failure were significantly greater for intralesional injection of platinum-containing drugs, cryosurgery, and topical acyclovir treatment. Odds of treatment failure were also significantly greater for sarcoids on equids with multiple tumors than for solitary lesions, and significantly lower for sarcoids on equids that received concurrent immunostimulating treatment for another sarcoid than for those on patients that did not receive such treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Selection bias for treatments was inherent to the study design; however, results may assist clinicians in selecting treatments and in determining prognosis for equids with sarcoids treated according to the

  18. Two types of adakites revealed by 238U-230Th disequilibrium from Daisen volcano, southwestern Japan

    Daisen volcano is located on the Quaternary volcanic front in southwestern Japan. The volcano is composed mainly of andesite and dacite, which chemically resemble adakites, with high Al2O3 and Sr/Y, steep REE patterns, and no negative Eu anomaly. (238U/230Th) disequilibrium (herein, a ratio in parentheses denotes the activity ratio) and trace element analyses of adakites from two volcanic domes, Karasugasen and Misen, indicate two adakite types. Adakite from Karasugasen is characterized by excess (230Th) over (238U), typical of most adakites, whereas adakite from Misen is characterized by excess (238U) over (230Th). The latter is consistent with enrichment in fluid-mobile elements relative to fluid immobile elements compared to rocks from Karasugasen. The values of (230Th/232Th) of adakites from Karasugasen and Misen are, respectively, around 0.75 and 0.81. These low (230Th/232Th) ratios result from the incorporation of subducted sedimentary material. The ratios, nevertheless, are higher than that for the estimate of lower crustal material suggesting significant incorporation of lower crust is unlikely. As adakites from Misen have (238U) excess over (230Th), adakite magma must have interacted with wedge mantle metasomatized by a slab-derived fluid, confirming the presence of a fluid-metasomatized mantle beneath Daisen volcano. (author)

  19. Cross sections of the reaction Pa-231(d,3n)U-230 for the production of U-230/Th-226 for targeted alpha therapy

    Morgenstern, A.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Štursa, Jan; Capote, R.; Sin, M.; Bruchertseifer, F.; Zielinska, B.; Apostolidis, C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 5 (2009), 054612/1-054612/6. ISSN 0556-2813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Pa-231 * U-230 * Th-226 * reaction cross section * targeted alpha therapy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.477, year: 2009

  20. 232Th(d,4n)230Pa cross-section measurements at ARRONAX facility

    Full text of publication follows. The ARRONAX cyclotron [Ref.1], acronym for 'Accelerator for Research in Radiochemistry and Oncology at Nantes Atlantique' is a new facility installed in Nantes, France. A dedicated program has been launched on production of innovative radionuclides for PET imaging and for β- and α- targeted radiotherapy using proton or α particle. Since the accelerator is also able to deliver deuteron beams up to 35 MeV, we have reconsidered the possibility to use them to produce medical isotopes. In this study, we have focused on cross section measurements using the stacked-foil technique [Ref. 2] of one isotope dedicated to alpha radio-immunotherapy (α RIT) [Ref.3], 226Th which can be produced through different routes. It's of great interest since it has been found to be a more potent alpha particle emitter for leukemia therapies than Bi213 [Ref.4]. Indeed, the 226Th decay produced a cascade of four α particles with a cumulated energy of 27.7 MeV. An additional interest is the possible use of a radionuclide generator system 230U/226Th. 230U could be produced directly via 231Pa(p, 2n)230U, and indirectly via 230Pa using proton or deuteron beams through 232Th(p, 3n)230Pa → 230U, 232Th(d, 4n)230Pa → 230U. Twelve data sets are published concerning the 230Pa cross section induced by proton [Ref 5], only one by deuteron [Ref.6]. As sometimes deuteron induced reaction gives higher cross section values, it seems interesting to focus our study on their use as projectile on 232Th target to produce 230Pa. Contaminants created during irradiation are also measured since a good optimization of the process is supposed to find the best compromise between production yield and purity of the final product. Our new sets of data are compared with the existing data [Refs.5,6] on other existing production routes and with results given by TALYS code calculations [Ref.7]. References: 1] F. Haddad and al., Eur. J. Med. Mol. Imaging (2008) 35

  1. 230Th/U-dating of a late Holocene low uranium speleothem from Cuba

    We present 22 U-series ages for a stalagmite from north-western Cuba based on multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS). Our results reveal that the stalagmite continuously grew within the last ∼1400a. Low uranium content of the sample and thus, extremely low 230Th concentrations limit the precision and accuracy of 230Th/U-dating by TIMS. Samples measured by MC-ICPMS show a high variability of 232Th content along the growth axis with some sections significantly affected by initial 230Th from a detrital phase. An a-priori bulk earth ratio for (238U/232Th) cannot be used to accurately account for this initial 230Th. Using an age model based on the 230Th/U ages determined on samples with low or negligible 232Th concentration, we find that the (238U/232Th) activity ratio of the detrital phase is an order of magnitude larger than the bulk earth value, indicating the importance of an accurately determined correction factor.

  2. In-beam spectroscopy of the Kπ = 0- bands in 230-236U

    The Kπ = 0- bands in even uranium nuclei were studied in the compound reactions 231Pa(p,2n)230U, 230,232Th(α,2n)232,234U and 236U(d,pn)236U. In-beam γ-rays were measured in coincidence with conversion-electrons, which were detected with an iron-free orange spectrometer. The negative-parity levels are observed up to intermediate spins (I-). In addition, the 1- and 3- levels in 230U were confirmed by a decay study with an isotope separated 230Pa source. For the heavier isotopes (A > or approx. 232) the properties of the Kπ = 0- bands (energies and γ-branchings) are consistent with a vibrational character of these bands. For 230U the Kπ = 0- band lies at rather low energy (E(1-) = 367 keV), and the level spacings within this band are very similar to those of the isotones 228Th and 226Ra, which might indicate the onset of a stable octupole deformation. (orig.)

  3. Dissolution behaviour of 238U, 234U and 230Th deposited on filters from personal dosemeters

    Kinetics of dissolution of 238U, 234U and 230Th dust deposited on filters from personal alpha dosemeters was studied by means of a 26-d in vitro dissolution test with a serum ultra-filtrate simulant. Dosemeters had been used by miners at the uranium mine 'Dolni Rozinka' at Rozna, Czech Republic. The sampling flow-rate as declared by the producer is 4 l h-1 and the sampling period is typically 1 month. Studied filters contained 125 ± 6 mBq 238U in equilibrium with 234U and 230Th; no 232Th series nuclides were found. Half-time of rapid dissolution of 1.4 d for 238U and 234U and slow dissolution half-times of 173 and 116 d were found for 238U and 234U, respectively. No detectable dissolution of 230Th was found. (authors)

  4. SLUDGE PARTICLE SEPAPATION EFFICIENCIES DURING SETTLER TANK RETRIEVAL INTO SCS-CON-230

    DEARING JI; EPSTEIN M; PLYS MG

    2009-07-16

    The purpose of this document is to release, into the Hanford Document Control System, FA1/0991, Sludge Particle Separation Efficiencies for the Rectangular SCS-CON-230 Container, by M. Epstein and M. G. Plys, Fauske & Associates, LLC, June 2009. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) will retrieve sludge from the 105-K West Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Settler Tanks and transfer it to container SCS-CON-230 using the Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS). The sludge will enter the container through two distributors. The container will have a filtration system that is designed to minimize the overflow of sludge fines from the container to the basin. FAI/09-91 was performed to quantify the effect of the STRS on sludge distribution inside of and overflow out of SCS-CON-230. Selected results of the analysis and a system description are discussed. The principal result of the analysis is that the STRS filtration system reduces the overflow of sludge from SCS-CON-230 to the basin by roughly a factor of 10. Some turbidity can be expected in the center bay where the container is located. The exact amount of overflow and subsequent turbidity is dependent on the density of the sludge (which will vary with location in the Settler Tanks) and the thermal gradient between the SCS-CON-230 and the basin. Attachment A presents the full analytical results. These results are applicable specifically to SCS-CON-230 and the STRS filtration system's expected operating duty cycles.

  5. Alat Pemisah Benda Berdasarkan Warna Menggunakan Sensor TCS230 Berbasis Mikrokontroler AT89S51.

    Victor Chandra S

    2011-01-01

    Was design an instrumental for differentiate and then separate an object. Separation was done by the color. To differentiated the color was used a TCS230 color sensor. The TCS230 color sensor output is a frequency. Frequency of this sensor was get from reflected light by the object. To reflect the light was use a white LED (Light Emitting Diode), without other light source. A good frequency output was get by positioning the object right in front of the sensor with range 1 milimeter. To get a ...

  6. Procurement and Initial Characterization of Alloy 230 and CMS Alloy 617

    Material for initial testing of alloy 230 and a controlled-chemistry variant of alloy 617 has been procured in the form of plates. 3/4-inch thick alloy 230 plate was commercially procured from Haynes International, and 2-inch thick CCA 617, an existing controlled-chemistry variant of alloy 617, was obtained from Alstom Power through the ultra-supercritical fossil energy program. This report describes the procurement of these plates and their characteristics in terms of vendor-supplied chemistry and mechanical properties. Further detailed characterization tests are planned for this fiscal year, and this report will be updated in September 2006 to include the results of these tests

  7. Vectorization of diffusion code VENTURE using CRAY-1 and FACOM 230-75 APU

    Three-dimensional neutron-diffusion code VENTURE has been vectorized to run on the vector processors, CRAY-1 and FACOM 230-75 APU (Array Processor Unit). Vector processing effect is observed as the CPU time reduction of about 50% to the scalar processing case for CRAY-1, and about 70% for FACOM 230-75 APU. The whole process of converting the code from scalar-oriented programming to vector-oriented one is described in some detail with emphasizing the importance of changing the code structure. (author)

  8. Safety and upgrading of nuclear power plants with WWER-440/V-230

    Modernization of WWER-440/V-230 reactors is considered according to the WANO project 'Proposal for reconstruction of WWER-440/V-230 reactors' (1990). The main technical measures to be taken relate to: 1. Expanding the considered spectrum of design basis accidents; 2. Provision of first loop integrity; 3. Safety system structure and components reliability enhancement; 4. Reduction o initiating events probability; 5. Enhancement of hermeticity and integrity of the area surrounding the first loop; 6. Fire fighting system upgrade; 7. Radiation control system upgrade; 8. Provision of seismic resistance. Details of the recommended technical steps for some NPPs are presented. 1 tab

  9. First 230 GHz VLBI Fringes on 3C 279 using the APEX Telescope

    J. Wagner; Roy, A L; Krichbaum, T. P.; Alef, W.; Bansod, A.; Bertarini, A.; Güsten, R.; Graham, D.; HODGSON, J; Märtens, R.; Menten, K.; Muders, D.; Rottmann, H.; TUCCARI, G.; Weiss, A

    2015-01-01

    We report about a 230 GHz very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) fringe finder observation of blazar 3C 279 with the APEX telescope in Chile, the phased submillimeter array (SMA), and the SMT of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). We installed VLBI equipment and measured the APEX station position to 1 cm accuracy (1 sigma). We then observed 3C 279 on 2012 May 7 in a 5 hour 230 GHz VLBI track with baseline lengths of 2800 M$\\lambda$ to 7200 M$\\lambda$ and a finest fringe spacing of 28.6 mic...

  10. Leaching of radionuclides from uranium ore and mill tailings ( Ra- 226, Tn-230).

    Landa, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The major part of the extractable uranium is associated with a readily acid-soluble fraction in both ore and tailings. The major part of the extractable 226Ra was associated with an iron, manganese hydrous-oxide fraction in the ore and tailings. Thorium-230 was the least leachable of the radionuclides studied. The major portion of the extractable 230Th was associated with alkaline-earth sulphate precipitates, organic matter, or both. The specific effects of milling on each of the nuclides are discussed.-Author

  11. 77 FR 514 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the North Steens 230 Kilovolt Transmission...

    2012-01-05

    ... Project was published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2011 (76 FR 65509). Because this decision is... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the North Steens 230... Record of Decision (ROD) for the North Steens 230 kilovolt (kV) Transmission Line Project. The...

  12. 39 CFR 230.16 - Is there a prohibition on presenting Office of Inspector General reports or records during an...

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is there a prohibition on presenting Office of Inspector General reports or records during an employee's testimony? 230.16 Section 230.16 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Rules...

  13. 39 CFR 230.14 - Who owns the written or recorded notes, memoranda, reports, and transcriptions made pursuant to...

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who owns the written or recorded notes, memoranda, reports, and transcriptions made pursuant to an official investigation, audit, or review conducted by an employee of the Office of Inspector General? 230.14 Section 230.14 Postal Service UNITED STATES...

  14. Relationship between ISO 230-2/-6 Test Results and Positioning Accuracy of Machine Tools Using LaserTRACER

    Hau-Wei Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To test the positioning accuracy and repeatability of the linear axes of machine tools, ISO (International Standards Organization 230-2 and ISO 230-6 are usually adopted. Auto-tracking laser interferometers (ATLI can perform the testing for the positioning accuracy and the repeatability including x-, y- and z-axes according to ISO 230-2 as well as xy, xz, yz, and xyz diagonal lines following ISO 230-6. LaserTRACER is a kind of ATLI. One of the steps of the ISO 230-2 and -6 tests using LaserTRACER is to determine the coordinate of the LaserTRACER with respect to the home point of the machine tool. Positioning accuracy of the machine tool causes the coordinate determined error, which might influence the test result. To check on this error, this study performs three experiments. The experiment results show that the positioning error appears on the testing results.

  15. Some aspects on the variations in depositional flux of excess thorium-230 in the central Indian basin during late quaternary

    Examined in this paper is the tentative history of the depositional flux of 230Thxs (the unsupported fraction of 230Th scavenged from the overlying water column), for the late quaternary period from a sediment core of the central Indian basin (CIB). The measured depositional flux of 230Thxs is found to be substantially higher than that of the possible theoretical flux from the overlying water column. The average ratio of the measured depositional flux to that of the predicted flux from the overlying water column, indicates that the core site acts as a sink for 230Thxs and based on the existence of bottom current activity; the 230Thxs could be the result of focusing of younger sediments. (author). 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Spatial variability of initial 230Th/ 232Th in modern Porites from the inshore region of the Great Barrier Reef

    Clark, Tara R.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Done, Terry J.; Jupiter, Stacy; Lough, Janice; Pandolfi, John M.

    2012-02-01

    The main limiting factor in obtaining precise and accurate uranium-series (U-series) ages of corals that lived during the last few hundred years is the ability to constrain and correct for initial thorium-230 ( 230Th 0), which is proportionally much higher in younger samples. This is becoming particularly important in palaeoecological research where accurate chronologies, based on the 230Th chronometer, are required to pinpoint changes in coral community structure and the timing of mortality events in recent time (e.g. since European settlement of northern Australia in the 1850s). In this study, thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) U-series dating of 43 samples of known ages collected from living Porites spp. from the far northern, central and southern inshore regions of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) was performed to spatially constrain initial 230Th/ 232Th ( 230Th/ 232Th 0) variability. In these living Porites corals, the majority of 230Th/ 232Th 0 values fell within error of the conservative bulk Earth 230Th/ 232Th atomic value of 4.3 ± 4.3 × 10 -6 (2 σ) generally assumed for 230Th 0 corrections where the primary source is terrestrially derived. However, the results of this study demonstrate that the accuracy of 230Th ages can be further improved by using locally determined 230Th/ 232Th 0 values for correction, supporting the conclusion made by Shen et al. (2008) for the Western Pacific. Despite samples being taken from regions adjacent to contrasting levels of land modification, no significant differences were found in 230Th/ 232Th 0 between regions exposed to varying levels of sediment during river runoff events. Overall, 39 of the total 43 230Th/ 232Th 0 atomic values measured in samples from inshore reefs across the entire region show a normal distribution ranging from 3.5 ± 1.1 to 8.1 ± 1.1 × 10 -6, with a weighted mean of 5.76 ± 0.34 × 10 -6 (2 σ, MSWD = 8.1). Considering the scatter of the data, the weighted mean value with a more

  17. 17 CFR 230.484 - Undertaking required in certain registration statements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Undertaking required in... Development Companies § 230.484 Undertaking required in certain registration statements. If a registration... and an undertaking in substantially the following form: Insofar as indemnification for...

  18. 24 CFR 572.230 - Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System.

    2010-04-01

    ... HOMES PROGRAM (HOPE 3) Grants § 572.230 Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System. Disbursement of HOPE 3 grant funds is managed through HUD's Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System for the HOPE... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash and Management Information...

  19. 16 CFR 1500.230 - Guidance for lead (Pb) in consumer products.

    2010-01-01

    ... bear lead-containing paint. 16 CFR Part 1303. In recent years, however, the Commission staff has... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidance for lead (Pb) in consumer products... § 1500.230 Guidance for lead (Pb) in consumer products. (a) Summary. (1) The U.S. Consumer Product...

  20. 17 CFR 230.145 - Reclassification of securities, mergers, consolidations and acquisitions of assets.

    2010-04-01

    ... securities in a business combination of the type described in paragraphs (a) (1), (2) and (3) of the rule.... A statutory merger or consolidation or similar plan or acquisition in which securities of such... than a business combination related shell company, as those terms are defined in § 230.405, any...

  1. 7 CFR 1951.230 - Transfer of security and assumption of loans.

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.230 Transfer of security and assumption of... that only one remains in existence. In a consolidation, two or more corporations combine to form a...

  2. 47 CFR 51.230 - Presumption of acceptability for deployment of an advanced services loop technology.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presumption of acceptability for deployment of... Carriers § 51.230 Presumption of acceptability for deployment of an advanced services loop technology. (a) An advanced services loop technology is presumed acceptable for deployment under any one of...

  3. 48 CFR 52.230-4 - Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices-Foreign Concerns.

    2010-10-01

    ... Disclosure Statement, disclose in writing its cost accounting practices as required by 48 CFR 9903.202-1 through 48 CFR 9903.202-5. If the Contractor has notified the Contracting Officer that the Disclosure... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.230-4 Disclosure and Consistency of Cost...

  4. 48 CFR 52.230-7 - Proposal Disclosure-Cost Accounting Practice Changes.

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 52.230-7 Proposal Disclosure—Cost Accounting Practice Changes. As prescribed in 30.201-3(c), insert the following provision: Proposal Disclosure—Cost Accounting Practice Changes (APR 2005... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposal...

  5. 48 CFR 52.230-6 - Administration of Cost Accounting Standards.

    2010-10-01

    ..., Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices; paragraph (a)(4) of the clause at FAR 52.230-4, Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices—Foreign Concerns; or paragraph (a)(2) of the clause... Government in accordance with 48 CFR 9903.306(c). The associated increase or decrease is based on...

  6. Removal of 230Th and 231Pa from the open ocean

    Concentrations of 230Th and 231Pa were measured in particulate matter collected by sediment traps deployed in the Sargasso Sea (Site S2), the north equatorial Atlantic (site E), and the north equatorial Pacific (Site P) as well as in particles collected by in situ filtration at Site E. Concentrations of dissolved Th and Pa were determined by extraction onto manganese dioxide adsorbers at Site P and at a second site in the Sargasso Sea (site D). Dissolved 230Th/231Pa activity ratios were 3-6 at Sites P and D. In contrast, for all sediment trap samples from greater than 2000 m, unsupported 230Th/231Pa ratios were 22-35 (average 29.7). Ratios were lower in particulate matter sampled at shallower depths. Particles filtered at 3600 m and 5000 m at Site E had ratios of 50 and 40. Results show that suspended particulate matter in the open ocean preferentially scavenges Th relative to Pa. Most of the 230Th produced by decay of 234U in the open ocean is removed by adsorption to settling particulate matter. In contrast, less than 50% of the 231Pa produced by decay of 235U is removed from the water column by this mechanism. Mixing processes transport the remainder to other sinks. (orig.)

  7. 2 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Non-Profit Organizations Not Subject to This Part

    2010-01-01

    ... GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) Pt. 230, App. C..., Massachusetts 9. CNA Corporation (CNAC), Alexandria, Virginia 10. Environmental Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor... Research Institute, Atlanta, Georgia 12. Hanford Environmental Health Foundation, Richland, Washington...

  8. 230,232Th in milk, meat, and grain in Korea

    The concentrations of natural radioisotopes 230Th and 232Th in Korean foods were measured by the method of calcium oxalate co-precipitation in addition to the conventional anion-exchange method and alpha spectroscopic measurement. The 230Th concentrations (mBq/kg-fresh) in Korean foods were found to be as follows: milk 0.14-2.45, pork 2.98-8.97, beef 1.94-9.80, chicken 1.22-13.0, rice 0.43-2.35, wheat 0.53-14.4, and soybeans, 8.44-91.6. The 232Th concentrations (mBq/kg-fresh) in Korean foods were found to be as follows: milk 0.01-2.46, pork 0.28-9.32, beef 1.02-5.34, chicken 0.56-4.98, rice 0.32-2.54, wheat 0.53-20.0, and soybeans, 2.30-42.2. The annual internal dose of Th was also estimated. The annual internal dose of 230Th and 232Th in milk was about 0.006 μSv/yr and much lower than that of other countries because of the low intake of milk in Korea compared to other countries. The annual internal dose of 230Th and 232Th in the rice was about 0.043 μSv/yr and highest because rice is the staple food of Koreans. (author)

  9. Biaxial thermal creep of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C

    The biaxial thermal creep behavior of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C was investigated. Biaxial stresses were generated using the pressurized tube technique. The detailed creep deformation and fracture mechanism have been studied. Creep curves for both alloys showed that tertiary creep accounts for a greater portion of the materials’ life, while secondary creep only accounts for a small portion. Fractographic examinations of the two alloys indicated that nucleation, growth, and coalescence of creep voids are the dominant micro-mechanisms for creep fracture. At 850 °C, alloy 230 has better creep resistance than alloy 617. When subjected to the biaxial stress state, the creep rupture life of the two alloys was considerably reduced when compared to the results obtained by uniaxial tensile creep tests. The Monkman–Grant relation proves to be a promising method for estimating the long-term creep life for alloy 617, whereas alloy 230 does not follow the relation. This might be associated with the significant changes in the microstructure of alloy 230 at high temperatures

  10. 230 noort leidis hõiveprojektiga töökoha / Villy Paimets

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Sotsiaalministeeriumi ja tööturuameti ühise noorte tööhõiveprojekti partneritest, teostajast, eesmärkidest ja tulemustest. Projekti tulemusena leidis töö- või praktikakoha 230 16-24 aastast noort Ida-Virumaalt, Kagu-Eestist ning Saare- ja Hiiumaalt

  11. Biaxial thermal creep of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C

    Tung, Hsiao-Ming, E-mail: hmtung2@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China); Mo, Kun; Stubbins, James F. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The biaxial thermal creep behavior of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C was investigated. Biaxial stresses were generated using the pressurized tube technique. The detailed creep deformation and fracture mechanism have been studied. Creep curves for both alloys showed that tertiary creep accounts for a greater portion of the materials’ life, while secondary creep only accounts for a small portion. Fractographic examinations of the two alloys indicated that nucleation, growth, and coalescence of creep voids are the dominant micro-mechanisms for creep fracture. At 850 °C, alloy 230 has better creep resistance than alloy 617. When subjected to the biaxial stress state, the creep rupture life of the two alloys was considerably reduced when compared to the results obtained by uniaxial tensile creep tests. The Monkman–Grant relation proves to be a promising method for estimating the long-term creep life for alloy 617, whereas alloy 230 does not follow the relation. This might be associated with the significant changes in the microstructure of alloy 230 at high temperatures.

  12. Biaxial thermal creep of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C

    Tung, Hsiao-Ming; Mo, Kun; Stubbins, James F.

    2014-04-01

    The biaxial thermal creep behavior of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C was investigated. Biaxial stresses were generated using the pressurized tube technique. The detailed creep deformation and fracture mechanism have been studied. Creep curves for both alloys showed that tertiary creep accounts for a greater portion of the materials' life, while secondary creep only accounts for a small portion. Fractographic examinations of the two alloys indicated that nucleation, growth, and coalescence of creep voids are the dominant micro-mechanisms for creep fracture. At 850 °C, alloy 230 has better creep resistance than alloy 617. When subjected to the biaxial stress state, the creep rupture life of the two alloys was considerably reduced when compared to the results obtained by uniaxial tensile creep tests. The Monkman-Grant relation proves to be a promising method for estimating the long-term creep life for alloy 617, whereas alloy 230 does not follow the relation. This might be associated with the significant changes in the microstructure of alloy 230 at high temperatures.

  13. Carbide Transformation in Haynes 230 during Long-term Exposure at High Temperature

    Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Hyunmyung; Hong, Sunghoon; Jang, Changheui [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Long-term aging behaviors of a solid solution hardened Ni-base superalloy, Haynes 230 at high temperature have not been fully investigated yet. In this study, long-term aging tests of Haynes 230 was carried out to evaluate microstructure changes especially in carbide evolution. In addition, its consequential effects on tensile property such as tensile strength and elongation were discussed. In Haynes 230, a nucleation of the secondary carbides was dominant at 800 .deg. C ageing while growth at 900 .deg. C ageing. In addition, after aging at 800 .deg. C, transition of primary W-rich M{sub 6}C carbides (break down) were observed and it showed high W content (up to 70 at.% W) compared to un-aged W-rich M{sub 6}C carbides (around 30 at.% W). Coarsened Cr- and Ni-rich phase surrounded by carbide depleted region and high W-rich M{sub 6}C carbide along the grain boundary were formed only at 900 .deg. C after long-term exposure above 10000 h. Tensile strength of aged Haynes 230 increased at 800 .deg. C while decreased at 900 .deg. C due to the formation of secondary carbide within the grains at 800 .deg. C. Decrease in elongation would be resulted from the coarsened and continuous carbides at the grain boundary as well as Cr- and Ni-rich phase along the grain boundary.

  14. Carbide Transformation in Haynes 230 during Long-term Exposure at High Temperature

    Long-term aging behaviors of a solid solution hardened Ni-base superalloy, Haynes 230 at high temperature have not been fully investigated yet. In this study, long-term aging tests of Haynes 230 was carried out to evaluate microstructure changes especially in carbide evolution. In addition, its consequential effects on tensile property such as tensile strength and elongation were discussed. In Haynes 230, a nucleation of the secondary carbides was dominant at 800 .deg. C ageing while growth at 900 .deg. C ageing. In addition, after aging at 800 .deg. C, transition of primary W-rich M6C carbides (break down) were observed and it showed high W content (up to 70 at.% W) compared to un-aged W-rich M6C carbides (around 30 at.% W). Coarsened Cr- and Ni-rich phase surrounded by carbide depleted region and high W-rich M6C carbide along the grain boundary were formed only at 900 .deg. C after long-term exposure above 10000 h. Tensile strength of aged Haynes 230 increased at 800 .deg. C while decreased at 900 .deg. C due to the formation of secondary carbide within the grains at 800 .deg. C. Decrease in elongation would be resulted from the coarsened and continuous carbides at the grain boundary as well as Cr- and Ni-rich phase along the grain boundary

  15. 49 CFR 230.37 - Steam test following repairs or alterations.

    2010-10-01

    ... test of the boiler with steam pressure raised to between 95 percent and 100 percent of the MAWP. At... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam test following repairs or alterations. 230... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE...

  16. 17 CFR 230.154 - Delivery of prospectuses to investors at the same address.

    2010-04-01

    ...): The notice should be written in plain English. See § 230.421(d)(2) of this chapter for a discussion of plain English principles. (3) You have not received the reply form or other notification indicating that... it is a business. (c) Revocation of consent. If an investor, orally or in writing, revokes consent...

  17. 50 CFR 660.230 - Fixed gear fishery-management measures.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed gear fishery-management measures... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.230 Fixed gear fishery-management... apply to vessels participating in the limited entry groundfish fixed gear fishery and may not...

  18. 20 CFR 405.230 - Effect of the Federal reviewing official's decision.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of the Federal reviewing official's... PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Review of Initial Determinations by a Federal Reviewing Official § 405.230 Effect of the Federal reviewing official's decision. The Federal reviewing...

  19. 17 CFR 230.801 - Exemption in connection with a rights offering.

    2010-04-01

    ... thereto, in English, to the Commission on Form CB (§ 239.800 of this chapter) by the first business day..., Exchange Offers and Business Combinations § 230.801 Exemption in connection with a rights offering. A... document to U.S. holders, including any amendments thereto, in English, on a comparable basis to...

  20. 36 CFR 230.37 - State priority plan-educational assistance.

    2010-07-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.37 State priority plan—educational assistance. (a) Educational assistance includes development and delivery of: (1... to an informed decision point and accelerate adoption of sustainable forest practices in a State....

  1. 23 CFR 230.109 - Implementation of specific Equal Employment Opportunity requirements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implementation of specific Equal Employment Opportunity... CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity on Federal and Federal-Aid Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) § 230.109 Implementation of specific Equal Employment...

  2. 49 CFR 173.230 - Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.230 Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material. (a) Requirements for Fuel Cell Cartridges. Fuel cell cartridges, including when contained in or packed with...

  3. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled... VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From the Virgin Islands General § 26.230 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits,...

  4. 17 CFR 230.175 - Liability for certain statements by issuers.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for certain... COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.175 Liability for certain... paragraphs 30-34 of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 69) presented voluntarily or pursuant...

  5. XNMG’s Reserves Increase over RMB 230 Billion in 4 Years

    2012-01-01

    <正>The 100 million tons of proven iron ore in south Xinjiang marks the successful conclusion of mineral exploration of Xinjiang Nonferrous Metals Group (XNMG) this year. It enables XNMG’s potential economic value of newlyincreased resources to exceed RMB 230 billion since implementation of the strategy of geological prospecting and resource consolidation,

  6. 230Th/234U dating of coral limestones and vertical uplift at Djibouti

    Coral limestones sampled from marine terraces along the Afar coast have been dated by the 230Th/234U method. The ages confirm the stratigraphic unity of these formations and the existence of the paleo sea level dated 124 000 years ago in this region. These results permit to deduce the uplift rates of this littoral

  7. Influence of subsolvus thermomechanical processing on the low-cycle fatigue properties of haynes 230 alloy

    Vecchio, Kenneth S.; Fitzpatrick, Michael D.; Klarstrom, Dwaine

    1995-03-01

    Strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue tests have been conducted in air at elevated temperature to determine the influence of subsolvus thermomechanical processing on the low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of HAYNES 230 alloy. A series of tests at various strain ranges was conducted on material experimentally processed at 1121 °C, which is below the M23C6 carbide solvus temperature, and on material fully solution annealed at 1232 °C. A comparative strain-life analysis was performed on the LCF results, and the cyclic hardening/softening characteristics were examined. At 760 °C and 871 °C, the fatigue life of the experimental 230/1121 material was improved relative to the standard 230/1232 material up to a factor of 3. The fatigue life advantage of the experimental material was related primarily to a lower plastic (inelastic) strain amplitude response for a given imposed total strain range. It appears the increase in monotonic flow stress exhibited by the finer grain size experimental material has been translated into an increase in cyclic flow stress at the 760 °C and 871 °C test temperatures. Both materials exhibited entirely transgranular fatigue crack initiation and propagation modes at these temperatures. The LCF performance of the experimental material in tests performed at 982 °C was improved relative to the standard material up to a factor as high as 2. The life advantage of the 230/1121 material occurred despite having a larger plastic strain amplitude than the standard 230/1232 material for a given total strain range. Though not fully understood at present, it is suspected that this behavior is related to the deleterious influence of grain boundaries in the fatigue crack initiations of the standard processed material relative to the experimental material, and ultimately to differences in carbide morphology as a result of thermomechanical processing.

  8. The upgrading of the rail link Berlin-Hamburg to 230 kph; Die Ertuechtigung der Bahnstrecke Berlin-Hamburg auf v = 230 km/h

    Feldwisch, W.; Drescher, O. [Deutsche Bahn AG (Germany); Knittler, C. [Deutsche Bahn Netz AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The 287 km long Deutsche Bahn AG (DB AG) rail track connection Berlin - Hamburg has, over the last few years, in the course of an initial expansion phase, been upgraded and electrified such as to facilitate a track speed of v=160 kph. Since the abandonment in February 2000 of the rapid magnetic rail link Berlin - Hamburg it is now the case that the existing 287 km long stretch of rail track will be upgrated. Alongside the normal, classical planning principles of the increase of the speed to 200 kph - such as the removal of all level crossings and the alignment of signalling technology - there will be, for the first time, both developed and applied, a technical status que which will enable the extension and the outfitting of the stretch of rail track to facilitate v=230 kph. In this way the reserves embodied in the form of existing tracks can both be identified and, without doubt, used to economic advantage. The projected target of a travelling time of approximately 90 minutes is aimed to come into effect in December 2004. (orig.) [German] Die 287 km lange Bahnstrecke Berlin - Hamburg der Deutschen Bahn AG (DB AG) wurde im Zuge einer ersten Ausbaustufe in den zurueckliegenden Jahren fuer eine Streckengeschwindigkeit von v=160 km/h ausgebaut und elektrifiziert. Nach dem Verzicht auf die Magnetschnellbahnverbindung Berlin - Hamburg im Februar 2000 wird nunmehr die vorhandene, 287 km lange Eisenbahnstrecke fuer eine Streckengeschwindigkeit bis zu v=230 km/h ertuechtigt. Neben den klassischen Planungsgrundlagen fuer eine Ausbaugeschwindigkeit von 200 km/h, wie Beseitigung aller niveaugleichen Bahnuebergaenge und signaltechnische Anpassungen, ist hier erstmalig der Stand der Technik fuer den Ausbau und die Ausruestung einer Strecke auf v=230 km/h zu entwickeln und anzuwenden. Damit lassen sich die Reserven vorhandener Strecken identifizieren und sicher und wirtschaftlich nutzen. Das Projektziel von ca. 90 Minuten Reisezeit soll im Dezember 2004 wirksam werden. (orig.)

  9. Accretion rate in mangroves sediment at Sungai Miang, Pahang, Malaysia: 230Thexcess versus artificial horizon marker method

    Mangroves have enormous ecological value and one of their important role is to act as an efficient sediment trappers which dominantly supplied by rivers and the atmosphere to the oceans. Applying the 230Thexcess method, an average accretion rate of 0.54 cm yr-1 was obtained. this is comparable to that of an artificial horizon marker method giving an average of 0.54 cm yr-1. The 230Thexcess method provides a rapid and simple method of evaluating 230Thexcess accumulation histories in sediment cores. Sample preparation is also significantly simplified, thus providing a relatively quick and easy method for the determination of the accretion rate in mangrove area. (author)

  10. Determination of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in liquid effluents from uranium mining

    A liquid scintillator αlpha spectrometer was built for the determination of Th-228, Th-230 and Th-232 in liquid effluents from Uranium mines and mills. The resolution of the αlpha spectrometer was found to be 200-300 KeV, when the scintillator was 8% T0P0, 0,77% scintimix-4 (91% PP0 and 9% Dimetil-P0P0P) and 10% of naphthalene in toluene. Aliquat-336 in xylene (30% v/v) was used to separate the thorium isotopes from other interfering radionuclides (U-238, U-234, Ra-226, Po-210). Under the extraction experimental conditions, the detection limits were 1,2 pCi/1 for Th-232, 1,2 pCi/1 for Th-230 and 0,9 pCi/1 for Th-228, for 1000 minutes of counting time. (author)

  11. Susceptibility to Hot Cracking and Weldment Heat Treatment of Haynes 230 Superalloy

    C.M.Cheng; C.P.Chou; I.K.Lee; I.C.Kuo

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the susceptibility of hot cracking and weldment heat treatment of Haynes 230 superalloy.The Varestriant test was conducted to evaluate this susceptibility. Welding was performed by gas tungsten arc welding(GTAW)and plasma arc welding(PAW)with stress relief heat treatment and solid solution heat treatment. A tensile test is then performed to measure the changes in the mechanical properties of the heattreated material. The results indicate that the number of thermal cycles does not affect the susceptibility of Haynes 230 superalloy to hot cracking. However, it does increase the strain. In weldment of heat treatment,stress relief annealing increases the yield strength and tensile strength of the welded parts. The section of the tensile specimens shows fibrous fractures on the welded parts, regardless of whether they are heat-treated.

  12. Bauschinger effect in haynes 230 alloy: Influence of strain rate and temperature

    Thakur, Aniruddha; Vecchio, Kenneth S.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    1996-07-01

    Quasistatic and dynamic Bauschinger behavior in HAYNES 230 alloy is examined. At low strain rate (10-3/s), the as- received 230 alloy does not show a drop in flow stress, i.e., no Bauschinger effect is displayed. At high strain rate (103/s), a drop in flow stress of 240 MPa was observed upon stress reversal. In contrast, the precipitation- strengthened condition exhibited a Bauschinger effect in both low and high strain rate stress-reversal experiments. The magnitude of the Bauschinger effect was found to increase with increasing strain rate, forward strain, and decreasing temperature. The substructure evolution accompanying the forward loading cycles was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and is related to the back stresses that developed. The increased Bauschinger stress drop observed at high strain rate and/or low temperature was correlated to an increased degree of planar slip under these conditions.

  13. Vectorization of nuclear codes on FACOM 230-75 APU computer

    To provide for the future usage of supercomputer, we have investigated the vector processing efficiency of nuclear codes which are being used at JAERI. The investigation is performed by using FACOM 230-75 APU computer. The codes are CITATION (3D neutron diffusion), SAP5 (structural analysis), CASCMARL (irradiation damage simulation). FEM-BABEL (3D neutron diffusion by FEM), GMSCOPE (microscope simulation). DWBA (cross section calculation at molecular collisions). A new type of cell density calculation for particle-in-cell method is also investigated. For each code we have obtained a significant speedup which ranges from 1.8 (CASCMARL) to 7.5 (GMSCOPE), respectively. We have described in this report the running time dynamic profile analysis of the codes, numerical algorithms used, program restructuring for the vectorization, numerical experiments of the iterative process, vectorized ratios, speedup ratios on the FACOM 230-75 APU computer, and some vectorization views. (author)

  14. Automatic Color Sorting Machine Using TCS230 Color Sensor And PIC Microcontroller

    Kunhimohammed C K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorting of products is a very difficult industrial process. Continuous manual sorting creates consistency issues. This paper describes a working prototype designed for automatic sorting of objects based on the color. TCS230 sensor was used to detect the color of the product and the PIC16F628A microcontroller was used to control the overall process. The identification of the color is based on the frequency analysis of the output of TCS230 sensor. Two conveyor belts were used, each controlled by separate DC motors. The first belt is for placing the product to be analyzed by the color sensor, and the second belt is for moving the container, having separated compartments, in order to separate the products. The experimental results promise that the prototype will fulfill the needs for higher production and precise quality in the field of automation.

  15. How To Monitor AGN Intra-Day Variability at 230 GHz

    Kim, Jae-Young; Trippe, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    We probe the feasibility of high-frequency radio observations of very rapid flux variations in compact active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our study assumes observations at 230 GHz with a small 6-meter class observatory, using the SNU Radio Astronomical Observatory (SRAO) as example. We find that 33 radio-bright sources are observable with signal-to-noise ratios larger than ten. We derive statistical detection limits via exhaustive Monte Carlo simulations assuming (a) periodic, and (b) episodic fla...

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 230 Helicobacter pylori strains: importance of medium, inoculum, and incubation time

    Hartzen, S H; Andersen, L P; Bremmelgaard, A;

    1997-01-01

    No standardized method of susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori is currently available, so before a large agar dilution study comprising 230 H. pylori strains belonging to more than 80 genetically different groups was initiated, we performed a relatively small preliminary study to determ....... Consequently, susceptibility testing of all H. pylori strains is recommended in order to survey the development of resistance, and in our hands the described methodology was relatively easy to perform and the results were easy to read....

  17. The adsorption of peroxynitric acid on ice between 230 K and 253 K

    Ulrich, T.; M. Ammann; Leutwyler, S.; T. Bartels-Rausch

    2012-01-01

    Peroxynitric acid uptake to ice and snow has been proposed to be a major loss process from the atmosphere with impacts on the atmospheric oxidation capacity. Here we present results from a laboratory study on the interaction of peroxynitric acid with water ice at low concentration. Experiments were performed in a coated wall flow tube at atmospheric pressure and in the environmentally relevant temperature range of 230 K to 253 K. The interaction was found to be fully reversible and decomposit...

  18. The adsorption of peroxynitric acid on ice between 230 K and 253 K

    Ulrich, T.; M. Ammann; Leutwyler, S.; T. Bartels-Rausch

    2011-01-01

    Peroxynitric acid uptake to ice and snow has been proposed to be a major loss process from the atmosphere with impacts on the atmospheric oxidation capacity. Here we present results from a laboratory study on the interaction of peroxynitric acid with water ice at low concentrations. Experiments were performed in a coated wall flow tube at atmospheric pressure and in the environmentally relevant temperature range of 230 K to 253 K. The interaction was found to be fully reversible and decomposi...

  19. Round-robin 230Th-234U age dating of bulk uranium for nuclear forensics

    In an inter-laboratory measurement comparison study, four laboratories determined 230Th-234U model ages of uranium certified reference material NBL U050 using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The model dates determined by the participating laboratories range from 9 March 1956 to 19 October 1957, and are indistinguishable given the associated measurement uncertainties. These model ages are concordant with to slightly older than the known production age of NBL U050. (author)

  20. Multi-scale crack closure measurements with digital image correlation on Haynes 230

    Stefano Beretta; Silvio Rabbolini; Angelo Di Bello

    2015-01-01

    An experimental campaign was developed to study fatigue crack growth in Haynes 230, a Ni-based superalloy. The effects of crack closure were investigated with digital image correlation, by applying two different approaches. Initially, full field regression algorithms were applied to extract the effective stress intensity factor ranges from the singular displacement field measured at crack tips. Local closure measurements were then performed by considering crack flanks relative dis...

  1. Hydrogen Permeability of Incoloy 800H, Inconel 617, and Haynes 230 Alloys

    A potential issue in the design of the NGNP reactor and high-temperature components is the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product from downstream hydrogen generation through high-temperature components. Such permeation can result in the loss of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system. The issue will be addressed in the engineering design phase, and requires knowledge of permeation characteristics of the candidate alloys. Of three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, the hydrogen permeability has been documented well only for Incoloy 800H, but at relatively high partial pressures of hydrogen. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. The hydrogen permeability of Haynes 230 has not been published. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the hydrogen permeability of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 were determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at the Idaho National Laboratory. The performance of the system was validated using Incoloy 800H as reference material, for which the permeability has been published in several journal articles. The permeability of Incoloy 800H, Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950 C and at hydrogen partial pressures of 10-3 and 10-2 atm, substantially lower pressures than used in the published reports. The measured hydrogen permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 were in good agreement with published values obtained at higher partial pressures of hydrogen. The hydrogen permeability of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 were similar, about 50% greater than for Incoloy 800H and with similar temperature dependence.

  2. Prospective observational study of Klebsiella bacteremia in 230 patients: outcome for antibiotic combinations versus monotherapy.

    Korvick, J A; Bryan, C. S.; Farber, B.; Beam, T R; Schenfeld, L; Muder, R R; Weinbaum, D.; Lumish, R; Gerding, D.N.; Wagener, M M

    1992-01-01

    Combination antimicrobial agent therapy has been advocated for treatment of gram-negative bacteremia, including that caused by Klebsiella spp. We performed a prospective, observational, 10-hospital collaborative study to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic combination therapy versus that of monotherapy for 230 consecutive patients with Klebsiella bacteremia. The species involved were K. pneumoniae (82%), K. oxytoca (15%), and K. ozaenae (0.4%). Of the bacteremias, 26% were polymicrobial in na...

  3. Conception and technical solution for modernization of confinement systems in WWER-440/B230

    The report presents a concept and some technical solutions for localization facility for modernization of localization systems of NPP with type WWER-440/V-230. The technical solutions based on analyses, calculations, including semi-industrial experiments of effective mixture devices of bubble type and pre-project investigations of this particular area, performed in Energoproekt plc. The proposed technical solution represents a real technical possibility to put in order of localization facilities of these units in accordance with current safety requirements. (author)

  4. Potential and limitations of radiometric 230Th/U dating of tufa (travertine) in Stuttgart

    The second largest springs in Europe discharge mineralized groundwater with a recent rate of 500 l/s within the region of Stuttgart since at least 500 000 years. Most of the precipitated travertine (Sauerwasserkalk) can be dated chronostratigraphically by artifacts, biostratigraphically by macrofossils and geologically by the elevation of the terraces of the River Neckar. All travertines were formed during warm periods. The deposition of huge travertine deposits from different geological periods, at the same place and from the same mineral water system has been a challenge for the absolute age determination in order to correlate the regional climatic chronology with the global one. Since the beginning of the eighties radiometric 230Th/U datings were carried out from various research groups. In the middle of the nineties 230Th/U dating by the modern thermion mass spectrometry (TIMS) opened a more precise and more reliable age determination of travertine. Hence, the comparison of the methodically differing results from the same samples offered the possibility to search for criteria to justify the reliability of the 230Th/U dates of such deposits as a whole and deliver a reliable absolute chronology. (orig.)

  5. Ranking of safety issues for WWER-440 model 230 nuclear power plants

    In response to requests from Member States operating Soviet designed WWER-440/230 nuclear power plants (NPPs) for assistance through the IAEA's nuclear safety services, a major international project was established to evaluate these first generation reactors as a complement to relevant ongoing national, bilateral and multilateral activities. The objective is to assist countries operating WWER-440/230 NPPs in performing comprehensive safety reviews aimed at identifying design and operational weaknesses. The scope of the project includes a review of the conceptual design of WWER-440/230 NPPs, safety review missions to each one of the operating reactors to review design and operational aspects and studies to resolve issues of generic safety concern. This report was prepared by a group of international experts and the IAEA staff and discussed by the Project Steering Committee, December 9-13, 1991 in Vienna. An overview of the safety issues identified is presented indicating their effect on the performance of the basic safety functions. Conceptual recommendations related to design issues are given as a technical basis for the safety modifications required

  6. The most extensive reconstruction of nuclear power plant with VVER 440/V230 reactor

    The nuclear power plant V-1 Bohunice consists of two VVER-440 units with V-230 reactors. Unit 1 was commissioned in 1978 and Unit 2 in 1980. Large experience and knowledge from the operation of previous units with V-230 reactors were incorporated into the V-1 design, which resulted in a higher level of safety and operational reliability of these units. The Siemens company which won an international bidding process developed these basic goals for the Gradual Upgrading into the so called Basic Engineering (BE). For the implementation of the Gradual Upgrading in line with the BE, Rekon consortium was established consisting of Siemens and VUJE. The implementation of the Gradual Upgrading is scheduled for the time period of 1996 - 2000. Siemens was responsible for the upgrading strategy - based on the approved results of the basic engineering phase and the PSAR, the engineering and realization of all I and C improvements, and also for the seismic upgrade. VUJE's responsibility covered the detailed engineering and implementation of mechanical, electrical and civil part of upgrading measures as well as overall organisation and evaluation of verification tests. The consortium awarded contracts for final planning and design, installation services and commissioning to other Slovakian subcontractors in order to ensure the largest possible local content. The gradual reconstruction of the V-1 Bohunice with V230 reactors represents a comprehensive reconstruction of safety-related systems and equipment. Following its completion, the units will be operated with a safety level accepted internationally. (author)

  7. Measurements of 234U, 238U and 230Th in excreta of uranium-mill crushermen

    Uranium and thorium levels in excreta of uranium mill crushermen who are routinely exposed to airborne uranium ore dust were measured. The purpose was to determine whether 230Th was preferentially retained over either 234U or 238U in the body. Urine and fecal samples were obtained from fourteen active crushermen with long histories of exposure to uranium ore dust, plus four retired crushermen and three control individuals for comparison. Radiochemical procedures were used to separate out the uranium and thorium fractions, which were then electroplated on stainless steel discs and assayed by alpha spectrometry. Significantly greater activity levels of 234U and 238U were measured in both urine and fecal samples obtained from uranium mill crushermen, indicating that uranium in the inhaled ore dust was cleared from the body with a shorter biological half-time than the daughter product 230Th. The measurements also indicated that uranium and thorium separate in vivo and have distinctly different metabolic pathways and transfer rates in the body. The appropriateness of current ICRP retention and clearance parameters for 230Th in ore dust is questioned

  8. Design chlorine ions and PH detector based on the color sensor TCS230%基于颜色传感器TCS230的氯离子和PH检测仪设计

    张波; 陆瑶成; 陈宵燕; 尤丽华

    2013-01-01

    In order to detection chlorine ions and PH of the daily water consumption accurately and rapidly, the microcontroller AT89S52 and high-resolution programmable color sensor TCS230 are combined, proposed a new method of testing chloride ion and PH based on the color sensor TCS230, given the instrument hardware design circuit and the output of the program flow of the test results. TCS230 converted the color of PH and chloride ion strips into the color components directly, after the microcontroller processing give the test results.%为了方便对日常用水氯离子和PH精确快速检测,将单片机AT89S52与高分辨率可编程颜色传感器TCS230相结合,提出了一种基于颜色传感器TCS230的氯离子和PH检测的新方法,给出了该仪器的硬件设计电路以及输出检测结果的程序流程.TCS230直接将PH试纸和氯离子试纸的颜色转换成颜色分量,经过单片机处理得到检测结果.

  9. Põltsamaal tähistatakse eesti ajakirjanduse alguse 230. aastapäeva / Ülle Lääne

    Lääne, Ülle, 1956-

    1996-01-01

    Konverentsil "230 aastat eesti ajakirjandust" esinesid Epp Lauk, Halliki Harro, Maarja Lõhmus Tartu Ülikoolist, Tiiu Pihlakas Põltsamaa raamatukogust, õpetaja Herbert Kuurme; konverentsi avas keskraamatukogu dir. Vaike Oro

  10. {sup 10}Be/{sup 230}Th ratios as proxy for particle flux in the equatorial Pacific ocean

    Anderson, R.F.; Fleisher, M.Q. [LDEO of Columbia Univ. (United States); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Particulate {sup 10}Be/{sup 230}Th ratios collected by sediment traps in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean exhibit a positive correlation with particle flux, but little or no correlation with particle composition. (author) 1 fig., 4 refs.

  11. Update of 233U, 229-232Th and 230-233Pa Fission Data

    The influence of the 235U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) on modeling of integral benchmarks was estimated to be significant. For 233U(n,f) PFNS similar sensitivities could be envisaged. For the variety of Th/U fuels and systems, ranging from metal fast to deep thermal solutions, large positive/negative swings in calculated Keff can be expected. Th/U fuelled core criticality calculations would be sensitive to the modelled soft tail of fission neutrons or deficiency of hard tail fission neutrons, as revealed for U and Pu fuels. The deficiency of the 233U(nth,f) PFNS, adopted for the ENDF/B-VII.0. could be traced back to the 'propagation' of calculated 235U(nth,f) PFNS shape at En= 0.5 MeV. At higher energies, average energies of PFNS coincide only at ∼5 MeV, at other En the average energies and spectra shapes are drastically different. However, it might be argued that the response of the criticality benchmark calculations for the 233U thermal and fast systems would be similar to that observed for the PFNS of 239Pu. Our approach allowed to solve the longstanding problem of inconsistency of 235U integral data testing and differential prompt fission neutron spectra data, a similar approach may hold for 233U. Using modified PFNS, we may avoid arbitrary tweaking of neutron cross sections or neutron multiplicities for Th/U fuel-cycle related nuclides (233U, 229,230,231,232Th and 230,231,232,233Pa) to compensate the ill-defined shape of 233U PFNS. For metal fast benchmarks much would depend on the inelastic scattering cross section of 233U, which should be considered rather uncertain at the moment. The unrealistic evaluations of poorly investigated cross sections related to the Th/U fuel cycle could be excluded by consistent analysis of the available fission data base. The evaluation of 229,230,231,232Th(n,f) and 230,231,232,233Pa(n,f) cross sections could be supplemented by description of surrogate and ratio surrogate fission data, coming from

  12. Development of an improved extruded dielectric cable rated 230 kV

    Blais, L D; Traut, R T; Bolden, G N

    1977-05-01

    Work performed on developing an improved 230 kV extruded solid dielectric cable, the techniques of jointing such cables and the testing of terminations suitable for operation at that voltage level are described. Difficulties were encountered during manufacture in applying the semi-conducting extruded conductor shield. A new higher melt point compound solved the problem. A joint capable of operating at the 230 kV level was developed but showed a deficiency under voltage impulse testing while the conductor was at elevated temperature. A reduction in contract scope terminated this effort. Two terminals rated for 230 kV were found to be commercially available from domestic manufacturers. The limited testing performed showed them to be compatible with the cable cross-linked polyethylene insulation and electrically sound under 60 Hertz testing. No direct voltage or impulse voltage testing was performed on the terminations. A sample circuit, consisting of cable and joint, was subjected to impulse voltages at both room temperature and normal conductor operating temperature of 90/sup 0/C. While the cable only was able to withstand voltage impulses in excess of the Basic Impulse Level (BIL) at room temperature, it failed at BIL while conductor was heated to 90/sup 0/C. In like manner, a cable and joint circuit was assembled. Similar voltages were impressed at room temperature without incident. The joint failed at 90/sup 0/C conductor temperature. Cable, joint and termination were assembled in a simulated circuit and subjected to conductor loading to elevate temperature while 60 Hz voltages in excess of normal operating levels were continuously applied.

  13. Time-dependent crack growth behavior of alloy 617 and alloy 230 at elevated temperatures

    Roy, Shawoon Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Two Ni-base solid-solution-strengthened superalloys: INCONEL 617 and HAYNES 230 were studied to check sustained loading crack growth (SLCG) behavior at elevated temperatures appropriate for Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) applictaions with constant stress intensity factor (Kmax= 27.75 MPa✓m) in air. The results indicate a time-dependent rate controlling process which can be characterized by a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) parameter -- stress intensity factor (K). At elevated temperatures, the crack growth mechanism was best described using a damage zone concept. Based on results and study, SAGBOE (stress accelerated grain boundary oxidation embrittlement) is considered the primary reason for time-dependent SLCG. A thermodynamic equation was considered to correlate all the SLCG results to determine the thermal activation energy in the process. A phenomenological model based on a time-dependent factor was developed considering the previous researcher's time-dependent fatigue crack propagation (FCP) results and current SLCG results to relate cycle-dependent and time-dependent FCP for both alloys. Further study includes hold time (3+300s) fatigue testing and no hold (1s) fatigue testing with various load ratios (R) at 700°C with a Kmax of 27.75 MPa✓m. Study results suggest an interesting point: crack growth behavior is significantly affected with the change in R value in cycle-dependent process whereas in time-dependent process, change in R does not have any significant effect. Fractography study showed intergranular cracking mode for all time-dependent processes and transgranular cracking mode for cycle-dependent processes. In Alloy 230, SEM images display intergranular cracking with carbide particles, dense oxides and dimple mixed secondary cracks for time-dependent 3+300s FCP and SLCG test. In all cases, Alloy 230 shows better crack growth resistance compared to Alloy 617.

  14. First 230 GHz VLBI fringes on 3C 279 using the APEX Telescope

    Wagner, J.; Roy, A. L.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Alef, W.; Bansod, A.; Bertarini, A.; Güsten, R.; Graham, D.; Hodgson, J.; Märtens, R.; Menten, K.; Muders, D.; Rottmann, H.; Tuccari, G.; Weiss, A.; Wieching, G.; Wunderlich, M.; Zensus, J. A.; Araneda, J. P.; Arriagada, O.; Cantzler, M.; Duran, C.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; Olivares, R.; Caro, P.; Bergman, P.; Conway, J.; Haas, R.; Johansson, J.; Lindqvist, M.; Olofsson, H.; Pantaleev, M.; Buttaccio, S.; Cappallo, R.; Crew, G.; Doeleman, S.; Fish, V.; Lu, R.-S.; Ruszczyk, C.; SooHoo, J.; Titus, M.; Freund, R.; Marrone, D.; Strittmatter, P.; Ziurys, L.; Blundell, R.; Primiani, R.; Weintroub, J.; Young, K.; Bremer, M.; Sánchez, S.; Marscher, A. P.; Chilson, R.; Asada, K.; Inoue, M.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: We report about a 230 GHz very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) fringe finder observation of blazar 3C 279 with the APEX telescope in Chile, the phased submillimeter array (SMA), and the SMT of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). Methods: We installed VLBI equipment and measured the APEX station position to 1 cm accuracy (1σ). We then observed 3C 279 on 2012 May 7 in a 5 h 230 GHz VLBI track with baseline lengths of 2800 Mλ to 7200 Mλ and a finest fringe spacing of 28.6 μas. Results: Fringes were detected on all baselines with signal-to-noise ratios of 12 to 55 in 420 s. The correlated flux density on the longest baseline was ~0.3 Jy beam-1, out of a total flux density of 19.8 Jy. Visibility data suggest an emission region ≲ 38 μas in size, and at least two components, possibly polarized. We find a lower limit of the brightness temperature of the inner jet region of about 1010 K. Lastly, we find an upper limit of 20% on the linear polarization fraction at a fringe spacing of ~ 38 μas. Conclusions: With APEX the angular resolution of 230 GHz VLBI improves to 28.6 μas. This allows one to resolve the last-photon ring around the Galactic Center black hole event horizon, expected to be 40 μas in diameter, and probe radio jet launching at unprecedented resolution, down to a few gravitational radii in galaxies like M 87. To probe the structure in the inner parsecs of 3C 279 in detail, follow-up observations with APEX and five other mm-VLBI stations have been conducted (March 2013) and are being analyzed.

  15. Sidney-North Yuma 230-kV Transmission Line Project, Colorado and Nebraska

    1991-06-01

    This report describes the need for a 230-kV overhead transmission line to supply power from Sidney, Nebraska to eastern Colorado. The alternative scenario compared to construction of the line is No Action. Rejected alternatives include underground lines and different routing paths, with a possible extension to the Sterling area. Both scenarios are evaluated for environmental effects, cost, and consequences for the eastern Colorado region. The proposed route is determined to be the environmentally preferred choice. 120 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs. (MHB)

  16. Safety improvement programme of WWER 440/230 units in Jaslovske Bohunice

    A brief overview is given of the power sources in Slovakia which include 6 operational reactor units (4 at Jaslovske Bohunice and 2 at Mochovce) and 2 units under construction (at Mochovce). The efforts undertaken in the past 10 years and aimed at upgrading the nuclear safety of the two older (V-230 Soviet type) units at Bohunice are highlighted. The relevant regulatory decisions are dealt with and the measures already carried out are listed. Also characterized are several IAEA international safety assessment missions and safety-aimed meetings which took place in 1998 and 1999 and are of concern to the older Bohunice units. (A.K.)

  17. Distribution of Th-230 and Th-228 in foods(II)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Kim, Wan; Lim, S. K.; Lee, S. A.; Choi, M. S.; Zheng, Y. C. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Sung [Daegu Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Natural radioisotopes contained in foods can enter the human body by ingestion and contribute to internal doses to the population. It is necessary to measure the concentration of natural radioisotopes especially thorium in Korean foods and estimate the internal doses. In this study, we have established the thorium measuring process based on the thorium extraction chemical process and alpha spectroscopic method. The concentration of Th-228, Th-230 and Th-232 in Korean vegetables (potato, sweet potato, radish, cabbage, hot pepper, garlic, onion and pumpkin) and fruits(apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape) are measured and their internal doses are estimated.

  18. Identification of Vibrational States in 230Th(n, f) Reaction

    A.N. Behkami; Z. Kargar; M.N. Nasrabadi

    2001-01-01

    The excitation function for the fission of 230Th induced by neutrons has an unusual maximum for neutron energies in the vicinity of 700 KeV. It has been suggested that this maximum may be associated with the vibrational-mode resonance states. The unusual peak in the excitation function is interpreted in terms of a vibrational-mode resonance state in a two-humpted fission barrier. From theoretical fits to the fission cross sections and angular distributions, it is shown that the resonance has K = 1/2.``

  19. Testing the 231Pa/230Th paleo-circulation proxy: A data versus 2D model comparison

    Variations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are believed to have crucially influenced Earth's climate due to its key role in the inter-hemispheric redistribution of heat and carbon. To assess its past strength, the sedimentary 231Pa/230Th proxy has been developed and improved but also contested due to its sensitivity to other factors beyond ocean circulation. In order to provide a better basis for the understanding of the Atlantic 231Pa/230Th system, and therefore to shed light on the controversy, we compare new measurements of Holocene sediments from the north Brazilian margin to water column data and the output of a two-dimensional scavenging-circulation model, based on modern circulation patterns and reversible scavenging parameters. We show that sedimentary 231Pa/230Th data from one specific area of the Atlantic are in very good agreement with model results suggesting that sedimentary 231Pa/230Th is predominantly driven by the AMOC. Therefore, 231Pa/230Th represents an appropriate method to reconstruct past AMOC at least qualitatively along the western margin. (authors)

  20. First 230 GHz VLBI Fringes on 3C 279 using the APEX Telescope

    Wagner, J; Krichbaum, T P; Alef, W; Bansod, A; Bertarini, A; Güsten, R; Graham, D; Hodgson, J; Märtens, R; Menten, K; Muders, D; Rottmann, H; Tuccari, G; Weiss, A; Wieching, G; Wunderlich, M; Zensus, J A; Araneda, J P; Arriagada, O; Cantzler, M; Duran, C; Montenegro-Montes, F M; Olivares, R; Caro, P; Bergman, P; Conway, J; Haas, R; Johansson, J; Lindqvist, M; Olofsson, H; Pantaleev, M; Buttaccio, S; Cappallo, R; Crew, G; Doeleman, S; Fish, V; Lu, R -S; Ruszczyk, C; SooHoo, J; Titus, M; Freund, R; Marrone, D; Strittmatter, P; Ziurys, L; Blundell, R; Primiani, R; Weintroub, J; Young, K; Bremer, M; Sánchez, S; Marscher, A P; Chilson, R; Asada, K; Inoue, M

    2015-01-01

    We report about a 230 GHz very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) fringe finder observation of blazar 3C 279 with the APEX telescope in Chile, the phased submillimeter array (SMA), and the SMT of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). We installed VLBI equipment and measured the APEX station position to 1 cm accuracy (1 sigma). We then observed 3C 279 on 2012 May 7 in a 5 hour 230 GHz VLBI track with baseline lengths of 2800 M$\\lambda$ to 7200 M$\\lambda$ and a finest fringe spacing of 28.6 micro-arcseconds. Fringes were detected on all baselines with SNRs of 12 to 55 in 420 s. The correlated flux density on the longest baseline was ~0.3 Jy/beam, out of a total flux density of 19.8 Jy. Visibility data suggest an emission region <38 uas in size, and at least two components, possibly polarized. We find a lower limit of the brightness temperature of the inner jet region of about 10^10 K. Lastly, we find an upper limit of 20% on the linear polarization fraction at a fringe spacing of ~38 uas. With APEX the angul...

  1. Naturally acquired antibody responses to recombinant Pfs230 and Pfs48/45 transmission blocking vaccine candidates

    Jones, Sophie; Grignard, Lynn; Nebie, Issa;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pfs48/45 and Pfs230 are Plasmodium falciparum sexual stage proteins and promising malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidates. Antibody responses against these proteins may be naturally acquired and target antigens may be under selective pressure. This has consequences for the...... future evaluation of vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in populations naturally exposed to malaria. METHODS: We determined naturally acquired antibody responses to the recombinant proteins Pfs48/45-10C and Pfs230-230CMB in children from three malaria endemic settings in Ghana, Tanzania and Burkina Faso...... region. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude there are naturally acquired antibody responses to both vaccine candidates which have functional relevance by reducing the transmissibility of infected individuals. We identified genetic polymorphisms, in pfs48/45 which exhibited geographical specificity....

  2. Constraints on mantle melting at mid-ocean ridges from global 238U-230Th disequilibrium data

    The extent of radioactive disequilibrium between 238U and its daughter product 230Th in mid-ocean-ridge basalts from around the world is negatively correlated with axial ridge depth; local positive correlations with inferred mantle source composition are also observed. The larger 230Th excesses seen in samples from shallow ridges reflect a larger melt contribution from a garnet-bearing source which may be explained by a deepening of the solidus in hotter mantle regions. These observations provide important constraints for modelling melt generation at mid-ocean ridges. (author)

  3. Advances in Solid State Joining of Haynes 230 High Temperature Alloy

    Ding, Jeff; Schneider, Judy; Walker, Bryant

    2010-01-01

    The J-2X engine is being designed for NASA s new class of crew and launch vehicles, the Ares I and Ares V. The J-2X is a LOX/Hydrogen upper stage engine with 294,000 lbs of thrust and a minimum Isp of 448 seconds. As part of the design criteria to meet the performance requirements a large film-cooled nozzle extension is being designed to further expand the hot gases and increases the specific impulse. The nozzle extension is designed using Haynes 230, a nickel-chromium-tungsten-molybdenum superalloy. The alloy was selected for its high strength at elevated temperatures and resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. The nozzle extension is manufactured from Haynes 230 plate spun-forged to form the contour and chemically-milled pockets for weight reduction. Currently fusion welding is being evaluated for joining the panels which are then mechanically etched and thinned to required dimensions for the nozzle extension blank. This blank is then spun formed into the parabolic geometry required for the nozzle. After forming the nozzle extension, weight reduction pockets are chemically milled into the nozzle. Fusion welding of Haynes results in columnar grains which are prone to hot cracking during forming processes. This restricts the ability to use spin forging to produce the nozzle contour. Solid state joining processes are being pursued as an alternative process to produce a structure more amenable to spin forming. Solid state processes have been shown to produce a refined grain structure within the joint regions as illustrated in Figure 1. Solid state joining processes include friction stir welding (FSW) and a patented modification termed thermal stir welding (TSW). The configuration of TSWing utilizes an induction coil to preheat the material minimizing the burden on the weld tool extending its life. This provides the ability to precisely select and control the temperature. The work presented in this presentation investigates the feasibility of joining the Haynes 230

  4. The novel somatostatin analog SOM230 is a potent inhibitor of hormone release by growth hormone- and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas in vitro

    L.J. Hofland (Leo); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); A. Beckers (Albert); J. van der Hoek (Joost); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); M. Waaijers (Marlijn); D. Sprij-Mooij (Diana); C. Bruns (Christian); G. Weckbecker (Gisbert); R.A. Feelders (Richard)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractTo determine the inhibitory profile of the novel somatostatin (SRIF) analog SOM230 with broad SRIF receptor binding, we compared the in vitro effects of SOM230, octreotide (OCT), and SRIF-14 on hormone release by cultures of different types of secreting pituitary adenom

  5. Recovery of protactinium-231 and thorium-230 from cotter concentrate: pilot plant operatins and process development

    The equipment and methods used to recover and purify 339 g of thorium-230 and 890 mg of protactinium-231 from 22 of the 1251 drums of Cotter Concentrate are described. The process developed was (1) dissolution at 1000C in concentrated nitric acid and dilution to 2 to 3 molar acid, (2) filtration to remove undissolved solids (mostly silica filter aid), (3) extraction of uranium with di-sec-butyl-phenyl phophonate (DSBPP) in carbon tetrachloride, (4) extraction of both thorium and protactinium with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in carbon tetrachloride followed by selective stripping of the thorium with dilute of sulfuric acid, (5) thorium purification using oxalic acid, (6) stripping protactinium from the TOPO with oxalic acid, and (7) protactinium purification through a sequence of steps. The development of the separation procedures, the design of the pilot plant, and the operating procedures are described in detail. Analytical procedures are given in an appendix. 8 figures, 4 tables

  6. The influence of cooling rate from annealing temperature on the microstructure of Haynes 230

    The effects of cooling rate from annealing temperature, which simulated the diffusion bonding process, on the microstructure of Haynes 230 (Ni-22Cr-14W-5Co) were investigated. While the grain boundaries are slightly covered with Cr-rich M23C6 carbides for the diffusion-bonded and quenched condition, precipitates were extensively present on/near the grain boundaries for the furnace-cooled specimens. For the furnace-cooled specimens, lamellar precipitates were extensively formed near the grain boundaries below 1 000 deg. C, with intervals of a few hundred nanometers. Also, grain boundaries were severely serrated for the furnace-cooled specimens. Through electron probe micro analysis and transmission electron microscope, the lamellar precipitates were identified as (Cr,W)-rich M23C6-type lamellar carbides. Despite the differences in microstructure, tensile properties were not much affected by the cooling rate. Creep tests are underway and results will be presented. (authors)

  7. Multi-scale crack closure measurements with digital image correlation on Haynes 230

    Stefano Beretta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental campaign was developed to study fatigue crack growth in Haynes 230, a Ni-based superalloy. The effects of crack closure were investigated with digital image correlation, by applying two different approaches. Initially, full field regression algorithms were applied to extract the effective stress intensity factor ranges from the singular displacement field measured at crack tips. Local closure measurements were then performed by considering crack flanks relative displacements. Two points virtual extensometers were applied in this phase. Experimental results were then compared to the reference da/dN –ΔKeff curve: it was found that the correct estimation of crack opening levels shifts all the experimental points on the reference curve, showing that DIC can be successfully applied to measure crack closure effects.

  8. Microstructural evolutions and mechanical behaviour of the nickel based alloys 617 and 230 at high temperature

    High Temperature Reactors (HTR), is one of the innovative nuclear reactor designed to be inherently safer than previous generation and to produce minimal waste. The most critical metallic component in that type of reactor is the Intermediate Heat exchanger (IHX). The constraints imposed by the conception and the severe operational conditions (high temperature of 850 C to 950 C, lifetime of 20,000 h) have guided the IHX material selection toward two solid solution nickel base alloys, the Inconel 617 and the Haynes 230. Inconel 617 is the primary candidate alloy thanks to its good high temperature mechanical and corrosion properties and the large data base developed in previous programs. However, its high cobalt content has to be considered as an issue (nuclear activation). The more recent alloy Haynes 230, in which most of the cobalt has been replaced by tungsten, present characteristics similar to the 617 alloy. The objective of this thesis is to study the high temperature mechanical behaviour of both alloys in relation with their microstructural evolutions. The as received microstructural observations have revealed primary carbides (M6C). Most of this precipitates are evenly distributed in the materials. Few M23C6 secondary carbides are observed in both alloys in the as received state. Thermal ageing treatments at 850 C lead to an important M23C6 precipitation on slip lines and at grain boundaries. The size of this carbides increases and their number decreases with increasing ageing duration. The intragranular precipitation of secondary carbides at 950 C is more limited and the intergranular evolution more important than at 850 C. The microstructural observations and the hardness evolution of both alloys show that the main microstructural evolutions occur before 1,000 h at both studied temperatures. The mechanical properties of the Inconel 617 and the Haynes 230 have been studied using tensile, creep, fatigue and relaxation-fatigue tests. Particularly, the

  9. Vector processing efficiency of plasma MHD codes by use of the FACOM 230-75 APU

    In the framework of pipelined vector architecture, the efficiency of vector processing is assessed with respect to plasma MHD codes in nuclear fusion research. By using a vector processor, the FACOM 230-75 APU, the limit of the enhancement factor due to parallelism of current vector machines is examined for three numerical codes based on a fluid model. Reasonable speed-up factors of approximately 6, 6 and 4 times faster than the highly optimized scalar version are obtained for ERATO (linear stability code), AEOLUS-R1 (nonlinear stability code) and APOLLO (1-1/2D transport code), respectively. Problems of the pipelined vector processor are discussed from the viewpoint of restructuring, optimization and choise of algorithms. In conclusion, the important concept of 'concurrency within pipelined parallelism' is emphasized. (orig.)

  10. Recovery of protactinium-231 and thorium-230 from cotter concentrate: pilot plant operatins and process development

    Hertz, M.R.; Figgins, P.E.; Deal, W.R.

    1983-02-10

    The equipment and methods used to recover and purify 339 g of thorium-230 and 890 mg of protactinium-231 from 22 of the 1251 drums of Cotter Concentrate are described. The process developed was (1) dissolution at 100/sup 0/C in concentrated nitric acid and dilution to 2 to 3 molar acid, (2) filtration to remove undissolved solids (mostly silica filter aid), (3) extraction of uranium with di-sec-butyl-phenyl phophonate (DSBPP) in carbon tetrachloride, (4) extraction of both thorium and protactinium with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in carbon tetrachloride followed by selective stripping of the thorium with dilute of sulfuric acid, (5) thorium purification using oxalic acid, (6) stripping protactinium from the TOPO with oxalic acid, and (7) protactinium purification through a sequence of steps. The development of the separation procedures, the design of the pilot plant, and the operating procedures are described in detail. Analytical procedures are given in an appendix. 8 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Vector processing efficiency of plasma MHD codes by use of the FACOM 230-75 APU

    Matsuura, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Naraoka, K.; Takizuka, T.; Tsunematsu, T.; Tokuda, S.; Azumi, M.; Kurita, G.; Takeda, T.

    1982-06-01

    In the framework of pipelined vector architecture, the efficiency of vector processing is assessed with respect to plasma MHD codes in nuclear fusion research. By using a vector processor, the FACOM 230-75 APU, the limit of the enhancement factor due to parallelism of current vector machines is examined for three numerical codes based on a fluid model. Reasonable speed-up factors of approximately 6,6 and 4 times faster than the highly optimized scalar version are obtained for ERATO (linear stability code), AEOLUS-R1 (nonlinear stability code) and APOLLO (1-1/2D transport code), respectively. Problems of the pipelined vector processors are discussed from the viewpoint of restructuring, optimization and choice of algorithms. In conclusion, the important concept of "concurrency within pipelined parallelism" is emphasized.

  12. Single mode 1018nm fiber laser with power of 230W

    Glick, Yaakov; Sintov, Yoav; Zuitlin, Roey; Pearl, Shaul; Feldman, Revital; Horvitz, Zvi; Shafir, Noam

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a high power single-mode (SM) monolithic fiber laser at 1018 nm, producing 230 W CW, with an M2 of 1.17 and light to light efficiency of 75%. To the best of our knowledge this is the highest power described in the open literature from a SM fiber laser at this wavelength. Careful simulations were employed which take into account the various wavelength dependent parameters such as the fiber absorption and emission as obtained from the fiber manufacturers, and the cavity mirrors' reflection, in addition to the fiber geometrical parameters. It was found that the major obstacle for increasing the power at 1018nm is the self-generation of amplified spontaneous emission at wavelengths of 1030-1040nm. If the laser is not designed properly these undesired wavelengths dominate the output spectrum.

  13. Epidemiological aspects of penile cancer in Rio de Janeiro: evaluation of 230 cases

    Leandro Koifman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine epidemiological characteristics of penile cancer in Rio de Janeiro, its associated risk factors and clinical manifestations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2002 and 2008 we evaluated 230 patients at three public institutions, considering age, ethnicity, birthplace, marital status, educational level, religion, tobacco smoking, presence of phimosis and practice of circumcision. RESULTS: The ages ranged from 25 to 98 years, with an average of 58.35 years. Of the 230 patients, 167 (72.7% were from the southeast region of Brazil (which includes Rio de Janeiro and 45 (19.5% were from the northeast of the country. Most patients were white (67.3%, married (58.6%, smokers (56.5% and had not completed primary school (71.3%. The predominant religion was Catholic (74.8%. Of the 46 (20% circumcised patients, only 1 (2.2% had undergone neonatal circumcision. Grade I tumors were present in 87 (37.8% of the patients, grade II in 131 (56.9% and grade III in 12 (5.3%. Lymphovascular embolization was observed in 63 (27.3% and koilocytosis in 124 (53.9% patients. Of the total, 41.3% had corpora cavernosa or corpus spongiosum infiltration, and 40 (17.4% had urethral invasion. Prophylactic lymphadenectomy was performed on 56 (36.1%, therapeutic lymphadenectomy on 84 (54.2% and hygienic lymphadenectomy for advanced disease on 15 (9.7% patients. The median time between the lesion onset and clinical diagnosis was 13.2 months. The mean follow up was 28.8 months. CONCLUSION: Most of our patients were born in this state and had low socioeconomic status. Most of them were white men, married, smokers, uncircumcised, of the Catholic faith and in their sixties or older. Their disease was in most cases diagnosed only in the advanced stages.

  14. An evaluation of the availability factors of the WWER-440/230

    An expert group, under the auspices of the IAEA, has been examining the WWER-440/230, the first commercial WWER design. Two questions were posed: does a more comprehensive analysis of performance, using the performance of comparable groups of plants in the West as a reference point, confirm the excellent impression given by summary statistics such as availability; and if it does, what were the technical factors and institutional structures that were important in achieving this? This analysis has policy relevance in two respects: first, it will allow identification of the institutional strengths of the old system so that these can be taken account of in Western efforts to provide assistance to this region; and, second, the technical and institutional factors identified will asses general understanding of the factors that contribute to the successful implementation of nuclear power programmes. Considerations of safety were outside the scope of this analysis. The main factors that emerge which seem to explain the high availability of the WWER-440/230 plants are the centralization and strong powers granted to those involved in the development, construction and operation of this type of plant and the high priority that the former Soviet Union attached to the successful development of nuclear power at the time of its design. These two factors meant that highly qualified personnel could be attracted and retained for all important tasks, and high quality materials were made available. Centralization also led to a system in which there were few institutional barriers to the collection and dissemination of operating experience. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  15. Minimum speed limit for ocean ridge magmatism from 210Pb-226Ra-230Th disequilibria.

    Rubin, K H; van der Zander, I; Smith, M C; Bergmanis, E C

    2005-09-22

    Although 70 per cent of global crustal magmatism occurs at mid-ocean ridges-where the heat budget controls crustal structure, hydrothermal activity and a vibrant biosphere-the tempo of magmatic inputs in these regions remains poorly understood. Such timescales can be assessed, however, with natural radioactive-decay-chain nuclides, because chemical disruption to secular equilibrium systems initiates parent-daughter disequilibria, which re-equilibrate by the shorter half-life in a pair. Here we use 210Pb-226Ra-230Th radioactive disequilibria and other geochemical attributes in oceanic basalts less than 20 years old to infer that melts of the Earth's mantle can be transported, accumulated and erupted in a few decades. This implies that magmatic conditions can fluctuate rapidly at ridge volcanoes. 210Pb deficits of up to 15 per cent relative to 226Ra occur in normal mid-ocean ridge basalts, with the largest deficits in the most magnesium-rich lavas. The 22-year half-life of 210Pb requires very recent fractionation of these two uranium-series nuclides. Relationships between 210Pb-deficits, (226Ra/230Th) activity ratios and compatible trace-element ratios preclude crustal-magma differentiation or daughter-isotope degassing as the main causes for the signal. A mantle-melting model can simulate observed disequilibria but preservation requires a subsequent mechanism to transport melt rapidly. The likelihood of magmatic disequilibria occurring before melt enters shallow crustal magma bodies also limits differentiation and heat replenishment timescales to decades at the localities studied. PMID:16177787

  16. Uranium age determination: Separation and analysis of 230Th and 231Pa

    In this work we focused on the age determination of uranium materials of different uranium enrichment. The radioactive decay of the uranium isotopes provides a chronometer that is inherent to the material, in particular the mother/daughter pairs 234U/230Th and 235U/231Pa can be advantageously used. Due to the relatively long half-lives of 234U (2.46 · 105 years) and 235U (7.04 · 108 years) only minute amounts of daughter nuclides are growing in, therefore both separation of Th and Pa from uranium must be of high chemical recovery and must afford large decontamination factors. Analytical methods for the age determination of uranium samples using the parent/daughter relations 234U/230Th and 235U/231Pa is demonstrated. Thorium is separated from bulk uranium using extraction chromatography and subsequently quantified using square-spectrometry, thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) and inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Protactinium is separated by highly selective sorption of protactinium to silica gel followed by square-spectrometric quantification. The methods were tested and validated using uranium reference materials of different uranium enrichment and of known ages. The experimental results obtained with both methods were found to agree with the assumed ages of the reference materials within the combined uncertainty of the measurement. The analysis exploiting the parent/daughter pair 235U/231Pa exhibits a slightly larger combined uncertainty and bias than the thorium method but is found valuable in validating the experimental results by means of a second, independent analysis

  17. CHARGE-EXCHANGE SCATTERING OF NEGATIVE PIONS BY HYDROGEN AT 230,260, 290, 317 AND 371 MeV

    Caris, John C

    1960-03-18

    The differential cross section for charge-exchange scattering of negative pions by hydrogen has been observed at 230, 260, 290, 317, and 371 Mev. The reaction was observed by detecting one gamma ray from the {pi}{sup 0} decay with a scintillation-counter telescope.

  18. 23 CFR 230.111 - Implementation of special requirements for the provision of on-the-job training.

    2010-04-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity on Federal and Federal-Aid Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) § 230.111 Implementation of special... Federal-aid highway construction contracts shall include the “Training Special Provisions” (appendix...

  19. 17 CFR 230.144 - Persons deemed not to be engaged in a distribution and therefore not underwriters.

    2010-04-01

    ... Commission. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 230.144 see the List of CFR Sections... with a view to * * * distribution.” An investment banking firm which arranges with an issuer for the... entitled to a preference in payment of dividends and in distribution of assets on liquidation,...

  20. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    2010-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  1. 17 CFR 230.489 - Filing of form by foreign banks and insurance companies and certain of their holding companies...

    2010-04-01

    ... banks and insurance companies and certain of their holding companies and finance subsidiaries. 230.489... form by foreign banks and insurance companies and certain of their holding companies and finance...-owned subsidiaries are foreign banks or insurance companies excepted from the definition of...

  2. 230Th/U dating of Last Interglacial brain corals from Bonaire (southern Caribbean) using bulk and theca wall material

    Obert, J. Christina; Scholz, Denis; Felis, Thomas; Brocas, William M.; Jochum, Klaus P.; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-04-01

    We compared the suitability of two skeletal materials of the Atlantic brain coral Diploria strigosa for 230Th/U-dating: the commonly used bulk material comprising all skeletal elements and the denser theca wall material. Eight fossil corals of presumably Last Interglacial age from Bonaire, southern Caribbean Sea, were investigated, and several sub-samples were dated from each coral. For four corals, both the ages and the activity ratios of the bulk material and theca wall agree within uncertainty. Three corals show significantly older ages for their bulk material than for their theca wall material as well as substantially elevated 232Th content and (230Th/238U) ratios. The bulk material samples of another coral show younger ages and lower (230Th/238U) ratios than the corresponding theca wall samples. This coral also contains a considerable amount of 232Th. The application of the available open-system models developed to account for post-depositional diagenetic effects in corals shows that none of the models can successfully be applied to the Bonaire corals. The most likely explanation for this observation is that the assumptions of the models are not fulfilled by our data set. Comparison of the theca wall and bulk material data enables us to obtain information about the open-system processes that affected the corals. The corals showing apparently older ages for their bulk material were probably affected by contamination with a secondary (detrital) phase. The most likely source of the detrital material is carbonate sand. The higher (230Th/232Th) ratio of this material implies that detrital contamination would have a much stronger impact on the ages than a contaminant with a bulk Earth (230Th/232Th) ratio and that the threshold for the commonly applied 232Th reliability criterion would be much lower than the generally used value of 1 ng g-1. The coral showing apparently younger ages for its bulk material was probably influenced by more than one diagenetic process. A

  3. Improvements in 230Th dating, 230Th and 234U half-life values, and U-Th isotopic measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Cheng, Hai; Lawrence Edwards, R.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Polyak, Victor J.; Asmerom, Yemane; Woodhead, Jon; Hellstrom, John; Wang, Yongjin; Kong, Xinggong; Spötl, Christoph; Wang, Xianfeng; Calvin Alexander, E.

    2013-06-01

    We have developed techniques for measuring 234U and 230Th on Faraday cups with precisions of 1-3 epsilon units (1 ɛ-unit=1 part in 104) using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Using a Thermo-Scientific Neptune with desolvation nebulization, we obtained ionization/transmission efficiencies of 1-2% for both U and Th. We set up protocols to correct for tailing, prepared U and Th gravimetric standards, tested a Th mass fractionation correction procedure based on U isotopes, and identified natural calcite samples likely to be in U-Th isotopic secular equilibrium. The measured atomic ratios, 234U/238U=54.970 (±0.019)×10-6 and 230Th/238U=16.916 (±0.018)×10-6, for these calcite samples were identical within errors (quoted 2σ uncertainties calculated combining all sources of error). Half-life values calculated from these ratios are consistent with previous values, but have much smaller errors: 245,620±260 a for 234U and 75,584±110 a for 230Th (quoted 2σ uncertainties calculated using all sources of error). In calculating a 230Th age, some of the systematic errors included in estimating the full error in the half-lives effectively cancel. Removing these uncertainties (uncertainty in the 238U half-life value, uncertainty in our gravimetric uranium and thorium standards, and uncertainty in the absolute isotopic composition of the uranium standard), yields effective uncertainties for the purposes of 230Th dating of ±70 a for the 234U half-life value and ±30 a for the 230Th half-life value. Under ideal circumstances, with our methods, the 2σ uncertainty in age, including uncertainty in half-life values is ±10 a at 10 ka, ±100 a at 130 ka, ±300 a at 200 ka, ±1 ka at 300 ka, ±2 ka at 400 ka, ±6 ka at 500 ka, and ±12 ka at 600 ka. The isotopic composition of a sample with an age <800 ka can clearly be resolved from the isotopic composition of a sample in secular equilibrium, assuming closed system behavior. Using these

  4. Summary of Studies of Aging and Environmental Effects on Inconel 617 and Haynes 230

    A number of very high temperature helium-cooled reactors have been built and operated for extended periods. The helium coolant in the primary circuit has been found to contain low levels of impurities after steady-state operation that can lead to an environmental degradation of the high temperature alloys used for internals and heat exchangers. Depending on the impurity concentration and the temperature, high temperature alloys can undergo oxidation, carburization, or decarburization. The concentration of H2O and CO is of particular interest because they essentially control the oxygen partial pressure and carbon activity, respectively. The optimum coolant chemistry for long-term stability of high temperature alloys is slightly oxidizing and results in formation of a tenacious and protective Cr2O3 scale. The most critical metallic component of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is the heat exchanger. Inconel 617 is the primary candidate alloy for this application because of its superior creep resistance. The mechanisms of environmental interaction between this alloy and prototype Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) helium chemistries have been extensively studied. A modified type of Ellingham diagram that maps the ranges of carbon activity and oxygen partial pressure that result in each of the degradation mechanisms has been developed. The NGNP materials program has designed and built three test loops to extend previous studies on environmental effects of prototype impure helium on Inconel 617 by increasing temperatures and using test coupons that incorporate fusion welds in controlled impurity experiments. In addition, parallel studies have been initiated with a less well-characterized alloy, Haynes 230. The goal of this work is to determine the range of gas chemistries that give rise to stable oxide formation for these alloys at temperatures up to 1000 C. Stability of the microstructure and properties of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 after extended exposure to

  5. Fission Distribution in Neutron-Induced Fission of Th230, Pu238 and Am241

    The angular distribution of fragments in the neutron-induced fission of Th230, Pu238 and Am241 was measured in-the neutron energy range 100 - 1200 keV. Measurements were also made for Am241 at neutron energies of 4 and 5 MeV, and the dependence of the fission cross-section of Pu238 on neutron energy in the 50 -1400 keV range was likewise determined. The partial fission cross-sections for the different K-bands were derived for Th230 on the basis of the angular distributions obtained, using fission cross-sections taken from another paper, and also the neutron capture cross-sections of the neutron permeabilities calculated by the optical coefficients of adhesion. The following band sequence was established: 1/2-, 3/2-, 3/2+ the energy interval between the bands is ∼ 100 keV. The pattern of the cross-section for band shows in the sub-barrier region (at a neutron energy of 860keV) the same dip as the total fission cross-section. This pattern in the sub-barrier region cannot be explained by the normal change in neutron width, as it can be in the case of fission above the barrier, and gives grounds for assuming the presence of some other mechanism powerfully affecting the fission cross-section. The angular distributions of the fragments can be explained satisfactorily only on the assumption that there is an energy shift between the individual states within the bands. This indicates that the widths of the levels at the saddle are probably less than the distances between the levels themselves. Assuming that the levels are rotatory, a value of about 4 keV is obtained for h2/2J. From analysing the anisotropy of Pu238 fission, we may assume the band sequence 1/2+, 3/2-, 1/2-. In the case of Am241 fission, the angular distributions show a weak energy dependence and little anisotropy; this is explained by the large number of participating states. The measurements at 4 and 5 MeV made it possible to determine the value of K20, and to compare it with the data for Np237. This

  6. 230Th-234U Age-Dating Uranium by Mass Spectrometry

    Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M

    2012-04-18

    This is the standard operating procedure used by the Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry Group of the Chemical Sciences Division at LLNL for the preparation of a sample of uranium oxide or uranium metal for {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U age-dating. The method described here includes the dissolution of a sample of uranium oxide or uranium metal, preparation of a secondary dilution, spiking of separate aliquots for uranium and thorium isotope dilution measurements, and purification of uranium and thorium aliquots for mass spectrometry. This SOP may be applied to uranium samples of unknown purity as in a nuclear forensic investigation, and also to well-characterized samples such as, for example, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and U-metal certified reference materials. The sample of uranium is transferred to a quartz or PFA vial, concentrated nitric acid is added and the sample is heated on a hotplate at approximately 100 C for several hours until it dissolves. The sample solution is diluted with water to make the solution approximately 4 M HNO{sub 3} and hydrofluoric acid is added to make it 0.05 M HF. A secondary dilution of the primary uranium solution is prepared. Separate aliquots for uranium and thorium isotope dilution measurements are taken and spiked with {sup 233}U and {sup 229}Th, respectively. The spiked aliquot for uranium isotope dilution analysis is purified using EiChrom UTEVA resin. The spiked aliquot for thorium isotope dilution analysis is purified by, first, a 1.8 mL AG1x8 resin bed in 9 M HCl on which U adsorbs and Th passes through; second, adsorbing Th on a 1 mL AG1x8 resin bed in 8 M HNO{sub 3} and then eluting it with 9 M HCl followed by 0.1 M HCl + 0.005 M HF; and third, by passing the Th through a final 1.0 mL AG1x8 resin bed in 9 M HCl. The mass spectrometry is performed using the procedure 'Th and U Mass Spectrometry for {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U Age Dating'.

  7. Optimum design of a self-supported power transmission tower type 2M2 for 230 kW; Diseno optimo de una torre de transmision autosoportada tipo 2M2, para 230 kW

    Espejel Valdez, Eduardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Millan Monje, Alejandro; Honk Hernandez, Wenceslao [Comision Federal de Electricidad, (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    A group of specialists from the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) analyzes the design of various types of power transmission towers in their application stage, in order to enhance them. In this article the structural characteristics of the self-supported tower type 2M2 for 230 kV of two circuits and of suspension, are presented. [Espanol] Un grupo de especialistas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) analiza el diseno de diversos tipos de torres de transmision en su etapa de aplicacion, con el fin de mejorarlos. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas estructurales de la torre autosoportada tipo 2M2 para 230 kV, de dos circuitos y de suspension.

  8. Energized lighting rods implementation in 230 kV electric power transmission lines in the Rondonia system, Rondonia State - North Brazil; Implantacao de cabos para-raios energizados em linhas de 230 kV do sistema Rondonia

    D`Ajuz; Ary; Martinez, Manuel L.B.; Pazo Blanco, Flavio A.F.; Rose, Eber Havila; Pinto, Wanderley S.; Montalvao, Edmundo; Takai, Mario N.; Araujo, Marcos C. [ELETRONORTE, Belem, PA (Brazil); Pires, Valdenir A.; Cursino, Edmilson [Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia (CERON), Porto Velho, RO (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work presents the main studies, modifications and adaptations performed in a conventional electric power transmission system in order to enable the implementation of the technology called energized lighting rods. The work also describes the scheme called tri phase which uses two lighting rods of Rondonia 230 kV electric power transmission lines which will enable the electric power improvement up to 13 MW generating a direct benefit to around 85,000 people 5 figs., 4 tabs., 10 refs.

  9. The adsorption of peroxynitric acid on ice between 230 K and 253 K

    Ulrich, T.; Ammann, M.; Leutwyler, S.; Bartels-Rausch, T.

    2012-02-01

    Peroxynitric acid uptake to ice and snow has been proposed to be a major loss process from the atmosphere with impacts on the atmospheric oxidation capacity. Here we present results from a laboratory study on the interaction of peroxynitric acid with water ice at low concentration. Experiments were performed in a coated wall flow tube at atmospheric pressure and in the environmentally relevant temperature range of 230 K to 253 K. The interaction was found to be fully reversible and decomposition was not observed. Analysis based on the Langmuir adsorption model showed that the partitioning of peroxynitric acid to ice is orders of magnitude lower than of nitric acid and similar to nitrous acid partitioning behavior. The partition coefficient (KLinC) and its temperature dependency can be described by 3.74 × 10-12 × e(7098/T) [cm]. Atmospheric implications are discussed and show that the uptake to cirrus clouds or to snow-packs in polar areas is an important sink for peroxynitric acid in the environment.

  10. The adsorption of peroxynitric acid on ice between 230 K and 253 K

    T. Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peroxynitric acid uptake to ice and snow has been proposed to be a major loss process from the atmosphere with impacts on the atmospheric oxidation capacity. Here we present results from a laboratory study on the interaction of peroxynitric acid with water ice at low concentration. Experiments were performed in a coated wall flow tube at atmospheric pressure and in the environmentally relevant temperature range of 230 K to 253 K. The interaction was found to be fully reversible and decomposition was not observed. Analysis based on the Langmuir adsorption model showed that the partitioning of peroxynitric acid to ice is orders of magnitude lower than of nitric acid and similar to nitrous acid partitioning behavior. The partition coefficient (KLinC and its temperature dependency can be described by 3.74 × 10−12 × e(7098/T [cm]. Atmospheric implications are discussed and show that the uptake to cirrus clouds or to snow-packs in polar areas is an important sink for peroxynitric acid in the environment.

  11. The adsorption of peroxynitric acid on ice between 230 K and 253 K

    T. Ulrich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Peroxynitric acid uptake to ice and snow has been proposed to be a major loss process from the atmosphere with impacts on the atmospheric oxidation capacity. Here we present results from a laboratory study on the interaction of peroxynitric acid with water ice at low concentrations. Experiments were performed in a coated wall flow tube at atmospheric pressure and in the environmentally relevant temperature range of 230 K to 253 K. The interaction was found to be fully reversible and decomposition was not observed. Analysis based on the Langmuir adsorption model showed that the partitioning of peroxynitric acid to ice is orders of magnitude lower than of nitric acid and similar to nitrous acid partitioning behavior. The partition coefficient (KLinC and its temperature dependency can be described by 3.74×10−12×e(7098/T [cm]. Atmospheric implications are discussed and show that the uptake to cirrus clouds or to snow-packs in polar areas is an important sink for peroxynitric acid in the environment.

  12. Strengthening of 230KV wood transmission structures with glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) wraps

    Shahi, A.; West, J.S.; Pandey, M.D. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-07-01

    In northern Canada, an unexpected structural failure resulting from wood deterioration has been determined to pose a risk to the safety of the 230 kV wood transmission lines. Because of the remote location of the transmission structures and the need to keep the transmission lines in continuous service, replacement of deteriorated elements can be very expensive. One potential alternative is to install a lightweight strengthening system while the old structure is being serviced. One of the most common structural repair systems are fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) materials. Limited research has explored the feasibility of this strengthening system on wood beams. This paper presented a pilot experimental research program to study the feasibility of using Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) fabrics as a lightweight, reliable, and effective strengthening system for deteriorated circular cross-arms of the Gulfport transmission structures. The paper discussed previous research on FRP materials, the research strategy of this study, the experimental program, and experimental results and analysis. This included measured moisture content, failure mode, relationship between stiffness and failure load, effect of wrapping on strength, and the effect of wrapping on stiffness. The results of the experimental program suggested a strong correlation between the failure load and the stiffness of the specimens and that the proposed strengthening system could result in more consistent strengths. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  13. Excess AGN Activity in the z=2.30 Protocluster in HS 1700+64

    Digby-North, J A; Laird, E S; Steidel, C C; Georgakakis, A; Bogosavljević, M; Erb, D K; Shapley, A E; Reddy, N A; Aird, J

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic, narrow-band and X-ray observations of a z=2.30 protocluster in the field of the QSO HS 1700+643. Using a sample of BX/MD galaxies, which are selected to be at z~2.2-2.7 by their rest-frame ultraviolet colours, we find that there are 5 protocluster AGN which have been identified by characteristic emission-lines in their optical/near-IR spectra; this represents an enhancement over the field significant at ~98.5 per cent confidence. Using a ~200 ks Chandra/ACIS-I observation of this field we detect a total of 161 X-ray point sources to a Poissonian false-probability limit of 4x10^{-6} and identify 8 of these with BX/MD galaxies. Two of these are spectroscopically confirmed protocluster members and are also classified as emission-line AGN. When compared to a similarly selected field sample the analysis indicates this is also evidence for an enhancement of X-ray selected BX/MD AGN over the field, significant at ~99 per cent confidence. Deep Lya narrow-band imaging reveals t...

  14. Results from AFWL 230 kJ coaxial plasma gun experiments

    A coaxial plasma gun has been operated on the AFWL 0.5 MJ capacitor bank. A Marshall valve actuated by an explosive detonator is used to puff hydrogen gas from a small high pressure plenum into the breech of the gun. After a set delay from the explosion the capacitor bank is discharged across the electrodes of the coaxial gun. The operating mode of the gun can be changed by varying the plenum pressure and the firing delay. Over 150 shots have been fired, varying delay, plenum pressure, and initial stored energy. Initial plenum pressures were varied from 250 to 750 psi, and firing delays ranged from 0.8 msec to 2.2 msec. Experiments were conducted at 90, 176, and 230 kJ of initial stored energy (50, 70, adn 80 kV charge). Rogowski coils were used to measure current and magnetic field within the plasma at 25 axial locations along the gun. The coils were installed in grooves on the inner surface of the outer conductor. Signals from the coils were passively integrated. Integrator time constants ranged from 95 to 114 μsec. Time histories of magnetic field profiles are presented. These are used to describe the operating mode of the gun

  15. Fire protection upgrading of four Russian 440/230 VVER units

    The main goal of TACIS 3.6 a project funded by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), was the front-end engineering for upgrading the Fire Protection System (FPS) of the safety-related equipment of Novovoronezh, Units 3 and 4, and Kola, Units 1 and 2, VVER 440/230 nuclear power plants. As a first step, all the safety-related equipment had to be identified, evaluation criteria had to be established and the existing FPS reviewed against the criteria. In the second step, the selection of the upgrading measures, depending on feasibility and cost estimate, has been accomplished, room by room. The third step, carried out on schedule and completed end July 95, has been essentially the preparation of the Technical Specifications for procurement of the needed equipment including remaining detail engineering. The Russian sub-contactor Atom Energo Project (AEP), who have been the designers of these older NPP s, have done the work with the Italian Ansaldo as the consultants of their Russian colleagues. Practical aspects of the engineering work are discussed and examples of improvements selected for retrofitting described. (author)

  16. Seismic assessment of Kozloduy WWER-440, model 230 nuclear power plant

    A preliminary report is given of the findings of an IAEA sponsored walkdown of the WWER-440, model 230 at Kozloduy, in May 1991. The scope of the IAEA mission was to determine the lower bound seismic capacity of the plant and to make recommendations for improvements to increase the earthquake resistance. The methodology utilized in the assessment is that used for evaluation of the seismic margin in U.S. nuclear power plants subjected to earthquakes beyond their design basis. Included in the assessment is the establishment of a safe shutdown path which would include the capacity to mitigate a small break in the primary system, performance of a walkdown of the safe shutdown path and calculation of the high-confidence-of-low-probability-of-failure (HCLPF) of the safe shutdown path. Excluding system design deficiency relative to U.S. and Western Europe standards, it was found that the plant has many seismic vulnerabilities similar to those that existed in many of the U.S. plants prior to about 1979 when the Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated. (Z.S.) 1 tab., 1 fig

  17. Masses and Ages for 230,000 LAMOST Giants, via Their Carbon and Nitrogen Abundances

    Ho, Anna Y Q; Ness, Melissa K; Hogg, David W; Liu, Chao; Ting, Yuan-Sen

    2016-01-01

    We measure carbon and nitrogen abundances to $\\lesssim$ 0.1 dex for 450,000 giant stars from their low-resolution (R$\\sim$1800) LAMOST DR2 survey spectra. We use these [C/M] and [N/M] measurements, together with empirical relations based on the APOKASC sample, to infer stellar masses and implied ages for 230,000 of these objects to 0.08 dex and 0.2 dex respectively. We use The Cannon, a data-driven approach to spectral modeling, to construct a predictive model for LAMOST spectra. Our reference set comprises 8125 stars observed in common between the APOGEE and LAMOST surveys, taking seven APOGEE DR12 labels (parameters) as ground truth: Teff, logg, [M/H], [$\\alpha$/M], [C/M], [N/M], and Ak. We add seven colors to the Cannon model, based on the g, r, i, J, H, K, W1, and W2 magnitudes from APASS, 2MASS & WISE, which improves our constraints on Teff and logg by up to 20% and on Ak by up to 70%. Cross-validation of the model demonstrates that, for high-SNR objects, our inferred labels agree with the APOGEE val...

  18. Safety improvement of nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors type V-230

    Safety analysis was performed for the V-230 type WWER-440 un of the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice in Czechoslovakia. As compared with the improved V-213 type, differences occur mainly in the automated control systems of technological processes and in the main circulation pumps. The Soviet 1986 recommendations for increasing the V-1 nuclear power plant safety are given. It is concluded that all aspects have to be taken into consideration when making decisions with respect t the reconstruction of the V-1 units. For instance, owing to the low investment costs the price of 1 MWh power generated at this plant is 100 CSC lower than at the V-2 nuclear power plant; and this favorable relation would be disturbed by in-depth reconstruction. Hence, the decisions to be made must take into account the plant operation economy, the technical state of the pressure devices as well as the out-of-dateness of the safety conception, which, however, may seem different today and in 5 to 10 years when the reconstruction will be accomplished. (Z.M.). 4 tabs., 1 ref

  19. Effects of high temperature aging in an impure helium environment on low temperature embrittlement of Alloy 617 and Haynes 230

    Kim, Daejong; Sah, Injin; Jang, Changheui

    2010-10-01

    The effects of high temperature environmental damage on low temperature embrittlement of wrought nickel-base superalloys, Alloy 617 and Haynes 230 were evaluated. They were aged in an impure helium environment at 1000 °C for up to 500 h before tensile tested at room temperature. The tensile test results showed that the loss of ductility was associated with the increase in the inter-granular fracture with aging time. For Alloy 617, inter-granular oxidation and coarsening of grain boundary carbides contributed to the embrittlement. The significant loss of ductility in Haynes 230 was only observed after 500 h of aging when the globular intermetallic precipitates were extensively formed and brittle inter-granular cracking began to occur.

  20. Effects of high temperature aging in an impure helium environment on low temperature embrittlement of Alloy 617 and Haynes 230

    The effects of high temperature environmental damage on low temperature embrittlement of wrought nickel-base superalloys, Alloy 617 and Haynes 230 were evaluated. They were aged in an impure helium environment at 1000 oC for up to 500 h before tensile tested at room temperature. The tensile test results showed that the loss of ductility was associated with the increase in the inter-granular fracture with aging time. For Alloy 617, inter-granular oxidation and coarsening of grain boundary carbides contributed to the embrittlement. The significant loss of ductility in Haynes 230 was only observed after 500 h of aging when the globular intermetallic precipitates were extensively formed and brittle inter-granular cracking began to occur.

  1. Excitation Potentials and Shell Corrections for the Elements Z2=20 to Z2=30

    Andersen, H.H.; Sørensen, H.; Vadja, P.

    1969-01-01

    Excitation potentials and shell corrections for the elements Z 2=20 to Z2=30 are evaluated from experimental stopping-power data for 5-12-MeV protons and deuterons. Use is made of Walske's K- and L-shell corrections and shell corrections calculated by Bonderup (1967) on the basis of the Thomas-Fe...... found by means of Bonderup's shell corrections. Within the Z2 interval treated here, it is found that I/Z2 increases with increasing Z2, contrary to the general trend through the periodic system of elements......Excitation potentials and shell corrections for the elements Z 2=20 to Z2=30 are evaluated from experimental stopping-power data for 5-12-MeV protons and deuterons. Use is made of Walske's K- and L-shell corrections and shell corrections calculated by Bonderup (1967) on the basis of the Thomas...

  2. Knowledge-based (expert) systems needed in the areas of material and structural engineering (CEC-project SPRINT RA230)

    The paper presents results of a large inquiry performed by MPA Stuttgart in the period February - October 1991, mainly in the framework of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities) Project SPRINT RA 230 (SPRINT -''Strategic PRogramme for INnovation Technology Transfer'') and covers mainly the power and process industry, i.e. the problems relevant for these industries in the fields of material and structural engineering. (orig./DG)

  3. Experimental and modeling results of creep-fatigue life of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 °C

    Chen, Xiang; Sokolov, Mikhail A.; Sham, Sam; Erdman, Donald L., III; Busby, Jeremy T.; Mo, Kun; Stubbins, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Creep-fatigue testing of Ni-based superalloy Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 were conducted in the air at 850 °C. Tests were performed with fully reversed axial strain control at a total strain range of 0.5%, 1.0% or 1.5% and hold time at maximum tensile strain for 3, 10 or 30 min. In addition, two creep-fatigue life prediction methods, i.e. linear damage summation and frequency-modified tensile hysteresis energy modeling, were evaluated and compared with experimental results. Under all creep-fatigue tests, Haynes 230 performed better than Inconel 617. Compared to the low cycle fatigue life, the cycles to failure for both materials decreased under creep-fatigue test conditions. Longer hold time at maximum tensile strain would cause a further reduction in both material creep-fatigue life. The linear damage summation could predict the creep-fatigue life of Inconel 617 for limited test conditions, but considerably underestimated the creep-fatigue life of Haynes 230. In contrast, frequency-modified tensile hysteresis energy modeling showed promising creep-fatigue life prediction results for both materials.

  4. Experimental and modeling results of creep–fatigue life of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 °C

    Creep–fatigue testing of Ni-based superalloy Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 were conducted in the air at 850 °C. Tests were performed with fully reversed axial strain control at a total strain range of 0.5%, 1.0% or 1.5% and hold time at maximum tensile strain for 3, 10 or 30 min. In addition, two creep–fatigue life prediction methods, i.e. linear damage summation and frequency-modified tensile hysteresis energy modeling, were evaluated and compared with experimental results. Under all creep–fatigue tests, Haynes 230 performed better than Inconel 617. Compared to the low cycle fatigue life, the cycles to failure for both materials decreased under creep–fatigue test conditions. Longer hold time at maximum tensile strain would cause a further reduction in both material creep–fatigue life. The linear damage summation could predict the creep–fatigue life of Inconel 617 for limited test conditions, but considerably underestimated the creep–fatigue life of Haynes 230. In contrast, frequency-modified tensile hysteresis energy modeling showed promising creep–fatigue life prediction results for both materials.

  5. Experimental and modeling results of creep fatigue life of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 C

    Creep fatigue testing of Ni-based superalloy Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 were conducted in the air at 850 C. Tests were performed with fully reversed axial strain control at a total strain range of 0.5%, 1.0% or 1.5% and hold time at maximum tensile strain for 3, 10 or 30 min. In addition, two creep fatigue life prediction methods, i.e. linear damage summation and frequency-modified tensile hysteresis energy modeling, were evaluated and compared with experimental results. Under all creep fatigue tests, Haynes 230 performed better than Inconel 617. Compared to the low cycle fatigue life, the cycles to failure for both materials decreased under creep fatigue test conditions. Longer hold time at maximum tensile strain would cause a further reduction in both material creep fatigue life. The linear damage summation could predict the creep fatigue life of Inconel 617 for limited test conditions, but considerably underestimated the creep fatigue life of Haynes 230. In contrast, frequency-modified tensile hysteresis energy modeling showed promising creep fatigue life prediction results for both materials.

  6. Nuclear and nucleolar localization signals and their targeting function in phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase PI4K230

    PI4K230, an isoform of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, known primarily as a cytoplasmic membrane-bound enzyme, was detected recently also in the nucleolus of several cells. Here we provide mechanistic insight on the targeting function of its putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences using molecular modeling, digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells and binding to various importins. The synthetic sequence 916NFNHIHKRIRRVADKYLSG934 comprising a putative monopartite NLS (NLS1), targeted covalently bound fluorescent BSA to the nucleoplasm via classical importin α/β mechanism employing importins α1 and α3 but not α5. This transport was inhibited by wheat germ agglutinin and GTPγS. The sequence 1414SKKTNRGSQLHKYYMKRRTL1433, a putative bipartite NLS (NLS2) proved ineffective in nuclear targeting if conjugated to fluorescently labeled BSA. Nonetheless, NLS2 or either of its basic clusters directed to the nucleolus soybean trypsin inhibitor that can pass the nuclear pore complex passively; moreover, an expressed 58 kDa fragment of PI4K230 (AA1166-1667) comprising NLS2 was also imported into the nucleus by import factors of reticulocyte lysate or by importin α1/β or α3/β complexes and localized to the nucleolus. We conclude that the putative bipartite NLS itself is a nucleolar targeting signal, and for nuclear import PI4K230 requires a larger sequence around it or, alternatively, the monopartite NLS

  7. 230 and 492 GHz low noise SIS waveguide receivers employing tuned Nb/AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions

    We report results on two full height waveguide receivers that cover the 200-290 GHz and 380-510 GHz atmospheric windows. The receivers are part of the facility instrumentation at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We have measured receiver noise temperatures in the range of 20K-35K DSB in the 200-290 GHz band, and 65-90K DSB in the 390-510 GHz atmospheric band. In both instances low mixer noise temperatures and very high quantum efficiency have been achieved. Conversion gain (3 dB) is possible with the 230 GHz receiver, however lowest noise and most stable operation is achieved with unity conversion gain. A 40% operating bandwidth is achieved by using a RF compensated junction mounted in a two-tuner full height waveguide mixer block. The tuned Nb/AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions incorporate an open-quotes end-loadedclose quotes tuning stub with two quarter-wave transformer sections to tune out the large junction capacitance. Both 230 and 492 GHz SIS junctions are 0.49μm2 in size and have current densities of 8 and 10 kA/cm2 respectively. Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements of the 230 and 492 GHz tuned junctions show good agreement with the measured heterodyne waveguide response

  8. Measurements of /sup 234/U, /sup 238/U and /sup 230/Th in excreta of uranium-mill crushermen

    Fisher, D.R.; Jackson, P.O.; Brodacynski, G.G.; Scherpelz, R.I.

    1982-07-01

    Uranium and thorium levels in excreta of uranium mill crushermen who are routinely exposed to airborne uranium ore dust were measured. The purpose was to determine whether /sup 230/Th was preferentially retained over either /sup 234/U or /sup 238/U in the body. Urine and fecal samples were obtained from fourteen active crushermen with long histories of exposure to uranium ore dust, plus four retired crushermen and three control individuals for comparison. Radiochemical procedures were used to separate out the uranium and thorium fractions, which were then electroplated on stainless steel discs and assayed by alpha spectrometry. Significantly greater activity levels of /sup 234/U and /sup 238/U were measured in both urine and fecal samples obtained from uranium mill crushermen, indicating that uranium in the inhaled ore dust was cleared from the body with a shorter biological half-time than the daughter product /sup 230/Th. The measurements also indicated that uranium and thorium separate in vivo and have distinctly different metabolic pathways and transfer rates in the body. The appropriateness of current ICRP retention and clearance parameters for /sup 230/Th in ore dust is questioned.

  9. 230Th, 232Th and 238U determinations in phosphoric acid fertilizer and process products by ICP-MS

    Through processing of Santa Quiteria-CE mine phosphate rock, Brazil has established a project for production of phosphoric acid fertilizer and uranium as a by-product. Under leaching conditions of phosphate rock with sulfuric acid, which is the common route for preparing phosphoric acid fertilizer, a large part of uranium, thorium and their decay products naturally present in the rock are solubilized. In order to assess the contamination potential in phosphoric acid and others process products, this paper describes a previous precipitation and direct methods for routine analysis of thorium and uranium isotopes by ICP-MS. In all samples, 230Th, 232Th and 238U were directly determined after dilution, except 230Th in phosphoric acid loaded with uranium sample, which to overcome equipment contamination effect, was determined after its separation by oxalate precipitation using lanthanum as a carrier. The results obtained by the proposed method by ICP-MS, were in good agreement when compared to alpha spectrometry for 230Th, and ICP-OES and spectrophotometry with arsenazo III for elementary uranium and thorium determinations. (author)

  10. DC-Motor Drive Encompassing SiGe Asynchronous Control Electronics for Ultra-Wide (-230 0C to +130 0C) Environments Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I, the research team formed by APEI, Inc. and University of Arkansas proved the feasibility of developing ultra-wide temperature (-230

  11. DC-Motor Drive Encompassing SiGe Asynchronous Control Electronics for Ultra-Wide (-230 0C to +130 0C) Environments Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project seeks to investigate and prove the feasibility of developing ultra-wide temperature (-230

  12. Uranium age determination - Separation and analysis of 230Th and 231Pa

    Full text: In recent years several incidents involving illicit trafficking and smuggling of nuclear material, radioactive sources and radioactively contaminated materials have raised growing public concern about criminal acts involving nuclear materials. Consequently, research efforts in nuclear forensic science have been intensified in order to develop and improve methods for the identification of the nature and origin of seized materials. Information obtained from the analysis of unknown nuclear materials is of key importance in order to aide authorities that are in charge of developing fast and appropriate response action. For the identification of nuclear materials various sample characteristics are of relevance, including isotopic composition, the content of chemical impurities, material properties and the date of production. Information on the production date, respectively the 'age' of nuclear materials, will also be of key importance in other fields of nuclear science, i.e. for the verification of a Fissile Materials Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT) in order to distinguish freshly produced materials from 'old' excess weapons materials. The age of nuclear materials may also be of relevance under a strengthened safeguards regime to reveal clandestine production of weapons usable materials, i.e. the separation of plutonium or production of highly enriched uranium (HEU). The age dating of plutonium samples has been described in detail for bulk samples as well as for particles. In this work we focused on the age determination of uranium materials of different uranium enrichment. The radioactive decay of the uranium isotopes provides a chronometer that is inherent to the material, in particular the mother/daughter pairs 234U/230Th and 235U/231Pa can be advantageously used. Due to the relatively long half-lives of 234U (2.46·105 years) and 235U (7.04·108 years) only minute amounts of daughter nuclides are growing in, therefore both separation of Th and Pa from uranium must

  13. ITER Building Design (D230-B), Task No. 28. Final report

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project requires a set of buildings, each with its own distinct function, to support ITER's mission. The Joint Central Team (JCT) has identified all the buildings in the set and has placed them in an efficient arrangement on the site. The JCT has developed a conceptual layout of each individual building. The buildings have been categorized into two main groups: (1) open-quotes Level 1 Buildingsclose quotes which are on the construction schedule critical path and (2) open-quotes Level 2 Buildingsclose quotes which, while important, are not on the critical path. The buildings are further categorized according to construction material, that is, open-quotes reinforced concreteclose quotes or open-quotes steel-frame on concrete slabclose quotes. This Report responds to the Project's request to perform the initial structural steel design for all the open-quotes steel-frame on concrete slabclose quotes buildings. Of the twelve (12) open-quotes steel-frame on concrete slabclose quotes buildings, four (4) are Level 1 and eight (8) are Level 2 Buildings. This Report is a deliverable for the ITER Task Assignment entitled open-quotes ITER Buildings Design (D230-B)close quotes, also designated as Task No. 28. ITER U.S. Home Team Industrial Consortium members, Raytheon Engineers ampersand Constructors (RE ampersand C) and Stone ampersand Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC), teamed to perform Task 28. This task commenced in May 1995. It was performed in accordance with the design criteria specified by the ITER-JCT, San Diego Joint Work Site

  14. Investigation of dry out of SFP for VVER440/V230 at Kozloduy NPP

    Groudev, P., E-mail: pavlinpg@inrne.bas.bg [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Stefanova, A., E-mail: antoanet@inrne.bas.bg [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Manolov, M., E-mail: m_manolov@npp.bg [NPP Plc, Kozloduy 3320 (Bulgaria)

    2013-09-15

    This paper presents the thermal-hydraulic investigation of spent fuel behavior during its transferring from reactor vessel through refueling cavity (RC) to spent fuel pool (SFP) in case of dry out for VVER440/V230 units 3 and 4 at Kozloduy NPP. The fuel transfer canal connects the refueling cavity and spent fuel pool and this way set up a command pool. The presented analysis has been performed up to the moment of fuel heat up in case of spent fuel pool (SFP) dry out during the first stage of refueling activities. The main feature during this stage is: the maximum decay power of “new” spent fuel; the “new” spent fuel is still in the reactor vessel; the fuel transfer canal connects the refueling cavity and spent fuel pool. In this way the coolant have maximum volume and the spent fuel with maximum decay power is still in the reactor vessel. The “old” spent fuel in SFP has significantly low decay power. The main purpose of this analysis is to estimate the time for dry out of SFP, heat up of spent fuel and time for recovery actions from the operators. In the performed analysis are defined the following stages during the accident. ∘Termination of natural circulation after decreasing of water level in reactor vessel below the hot nozzles. ∘Beginning of coolant heat up in the reactor core. ∘Reaching the temperature of saturation at the outlet of the assembly. ∘Startup of the reactor core uncover. ∘Loss of critical safety functions. The analysis has been performed with the thermal-hydraulic computer code RELAP5/MOD3.2. The RELAP5/MOD3.2 model for Kozloduy NPP VVER-440 have been developed and validated at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE-BAS) Sofia.

  15. Sediment 231Pa/230Th as a recorder of the rate of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: insights from a 2-D model

    S. E. Allen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A two dimensional scavenging-circulation model is used to investigate the patterns of sediment 231Pa/230Th generated by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC and further advance the application of this proxy for ocean paleocirculation studies. The scavenging parameters and the geometry of the overturning circulation cell have been chosen so that the model generates meridional sections of dissolved 230Th and 231Pa consistent with published water column profiles and an additional 12 previously unpublished profiles measured in the North and Equatorial Atlantic. The processes that generate the meridional sections of dissolved and particulate 230Th, dissolved and particulate 231Pa, dissolved and particulate 231Pa/230Th, and sediment 231Pa/230Th are discussed in detail. The results indicate that the relationship between sediment 231Pa/230Th at any given site and the overturning circulation is very complex. They clearly show that constraining past changes in the strength and geometry of the AMOC requires an extensive data set and they suggest strategies to maximize information from a limited number of samples.

  16. Sediment 231Pa/230Th as a recorder of the rate of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: insights from a 2-D model

    S. E. Allen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A two dimensional scavenging model is used to investigate the patterns of sediment 231Pa/230Th generated by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC and further advance the application of this proxy for ocean paleocirculation studies. The scavenging parameters and the geometry of the overturning circulation cell have been chosen so that the model generates meridional sections of dissolved 230Th and 231Pa consistent with published water column profiles and an additional 12 previously unpublished profiles measured in the North and Equatorial Atlantic. The processes that generate the meridional sections of dissolved and particulate 230Th, dissolved and particulate 231Pa, dissolved and particulate 231Pa/230Th, and sediment 231Pa/230Th are discussed in detail. The results indicate that the relationship between sediment 231Pa/230Th at any given site and the overturning circulation is very complex. They clearly show that constraining past changes in the strength and geometry of the AMOC requires an extensive data set and they suggest strategies to maximize information from a limited number of samples.

  17. Haynes 230 Mini-Can Welding to Support Planned irradiation Testing of Candidate Space Fuel Materials

    The objective of the Space MICE-3B irradiation testing was to test uranium dioxide (UO2) and uranium nitride (UN) fuel pellets under conditions anticipated in a prototypic space reactor application. One goal of the test program was to optimize the accuracy of UN and UO2 fuel sample temperature measurement during testing. The fuel samples were required to be canned to (1) prevent sample dissociation, (2) prevent release of fission products in excess of test reactor emission thresholds, and (3) prevent chemical interaction with impurities in the helium-neon gas stream [A]. Haynes 230, a nickel-chromium-tungsten (Ni-Cr-W) high creep strength structural alloy was selected as the encapsulation material that could be easily hermetically sealed and meet material property requirements at 1550 F (1116 K), the maximum design temperature of the mini-can. Laser welding was pursued to minimize weld distortion and meet ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code weld qualification standards [2]. The mini-can design contained a 0.050 inch (1.3 mm) thick can lid that was to be welded to a 0.050 inch thick lip on the base can such that the lid overlapped the base lip as a lap joint (Figure la). The circumferential flat lap joint weld required a minimum depth of penetration of 0.050 inches (1.3 mm). Initially, a maximum diametrical distortion of 0.002-0.003 inches (50-75 microns) of the outside diameter of the can after welding was specified to allow for close proximity of a thermocouple near the external wall of the mini-can containing UN samples and result in improved fuel sample temperature measurement accuracy during testing. For the encapsulation of UO2 specimens a 0.01 0 inch (250 micron) diametrical distortion was allowed due to lower heat generation expected within the capsule and greater flexibility on thermocouple location. Manual gas tungsten arc welding was then developed with a V-groove weld lap joint design (Figures 1b). All welding was done in a high purity helium cover gas

  18. Radiosurgery for skull base meningiomas: a study on 230 cases in Iranian Gamma Knife Center

    Ali Bitara M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Meningiomas are among the most common tumors of the brain. Skull base meningiomas comprise s major part of brain meningiomas. They are difficult to treat because of proximity to major vital neuro-vascular structures which makes their surgical resection hazardous and fraught with a high rate of complications. Radiosurgery is considered as an alternative efficient way to treat them, which targets the tumor and its supplying vasculature. The standard treatment consists of tumor eradication and its supplying vessels through homogeneous dose of 201 rays of cobalt 60 source."n"nMethods: In a case-series study, we report 230 meningiomas referred to Iraninan Gamma Knife Center, treated by radiosurgery with type C Gamma Knife. Radio-surgery was performed at a mean dose of 15 Gy and 50% isodose."n"nResults: Two hundred and thirty of all meningioma cases refered to our institute were skull base lesions. Eighty (35% were new case and the rest were previously treated microsurgically one or more times. None of the patients died after treatment and the most common post-operative complications were headache (30 patients and peri-tumoral edema (12 patients."n"nConclusion: Tumoral control is defined as reduced tumor volume

  19. Tank 241-TX-104, cores 230 and 231 analytical results for the final report

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for tank 241-TX-104 push mode core segments collected between February 18, 1998 and February 23, 1998. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-TX-104 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (McCain, 1997), the Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Organic Complexant Safety Issue (Organic DQO) (Turner, et al., 1995) and the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et.al., 1995). The analytical results are included in the data summary table. None of the samples submitted for Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Total Alpha Activity (AT) exceeded notification limits as stated in the TSAP. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding (Schreiber, 1997) and are not considered in this report. Appearance and Sample Handling Attachment 1 is a cross reference to relate the tank farm identification numbers to the 222-S Laboratory LabCore/LIMS sample numbers. The subsamples generated in the laboratory for analyses are identified in these diagrams with their sources shown. Core 230: Three push mode core segments were removed from tank 241-TX-104 riser 9A on February 18, 1998. Segments were received by the 222-S Laboratory on February 19, 1998. Two segments were expected for this core. However, due to poor sample recovery, an additional segment was taken and identified as 2A. Core 231: Four push mode core segments were removed from tank 241-TX-104 riser 13A between February 19, 1998 and February 23, 1998. Segments were received by the 222-S Laboratory on February 24, 1998. Two segments were expected for this core. However, due to poor sample recovery, additional segments were taken and identified as 2A and 2B. The TSAP states the core samples should be transported to the laboratory within three

  20. Incipient oxidation kinetics and residual stress of the oxide scale grown on Haynes 230 at high temperatures

    Highlights: ► Incipient oxidation kinetics of alloy 230 has been investigated by in situ thermogravimetry. ► A two-stage oxidation kinetics was observed; each stage followed Wagner's parabolic law. ► Cr2O3 and MnCr2O4 are mixed with each other and uniformly distributed throughout the scale. ► The intrinsic residual stresses of the scale are highly tensile, ranging from 648.9 to 1308.4 MPa. - Abstract: Incipient oxidation kinetics of alloy 230 in air in the temperature range of 850–1000 °C was investigated by in situ thermogravimetry. A two-stage oxidation kinetics was observed; each stage followed Wagner's parabolic law. The activation energies for the first and the second stages are 246.5 and 212.1 kJ/mol, respectively. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that two types of oxide phases existed: Cr2O3 and MnCr2O4. Cr2O3 was the dominated phase. Structural characterization revealed that Cr2O3 and MnCr2O4 are mixed with each other and uniformly distributed throughout the scale. The results of residual stress measurements showed that the intrinsic residual stresses of the scale are highly tensile, ranging from 648.9 to 1308.4 MPa. The stress state of alloy 230 near the scale/substrate was found to be tensile, which is opposite to the stress state in the oxide scale, such that the forces balanced.

  1. Absolute L X-ray intensities in the decays of 230Th, 234U, 238Pu and 244Cm

    The absolute L X-ray emission rates of 230Th, 234U, 238Pu and 244Cm have been measured. The rates were obtained by an alpha-particle gated photon spectrometry technique involving the use of a highly calibrated Ge(HP) detector in coincidence with a SiSB detector. The directional correlation between L X-rays and alpha-particles has been accounted for. The present results are compared with previous experimental values and theoretical estimates. Agreement with theoretical estimates is good, however few of the previous experimental values agree with the present work. Differences with previous work partly seem to lie with the detector calibration. (orig.)

  2. Performance-based specifications and control of concrete durability state-of-the-art report RILEM TC 230-PSC

    Luco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This work gives an overview of significant research from recent years concerning performance-based design and quality control for concrete durability and its implementation. In engineering practice, performance approaches are often still used in combination with prescriptive requirements. This is largely because, for most durability test methods, sufficient practical experience still has to be gained before engineers and owners are prepared to fully rely on them.   This book, compiled by RILEM TC 230-PSC, is intended to assist efforts to successfully build the foundation for the full implementation of performance-based approaches through the exchange of relevant knowledge and experience between researchers and practitioners worldwide.  .

  3. The metrological activity determination of 238 U and 230 Th by gamma spectrometry to industrial fuel-cycle application

    This work describes the difficulty for determining the activity of 238 U and 230 Th using gamma spectrometry due to the low gamma-ray emission probabilities of 92 and 67 keV, and, mainly, the associated high uncertainties about 13 and 11%, respectively. 230 Th is a 238 U daughter and it is product from uranium mills and refineries. 230 Th decays to 226 Ra and this decay has to be measured because these radionuclides are not in secular equilibrium with their daughter products, besides the gamma-energies have high uncertainties in the emission probabilities. These radionuclides, mostly 238 U, are important in the nuclear fuel-cycle, since the mining of uranium ore, where the nominal isotopic content of natural uranium is 99.27% of 238 U, until the irradiated fuel reprocessing, where this isotope, a fertile material, is recovered to be used again. The uranium and thorium are considered safeguarded nuclear materials and the metrology tries to calibrate and standardize these materials to improve the activity determination techniques applied in different fuel-cycle scopes. The essential characteristics of the safeguarded materials are low gamma energies (less than 100 keV) and emission probabilities but with high uncertainties. In this way, the metrology can contribute to homeland security defense against illicit nuclear trafficking with the identification and quantification of the safeguarded radionuclides such as uranium and thorium, using specific gamma window energy and high resolution planar or coaxial germanium detector. The efficiency curve is obtained from the reference source spectrum considering the photopeak areas corresponding the standard activities. This curve depends on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation (sample absorption and material absorption between sample-detector), dead time and sample-detector position. The metrological activity determinations of 238 U solid sources, and of 230 Th, in solution (5 ml flask), were performed using

  4. Redundant 230Th/ 234U/ 238U, 231Pa/ 235U and 14C dating of fossil corals for accurate radiocarbon age calibration

    Chiu, Tzu-Chien; Fairbanks, Richard G.; Mortlock, Richard A.; Cao, Li; Fairbanks, Todd W.; Bloom, Arthur L.

    2006-09-01

    230Th/ 234U/ 238U dating of fossil corals by mass spectrometry is remarkably precise, but some samples exposed to freshwater over thousands of years may gain and/or lose uranium and/or thorium and consequently yield inaccurate ages. Although a δ 234U initial value equivalent to modern seawater and modern corals has been an effective quality control criterion, for samples exposed to freshwater but having δ 234U initial values indistinguishable from modern seawater and modern corals, there remains a need for additional age validation in the most demanding applications such as the 14C calibration (Fairbanks et al., 2005. Radiocarbon calibration curve spanning 0 to 50,000 years BP based on paired 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 14C dates on pristine corals. Quaternary Science Reviews 24(16-17), 1781-1796). In this paper we enhance screening criteria for fossil corals older than 30,000 years BP in the Fairbanks0805 radiocarbon calibration data set (Fairbanks et al., 2005) by measuring redundant 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U dates via multi-collector magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-MS-ICPMS) using techniques described in Mortlock et al. (2005. 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U ages from a single fossil coral fragment by multi-collector magnetic-sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69(3), 649-657.). In our present study, we regard paired 231Pa/ 235U and 230Th/ 234U/ 238U ages concordant when the 231Pa/ 235U age (±2 σ) overlaps with the associated 230Th/ 234U/ 238U age (±2 σ). Out of a representative set of 11 Fairbanks0805 (Fairbanks et al., 2005) radiocarbon calibration coral samples re-measured in this study, nine passed this rigorous check on the accuracy of their 230Th/ 234U/ 238U ages. The concordancy observed between 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U dates provides convincing evidence to support closed system behavior of these fossil corals and validation of their 230Th/ 234U/ 238U

  5. Coupled 230Th/234U-ESR analyses for corals: A new method to assess sealevel change

    Although coupled 230Th/234U-ESR analyses have become routine for dating teeth, they have never been used for corals. While the ESR age depends on, and requires assumptions about, the time-averaged cosmic dose rate, D-barcos(t), 230Th/234U dates do not. Since D-barcos(t) received by corals depends on the attenuation by any intervening material, D-barcos(t) response reflects changing water depths and sediment cover. By coupling the two methods, one can determine the age and a unique D-barcos,coupled(t) simultaneously. From a coral's water depth and sedimentary history as predicted by a given sealevel curve, one can predict D-barcos,sealevel(t). If D-barcos,coupled(t) agrees well with D-barcos,sealevel(t), this provides independent validation for the curve used to build D-barcos,sealevel(t). For six corals dated at 7-128 ka from Florida Platform reef crests, the sealevel curve by Waelbroeck et al. [2002. Sea-level and deep water temperature changes derived from benthonic foraminifera isotopic records. Quat. Sci. Rev. 21, 295-305] predicted their D-barcos,coupled(t) values as well as, or better than, the SPECMAP sealevel curve. Where a whole reef can be sampled over a transect, a precise test for sealevel curves could be developed

  6. Discovery of [FeII]- and H2-emission from protostellar jets in the CB3 and CB230 globules

    Massi, F; Brand, J

    2004-01-01

    Four Bok globules were studied in the Near-Infrared, through narrow-band filters, centered at the 1.644 micron line of [FeII], the H2-line at 2.122 micron, and the adjacent continuum. We report the discovery of [FeII] and H2 protostellar jets and knots in the globules CB3 and CB230. The [FeII]-jet in CB230 is defined by a continuous elongated emission feature, superimposed on which two knots are seen; the brighter one lies at the tip of the jet. The jet is oriented in the same direction as the large-scale CO outflow, and emerges from the nebulosity in which a Young Stellar Object is embedded. The H2 emission associated with this jet is fainter and wider than the [FeII] emission, and is likely coming from the walls of the jet-channel. In CB3 four H2 emission knots are found, all towards the blue-shifted lobe of the large-scale outflow. There is a good correspondence between the location of the knots and the blue-shifted SiO(5-4) emission, confirming that SiO emission is tracing the jet-like flow rather well. N...

  7. Study of in vivo generators Pb-212/Bi--212 and U-230/Th-226 for alpha radioimmunotherapy

    Alpha-radioimmunotherapy is a promising cancer therapy that uses a-particles vectorized by monoclonal antibody to break down cancerous tumors. The notion of in vivo generator was introduced in 1989 by Leonard Mausner. The concept involves labeling of various molecular carriers (antibodies, peptides, etc) with intermediate half-life generator parents, which after accumulation in the desired tissue generate much shorter half-life daughter radionuclide. This thesis focuses on the study of two in vivo generators potentially interesting for alpha-radioimmunotherapy: Pb-212 / Bi-212 generator and U-230 / Th-226 generator. The first part of this work presents the Pb-212 / Bi-212 generator, two approaches allowing the vectorization. Chelation approach on a protein and an approach by encapsulation in liposomes have been proposed. This last approach appears to be the most interesting. In vitro stability studies have been performed on these labeling. The second part of this work presents the U-230 / Th-226 generator. Studies have first been made to achieve a theoretical model to describe the speciation of Th(IV) in human serum. The efficacy of DTPA as chelating agent for complexation of Th(IV) in human serum could thus be estimated. (author)

  8. 230Th/234U dating of the quaternary spring travertines in the Arava Rift Valley of Israel and paleoclimatic implications

    Springs and lake deposits (travertines) sampled along the western margins of the Arava segment of the Dead Sea Rift Valley, Israel, were studied as a potential source of palaeoclimatic information. The 230Th/234U disequilibrium method was used to determine the age of the investigated deposits. The radiometric dating was supplemented by detailed petrographic and chemical analyses of the collected samples. Detailed petrographic observations of the analysed travertine samples suggest their deposition under moderately-arid conditions, alternating with arid to extremely arid periods. This evidence is consistent with the preliminary conclusions drawn from palynological studies in the area. Dating by the 230Th/234U disequilibrium method indicates that most travertine ages correspond to oceanic 18O stages 5 and 7. The good correspondence between apparent ages as deduced from the position of the travertines in vertical and lateral successions and the radiometric ages, lends credibility to the radiometric ages. The clustering of ages during the warm 18O stages bears similarity to the temporal distribution of middle to late Pleistocene sapropelic horizons in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin which further leads to suspicion that during insolation maxima monsoonal cells originating in the Indian Ocean have shifted northwards reaching the latitude of the Arava and Negev Highlands. Refs and figs

  9. Creep deformation and mechanisms in Haynes 230 at 800 °C and 900 °C

    Pataky, Garrett J., E-mail: pataky2@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Sehitoglu, Huseyin, E-mail: huseyin@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Maier, Hans J., E-mail: maier@iw.uni-hannover.de [Institut für Werkstoffkunde (Materials Science), Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, D-30823 Garbsen (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Creep was studied in Haynes 230, a material candidate for the very high temperature reactor’s intermediate heat exchanger, at 800 °C and 900 °C. This study focused on the differences between the behavior at the two elevated temperature, and using the microstructure, grain boundary serrations and triple junction strain concentrations were quantitatively identified. There was significant damage in the 900 °C samples and the creep was almost entirely tertiary. In contrast, the 800 °C sample exhibited secondary creep. Using an Arrhenius equation, the minimum creep rate exponents were found to be n ≈ 3 and n ≈ 5 for 900 °C and 800 °C, respectively. The creep mechanisms were identified as solute drag for n ≈ 3 and dislocation climb for n ≈ 5. Strain concentrations were identified at triple junctions and grain boundary serrations using high resolution digital image correlation overlaid on the microstructure. The grain boundary serrations restrict grain boundary sliding which may reduce the creep damage at triple junctions and extend the creep life of Haynes 230 at elevated temperatures.

  10. Creep deformation and mechanisms in Haynes 230 at 800 °C and 900 °C

    Creep was studied in Haynes 230, a material candidate for the very high temperature reactor’s intermediate heat exchanger, at 800 °C and 900 °C. This study focused on the differences between the behavior at the two elevated temperature, and using the microstructure, grain boundary serrations and triple junction strain concentrations were quantitatively identified. There was significant damage in the 900 °C samples and the creep was almost entirely tertiary. In contrast, the 800 °C sample exhibited secondary creep. Using an Arrhenius equation, the minimum creep rate exponents were found to be n ≈ 3 and n ≈ 5 for 900 °C and 800 °C, respectively. The creep mechanisms were identified as solute drag for n ≈ 3 and dislocation climb for n ≈ 5. Strain concentrations were identified at triple junctions and grain boundary serrations using high resolution digital image correlation overlaid on the microstructure. The grain boundary serrations restrict grain boundary sliding which may reduce the creep damage at triple junctions and extend the creep life of Haynes 230 at elevated temperatures

  11. Study of the growth mechanism of some oxide scales on alloy 230 in high temperature vapor electrolysis (HTVE) conditions

    Alloy 230 (also named Haynes (R) 230) was tested as interconnect for production of hydrogen via High Temperature Vapor Electrolysis (HIVE). Samples were oxidized at 800 degrees C in the both atmospheres representative of the HIVE operating conditions: Ar-1%H-2-9%H2O (for cathode side) and air (for anode side). The high temperature oxidation behaviour was studied in both atmospheres together with the electrical conductivity of the thermally grown oxide scales. Oxidation kinetics indicated lower oxidation rate in H2/H2O compared to air (k(p) = 3.8.10-15 g2.cm-4.s-1 in H2/H2O and k(p) = 1.6.10-14 g2.cm-4.s-1 in air). The corrosion products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy associated with X-ray diffraction analyses and energy dispersive X-ray analyses. The sample electrical behaviour was evaluated by determining the Area Specific Resistance (ASR). The ASR was higher in H2/H2O (ASR = 1 ohm.cm2) than in air (ASR = 0.04 ohm.cm2). The diffusion of proton or hydrogen containing species through the oxide scale is proposed to be responsible for the increase of the electrical conductivity in cathode side. (authors)

  12. Creep deformation and mechanisms in Haynes 230 at 800 °C and 900 °C

    Pataky, Garrett J.; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Maier, Hans J.

    2013-11-01

    Creep was studied in Haynes 230, a material candidate for the very high temperature reactor's intermediate heat exchanger, at 800 °C and 900 °C. This study focused on the differences between the behavior at the two elevated temperature, and using the microstructure, grain boundary serrations and triple junction strain concentrations were quantitatively identified. There was significant damage in the 900 °C samples and the creep was almost entirely tertiary. In contrast, the 800 °C sample exhibited secondary creep. Using an Arrhenius equation, the minimum creep rate exponents were found to be n ≈ 3 and n ≈ 5 for 900 °C and 800 °C, respectively. The creep mechanisms were identified as solute drag for n ≈ 3 and dislocation climb for n ≈ 5. Strain concentrations were identified at triple junctions and grain boundary serrations using high resolution digital image correlation overlaid on the microstructure. The grain boundary serrations restrict grain boundary sliding which may reduce the creep damage at triple junctions and extend the creep life of Haynes 230 at elevated temperatures.

  13. Survey of magnetic fields near BPA 230-kV and 500-kV transmission lines

    The purpose of this study was to characterize typical levels and variability of 60Hz magnetic fields at the centerline and edge of right-of-way of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) 230-kV and 500-kV transmission lines. This was accomplished by taking magnetic field measurements at over 800 spans in Oregon and Washington. The spans were sampled using a stratified random sampling procedure with region (East vs. West), voltage (230-kV vs 500-kV), and circuit configuration as strata. There were five different circuit configuration groups for each region/voltage category requiring a total of 200 strata. Magnetic field measurements were taken at 13 locations under each span using an EMDEX-C as a survey meter. Additional information recorded for each span included conductor height (at 10 locations), right-of-way width, longitudinal and lateral slope, time of day, vegetation, terrain, weather conditions, temperature, wind speed, span length and presence of other lines in the corridor. 9 refs., 17 figs., 26 tabs

  14. Th-230/Th-232 sedimentation rates and the natural radiation background along the western coast of Israel

    The natural radiation background of the sediments from the southeastern province of the Levant Basin was determined by both alpha-particle spectrometry and by gamma-ray spectrometry using a specially low background high resolution Ge(Li) detector. The Nile river derived clastics dominates the sediment character along the Israeli coast. The radioelements in nine cores under the Nile's influence are readily distinguishable, having higher potassium, uranium and thorium contents, from the more carbonate rich sediments investigated in three cores from the northwestern province of the Levant Basin. Significant fluctuations exist in the radiometal content with depth within individual cores. The rate of sediment transport and deposition are so rapid that no Th-230 excess accumulated in the sediment deposited relatively nearshore. In the deep water of the Herodotus Basin only a small degree of Th-230 excess is recorded. Determination of absolute rates of sedimentation by uranium series disequilibria is not feasible for the sediments near to the Israeli coast, while such studies in the Herodotus Basin would require long core lengths to succeed

  15. Magmatic evolution of a volcano studied by 230Th-238U disequilibrium and trace elements systematics: the Etna case

    Age determinations of several lava flows from Etna through 230Th-238U disequilibrium (internal isochrons) yield a precise chronology of the volcano's history for the last 200,000 years, and emphasize the main episodes in the formation of this huge complex strato-volcano. Study of (230Th/232Th)0 initial ratios of lavas together with their trace-element compositions yields a consistent model of magmatic evolution implying the existence, for 200,000 years, of a deep reservoir of alkalic magma periodically mixed with magmas of tholeiitic affinity. These short periods of mixing appear to be related to the formation of the large calderas of Etna. In addition to these processes affecting the deep reservoir, fractional crystallization also occurred in more superficial levels of the volcanic edifice, thereby yielding several series of differentiation of relatively short duration. As for its geochemistry, Etna's volcanism is of oceanic type but with its own characteristics and in a peculiar geodynamic context, at the edge of the African Plate. (author)

  16. Thermal shock resistance of ZrB2 and ZrB2-30% SiC

    Thermal shock of high density (>99% relative density) zirconium diboride (ZrB2) and zirconium diboride containing 30 vol.% silicon carbide (SiC) was studied. Calculations based on thermal shock theory indicated that ZrB2-30 vol.% SiC should have greater thermal shock resistance than ZrB2 due to its higher fracture strength. Water quench tests revealed essentially the same critical thermal shock values for both materials (ΔTcrit = ∼400 deg. C). A finite element model was used to estimate the temperatures and stresses in both ceramics during quench testing. The model predicted that maximum thermal stresses during the experimental quench test exceeded the strength of ZrB2 (568 MPa) but not ZrB2-30 vol.% SiC (863 MPa). The lower than predicted thermal shock resistance of ZrB2-SiC was attributed to the non-uniform cooling between the ZrB2 matrix grains and the SiC particulate phase

  17. U-Th systematics and 230Th ages of carbonate chimneys at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    Ludwig, Kristin A.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Kelley, Deborah S.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2011-04-01

    The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is a serpentinite-hosted vent field located 15 km west of the spreading axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In this study, uranium-thorium (U-Th) geochronological techniques have been used to examine the U-Th systematics of hydrothermal fluids and the 230Th ages of hydrothermally-precipitated carbonate chimneys at the LCHF. Fluid sample analyses indicate that endmember fluids likely contain only 0.0073 ng/g U or less compared to 3.28 ± 0.03 ng/g of U in ambient seawater. For fluid samples containing only 2-21% ambient seawater (1.1-11 mmol/kg Mg), Th concentration is 0.11-0.13 pg/g and surrounding seawater concentrations average 0.133 ± 0.016 pg/g. The 230Th/ 232Th atomic ratios of the vent fluids range from 1 (±10) × 10 -6 to 11 (±5) × 10 -6, are less than those of seawater, and indicate that the vent fluids may contribute a minor amount of non-radiogenic 230Th to the LCHF carbonate chimney deposits. Chimney 238U concentrations range from 1 to 10 μg/g and the average chimney corrected initial δ 234U is 147.2 ± 0.8, which is not significantly different from the ambient seawater value of 146.5 ± 0.6. Carbonate 232Th concentrations range broadly from 0.0038 ± 0.0003 to 125 ± 16 ng/g and 230Th/ 232Th atomic ratios vary from near seawater values of 43 (±8) × 10 -6 up to 530 (±25) × 10 -3. Chimney ages, corrected for initial 230Th, range from 17 ± 6 yrs to 120 ± 13 kyrs. The youngest chimneys are at the intersection of two active, steeply-dipping normal faults that cut the Atlantis Massif; the oldest chimneys are located in the southwest portion of the field. Vent deposits on a steep, fault-bounded wall on the east side of the field are all <4 kyrs old, indicating that mass wasting in this region is relatively recent. Comparison of results to prior age-dating investigations of submarine hydrothermal systems shows that the LCHF is the most long-lived hydrothermal system known to date. It is likely that seismic

  18. The Communications Decency Act of 1996: Why § 230 is Outdated and Publisher Liability for Defamation Should be Reinstated Against Internet Service Providers

    Matthew G. Jeweler

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available  When Congress enacted § 230 of the Communications Decency Act ("CDA"1 it changed the landscape of defamation law on the Internet. In the eleven years since Congress passed § 230, courts have interpreted it broadly, giving seemingly complete immunity to internet service providers ("ISPs" and website operators in third-party claims for defamation committed on the Internet.2 This essay argues that today, with the Internet being the dominant medium that it is, the CDA is outdated and unfair, and should be amended or repealed in favor of the common law framework for publisher liability in defamation.3

  19. Chromium Activity Measurements in Nickel Based Alloys for Very High Temperature Reactors: Inconel 617, Haynes 230, and Model Alloys

    The alloys Haynes 230 and Inconel 617 are potential candidates for the intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) of (very) high temperature reactors ((V)-HTRs). The behavior under corrosion of these alloys by the (V)-HTR coolant (impure helium) is an important selection criterion because it defines the service life of these components. At high temperature, the Haynes 230 is likely to develop a chromium oxide on the surface. This layer protects from the exchanges with the surrounding medium and thus confers certain passivity on metal. At very high temperature, the initial microstructure made up of austenitic grains and coarse intra- and intergranular M6C carbide grains rich in W will evolve. The M6C carbides remain and some M23C6 richer in Cr appear. Then, carbon can reduce the protective oxide layer. The alloy loses its protective coating and can corrode quickly. Experimental investigations were performed on these nickel based alloys under an impure helium flow (Rouillard, F., 2007, 'Mecanismes de formation et de destruction de la couche d'oxyde sur un alliage chrominoformeur en milieu HTR, Ph.D. thesis, Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, France). To predict the surface reactivity of chromium under impure helium, it is necessary to determine its chemical activity in a temperature range close to the operating conditions of the heat exchangers (T approximate to 1273 K). For that, high temperature mass spectrometry measurements coupled to multiple effusion Knudsen cells are carried out on several samples: Haynes 230, Inconel 617, and model alloys 1178, 1181, and 1201. This coupling makes it possible for the thermodynamic equilibrium to be obtained between the vapor phase and the condensed phase of the sample. The measurement of the chromium ionic intensity (I) of the molecular beam resulting from a cell containing an alloy provides the values of partial pressure according to the temperature. This value is compared with that of the pure substance (Cr) at the same temperature

  20. IAEA meeting report of the consultants' meeting on safety improvements of WWER-440 model 230 nuclear power plants

    In 1992 the identification and ranking of safety issues for WWER-440/230 NPPs were completed. Some 100 safety issues have been identified and ranked according to their safety impact on the plant's defence in depth. The IAEA work was based on a conceptual design review and a series of safety review missions to each one of the four sites (Bohunice, Kozloduy, Novovoronezh and Kola) where WWER-440/230 NPPs were in operation. Results were published by the IAEA in February and May 1992. Since the initial publications the IAEA has continued its activities and conducted a number of follow-up missions and technical visits to the NPP sites to review the status of implementation of safety upgradings. In September of 1994 a Consultants Meeting (CM) was held in Vienna to consolidate all the information available to the AEA. The results of that meeting were included in the report WWER-SC-107. During 1995-1997 further information became available from technical visits conducted by the IAEA at the four sites. Therefore, in February 1998 the IAEA convened a CM in Vienna to prepare an up-to-date report on the status of safety improvements at WWER-440/230 NPPs. This report contains the results of that meeting. It reviews the status of remedial actions implemented at each plant in response to the safety issues originally identified in the IAEA reports and the remaining safety concerns. For convenience the issues are presented under broad titles related to: integrity of barriers (Section 2); performance of basic functions (Section 3); performance of supporting functions (Section 4); internal hazards (Section 5); external hazards (Section 6); accident analysis (Section 7); operational functions (Section 8); Section 9 provides an overview of the results of PSA studies performed and under way. Section 10 provides specific information on the status of Armenia NPP. It is presented separately because the IAEA assistance to this plant was provided in the framework of the national technical co

  1. Effects of electrical discharge surface modification of superalloy Haynes 230 with aluminum and molybdenum on oxidation behavior

    The effects of the electrical discharge alloying (EDA) process on improving the high temperature oxidation resistance of the Ni-based superalloy Haynes 230 have been investigated. The 85 at.% Al and 15 at.% Mo composite electrode provided the surface alloying materials. An Al-rich layer is produced on the surface of the EDA specimen alloyed with positive electrode polarity, whereas, many discontinuous piled layers are attached to the surface of the EDA superalloy when negative electrode polarity is selected. The oxidation resistance of the specimen alloyed with positive electrode polarity is better than that of the unalloyed superalloy, and the effective temperature of oxidation resistance of the alloyed layer can be achieved to 1100 oC. Conversely, the oxidation resistance of the other EDA specimen alloyed with negative electrode polarity is even worse than that of the unalloyed superalloy

  2. Solvent extraction technique for the analysis of thorium-230 using the Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer (PERALS)

    A solvent extraction technique has been developed to improve the analysis and recoveries for Thorium-230. The emphasis of this technique is to improve productivity and precision over ion-exchange when using the Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer (PERALS). The Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) currently is involved in characterizing sites that are contaminated with alpha emitting radionuclides which can not be detected with field instrumentation. This technique and equipment demonstrates the ability to be used for in-the-field analysis for all alpha emitting radionuclides with only minor modifications of in-laboratory procedures. The PERALS system offers 99.7% detection capability which greatly reduces counting times previously required for low activity samples. The solvent extraction technique coupled with the PERALS system significantly increases sample productivity and decreases unit cost per analysis. A description of the solvent extraction technique, the analytical instrumentation, and typical applications are discussed

  3. Experimental kinetic study of oxidation of uranium monocarbide powders under controlled oxygen partial pressures below 230 °C

    Uranium monocarbide (UC) powders are known to be easily oxidised by gas mixtures containing oxygen. In this study, the oxidation of UC micron powders was followed by isothermal thermogravimetry at temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 230 °C in two different gas mixtures: synthetic air and 97%N2 + 3%O2. X-ray diffraction tests conducted on powders after their oxidation showed that small crystallites of UO2 oxide are formed. Furthermore, an analysis of mass gain showed that the carbon initially linked with the uranium is not oxidised but retained in oxide layers. Additionally, this kinetic study revealed that the rate-limiting step mechanism governing the oxidation of UC powders is a diffusive process that follows the Arrhenius law regarding temperature. Finally, it was discovered that cracks occur in grains once a given fractional conversion has been reached, inducing a major increase in the volume of grains.

  4. ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy in the region of 500-230 cm -1 for identification of inorganic red pigments

    Vahur, Signe; Knuutinen, Ulla; Leito, Ivo

    2009-08-01

    It is demonstrated that micro-ATR-FT-IR in the low wave number range (500-230 cm -1) can be well used for identification of pigments in paint samples thereby markedly extending the possibilities of pigment identification by ATR-IR spectroscopy into the realm of pigments having no absorptions in the mid-IR region. Reference spectra of pigments can be conveniently obtained by mixing them with linseed oil in approximately 1:1 mass ratio. Vermilion (or cinnabar), read lead, different red iron oxide pigments and cadmium red can be identified. In some cases the method can be used alone for pigment identification and in many cases it provides useful additional evidence for pigment identification using other instrumental techniques (electron microprobe analysis, XRF, optical microscopy).

  5. Determination of 230Th (Ionium) in uranium ores and wastes from uranium reprocessing. IV. Calculation of ionium separation yield

    For determining ionium (230Th) in minerals and uranium processing wastes by precipitation with fluorhidric acid, using lanthanum as carrier, and selective extraction with tenoytrifluoroacetone (TTA) followed by radiometric determination of the isolated nuclide, it is necessary the use of a tracer since the chemical yield of the separation ranges between wide limits. In this paper, the use of the beta-emitter 234Th as the most convenient tracer is discussed. Equations are derived for correcting for counting errors introduced by other thorium isotopes which are present either in the sample or in the tracer, as well as for calculating the chemical yield of the separation. These equations have been experimentally checked by ionium determinations carried out with different types of samples. (Author) 18 refs

  6. Coupled {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U-ESR analyses for corals: A new method to assess sealevel change

    Blackwell, Bonnie A.B. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267 (United States); RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY 11547 (United States)], E-mail: bonnie.a.b.blackwell@williams.edu; Teng, Steve J.T. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY 11547 (United States)], E-mail: mteng1584@gmail.com; Lundberg, Joyce A. [Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1S 5B6 (Canada)], E-mail: joyce_lundberg@carleton.ca; Blickstein, Joel I.B. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267 (United States); RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY 11547 (United States); Skinner, Anne R. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267 (United States); RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY 11547 (United States)], E-mail: anne.r.skinner@williams.edu

    2007-07-15

    Although coupled {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U-ESR analyses have become routine for dating teeth, they have never been used for corals. While the ESR age depends on, and requires assumptions about, the time-averaged cosmic dose rate, D-bar{sub cos}(t), {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U dates do not. Since D-bar{sub cos}(t) received by corals depends on the attenuation by any intervening material, D-bar{sub cos}(t) response reflects changing water depths and sediment cover. By coupling the two methods, one can determine the age and a unique D-bar{sub cos,coupled}(t) simultaneously. From a coral's water depth and sedimentary history as predicted by a given sealevel curve, one can predict D-bar{sub cos,sealevel}(t). If D-bar{sub cos,coupled}(t) agrees well with D-bar{sub cos,sealevel}(t), this provides independent validation for the curve used to build D-bar{sub cos,sealevel}(t). For six corals dated at 7-128 ka from Florida Platform reef crests, the sealevel curve by Waelbroeck et al. [2002. Sea-level and deep water temperature changes derived from benthonic foraminifera isotopic records. Quat. Sci. Rev. 21, 295-305] predicted their D-bar{sub cos,coupled}(t) values as well as, or better than, the SPECMAP sealevel curve. Where a whole reef can be sampled over a transect, a precise test for sealevel curves could be developed.

  7. Design, manufacture, test and delivery of a 230 kV extruded irradiated crosslinked polyethylene cable. Final report

    None

    1978-01-01

    A project was initiated to develop a 230 kV solid dielectric cable for use in underground transmission. The dielectric is to be polyethylene, crosslinked by electron bombardment. Compared to the more conventional chemically crosslinked polyethylene, the irradiated cable is expected to contain less sensitive defects and thus be more suitable for a 230 kV rating. A toroidally shaped diode was developed to provide a uniform radiation dose to a thick-walled coaxial cable. The diode is to receive an output wave form obtained by ringing a Marx generator into a peaking capacitor. Initial evaluation of the toroidal diode was performed on thin plaques and tapes of insulating and semi-conducting polyethylene polymers. Additionally, some miscellaneous ethylene plastics were briefly investigated. Using a 4.8 MV Van de Graaff pulse generator in conjunction with several diode configurations, 15 to 35 kV extruded HMW-PE cables were irradiated. Dose rate, temperature, and pressure effects were evaluated. It was found that with limited dose rate it was possible to produce excellent crosslink density and uniformity at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. A subsequent 60 Hz voltage endurance test on an irradiated cable sample indicated it had long term, high stress capability. An engineering study conducted to determine an acceptable irradiator system design is reported. It was estimated that a 7 MV peak voltage at a rate of 2 to 3 pulse/sec can be provided by a Marx generator/peaking capacitor and should be capable of crosslinking a polyethylene wall thickness of approximately 2.5 cm. Based on the accumulated test results and on the performance of the 7 MV irradiator predicted, it appears feasible to continue the work effort into the next scheduled phase.

  8. Influence of grain orientation on the incipient oxidation behavior of Haynes 230 at 900 °C

    Ni-based superalloy Haynes 230 is used in many applications such as very high temperature reactor (VHTR) or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) where it is exposed to high temperature service environment. In order to improve the resistance for high temperature oxidation, the effect of crystallographic orientation on the early stage oxidation was investigated. It was demonstrated that different oxide thicknesses are formed on grains having different orientations. Comparison of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) orientation maps before and after oxidation at 900 °C indicates that grains near (111) orientation, especially with the deviation angle from <111> that is smaller than 20°, are more oxidation resistant than grains of other orientations. Correlation between the results of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to compare the oxidation rate of grains having different crystallographic orientation. The oxidation rate was found to change with the crystallographic orientation as follows (111) < (110) < (100), also it was demonstrated that the oxidation rate changes are a nearly linear function of the angle of deviation from <111> direction. The morphology of surface oxide also depends on the orientation of grains. - Highlights: • Comparison of EBSD maps before and after oxidation allows to investigate the effect of orientation on oxidation in a more direct way; • Effect of crystallographic orientation on oxidation behavior of alloy 230 is studied by combination of EBSD and AFM; • Different thickness of oxide is formed on grain with different orientation and dependence of anisotropic oxidation behavior is discussed; • The morphology of grains is also orientation dependence

  9. Influence of grain orientation on the incipient oxidation behavior of Haynes 230 at 900 °C

    Wang, Xu, E-mail: xuw388@mail.usask.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Fan, Fan; Szpunar, Jerzy A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Zhang, Lina [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Ni-based superalloy Haynes 230 is used in many applications such as very high temperature reactor (VHTR) or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) where it is exposed to high temperature service environment. In order to improve the resistance for high temperature oxidation, the effect of crystallographic orientation on the early stage oxidation was investigated. It was demonstrated that different oxide thicknesses are formed on grains having different orientations. Comparison of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) orientation maps before and after oxidation at 900 °C indicates that grains near (111) orientation, especially with the deviation angle from <111> that is smaller than 20°, are more oxidation resistant than grains of other orientations. Correlation between the results of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to compare the oxidation rate of grains having different crystallographic orientation. The oxidation rate was found to change with the crystallographic orientation as follows (111) < (110) < (100), also it was demonstrated that the oxidation rate changes are a nearly linear function of the angle of deviation from <111> direction. The morphology of surface oxide also depends on the orientation of grains. - Highlights: • Comparison of EBSD maps before and after oxidation allows to investigate the effect of orientation on oxidation in a more direct way; • Effect of crystallographic orientation on oxidation behavior of alloy 230 is studied by combination of EBSD and AFM; • Different thickness of oxide is formed on grain with different orientation and dependence of anisotropic oxidation behavior is discussed; • The morphology of grains is also orientation dependence.

  10. 34 CFR 230.3 - What criteria does the Secretary use to select eligible participants in the Troops-to-Teacher...

    2010-07-01

    ... TEACHER QUALITY Troops-to-Teachers Program § 230.3 What criteria does the Secretary use to select eligible...) of the Act, which requires participants to teach in a high-need local educational agency or public... to obtain certification to teach science, mathematics, or special education and who agree to teach...

  11. Determination of technetium-99, thorium-230 and uranium-234 in soils by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using flow injection preconcentration

    A new method is described for the determination of 99Tc, 230Th, and 234U at ultra-trace levels in soils. The method used flow injection (FI) for on-line preconcentration of 99Tc, 230Th and 234U prior to detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The FI-ICP-MS method results in greater sensitivity and freedom from interferences compared with direct aspiration into an ICP mass spectrometer. Detection limits are improved by approximately a factor of 10. The FI-ICP-MS method is also faster, less labour intensive and generates less laboratory waste than traditional radiochemical methods. The accuracy of the method was tested for 99Tc by comparison to liquid scintillation counting and for 230Th and 234U by analysis of a US Department of Energy reference soil. Detection limits in the soil for 99Tc, 230Th and 234U were 11 mBq g-1 (0.02 ng g-1), 3.7 mBq g-1 (0.005 ng g-1) and 0.74 mBq g-1 (0.003 ng g-1), respectively. Sample preparation, analysis protocol, and method validation are described. (Author)

  12. 39 CFR 230.17 - If an attempt is made to compel production of reports and records during the employee's testimony...

    2010-07-01

    ... Information Act and shall be handled pursuant to 39 CFR 230.5. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If an attempt is made to compel production of reports and records during the employee's testimony, what is an Office of Inspector General...

  13. 17 CFR 230.416 - Securities to be issued as a result of stock splits, stock dividends and anti-dilution provisions...

    2010-04-01

    ... result of stock splits, stock dividends and anti-dilution provisions and interests to be issued pursuant... § 230.416 Securities to be issued as a result of stock splits, stock dividends and anti-dilution... amount of securities being offered or issued to prevent dilution resulting from stock splits,...

  14. Speleogenesis of the Hermannshöhle cave system (Austria): Constraints from .sup. 230./sup.Th/U-dating and palaeomagnetic analysis

    Plan, L.; Schober, A.; Scholz, D.; Spötl, C.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2015), s. 315-326. ISSN 0392-6672 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : 230 Th/U-dating * palaeomagnetics * paragenesis * speleogenesis * valley incision Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.656, year: 2014

  15. Collective and single-particle excitations in the heavy deformable nuclei 234U, 233U, 231Th, 230Pa and 232Pa

    In this thesis five heavy deformed isotopes from the mass region A≥230, namely 234U, 233U, 231Th, 230Pa and 232Pa, were investigated by means of deuteron-induced neutron transfer reactions. The even-even isotope 234U has been studied with the 4π-γ-spectrometer MINIBALL at the Cologne Tandem accelerator. Excited nuclei in the isotope 234U were produced using the reaction 235U(d,t) at a beam energy of 11 MeV. The target thickness was 3.5 mg/cm2. The analysis of the γγ-coincidence data yielded a reinterpretation of the level scheme in 12 cases. Considering its decay characteristics, the 4+ state at an excitation energy of 1886.7 keV is a potential candidate for a two-phonon vibrational state. The isotopes 233U, 231Th, 230Pa and 232Pa were investigated at the Munich Q3D spectrometer. For each isotope an angular distribution with angles between 5 and 45 were measured. In all four cases the energy of the polarized deuteron beam (vector polarization of 80%) was 22 MeV. As targets 234U (160 μg/cm2), 230Th (140 μg/cm2) and 231Pa (140 μg/cm2) were used. The experimental angular distributions were compared to results of DWBA calculations. For the odd isotope 233U spin and parity for 33 states are assigned and in the other odd isotope 231Th 22 assignments are made. The excitation spectra of the two odd-odd isotopes 230Pa and 232Pa were investigated for the first time. For the isotope 230Pa 63 states below an excitation energy of 1.5 MeV are identified. Based on the new experimental data the Nilsson configuration of the ground state is either 1/2[530]p-5/2[633]n or 1/2[530]p+3/2[631]n. In addition 12 rotational bands are proposed and from this six values for the GM splitting energy are deduced as well as two new values for the Newby shift. In the other odd-odd isotope 232Pa 40 states below an excitation energy of 850 keV are observed and suggestions for the groundstate band and its GM partner are made. From this one GM splitting energy was determined.

  16. Report of a consultants' meeting on containment and confinement performance in NPPS with WWER 440/213 and 440/230 reactors

    The reactors WWER 440 model V-230 being operated in several countries of central and eastern Europe were designed in the 1960-ies assuming that the design basis accident can be limited to a break of a pipe of 100 mm diameter fitted with an orifice of 32 mm diameter. This assumption presently judged to be inadequate according to the international safety requirements, was used to determine the Emergency Core Cooling System. For this size of the break, the spray system of the reactor building was designed to prevent uncontrolled releases to the environment. For larger breaks, till full rupture of one of two pressurizer surge lines of 200 mm diameter each, large flaps were designed to open during the initial pressure peak after the accident and release to the environment large amounts of steam escaping from the broken reactor coolant system (RCS). In view of this initial release of radioactive medium and due to its other unsatisfactory features, the building surrounding the WWER 440/230 reactor is not called a containment, but is said to fulfill a confining function, in short it is termed a confinement. The shortcomings of the WWER 440/230 confinements have been long recognized and the newer model of WWER 440 units, called model V-213, has been provided with an improved building of higher leaktightness and higher strength, containing a complicated system of water trays and air traps designed to condense steam and remove a part of the air from the reactor compartments after large break loss of coolant accident (LB LOCA). For such case, the system provides fast pressure decrease in the containment to subatmospheric values and thus prevents any significant releases of radioactivity to the environment. As the main process is that of steam bubble condensation in water, the system is called bubbler condenser containment. The bubbler condenser containment was the answer to the problem of providing the old WWER 440 model 230 units with a reliable containment without excessive

  17. Evaluation of ELISA testing for BP180 and BP230 as a diagnostic modality for bullous pemphigoid: a clinical experience.

    Keller, Jesse J; Kittridge, Ashley L; Debanne, Sara M; Korman, Neil J

    2016-05-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a common autoimmune blistering disorder of the elderly. Several diagnostic modalities are available, including clinical impression, histopathology, direct and indirect immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection of pathogenic antibodies. In this study, we aim to examine the utility of the newest test, ELISA, in comparison to the constellation of other tests. We describe our clinical experience in which 170 patients diagnosed with bullous pemphigoid had multiple tests performed. BP180 alone showed a sensitivity of 54 % and specificity of 94 %. The positive predictive value (PPV) is 95 % while the negative predictive value (NPV) is 52 %. BP230 alone yielded a sensitivity of 48 % and specificity of 94 %. The PPV is 94 % and the NPV is 49 %. Using both tests in combination yielded a sensitivity of 66 % and specificity of 89 %. The PPV of at least one of two tests returning positive is 92 % while the NPV of dual negative tests is 58 %. Use of ELISAs for suspected cases of BP are an inadequate standalone test, and are only helpful in making the diagnosis should they return positive. However, they would appear to miss about one-third of cases. PMID:26895534

  18. Evaluation of high specific-heat ceramic for regenerator use at temperatures between 2-30 K

    Lawless, W. N.

    1979-01-01

    Specific heat, thermal conductivity (both in the range 2-30 K), and microhardness data were measured on the ceramics labelled LS-8, LS-8A, and LS-8A doped with CsI, SnCl2, and AgCl. A work hardened sample of LS-8A was also studied in an effort to determine the feasibility of using these types of LS-8 materials to replace Pb spheres in the regenerator of the JPL cryocooler. The LS-8A materials are all more than an order of magnitude harder than Pb, and the dopants do not significantly improve the hardness. However, the SnCl2 dopant has a remarkable effect in improving the specific heat and thermal conductivity of LS-8A. The SnCl2 doping level which maximized the regenerator enthalpy change in going from an unloaded to a loaded condition was found to be 0.2 percent SnCl2 in LS-8A. It was also found that the enthalpy change for a regenerator employing the LS-8A material is more than three times larger than for the Pb spheres case. The use of rods, rather than spheres, of optimally doped LS-8A in regenerators is discussed.

  19. Alpha Spectrometry for Determination of 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th and 230Th in Soil Sample

    Monitoring of radioactivity in soil around the nuclear power plant is important. In this study, the radioactivity of uranium and thorium isotopes in soil (NIST SRM 2709a) is analyzed by alpha spectrometry. Alpha spectrometry is a powerful analytical tool for the identification and assay of the alpha-emitting sources primarily due to its high counting efficiency, high sensitivity and low price. Another aim of this study is to present the extent of disequilibrium of 238U/234U and 238U/230Th. The soil sample was decomposed by a fusion technique, and the source for the alpha spectrometry was prepared by electrodeposition of an alpha-emitting nuclides onto a metallic substrate. In this work, uranium and thorium isotopes were chemically separated from a soil sample (NIST SRM 2709a) using chromatographic columns, and electrodeposited on a stainless steel disc to measure the radioactivity concentration of the isotopes with an alpha spectrometer. The ratio of 238U/234U for the soil sample was ca. 1 which is considered to be in secular equilibrium

  20. Studies on a microbial exopolysaccharide produced by Brevibacterium viscogenes 74-230 as a drilling mud additive

    Wang, X.; (Inst. of Microbiology, Beijing, China); Cui, W.; Liu, X.; Zhang, K.; Liu, Y.; Li, L.

    1982-10-01

    A new drilling mud additive produced as a microbial exopolysaccharide by Brevibacterium viscogenes 74-230 from a heavy liquid paraffin is discussed. Addition of the surfactants of Tweens or Span-80 to the medium can promote polysaccharide biosynthesis, but penicillin G and potassium ion has no advantageous effects on it. Corn steep liquor can be used as a substitute of yeast extract, but with poorer results. After removal of cells by centrifugation, over 12g/l of polysaccharide can be obtained by ethanol precipitation, at a conversion rate based on liquid paraffin in excess of 40%. Its rheological property, shear thinning effect, water loss, sensitivity to salts as well to as temperature, etc. are determined and compared with xanthan, partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide and carboxylmethylcellulose. The results indicate that the properties of this polysaccharide as a drilling mud additive are almost comparable with those of xanthan, and far better than those of the other two. It is noteworthy that this polysaccharide is produced from crude oil or its product, while xanthan is from carbohydrate. Field experiments are still going on.

  1. The prevalence of ABCB1:c.227_230delATAG mutation in affected dog breeds from European countries.

    Firdova, Zuzana; Turnova, Evelina; Bielikova, Marcela; Turna, Jan; Dudas, Andrej

    2016-06-01

    Deletion of 4-base pairs in the canine ABCB1 (MDR1) gene, responsible for encoding P-glycoprotein, leads to nonsense frame-shift mutation, which causes hypersensitivity to macrocyclic lactones drugs (e.g. ivermectin). To date, at least 12 purebred dog breeds have been found to be affected by this mutation. The aim of this study was to update information about the prevalence of ABCB1 mutation (c.227_230delATAG) in predisposed breeds in multiple European countries. This large scale survey also includes countries which were not involved in previous studies. The samples were collected in the period from 2012 to 2014. The overview is based on genotyping data of 4729 individuals. The observed mutant allele frequencies were 58.5% (Smooth Collie), 48.3% (Rough Collie), 35% (Australian Shepherd), 30.3% (Shetland Sheepdog), 28.1% (Silken Windhound), 26.1% (Miniature Australian Shepherd), 24.3% (Longhaired Whippet), 16.2% (White Swiss Shepherd) and 0% (Border Collie). The possible presence of an ABCB1 mutant allele in Akita-Inu breed has been investigated with negative results. This information could be helpful for breeders in optimization of their breeding strategy and for veterinarians when prescribing drug therapy for dogs of predisposed breeds. PMID:27234542

  2. Time-Dependent Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of Two Solid-Solution-Strengthened Ni-Based Superalloys—INCONEL 617 and HAYNES 230

    Ma, Longzhou; Roy, Shawoon K.; Hasan, Muhammad H.; Pal, Joydeep; Chatterjee, Sudin

    2012-02-01

    The fatigue crack propagation (FCP) as well as the sustained loading crack growth (SLCG) behavior of two solid-solution-strengthened Ni-based superalloys, INCONEL 617 (Special Metals Corporation Family of Companies) and HAYNES 230 (Haynes International, Inc., Kokomo, IN), were studied at increased temperatures in laboratory air under a constant stress-intensity-factor ( K) condition. The crack propagation tests were conducted using a baseline cyclic triangular waveform with a frequency of 1/3 Hz. Various hold times were imposed at the maximum load of a fatigue cycle to study the hold time effect. The results show that a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) parameter, stress intensity factor ( K), is sufficient to describe the FCP and SLCG behavior at the testing temperatures ranging from 873 K to 1073 K (600 °C to 800 °C). As observed in the precipitation-strengthened superalloys, both INCONEL 617 and HAYNES 230 exhibited the time-dependent FCP, steady SLCG behavior, and existence of a damage zone ahead of crack tip. A thermodynamic equation was adapted to correlate the SLCG rates to determine thermal activation energy. The fracture modes associated with crack propagation behavior were discussed, and the mechanism of time-dependent FCP as well as SLCG was identified. Compared with INCONEL 617, the lower crack propagation rates of HAYNES 230 under the time-dependent condition were ascribed to the different fracture mode and the presence of numerous W-rich M6C-type and Cr-rich M23C6-type carbides. Toward the end, a phenomenological model was employed to correlate the FCP rates at cycle/time-dependent FCP domain. All the results suggest that an environmental factor, the stress assisted grain boundary oxygen embrittlement (SAGBOE) mechanism, is mainly responsible for the accelerated time-dependent FCP rates of INCONEL 617 and HAYNES 230.

  3. Guidance for the application of the leak before break concept. Report of the IAEA extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER-440 model 230 nuclear power plants

    This document provides additional guidance on application of the LBB concept to WWER-440/230 NPPs and complements the IAEA-TECDOC-710. The objective of the report is to describe in detail the elements of the LBB concept, the necessary support as well as the condition to be fulfilled, and the verification programme. It should also provide a clear picture of all the activities and resources needed to implement the LBB successfully as a comprehensive concept

  4. 230 GHz VLBI observations of M87: event-horizon-scale structure at the enhanced very-high-energy $\\rm \\gamma$-ray state in 2012

    Akiyama, Kazunori; Fish, Vincent L; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Broderick, Avery E; Dexter, Jason; Hada, Kazuhiro; Kino, Motoki; Nagai, Hiroshi; Honma, Mareki; Johnson, Michael D; Algaba, Juan C; Asada, Keiichi; Brinkerink, Christiaan; Blundell, Ray; Bower, Geoffrey C; Cappallo, Roger; Crew, Geoffrey B; Dexter, Matt; Dzib, Sergio A; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Gurwell, Mark; Ho, Paul T P; Inoue, Makoto; Krichbaum, Thomas P; Loinard, Laurent; MacMahon, David; Marrone, Daniel P; Moran, James M; Nakamura, Masanori; Nagar, Neil M; Ortiz-Leon, Gisela; Plambeck, Richard; Pradel, Nicolas; Primiani, Rurik A; Rogers, Alan E E; Roy, Alan L; SooHoo, Jason; Tavares, Jonathan-Leon; Tilanus, Remo P J; Titus, Michael; Wagner, Jan; Weintroub, Jonathan; Yamaguchi, Paul; Young, Ken H; Zensus, Anton; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2015-01-01

    We report on 230 GHz (1.3 mm) VLBI observations of M87 with the Event Horizon Telescope using antennas on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, Mt. Graham in Arizona and Cedar Flat in California. For the first time, we have acquired 230 GHz VLBI interferometric phase information on M87 through measurement of closure phase on the triangle of long baselines. Most of the measured closure phases are consistent with 0$^{\\circ}$ as expected by physically-motivated models for 230 GHz structure such as jet models and accretion disk models. The brightness temperature of the event-horizon-scale structure is $\\sim 1 \\times 10^{10}$ K derived from the compact flux density of $\\sim 1$ Jy and the angular size of $\\sim 40 $ $\\rm \\mu$as $\\sim$ 5.5 $R_{{\\rm s}}$, which is broadly consistent with the peak brightness of the radio cores at 1-86 GHz located within $\\sim 10^2$ $R_{{\\rm s}}$. Our observations occurred in the middle of an enhancement in very-high-energy (VHE) $\\rm \\gamma$-ray flux, presumably originating in the vicinity of the centr...

  5. {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U determinations in phosphoric acid fertilizer and process products by ICP-MS

    Nascimento, Marcos R.L. do; Guerreiro, Luisa M.R.; Bonifacio, Rodrigo L.; Taddei, Maria H.T., E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2015-07-01

    Through processing of Santa Quiteria-CE mine phosphate rock, Brazil has established a project for production of phosphoric acid fertilizer and uranium as a by-product. Under leaching conditions of phosphate rock with sulfuric acid, which is the common route for preparing phosphoric acid fertilizer, a large part of uranium, thorium and their decay products naturally present in the rock are solubilized. In order to assess the contamination potential in phosphoric acid and others process products, this paper describes a previous precipitation and direct methods for routine analysis of thorium and uranium isotopes by ICP-MS. In all samples, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U were directly determined after dilution, except {sup 230}Th in phosphoric acid loaded with uranium sample, which to overcome equipment contamination effect, was determined after its separation by oxalate precipitation using lanthanum as a carrier. The results obtained by the proposed method by ICP-MS, were in good agreement when compared to alpha spectrometry for {sup 230}Th, and ICP-OES and spectrophotometry with arsenazo III for elementary uranium and thorium determinations. (author)

  6. Physical and underway data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN230 in the South Pacific Ocean from 2009-03-01 to 2009-03-12 (NODC Accession 0104349)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0104349 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN230 in the South Pacific Ocean from 2009-03-01 to...

  7. Discriminating assimilants and decoupling deep- vs. shallow-level crystal records at Mount Adams using 238U-230Th disequilibria and Os isotopes

    Jicha, B.R.; Johnson, C.M.; Hildreth, W.; Beard, B.L.; Hart, G.L.; Shirey, S.B.; Singer, B.S.

    2009-01-01

    A suite of 23 basaltic to dacitic lavas erupted over the last 350??kyr from the Mount Adams volcanic field has been analyzed for U-Th isotope compositions to evaluate the roles of mantle versus crustal components during magma genesis. All of the lavas have (230Th/238U) > 1 and span a large range in (230Th/232Th) ratios, and most basalts have higher (230Th/232Th) ratios than andesites and dacites. Several of the lavas contain antecrysts (crystals of pre-existing material), yet internal U-Th mineral isochrons from six of seven lavas are indistinguishable from their eruption ages. This indicates a relatively brief period of time between crystal growth and eruption for most of the phenocrysts (olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite) prior to eruption. One isochron gave a crystallization age that is ~ 20-25??ka older than its corresponding eruptive age, and is interpreted to reflect mixing of older and juvenile crystals or a protracted period of magma storage in the crust. Much of the eruptive volume since 350??ka consists of lavas that have small to moderate 230Th excesses (2-16%), which are likely inherited from melting of a garnet-bearing intraplate ("OIB-like") mantle source. Following melt generation and subsequent migration through the upper mantle, most Mt. Adams magmas interacted with young, mafic lower crust, as indicated by 187Os/188Os ratios that are substantially more radiogenic than the mantle or those expected via mixing of subducted material and the mantle wedge. Moreover, Os-Th isotope variations suggest that unusually large 230Th excesses (25-48%) and high 187Os/188Os ratios in some peripheral lavas reflect assimilation of small degree partial melts of pre-Quaternary basement that had residual garnet or Al-rich clinopyroxene. Despite the isotopic evidence for lower crustal assimilation, these processes are not generally recorded in the erupted phenocrysts, indicating that the crystal record of the deep-level 'cryptic' processes has been

  8. Early diagenesis of travertine deposits from the Tibetan Plateau - implications for 230Th/234U dating and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction

    Wang, Zhijun; Meyer, Michael; Hoffmann, Dirk; Spötl, Christoph; Aldenderfer, Mark; Sanders, Diethard

    2014-05-01

    Travertine is calcium carbonate precipitated from hydrothermal springs. These terrestrial carbonate deposits can be used as high-resolution archives for reconstructing palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental change and are also suitable for uranium-series disequilibrium (230Th/234U) dating. In many instances such spring deposits are associated with archaeological remains (e.g. stone artifacts and other traces of prehistoric human activity) and are therefore of interest for palaeoclimatologists and archaeologists alike. However, travertines are often affected by early diagenesis that can impact on the closed-system U-series behavior and on their geochemical signature. Hence, careful evaluation of the travertine microfabrics is required before these types of hot spring deposits can be accurately dated and used for paleoenviromental reconstruction. The Tibetan plateau hosts numerous hydrothermal spring deposits that occur along neotectonic faults. In this study, samples were collected from two archaeological travertine sites, i.e. Chusang and Tirthapuri, located in southern and western Tibet, respectively. Microscopic analysis of thin sections reveals a wide variety of crystal fabrics, including micrite, microspar and sparite, the latter can be composed of columnar or mosaic crystals, respectively. Areas where dendritic crystals are preserved are identified in our micrographs as well. Many of the Chusang and Tirthapuri travertine samples are porous. Drusy sparite is rimming most of the pore walls and a complex succession of secondary calcite phases precipitated in these pore spaces as well. The different generations of pore cement comprise micrite and sparite that can be laminated or fibrous in character and show sometimes evidence of an aragonite precursor. Detrital material like quartz, feldspar and other grains as well as humic and fulvic acids have been washed into the travertine pores too. Based on our microscopic analysis a complex growth history can be

  9. Energy balance, macronutrient intake, and hydration status during a 1,230 km ultra-endurance bike marathon.

    Geesmann, Bjoern; Mester, Joachim; Koehler, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Athletes competing in ultra-endurance events are advised to meet energy requirements, to supply appropriate amounts of carbohydrates (CHO), and to be adequately hydrated before and during exercise. In practice, these recommendations may not be followed because of satiety, gastrointestinal discomfort, and fatigue. The purpose of the study was to assess energy balance, macronutrient intake and hydration status before and during a 1,230-km bike marathon. A group of 14 well-trained participants (VO2max: 63.2 ± 3.3 ml/kg/min) completed the marathon after 42:47 hr. Ad libitum food and fluid intake were monitored throughout the event. Energy expenditure (EE) was derived from power output and urine and blood markers were collected before the start, after 310, 618, and 921 km, after the finish, and 12 hr after the finish. Energy intake (EI; 19,749 ± 4,502 kcal) was lower than EE (25,303 ± 2,436 kcal) in 12 of 14 athletes. EI and CHO intake (average: 57.1 ± 17.7 g/hr) decreased significantly after km 618 (p Hydration appeared suboptimal before the start (urine specific gravity: 1.022 ± 0.010 g/ml) but did not change significantly throughout the event. The results show that participants failed to maintain in energy balance and that CHO and fluid intake dropped below recommended values during the second half of the bike marathon. Individual strategies to overcome satiety and fatigue may be necessary to improve eating and drinking behavior during prolonged ultra-endurance exercise. PMID:24668685

  10. Speleogenesis of the Hermannshöhle cave system (Austria: Constraints from 230Th/U-dating and palaeomagnetic analysis

    Lukas Plan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hermannshöhle is a show cave located near Kirchberg/Wechsel in Lower Austria. Together with three nearby and genetically connected caves, it forms the Hermannshöhlen cave system (HHS. With a length of 5 km, the HHS is the longest cave in the Lower Austroalpine unit. It is arranged as an extreme three-dimensional maze on a ground area of 200 x 200 x 82 m. Speleothems are abundant in this cave and represent the focus of this study. Low carbon isotope values indicate the presence of a soil-covered catchment above the HHS during times of speleothem deposition. 28 samples were dated by the 230Th/U-method and, in combination with palaeomagnetic data from a 5 m-high sediment profile, indicate multiple phases of sediment infill and erosion in the HHS. Although parts of the cave system are nowadays located at or below the level of the nearby Rams brook, they fell dry already at least 125 ka ago. The presence of 540 ka-old speleothems in the middle level demonstrate that this level of the HHS is at least about half a million years old, and the upper level is probably considerably older. A direct correlation between the cave and the modern surface morphology is therefore not possible. The observation that the palaeo-drainage direction in the HHS is perpendicular to the modern surface runoff also demonstrates the occurrence of a major reorganisation of the hydrological regime since the formation of the HHS. The new chronological data allow to constrain the evolution of the HHS as well as its catchment. An average valley incision rate of roughly 100 m/Ma was obtained, which is consistent with studies of other regions in the Alps unaffected by the Pleistocene glaciations. The spatial and temporal distribution of the dated speleothems as well as the lack of corroded flowstone indicate a single major speleogenetic period under phreatic conditions and support a continuous lowering of the groundwater table.

  11. Contribution of 238U-234U-230Th to the mineralogical and geochemical study of alteration profiles. The case of two African lateritic profiles

    In weathering profiles, water-rock interactions generate chemical fluxes from continents to oceans, as dissolved elements or particles. Laterites cover one third of the continents' surface and their formation processes are discussed. It is proposed to study such profiles to decipher their formation and evolution and to recognize the active weathering processes affecting them. Whole rock samples were analysed as well as fine clay fractions (238U-234U-230Th disequilibria in characterising recent mobilities were particularly considered. Two laterites were studied: a ferri-crete from Burkina Faso, and a latosol from Cameroon. The superposed petrographical horizons of lateritic profiles derive from different weathering conditions of the bedrock, and not from a continuous and progressive weathering process. The autochthonous formation of the ferruginous caps is evidenced by mineralogical and geochemical arguments. Remobilization and redistribution of chemical elements occur during the evolution of the profiles, as shown by the lanthanide distribution, which also modifies the signature of long period isotopic systems. Recent, or present, chemical mobilities affect the whole profiles, as evidenced by the 238U-234U-230Th disequilibria. The characteristics of U mobilization processes can be evaluated by use of radioactive decay equations for simple systems affected by a single U mobilization process and then evolving as closed systems. In the case of open systems affected by both U leaching and U input, an appropriate modelling allow to estimate the characteristics of U mobilities (flux, variations). The 238U-234U-230Th disequilibria are useful to detect and characterise the recent chemical mobilities affecting the weathering profiles. It appears that several processes presently affect each horizon of the lateritic profiles, and thus participate to the exported chemical fluxes. (author)

  12. A comparison of the microstructure and creep behavior of cold rolled HAYNES 230 alloyTM and HAYNES 282 alloyTM

    Highlights: → The creep behavior of two recently developed superalloys is provided. → We attempted to increase the creep resistance through GBE type processing. → Comparison of the creep behavior and microstructure-property relations are provided. → HAYNES 282 was found to be significantly more creep resistant and this is discussed. - Abstract: HAYNES 282 and HAYNES 230 nickel-based superalloys were subjected to cold rolling deformation and heat treatments in order to investigate processing-microstructure-property relationships to understand the effects of thermomechanical processing on their microstructure and tensile-creep behavior. The sheet materials underwent four cycles of 20% reduction in thickness followed by a solution treatment. The resultant microstructures were characterized using electron backscattered diffraction and electron microscopy, and the high-temperature (973-1088 K (700-815 deg. C)) creep and fatigue behavior was evaluated and compared to the commercially available sheet alloys. The thermomechanical processing treatments did not significantly affect the grain boundary character distribution and almost half of all the boundaries in the microstructures were twin boundaries. The creep resistance was shown to degrade with the additional thermomechanical treatments, which resulted in finer equiaxed grain sizes. The HAYNES 282 alloy was shown to be significantly more creep resistant than the HAYNES 230 alloy. The fatigue behavior indicated that creep ratcheting occurred more prominently in the HAYNES 230 alloy than in the HAYNES 282 alloy and this was explained to be a result of the superior creep resistance exhibited by the HAYNES 282 alloy. Overall, this study suggests that additional energy-intensive processing treatments, beyond those involved in the commercially available sheet products, may not be beneficial for additional creep resistance.

  13. Chromium activity measurements in nickel based alloys for very high temperature reactors: Inconel 617, haynes 230 and model alloys - HTR2008-58147

    The alloys Haynes 230 and Inconel 617 are potential candidates for the intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) of (V)-HTR reactors. The behaviour under corrosion of these alloys by the (V)-HTR coolant (impure helium) is an important selection criterion because it defines the service life of these components. At high temperature, the Haynes 230 is likely to develop a chromium oxide on the surface. This layer protects from the exchanges with the surrounding medium and thus confers certain passivity on metal. At very high temperature, the initial microstructure made up of austenitic grains and coarse intra and intergranular M6C carbide grains rich in W will evolve. The M6C carbides remain and some M23C6 richer in Cr appear. Then, carbon can reduce the protective oxide layer Then, the alloy loses its protective coating and can corrode quickly. Experimental investigations were performed on these nickel based alloys under an impure helium flow [1]. To predict the surface reactivity of chromium under impure helium, it is necessary to determine its chemical activity in a temperature range close to the operating conditions of the heat exchangers (T∼1273 K). For that, high temperature mass spectrometry measurements coupled to multiple effusion Knudsen cells are carried out on several samples: Haynes 230, Inconel 617 and model alloys 1178, 1181, 1201. This coupling makes it possible thermodynamic equilibrium to be obtained between the vapour phase and the condensed phase of the sample. The measurement of the chromium ionic intensity (/) of the molecular beam resulting from a cell containing an alloy provides the values of partial pressure according to the temperature. This value is compared to that of the pure substance (Cr) at the same temperature. These calculations provide thermodynamic data characteristic of the chromium behaviour in these alloys. These activity results call into question those previously measured by Hilpert [2], largely used in the literature. (authors)

  14. Variation of the thorium to uranium ratio in rain: thorium-230 chronology of the eruptions of Mt. St. Helens and El Chichon volcanoes

    Principles of the thorium-230 dating method were applied to the study of thorium and uranium isotopes in a seris of rain samples collected at Fayetteville (36 degN, 94 degW), Arkansas, since 1980. The results indicate that the rainwater contains volcanic ash materials with a wide variety of ages, which were blown up onto the upper stratosphere from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens and the 28 March 1982 eruption of El Chichon. These volcanic materials seem to have stayed airborne for a number of years and profoundly affected the global atmospheric inventories of thorium and uranium isotopes. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs

  15. Measurement of Strange Quark Contributions to the Nucleon's Form Factors at Q^2=0.230 (GeV/c)^2

    Collaboration, A.; Maas, F. E.; P. Achenbach(Mainz U., Inst. Phys); Aulenbacher, K.; Baunack, S.; Capozza, L.; Diefenbach, J.; Grimm, K.; Imai, Y.; Hammel, T.; Harrach, D. v.; Kabuss, E. M.; Kothe, R.; Lee, J.H.; Lorente, A.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized protons at a $Q^2$ of 0.230 (GeV/c)^2 and a scattering angle of \\theta_e = 30^o - 40^o. Using a large acceptance fast PbF_2 calorimeter with a solid angle of \\Delta\\Omega = 0.62 sr the A4 experiment is the first parity violation experiment to count individual scattering events. The measured asymmetry is A_{phys} =(-5.44 +- 0.54_{stat} +- 0.27_{\\rm sys}) 10^{-6}. ...

  16. WWER-440/230 reactor pressure vessel integrity. A publication of the extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    This report was prepared with the objective of integrating all aspects involved and to provide plant specific information on the issue of reactor pressure vessel integrity including pressurized thermal shock assessment. Areas of the thermal hydraulic analysis including selection of transients, of the structural analysis including fracture mechanics assessment and of the material properties including embrittlement, annealing and re-embrittlement behaviour are addressed. The report also provides related recommendations and conclusions as well as detailed information on the plant specific status for operating WWER-440/230 nuclear power plants. 10 refs, 9 figs, 9 tabs

  17. Daily intake of /sup 234,235,238/U, /sup 228,230,232/Th and /sup 226,228/Ra by New York City residents

    The daily intake of long-lived alpha-emitting members of the U, Th and Ac series by New York City residents has been estimated from measurements of diet, water and air samples. The total daily intakes from inhalation, food and water consumption in mBq are 18 (234U), 0.7 (235U), 16 (238U), 6 (230Th), 4 (232Th) and 52 (226Ra). From this, we infer that the total daily intakes of 228Th and 228Ra are 4 and 35 mBq, respectively

  18. IRMM-1000a and IRMM-1000b: uranium reference materials certified for the production date based on the 230Th/234U radiochronometer Part II: Certification

    VENCHIARUTTI CELIA; VARGA ZSOLT; Richter, Stephan; Nicholl, Adrian; KRAJKO JUDIT; JAKOPIC Rozle; Mayer, Klaus; AREGBE Yetunde

    2015-01-01

    The IRMM-1000a and IRMM-1000b uranium reference materials, of 20 mg uranium and 50 mg uranium, respectively, were produced by the European Commission Joint Research Centre’s Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (EC-JRC-IRMM) in collaboration with the Institute for Transuranium Elements (EC-JRC-ITU). They are the first uranium reference materials certified for the production date based on the 230Th/234U radiochronometer, i.e. the date of the last chemical separation of these two ...

  19. Results of reconstruction of in-core outlet coolant temperature measurements at V-230 reactors, Unit 1 and 2 NPP Bohunice

    During the reconstruction of NPP V 1 Bohunice units with V-230 reactors, all in-core temperature measuring systems were upgraded. All measuring channels including thermocouples up to data acquisition system were replaced. The report provides the objectives, process and results of the reconstruction. Accuracy and reliability of the in-core measurements were enhanced, and their resistance to accident environment was achieved. Moreover metrological assurance and automatic self-check of accuracy with the temperature etalon of reactor measurements were achieved. The obtained quality of the in-core temperature measurements exceeds that of similar systems in V-213 reactors. (Authors)

  20. Adaptation of the severe accident codes to VVER-440/V213 (V230) reactor unit, their comparison and utilisation of the results

    This paper presents an application and comparison of the computer codes, devoted for severe accident analysis of PWR up to source term evaluation, to a VVER-440/V213 and V230 NPP. The basic results of selected sequences are described and some physical parameters predicted by different codes are compared. The comparison is deliberated mainly on the timing of main primary circuit events and fission products behaviour up to source term evaluation. Utilisation of the results of the severe accident analysis for development of the emergency procedures for rapid assessment of barriers status and source term category is shortly described, too. (author)

  1. The role of autoionizing states in electron-impact excitation of the lambda 230.6 nm intercombination line of an indium ion

    The electronic excitation function of the intercombination line lambda 230.6 nm an In+ ion is first investigated by the spectroscopic method in the energy range from the threshold to 00 eV using ion and electron beams crossing at the right angle. It is determined that, in the energy region of the spin-orbit splitting of excited levels, the dominant contribution to the resonance excitation is made by the Coster-Kronig process. It is discovered that, at the electron energies higher than the fivefold threshold, a decrease of the excitation function does not correspond to the law E-3 characteristic of intercombination transitions

  2. Corrosion behavior of Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Plant Engineering Center; Kim, Min Jung [Sungkyunkwan Univ, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Advanced Materials Technology Research Center

    2015-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes {sup registered} 556 {sup registered}.

  3. Transfer of {sup 238}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb from soils to tree and shrub species in a Mediterranean area

    Blanco Rodriguez, P. [Natural Radioactivity Group, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Vera Tome, F. [Natural Radioactivity Group, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: fvt@unex.es; Lozano, J.C. [Natural Radioactivity Group, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Perez Fernandez, M.A. [Natural Radioactivity Group, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Area de Ecologia, Universidad Pablo Olavide, Carretera de Utrera km. 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    The soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium isotopes ({sup 238}U and {sup 234}U), {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb were studied in a disused uranium mine located in the Extremadura region in the south-west of Spain. The plant samples included trees (Quercus ilex, Quercus suber, and Eucalyptus cameldulensis) and one shrub (Cytisus multiflorus). All of them are characteristic of Mediterranean environments. The activity concentrations in leaves and fruit were determined for the tree species at different stages of growth. For the shrub, the total above-ground fraction was considered in three seasons. For old leaves and fruit, the highest activity concentrations were found in Eucalyptus cameldulensis for all the radionuclides studied, except in the case of {sup 230}Th that presented similar activity concentrations in all of the tree species studied. In every case, the transfer to fruit was less than the transfer to leaves. In the shrub, the results depended on the season of sampling, with the highest value obtained in spring and the lowest in autumn. Important correlations were obtained for {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra between the activity ratio in soils with that in leaves or fruit.

  4. Corrosion behavior of Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes registered 556 registered.

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    D. S. Tobiason

    2001-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the remediation activities performed and the results of verification sampling conducted at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box. The CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1) and consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 22-03-01- Sewage Lagoon (CAU 230); and 22-99-01- Strainer Box (CAU 320). Included with CAS 22-99-01 is a buried Imhoff tank and a sludge bed. These CAUs will be collectively referred to in this plan as the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. Site characterization activities were done during September 1999. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) indicated that only the sludge bed (CAS 22-99-01) contained constituents of concern (COC) above action levels and required remediation (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2000a).

  6. 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U ages from a single fossil coral fragment by multi-collector magnetic-sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Mortlock, Richard A.; Fairbanks, Richard G.; Chiu, Tzu-chien; Rubenstone, James

    2005-02-01

    The 230Th/ 234U/ 238U age dating of corals via alpha counting or mass spectrometry has significantly contributed to our understanding of sea level, radiocarbon calibration, rates of ocean and climate change, and timing of El Nino, among many applications. Age dating of corals by mass spectrometry is remarkably precise, but many samples exposed to freshwater yield inaccurate ages. The first indication of open-system 230Th/ 234U/ 238U ages is elevated 234U/ 238U initial values, very common in samples older than 100,000 yr. For samples younger than 100,000 yr that have 234U/ 238U initial values close to seawater, there is a need for age validation. Redundant 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U ages in a single fossil coral fragment are possible by Multi-Collector Magnetic Sector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-MS-ICPMS) and standard anion exchange column chemistry, modified to permit the separation of uranium, thorium, and protactinium isotopes from a single solution. A high-efficiency nebulizer employed for sample introduction permits the determination of both 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U ages in fragments as small as 500 mg. We have obtained excellent agreement between 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U ages in Barbados corals (30 ka) and suggest that the methods described in this paper can be used to test the 230Th/ 234U/ 238U age accuracy. Separate fractions of U, Th, and Pa are measured by employing a multi-dynamic procedure, whereby 238U is measured on a Faraday cup simultaneously with all minor isotopes measured with a Daly ion counting detector. The multi-dynamic procedure also permits correcting for both the Daly to Faraday gain and for mass discrimination during sample analyses. The analytical precision of 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U dates is generally better than ±0.3% and ±1.5%, respectively (2 Relative Standard deviation [RSD]). Additional errors resulting from uncertainties in the decay constant for 231Pa and from undetermined

  7. IRMM-1000a and IRMM-1000b. Uranium reference materials certified for the production date based on the 230Th/234U radiochronometer. Part II. Certification

    The IRMM-1000a and IRMM-1000b uranium reference materials, of 20 and 50 mg uranium, respectively, were produced by the European Commission Joint Research Centre's Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (EC-JRC-IRMM) in collaboration with the Institute for Transuranium Elements (EC-JRC-ITU). They are novel uranium reference materials certified for the production date based on the 230Th/234U radiochronometer, i.e. the date of the last chemical separation of these two radionuclides. The certified reference value and its uncertainty, homogeneity and stability of the material were established in accordance with the ISO Guide 34:2009 and the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement'. (author)

  8. The dietary intake of 238U, 234U, 230Th, 232Th, 228Th and 226Ra from food and drinking water by inhabitants of the Walbrzych region

    Intake with food and water of the natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series was determined for adult population of the south-western region in Poland, where in the 1950-ies an exploration of uranium ore was conducted. Concentration of the radionuclides was determined in food products and drinking water and their annual intake was estimated on the basis of the average annual consumption. The intake of 238U, 234U and 230Th occurred mainly with water (33% to 68%), whereas the intake of 232Th, 228Th and 226Ra was mainly with vegetables, potatoes, milk and flour. From the intake and dose coefficients the annual effective doses from the ingested radionuclides were calculated. The total dose was 5.6μSv, of which 74% originated from 226Ra. (author)

  9. Daily intakes of 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th and 226Ra in the adult population of central Poland

    Activity concentration of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides was determined in foodstuffs and drinking water in central Poland. Annual and daily intake for the adult population was estimated from the concentrations determined and average annual consumption of food and water. The daily intakes (in mBq) were 22.1 (238U), 26.5 (234U), 2.38 (232Th), 4.06 (230Th), 11.2 (228Th) and 42.2 (226Ra). The intake of uranium isotopes occurred mainly with water; the main intake of thorium isotopes was with animal products, vegetables, cereals and potatoes, whereas 226Ra entered mainly with animal products, cereals and vegetables. From the intake and dose coefficients, the annual effective doses for the ingested radionuclides were calculated. The annual effective dose was 5.95 μSv, of which 72.4% originated from 226Ra

  10. Daily intakes of 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th and 226Ra in the adult population of central Poland

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Rosiak, L.; Suplinska, M.M.; Chrzanowski, E.; Dembinska, S. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warsaw (Poland)

    2001-06-12

    Activity concentration of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides was determined in foodstuffs and drinking water in central Poland. Annual and daily intake for the adult population was estimated from the concentrations determined and average annual consumption of food and water. The daily intakes (in mBq) were 22.1 (238U), 26.5 (234U), 2.38 (232Th), 4.06 (230Th), 11.2 (228Th) and 42.2 (226Ra). The intake of uranium isotopes occurred mainly with water; the main intake of thorium isotopes was with animal products, vegetables, cereals and potatoes, whereas 226Ra entered mainly with animal products, cereals and vegetables. From the intake and dose coefficients, the annual effective doses for the ingested radionuclides were calculated. The annual effective dose was 5.95 {mu}Sv, of which 72.4% originated from 226Ra.

  11. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kV Transmission Line Reroute Project, Montrose County, Colorado

    N/A

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to reroute a section of the Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line, in Montrose County, Colorado. A portion of the transmission line, situated 11 miles southeast of Montrose, Colorado, crosses Waterdog Peak, an area of significant geologic surface activity, which is causing the transmission line's lattice steel towers to shift. This increases stress to structure hardware and conductors, and poses a threat to the integrity of the transmission system. Western proposes to relocate the lattice steel towers and line to a more geologically stable area. The existing section of transmission line and the proposed relocation route cross Bureau of Land Management and private land holdings.

  12. Tensile properties of haynes alloy 230 and inconel 617 after long exposures to LiF-22CaF2 and vacuum at 1093 K

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1994-12-01

    As a part of a study of a space-based thermal energy storage system utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the eutectic salt LiF-20CaF2 (mole%), the two wrought Ni-base superalloys Haynes alloy 230 and Inconel 617 were subjected to molten salt, its vapor, and vacuum for periods as long as 10,000 h at 1093 K. Following exposure, the microstructures were characterized, and samples from each superalloy were tensile tested between 77 and 1200 K. Neither the structure nor mechanical properties revealed evidence for additional degradation due to exposures to the salt. Although some loss in tensile properties was noted, particularly at 77 K, this reduction could be ascribed to the influence of simple aging at 1093 K.

  13. High-temperature tensile-hold crack-growth behavior of HASTELLOY® X alloy compared to HAYNES® 188 and HAYNES® 230® alloys

    Lee, S. Y.; Lu, Y. L.; Liaw, P. K.; Choo, H.; Thompson, S. A.; Blust, J. W.; Browning, P. F.; Bhattacharya, A. K.; Aurrecoechea, J. M.; Klarstrom, D. L.

    2008-03-01

    The creep-fatigue crack-growth tests of HASTELLOY® X alloy were carried out at the temperatures of 649°C, 816°C, and 927°C in laboratory air. The experiments were conducted under a constant stress-intensity-factor-range (Δ K) control mode with a R-ratio of 0.05. In the constant Δ K tests, a Δ K of 27.5 MPa sqrt{m} and a triangular waveform with a frequency of 0.333 Hz were used. Various tensile hold times at the maximum load were imposed to study fatigue and creep-fatigue interactions. Crack lengths were measured by a direct current potential drop method. In this paper, effects of hold time and temperature on the crack-growth rates are discussed. Furthermore, the crack-growth rates of the HASTELLOY® X alloy are compared to those of the HAYNES® 188 and HAYNES® 230® superalloys.

  14. Creep-Rupture Behavior and Recrystallization in HR6W and Haynes Alloy 230 Cold-Bent Boiler Tubing for Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Boiler Applications

    Shingledecker, John P [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Creep-rupture experiments were conducted on HR6W and Haynes 230, candidate Ultrasupercritical (USC) alloys, tubes to evaluate the effects of cold-work and recrystallization during high-temperature service. These creep tests were performed by internally pressurizing cold-bent boiler tubes at 775 C for times up to 8000 hours. The bends were fabricated with cold-work levels beyond the current ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (ASME B&PV) Code Section I limits for austenitic stainless steels. Destructive metallographic evaluation of the crept tube bends was used to determine the effects of cold-work and the degree of recrystallization. The metallographic analysis combined with an evaluation of the creep and rupture data suggest that solid-solution strengthened nickel-based alloys can be fabricated for high-temperature service at USC conditions utilizing levels of cold-work higher than the current allowed levels for austenitic stainless steels.

  15. The nuclear structure of 229Pa from the 231Pa(p,t)229Pa and 230Th(p,2nγ)229Pa reactions

    The level structure of the 229Pa nucleus has been investigated by means of the 231Pa(p,t)229Pa and 230Th(p,2nγ)229Pa reactions. Triton angular-distribution measurements were subjected to a CCBA analysis and combined with the results of in-beam conversion electron and γ-ray spectroscopy to establish a level scheme. Two low-lying bands of opposite parity were observed up to spins (23/2)- and (17/2)+, respectively. Rotational bands built on some 0+ excitations of the even-even core can be assigned. The lowest states of three further low-lying bands are observed. The level scheme is interpreted in terms of an octupole-deformed core with an unpaired proton. From the E1/E2 branching ratio the electric dipole moment can be deduced vertical stroke D0vertical stroke =(0.09 ±0.04) e .fm. ((orig.))

  16. Measurement of neutron dose equivalent and penetration in concrete for 230 MeV proton bombardment of Al, Fe, and Pb targets

    Secondary neutron production from protons striking accelerator beam delivery components and the patient constitute the principal radiation hazard for 70-300 MeV accelerators used in proton radiation therapy. Because of the large mean free path of these high energy neutrons, neutron attenuation requires massive shields. To this end, we measured neutron dose as a function of emission angle and depth in concrete for the radiation environment produced by 230 MeV protons striking stopping targets of aluminium, iron, and lead. By using microdosimetric instrumentation, dose equivalent values were deduced. From these data, dose equivalent penetration as a function of depth in concrete and neutron emission angle were determined. Neutron production was found to vary rapidly with emission angle, while differences in dose equivalent values per incident proton as a function of depth and angle depended only slightly on target material. (author)

  17. Origin of the {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th disequilibrium in magmas from subduction zones: the Arenal example; Origine du desequilibre {sup 238}U-{sup 230}TH dans les magmas des zones de subduction: exemple de l`Arenal

    Villemant, B. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)

    1996-12-31

    The existence in some volcanic products of strong excess of {sup 238}U with respect to {sup 230}Th is one of the characteristics of volcanic arc magmas. These excesses are generally attributed to fluid additions inside mantellic sources before magma segregation, differentiation and eruption. These fluids should be linked to the dehydration of the subducted rocks. These hypotheses are essentially based on correlations between {sup 10}Be, {sup 87}Sr anomalies, Ba/La ratios and on the distribution of volcanic centers with respect to the subduction zone. Recent studies suggest an evolution of the composition of volcanic sources in Central America from a depleted mantle type (MORB) in the North (Nicaragua) to a less transformed enriched type (OIB) in the South (Costa Rica). The Arenal volcano belongs to a transition zone between these two types. The preliminary study of trace elements and {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th disequilibria in recent volcanic products (1968-1993) indicates a more complex situation. At least two different mantle sources were successively involved characterized by different Th/La and La/Yb ratios and very different to the OIB type. Also most lavas are in equilibrium with {sup 238}U/{sup 232}Th ratios of about 1.2 to 1.3. However, in eruptive cycle, some lavas are characterized by a strong {sup 238}U excess with respect to {sup 230}Th with cannot be linked to the sources, even when modified by fluids in depth. These results are interpreted in terms of heterogeneities of mantle sources and low depths late interactions with hydrothermal fluids during eruptions. Abstract only. (J.S.). 2 refs.

  18. Ingestion of U(nat), 226Ra, 230Th and 210Po in vegetables by adult inhabitants of Bagjata uranium mining area, Jharkhand, India

    Ingestion of radionuclides through food intake accounts for a substantial part of radiation doses and vegetables constitute essential components of the diet, by contributing protein, vitamins, iron, calcium and other nutrients. Radionuclides can be apprehended in the ecosystem of the East Singhbhum region which is known for its viable grades of uranium. In the present study, vegetables were collected from the villages around the proposed Bagjata mining area and analysed for U(nat), 226Ra, 230Th and 210Po. The geometric mean concentration of U(nat), 226Ra, 230Th, and 210Po were 0.05, 0.09, 0.17 and 1.12 Bq kg-1 fresh weight, respectively. The intake of the radionuclides from vegetables was found to be 49.58 Bq y-1 while the ingestion dose was calculated to be 11.51μSv y-1, respectively. The estimated doses are reflecting the natural background dose via the route of ingestion, which is much below the 1 mSv limit set in the new I.C.R.P. recommendations. It is lower than the global average annual radiation dose of 2 400 μSv to man from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR. The total cancer risk due to the consumption of vegetables was calculated to be 6.65 * 10-9 which is negligible and much lower than the threshold risk value of 10-6. The study also reveals that water is more conducive for high radioactivity occurrence in vegetables compared to soil systems. (authors)

  19. New {sup 230}Th/U and {sup 14}C ages from Lake Lahontan carbonates, Nevada, USA, and a discussion of the origin of initial thorium

    Lin, J.C.; Broecker, W.S.; Anderson, R.F. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Five sets of coeval lacustrine carbonate samples from Pleistocene Lake Lahontan in western Nevada were dated by both the AMS {sup 14}C and {sup 230}Th/U isochron methods. All five groups of samples were analyzed for U-Th isotopes by alpha spectrometry and one of the groups was additionally measured by thermal and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS and SIMS) for comparison. The {sup 14}C ages were corrected to calendar years using the calibration curve recommended by Bard et al. (1992). Without local reservoir correction on the {sup 14}C ages mean {sup 230}Th/U isochron ages of some sets are apparently older than their calendar-corrected {sup 14}C ages by up to 2300 years. Modern carbon contamination of these carbonate samples through recrystallization or deposition of secondary calcite is likely to be responsible for part of the age discrepancies. We explored additional biases associated with the isochron ages, maybe produced by the presence of initial Th coprecipitated from the lake water. It can be shown that if dissolved (hydrogenous) Th is directly incorporated into the pure carbonates, then the three-component mixing among (1) detrital Th, (2) hydrogenous Th adsorbed on detritus, and (3) hydrogenous Th incorporated by the carbonate can introduce a positive age bias. We have developed an approach to estimate the magnitude of this bias of the Lake Lahontan carbonates. The preliminary estimates suggest a positive age bias of 1000 to 2000 years for two sets of the samples. 49 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Investigation of primary to secondary leakage at low power during 'Hydro-test' for VVER440/V230 at Kozloduy NPP

    Groudev, P., E-mail: pavlinpg@inrne.bas.bg [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Stefanova, A., E-mail: antoanet@inrne.bas.bg [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Manolov, M., E-mail: m_manolov@npp.bg [Kozloduy NPP Plc, Kozloduy 3320 (Bulgaria)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the thermal-hydraulic investigation 'Primary to secondary leakage at low power' for analytical validation of Symptom Based Emergency Operating Procedures (SBEOPs) at low power for VVER440/V230 units 3 and 4 at Kozloduy NPP. The main purpose of this analysis is to provide the response of monitored plant parameters to identify symptoms available to the operators and define timing for reaching the following stages during the development of processes in the reactor system, after primary to secondary leakage: {center_dot}Reaching the saturated temperature at the outlet of the assembly. {center_dot}Beginning of reactor core uncovery. {center_dot}Define the time for reaching maximum level in the damaged SG. {center_dot}Termination of natural circulation after decreasing of water level in reactor vessel below the hot nozzles. {center_dot}Defining the time for opening SVs of damaged SG. {center_dot}Define the CSF status and the time of loss of Critical Safety Functions. The thermal-hydraulic analysis for analytical validation of Symptom Based Emergency Operating Procedures (SBEOPs) at low power of reactor for VVER440/V230 units 3 and 4 at Kozloduy NPP is performed with RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code. The RELAP5/MOD3.2 model of Kozloduy NPP VVER-1000 for investigation of operational occurrences, abnormal events, and design basis scenarios have been developed and validated in the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE-BAS) Sofia, and Kozloduy NPP. The model provides a significant analytical capability for the specialists working in the field of NPP safety.

  1. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratios and 10Be-fluxes (230Thxs-normalized) in central Baffin Bay sediments during the last glacial cycle: Paleoenvironmental implications

    Simon, Quentin; Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier L.; Nuttin, Laurence; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; St-Onge, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratios and 10Be-fluxes reconstructed using the 230Thxs normalization, proxies of the cosmogenic radionuclide 10Be production rate in the atmosphere, have been measured in a sedimentary core from Baffin Bay (North Atlantic) spanning the last 136 ka BP. The normalization applied on the exchangeable (authigenic) 10Be concentrations using the authigenic 9Be isotope and 230Thxs methods yield equivalent results strongly correlated with sedimentological parameters (grain-size and mineralogy). Lower authigenic beryllium (Be) concentrations and 10Be/9Be ratios are associated with coarse-grained carbonate-rich layers, while higher authigenic Be values are related to fine-grained felspar-rich sediments. This variability is due to: i) sediment composition control over beryllium-scavenging efficiency and, ii) glacial history that contributed to modify the 10Be concentration in Baffin Bay by input and boundary scavenging condition changes. Most paleo-denudation rates inferred from the 10Be/9Be ratio vary weakly around 220 ± 76 tons.km-2.yr-1 (0.09 ± 0.03 mm.yr-1) corresponding to relatively steady weathering fluxes over the last glacial cycle except for six brief intervals characterized by sharp increases of the denudation rate. These intervals are related to ice-surging episodes coeval with Heinrich events and the last deglaciation period. An average freshwater flux of 180.6 km3.yr-1 (0.006 Sv), consistent with recent models, has been calculated in order to sustain glacially-derived 10Be inputs into Baffin Bay. It is concluded that in such environments, the authigenic 10Be measured mainly depends on climatic effects related to the glacial dynamics, which masks the 10Be production variation modulated by geomagnetic field changes. Altogether, these results challenge the simple interpretation of 10Be-concentration variation as a proxy of Interglacial/Glacial (interstadial/stadial) cycles in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. They rather suggest the effect

  2. Flank eruptions of Mt Etna during the Greek-Roman and Early Medieval periods: New data from 226Ra-230Th dating and archaeomagnetism

    Branca, Stefano; Condomines, Michel; Tanguy, Jean-Claude

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present new data from 226Ra-230Th dating and archaeomagnetism with the aim of improving the knowledge of the flank eruptions that occurred at Mt Etna during the Greek-Roman and Early Medieval periods, as defined in the new geological map of the volcano. The combination of the two dating techniques demonstrates that three major flank eruptions occurred on the lower north and west flanks during Greek-Roman epochs, producing large scoria cones and extensive lava flows. In particular, the Mt Ruvolo and Mt Minardo events highly impacted the territory of the west flank, notably by damming the Simeto River. The new data of the Millicucco and Due Monti lava flows, on the lower north-east flank, indicate a younger age than their stratigraphic ages quoted in the 2011 geological map, since they occurred around 700 and 500 AD, respectively. None of the large flank eruptions occurring on the lower slopes of Etna during the Early Medieval age are reported in the historical sources. Overall, our paper shows that a comprehensive assessment of eruptions at Mount Etna in the last three millennia can only be achieved through a multidisciplinary approach.

  3. Measurement of strange-quark contributions to the nucleon's form factors at Q(2) = 0.230 (GeV/c)(2).

    Maas, F E; Achenbach, P; Aulenbacher, K; Baunack, S; Capozza, L; Diefenbach, J; Grimm, K; Imai, Y; Hammel, T; von Harrach, D; Kabuss, E M; Kothe, R; Lee, J H; Lorente, A; Lopes Ginja, A; Nungesser, L; Schilling, E; Stephan, G; Weinrich, C; Altarev, I; Arvieux, J; Collin, B; Frascaria, R; Guidal, M; Kunne, R; Marchand, D; Morlet, M; Ong, S; van de Wiele, J; Kowalski, S; Plaster, B; Suleiman, R; Taylor, S

    2004-07-01

    We report on a measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized protons at a Q2 of 0.230 (GeV/c)(2) and a scattering angle of theta (e) = 30 degrees - 40 degrees. Using a large acceptance fast PbF2 calorimeter with a solid angle of delta omega = 0.62 sr, the A4 experiment is the first parity violation experiment to count individual scattering events. The measured asymmetry is A(phys)=(-5.44+/-0.54(stat)+/-0.26(sys))x10(-6). The standard model expectation assuming no strangeness contributions to the vector form factors is A(0) = (-6.30+/-0.43) x 10(-6). The difference is a direct measurement of the strangeness contribution to the vector form factors of the proton. The extracted value is G(s)(E) + 0.225G(s)(M) = 0.039+/-0.034 or F(s)(1) + 0.130F(s)(2) = 0.032+/-0.028. PMID:15323904

  4. Application of Leak-Before-Break Concept in VVER 440-230 Results and consequences for TACIS-program 91/1.2

    The project TACIS 91/1.2 'primary circuit integrity, application of leak-before-break (LBB) concept' was performed within the scope of the TACIS-program (technical assistance for the community of independent states) of the European community. The application of the LBB concept was carried out for the primary piping (main coolant lines (MCL) and surgelines (SL)) of the first generation of the Russian VVER NPP's of the type VVER 440/230 of the nuclear power plants Kola 1 and 2 (K1, K2) and Novovoronesh 3 and 4 (NV3, NV4). The work was performed by the consultant (Siemens, EdF, Framatome) and Russian subcontractors (headed by Vniiaes). The paper describes the comparison of the relevant safety concept, the scope of the LBB-program, the applied LBB-procedures (German and NUREG 1061 procedure), the results obtained and the recommendations (analysis of seismicity, if necessary LBB analysis taking into account additional optimized seismic supports and their installation for NV3 and 4 adaption of in-service inspection (ISI) and leak monitoring systems (LMS)). Proposals have been made for future work to improve the safety of these plants. This project was financed by the European Community's TACIS programme, which provides grant finance for know-how to foster the development of marked economies and democratic societies in the New Independent States and Mongolia. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of variants of double-sided guillotine rupture of the primary loop of WWER-440 (V-230) for evaluation of core status

    This paper presents the result of an assessment of the status of the WWER-440 (-230) reactor core, related to the thermal-hydraulic behavior and the probability of events going along with this accident. For this purpose a methodology for the study is elaborated, which comprises both realistic and conservative elements of the approach in analyzing such type of events (LOCA). This methodology complies with the requirements of BNSA Regulation 3 promulgated in state gazette No.27 of 24 Apr 1988. and PNAEG-024-90 of 1 Sep. 1990 and with the recommendations of the IAEA set in IAEA-EBP-WWER-0 . Based on these documents, the acceptance criteria applicable to the analyzed event are defined. The analysis is presented by two basic scenarios of the accident progression: 1. Rupture of a primary loop without LPSI 2. Rupture of a primary loop with LPSI Each scenario is also analyzed from the point of view of availability or loss of off-site power, applying a using single failure to an active element of the safety systems. A matrix of the studied variants is elaborated on the basis of which an evaluation of the core conditions is performed. Such evaluation is also done based on the probability for occurrence of such type of event, the probability of the applied single failure, as well as the probability of the postulated break location. (author)

  6. Detection of heterozygous MDR1 nt230(del4 mutation in a mixed-breed dog: case report of possible doxorubicin toxicosis

    Monobe MM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Marina Mitie Monobe,1 Kari V Lunsford,2 João Pessoa Araújo Jr,3 Camilo Bulla41Department of Veterinary Clinics, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Sao Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil; 2Department of Clinical Sciences and Animal Health Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, MS, USA; 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Biosciences Institute, Sao Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil; 4Department of Pathobiology and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, MS, USAAbstract: P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, the product of the Multidrug Resistance Gene (MDR1 (ABCB1 gene, is the major multidrug transporter contributing to the barrier function of several tissues and organs, including the brain. A four base pair deletion mutation in MDR1 results in the absence of a functional form of ABCB1 and loss of its protective function. Severe intoxication with the ABCB1 substrate, such as with anticancer drugs, has been attributed to genetic lack of functional ABCB1. This mutation has been detected in more than 10 dog breeds as well as in mixed-breed dogs living in different countries. In Brazil, evaluation for this mutation is not as widely available and is rarely used by veterinarians, so drug intoxication may be underdiagnosed. This is the first report from Brazil of doxorubicin neurotoxicity in a mixed-breed dog with the MDR1 nt230(del4 mutation.Keywords: canine, toxicology, cancer, P-glycoprotein

  7. High-resolution tephrochronology of the Wilson Creek Formation (Mono Lake, California) and Laschamp event using 238U-230Th SIMS dating of accessory mineral rims

    Vazquez, Jorge A.; Lidzbarski, Marsha I.

    2012-12-01

    Sediments of the Wilson Creek Formation surrounding Mono Lake preserve a high-resolution archive of glacial and pluvial responses along the eastern Sierra Nevada due to late Pleistocene climate change. An absolute chronology for the Wilson Creek stratigraphy is critical for correlating the paleoclimate record to other archives in the western U.S. and the North Atlantic region. However, multiple attempts to date the Wilson Creek stratigraphy using carbonates and tephras yield discordant results due to open-system effects and radiocarbon reservoir uncertainties as well as abundant xenocrysts. New ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of the final increments of crystallization recorded by allanite and zircon autocrysts from juvenile pyroclasts yield ages that effectively date eruption of key tephra beds and delimit the timing of basal Wilson Creek sedimentation to the interval between 26.8±2.1 and 61.7±1.9 ka. Tephra (Ash 15) erupted during the geomagnetic excursion originally designated the Mono Lake excursion yields an age of 40.8±1.9 ka, indicating that the event is instead the Laschamp excursion. The new ages support a depositional chronology from magnetostratigraphy that indicates quasi-synchronous glacial and hydrologic responses in the Sierra Nevada and Mono Basin to regional climate change, with intervals of lake filling and glacial-snowpack melting that are in phase with peaks in spring insolation.

  8. Distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 230,232Th on the fractions of natural organic species soils of ChNPP alienation zone

    The experimental data determination of distribution 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am 'Chernobyl' releases and 230,232Th on the fraction of humic and fulvic acids sandy- podsolic, meadow and peaty soils taken in the exclusive zone ChNPP are presents. Soils organic matter was isolated by conventional alkali extraction (Turin's method). It was shown that, with depending of soils types 15-45 % 241Am associate with fulvic acids. In all investigated types of soils 30 - 40 % 239+240Pu connects with humic acids, as strong complexes. The distribution of environmental 230,232Th and artificial 239+240Pu on the fraction natural organic species is the same

  9. Determination of {sup 2}30Th (Ionium) in uranium ores and wastes from uranium reprocessing. IV. Calculation of ionium separation yield; Determinacion de {sup 2}39Th (Ionio) en minerales y residuos del procesado de Uranio. IV: Determinacion del rendimiento en la separacion del {sup 2}30 Th

    Galiano Sedano, J. A.; Acena Barrenechea, M. L.

    1974-07-01

    For determining ionium ({sup 2}30Th) in minerals and uranium processing wastes by precipitation with fluorhidric acid, using lanthanum as carrier, and selective extraction with tenoytrifluoroacetone (TTA) followed by radiometric determination of the isolated nuclide, it is necessary the use of a tracer since the chemical yield of the separation ranges between wide limits. In this paper, the use of the beta-emitter {sup 2}34Th as the most convenient tracer is discussed. Equations are derived for correcting for counting errors introduced by other thorium isotopes which are present either in the sample or in the tracer, as well as for calculating the chemical yield of the separation. These equations have been experimentally checked by ionium determinations carried out with different types of samples. (Author) 18 refs.

  10. AFS-230E型原子荧光光度计工作曲线选择对水砷测定结果的影响%Effect of different fitting method on the degree of accuracies of arsenic determination by AFS-230E atom spectrofluophotameter

    岱沁; 党润和; 李艳红

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracies of water arsenic testing of AFS-230E-type atomic fluorescence photometer by linear and quadratic curve fitting. Methods AFS-230E-type atomic fluorescence photometer was used to detect the fluorescence intensity of the standard samples. Two series of data, the fluorescence intensity and the standard concentration were fitted with a straight line and a curve. Their fitting concentration was calculated with their samples' fitting equation and fluorescence intensity respectively. Results When the water arsenic concentration was in the range of 0.1-5.0 μg/L, the total error value was 7.79% in linear fitting, 3.67 % in curve fitting, and the calculations were of no significant differences with the linear and curve fitting(t=1.664, P > 0.05). When the water arsenic concentration was in the range of 1-20 μg/L,the total error value was 9.26% percent in linear fitting, 2.44% in curve fitting, and the calculation results were of significant difference with the linear and curve fitting(t=2.63, P 0.05);水砷在1.0~20.0μg/L时,直线拟合的总体误差值为9.26%.曲线为2.44%,直线和曲线拟合计算结果比较,差异有统计学意义(t=2.63,P<0.05).结论 水砷在0.1~5.0μg/L时,可直接使用仪器程序默认的直线拟合;水砷在1.0~20.0μg/L时,应用曲线拟合,其检测结果较直线拟合准确.

  11. Models of operator actions for avoiding the risk of deep vacuum in the confinement in case of a 200 mm LOCA on units 3 and 4 of NPP Kozloduy with reactors WWER-440/V230

    The authors present a set of models of operator actions for avoiding the risk of deep vacuum in the Confinement in case of a 200 mm LOCA on WWER-440/V230. The models are based on the plant operating experience. The actions performance and efficiency are analysed with representative CONTAIN calculations. The results form the basis for development and validation of Emergency Operating Procedures for LB LOCA accidents at units 3 and 4 of NPP Kozloduy. (author)

  12. Development of sequential analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228 and its application in mineral waters

    A sequential analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228 in environmental samples and applied to the analysis of mineral waters is studied. Thorium isotopes are coprecipitated with lanthanium fluoride before counting in alpha spectrometer, the uranium isotopes are determined by alpha spectrometry following extraction with TOPO onto a polymenic membrane. Radium-226 is determined with the radom emanation technique. (M.J.C.)

  13. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of 224Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides

  14. Bestimmung der Ionisationsenergie von Actinium und Ultraspurenanalyse von Plutonium mit resonanter Ionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS)

    Waldek, Achim Marcus

    2001-01-01

    ZusammenfassungDie Resonanzionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS) verbindet hohe Elementselektivität mit guter Nachweiseffizienz. Aufgrund dieser Eigenschaften ist die Methode für Ultraspurenanalyse und Untersuchungen an seltenen oder schwer handhabbaren Elementen gut geeignet. Für RIMS werden neutrale Atome mit monochromatischem Laserlicht ein- oder mehrfach resonant auf energetisch hoch liegende Niveaus angeregt und anschließend durch einen weiteren Laserstrahl oder durch ein elektrisches Fe...

  15. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228

    The activities of 228Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide 228Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO2 and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter 228Ra(228Ac), the daughter nuclide 228Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by 228Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9±0.1% was measured for 228Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317±0.013 cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1 g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of 228Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for 228Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure 228Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid scintillation analysis is used

  16. Linear free energy relationship applied to trivalent cations with lanthanum and actinium oxide and hydroxide structure

    Linear free energy relationships for trivalent cations with crystalline M2O3 and, M(OH)3 phases of lanthanides and actinides were developed from known thermodynamic properties of the aqueous trivalent cations, modifying the Sverjensky and Molling equation. The linear free energy relationship for trivalent cations is as ΔGf,MvX0=aMvXΔGn,M3+0+bMvX+βMvXrM3+, where the coefficients aMvX, bMvX, and βMvX characterize a particular structural family of MvX, rM3+ is the ionic radius of M3+ cation, ΔGf,MvX0 is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of MvX and ΔGn,M3+0 is the standard non-solvation free energy of the cation. The coefficients for the oxide family are: aMvX=0.2705, bMvX=-1984.75 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=197.24 (kJ/molnm). The coefficients for the hydroxide family are: aMvX=0.1587, bMvX=-1474.09 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=791.70 (kJ/molnm).

  17. Actinium: A RESTful Runtime Container for Scriptable Internet of Things Applications

    Kovatsch, Matthias; Lanter, Martin; Duquennoy, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Programming Internet of Things (IoT) applications is challenging because developers have to be knowledgeable in various technical domains, from low-power networking, over embedded operating systems, to distributed algorithms. Hence, it will be challenging to find enough experts to provide software for the vast number of expected devices, which must also be scalable and particularly safe due to the connection to the physical world. To remedy this situation, we propose an architecture that pr...

  18. New method for large scale production of medically applicable Actinium-225 and Radium-223

    Alpha-emitters (211At, 212Bi, 213Bi, 223Ra, 225Ac) are promising for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. Only two alpha decays near a cell membrane result in 50% death of cancer cell and only a single decay inside the cell is required for this. 225Ac may be used either directly or as a mother radionuclide in 213Bi isotope generator. Production of 225Ac is provided by three main suppliers - Institute for Transuranium Elements in Germany, Oak Ridge National Laboratory in USA and Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in Obninsk, Russia. The current worldwide production of 225Ac is approximately 1.7 Ci per year that corresponds to only 100-200 patients that could be treated annually. The common approach for 225Ac production is separation from mother 229Th or irradiation of 226Ra with protons in a cyclotron. Both the methods have some practical limitations to be applied routinely. 225Ac can be also produced by irradiation of natural thorium with medium energy protons . Cumulative cross sections of 225Ac, 227Ac, 227Th, 228Th formations have been obtained recently. Thorium targets (1-9 g) were irradiated by 114-91 MeV proton beam (1-50 μA) at INR linear accelerator. After dissolution in 8 M HNO3 + 0.004 M HF thorium was removed by double LLX by HDEHP in toluene (1:1). Ac and REE were pre-concentrated and separated from Ra and most fission products by DGA-Resin (Triskem). After washing out by 0.01 M HNO3 Ac was separated from REE by TRU Resin (Triskem) in 3 M HNO3 media. About 6 mCi 225Ac were separated in hot cell with chemical yield 85%. The method may be upscaled for production of Ci amounts of the radionuclide. The main impurity is 227Ac (0.1% at the EOB) but it does not hinder 225Ac from being used for medical 225Ac/213Bi generators. (author)

  19. Synthesis of chelating agents for actinium 225 complexation and its application in radioimmunotherapy

    Immunotherapy with radiolabeled antibodies should allow fairly specific targeting of certain cancers. However, iodine 131 may not be the best isotope for tumor therapy because of its limited specific activity, low beta-energy, relatively long half life and strong gamma emission. Another approach to improve therapeutic efficacy is the use of replacement isotopes with better physical properties. Chelator that can hold radio-metals with high stability under physiological conditions are essential to avoid excessive damage to non-target cells; Moreover, the development of new bifunctional chelating agents is essential for this purpose. Accordingly, our efforts have been directed, for several years, to the synthesis of original chelating agents likely to form stable complexes in vivo with the numerous potential candidates for such applications. Therefore, we have developed a new simple and efficient synthesis pathway of 2-(4-iso-thio-cyanate-benzyl)-1,4,7,10,13,16- hexa-aza-cyclo-hexadecane- 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa-acetic acid, though functionalized on the cycle by a termination allowed coupling to an antibody or any other biological substance such as a hapten. (author)

  20. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    A technique of selenium purification from 232Th, 238U, 226,228Ra, 227Ac and 40K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  1. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz); Warot, G. [CEA-CNRS, Modane (France). Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM); Karaivanov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), Sofia (Bulgaria); Kochetov, O.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Filosofov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Sadikov, I.I. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz)

    2013-07-01

    A technique of selenium purification from {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 227}Ac and {sup 40}K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  2. Investigation of main coolant pump trip problem in case of SB LOCA for Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant, WWER-440/V230

    Highlights: • In this study we investigated scenarios with trip of MCP in case of SB LOCA. • The reference power plant for the analyses is Unit 4 at Kozloduy NPP. • The RELAP/MOD 3.2 computer code is used in performing the analyses. • The results are done in support of development of SB EOPs. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of thermal-hydraulic calculation of accident scenarios that involve the trip of main coolant pump (MCP) in case of Small break loss of coolant accident (SB LOCA) for WWER-440/V230 units at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP), done in support of the development of Symptom Based Emergency Operating Procedures (SB EOPs) for this plant. The main purpose of these analyses is to show how the different time of MCP switching off results in primary inventory depletion in case of SB LOCA and it is reflect on peak cladding temperature. According to this, the SB LOCA scenario is regarded from the point of view of an inadequate core cooling. Therefore, the primary concern is Critical Safety Function (CSF) “Core cooling” and “Primary inventory”. High core residual heat, minimal safety injection flow and other initial conditions challenging the mentioned CSFs are the main particularities of the accepted scenarios. The RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been used to perform the analyses in a WWER-440 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) model. A model of WWER-440 based on Unit 4 of Kozloduy NPP has been developed for the system’s thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/MOD3.2 at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE-BAS), Sofia

  3. A microsatellite-based consensus linkage map for species of Eucalyptus and a novel set of 230 microsatellite markers for the genus

    Williams Emlyn R

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eucalypts are the most widely planted hardwood trees in the world occupying globally more than 18 million hectares as an important source of carbon neutral renewable energy and raw material for pulp, paper and solid wood. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs in Eucalyptus have been localized on pedigree-specific RAPD or AFLP maps seriously limiting the value of such QTL mapping efforts for molecular breeding. The availability of a genus-wide genetic map with transferable microsatellite markers has become a must for the effective advancement of genomic undertakings. This report describes the development of a novel set of 230 EMBRA microsatellites, the construction of the first comprehensive microsatellite-based consensus linkage map for Eucalyptus and the consolidation of existing linkage information for other microsatellites and candidate genes mapped in other species of the genus. Results The consensus map covers ~90% of the recombining genome of Eucalyptus, involves 234 mapped EMBRA loci on 11 linkage groups, an observed length of 1,568 cM and a mean distance between markers of 8.4 cM. A compilation of all microsatellite linkage information published in Eucalyptus allowed us to establish the homology among linkage groups between this consensus map and other maps published for E. globulus. Comparative mapping analyses also resulted in the linkage group assignment of other 41 microsatellites derived from other Eucalyptus species as well as candidate genes and QTLs for wood and flowering traits published in the literature. This report significantly increases the availability of microsatellite markers and mapping information for species of Eucalyptus and corroborates the high conservation of microsatellite flanking sequences and locus ordering between species of the genus. Conclusion This work represents an important step forward for Eucalyptus comparative genomics, opening stimulating perspectives for evolutionary studies and

  4. On the reason for the kink in the rigidity spectra of cosmic-ray protons and helium nuclei near 230 GV

    Loznikov, V. M.; Erokhin, N. S.; Zol'nikova, N. N.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A.

    2016-07-01

    A three-component phenomenological model describing the specific features of the spectrum of cosmic-ray protons and helium nuclei in the rigidity range of 30-2×105 GV is proposed. The first component corresponds to the constant background; the second, to the variable "soft" (30-500 GV) heliospheric source; and the third, to the variable "hard" (0.5-200 TV) source located inside a local bubble. The existence and variability of both sources are provided by the corresponding "surfatron accelerators," whose operation requires the presence of an extended region with an almost uniform (in both magnitude and direction) magnetic field, orthogonally (or obliquely) to which electromagnetic waves propagate. The maximum energy to which cosmic rays can be accelerated is determined by the source size. The soft source with a size of ˜100 AU is located at the periphery of the heliosphere, behind the front of the solar wind shock wave. The hard source with a size of >0.1 pc is located near the boundary of an interstellar cloud at a distance of ˜0.01 pc from the Sun. The presence of a kink in the rigidity spectra of p and He near 230 GV is related to the variability of the physical conditions in the acceleration region and depends on the relation between the amplitudes and power-law exponents in the dependences of the background, soft heliospheric source, and hard near galactic source. The ultrarelativistic acceleration of p and He by an electromagnetic wave propagating in space plasma across the external magnetic field is numerically analyzed. Conditions for particle trapping by the wave and the dynamics of the particle velocity and momentum components are considered. The calculations show that, in contrast to electrons and positrons ( e +), the trapped protons relatively rapidly escape from the effective potential well and cease to accelerate. Due to this effect, the p and He spectra are softer than that of e +. The possibility that the spectra of accelerated protons deviate

  5. Large-scale thrusting along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the southwest Tarim basin: 230 km long active Hotian thrust sheet

    Suppe, J.; Wang, X.; He, D.; Liang, H.

    2015-12-01

    We present the geometry, kinematics and mechanics of large-scale active thrusting in the western Kunlunshan and southwest Tarim basin, which accounts for ~130-165km total shortening of Tarim crust at the northern margin of Tibet. The great frontal structure is the ~230km long bedding-parallel Hotian thrust sheet, which is perhaps the longest active intact thrust sheet in the world, composed of flat-lying strata of the Tarim basin sliding northward on a regional gypsum detachment at the base of the Cenozoic sequence. The toe of the Hotian thrust ramps to the surface two thirds of the way across the Tarim basin, forming the Selibuya-Mazartag hills in the Taklamakan sand desert. At the southern edge of the Tarim basin in the Kunlunshan foothills, a set of high-amplitude anticlines are growing by complex break-forward ramping and wedging in the Hotian thrust sheet as it steps up to the Cenozoic gypsum detachment from a regional Cambrian evaporate detachment that extends under Tibet. More interior structures such as the Tiklik thrust bring older strata and Proterozoic basement to the surface, together with their Cenozoic Tarim cover in the Buya basin. The Cambrian detachment also extends northward under the Tarim basin with minor hanging-wall deformation that locally warps the overlying Hotian thrust sheet, producing a complete syntectonic record in seismically imaged growth strata of its northward motion over these warps. Seismic profiles in the southwest Tarim foothill belt also reveal widespread growth strata that record much of the structural history beginning in the early Pliocene Atushi Formation. Ages of seismic reflectors are calibrated to a surface magnetostratigraphic sequence (Zheng et al., 2000). The beginning of thrusting and folding in the southwest Tarim basin north of the Tiklik thrust is dated at 3.6Ma with shortening >25km and a progressive northward propagation toward the Selibuya-Mazartag hills. The overall shortening rate is ~10 mm/yr. The gypsum

  6. On the origin of a kink in the hardness spectra of cosmic-ray protons and helium nuclei in the vicinity of 230 GV

    A three-component phenomenological model for the description of specific features of spectra of cosmic-ray protons and helium nuclei in the hardness range from 30 to 2 × 105 GV is proposed. The first component corresponds to the constant background; the second component, to a variable “soft” (30–500 GV) heliospheric source; and the third component, to a variable “hard” (0.5–200 TV) galactic source inside a local bubble. The corresponding “surfatron accelerators” are responsible for the existence and variability of both sources. In order for such accelerators to operate, there should be an extended area with a nearly uniform and constant (in both the magnitude and direction) magnetic field and electromagnetic waves propagating perpendicular (or obliquely) to it. The dimensions of each source determine the maximum energy to which cosmic rays can be accelerated. The soft source with a size of ∼100 au lies at the periphery of the heliosphere, beyond the terminal shock, while the hard source with a size of >0.1 pc is located near the boundary of a local interstellar cloud at a distance of ∼0.01 pc from the Sun. A kink in the hardness spectra of p and He (near the hardness of about 230 GV) is caused by the variability of physical conditions in the acceleration region and depends on the relation between the amplitudes and power-law indices of the background, the soft heliospheric source, and the nearby hard galactic source. Ultrarelativistic acceleration of p and He in space plasma by an electromagnetic wave propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field is investigated using numerical calculations. The conditions for particle trapping by the wave, as well as the dynamics of the velocity and momentum components, are analyzed. The calculations show that, in contrast to electrons and positrons (e+), a trapped proton can escape from the effective potential well after a relatively short time, thereby terminating to accelerate. Such an effect

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-04-20

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons, and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Referred to as CAU 230/320, both CAUs are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comprise two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 22-03-01 (Sewage Lagoons) and 22-99-01 (Strainer Box). The Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site also includes a buried Imhoff Tank, sludge bed, and associated sewer piping. A September 1999 corrective action investigation identified the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels at this CAU (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics). During this same investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to subsurface debris and contaminated soil. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 22 of the NTS, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Excavation and Removal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Alternative 3 was chosen on technical merit as the preferred alternative for CAU 230/320. This alternative was judged to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the buried debris and contaminated soils at both of the CASs within Area 22.

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document

  9. U-series radioactive disequilibria {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra: discussions on sources and processes responsible for volcanism of the Andean cordillera and on the deglaciation in Iceland; Les desequilibres radioactifs {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra: discussions sur les sources et processus responsables du volcanisme de la Cordillere des Andes et sur la deglaciation en Islande

    Chmeleff, J

    2005-10-15

    Thanks to precise analyses of uranium series radioactive disequilibria, permitted by improvements of mass spectrometry data acquisition and optimization of chemistry, two questions were tackled and answers about the periods of glaciation in Iceland and the petrogenesis of Andean lavas were proposed. Two methods were used to date lava flows from the Reykjanes peninsula and the island of Heimaey, in Iceland, directly linked to the periods of deglaciation or reheating around the last ice age. An original method based on the use of segregation veins present in the lava flows has been developed. Thanks to the formation of this particular geological object this methods permits to be freed from xeno-crystals when using the internal isochron method in the {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th system. Using this method some constraints are brought both on the quaternary geology of the area of Reykjavik and on the age of the end of the Wurm glaciation on Heirnaey. In parallel, due to the homogeneity of the historical and Holocene lavas of the Reykjanes peninsula, regarding the ({sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th) and Th/U ratios, it is possible to derive the ({sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th) ratio in time to determine the age of lava flows installed during the ice age. Thus we confirmed that the magnetic excursion recorded in the Skalamaelifell lava flow is most probably the same one as that of Laschamp-Olby and that at this time (approximately 48.000 years) the Reykjanes peninsula was entirely covered with a glacier. Thanks to this method the extent of the glacier was also constrained by dating of a picritic shield around 22.000 years, thus the peninsula has to be free of any ice cap despite the fact that glaciation is the most intense around this time.Then Andean arc magmas petrogenesis was constrained in time and space. Almost systematic excesses of {sup 226}Ra compared to {sup 230}Th in lavas of austral, southern and northern volcanic zones of the Andes (AVZ, SVZ and NVZ) constrain the ascending time

  10. Technical basis for instrumentation and control design improvements in WWER-440/230 nuclear power plants. A publication of the extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    Instrumentation and control (I and C) has been recognized as an area which requires substantial improvements in WWER NNPs, particularly for model 230 plants. Under contract with the IAEA the Spanish company Empresarios Agrupados (EA) developed a basic document proposing a technical basis for improvements related to the following most significant aspects of I and C: criteria for safety classification; remote shutdown panel; I and C support to operation and control room design; instrumentation set point margins; accident monitoring instrumentation. This publication is derived from the original report of EA which was circulated by the IAEA for review by staff members and experts from various Member States. It was finally agreed upon at a Consultants' meeting convened by the IAEA in Vienna in May 1994 with the participation of experts from France, Germany and Spain. The guidance expressed in this report is based on the IAEA/NUSS standards, safety guides and practices, and on regulations in use in various Member States. It is proposed as a way of carrying out the necessary studies to improve safety by upgrading the vital part of instrumentation an control in WWER-440 model 230 nuclear power plants. 28 refs, 3 figs

  11. Review of the methods used for leak rate measurements for WWER-440/230 confinements and WWER-440/213 containments. A publication of the extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    Program was initiated by IAEA in 1990 with the aim to assist the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union in evaluating the safety of their first generation WWER-440/230 nuclear power plants. The main objectives were: to identify major design and operational safety issues; to establish international consensus on priorities for safety improvements; and to provide assistance in the review of the competence and and adequacy of safety improvement programs. The scope was extended in 1992 ro include RBMK, WWER-440/312 and WWER-1000 plants in operation and under construction. One of the characteristic features od confinements in WWER-440/213 reactors is their comparatively high leakage rate, ranging from several hundred per cent per day upwards, which is lower than those of WWER-440/230 but in both types of containments the task of leakage rate determination presents complex problems which do not appear in western type units. This report contains the requirements for containment leak rate testing and for integral test in the countries operating WWER reactors and comparison with the requirements in force in USA, Germany and France. It describes the leak rate testing principles and leak rate extrapolation methods, discusses in detail the differences in leakage rate definitions due to significant leakages in WWER containments and explains their consequences. The procedures for structural integrity tests of WWER-440 containments are described and recommendations given

  12. Development of an analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210 and its application on environmental samples

    A comparison between the environmental impact by nuclear facilities with the burden suffered from natural radioactivity calls for studying the long-lived radionuclides of the U-238 and Th-232 decay series U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210. This work describes the development of a fast isotope dilution analysis method allowing to separate with one sample solution U, Th, Ra, Pb and Po both from each other and, at the same time, from the matrix. To test its applicability, the method was used with samples consisting of soil, sediments, plants, water, carbon and air dust filter. The detection limit for the chemical yield attained of approx. 70% was 0.27 mBq per sample for Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, U-238, U-234 and Po-210. The detection limit for Pb-210 was 10 mBq per sample. On account of the influence by Ra-226 in the Ra-228 measurement and vice versa the detection limit is a function of the Ra-226 and Ra-228 concentrations, respectively, in the sample. The detection limits for the pure nuclides are 0.9 mBq per sample and 10 mBq per sample, respectively, for Ra-226 and Ra-228. (orig./HP)

  13. High time resolution observations of the polar stratosphere and mesosphere using a ground-based 230-250 GHz microwave radiometer

    Newnham, D. A.; Espy, P. J.; Clilverd, M. A.; Maxfield, D. J.; Hartogh, P.; Holmén, K.; Blindheim, S.; Horne, R. B.

    2012-04-01

    Microwave radiometry is used to measure thermal emission by the Doppler- and pressure-broadened molecular rotational lines of atmospheric gases, from which vertical abundance profiles can be determined. Since solar radiation is not required for the measurement, the technique has the advantage that continuous observations are possible including throughout the polar winter. We describe the development of a passive microwave radiometer [Espy, P. J., P. Hartogh, and K. Holmen (2006), Proc. SPIE, 6362, 63620P, doi:10.1117/12.688953] for ground-based remote sensing of the polar middle atmosphere. The instrument measures nitric oxide (NO), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) vertical profiles over the altitude range 35-90 km with time resolution as high as 15 minutes, allowing the diurnal variability of trace chemical species to be investigated. Heterodyne detection of atmospheric emission at 230 GHz and 250 GHz (wavelength ~1.25 mm) with a receiver noise temperature of 300 K is achieved using a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer cooled to 4 K. The down-converted signals at 1.35 GHz and 2.10 GHz are analysed using both a moderate-resolution (28 kHz, 220 MHz bandwidth) and a high-resolution (14 kHz, 40 MHz bandwidth) chirp-transform spectrometer (CTS). The instrument was operated semi-autonomously at Troll station (72° 01'S 02° 32'E, 1270 m above sea level), Antarctica during 2008-10 and at the Arctic LIDAR Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR, 69° 16'N, 16° 00'E, 380 m above sea level), northern Norway during 2011-12. NO volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles have been inverted from calibrated brightness temperature spectra of the NO line centred at 250.796 GHz, observed above Troll station, using the Microwave Observation Line Estimation and Retrieval (MOLIERE) version 5 code. A priori pressure, temperature, ozone, water vapour, and NO profiles above 30 km were calculated using the Sodankylä Ion and Neutral Chemistry (SIC, version 6

  14. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Western's Hoover Dam Bypass Project Phase II (Double-Circuiting a Portion of the Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7 230-kV Transmission Lines with the Henderson-Mead No.1 230-kV Transmission Line, Clark County, Nevada)

    N/A

    2003-10-27

    The U.S. Highway 93 (U.S. 93) Hoover Dam Bypass Project calls for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Western Area Power Administration (Western) to remove its Arizona and Nevada (A&N) Switchyard. As a result of this action, Western must reconfigure its existing electrical transmission system in the Hoover Dam area. Western proposes to double-circuit a portion of the Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7 230-kV Transmission Lines with the Henderson-Mead No.1 Transmission Line (see Figure 1-1). Double-circuiting is the placement of two separate electrical circuits, typically in the form of three separate conductors or bundles of conductors, on the same set of transmission line structures. The old Henderson-Hoover 230-kV Transmission Line would become the new Henderson-Mead No.1 and would extend approximately eight miles to connect with the Mead Substation. Western owns, operates, and maintains the Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7, and Henderson-Hoover electrical power transmission lines. Additionally, approximately 0.25 miles of new right-of-way (ROW) would be needed for the Henderson-Mead No.1 when it transfers from double-circuiting with the Hoover-Mead No.7 to the Hoover-Mead No.5 at the Boulder City Tap. The proposed project would also involve a new transmission line ROW and structures where the Henderson-Mead No.1 will split from the Hoover-Mead No.5 and enter the northeast corner of the Mead Substation. Lastly, Western has proposed adding fiber optic overhead ground wire from the Hoover Power Plant to the Mead Substation on to the Henderson-Mead No.1, Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7 Transmission Lines. The proposed project includes replacing existing transmission line tower structures, installing new structures, and adding new electrical conductors and fiber optic cables. As a consequence of these activities, ground disturbance may result from grading areas for structure placement, constructing new roads, improving existing roads for vehicle and equipment access, and from installing

  15. Proposal to amend existing operating permit for the Ault-Craig 345-kV and Hayden-Archer 230-kV transmission lines, Routt, Jackson and Larimer Counties, Colorado

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Western Area Power Administration, Rocky Mountain Region, is proposing to amend an existing US Forest Service operating permit for the Ault-Craig 345-kV and Hayden-Archer 230-kV transmission lines, which are located in Routt, jackson, and Larimer counties, Colorado. These transmission lines cross portions of the Roosevelt and Routt National Forests. The long-term use authorization Western is requesting from the Forest Service would be for the life of the Ault-Craig and Hayden-Archer transmission lines. This environmental assessment addresses those access road and right-of-way maintenance activities identified by Western that would be performed on Forest Service managed lands during the next approximately five years.

  16. The fission cross sections of 230Th, 232Th, 233U, 234U, 236U, 238U, 237Np, 239Pu and 242Pu relative 235U at 14.74 MeV neutron energy

    The measurement of the fission cross section ratios of nine isotopes relative to 235U at an average neutron energy of 14.74 MeV is described with particular attention to the determination of corrections and to sources of error. The results are compared to ENDF/B-V and to other measurements of the past decade. The ratio of the neutron induced fission cross section for these isotopes to the fission cross section for 235U are: 230Th - 0.290 +- 1.9%; 232Th - 0.191 +- 1.9%; 233U - 1.132 +- 0.7%; 234U - 0.998 +- 1.0%; 236U - 0.791 +- 1.1%; 238U - 0.587 +- 1.1%; 237Np - 1.060 +- 1.4%; 239Pu - 1.152 +- 1.1%; 242Pu - 0.967 +- 1.0%. 40 refs., 11 tabs., 9 figs

  17. Proposal to amend existing operating permit for the Ault-Craig 345-kV and Hayden-Archer 230-kV transmission lines, Routt, Jackson and Larimer Counties, Colorado

    The Western Area Power Administration, Rocky Mountain Region, is proposing to amend an existing US Forest Service operating permit for the Ault-Craig 345-kV and Hayden-Archer 230-kV transmission lines, which are located in Routt, jackson, and Larimer counties, Colorado. These transmission lines cross portions of the Roosevelt and Routt National Forests. The long-term use authorization Western is requesting from the Forest Service would be for the life of the Ault-Craig and Hayden-Archer transmission lines. This environmental assessment addresses those access road and right-of-way maintenance activities identified by Western that would be performed on Forest Service managed lands during the next approximately five years

  18. Upper Limit For Electron-positron Decaying To Neutral Lambda(baryon)-antineutral Lamba(baryon) Cross Section And R In The Center-of-mass Energy Range From 11.230 To 11.382 Gev

    Dorjkhaidav, O

    2004-01-01

    We have searched for LobLo b resonance production using data taking by CLEO III detector and set an upper limit for such a cross section to be on the order of 0.05–0.10 units of R in 95% confidence level in the scanning range at Center Mass of Energies from 11.230 to 11.382 GeV. The measurement of R = σ(e+e − → hadrons)/σ(e+ e− → μ+μ− ) has been made in this scan range as well. The measured R value near Λb threshold is R = 4.01 ± 0.15

  19. Book Review: MULTIDIMENSIONAL EQUALITIES Anne Phillips Multiculturalism without Culture Princeton, NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2007, 202 pp., ISBN 978-0-691-12944-0 Judith Squires The New Politics of Gender Equality Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 206 pp., ISBN 978-0-230-00769-7

    2008-01-01

    Book Review: MULTIDIMENSIONAL EQUALITIES Anne Phillips Multiculturalism without Culture Princeton, NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2007, 202 pp., ISBN 978-0-691-12944-0 Judith Squires The New Politics of Gender Equality Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 206 pp., ISBN 978-0-230-00769-7

  20. Britain's delegation to CERN, the European Centre for Nuclear Research near Geneva, voted in favour of a project which take seven years to build, involve a 27 kilometre long tunnel, and cost 230 million pounds. Now LEP receives the go-ahead later this month

    Llewellyn Smith, Christopher Hubert

    1981-01-01

    Britain's delegation to CERN, the European Centre for Nuclear Research near Geneva, voted in favour of a project which take seven years to build, involve a 27 kilometre long tunnel, and cost 230 million pounds. Now LEP receives the go-ahead later this month

  1. Book Review: A THIRD WAVE: ABOUT THE POLITICS OF PROCLAIMING A `NEW' FEMINISM Stacy Gillis, Gillian Howie and Rebecca Munford, eds Third Wave Feminism: A Critical Exploration, expanded 2nd edn Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 310 pp., ISBN-13 978-0-230-52174-2

    2008-01-01

    Book Review: A THIRD WAVE: ABOUT THE POLITICS OF PROCLAIMING A `NEW' FEMINISM Stacy Gillis, Gillian Howie and Rebecca Munford, eds Third Wave Feminism: A Critical Exploration, expanded 2nd edn Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 310 pp., ISBN-13 978-0-230-52174-2 London School of Economics - (Scharff, Christina)

  2. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  3. Renal uptake of bismuth-213 and its contribution to kidney radiation dose following administration of actinium-225-labeled antibody

    Schwartz, J; O' Donoghue, J A; Humm, J L [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jaggi, J S [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Plainsboro, NJ (United States); Ruan, S; Larson, S M [Nuclear Medicine Service Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); McDevitt, M; Scheinberg, D A, E-mail: schwarj1@mskcc.org [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    Clinical therapeutic studies using {sup 225}Ac-labeled antibodies have begun. Of major concern is renal toxicity that may result from the three alpha-emitting progeny generated following the decay of {sup 225}Ac. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of {sup 225}Ac and non-equilibrium progeny in the mouse kidney after the injection of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and examine the dosimetric consequences. Groups of mice were sacrificed at 24, 96 and 144 h after injection with {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and kidneys excised. One kidney was used for gamma ray spectroscopic measurements by a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The second kidney was used to generate frozen tissue sections which were examined by digital autoradiography (DAR). Two measurements were performed on each kidney specimen: (1) immediately post-resection and (2) after sufficient time for any non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi to decay completely. Comparison of these measurements enabled estimation of the amount of excess {sup 213}Bi reaching the kidney ({gamma}-ray spectroscopy) and its sub-regional distribution (DAR). The average absorbed dose to whole kidney, determined by spectroscopy, was 0.77 (SD 0.21) Gy kBq{sup -1}, of which 0.46 (SD 0.16) Gy kBq{sup -1} (i.e. 60%) was due to non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi. The relative contributions to renal cortex and medulla were determined by DAR. The estimated dose to the cortex from non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi (0.31 (SD 0.11) Gy kBq{sup -1}) represented {approx}46% of the total. For the medulla the dose contribution from excess {sup 213}Bi (0.81 (SD 0.28) Gy kBq{sup -1}) was {approx}80% of the total. Based on these estimates, for human patients we project a kidney-absorbed dose of 0.28 Gy MBq{sup -1} following administration of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 with non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi responsible for approximately 60% of the total. Methods to reduce renal accumulation of radioactive progeny appear to be necessary for the success of {sup 225}Ac radioimmunotherapy.

  4. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  5. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  6. DMR (Deacetylation and Mechanical Refining) Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations (230 g L-1) During Enzymatic Hydrolysis and High Ethanol Concentrations (>10% v/v) During Fermentation Without Hydrolysate Purification or Concentration

    Chen, Xiaowen; Kuhn, Erik; Jennings, Edward W.; Nelson, Robert; Tao, Ling; Zhang, Min; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2016-04-01

    Distilling and purifying ethanol and other products from second generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating costs to biofuel production. The energy usage associated with distillation negatively affects plant gate costs and causes environmental and life-cycle impacts, and the lower titers in fermentation caused by lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis increase energy and water usage and ethanol production costs. In addition, lower ethanol titers increase the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels increase capital expenditure (CAPEX). Therefore, increasing biofuel titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuel production for several decades. In this work, we achieved approximately 230 g L-1 of monomeric sugars after high solid enzymatic hydrolysis using deacetylation and mechanical refining (DMR) processed corn stover substrates produced at the 100 kg per day scale. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations achieved by the DMR process allowed fermentation to ethanol with titers as high as 86 g L-1, which translates into approximately 10.9% v/v ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that titers greater than 10% v/v ethanol in fermentations derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps have been reported. The potential cost savings from high sugar and ethanol titers achieved by the DMR process are also reported using TEA analysis.

  7. A study of uranium and thorium migration at the Koongarra uranium deposit with application to actinide transport from nuclear waste repositories

    One way to gain confidence in modelling possible radionuclide releases is to study natural systems which are similar to components of the multibarrier waste repository. Several such analogues are currently under study and these provide useful data about radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment. One such system is the Koongarra uranium deposit in the Northern Territory. In this dissertation, the migration of actinides, primarily uranium and thorium, has been studied as an analogue for the behaviour of transuranics in the far-field of a waste repository. The major findings of this study are: 1. the main process retarding uranium migration in the dispersion fan at Koongarra is sorption, which suppresses dissolved uranium concentrations well below solubility limits, with ferrihydrite being a major sorbing phase; 2. thorium is extremely immobile, with very low dissolved concentrations and corresponding high distribution ratios for 230Th. Overall, it is estimated that colloids are relatively unimportant in Koongarra groundwater. Uranium migrates mostly as dissolved species, whereas thorium and actinium are mostly adsorbed to larger, relatively immobile particles and the stationary phase. However, of the small amount of 230Th that passes through a 1μm filter, a significant proportion is associated with colloidal particles. Actinium appears to be slightly more mobile than thorium and is associated with colloids to a greater extent, although generally present in low concentrations. These results support the possibility of colloidal transport of trivalent and tetravalent actinides in the vicinity of a nuclear waste repository. 112 refs., 23 tabs., 32 figs

  8. Simulation study for measurement of horizontal wind profiles in the polar stratosphere and mesosphere using ground-based observations of ozone and carbon monoxide lines in the 230-250 GHz region

    Newnham, David A.; Ford, George P.; Moffat-Griffin, Tracy; Pumphrey, Hugh C.

    2016-07-01

    Meteorological and atmospheric models are being extended up to 80 km altitude but there are very few observing techniques that can measure stratospheric-mesospheric winds at altitudes between 20 and 80 km to verify model datasets. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of horizontal wind profile measurements using ground-based passive millimetre-wave spectroradiometric observations of ozone lines centred at 231.28, 249.79, and 249.96 GHz. Vertical profiles of horizontal winds are retrieved from forward and inverse modelling simulations of the line-of-sight Doppler-shifted atmospheric emission lines above Halley station (75°37' S, 26°14' W), Antarctica. For a radiometer with a system temperature of 1400 K and 30 kHz spectral resolution observing the ozone 231.28 GHz line we estimate that 12 h zonal and meridional wind profiles could be determined over the altitude range 25-74 km in winter, and 28-66 km in summer. Height-dependent measurement uncertainties are in the range 3-8 m s-1 and vertical resolution ˜ 8-16 km. Under optimum observing conditions at Halley a temporal resolution of 1.5 h for measuring either zonal or meridional winds is possible, reducing to 0.5 h for a radiometer with a 700 K system temperature. Combining observations of the 231.28 GHz ozone line and the 230.54 GHz carbon monoxide line gives additional altitude coverage at 85 ± 12 km. The effects of clear-sky seasonal mean winter/summer conditions, zenith angle of the received atmospheric emission, and spectrometer frequency resolution on the altitude coverage, measurement uncertainty, and height and time resolution of the retrieved wind profiles have been determined.

  9. Waste Management: Cleanup costs of DOE sites to total at least $230 billion; Dry spent fuel storage planned for North Anna; NRC undertakes changes to HLW,LLW regulations

    It will take up to 75 years and between $230 billion and $350 billion to clean up the Department of Energy's former weapons productions facilities, according to the 1995 Baseline Environmental Management Report, issued on April 3, 1995. Thomas Grumbly, assistant secretary for environmental management, said that this is the most reliable estimate to date. Other estimates made in the past for the amount of time the cleanup would take were 30 years (the very rough estimate of former Environmental Restoration and Waste Management head Leo Duffy), and 50 years, an estimate mentioned last November during the American Nuclear Society's Winter Meeting by a DOE representative. Most of the cleanup costs would be expended over a 40-year period, but work at some sites would continue until 2070. Approximately 70 percent of the cleanup costs would go to clean up five sites; Hanford and Savannah River, 21 percent each; Rocky Flats, 10 percent; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 10 percent; and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 5 percent. The cost estimates are higher than the DOE's proposed budget for cleanup and environmental restoration, which has been around $6 billion a year. Nor do they include remediation of sites for which no viable cleanup technology exists (the Nevada Test Site and the U.S. Navy's nuclear propulsion facilities) or those plants that are still producing or disassembling nuclear weapons parts (such as the Pantex facility, near Amarillo, Tex.). Expenditures already made during the first five years of the cleanup program, estimated at $23 billion, are also not included in the new cost estimates. The DOE estimates that the total amount of radioactive waste that will result from the cleanup and requiring disposal will be around 33 million yd3

  10. Cogenetic late Pleistocene rhyolite and cumulate diorites from Augustine Volcano revealed by SIMS 238U-230Th dating of zircon, and implications for silicic magma generation by extraction from mush

    Coombs, Michelle L.; Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2014-12-01

    Volcano, a frequently active andesitic island stratocone, erupted a late Pleistocene rhyolite pumice fall that is temporally linked through zircon geochronology to cumulate dioritic blocks brought to the surface in Augustine's 2006 eruption. Zircon from the rhyolite yield a 238U-230Th age of ˜25 ka for their unpolished rims, and their interiors yield a bimodal age populations at ˜26 ka and a minority at ˜41 ka. Zircon from dioritic blocks, ripped from Augustine's shallow magmatic plumbing system and ejected during the 2006 eruption, have interiors defining a ˜26 ka age population that is indistinguishable from that for the rhyolite; unpolished rims on the dioritic zircon are dominantly younger (≤12 ka) indicating subsequent crystallization. Zircon from rhyolite and diorite overlap in U, Hf, Ti, and REE concentrations although diorites also contain a second population of high-U, high temperature grains. Andesites that brought dioritic blocks to the surface in 2006 contain zircon with young (≤9 ka) rims and a scattering of older ages, but few zircon that crystallized during the 26 ka interval. Both the Pleistocene-age rhyolite and the 2006 dioritic inclusions plot along a whole-rock compositional trend distinct from mid-Holocene-present andesites and dacites, and the diorites, rhyolite, and two early Holocene dacites define linear unmixing trends often oblique to the main andesite array and consistent with melt (rhyolite) extraction from a mush (dacites), leaving behind a cumulate amphibole-bearing residue (diorites). Rare zircon antecrysts up to ˜300 ka from all rock types indicate that a Quaternary center has been present longer than preserved surficial deposits.

  11. Magma mixing and the generation of isotopically juvenile silicic magma at Yellowstone caldera inferred from coupling 238U–230Th ages with trace elements and Hf and O isotopes in zircon and Pb isotopes in sanidine

    Stelten, Mark E.; Cooper, Kari M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Reid, Mary R.; Barfod, Gry H.; Wimpenny, Josh; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The nature of compositional heterogeneity within large silicic magma bodies has important implications for how silicic reservoirs are assembled and evolve through time. We examine compositional heterogeneity in the youngest (~170 to 70 ka) post-caldera volcanism at Yellowstone caldera, the Central Plateau Member (CPM) rhyolites, as a case study. We compare 238U–230Th age, trace-element, and Hf isotopic data from zircons, and major-element, Ba, and Pb isotopic data from sanidines hosted in two CPM rhyolites (Hayden Valley and Solfatara Plateau flows) and one extracaldera rhyolite (Gibbon River flow), all of which erupted near the caldera margin ca. 100 ka. The Hayden Valley flow hosts two zircon populations and one sanidine population that are consistent with residence in the CPM reservoir. The Gibbon River flow hosts one zircon population that is compositionally distinct from Hayden Valley flow zircons. The Solfatara Plateau flow contains multiple sanidine populations and all three zircon populations found in the Hayden Valley and Gibbon River flows, demonstrating that the Solfatara Plateau flow formed by mixing extracaldera magma with the margin of the CPM reservoir. This process highlights the dynamic nature of magmatic interactions at the margins of large silicic reservoirs. More generally, Hf isotopic data from the CPM zircons provide the first direct evidence for isotopically juvenile magmas contributing mass to the youngest post-caldera magmatic system and demonstrate that the sources contributing magma to the CPM reservoir were heterogeneous in 176Hf/177Hf at ca. 100 ka. Thus, the limited compositional variability of CPM glasses reflects homogenization occurring within the CPM reservoir, not a homogeneous source.

  12. 36 CFR 230.31 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ..., United States Department of Agriculture. Committee. The State Forest Stewardship Coordinating Committee... accounting period, used by the United States Government, from October 1 through September 30. Landowner. An... jointly prepares this plan with the State Forest Stewardship Coordinating Committee to facilitate...

  13. 32 CFR 230.4 - Policy.

    2010-07-01

    ... part and the applicable provisions of 32 CFR part 231. (3) Financial institutions or branches thereof... on DoD installations shall be provided logistic support as set forth in 32 CFR part 231. (6) Military... set forth in 32 CFR part 231. (b) The following additional provisions pertain only to...

  14. 33 CFR 230.5 - Responsible officials.

    2010-07-01

    ... policy issues. The Assistant Chief Counsel for Environmental Law and Regulatory Programs, HQUSACE (CECC-E... district commander also provides agency views on other agencies' environmental impact statements (EIS). The Office of Environmental Policy HQUSACE (CECW-RE) WASH DC 20314-1000 (phone number 202-272-0166) is...

  15. 40 CFR 230.3 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ...) or his delegated representative. (o) The term pollutant means dredged spoil, solid waste, incinerator... dirt, and industrial, municipal, and agricultural waste discharged into water. The legislative history... includes but is not limited to the substances on -the 307(a)(1) list of toxic pollutants -promulgated...

  16. 23 CFR 230.407 - Definitions.

    2010-04-01

    ... meanings set forth in 41 CFR 60-1.3(e) and 23 U.S.C. 101(a). References in both definitions to expenses or... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS Construction Contract..., but are not limited to, recruitment, hiring, promotion, upgrading, demotion, transfer,...

  17. 49 CFR 230.59 - Fusible plugs.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances... removed and cleaned of scale each time the boiler is washed but not less frequently than during every...

  18. 17 CFR 230.494 - Newspaper prospectuses.

    2010-04-01

    ... prospectuses relating to securities, as to which a registration statement has become effective, issued by a... newspaper prospectus means an advertisement of securities in newspapers, magazines or other...

  19. 22 CFR 230.02 - Definitions.

    2010-04-01

    ..., corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization... issue price (excluding any transaction costs) thereof; and (2) In the case of any Eligible Note...

  20. 48 CFR 230.201-5 - Waiver.

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements... Acquisition Policy, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics)— (1) May... be fair and reasonable without the application of the Cost Accounting Standards; and (iii) There...