WorldWideScience

Sample records for actinium 228

  1. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228

    The activities of 228Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide 228Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO2 and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter 228Ra(228Ac), the daughter nuclide 228Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by 228Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9±0.1% was measured for 228Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317±0.013 cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1 g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of 228Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for 228Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure 228Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid scintillation analysis is

  2. SCI 228

    http://chosecourses.com/sci-228-nutri-health-amp-wellness-midterm-exam

    2015-01-01

    SCI 228 Nutri, Health & Wellness Midterm Exam Purchase here http://chosecourses.com/sci-228-nutri-health-amp-wellness-midterm-exam     Product Description   SCI 228 Nutri, Health & Wellness Midterm Exam   (TCO 1) Which of the following nutrients is the most energy dense?   TCO 1) Which of the following are examples of carbohydrate-rich foods?   (TCO 1) What element makes protein different from carbohydra...

  3. Extraction of actinium with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid from hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions

    The extraction of actinium with HDEHP from Cl- and NO3- systems has been investigated. It was found that extraction of actinium from HCl solutions is much better than from HNO3 solutions. Stability constants of actinium complexes Ac(X-)+2 with Cl- and NO3- ligands were determined. Our results show that the actinium formed less stable complexes with Cl- than with NO3- ligands. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  4. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results

  5. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  6. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  7. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  8. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development. PMID:22697483

  9. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin

    The objective of this work was to establish a new procedure for 228Ra determination of natural waters via preconcentration of radium on MnO2 and separation of its daughter, 228Ac, using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Following removal of potential interferences via passage through an initial Diphonix Resin column, the first daughter of 228Ra, 228Ac, is isolated by chromatographic separation via a second Diphonix column. A holding time of >30 h for 228Ac ingrowth in between the two column separations ensures secular equilibrium. Barium-133 is used as a yield tracer. Actinium-228 is eluted from the second Diphonix Resin with 5 ml 1 M 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) and quantified by addition of scintillation cocktail and LSC counting. Radium (and 133Ba) from the load and rinse solutions from the 2nd Diphonix column may be prepared for alpha spectrometry (for determination of 223Ra, 224Ra, and 226Ra) by BaSO4 microprecipitation and filtration. Decontamination tests indicate that U, Th, and Ra series nuclides do not interfere with these measurements, although high contents of 90Sr (90Y) require additional treatment for accurate measurement of 228Ra. Addition of stable Sr as a 'hold back' carrier during the initial MnO2 preconcentration step was shown to remove most 90Sr interference

  10. Radium, thorium, and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manganese-oxide-coated fiber

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency with which improved manganese-oxide-coated acrylic fibers extract radium, thorium, and actinium from seawater. Tests were made using surface seawater spiked with 227Ac, 227Th and 223Ra. For sample volumes of approximately 30 liters and flow rates up to 0.5 liters per minute, radium and actinium are removed quantitatively. Approximately 80-95% of the thorium is removed under these same conditions. (Auth.)

  11. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  12. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces ∼100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 GeV protons

  13. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  14. AAS 228: Day 4

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  15. AAS 228: Day 4

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  16. Neutron-Induced Fission of Actinium-227, Protactinium-231 and Neptunium-237: Mass Distribution

    Results of radiochemical studies on the mass distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinium-227, protactinium-231 and neptunium-237 have been presented. This work has been carried out as part of a programme to determine the mass distribution in the fission of heavy elements as a function of Z and A. All irradiations have been carried out in the core of the swimming-pool type reactor APSARA with cadmium shielding wherever necessary. Relative yields of several fission product nuclides have been obtained by a method involving a comparison of the fission product activities from the respective targets with those formed from uranium-235 simultaneously irradiated. Thermal-neutron fission yields of uranium-235 have been assumed. These results indicate a predominantly asymmetric mass distribution in all the three cases, and also a distinct though small symmetric peak in the case of actinium-227. (author)

  17. A new method for the determination of low-level actinium-227 in geological samples

    We developed a new method for the determination of 227Ac in geological samples. The method uses extraction chromatographic techniques and alpha-spectrometry and is applicable for a range of natural matrices. Here we report on the procedure and results of the analysis of water (fresh and seawater) and rock samples. Water samples were acidified and rock samples underwent total dissolution via acid leaching. A DGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) extraction chromatographic column was used for the separation of actinium. The actinium fraction was prepared for alpha spectrometric measurement via cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. Recoveries of actinium in water samples were 80 ± 8 % (number of analyses n = 14) and in rock samples 70 ± 12 % (n = 30). The minimum detectable activities (MDA) were 0.017-0.5 Bq kg-1 for both matrices. Rock sample 227Ac activities ranged from 0.17 to 8.3 Bq kg-1 and water sample activities ranged from below MDA values to 14 Bq kg-1of 227Ac. From the analysis of several standard rock and water samples with the method we found very good agreement between our results and certified values. (author)

  18. 36 CFR 228.62 - Free use.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Free use. 228.62 Section 228... Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.62 Free use. (a) Application. An application for a free-use permit must be made with the appropriate District Ranger's office. (b) Term. Permits may...

  19. 48 CFR 228.106 - Administration.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 228.106 Section 228.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds 228.106 Administration....

  20. 40 CFR 98.228 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 98.228 Section 98.228 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.228 Definitions. All terms used in this subpart have...

  1. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    2010-04-01

    ... criteria for determining when U.S. flag air carriers are unavailable. See 48 CFR 47.403-1, or USAID... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation...

  2. 22 CFR 228.21 - Ocean transportation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocean transportation. 228.21 Section 228.21... for USAID Financing § 228.21 Ocean transportation. (a) The Cargo Preference Act of 1954, Section 901(b... transportation services is determined by the flag registry of the vessel. (1) When the authorized source...

  3. 33 CFR 2.28 - Contiguous zone.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contiguous zone. 2.28 Section 2.28 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.28 Contiguous zone. (a) For the purposes of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  4. 36 CFR 228.50 - Production records.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production records. 228.50 Section 228.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.50 Production records. At least annually,...

  5. 22 CFR 228.51 - Commodities.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commodities. 228.51 Section 228.51 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.51 Commodities. (a) Waiver criteria. Any waiver must be based...

  6. 49 CFR 228.23 - Criminal penalty.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal penalty. 228.23 Section 228.23..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Records and Reporting § 228.23 Criminal... criminal penalties of a fine up to $5,000, imprisonment for up to two years, or both, in accordance with...

  7. 22 CFR 228.34 - Joint ventures.

    2010-04-01

    ... Financing § 228.34 Joint ventures. A joint venture or unincorporated association is eligible only if each of... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint ventures. 228.34 Section 228.34 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES...

  8. 22 CFR 228.40 - Local procurement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local procurement. 228.40 Section 228.40... COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Local Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.40 Local procurement. Local procurement in the cooperating...

  9. 49 CFR 228.207 - Training.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training. 228.207 Section 228.207 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Electronic Recordkeeping § 228.207 Training. (a) In general. A railroad, or a contractor or subcontractor to a railroad, shall provide its train...

  10. 12 CFR 228.24 - Service test.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service test. 228.24 Section 228.24 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.24 Service test. (a) Scope of test. The service test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment area(s)...

  11. 12 CFR 228.22 - Lending test.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lending test. 228.22 Section 228.22 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment...

  12. 42 CFR 438.228 - Grievance systems.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grievance systems. 438.228 Section 438.228 Public... Operation Standards § 438.228 Grievance systems. (a) The State must ensure, through its contracts, that each MCO and PIHP has in effect a grievance system that meets the requirements of subpart F of this...

  13. 12 CFR 228.23 - Investment test.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment test. 228.23 Section 228.23 Banks... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  14. 49 CFR 228.21 - Civil penalty.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 228.21 Section 228.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Records and Reporting § 228.21 Civil... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation,...

  15. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  16. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  17. 50 CFR 665.228 - Gear identification.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear identification. 665.228 Section 665.228 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Gear identification. (a) The vessel number must be affixed to all fish and crab traps on board...

  18. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  19. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our

  20. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS—towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm − 1 which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  1. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our

  2. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  3. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  4. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session 2015 Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture: The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures (by Leonardo dos Santos)The first session on Wednesday at 228th AAS Meeting was the Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture by Heather Knutson (California Institute of Technology). This talk featured a broad range of research efforts on exoplanets, with the main focus on how we study the composition of their atmospheres, and how multi-body interactions carve the structure of the planetary systems we observe.One of her first points is the well-known idea that the Solar System is an oddball, compared to the exoplanet systems we have found so far: most of these systems contain hot Jupiters and mini-Neptunes at very close-in orbits around their host stars. Moreover, even when studying their transmission spectra, it is difficult to know the exact composition of their atmospheres.Knutson: it is difficult to constrain atmospheric composition of exoplanets (H-poor or H-rich+clouds?) #aas228pic.twitter.com/LdyN4o9RC7 astrobites (@astrobites) June 15, 2016The main proposal on how these systems formed is the migration scenario. In order to validate this idea, Dr. Knutson and her group The Friends of Hot Jupiters study systems with close-in gas giants and their frequency of binary companions, which are supposed to be the main culprits causing gas-giant migration. They found that approximately half of the observed systems have long-distance companions, providing strong validation of the migration scenario. Moreover, Dr. Knutson speculates that wide binaries have more

  5. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session: From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World(by Michael Zevin)In the conferences second plenary session, NASAs Daniel Irwin turned the eyes of the conference back to Earth by highlighting the huge impact that NASA missions play in protecting and developing our own planet.Daniel Irwin: using satellite imagery to detect differences in vegetation and find ancient Mayan cities. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9LFPQdCHTM astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Irwin came to be involved in NASA through his work mapping Guatemalan jungles, where he would spend 22 days at a time exploring the treacherous jungles on foot armed with a 1st generation GPS, a compass, and a machete. A colleague introduced Irwin to the satellite imagery thathe was exploring, demonstratinghow these images are a strong complement to field work. The sharing of this satellite data with nearby villages helped to show the encroachment of agriculture and the necessity of connecting space to the village. Satellite imagery also played a role in archeological endeavors, uncovering dozens of Mayan cities that have been buried for over a millennia by vegetation, and it provided evidence that the fall of the Mayan civilization may have been due to massive deforestation that ledto drought.Glacial retreat in Chile imaged by ISERV.Irwin displayed the constellation of NASAs Earth-monitoring satellites that have played an integral role in conserving our planet and alerting the world of natural disasters. He also showed

  6. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: Setting the Stage: Accepted Facts, and Testing Limitations in Theory and Data (by Gourav Khullar)With a stellar lineup of speakers to talk about current and future prospects of cosmology and its limits (or lack thereof), the first session kicked off with talks by Risa Wechsler, Joseph Silk, and Sean Carroll (his talk on Multiverses is described below, by Nathan Sanders). Risa set the stage with an elaborate description of the current accepted facts in the era of precision cosmology including the standard model of concordance cosmology, described by seven parameters and an accepted Lambda-CDM paradigm (with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter). The talk stressed on the fact that all these parameters are understood to a percent order precision, which is a remarkable deviation from the time in 1990s when according to Risa, Alan Guth never thought that any of these numbers could be measured precisely!Risa Wechsler describing our current constraints on what Dark Matter could constitute.Joseph Silk discussing limits on cosmological parameters.The CMB measurements, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis estimates and galaxy clustering statistics all contribute to locking down the description of our universe. She emphasized on the tensions between different probes to measure expansion rate H0 of the universe, and small scale predictions of cold dark matter simulations, but she is hopeful that these shall be resolved eventually. Joe Silk followed this up with his interpretation of trying to understand our place in the universe and placing limits on different parameters and

  7. FK228 from Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB43

    Xiang-Yang Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available FK228 [systematic name: (1S,4S,7Z,10S,16E,21R-7-ethylidene-4,21-di(propan-2-yl-2-oxa-12,13-dithia-5,8,20,23-tetrazabicyclo[8.7.6]tricos-16-ene-3,6,9,19,22-pentone], C24H36N4O6S2, also known as FR901228, depsipeptide, NSC 630176, romidepsin, and marketed as Istodax by Celgene Corporation, is crystallized from ethyl acetate in P21 as compared to the absolute configuration of FK228, first crystallized from methanol in P212121 [Shigematsu et al. (1994. J. Antibiot. 47, 311–314]. A slight difference is observed between the absolute configuration of FK228 and the present structure. The molecular structure is stabilized by intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, molecules are linked via N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  8. Preparation of (228)Ra standard solution.

    Havelka, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    For the preparation of a standard solution of (228)Ra, (228)Ra was isolated from (232)Th salt. Two simple methods were developed for Th-Ra separation. Both are based on a very good solubility of thorium nitrate in organic solvents. The first one used Ra co-precipitation with Pb in the form of Pb(NO3)2 from acetic acid solution. The second method was based on solvent extraction, remaining Th in the organic phase, while Ra was concentrated in the aqueous phase. The activity of (228)Ra (up to 20kBq) in the standard solution was related to the (232)Th standard by means of gamma ray spectrometry measurement. The obtained uncertainty was less than 0.7% (k=1). The standard solution was free of (232)Th and contained the carrier in the usual concentration (1gL(-1) BaCl2, 10gL(-1) HCl). PMID:26651171

  9. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session (Day 1) The Galaxy Zoo(by Benny Tsang)Galaxy Zoo was so hot that the servers hosting the galaxy images got melted down soon after being launched.Kevin Schawinski from ETH Zurich took us on a tour ofhis wonderful Galaxy Zoo. It is a huge zoo with about a quarter million zookeepers, they are citizen astronomers who collaboratively classify galaxies by their looks as an attempt to understand galaxy evolution. The big question that is being answered is: how do blue, actively star-forming galaxies evolve into red, quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies? The Zoo helped reveal that blue galaxies turn into red galaxies via two possible paths galaxies might run out of supply of gas and shut off star formation slowly; or they could merge with one another and turn off star formation by destroying the gas reservoir rapidly!The Galaxy Zoo project also led to the discoveries of:Green Peas: they are the living fossils of galaxy evolution; compact, bright, green galaxies that are actively forming starsOverlapping galaxies: they are pairs of galaxies that are separated physically but happen to lie on the same line of sight; they provide excellent laboratories for studying dust extinctionHannys Voorwerp: an unusual object named after Hanny the discoverer, which is believed to be the first detection of quasar light echoThe idea of Galaxy Zoo in getting help from citizen scientists was further extended into an award-winningproject known as the Zooniverse, which is an online platform for streamlined crowd-sourcing for scientific research that requires human input. The future of astronomy is going to be

  10. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  11. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: Setting the Stage: Accepted Facts, and Testing Limitations in Theory and Data (by Gourav Khullar)With a stellar lineup of speakers to talk about current and future prospects of cosmology and its limits (or lack thereof), the first session kicked off with talks by Risa Wechsler, Joseph Silk, and Sean Carroll (his talk on Multiverses is described below, by Nathan Sanders). Risa set the stage with an elaborate description of the current accepted facts in the era of precision cosmology including the standard model of concordance cosmology, described by seven parameters and an accepted Lambda-CDM paradigm (with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter). The talk stressed on the fact that all these parameters are understood to a percent order precision, which is a remarkable deviation from the time in 1990s when according to Risa, Alan Guth never thought that any of these numbers could be measured precisely!Risa Wechsler describing our current constraints on what Dark Matter could constitute.Joseph Silk discussing limits on cosmological parameters.The CMB measurements, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis estimates and galaxy clustering statistics all contribute to locking down the description of our universe. She emphasized on the tensions between different probes to measure expansion rate H0 of the universe, and small scale predictions of cold dark matter simulations, but she is hopeful that these shall be resolved eventually. Joe Silk followed this up with his interpretation of trying to understand our place in the universe and placing limits on different parameters and

  12. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session (Day 1) The Galaxy Zoo(by Benny Tsang)Galaxy Zoo was so hot that the servers hosting the galaxy images got melted down soon after being launched.Kevin Schawinski from ETH Zurich took us on a tour ofhis wonderful Galaxy Zoo. It is a huge zoo with about a quarter million zookeepers, they are citizen astronomers who collaboratively classify galaxies by their looks as an attempt to understand galaxy evolution. The big question that is being answered is: how do blue, actively star-forming galaxies evolve into red, quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies? The Zoo helped reveal that blue galaxies turn into red galaxies via two possible paths galaxies might run out of supply of gas and shut off star formation slowly; or they could merge with one another and turn off star formation by destroying the gas reservoir rapidly!The Galaxy Zoo project also led to the discoveries of:Green Peas: they are the living fossils of galaxy evolution; compact, bright, green galaxies that are actively forming starsOverlapping galaxies: they are pairs of galaxies that are separated physically but happen to lie on the same line of sight; they provide excellent laboratories for studying dust extinctionHannys Voorwerp: an unusual object named after Hanny the discoverer, which is believed to be the first detection of quasar light echoThe idea of Galaxy Zoo in getting help from citizen scientists was further extended into an award-winningproject known as the Zooniverse, which is an online platform for streamlined crowd-sourcing for scientific research that requires human input. The future of astronomy is going to be

  13. 48 CFR 3052.228-70 - Insurance.

    2010-10-01

    ... of Provisions and Clauses 3052.228-70 Insurance. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3028.310-70 and 3028... liability. The contractor shall, as a minimum, meet the requirements specified at (FAR) 48 CFR 28.307-2(a...) 48 CFR 28.307-2(b). (c) Automobile liability. The contractor shall, as a minimum, meet...

  14. 36 CFR 228.12 - Access.

    2010-07-01

    ... Minerals § 228.12 Access. An operator is entitled to access in connection with operations, but no road... other means of access, including but not limited to off-road vehicles, be used until the operator has... forest surface resources, including measures to protect scenic values and to insure against erosion...

  15. Dicty_cDB: SFI228 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFI228 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16243-1 SFI228P (Link to Original ... ygywssrcnssrlktswshh*ryrrf*nq*sfcfssilql*gfgfgyeqs*skw ... lwyrfrssircywcpsngyhfkritss*r*iwcnxxmcigta*gaa Hom ...

  16. 32 CFR 228.15 - Restriction regarding animals.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction regarding animals. 228.15 Section 228.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.15 Restriction regarding animals. No animals...

  17. 22 CFR 228.52 - Suppliers of commodities.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suppliers of commodities. 228.52 Section 228.52... COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.52 Suppliers of commodities. Geographic code changes authorized by waiver with respect to the source of commodities automatically apply to the nationality...

  18. 32 CFR 228.10 - Prohibition on alcohol.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on alcohol. 228.10 Section 228.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.10 Prohibition on alcohol. Entering or being on protected...

  19. 32 CFR 228.14 - Prohibition on gambling.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on gambling. 228.14 Section 228.14...) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.14 Prohibition on gambling. Participating in games for money or other personal property, or the operating of gambling devices, the conduct of a lottery, or the...

  20. 48 CFR 52.228-14 - Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

    2010-10-01

    ... Credit. 52.228-14 Section 52.228-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....228-14 Irrevocable Letter of Credit. As prescribed in 28.204-4, insert the following clause: Irrevocable Letter of Credit (DEC 1999) (a) “Irrevocable letter of credit” (ILC), as used in this...

  1. 36 CFR 223.228 - Contents of advertisement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of advertisement. 223.228 Section 223.228 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.228 Contents of advertisement. The...

  2. Search for β-delayed fission of 228Ac

    Radium was radiochemically separated from natural thorium. Thin 228Ra→β-228Ac sources were prepared and exposed to mica fission track detectors, and measured by an HPGe γ-ray detector. The β-delayed fission events of 228Ac were observed and its β-delayed fission probability was found to be (5±2)x10-12

  3. 228Ra and 228Th concentrations in GEOSECS Atlantic surface waters

    An average 228Ra flux of 0.6 +- 0.1 dpm cm-2yr-1 from continental shelf sediments can maintain the estimated total 228Ra inventory of about 5x1017 dpm in Atlantic surface waters. By fitting 228Ra and potential temperature data to Munk's vertical advection-diffusion model, upwelling rates of 17 +- 10 m yr-1 and vertical eddy diffusion coefficients of 0.4 +- 0.2 cm2s-1 were obtained in the upper water column of the equatorial Atlantic. The downward fluxes of particulate 228Th across the 350-m water depth are about 0.01 to 0.04 dpm cm-2 yr-1 in the Sargasso Sea and in the regions south of 120N and about 0.06 to 0.11 dpm cm-2 yr-1 in the northern temperate region (excluding the Sargasso Sea). The shorter half-removal time of 228Th in the equatorial (100S to 200N) and the northern region (350 to 650N) are related to higher biological productivity there. (author)

  4. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    A technique of selenium purification from 232Th, 238U, 226,228Ra, 227Ac and 40K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  5. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz); Warot, G. [CEA-CNRS, Modane (France). Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM); Karaivanov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), Sofia (Bulgaria); Kochetov, O.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Filosofov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Sadikov, I.I. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz)

    2013-07-01

    A technique of selenium purification from {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 227}Ac and {sup 40}K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  6. 20 CFR 228.18 - Reduction for public pension.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for public pension. 228.18 Section... COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.18 Reduction for public pension. (a) The... receipt of a public pension. (b) When reduction is required. Unless the survivor annuitant meets one...

  7. 22 CFR 228.14 - Nationality of suppliers of commodities.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nationality of suppliers of commodities. 228.14... NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Commodity Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.14 Nationality of suppliers of commodities....

  8. 22 CFR 228.11 - Source and origin of commodities.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Source and origin of commodities. 228.11... NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Commodity Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.11 Source and origin of commodities. (a)...

  9. 48 CFR 752.228-9 - Cargo insurance.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo insurance. 752.228-9... insurance. As prescribed in 728.313(a), the following preface is to be used preceding the text of the clause at FAR 52.228-9: Preface: To the extent that marine insurance is necessary or appropriate under...

  10. 42 CFR 414.228 - Prosthetic and orthotic devices.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic devices. 414.228 Section 414.228 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment...

  11. 50 CFR 228.18 - Cross-examination.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-examination. 228.18 Section 228.18...-examination. (a) The presiding officer may: (1) Require the cross-examiner to outline the intended scope of the cross-examination; (2) Prohibit parties from cross-examining witnesses unless the...

  12. 20 CFR 228.15 - Reduction for age.

    2010-04-01

    ... multiplied by the number of months before the annuitant attains full retirement age (presently age 65... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for age. 228.15 Section 228.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION...

  13. Dicty_cDB: SSD228 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSD228 (Link to dictyBase) - G20270 DDB0206164 Contig-U04309-1 SSD228F (Lin ... mlvlm*meliivsnnhyhtllhhlkd*smsvisn*vqfnvicf q*iqvi*vtl --- Frame B: tnkikkkknkqkkkkkkkneiiiifnfsndncikll*i ...

  14. 48 CFR 252.228-7001 - Ground and flight risk.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ground and flight risk... of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7001 Ground and flight risk. As prescribed in 228.370(b), use the following clause: Ground and Flight Risk (JUN 2010) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1)...

  15. 22 CFR 228.23 - Eligibility of marine insurance.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility of marine insurance. 228.23 Section...-Related Services for USAID Financing § 228.23 Eligibility of marine insurance. The eligibility of marine... a cooperating country discriminates against marine insurance companies authorized to do business...

  16. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics. 795.228 Section 795.228 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... sex. If feasible, the same low dose should be used for intravenous, oral, and dermal studies. (B)...

  17. Transfer of radium-228, thorium-228 and radium-226 from forage to cattle and reindeer

    Concentrations of radium-228, thorium-228 and radium-226 were measured in different natural forage materials and in feed supplements. The activity concentrations of these nuclides were then determined in the bones of domestic farm animals, with emphasis on their distributions within the skeleton and humerus. Feeds added in recent years to the forage of domestic animals alter the concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides. The modified daily radium uptakes associated with the various feeds are reflected in the radium concentrations observed in the different layers of the humerus. Radium uptake and retention are highly dependent on calcium metabolism. We propose a method for calculation of nuclide retention coefficients via an approach which simplifies their assessment and provides important information on radium metabolism. The data obtained here are of value in dosimetric assessments related to these natural radionuclides. (author)

  18. Determination of radium-228 in foods and water

    A procedure was developed for the rapid determination of 228Ra by measuring its decay product 228Ac. The method is applicable to a variety of types of samples such as food and water. Food samples can be prepared by dry- or wet-ashing techniques. The 228Ac is precipitated with lanthanum carrier, dissolved, purified by solvent extraction, and finally decontaminated on anion and cation exchange resins. The 228Ac is counted in a thin-window, low-level gas flow beta counter. It may be necessary to count the sample several times to follow the 6 h half-life of 228Ac so that its purity is ensured. The method is sensitive to 1 pCi/sample of food ash and to 1 pCi/L of water. (author)

  19. Determination of 228Th, 232Th, and228Ra in wild mushroom from a naturally high radioactive region in Brazil

    Mushrooms are fungi which efficiently accumulate radionuclides, as verified by radiochemistry analyses of specimens collected in contaminated areas, specifically after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Many studies have demonstrated that mushrooms can be used in monitoring of ecosystem contamination and quality. The present paper is part of a broader study conducted in the Pocos de Caldas plateau region in Minas Gerais, Brazil, investigating assimilation of natural Uranium and Thorium radionuclide series by mushrooms. This region has elevated natural radioactivity due to the presence of radiological anomalies of volcanic origin. These anomalies are ore bodies containing Uranium and Thorium, the later being highly predominant. Many researchers have been conducted concerning radionuclide incorporation by agricultural products on the plateau. The present paper aims to determine 232Th, 228Th, and 228Ra radionuclides in wild mushrooms collected at different locations in the plateau region. 228Ra was determined by radiochemical separation using sulphate coprecipitation followed by beta radiometry. 232Th and 228Th were determined using anion exchange resin purification followed by alpha spectrometry. Higher values were obtained to 228Th than to 232Th. This is due to higher 228Ra mobility, which decays to 228Th. The accuracy of the analytical methods employed was evaluated using the reference sample IAEA Soil 327. These methods had high chemical recovery and high sensitivity. It was possible to confirm that mushrooms accumulate radionuclide and so can be used in environmental contamination and quality assessment. (author)

  20. Assessment of the equilibrium of Th-228 and Ra-228 by gamma-ray spectrometry in mangrove soils

    The mangrove environment consists of soil containing high organic matter, characterized by the influence of continental and oceanic waters, relatively high concentrations of salts and exuberant vegetation. Mangroves also present high dynamics of chemical compound cycling, in which soils become quite relevant due to the influence of continental and oceanic sediments. Taking into account the different sources and transport of radionuclides within the mangrove environment, this study focused at the radioactive equilibrium of Thorium-232 series radionuclides, especially the Ra-228 and Thorium-228. For this, soil samples were collected in the crown projection of tree species from two mangroves located in the municipalities of Olinda/Recife and Rio Formoso, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The material was oven-dried and milled and test portions of 38 g were transferred to cylindrical vials and sealed. After 30 days, the natural radioactivity was measured during 80,000 seconds using High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry with a germanium detector of 2.2 keV of resolution at the 1,332 keV Co-60 photopeak. For Ra-228 determination, 911 keV gamma-ray line (Ac-228) were employed, while 238 keV (Pb-212) and 727 keV (Bi-212) were considered for estimating activity concentrations of Th-228. As a result, Ra-228 and Th 228 were in equilibrium since the activity concentrations (ranging from 35 Bq/kg to 50 Bq/kg) were not significantly different at the 95% confidence level. The results have confirmed that, even for environments of high dynamics such as mangroves, radioactive equilibrium of Th-228 and Ra-228 was kept, corroborating Th-232 determination in mangrove soils. (author)

  1. Assessment of the equilibrium of Th-228 and Ra-228 by gamma-ray spectrometry in mangrove soils

    Paiva, Jose Daniel S.; Farias, Emerson E.G.; Franca, Elvis J. De, E-mail: paivajds@gmail.com, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The mangrove environment consists of soil containing high organic matter, characterized by the influence of continental and oceanic waters, relatively high concentrations of salts and exuberant vegetation. Mangroves also present high dynamics of chemical compound cycling, in which soils become quite relevant due to the influence of continental and oceanic sediments. Taking into account the different sources and transport of radionuclides within the mangrove environment, this study focused at the radioactive equilibrium of Thorium-232 series radionuclides, especially the Ra-228 and Thorium-228. For this, soil samples were collected in the crown projection of tree species from two mangroves located in the municipalities of Olinda/Recife and Rio Formoso, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The material was oven-dried and milled and test portions of 38 g were transferred to cylindrical vials and sealed. After 30 days, the natural radioactivity was measured during 80,000 seconds using High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry with a germanium detector of 2.2 keV of resolution at the 1,332 keV Co-60 photopeak. For Ra-228 determination, 911 keV gamma-ray line (Ac-228) were employed, while 238 keV (Pb-212) and 727 keV (Bi-212) were considered for estimating activity concentrations of Th-228. As a result, Ra-228 and Th 228 were in equilibrium since the activity concentrations (ranging from 35 Bq/kg to 50 Bq/kg) were not significantly different at the 95% confidence level. The results have confirmed that, even for environments of high dynamics such as mangroves, radioactive equilibrium of Th-228 and Ra-228 was kept, corroborating Th-232 determination in mangrove soils. (author)

  2. 40 CFR 228.6 - Specific criteria for site selection.

    2010-07-01

    ... with shipping, fishing, recreation, mineral extraction, desalination, fish and shellfish culture, areas... statement is required by EPA policy. By publication of a notice in accordance with this part 228,...

  3. Dicty_cDB: CHI228 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHI228 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16517-1 - (Link to Original site) ... *edmqvqv* ekviy*elkiffhlqevllnvvykvfqifilninhyymif*ivf *rtn*kkplihtyqql nqerdhkm*lylwlvvslmkrh*pftllil*ilv ...

  4. 36 CFR 228.61 - Preference right negotiated sales.

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial production occurs during any continuous 2-year period after the award of the contract or if the... AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.61 Preference...

  5. Dicty_cDB: SFC228 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFC228 (Link to dictyBase) - G01768 DDB0218080 Contig-U03237-1...brary) Clone ID SFC228 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G01768 dictyBase ID DDB0218080 Link to Contig ...Contig-U03237-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SF/SFC2-...LTGCFHKRVVCDDND KCTDNICNPETGTCXFRRRICTDNNDCTMD--- ---ICTDNNDCTMDWCNQLTGECVYQPVLVC...KIKLCQIKMMIILLFIIFIQLGNCQLENKTNATTTTTTR YCNNDESCNDENLCTNEMCDPVIGCIYENISCDDDNGCTKDFCDPLTGCFHKRVVCDDND KCTDNICNPETGTCXFRRRICT

  6. 48 CFR 252.228-7000 - Reimbursement for war-hazard losses.

    2010-10-01

    ...-hazard losses. 252.228-7000 Section 252.228-7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7000 Reimbursement for war-hazard losses. As prescribed in 228.370(a), use the following clause: Reimbursement for War-Hazard Losses (DEC 1991) (a) Costs...

  7. New method for large scale production of medically applicable Actinium-225 and Radium-223

    Alpha-emitters (211At, 212Bi, 213Bi, 223Ra, 225Ac) are promising for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. Only two alpha decays near a cell membrane result in 50% death of cancer cell and only a single decay inside the cell is required for this. 225Ac may be used either directly or as a mother radionuclide in 213Bi isotope generator. Production of 225Ac is provided by three main suppliers - Institute for Transuranium Elements in Germany, Oak Ridge National Laboratory in USA and Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in Obninsk, Russia. The current worldwide production of 225Ac is approximately 1.7 Ci per year that corresponds to only 100-200 patients that could be treated annually. The common approach for 225Ac production is separation from mother 229Th or irradiation of 226Ra with protons in a cyclotron. Both the methods have some practical limitations to be applied routinely. 225Ac can be also produced by irradiation of natural thorium with medium energy protons . Cumulative cross sections of 225Ac, 227Ac, 227Th, 228Th formations have been obtained recently. Thorium targets (1-9 g) were irradiated by 114-91 MeV proton beam (1-50 μA) at INR linear accelerator. After dissolution in 8 M HNO3 + 0.004 M HF thorium was removed by double LLX by HDEHP in toluene (1:1). Ac and REE were pre-concentrated and separated from Ra and most fission products by DGA-Resin (Triskem). After washing out by 0.01 M HNO3 Ac was separated from REE by TRU Resin (Triskem) in 3 M HNO3 media. About 6 mCi 225Ac were separated in hot cell with chemical yield 85%. The method may be upscaled for production of Ci amounts of the radionuclide. The main impurity is 227Ac (0.1% at the EOB) but it does not hinder 225Ac from being used for medical 225Ac/213Bi generators. (author)

  8. 226Ra i 228Ra in Croatian Rivers

    Results of 226Ra and 228Ra in Croatian river waters are presented in this paper. The presence of natural radionuclides in the Croatian rivers emphasizes the need for continuous monitoring. 226Ra and 228Ra were chosen as a possible source of human exposure to radioactivity due to their high radio-toxicity. River water samples (50 L) were collected from the Danube, Drava, Sava, Krka and Neretva rivers twice a year from 2002 to 2006. Activity concentrations of 226Ra ranged from 6.54 mBq L-1 to 59.44 mBq L-1 and 228Ra activity concentrations ranged from 2.57 mBq L-1 to 20.76 mBq L-1. The highest values of both 226Ra and 228Ra were measured in the Drava river, and the lowest values in the Sava river. Statistically significant differences were not observed between radium concentrations from two watersheds (the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea watershed), nor between 226Ra/228Ra ratio in rivers individually. The number of collected samples is insufficient to make statistically significant conclusions. Further investigation is necessary to obtain larger number of samples. However, the data obtained in this study could be the baseline for evaluating possible future changes.(author)

  9. Light output of EJ228 scintillation neutron detectors

    Stevanato, L., E-mail: luca.stevanato@pd.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Fabris, D. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Hao, Xin [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simon-Bolivar, Laboratorio Fisica Nuclear, Apartado 8900, 1080 A. Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    The light output of neutron detectors based on the plastic scintillator EJ228 is studied as a function of neutron energy using a time tagged {sup 252}Cf source. Calibration of the light output scale is performed by fitting the experimental distribution of Compton scattering events of photons from a {sup 22}Na source with a response function obtained by Gaussian smearing of the predicted line-shape. The light output curve as well as the pulse height resolution for the EJ228 scintillators is very close (within 5%) to those recently reported for NE213 type organic liquid scintillators.

  10. Gamma spectrometry used for analysis of 228Ra in water

    A methodology for determination of the natural isotope 228Ra in water by using the characterization of the underground and superficial waters from thorium an rare earths mineralization at Morro do Ferro, Pocos de Caldas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The values determined for the 228Ra in water from 5 logging holes ranged from 0.5 to 391.2 pCi/l and the superficial waters presented a variation of 1.0 to 13.9 pCi/l

  11. 48 CFR 1352.228-70 - Insurance coverage.

    2010-10-01

    ... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.228-70 Insurance coverage. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(a), insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (APR 2010... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage....

  12. 36 CFR 228.48 - Appraisal and measurement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal and measurement... MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.48 Appraisal and measurement. (a) Appraisal... weight equivalent. In all cases the units of measurement must correspond to the units used in...

  13. 48 CFR 52.228-9 - Cargo Insurance.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Insurance. 52.228-9... Insurance. As prescribed in 28.313(a), insert the following clause: Cargo Insurance (MAY 1999) (a) The..., cargo insurance of $_____ per vehicle to cover the value of property on each vehicle and of $_____...

  14. 48 CFR 452.228-71 - Insurance Coverage.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance Coverage. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.228-71 Insurance Coverage. As prescribed in 428.310, insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (NOV 1996) Pursuant...

  15. 48 CFR 3452.228-70 - Required insurance.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required insurance. 3452... 3452.228-70 Required insurance. As prescribed in 3428.370, insert the following clause in all solicitations and resultant cost-reimbursement contracts: Required Insurance (AUG 1987) (a) The contractor...

  16. 32 CFR 228.16 - Soliciting, vending, and debt collection.

    2010-07-01

    ... Raising Within the Federal Service,” issued by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management under Executive Order 12353, 47 FR 12785, 3 CFR, 1982 Comp., p. 139, or by other federal laws or regulations; and (b... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.16 Soliciting, vending, and debt...

  17. 36 CFR 228.108 - Surface use requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ...) Control water runoff; (iii) Remove, or control, solid wastes, toxic substances, and hazardous substances... resources. The operator shall treat or dispose of produced water, drilling fluid, and other waste generated... MINERALS Oil and Gas Resources Authorization of Occupancy within A Leasehold § 228.108 Surface...

  18. 40 CFR 228.9 - Disposal site monitoring.

    2010-07-01

    ... that changes in frequency or scope are necessary or desirable, trend assessment and baseline surveys... FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.9 Disposal site monitoring. (a) The... appropriate, may include baseline or trend assessment surveys by EPA, NOAA, other Federal agencies,...

  19. 4 CFR 22.8 - General Discovery Procedures [Rule 8].

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.8 General Discovery Procedures . (a) General policy and methods of... admissions; and requests for production of documents, electronically stored information, other tangible..., electronically stored information, or other tangible things, and the identity and location of persons...

  20. 36 CFR 228.11 - Prevention and control of fire.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention and control of... AGRICULTURE MINERALS Locatable Minerals § 228.11 Prevention and control of fire. Operator shall comply with... prevent and suppress fires on the area of operations and shall require his employees, contractors...

  1. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft flight risks. 1852... 1852.228-71 Aircraft flight risks. (a) As prescribed in 1828.311-2, insert the following clause: Aircraft Flight Risks (DEC 1988) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract...

  2. 48 CFR 52.228-11 - Pledges of Assets.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pledges of Assets. 52.228... Pledges of Assets. As prescribed in 28.203-6, insert the following clause: Pledges of Assets (SEP 2009) (a... bond, or a payment bond— (1) Pledge of assets; and (2) Standard Form 28, Affidavit of Individual...

  3. Separation of 228Ra (Ms Th 1) from thorium nitrate

    Treatment of 135 kg of thorium nitrate (purified and recrystallized in 1958) has been made for extraction of 228Ra in equilibrium. Elimination of the preponderant part of thorium by solvent extraction (TBP) and last purification by chromatography (Dowex 50 W X 8 and 1 X 8). Total yield was about (38 ± 4) per cent. (authors)

  4. Unexpectedly high activity of 228Th in excretion samples following consumption of Brazil nuts

    A worker provided a routine faecal sample for plutonium and americium analysis. In the course of this analysis 500 mBq of 228Th was discovered. There seemed no credible occupational route for intake of thorium. Further investigation revealed that the worker consumed ∼25 g d-1 of nuts, including Brazil nuts. A sample of these nuts was analysed and found to contain activities of 228Th in sufficient quantity to account for the faecal activity. However, follow-up urine samples taken from the worker showed 0.6-0.7 mBq of 228Th. The intake of 228Th via nuts is insufficient to account for this activity in urine. However, it is likely that the intake of 228Th was accompanied by similar activity of the parent 228Ra, and biokinetic calculations show that decay of 228Ra in vivo would produce sufficient 228Th to account for the observed urine activity. (authors)

  5. BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Th-228 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 228Th

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Lucas, L.; Kossert, K.; Nähle, O.; Ott, O.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1986, two national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted two samples of known activity of 228Th to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Th-228. The values of the activity submitted were about 300 kBq and 2 MBq. A key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been evaluated for the first time for 228Th. There is only one result remaining in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Th-228 comparison, the 1986 NIST result being outdated. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Marine radioactivity concentration in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Peninsular Malaysia. 226Ra, 228Ra and 228Ra/226Ra

    The present occurrence of 226Ra and 228Ra in marine sediment core and fish from the Exclusive Economic Zone in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia were studied. Sediment core and biota in respectively was collected using multicorer device and purchased from local fishermen at identified stations during the cruise expedition conducted in 2008. The purpose of this study was to determine and to make available an inventory of activity concentration levels and activity ratio for these radionuclides in this region. The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra in sediment core and edible part of fish were ranged between 15.9-46.5 and 27.7-87.1 Bq/kg dry wt and; 0.80-2.13 and 228Ra/226Ra in sediment core and fish were varied with the range between 1.63-2.09 and 0.45-2.38, respectively. Refer to those ranges the activity concentrations of radium isotopes were comparable with other region. Thus, it can be concluded that the occurrence of radium isotopes mainly supplied from terrestrial sources and the factors of assimilation efficiency and transfer coefficient of radium may probably effect to the variation activity concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra and its activity ratio in edible part of pelagic and demersal fish obtained in this study. (author)

  7. 48 CFR 1452.228-72 - Liability for Loss or Damage-Department of the Interior.

    2010-10-01

    ... Damage-Department of the Interior. 1452.228-72 Section 1452.228-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1452.228-72 Liability for Loss or Damage—Department of the Interior. As prescribed...

  8. 226Ra and 228Ra activities in French foodstuffs

    The activities of 228Ac and 214Bi in French foodstuffs acquired during the last 15 years allow one to obtain reference values of 228Ra and 226Ra activities which are usable to assess the dose to the French population due to the intake of these two natural radionuclides. As expected, because of similar 238U and 232Th activities in French soils (around 40 Bq.kg-1), the 226Ra/228Ra activity ratio in French terrestrial foodstuffs is close to 1. Most kinds of foodstuffs present similar mean activities: from 0.1 to 0.2 Bq.kg-1 fresh for cereals, leafy vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and fishes (marine and freshwater). The activity in fruits is lower, around 0.05 Bq.kg-1, similar to that of meat calculated on the basis of the numerous grass measurement results. The lowest activities are noticeable for milk: around 0.015 Bq.L-1. All these values are in good agreement with the data from various countries, but most often 2 to 3 times higher than the reference values proposed by UNSCEAR. This study also shows that due to the large variability of foodstuff activities reported by a large amount of data, it is not possible to distinguish the activities of samples from regions with a gap of only a factor of 2 between their soil activities. (authors)

  9. Determination of shell deposition rates of Arctica islandica from the New York Bight using natural 228Ra and 228Th and bomb-produced 14C

    Shell deposition rates of specimens of Arctica islandica (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the New York Bight were determined using natural 228Ra and 228Th and bomb 14C. The specimens from deep (>55 m) offshore waters show annual growth banding. A shell obtained from the inner bight at <30-m depth seems to be younger than indicated by band counting

  10. Determination of {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}Th, and{sup 228}Ra in wild mushroom from a naturally high radioactive region in Brazil

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Silva, Marco A.; Ferreira, Marcelo T., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: masilva@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: ferreira@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. of Pocos de Caldas; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.gov.b [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Mushrooms are fungi which efficiently accumulate radionuclides, as verified by radiochemistry analyses of specimens collected in contaminated areas, specifically after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Many studies have demonstrated that mushrooms can be used in monitoring of ecosystem contamination and quality. The present paper is part of a broader study conducted in the Pocos de Caldas plateau region in Minas Gerais, Brazil, investigating assimilation of natural Uranium and Thorium radionuclide series by mushrooms. This region has elevated natural radioactivity due to the presence of radiological anomalies of volcanic origin. These anomalies are ore bodies containing Uranium and Thorium, the later being highly predominant. Many researchers have been conducted concerning radionuclide incorporation by agricultural products on the plateau. The present paper aims to determine {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 228}Ra radionuclides in wild mushrooms collected at different locations in the plateau region. {sup 228}Ra was determined by radiochemical separation using sulphate coprecipitation followed by beta radiometry. {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Th were determined using anion exchange resin purification followed by alpha spectrometry. Higher values were obtained to {sup 228}Th than to {sup 232}Th. This is due to higher {sup 228}Ra mobility, which decays to {sup 228}Th. The accuracy of the analytical methods employed was evaluated using the reference sample IAEA Soil 327. These methods had high chemical recovery and high sensitivity. It was possible to confirm that mushrooms accumulate radionuclide and so can be used in environmental contamination and quality assessment. (author)

  11. Low-level deterrmination of skeletal 228Ra and 228Th in the presence of gross amounts of 226Ra

    A method is described for determining 228Th (and hence 228Ra) in small samples of human bone when accompanied by many times as much 226Ra. Such determinations are needed for the radiation dosimetry of skeletally-deposited radium 30-50 years after intake of mixtures in unknown proportions of the two isotopes of radium. The only preparation of the bone sample is ashing and dissolution in nitric acid. The short-lived radioactive gas, 220Rn (54.5 seconds), is de-emanated from the solution with nitrogen, which carries it into a 3.8-litre collection chamber. Positively charged ions of 216Po and 212Pb produced by the decay of the 220Rn during its stay in the chamber are collected on a negatively charged electrode in the form of a copper disk, to which is cemented a zinc sulphide phosphor-coated Mylar disk. De-emanation and ion collection continue for up to 24 hours. The electrode is then removed and presented to a second phosphor disk on the window of a photo-multiplier tube. Alpha particles from the collected radioactivity are thus counted with almost 4π geometry, and an initial efficiency is obtained of about 0.3 count per disintegration of 228Th in the solution. Positively charged ions of 218Po and 214Pb from the decay of some 222Rn in the chamber are also collected. The overall efficiency for this is much lower than for the collection of the daughters of 220Rn but, because of the much higher activity of the 226Ra, the initial counting rate is primarily due to its daughters. To make maximum use of all the counting data, they are analysed by a computer method of least squares. In routine use, de-emanation for 1400 minutes, followed by counting for 1400 minutes, permits the measurement of a few tens of fCi of 228Th. The need for correct weighting of very low counting rates is demonstrated. (author)

  12. An implanted $^{228}$Ra source for response characterization of bolometers

    TeO$_{2}$ crystals are used as bolometers in experiments searching for $\\beta-\\beta$- decay without emission of neutrinos. One of the most important issues in this extremely delicate kind of experiments is the discrimination of the background from the real signal. A deep knowledge of the bolometric response to $\\alpha$-particles is therefore needed to recognize and discard them, since it has been proven that $\\alpha$-contamination could be a major contribution in our background budget. We would like to use ISOLDE’s capability of implanting $^{228}$Ra to make a long-lived source feeding several monochromatic $\\alpha$- and recoiling nuclei, with little or no $\\alpha$-peak broadening due to the source itself, for tests of our detectors in Milano and Gran Sasso INFN National Lab

  13. 48 CFR 228.307 - Insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. 228.307 Section 228.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION....307 Insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts....

  14. 49 CFR 1544.228 - Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the...

    2010-10-01

    ... threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. 1544.228 Section 1544.228 Transportation... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.228 Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments... paragraph (b) of this section— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat...

  15. Activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra in drilled well water in Finland

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra in drinking water were determined in water samples from 176 drilled wells. 226Ra activity concentrations were in the range of -1 and 228Ra activity concentrations in the range of -1. The mean activity concentration of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were 0.041 and 0.034 Bq l-1, respectively. High radium activity concentrations in drinking water were rare. Only 2-4% of the drilled wells exceeded a 226Ra concentration of 0.5 Bq l-1 and 1-2% of the wells exceeded a 228Ra concentration of 0.2 Bq l-1. These are the activity concentrations that cause a 0.1 mSv annual effective dose for users of drinking water. The maximum annual effective doses from 226Ra and 228Ra for users of drilled wells were 0.21 mSv, and 0.16 mSv respectively. The elevated activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra did not occur simultaneously in the same groundwaters and the correlation between 226Ra and 228Ra was small. (authors)

  16. 228Ra and 226Ra measurement on a BaSO4 co-precipitation source

    One of the most commonly-used methods for determination of 226Ra, particularly in water samples, utilises co-precipitation of Ra with BaSO4, followed by microfiltration to produce a source for alpha counting. This paper describes two extensions to BaSO4 co-precipitation methods which enable determination of 228Ra using the same source. The adaptations presented here do not introduce any contaminants that will affect the separation of radium or alpha counting for 226Ra, and can be used for re-analysis of already existing sources prepared by BaSO4 co-precipitation. The first adaptation uses detection of 228Ac on the source by gamma spectrometry. The detection efficiency is high, allowing analysis of water samples at sufficiently low activity to be suitable in testing for compliance with drinking water quality standards. As 228Ac grows in quickly, taking less than 2 days to reach equilibrium with the 228Ra parent, this can also be useful in radiological emergency response situations. The second adaptation incorporates a method for the digestion of BaSO4 sources, allowing separation of thorium and subsequent determination of 228Th activity. Although ingrowth periods for 228Th can be lengthy, very low detection limits for 228Ra can be achieved with this technique. - Highlights: • We developed two methods for 228Ra measurement on Ba(Ra)SO4 co-precipitation sources. • Measurement by gamma spectrometry using the daughter 228Ac is rapid. • Detection limits are suitable for assessment of drinking water quality. • The second approach uses alpha spectrometry on a separated Th fraction. • This is more sensitive than gamma spectrometry after an ingrowth period greater than about 1 month

  17. 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio in groundwater around Mount Fuji, Japan

    Tagami Keiko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the groundwater age from 228Ra/226Ra ratios in young groundwater and relevant rocks in the volcanic area of the Kakitagawa River around Mount Fuji, Japan, and compared our results with those from 3H/3He age determination. The groundwater residence time estimated from the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio in groundwater and relevant rocks agreed well with the 3H/3He age, suggesting that the 228Ra/226Ra ratio of groundwater can be used to estimate residence time of young groundwater in volcanic areas.

  18. Daily intake of /sup 234,235,238/U, /sup 228,230,232/Th and /sup 226,228/Ra by New York City residents

    The daily intake of long-lived alpha-emitting members of the U, Th and Ac series by New York City residents has been estimated from measurements of diet, water and air samples. The total daily intakes from inhalation, food and water consumption in mBq are 18 (234U), 0.7 (235U), 16 (238U), 6 (230Th), 4 (232Th) and 52 (226Ra). From this, we infer that the total daily intakes of 228Th and 228Ra are 4 and 35 mBq, respectively

  19. 29 CFR 779.228 - Types of arrangements contemplated by exception.

    2010-07-01

    ... Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.228 Types of arrangements... section 3(s) would not otherwise apply: (a) Any arrangement, whether by agreement, franchise or...

  20. Multipolarity of the 228.5-keV transition in 80Y

    We have unambiguously characterized the deexcitation of the 228.5-keV T1/2=4.7-s isomer in 80Y as an M3 transition. This result determines, in conjunction with other experimental data, the spin and parity of the 228.5-keV isomer and the 80Y ground state as 1- and 4-, respectively. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  1. 226Ra and 228Ra in consumable marine organisms from different coastal regions of India

    Marine organism samples were collected from different regions of India. The edible portions after drying and homogenizing kept for 1 month to achieve equilibrium between Radium and its daughter products, were analysed by gamma spectrometry using 50 % HPGe. 226Ra activity was found to be in the range of <0.07-0.736 Bq kg-1 (wet) and 228Ra in the range of <0.082-2.5 Bq kg-1. 228Ra and 226Ra concentrations in different species of organism were different even in the same marine environment. To assess the impact of this activity to human, ingestion dose due to consumption of organisms was calculated and the maximum dose of 2.8 μSv year-1 due to 226Ra and 25.24 μSv year-1 due to 228Ra was observed. (author)

  2. Normal dietary levels of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po for man

    A review of the literature and the results of some recent measurements were presented on the levels in man's diet of the naturally-occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po. The mean intakes for standard U.S. diets for these nuclides are tabulated. Intakes in other countries are similar to those in the U.S., but in localized populations the 226Ra intake may be 8 or more pCi/day. The contents of 226Ra in diets chosen by individuals ranged from 0.4 to 7 pCi/day. The few data on 228Ra show intake of this nuclide to be about 80% that of 226Ra, except in monazite areas where intakes of up to 160 pCi/day 228Ra are reported, which may be 50 to 100 times that of 226Ra. Drinking water contributes less than 5% of the daily intake, except in special areas

  3. Distribution and flux of 226Ra and 228Ra in the Amazon River estuary

    Measurements of 226Ra and 228Ra in the Amazon River estuary show that desorption from riverborne suspended particulate matter in the estuary increases the riverine flux of both isotopes to the ocean by a factor of approximately 5 over the flux attributable to radium dissolved in the river water alone. The total Amazon flux supplies approximately 0.20% of the 226Ra and approximately 2.6% of the 228Ra standing crops in the near-surface Atlantic (0-200 m). Diffusive flux from estuarine and shelf sediments and desorption from resuspended sediments in the region of the estuary approximately double the estuarine 226Ra concentration and quadruple the estuarine 228Ra concentration above that caused by the dissolved and desorbed river components alone

  4. Measurement of the thorium-228 activity in solutions cavitated by ultrasonic sound

    Ford, R.; Gerbier-Violleau, M. [SNOLAB, 1039 RR-24, Lively ON, P3Y 1N2 (Canada); Vazquez-Jauregui, E., E-mail: ericvj@snolab.c [SNOLAB, 1039 RR-24, Lively ON, P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

    2010-01-18

    We show that cavitation of a solution of thorium-228 in water does not induce its transformation at a faster rate than the natural radioactive decay. We measured the activity of a thorium-228 solution in water before, and after, it was subjected to a cavitation at 44 kHz and 250 W for 90 min in order to observe any change in the thorium half-life. The results were compared to the original activity of the sample and we observed no change. Our results and conclusions conflict with those in a recent paper by F. Cardone et al.

  5. Measurement of the thorium-228 activity in solutions cavitated by ultrasonic sound

    We show that cavitation of a solution of thorium-228 in water does not induce its transformation at a faster rate than the natural radioactive decay. We measured the activity of a thorium-228 solution in water before, and after, it was subjected to a cavitation at 44 kHz and 250 W for 90 min in order to observe any change in the thorium half-life. The results were compared to the original activity of the sample and we observed no change. Our results and conclusions conflict with those in a recent paper by F. Cardone et al.

  6. Measurement of the thorium-228 activity in solutions cavitated by ultrasonic sound

    Ford, R; Vazquez-Jauregui, E

    2009-01-01

    We show that cavitation of a solution of thorium-228 in water does not induce its transformation at a faster rate than the natural radioactive decay. We measured the activity of a thorium-228 solution in water before, and after, it was subjected to a cavitation at 44 kHz and $250 $W for 90 minutes in order to observe any change in the thorium half-life. The results were compared to the original activity of the sample and we observed no change. Our results and conclusions conflict with those in a recent paper by F. Cardone et. al. [Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 1956-1958].

  7. 48 CFR 228.311 - Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. 228.311 Section 228.311 Federal... liability insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts....

  8. 78 FR 69928 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 228-Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Unmanned...

    2013-11-21

    ... Standards for Unmanned Aircraft Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of... Unmanned Aircraft Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 228--Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Unmanned Aircraft...

  9. 78 FR 38093 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 228-Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Unmanned...

    2013-06-25

    ... Standards for Unmanned Aircraft Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of... Unmanned Aircraft Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 228--Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Unmanned Aircraft...

  10. 48 CFR 1252.228-71 - Fair market value of aircraft.

    2010-10-01

    ....228-71 Fair market value of aircraft. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1228.306-70(a) and (c), insert the following clause: Fair Market Value of Aircraft (OCT 1994) For purposes of the clause entitled “Loss of or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value...

  11. 48 CFR 3052.228-92 - Fair market value of aircraft (USCG).

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value of... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.228-92 Fair market value of aircraft (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3028.306-90(a) and (c), insert the...

  12. 226Ra and 228Ra in consumable marine organisms from different coastal regions of India

    Marine organism samples were collected from different collection centers of eastern and western coastal regions of India. Edible and non edible portions of the organisms were separated. The edible portions were freeze dried, ground, homogenized and filled in air tight plastic boxes and kept for one month to achieve equilibrium between Radium and it daughter products. Later the samples were gamma counted using 50% HPGe and 226Ra and 228Ra activity concentration in the samples were calculated. 226Ra activity was found to be in the range of 0.001 to 0.69 Bq.kg-1 (wet) and 228Ra in the range of 0.001 to 2.5 Bq.kg-1 (wet). 228Ra concentration was observed to be more than 226Ra concentration in the organisms. To follow the impact of this activity to human, dose due to ingestion by consuming the organisms was calculated and was observed as the maximum dose due to 226Ra as 1.93X10-1 μSvy-1 and 1.73 μSvy-1 due to 228Ra. (author)

  13. 40 CFR 228.15 - Dumping sites designated on a final basis.

    2010-07-01

    ... Ocean Dumping Regulations in 40 CFR part 227. (9) Jacksonville, FL Dredged Material Site. (i) Location... practicable alternatives (as defined in 40 CFR 227.16(b)) to open-water disposal in Long Island Sound and that...) Restrictions: See 40 CFR 228.15(b)(4)(vi). (c) Region I Final Other Wastes Sites. (1) No final sites. (2)...

  14. UAS Integration in the NAS Project Overview: RTCA SC-228 Plenary DAA Working Group 5

    Randall, Debra K.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation is intended to allow the public to know and understand NASA's plans for integrated test to allow them the opportunity to provide feedback and suggestions. The integrated testing will support verification and validation of the RTCA SC-228 UAS minimum operation performance standard requirements.

  15. 48 CFR 1352.228-71 - Deductibles under required insurance coverage-cost reimbursement.

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1352.228-71 Deductibles under required insurance coverage—cost reimbursement. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(c), insert the following clause: Deductibles Under Required Insurance..., Insurance Coverage, the contractor's deductible is not allowable as a direct or indirect cost under...

  16. The nature of hydrogen bonding in R-2(2)(8) crystal motifs - a computational exploration

    Deepa, Palanisamy; Solomon, R. V.; Vedha, S. A.; Kolandaivel, P.; Venuvanalingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 24 (2014), s. 3195-3205. ISSN 0026-8976 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NCI plot * hydrogen bonds * R-2(2)(8) motif * organic crystals * NBO * QTAIM analysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.720, year: 2014

  17. 47 CFR 22.228 - Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular rural service area licenses subject to... Procedures § 22.228 Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for Cellular Rural Service Area licenses are subject to competitive bidding....

  18. 19 CFR 10.228 - Additional requirements for preferential treatment of brassieres.

    2010-04-01

    ... and other production records, and inventory control records; and (v) Accounting books and documents to..., column 34), or its electronic equivalent, the distinct and unique identifier assigned by CBP to the... percent (or 85 percent, if applicable under 19 CFR 10.228(b)(1)(ii)) of the aggregate declared...

  19. 22 CFR 228.03 - Identification of principal geographic code numbers.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification of principal geographic code... § 228.03 Identification of principal geographic code numbers. The USAID Geographic Code Book sets forth the official description of all geographic codes used by USAID in authorizing or...

  20. 48 CFR 1452.228-7 - Insurance-Liability to Third Persons.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance-Liability to... INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1452.228-7 Insurance—Liability to Third Persons. (a) As prescribed in 1428.311-2, the clause at FAR...

  1. Use of nuclear recoil for separating 228Ra, 224Ra, and 233Pa from colloidal thorium

    By using α-recoil it is possible to separate by dialysis the α disintegration products (224 Ra; 228 Ra) of thorium from colloidal thorium hydroxide.The use of n, γ recoil allows the separation of 233Pa produced by the neutron irradiation of thorium, on condition that the colloidal thorium hydroxide is irradiated in the presence of a dispersing. (author)

  2. Development of a low neutron emission 228Th source for the calibration of GERDA

    GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) is a very-low background experiment under construction at LNGS (Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, 3400 m.w.e.) in Italy. It is designed to search for the neutrinoless double-β decay using an array of enriched 76Ge detectors. A limit of T1/2=15.1025 y in Phase II of GERDA can be achieved by limiting the background rate to B ≤ 1.10-3 cts/(keV.kg.y). This requires a good understanding and suppression of the background produced by cosmic rays and natural radioactivity. Furthermore neutrons from spontaneous fission and (α,n) reactions in adjacent materials can contribute considerably to the background rate. 228Th has been established as a good calibration source candidate for GERDA due to its γ-emission in the region of interest around Qββ=2.04 MeV. The calibration setup requires that the 228Th source is permanently installed in the setup during data taking in a parking position at 3.5 m above the germanium detector array. Monte Carlo simulations have shown that the γ-background from the calibration source located in its parking position can be suppressed by a Ta absorber. This work investigates the significance of the neutron background induced by (α,n) reactions within the intrinsic components of a commercialy available 228Th calibration source. Furthermore a new type of a 228Th source has been developed in order to reduce the n-rate approximately by two orders of magnitude compared to a commercial 228Th source.

  3. A comparison of the natural survival of beagle dogs injected intravenously with low levels of 239Pu, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, or 90Sr

    The natural survival, relative to properly chosen controls, of 26 beagle dogs injected once intravenously with an average of 0.58 +/- 0.04 kBq 239Pu/kg, 23 dogs injected with 2.31 +/- 0.43 kBq 226Ra/kg, 13 dogs injected with 1.84 +/- 0.26 kBq 228Ra/kg, 12 dogs injected with 0.56 +/- 0.030 kBq 228Th/kg, and 12 dogs injected with 21.13 +/- 1.74 kBq 90Sr/kg was evaluated statistically. The amounts of these radionuclides are related directly to the estimated maximum permissible body burdens for humans suggested in ICRP II (1959). They constitute a level of exposure that initially was assumed to cause no deleterious effects in dogs. This study had two objectives: (1) identification of homogeneous control groups against which to evaluate the survival of the irradiated groups and (2) comparison of the survival characteristics and estimation of mortality or hazard rate ratios for control dogs vs dogs injected with the baseline dosages given above. It was shown, by goodness-of-fit plots, that the Cox proportional hazards model was an appropriate method of analysis. Therefore, covariates that possibly could influence survival were tested for significance. Only the effects of grand mal seizure, which is caused in epileptic dogs by an external stimulus and can be fatal if untreated, were significant (P less than 0.0001). Consequently, in the final model, death from grand mal seizure was considered as accidental. After censoring the dogs dying from grand mal seizure, it was established that the data for the control groups from previous and contemporary experiments could be pooled. The change in hazard rates relative to controls resulting from exposure to the baseline radionuclide level was modest, 1.6 times for 239Pu (P = 0.033), 1.0(4) for 226Ra (P = 0.86), 1.9 for 228Ra (P = 0.035), 2.5 for 228Th (P less than 0.001), and 0.52 for 90Sr (P = 0.041)

  4. Effects of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 on digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Ma, Yuexin; Sun, Feixue; Zhang, Congyao; Bao, Pengyun; Cao, Shuqing; Zhang, Meiyan

    2014-12-01

    A marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 was supplemented to feed in a feeding experiment aiming to determine its ability of enhancing the digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumber individuals were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 105, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 for 45 days. Results showed that intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 in comparison with control ( P < 0.01). The phagocytic activity in the coelomocytes of sea cucumber fed the diet supplemented with 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 was significantly higher than that of those fed control diet ( P < 0.05). In addition, 105 and 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 significantly enhanced lysozyme and phenoloxidase activities in the coelomic fluid of sea cucumber, respectively, in comparison with other diets ( P < 0.01). Sea cucumbers, 10 each diet, were challenged with Vibrio splendidus NB13 after 45 days of feeding. It was found that the cumulative incidence and mortality of sea cucumber fed with BC228 containing diets were lower than those of animals fed control diet. Our findings evidenced that BC228 supplemented in diets improved the digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber, stimulated its immune response and enhanced its resistance to the infection of V. splendidus.

  5. The use of Pb-210/Ra-226 and Th-228/Ra-228 dis-equilibria in the ageing of otoliths of marine fish

    Naturally-occurring isotopes of radium are ideally suited as tracers for chemical uptake in the calcified tissues of marine organisms since radium is a water soluble, bio-geochemical analogue for calcium. Assays designed to exploit this uptake mechanism can be used to determine the longevity of certain species of fish. Measurements of Pb-210/Ra-226 disequilibria in the otoliths of redfish have revealed that this species of fish can live to ages in excess of 75 years in coastal waters off Nova Scotia, Canada. Measurements of the Th-228/Ra-228 disequilibria in the otoliths of the much shorter-lived silver hake and flying fish may provide estimates of longevity on time scales of 0-10 years, which could then be used to evaluate the accuracy of currently-used ageing models based on otolith annulus counts. Age determinations of fish based on natural radioisotopes can result in significant improvements in the assessment and management of certain fisheries resources. (author)

  6. Determination of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in liquid effluents from uranium mining

    A liquid scintillator αlpha spectrometer was built for the determination of Th-228, Th-230 and Th-232 in liquid effluents from Uranium mines and mills. The resolution of the αlpha spectrometer was found to be 200-300 KeV, when the scintillator was 8% T0P0, 0,77% scintimix-4 (91% PP0 and 9% Dimetil-P0P0P) and 10% of naphthalene in toluene. Aliquat-336 in xylene (30% v/v) was used to separate the thorium isotopes from other interfering radionuclides (U-238, U-234, Ra-226, Po-210). Under the extraction experimental conditions, the detection limits were 1,2 pCi/1 for Th-232, 1,2 pCi/1 for Th-230 and 0,9 pCi/1 for Th-228, for 1000 minutes of counting time. (author)

  7. Distribution of 14C, 90Sr and 228Th in an elephant tusk

    The period of date of death of an elephant can be assessed by analyzing four different radionuclides, 14C, 90Sr, 228Th and 232Th in its ivory. These nuclides are supposed to have variing concentrations at different parts of a tusk. The reason is the procedure of growth which takes place at the butt-site of a tusk. Therefore the site of sampling could have a big influence on the assessed date of death. However, to find out if the position of sampling is important a complete tusk was analyzed regarding the distribution of these nuclides. Results show that the concentration activity of 14C and 228Th varies in different parts of a tusk. The activity concentration of 90Sr is very similar in all analyzed parts. The conclusion is that sampling at the butt of a tusk is recommended for age assessment. (author)

  8. 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in scales from boilers of industrial installations

    The purpose of this work was to determine concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in scales generated inside industrial boilers. Radionuclide activities were determined by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Activity concentrations of 226Ra were in the range of 3.0 (22) to 1300 (6) Bq kg-1 and 228Ra activity concentrations varied from /2.0 Bq kg-1 (Minimum detectable activity concentration) to 266 (3) Bq kg-1. Activity concentrations of 40K were in the range of /15 Bq kg-1 (Minimum detectable activity concentration) to 290 (5) Bq kg-1. Activity concentrations were lower than the limits established by the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy. (author)

  9. Study for 228Th reduction in thermal reactor with Th-U fuel cycls

    1999-01-01

    By using computercode WIMS/CENDL, the effects of some parameters, core configuration such as fuel element structure, neutron flux and burn-up, are discussed in thispaper.It is shown that high neutron flux, small fuel rod diameter,large volume ratio of coolant to fuel, seed-blank heterogeneous corearrangement and 231Pa chemical separation are necessary for reducing 228Th production in reactor.

  10. 22.8 GHz Substrate Integrated Waveguide Analog Frequency Divide-by-3 Circuit

    Georgiadis, Apostolos; Collado, Ana; Niotaki, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    A 22.8 GHz analog frequency divide-by-3 circuit is presented based on an injection locked oscillator. Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology is used to implement the input and output sections of the frequency divider circuit. The input SIW section at the gate of the active device permits the introduction of the injection signal at the third harmonic frequency of the oscillator, while the output section is designed to maximize the DC-RF conversion efficiency of the oscillator circuit....

  11. THE REMOVAL OF REACTIVE RED 228 DYE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY CHITOSAN-MODIFIED FLAX SHIVE

    Hao Feng; Jian Li; Lijuan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Flax shive (FS) is a byproduct from flax fiber separation. The use of absorbent prepared from chitosan-modified flax shive (CFS) has been studied for removal of reactive red dye (RR228) from aqueous solutions. CFS was characterized by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A batch adsorption study was conducted under various contact time, initial concentration, sol...

  12. 226Ra and 228Ra activity measurement on soil surface in Bagan Lalang, Selangor

    Six stations had selected from Sungai Sepang Kechil, Selangor during Mac, September and October 2004 for sediment analysis. The results showed a significant difference among the 226Ra and 228Ra activities (P 226Ra and 228Ra have obtained during the sampling on Mac, which show the average activities 161.30 Bq kg-1 and 466.88 Bq kg-1, respectively. Meanwhile, 226Ra activities obtained on September and October are in the average of 24.77 Bq kg-1 and 69.22 Bq kg-1, respectively. Average activities of 228Ra are 73.13 Bq kg-1 and 1284.58 Bq kg-1, respectively for September and October. Northeast Monsoon effect might cause the higher activities of radium isotopes during sampling on Mac. Sediments from Bagan Lalang are sandy type with a limited size variation. Furthermore, radium isotopes are more adsorbed on the particles sediments between size 63 - 125 μm, which usually rich in alkaline feldspar.(author)

  13. Concentration Of 228Th, 226Ra, And 40K Radionuclides In Drinking Water In Southern Sumatera

    Measurements of 228 Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K concentrations in drinking water on several places in Southern Sumatera (1997-1999) have been carried out. The sample were collected from the Province of Lampung (Kalianda, Bandar Lampung, Kotabumi, Talangpadang, Kotaagung, Liwa, Manggala, and Pakuanratu), and the Province of Southern Sumatera (Palembang-1, Palembang-2, Plaju, Lahat, and Sekayu). Measurements of 228 Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K concentrations in drinking water using the gamma spectrometer with the HP-Ge detector. The results of measurement showed that the concentration was the range of undetectable (228 Th concentration, the range of undetectable (226 Ra, radionuclide and the range of undetectable (< 128.96 mBq/l) to (880.54 n 22.75) mBq/l with average of (412.12 n 5.02) mBq/l, and the data mentioned above were still far under the maximum permissible concentration. The estimated of annual dose equivalent effective in drinking water was 0.03 mSv/year for public (5 mSv/year)

  14. Development of sequential analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228 and its application in mineral waters

    A sequential analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228 in environmental samples and applied to the analysis of mineral waters is studied. Thorium isotopes are coprecipitated with lanthanium fluoride before counting in alpha spectrometer, the uranium isotopes are determined by alpha spectrometry following extraction with TOPO onto a polymenic membrane. Radium-226 is determined with the radom emanation technique. (M.J.C.)

  15. Development of an analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210 and its application on environmental samples

    A comparison between the environmental impact by nuclear facilities with the burden suffered from natural radioactivity calls for studying the long-lived radionuclides of the U-238 and Th-232 decay series U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210. This work describes the development of a fast isotope dilution analysis method allowing to separate with one sample solution U, Th, Ra, Pb and Po both from each other and, at the same time, from the matrix. To test its applicability, the method was used with samples consisting of soil, sediments, plants, water, carbon and air dust filter. The detection limit for the chemical yield attained of approx. 70% was 0.27 mBq per sample for Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, U-238, U-234 and Po-210. The detection limit for Pb-210 was 10 mBq per sample. On account of the influence by Ra-226 in the Ra-228 measurement and vice versa the detection limit is a function of the Ra-226 and Ra-228 concentrations, respectively, in the sample. The detection limits for the pure nuclides are 0.9 mBq per sample and 10 mBq per sample, respectively, for Ra-226 and Ra-228. (orig./HP)

  16. Non-stochastic effects of 226Ra and 228Ra in the human skeleton

    Results are reported of a comparative evaluation of the non-neoplastic changes that have been observed radiographically in the bones of two groups of former radium dial workers, one comprising 201 women exposed predominantly to 226Ra and the other comprising 159 women exposed predominantly to 228Ra at a median age of 18 years. The characteristic changes range through progressively larger and more frequent foci of both decreased and increased bone density (radiolucent and dense bone necrosis). Criteria developed in earlier studies were used to assign a numerical score to the changes seen in each individual. The score was used as a quantitative measure of bone necrosis. The long bones contributed the major portion of the total score for the skeleton, with the radii and ulnae showing the highest score on the basis of relative bone mass. The ribs and vertebrae, which account for 20% of the total bone mass, contributed 25 advanced degree of severity. At intakes of either radium isotope below 10 μCi, no changes above minimal were observed, and the mean score was about the same as the mean of about 0.2 observed in a group of 120 matched control subjects. At intakes below 100 μCi, mean scores per year post exposure were predicted by 0.0016 I, where I is the systemic intake in μCi of either 226Ra or 228Ra. For 50 year 226Ra or 228Ra workers with annual systemic intakes at the ICRP limit of about 0.4 μCi, the predicted mean score at about 50 years is 1.0. (author)

  17. Migration of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, U and Th from phosphogypsum

    The physico-chemical availability of radioactive elements (210 Pb, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, Th and U) in Brazilian phosphogypsum was investigated in a large scale leaching experiment carried out in lysimeters, using phosphogypsum samples (approximately 1.2 tons) from two phosphoric acid industries. Lysimeters were built using cylindrical concrete containers with 0.9 m inner diameter and 2 m depth. The bottom of the lysimeter was filled with a 10 cm layer of gravel covered with geomembrane sheet. Under this layer a pipe was designed to drain the percolated water. Three lysimeters were filled with phosphogypsum from each industry and a mixture of both. As percolated water comes exclusively from the rain, sample was collected daily when available. Samples were then pooled weekly, carefully prepared and submitted to radiochemical analysis. Radiochemical characterization of phosphogypsum and percolated water was performed by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting (226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry with Arsenazo III (U and Th). This experiment was carried out from 12/01/1999 to 01/22/2001, with a precipitation of 2,732 mm. It was observed that approximately 40% (534 L) of the rain fall percolated through the lysimeter 1. The analysis of 22 samples of percolated water from lysimeter 1 showed mean radionuclides activities of 70±30 mBqL-1, 70±50 mBqL-1, 100±60 mBqL-1 and 110±55 mBqL-1 for U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb, respectively. Thorium activities were below detection limit. (author)

  18. Normal dietary levels of radium-226, radium-228, lead-210, and polonium-210 for man

    A review of the literature and the results of some recent measurements on the levels in man's diet of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po are presented. Intakes in other countries are similar to those in the United States, but in localized populations the 226Ra intake can be 8 or more pCi/day. The few data on 228Ra show that intake of this nuclide is about 80% that of 226Ra except in monazite areas where intakes of up to 160 pCi 228Ra/day are reported. Drinking water contributes less than 5% to daily intake except in special areas. For 210Pb, higher levels have been noted for Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics than for the United States. Persons in the Arctic who consume reindeer or caribou meat may ingest 210Pb at the rate of 10 to 40 pCi/day. Normal dietary levels of 210Po are about 20 to 30% higher than those of 210Pb, except in the Arctic. The levels of these nuclides in classes of foods are compared to show that the higher levels observed in certain diets are due to the levels in particular foods. Because of the high levels of 210Pb intake in Japan, total skeletal dose rates in that country are estimated to be more than twice those in the United States. The use of dietary intake for estimating metabolic parameters, such as intestinal absorption of 226Ra and 210Pb, is discussed

  19. Distribution of Th-230 and Th-228 in foods(II)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Kim, Wan; Lim, S. K.; Lee, S. A.; Choi, M. S.; Zheng, Y. C. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Sung [Daegu Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Natural radioisotopes contained in foods can enter the human body by ingestion and contribute to internal doses to the population. It is necessary to measure the concentration of natural radioisotopes especially thorium in Korean foods and estimate the internal doses. In this study, we have established the thorium measuring process based on the thorium extraction chemical process and alpha spectroscopic method. The concentration of Th-228, Th-230 and Th-232 in Korean vegetables (potato, sweet potato, radish, cabbage, hot pepper, garlic, onion and pumpkin) and fruits(apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape) are measured and their internal doses are estimated.

  20. Surface water mixing estimated from {sup 228}Ra and {sup 226}Ra in the northwestern North Pacific

    Kawakami, Hajime [Mutsu Institute for Oceanography, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 690 Aza-kitasekine Oaza-sekine, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0022 (Japan)], E-mail: kawakami@jamstec.go.jp; Kusakabe, Masashi [Department of Ocean Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushimacho, Yokosuka 237-0061 (Japan)], E-mail: masashi@nirs.go.jp

    2008-08-15

    We investigated the horizontal distributions of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 226}Ra in surface waters of the northwestern North Pacific Ocean and Okhotsk Sea. Ratios of {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra were relatively large in the Tsugaru Current (0.6-0.8) and Okhotsk Sea (0.4-0.5), and small in the Western Subarctic Gyre (<0.2) and the Oyashio (0.25-0.3). {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra ratios in western Subarctic Water (SAW) rose slightly upon mixing with Okhotsk Water (OKW), before becoming the Oyashio Water (OYW). Also, ratios in the OYW increased during mixing with Tsugaru Current Water (TCW). Estimating from {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra ratios and {sup 226}Ra activities with a simple two-end members-mixing model, we assumed that approximately 23% of the OYW originated from the OKW and the coastal region off northern Honshu (Japan) was strongly influenced by the TCW. From a diagram of {sup 228}Ra activities against salinity, we could roughly divide surface seawater in the study area into the five water masses, which were SAW, OYW, OKW, TCW, and Subtropical Water (STW)

  1. Production and characterization of 228Th calibration sources with low neutron emission for GERDA

    Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Carconi, P.; Cattadori, C.; De Felice, P.; Eberhardt, K.; Eichler, R.; Petrucci, A.; Tarka, M.; Walter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The GERDA experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. In view of the GERDA Phase II data collection, four new 228Th radioactive sources for the calibration of the germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge have been produced with a new technique, leading to a reduced neutron emission rate from (α, n) reactions. The gamma activities of the sources were determined with a total uncertainty of ~4% using an ultra-low background HPGe detector operated underground at LNGS. The neutron emission rate was determined using a low background LiI(Eu) detector and a 3He counter at LNGS. In both cases, the measured neutron activity is ~10-6 n/(sṡBq), with a reduction of about one order of magnitude with respect to commercially available 228Th sources. Additionally, a specific leak test with a sensitivity to leaks down to ~10 mBq was developed to investigate the tightness of the stainless steel capsules housing the sources after their use in cryogenic environment.

  2. Production and Characterization of 228Th Calibration Sources with Low Neutron Emission for GERDA

    Baudis, Laura; Carconi, Pierluigi; Cattadori, Carla Maria; De Felice, Pierino; Eberhardt, Klaus; Eichler, Robert; Petrucci, Andrea; Tarka, Michal; Walter, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The GERDA experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76-Ge. In view of the GERDA Phase II data collection, four new 228-Th radioactive sources for the calibration of the germanium detectors enriched in 76-Ge have been produced with a new technique, leading to a reduced neutron flux from ( alpha; n ) reactions. The gamma activities of the sources were determined with a total uncertainty of 4 percent using an ultra-low background HPGe detector operated underground at LNGS. The emitted neutron flux was determined using a low background LiI(Eu) detector and a 3-He counter at LNGS. In both cases, a reduction of about one order of magnitude with respect to commercially available 228-Th sources was obtained. Additionally, a specific leak test with a sensitivity to leaks down to 10 mBq was developed to investigate the tightness of the stainless steel capsules housing the sources after their use in cryogenic environment.

  3. Production and characterization of 228Th calibration sources with low neutron emission for GERDA

    The GERDA experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. In view of the GERDA Phase II data collection, four new 228Th radioactive sources for the calibration of the germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge have been produced with a new technique, leading to a reduced neutron emission rate from (α, n) reactions. The gamma activities of the sources were determined with a total uncertainty of ∼4% using an ultra-low background HPGe detector operated underground at LNGS. The neutron emission rate was determined using a low background LiI(Eu) detector and a 3He counter at LNGS. In both cases, the measured neutron activity is ∼10−6 n/(s⋅Bq), with a reduction of about one order of magnitude with respect to commercially available 228Th sources. Additionally, a specific leak test with a sensitivity to leaks down to ∼10 mBq was developed to investigate the tightness of the stainless steel capsules housing the sources after their use in cryogenic environment

  4. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Caixa Postal 05508-000, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: Pscsilva@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. {sup 232} Th and {sup 228} Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. {sup 232} Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg{sup -1} with mean value of 57 {+-} 39 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 42 samples. {sup 228} Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 74 {+-} 23 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of {sup 232} Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  5. Optimization of the Extraction Efficiency of a Gas Stopper using a Th-228 Source

    Devanzo, Michael; Alfonso, Marisa C.; Folden, Charles M., III

    2012-10-01

    A gas stopper, or Recoil Transfer Chamber (RTC), for heavy element research has been fabricated at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University and characterized offline using a Th-228 source. The RTC features a laminar He gas flow and a series of ring and spherical electrodes to efficiently transport heavy ions through an extraction nozzle to an appropriate chemistry set up. Applying a decreasing potential difference across the ring and spherical electrodes creates potential gradients which act as a means of guiding and focusing heavy ions, respectively. By systematically altering potential gradients in the RTC, a determination can be made of the most efficient RTC configuration by using the radioactive recoils from a Th-228 source as a measure of extraction efficiency. An efficiency of up to 70 percent was obtained with the most effective electrode configuration, based on recent offline measurements. This poster will elaborate on RTC experimentation and propose electrode settings for which maximal extraction efficiency may be achieved.

  6. MRP-227/228 component inspections supporting nuclear power plant license renewal

    Highlights: • Inspections meeting the new requirements of MRP-227/228 are presented. • These inspections allow utilities to comply with requirements for license extension. • Modeling results for UT inspection methods are presented. • Defects down to 1% cross-sectional area were detected in a blind demonstration. • All MRP-required demonstrations were successfully passed. - Abstract: As the world’s nuclear reactor fleet continues to age, the importance of verifying the structural integrity of critical reactor components and systems has continued to increase. Some critical components are the reactor internals found in close proximity to the nuclear fuel rods which are exposed not only to high stresses and temperatures, but also to high radiation and neutron fluxes. The Materials Reliability Program (MRP-227/228) has provided guidance indicating which components are of the highest importance and susceptibility to the aging mechanisms found in nuclear reactors. These components must be either inspected or replaced in order for plants to be granted license renewals to continue commercial operations. Several inspection methods are presented that were successfully demonstrated and comply with these new guidelines to meet the requirements for license renewal

  7. THE REMOVAL OF REACTIVE RED 228 DYE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY CHITOSAN-MODIFIED FLAX SHIVE

    Hao Feng,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flax shive (FS is a byproduct from flax fiber separation. The use of absorbent prepared from chitosan-modified flax shive (CFS has been studied for removal of reactive red dye (RR228 from aqueous solutions. CFS was characterized by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. A batch adsorption study was conducted under various contact time, initial concentration, solution pH, and adsorbent dosage. It was found that the BET and Langmuir surface area of CFS were 1.772 m2 g-1 and 3.057 m2 g-1, respectively. Results showed that CFS has the same pores as FS and that the –NH2 group on CFS is the main adsorption site for dye sorption. Equilibrium adsorption capacity could be reached within 480 min, and RR228 uptake was satisfactory at a pH of 2.0. The percentage removal were 100%, 100%, 90%, and 85% at pH 2.0 under dye concentrations of 10 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 30 mg/L, and 40 mg/L, respectively. The adsorption accurately fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and a Langmuir isotherm model. It is proposed that CFS could be applied as a low-cost absorbent in removal of dyes from wastewater.

  8. The Stealthy Superbug: the Role of Asymptomatic Enteric Carriage in Maintaining a Long-Term Hospital Outbreak of ST228 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Senn, Laurence; Clerc, Olivier; Zanetti, Giorgio; Basset, Patrick; Prod’Hom, Guy; Gordon, Nicola C.; Sheppard, Anna E.; Crook, Derrick W; James, Richard; Thorpe, Harry A.; Feil, Edward J.; Blanc, Dominique S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 228 isolates was used to elucidate the origin and dynamics of a long-term outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type 228 (ST228) SCCmec I that involved 1,600 patients in a tertiary care hospital between 2008 and 2012. Combining of the sequence data with detailed metadata on patient admission and movement confirmed that the outbreak was due to the transmission of a single clonal variant of ST228, rather than repeated i...

  9. The Stealthy Superbug: The role of asymptomatic enteric carriage in maintaining a long-term hospital outbreak of ST228 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Senn, L; Clerc, O; Zanetti, G; Basset, P.; Prod'hom, G.; Gordon, NC; Sheppard, AE; Crook, DW; JAMES, R; Thorpe, HA; Feil, EJ; Blanc, DS

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 228 isolates was used to elucidate the origin and dynamics of a long-term outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) sequence type 228 (ST228) SCCmec I that involved 1,600 patients in a tertiary care hospital between 2008 and 2012. Combining of the sequence data with detailed metadata on patient admission and movement confirmed that the outbreak was due to the transmission of a single clonal variant of ST228, rather than repeated introductio...

  10. Concentration Of Th-228, Ra-226, Cs-137, and K-40 In Soil At Several Places In West Java Province

    Analysis of 228 Th, 226 Ra, 137 Cs, and 40K in the soil samples at several places in West Java Propince have been conducted. The measurements of 228 Th, 226 Ra, 137 Cs, and 40K concentration were done using gamma spectrometer with HP-Ge detector. The aim of the analysis is to obtain base line data on environmental radioactivity at several places in West Java Propince. The results of analysis showed that 228 Th concentration ranges from undetectable (226 Ra concentration ranges from undetectable (137Cs concentration ranges undetectable (40K concentration ranges from undetectable (< 1,36 Bq/kg) to (26,58 Bq/kg) with the average of (15,27 n 0,27 Bq/kg)

  11. An evaluation of 226Ra and 228Ra in drinking water in several counties in Texas, USA

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) or Technology Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM) can be a potential health risk. It is now well known that the underlying geology in many parts of Texas has given rise to levels of 226Ra and 228Ra that often exceed the limits set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. A detailed literature search was undertaken to assess the levels of 226Ra and 228Ra in all of the Texas counties. Several statistical evaluations of the data were performed. The Hickory aquifer in the Llano Uplift region of Texas has consistently had the highest number of 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations above the legal limit. As well many of the affected rural communities may not have the financial resources to rectify the problem

  12. Concentration of natural radionuclides (40K, 228Ra and 226Ra) in vegetables and fruits collected around Kudankulam, South India

    Baseline activity concentration of the natural radio nuclides 40K, 228Ra and 226Ra in vegetables and fruits was determined around Kudankulam. In many of the samples, 228Ra and 226Ra was below minimum detection limit. 40K was found to be more in leafy vegetables followed by pods, tubers and fleshy fruits. The highest accumulator among the matrices was the leafy vegetables with the geometric mean of 189.47 Bq.kg-1 fresh for vegetables and fruits with the geometric mean of 128.95 Bq.kg-1 fresh. 228Ra activity in vegetables and fruits ranged from 0.074 to 1.153 and 0.074 to 0.131 Bq.kg-l fresh respectively. 226Ra in vegetables and fruits ranged from BDL to 0.07 and BDL-.044 Bq.kg-l fresh respectively. 40K in vegetables and fruits followed a log normal distribution. (author)

  13. Novel Mutations L228I and Y232H Cause Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Resistance in Combinational Pattern.

    Zhang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Qiwei; Wu, Hao; Lau, Terrence Chi-Kong; Liu, Xuan; Chu, Hin; Zhang, Ke; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Jin, Dong-Yan; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of drug resistance mutations is increasing after the implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. To characterize two novel mutations L228I and Y232H in the primer grip of reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1 circulating recombination form 08_BC (CRF08_BC) subtype, both mutant clones were constructed to determine their impacts on viral phenotypic susceptibility and replication capacity (RC). Results showed that the novel mutation, L228I, conferred a low-level resistance to etravirine by itself. L228I in combination with Y188C displayed a high level of cross-resistance to both nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz (EFV). The copresence of A139V and Y232H induced a moderate level of resistance to NVP and EFV. Mutations Y188C/L228I, A139V, Y232H, and A139V/Y232H reduced more than 55% of viral RC compared with that of the wild-type (WT) reference virus. Modeling study suggested that the copresence of Y188C/L228I or A139V/Y232H might induce conformational changes to RT, which might result in reduced drug susceptibility and viral RC due to abolished hydrogen bonding or complex interaction with vicinal residues. Our results demonstrated that L228I and Y232H were novel accessory nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance-related mutations and provided valuable information for clinicians to design more effective treatment to patients infected with HIV-1 subtype CRF08_BC. PMID:27067022

  14. Transfer of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in aquatic organisms and food chain

    Objective: To find out the transfer regularities of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 210Po, which are natural radionuclides in the aquatic organisms and food chain. Methods: Large amount of breed of representative aquatic products and their living waters and sediments were collected and treated according to routine experimental procedures. The contents of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 210Po were detected in each sample. Measured data were analyzed statistically and pairwise comparisons were made to determine the differences between groups. Results: 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb were mainly deposited in the bones (or shells), their concentration factors (CF) ranged from 102 to 103; the CF ranged only from 100 to 102 in the flesh. 210Po was mainly deposited in the soft tissues, CF ranged from 102 to 104; especially in the stomachs and intestines of fishes, the value reached 104. The cooking process did not impinge significantly on the transfer of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in the food chain (P>0.05), but did significantly influence the transfer of 210Po, especially in the freshwater fishes and shrimps. Paired comparison test of the activities between raw flesh and cooked flesh showed very significant difference (P226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 210Po. Even though the bones (or shells) of aquatic organisms contained relatively higher levels of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb, the cooking process does not significantly increase the radioactive contents in the foodstuffs. However, the cooking process does significantly influence the transfer of 210Po. It does significantly increase the content of 210Po in foodstuffs

  15. Determination of 228Th, 226Ra and 40K in Soil Using In-Situ GammaSpectrometer

    Determination of natural radionuclide in latosol soil at six locationsaround PPTN Serpong by using Inspector portable gamma spectrometer with highpurity Germanium detector (HPGe) which has 26% relative efficiency had beenobtained. Radionuclides data of 228Th, 226Ra and 40K were obtained in4 hours, shorter than laboratories analysis which needed 3 weeks. Thedifferences between in-situ measurement and laboratory were 3.6% to 56.2% forsix conditions of soil measured. According to the specific activity dataanalysis using statistic hypothesis, the result shows that the activity of228Th and 226Ra are independent on location, but 40K is dependent onlocation. (author)

  16. Basis document for PFP plutonium nitrate ion exchange process in Room 228A

    The PFP facility currently has approximately 4300 liters of plutonium nitrate solution in storage. This material will be calcined by the Vertical Denigration Calciner (VDC) located in room 230C. However, part of the material needs to be purified to remove constituents that will interfere with the calcination process. An Ion Exchange process using Reillextrademark HPQ anion exchange resin was tested by the Plutonium Process Support Laboratories (PPSL) (I). The Ion exchange process is to be installed in glovebox HC-7 in room 228A/234-5Z. The plutonium separated from the interfering constituents will be in a concentrated condition ready to be calcined by the VDC in room 230C. The oxide product of the VDC will be placed into the 2736-Z vaults for long term storage

  17. Determination of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in mineral spring waters of the Aguas da Prata region

    Concentration levels of 226 Ra and 228 Ra have been analysed in most of the mineral spring waters available in the Aguas da Prata region. The 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined by coprecipitation with barium sulphate. The 226 Ra was determined by gross alpha counting of the Ba(Ra)SO4 precipitate. The determination of 228 Ra was done by measuring the gross beta activity of the same precipitate. Both measurements were carried out in a low background gas flow proportional counter. Dose calculations were performed in order to evaluate the relative importance of such radionuclides to the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of these waters. Based upon measured concentrations, committed effective doses up to 5.5 x 10-1 mSv/y and 1.0 x 10-2 mSv/y were observed for 226 Ra and 228 Ra, respectively. These results show that 226 Ra is the main contributor to radiation exposure. (author)

  18. Geochemical Speciation of Soil 7Be,137Cs,226Ra and 228Ra as Tracers to Particle Trnsport

    BALZHANGUO; WANGUOJIANG; 等

    1997-01-01

    A brunisolic soil collected from an erosive forest land(HF-1-1) and a yellow soil from and accumulative shallow basin(HF-6-1) in the watershed of Lake Hongfeng (HF) were used for activity measurements of 7Be,137Cs,226Ra and 228Ra in different geochemical speciation.More than 85% of 7Be,137Cs,226Ra and 228Ra in the soils were bound to organic Fe-Mn oxy-hydroxide and residual fractions.They could move with soil particlesw and be used as tracers for the erosion and /or accumulation of soil particles.7Be gohemical specition in the soils agreed with its trace for seasonal particle transport.137Cs geohemial speciaiton was suitable for tracing soil particle accumulation and for sediment aating.226Ra and 228Ra were ombined in crystalline skeleton of clay minerals and mainly remained as residues in the soils and little was bound to the soluble,exchangeable and carbonate fractions.The differentiation of 226 Ra/228Ra activity ratios in different geoheical fractions in the soils could be used as a parameter to trace accumulation and /or erosion of soil particles.

  19. Equilibration of the ground state of 26Al with its isomer at 228 keV under astrophysical conditions

    The renewed interest in the production of 26Al in connection with the study of isotopic ratios in meteorites and with the formation of the solar system forms the basis for studying the equilibration of the ground state of 26Al with its isomer at 228 keV. (orig./AH)

  20. Quantitative laws governing the migration of magnesium, calcium, radium-226, thorium-228 in the link between soils and plants

    Concentrations of magnesium, calcium, radium 226 and thorium 228 in podsolized chernozem and medium-loamy soils and in agricultural plants (wheat, barley, peas, potatoes, beets, and carrots) were determined. Transition coefficients of magnesium, calcium and radium 226 from soils to plants were calculated

  1. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 228 - Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars

    2010-10-01

    ..., published at 42 CFR part 72, or is approved for drinking purposes by the State or local authority having...” occur, as defined in 49 CFR 228.101 (c)(3) and (c)(4), respectively. Every reasonable effort should be... serious physical harm. (k) Urinal means a toilet facility maintained within a toilet room for the...

  2. Speciation of 226Ra, 238U and 228Ra in an upland organic soil overlying a uraniferous granite

    A sequential chemical extraction procedure was implemented in order to ascertain the chemical speciation of 226Ra, 238U and 228Ra within fractions of an upland organic soil. A number of samples and depth cores were taken from a region where the soil contains elevated levels of these radionuclides. Sequential chemical extractions were employed to identify within which of the three soil phases, namely exchangeable cations, easily oxidisable organic matter or iron oxides, the radionuclides were incorporated. The primary analytical technique was high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. A number of other chemical parameters likely to affect the mode of occurrence of the radionuclides were also analysed. These included humic acid content, iron and manganese content and cation exchange capacity. Results indicate that the average amount of radionuclides bound as exchangeable cations, expressed as a percentage of the specific activities of each radionuclide, are: 226Ra - 2.13% (S.D. 2.15), 238U - 5.2% (S.D. 4.6) and 228Ra - 12.2% (S.D. 7.0). For easily oxidisable organic matter, the average percentages are: 236Ra - 3.2% (S.D. 3.2), 238U - 21.9% (S.D. 18.4), and 228Ra - 8.5% (S.D. 8.7). Percentages for iron oxides are 226Ra - 8.7% (S.D. 7.5), 238U - 54.8% (S.D. 22.2) and 228Ra - 19.7% (S.D. 12.9). N equals 17 in all cases. The results indicate that the primary factor controlling U238 accumulation, and to a lesser extent 226Ra and 228Ra, is the redox condition of the peat. Release of radionuclides from the peat could possibly occur via changes in the redox status as a result of activities such as forestry or drainage of the peat. (orig.)

  3. Seasonal variation of 228Ra/226Ra ratio in seaweed: implications for water circulation patterns in coastal areas of the Noto Peninsula, Japan

    To examine water circulation patterns of coastal water, 72 seaweed (Sargasso) samples and 27 coastal water samples were collected from coastal areas of the Noto Peninsula, Japan, during the period from December 1998 to June 2002. The 228Ra and 226Ra activities of those samples were measured by low-background γ-ray spectrometry. There was a wide range of activities of 228Ra (0.5-2 Bq/kg-fresh) and 226Ra (0.5-1.2 Bq/kg-fresh) in the Sargasso samples. The 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio of Sargasso samples exhibited seasonal variation with minimum values in June (228Ra/226Ra = ∼1) and maximum values in December (1.5-2.5), which was mainly governed by changes in 228Ra activity. It is also notable that the seasonal variation of the 228Ra/226Ra ratio of Sargasso is in approximate agreement with that of the ambient coastal water. Sargasso samples appear to have retained the 228Ra/226Ra ratio of the ambient coastal waters, and the temporal variations in that ratio provide insight into seasonal changes in water circulation in the Noto Peninsula coastal area

  4. Study of viscosity on the fission dynamics of the excited nuclei 228U produced in 19F + 209Bi reactions

    A two-dimensional (2D) dynamical model based on Langevin equations was applied to study the fission dynamics of the compound nuclei 228U produced in 19F + 209Bi reactions at intermediate excitation energies. The distance between the centers of masses of the future fission fragments was used as the first dimension and the projection of the total spin of the compound nucleus onto the symmetry axis, K, was considered as the second dimension in Langevin dynamical calculations. The magnitude of post-saddle friction strength was inferred by fitting measured data on the average pre-scission neutron multiplicity for 228U. It was shown that the results of calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data by using values of the post-saddle friction equal to 6–8 × 1021s-1. (author)

  5. Using 226Ra/228Ra disequilibrium to determine the residence half-lives of radium in vegetation compartments

    The concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra were studied in different vegetation compartments and in available and non-available soil fractions in a Mediterranean scrubland ecosystem. A high percentage of the plant samples showed an apparent discrimination in favour of 226Ra over 228Ra. A linear compartmental model was applied to the soil-plant system. It allowed us to explain why these discrimination coefficients differed from unity, to obtain the residence half-lives of radium in the different compartments, to estimate the age of the plants, and to simulate the temporal evolution of the radioactive concentrations in each compartment. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Sequential determination of U and Th isotopes, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po in mushroom

    For this study, mushroom samples were collected in Brazil at the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region and at the Pocos de Caldas Plateau (PC; a region of elevated natural radioactivity, which houses the first Brazilian uranium mine). This paper discusses a sequential methodology to determine natural series radionuclides in mushrooms, such as uranium (238U and 234U) and thorium (232Th, 230Th, and 228Th) isotopes, radium-226, radium-228, as well as lead-210 and polonium-210; using Alpha Spectrometry, Gamma Spectrometry, and Total Alpha and Beta Counting. The method involves total sample dissolution in a closed system in order to avoid loss of Polonium and employment of specific chromatographic resins for radionuclide purification. A subsequent interpretation of the results can provide information on pollutants present in mushrooms and infer possible contamination in the areas sampled as well as allow an association of measured concentrations to radioactive anomalies in the Plateau. (author)

  7. Half-lives of long-lived isotopes of transactinium elements from 228Th to 257Fm

    The experimental measurements and critical evaluation results of the long-lived isotope half-decay periods of transactinium elements (from 228Th to 257Fm) are given on July 1981 to be published in open literature and related to the natural radioactive decay. From the massif of the known half-decay periods the most reliable data were selected, received or evaluated and recommended for practical use; the calculations of isotope specific activities were performed on this data. (author)

  8. Bioavailability of radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb present in the brazilian phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum

    Phosphogypsum, also called gypsum, by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, can be used as soil conditioner since it provides improvements in the soil-plant system. However, this by-product concentrates radionuclides of the U and Th series, present in the phosphate rock used as raw material, which can impact the environment. In order to study the bioavailability of radionuclides, samples of phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers (monoammonium phosphate and triple superphosphate) were analyzed. The concentration of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb were determined by gamma spectrometry. The samples were leached with a mild EDTA solution and the radionuclides present in the final solution were determined by total alpha and beta counting on a gas flow proportional counter. The percentage of extraction varied from 1.6% to 1.7% for 210Pb, from 0.5% to 1.4% for 226Ra and from 0.1% to 1.0% for the 228Ra in phosphogypsum samples. The low percentage of extraction obtained for the radionuclides can be partly explained by the low solubility of phosphogypsum, which ranged from 7.7% to 16%. For the monoammonium phosphate samples the percentage of extraction were less than 26% for 226Ra, less than 10% for '228Ra and less than 10% for 210Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 77% of monoammonium phosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. For the triple superphosphate samples, the percentage of extraction was 2.3% for 226Ra, 1.2% for 228Ra and 11.3% for 210Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 66% of triple superphosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. (author)

  9. Measurement of the Natural Content of Th228, Ra226 and their Daughters in the Human Body

    The purpose of these investigations was the determination of both the content and the distribution of the alpha emitters radium-226, thorium-228 and polonium-210 in the human body. The content of radium-226 in human bones and soft tissues was determined by the emanation method, the content of polonium-210 by chemical enrichment followed by measuring the activity in a methane flow counter. The thorium-228 content as well as the total alpha activity was measured by means of a specially- developed scintillation method, the so-called mixing method. The content of radium-226 in human bones and organs related to the patient's age is performed in order to get information on the incorporation of this nuclide at continuous administration of extremely low amounts. As to bones and soft tissues the specific activity of radium-226 in man showed to be constant from the fourth month of pregnancy up to an age as high as 80 yr. The content of polonium-210 and lead-210 in femur and tibia bones was measured in order to determine the ratio of polonium-210 and lead-210 in the human skeleton of the living organism. This ratio is 0.8 on the average. The ratio of thorium-228 and radium-226 in human bone ashes is about 0.4. The age of the examined persons ranged from 5 to 70 yr. As a result of these investigations the human radiation burden caused by the radium-226, thorium-228 and polonium-210 content was estimated. (author)

  10. No structural change due to G228S substitution of haemagglutinin in emerging H6N1 influenza virus

    Beuy; Joob; Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    To the editor,Sir,in later 2013,the newest emerging influenza infection is firstly reported from Taiwan[1,2].This newest cross species influeza is called H6N1 bird flu[1,2].Genetic mutation is believed to be the cause of cross species infection and the G228S substitution of haeniagglutinin is proposed for increasing the mutant affinity for the humanα2-6 linked sialic acid receptor[3].This mechanism is believed to

  11. Production and characterization of a custom-made 228Th source with reduced neutron source strength for the Borexino experiment

    A custom-made 228Th source of several MBq activities was produced for the Borexino experiment to study the external background of the detector. The aim was to reduce the unwanted neutron emission produced via (α,n) reactions in ceramics typically used for commercial 228Th sources. For this purpose a ThCl4 solution was chemically converted into ThO2 and embedded in a gold foil. The paper describes the production of the custom-made source and its characterization by means of γ-activity, dose rate and neutron source strength measurements. From γ-spectroscopic measurements it was deduced that activity transfer from the initial solution to the final source was >91% (at 68% C.L.) and the final activity was (5.41±0.30) MBq. The dose rate was measured with two dosimeters yielding 12.1 mSv/h and 14.3 mSv/h in 1 cm distance. The neutron source strength of the 5.41 MBq 228Th source was determined to be (6.59±0.85) s−1.

  12. Determination of 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra and 228Ra in mineral water samples of the Slovak Republic

    The Slovak Republic is very rich in mineral water sources. In recent years, it has been discovered that a number of mineral waters in the Slovak Republic contain high levels of 226Ra and 228Ra. Moreover, there is a lack of information on 224Ra and 223Ra concentrations in mineral waters as well. The currently approved techniques for alpha emitting radium isotopes are based on radon emanation methods. Due to the long ingrowth periods required by these techniques, any 224Ra and 223Ra in the sample decay away and go undetected. For this reason, we have used an alpha spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of 226Ra, 223Ra and 224Ra. Radium was concentrated by a lead sulphate co-precipitation. The precipitate was dissolved in EDTA and the radium isotopes were separated from possible interfering radionuclides using barium sulphate micro precipitation. The radium-barium precipitate was filtered and counted by alpha spectrometry. 133Ba was used to quantify the yield by gamma spectrometry. In our laboratory, gamma spectrometry was also used for the determination of 228Ra in mineral water samples. Radium was concentrated by a lead-barium sulphate co-precipitation. 133Ba was used to quantify the yield, found to be 97 % on the average, by gamma spectrometry. Furthermore, the committed effective doses for 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra, 228Ra intake via ingestion of mineral waters for the members of public were calculated. (author)

  13. Determination of the concentration of {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in the feces of workers from a mining company of niobium and their families; Determinacao da concentracao de {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra e {sup 210}Pb na excrecao fecal de trabalhadores de uma mineradora de niobio e de seus familiares

    Oliveira, Roges de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Intrumentacao Nuclear; Melo, Dunstana R.; Juliao, Ligia M.Q.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (SEMINIRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Monitoracao Individual Interna

    2005-07-01

    The object of this study consists of an open mine from which Niobium ore (pyrochlore) is extracted and a metallurgy company, where Fe-Nb alloys are produced for export. For geological reasons, the main ore is associated to natural radionuclides U and Th, and its decay products. The concentration of {sup 234}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, including {sup 210}Pb in fecal excretion of 12:0 am, 29 workers and 13 family members were determined. The technique employed for the determination of the elements was the sequential method of radiochemical separation, followed by alpha spectrometry and counting {alpha} and {beta} in proportional detector. Statistically significant difference was observed in the concentration of {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U, in feces samples, among the group of mining workers and family members; as well as for {sup 232}Th in the feces of workers of crushing and metallurgy groups when compared with the Family Group. No statistically significant difference was detected at a concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb, in feces of any group of workers of the installation in relation to the family group.

  14. 226Ra and 228Ra activity levels in potable drinking water supplied to pharmaceutical companies in India

    The low level 226Ra and 228Ra activities were measured in Potable water samples received by pharmaceutical companies located in Maharashtra, Goa, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh through private Borewell Supply and Municipal water Supply units. Radium in drinking water and food enhances the ingestion dose due to its long radiological and biological half-life. The Radium activity level in the fresh water was supposed to be within the limits prescribed by USEPA Guideline for Drinking Water Quality, 40 CFR 141,a Code of Federal Regulation. Higher concentration of Radium can be easily measured by Gamma spectrometry. The paper gives the low levels of radium isotopes present in the water samples which are not detectable successfully by simple gamma spectrometry. A separation chemistry considering Radium isotopes decay scheme and chemical similarity to Calcium was adapted to measure the activity with sequential chemical separation method followed by determining the alpha and beta activity of individual radium isotopes. In bore well water 226Ra activity level was in the range of 0.21 to 60±3.7 mBq/l and 228Ra level was in the range of 5.48 to 111.9±12.2 mBq/l while in Municipal water supply 226Ra and 228Ra was observed to be in the range of 0.32 to 28.89 mBq/l and 2.19 to 117.43 mBq/l respectively. A combined 226Ra+228Ra activity was observed to be in the range of 2.63 to 171.9±12.75 mBq/l which is very much within the prescribed limits. The investigation indicated that 228Ra activity is comparatively more than 226Ra indicating the water source to be from Thorium rich locations.The expected dose assessed was in the range of 13.18 to 0.04 μSv/y which is well within the limit of 0.1 mSv/y. (author)

  15. 226Ra and 228Ra activities associated with agricultural drainage ponds and wetland ponds in the Kankakee Watershed, Illinois-Indiana, USA

    Background radioactivity is elevated in many agricultural drainage ponds and also constructed wetland ponds in the Kankakee watershed. During 1995-1999, gross-α and -β activities were measured up to 455 and 1650 mBq L-1, respectively. 226Ra and 228Ra averaged 139 and 192 mBq L-1 in controlled drainage ponds compared to 53 and 58 mBq L-1 for 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively, in native wetland ponds. Analyses of applied ammonium phosphate fertilizers near both native and controlled ponds indicate comparable 226Ra/228Ra and 228Ra/232Th activity ratios with only the surface waters in the controlled ponds. For example, 226Ra/ 228Ra activity ratios in controlled ponds ranged from 0.79 to 0.91 and group with a local fertilizer batch containing FL phosphate compounds with 226Ra/228Ra activity ratios of 0.83-1.04. Local soils of the Kankakee watershed have 226Ra/228Ra activity ratios of 0.54-0.70. Calculated Ra fluxes of waters, in drainage ditches associated with these controlled ponds, for 226Ra ranged from 0.77 to 9.00 mBq cm-2 d-1 and for 228Ra ranged from 1.22 to 8.43 mBq cm-2 d-1. Ra activity gradients were measured beneath these controlled ponds both in agricultural landscapes and in constructed wetlands, all being associated with drainage ditches. Ra had infiltrated to the local water table but was below regulatory maximum contaminant limits. Still, measurable Ra activity was measured downgradient of even the constructed wetlands in the Kankakee watershed, suggesting that the attenuation of Ra was low. However, no Ra excess was observed in the riparian zone or the Kankakee River downgradient of the native wetland ponds

  16. PF573,228 inhibits vascular tumor cell growth, migration as well as angiogenesis, induces apoptosis and abrogates PRAS40 and S6RP phosphorylation.

    Mabeta, Peace

    2016-09-01

    PF573,228 is a compound that targets focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor protein kinase, which is over-expressed in various tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PF573,228 on the cells derived from mouse vascular tumors, namely, endothelioma cells. The treatment of endothelioma cells with PF573,228 reduced their growth with an IC50 of approximately 4.6 μmol L-1 and inhibited cell migration with an IC50 of about 0.01 μmol L-1. Microscopic studies revealed morphological attributes of apoptosis. These observations were confirmed by ELISA, which showed increased caspase-3 activity. PF573,228 also inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 of approximately 3.7 μmol L-1, and abrogated the phosphorylation of cell survival proteins, proline-rich Akt substrate (PRAS40) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP). Array data further revealed that PF573,228 induced caspase-3 activation, thus promoting apoptosis. Since all the processes inhibited by PF573,228 provide important support to tumor survival and progression, the drug may have a potential role in the treatment of vascular tumors. PMID:27383888

  17. Inventory of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in marine sediments cores of Southwest Atlantic Ocean

    210Pb (22.3 y) is a radioactive isotope successfully applied as tracer of sediment dating of the last 100-150 years. The application of 226Ra and 228Ra as paleoceanographic tracers (half-lives of 1,600 y and 5.7 y, respectively) also gives some information of ocean's role in past climate change. In this work, it was analyzed 2 sediment cores collect at Southwest Atlantic Ocean. The sediments samples were freeze-dried and acid digested in microwave. It was carried out a radiochemical separation of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb and performed a gross alpha and gross beta measurement of both precipitates Ba(Ra)SO4 and PbCrO4 in a low background gas-flow proportional counter. Activity concentrations of 226Ra ranged from 45 Bq kg-1 to 70 Bq kg-1 in NAP-62 and from 57 Bq kg-1 to 82 Bq kg-1 in NAP-63 samples. The concentration of 228Ra varied between 37 Bq kg-1 and 150 Bq kg-1 in NAP-62 and between 23 Bq kg-1 and 111 Bq kg-1 in NAP-63 samples. The concentration of total 210Pb ranged from 126 Bq kg-1 to 256 Bq kg-1 in NAP-62 and from 63 Bq kg-1 to 945 Bq kg-1 in NAP-63 samples. Results of 210Pbuns varied from 68 Bq kg-1 to 192 Bq kg-1 for NAP-62, while varied from <4.9 Bq kg-1 to 870 Bq kg-1 in NAP-63 profile. Increased values of 210Pbuns were found on the top of both NAP-62 and NAP- 63 sediment profile. (author)

  18. A Procedure for the Rapid Determination of 226Ra and 228Ra in Drinking Water by Liquid Scintillation Counting

    Since 2004, the environment programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the determination of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. Reliable, comparable and ‘fit for purpose’ results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, tested and validated analytical procedures are extremely important tools for the production of such data. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer. This publication describes a procedure for the rapid determination of 226Ra and 228Ra in drinking water. The determination of radium in drinking water is important for protecting human health, since the consumption of drinking water containing radium may lead to an accumulation in the body, contributing to the radiological dose. The method is based on the separation of 226Ra and 228Ra from interfering elements using PbSO4 and Ba(Ra)SO4 coprecipitation steps. The isotopes 226Ra and 228Ra are then determined by liquid scintillation counting. The procedure is expected to be of general use to a wide range of laboratories, including the laboratories of the Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) network, both in emergency situations and for routine environmental monitoring purposes. The method was established after an extensive review of papers from the scientific literature, and was tested and validated in terms of repeatability and trueness (relative bias) in accordance with International Organization for Standardization guidelines. Reproducibility tests were performed at expert laboratories. The calculation of massic activities, uncertainty budget, decision threshold and detection limit are also described

  19. Development and evaluation of a technique for the determination of 226Ra and 228Ra by liquid scintillation in biological samples

    Radium isotopes are dispersed in the environment according to their physicochemical characteristics. Considering their long half-lives and radiological effects, 226Ra and 228Ra are very important issues to radiological protection. In Brazil, radium isotopes represent an exposure problem both in the nuclear fuel cycle installations and in high natural radiation background areas. The experimental part of this work includes the development of a technique for the determination of 226Ra and 228Ra by liquid scintillation in biological samples. Radium was concentrated and then separated from the others constituents of the sample by coprecipitation/ precipitation with Ba(Ra)SO4. The precipitate was filtered and weighted to calculate the chemical yield. The filter containing the precipitate of Ba(Ra)SO4 was transferred to a scintillation vial. Two methods were used to prepare the sources. The first one consisted gel suspension and the second one, phases method. The solutions obtained were counted in a low background scintillation spectrometry system (Quantulus) suitable for the detection and identification of both alpha and beta particles for the determination of 226Ra and 228Ra. The activity values of 226Ra and 228Ra calculated by the two methods are in good agreement with the reference value indicating that both methods are suitable for the determination of 226Ra and 228Ra. The values of minimum detectable activity (MDA) for the gel suspension method were 2.5 mBq.L-1 for 226Ra and 53 mBq.L-1 for 228Ra and for the method of phases were 2.6 mBq.L-1 for 226Ra and 66 mBq.L-1 for 228Ra. (author)

  20. Development and evaluation of a technique for the determination of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra by liquid scintillation in biological samples

    Fernandes, Paulo Cesar P.; Sousa, Wanderson O.; Dantas, Bernardo M.; Juliao, Ligia M.Q.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: pcesar@ird.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    Radium isotopes are dispersed in the environment according to their physicochemical characteristics. Considering their long half-lives and radiological effects, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra are very important issues to radiological protection. In Brazil, radium isotopes represent an exposure problem both in the nuclear fuel cycle installations and in high natural radiation background areas. The experimental part of this work includes the development of a technique for the determination of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra by liquid scintillation in biological samples. Radium was concentrated and then separated from the others constituents of the sample by coprecipitation/ precipitation with Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4}. The precipitate was filtered and weighted to calculate the chemical yield. The filter containing the precipitate of Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} was transferred to a scintillation vial. Two methods were used to prepare the sources. The first one consisted gel suspension and the second one, phases method. The solutions obtained were counted in a low background scintillation spectrometry system (Quantulus) suitable for the detection and identification of both alpha and beta particles for the determination of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra. The activity values of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra calculated by the two methods are in good agreement with the reference value indicating that both methods are suitable for the determination of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra. The values of minimum detectable activity (MDA) for the gel suspension method were 2.5 mBq.L{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and 53 mBq.L{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra and for the method of phases were 2.6 mBq.L{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and 66 mBq.L{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra. (author)

  1. Seasonal changes in submarine groundwater discharge to coastal salt ponds estimated using 226Ra and 228Ra as tracers

    Hougham, A.L.; Moran, S.B.; Masterson, J.P.; Kelly, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to coastal southern Rhode Island was estimated from measurements of the naturally-occurring radioisotopes 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600??y) and 228Ra (t1/2 = 5.75??y). Surface water and porewater samples were collected quarterly in Winnapaug, Quonochontaug, Ninigret, Green Hill, and Pt. Judith-Potter Ponds, as well as nearly monthly in the surface water of Rhode Island Sound, from January 2002 to August 2003; additional porewater samples were collected in August 2005. Surface water activities ranged from 12-83??dpm 100??L- 1 (60??dpm = 1??Bq) and 21-256??dpm 100??L- 1 for 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. Porewater 226Ra activities ranged from 16-736??dpm 100??L- 1 (2002-2003) and 95-815??dpm 100??L- 1 (2005), while porewater 228Ra activities ranged from 23-1265??dpm 100??L- 1. Combining these data with a simple box model provided average 226Ra-based submarine groundwater fluxes ranging from 11-159??L m- 2 d- 1 and average 228Ra-derived fluxes of 15-259??L m- 2 d- 1. Seasonal changes in Ra-derived SGD were apparent in all ponds as well as between ponds, with SGD values of 30-472??L m- 2 d- 1 (Winnapaug Pond), 6-20??L m- 2 d- 1 (Quonochontaug Pond), 36-273??L m- 2 d- 1 (Ninigret Pond), 29-76??L m- 2 d- 1 (Green Hill Pond), and 19-83??L m- 2 d- 1 (Pt. Judith-Potter Pond). These Ra-derived fluxes are up to two orders of magnitude higher than results predicted by a numerical model of groundwater flow, estimates of aquifer recharge for the study period, and values published in previous Ra-based SGD studies in Rhode Island. This disparity may result from differences in the type of flow (recirculated seawater versus fresh groundwater) determined using each technique, as well as variability in porewater Ra activity. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of Ra-224, Ra-226 and Ra-228 by gamma-ray spectrometry with radon retention

    Full text: The purpose of this work is to improve the determination, through gamma-ray spectrometry, of radium isotopes 228Ra, 226Ra and 224Ra in water. This improvement has been developed after the participation in the IAEA Proficiency test: 'Determination of radium and Uranium radionuclides in water' in December 2002, and applied to the same samples of this proficiency test. The aim of this new procedure is the determination of 228Ra, 226Ra and 224Ra activities by measuring the gamma-ray emissions of their decay products 228Ac, 214Pb and 212Pb, respectively. In the search for these activities, radiochemical separation of radium and lead are required. A coprecipitation method with stable barium and lead was carried out to obtain two different precipitates, both of them as sulphate. However emanation of unknown quantities of 222Rn and 220Rn is produced from the fine precipitate of the radium sulphate obtained which leads to wrong determinations of 224Ra and 226Ra activities. To avoid this radon exhalation effect the mentioned deposit, once the chemical yield has been calculated, is dissolved with EDTA and the resulting liquid incorporated into charcoal, and then it is dried and introduced into a suitable container. Afterwards the container is sealed and stored in a freezer. Different configurations of charcoal sizes and types as well as containers have been analysed. To perform this analysis several samples of those mentioned above containing 226Ra were used in order to test its equilibrium with the progeny, 214Pb and 214Bi, through gamma-ray spectrometry. The following results for contaminated samples with less than 50 Bq of 226Ra and using 30 ∼ 50 g of charcoal have been obtained: 1) There is a slight tendency to obtain better results using metallic containers rather than plastic ones 2) In general, specific activated charcoals, prepared to retain radon or noble gases allow better results than unspecific charcoals, but cannot be considered as better in a clear

  3. Estimation of annual effective dose from 226Ra and 228Ra due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of Ramsar city, Iran

    226Ra and 228Ra contents in foodstuffs of Ramsar which is a coastal city in the northern part of lran were determined by gamma spectrometry. Measurement results together with food consumption rates were used to estimate annual effective dose from 226Ra and 228Ra, due to consumption of food stuffs by inhabitants of Ramsar city. Materials and methods: a total of 33 samples from 11 different foodstuffs including root vegetables (beetroot), leafy vegetables (lettuce, parsley and spinach) and tea, meat, chicken, pea, broad bean, rice, and cheese were purchased from markets of Ramsar city and were analyzed for their 226Ra and 228Ra concentration. 1-8 kg of fresh weight sample was placed in Marinnelli beaker and sealed. The measurement of natural radioactivity levels as performed by gamma-spectrometry system, using a high purity germanium detector with 40% relative efficiency. Results: The highest concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra were determined in tea samples with 1570 and 1140 mBq/kg, respectively, and the lowest concentration of 226Ra was in pea, cheese, chicken, broad bean, and beetroot. Conclusion:The maximum estimated annual effective dose from 226Ra and 228Ra due to consumption, foodstuffs were determined to be 19.22 and 0.71 mSv from rice and meat samples respectively, where as, minimum estimated annual effective dose for 226Ra was 0.017, 0.018 and 0.019 mSv from beetroot, cheese and pea samples respectively

  4. Tl-208, Pb-212, Bi-212, Ra-226 and Ac-228 adsorption onto polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate-bentonite composite

    The adsorption of naturally occurring radionuclides (208Tl+, 212Pb2+, 226Ra2+, 212Bi3+ and 228Ac3+) onto Polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate-bentonite (PHEMA-B) composite was investigated. Experimentally obtained isotherms were evaluated with reference to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) models. The adsorption isotherms were L type of Giles classification proving that PHEMA-B had a high affinity adsorbent for the studied radionuclides. The Langmuir adsorption capacities (XL) were in the order of 226Ra (2.8 MBq kg-1)>212Bi (0.4 MBq kg-1)>212Pb (0.3 MBq kg-1)>228Ac and 208Tl (0.2 MBq kg-1). The adsorption process was physical via complex formation after proton exchanger for which the adsorption energies obtained from DR model was evidence. The enthalpy and entropy changes were positive and the negative free enthalpy change was proof for the spontaneity of adsorption. The reusability tests for PHEMA-B for five uses demonstrated that the adsorbent could be reused after complete recovery of the loaded radionuclide ions by 1 M HCl. The chemical structure of the composite did not change after the reuses and storage foregoing.

  5. Determination of 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations in foodstuffs consumed by inhabitants of Tehran city of Iran

    The presence of primordial radionuclide in human habitats has always been a source of prolonged exposure. Measurement of naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment can be used as baseline to evaluate the impact of non-nuclear activities and also routine releases from nuclear installations. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 samples from 18 different foodstuff including root vegetables (beetroot, carrot, onion, potato, radish and turnip), leafy vegetables (lettuce, parsley, spinach and white cabbage) and lentil, kidney bean, Soya, eggs, rice, meat, tomato and cooking oil were purchased and analyzed by low level gamma spectrometry. Results: The 226Ra concentrations from root vegetables varied from 13-62 mBqkg-1 with turnip of highest concentration, i.e. 62mBqkg-1. Among leafy vegetables; parsley showed the maximum concentration of 228Ra equal to 173 mBqkg-1. 226Rand 228Ra contents in the soya, 394 and 578 mBq kg-1 was much higher than those of other samples respectively. Conclusion : Results indicate that foodstuff consumed by Tehran inhabitants have low radium content and are safe, as far as radium concentrations is concerned

  6. Measurement of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in soil in district of Kuala Krai using gamma spectrometry

    The granitic region is known to have high natural radionuclides content. The natural background of the area will be elevated and the exposure rate also will be higher as compared to other region. The present study is focusing on the presence of natural uranium isotopes using its progenies in soils belong to the river basin of the granitic region of Kuala Krai district, Malaysia. Granitic characteristics of the region were believed to produce significant concentrations of natural radionuclide such as uranium and thorium. This paper presents the results of measurement activity concentration 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in soil using Gamma Spectrometry to estimate activity concentration of radionuclides in fourteen soil samples collected from this study area. The range of activity concentration of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K is 40.2-264.0, 49.2-312.9 and 491.1-1184.2 Bq/ kg respectively. These results were used to estimate the hazards index and annual exposure rate to the member of public. (author)

  7. Isotopic constraints (210Pb, 228Th) on the sedimentary dynamics of contaminated sediments from a subtropical coastal lagoon (NW Mexico)

    Ruiz-Fernandez, A.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Ghaleb, B.; Paez-Osuna, F.; Soto-Jimenez, M.

    2001-11-01

    Six sediment push-cores were collected at a coastal lagoon system affected by urban and agriculture wastes. The sediments were analyzed for 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 210Pb, 226Ra, and 137Cs. 137Cs activities were at background level for all samples. The 210Pbtot activities found in the area varied from 0.5 to 4.5 dpm g-1 with 210Pbsup levels ranging between 1.2-1.8 dpm g-1. Cores CHI and EPC showed flat profiles depleted of 210Pbxs, indicating the absence of recent sedimentation. Core CAI shows a flat 210Pbxs profile that seems to be bioturbated. Cores ERC and BRI show chaotic profiles with layers totally depleted in 210Pbxs, likely caused by resuspension triggered by storm conditions. High 228Th/232Th values observed at core ERC suggest that the resuspension event occurred less than 10 years ago. The contaminated sediment of the lagoon are frequently resuspended, re-oxygenated, and therefore the contaminating trace metals will continue to be easily remobilized in the food chain.

  8. Observations of the Bursting Activity of the 6.7GHz Methanol Maser in G33.641-0.228

    Fujisawa, Kenta; Nagadomi, Yoshito; Kimura, Saki; Shimomura, Tadashi; Takase, Genta; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Motogi, Kazuhito; Niinuma, Kotaro; Hirota, Tomoya; Yonekura, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    We have observed bursting variability of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser of G33.641-0.228. Five bursts were detected in the observation period of 294 days from 2009 to 2012. The typical burst is a large flux density rise in about one day followed by a slow fall. A non-typical burst observed in 2010 showed a large and rapid flux density enhancement from the stable state, but the rise and fall of the flux density were temporally symmetric and a fast fluctuation continued 12 days. On average, the bursts occurred once every 59 days, although bursting was not periodic. Since the average power required for causing the burst of order of 10^21 Js^-1 is far smaller than the luminosity of G33.641-0.228, a very small fraction of the source's power would be sufficient to cause the burst occasionally. The burst can be explained as a solar-flare like event in which the energy is accumulated in the magnetic field of the circumstellar disk, and is released for a short time. However, the mechanism of the energy release and the dus...

  9. Determination of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb in mushroom from a naturally high radioactive region

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Custodio, Luis Gustavo; Cheberle, Luan T.V.; Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lgcustodio@hotmail.com, E-mail: lt.cheberle@bol.com.br, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CNEN/IPEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Many studies have shown that mushrooms are organisms which efficiently accumulate radionuclides and can be used as indicators of environmental contamination and ecosystem quality. The Pocos de Caldas plateau, in Minas Gerais, is a region that has elevated natural radioactivity due to the presence of radiological anomalies of volcanic origin. Seventy areas of radioactive anomalies have been identified in this region. From the radiological point of view the determination of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb is relevant because they are decay products of the natural series of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, mainly responsible for natural radioactive exposures of man. The present paper is part of a broader study conducted in the Pocos de Caldas plateau, in which the concentration activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb in mushroom samples were determined. The mushrooms were collected at different points of the plateau under the influence of radioactive anomalies and away from the influence of anomalies. From statistical studies a correlation between the accumulation of radionuclides in mushrooms and anomalies was established and it was possible to confirm the efficiency that the mushrooms present as environmental contamination indicators. (author)

  10. Determination of 226Ra, 228Ra, and 210Pb in mushroom from a naturally high radioactive region

    Many studies have shown that mushrooms are organisms which efficiently accumulate radionuclides and can be used as indicators of environmental contamination and ecosystem quality. The Pocos de Caldas plateau, in Minas Gerais, is a region that has elevated natural radioactivity due to the presence of radiological anomalies of volcanic origin. Seventy areas of radioactive anomalies have been identified in this region. From the radiological point of view the determination of 226Ra, 228Ra, and 210Pb is relevant because they are decay products of the natural series of 238U and 232Th, mainly responsible for natural radioactive exposures of man. The present paper is part of a broader study conducted in the Pocos de Caldas plateau, in which the concentration activities of 226Ra, 228Ra, and 210Pb in mushroom samples were determined. The mushrooms were collected at different points of the plateau under the influence of radioactive anomalies and away from the influence of anomalies. From statistical studies a correlation between the accumulation of radionuclides in mushrooms and anomalies was established and it was possible to confirm the efficiency that the mushrooms present as environmental contamination indicators. (author)

  11. Values of soil-plant transfer factor of 226Ra and 228Ra: agricultural areas versus areas of high natural radioactivity

    In this work, soil to plant transfer factor of 226Ra and 228Ra obtained in areas of traditional agricultural practices varied as a function of the considered cultivated species but little variation was observed as a function of the soil type. Beans and soybeans presented more important absorption than cereals (corn, rice and wheat). In our work legumes (bean and soybean) presented transfer factors up to one order of magnitude higher than average values for regions where natural radioactivity is high. On the other hand, the results for cereals did not presented such clear differences. It can be concluded that cultural inputs of 226Ra and 228Ra are occurring in agricultural areas, but few species can concentrate it. The transfer factor values obtained in this work for 226Ra and 228Ra can be applied in risk assessment models. (author)

  12. Radon leakage as a source of additional uncertainty in simultaneous determination of 226Ra and 228Ra by gamma spectrometry—Validation of analysis procedure

    A series of validation experiments was carried out to assess robustness, repeatability, and trueness of an analysis procedure for simultaneous determination of 226Ra and 228Ra in water samples. The study revealed instabilities in the radon holding capacity of the sample matrix (epoxy resin). The discovered effect is a new additional component in the uncertainty budget which should be considered when 226Ra is measured via its progeny in similar sample matrices. - Highlights: • 226Ra and 228Ra determined gamma spectrometrically via 214Pb and 228Ac. • Procedure proved to be robust for conserved water samples of pH 226Ra is determined via progeny in similar matrices. • Results of an intercomparison study proved the procedure to be fit for its purpose

  13. Removal of 226Ra and 228Ra from Groundwater Resources in Use for Drinking Water Supply Purposes (Czech Republic)

    Water for drinking water supply purposes in the Czech Republic is abstracted from both surface water and groundwater resources and groundwater represents 40% of the total drinking water supply. Natural concentrations of naturally produced radionuclides in surface waters are generally small, amounting normally to 10 mBq/l of radium radioisotopes and less then 0.002 mg/l of uranium. In groundwaters, dependably on hydrogeological conditions, 222Rn concentrations can reach 200 - 4000 Bq/l. 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations do not exceed 0.3 Bq/l and uranium concentrations are below 0.2 mg/l. Increased concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and uranium that have been detected for some water resources are not normally correlated with 222Rn concentrations. Water treatment technologies normally include water aeration, sand filtering and health treatment. These technologies were originally designed to remove carbon dioxide, iron and manganese. It was shown in the following period that the aeration process, initially implemented by aeration in a horizontal arrangement, reduced the 222Rn concentration by about 80%. Currently, the proposed aeration towers achieve effective reduction of 222Rn by more than 95%. Depending on local conditions, sand filters with natural cover by iron oxides and manganese are able to capture 30 to 70% of radium radioisotopes. These water treatment processes do not reduce concentrations of uranium. For reduction of radium isotopes, these processes can be intensified by dissolving the layer of iron and manganese by acids and its recovering by dosing of potassium permanganate in shorter intervals. Waste from the water treatment originates mainly from backwash sludge. The washing water is returned after sedimentation as raw water and the sludge is discharged into municipal wastewater treatment plants or landfills. Concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra in the filter cartridges are in the range from 0.5 to 5 kBq/kg. Experience has shown that the duration of their use

  14. Inventory of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in marine sediments cores of Southwest Atlantic Ocean

    Costa, Alice M.R.; Oliveira, Joselene de, E-mail: alice.costa@usp.br, E-mail: jolivei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes. Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Sousa, Silvia H.M., E-mail: rfigueira@usp.br, E-mail: mahiques@usp.br, E-mail: smsousa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico

    2015-07-01

    {sup 210}Pb (22.3 y) is a radioactive isotope successfully applied as tracer of sediment dating of the last 100-150 years. The application of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra as paleoceanographic tracers (half-lives of 1,600 y and 5.7 y, respectively) also gives some information of ocean's role in past climate change. In this work, it was analyzed 2 sediment cores collect at Southwest Atlantic Ocean. The sediments samples were freeze-dried and acid digested in microwave. It was carried out a radiochemical separation of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb and performed a gross alpha and gross beta measurement of both precipitates Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} and PbCrO{sub 4} in a low background gas-flow proportional counter. Activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra ranged from 45 Bq kg{sup -1} to 70 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-62 and from 57 Bq kg{sup -1} to 82 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 samples. The concentration of {sup 228}Ra varied between 37 Bq kg{sup -1} and 150 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-62 and between 23 Bq kg{sup -1} and 111 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 samples. The concentration of total {sup 210}Pb ranged from 126 Bq kg{sup -1} to 256 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-62 and from 63 Bq kg{sup -1} to 945 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 samples. Results of {sup 210}Pb{sub uns} varied from 68 Bq kg{sup -1} to 192 Bq kg{sup -1} for NAP-62, while varied from <4.9 Bq kg{sup -1} to 870 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 profile. Increased values of {sup 210}Pb{sub uns} were found on the top of both NAP-62 and NAP- 63 sediment profile. (author)

  15. Interlaboratory comparison of the determination of 226Ra and 228Ra in samples simulating coal mine water

    The aim of the experiment organized by the National Atomic Energy Agency of Poland, was to carry out an interlaboratory comparison on the determination of long-lived radium isotopes in waste waters from Polish coal mines. It was expected that the experiment would allow to evaluate the proficiency of the national participants, and to eliminate possible errors in their work. 9 participating laboratories have determined the concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra (or only 226Ra) in 6 synthetic samples containing from 0 to 300 Bq/dm3 of each isotope. The results have been evaluated according to recent recommendations of IUPAC, ISO and AOAC. It is concluded that a significant majority of the results meet the proficiency criterium at the selected target accuracy. In some cases small systematic errors appear. Only a few laboratories meet a rigorous proficiency criterium. Analytical methods used for radium determination have also been evaluated. (author)

  16. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria with two mutations of the uroporphyrinogen III synthase gene (Cys73Arg, Thr228Met

    Zoran Gucev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism that results from the markedly deficient activity of uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS. We describe a 14-year-old girl with red urine since infancy, progressive blistering and scarring of the skin, and moderate hemolytic anemia. After years of skin damage, her face is mutilated; she has a bald patch on the scalp, hypertrichosis of the neck, areas of skin darkening, and limited joint movements of the hands. Total urine excretion and fecal total porphyrin were both markedly raised above normal levels. Sequencing of the UROS gene identified two mutations causing CEP (Cys73Arg, Thr228Met. The patient lesions are progressing. Bone marrow transplantation and/or gene therapy are proposed as the next steps in her treatment. In brief, we describe a CEP with confirmed two pathogenic mutations, severe phenotype and discuss the various treatment options available.

  17. UAS Integration into the NAS: Detect and Avoid Display Evaluations in Support of SC-228 MOPS Development

    Fern, Lisa; Rorie, Conrad; Shively, Jay

    2016-01-01

    At the May 2015 SC-228 meeting, requirements for TCAS II interoperability became elevated in priority. A TCAS interoperability work group was formed to identify and address key issuesquestions. The TCAS work group came up with an initial list of questions and a plan to address those questions. As part of that plan, NASA proposed to run a mini HITL to address display, alerting and guidance issues. A TCAS Interoperability Workshop was held to determine potential displayalertingguidance issues that could be explored in future NASA mini HITLS. Consensus on main functionality of DAA guidance when TCAS II RA occurs. Prioritized list of independent variables for experimental design. Set of use cases to stress TCAS Interoperability.

  18. Petroleum and gas production and exploration facilities with materials, spare parts of components contaminated with Ra-226 and Rd-228, and their radioactive descendants

    This Regulation refers to the Chapter 4 of the Regulation CNEN-NE.6.02 and its application for the classification of production ad exploration facilities of petroleum and gas, which have materials, pieces or components contaminated with Ra-226 and Ra-228 and its radioactive descendants

  19. Current (1984) status of the study of 226Ra and 228Ra in humans at the Center for Human Radiobiology

    The Center for Human Radiobiology has identified 5784 persons by name and type of exposure to 226Ra and 228Ra. Included are 4863 dial painters (mostly women) and non-laboratory employees of the radium dial industry, 410 laboratory workers, 399 persons who received radium for supposed therapeutic effects, and 112 in other categories. Body contents of radium have been measured in 1916 of the dial workers and about one-half of the subjects in the other groups. Bone sarcomas, carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoids, and deterioration of skeletal tissue are still the only effects unequivocally attributable to internal radium. Excess leukemias have not been observed and other malignancies, if in excess, appear more likely to be related to external gamma radiation or radon than to internal radium. Positive correlations with radium burdens have been found for the incidence of benign exostoses among subjects exposed to radium before age 18 and for shortened latency of ocular cataracts. 27 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  20. Bioavailability pf radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb present in Brazilian phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    Russo, Ana Carolina; Saueia, Catia H.R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P., E-mail: chsaueia@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares(IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of phosphate fertilizers industries. The USEPA classified PG as a - Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM). Its worldwide production on 2006 was estimated in 150 million tons. Annually the three main phosphate industries in Brazil are responsible for 5.5x106 tons of phosphogypsum, which is stored in stacks. The level of radionuclides present in phosphogypsum is well-known and makes its disposal or reutilization an environmental concern. Part of this byproduct can be reused, for example, to improve fertility of agricultural soils. To assess the long term environmental impact of radioactive contamination of ecosystems, information on source term including radionuclide speciation, mobility and biological uptakes have high importance. This paper intends to evaluate the bioavailability of the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb to the environment by following a procedure established by the EC (European Community), which includes a single EDTA-NH{sub 4} 0.05M extraction at pH 7.0 prior to the analyses. These results is compared with the total activity concentration of these radionuclides in Brazilian PG and the most used phosphate fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP). This procedure intends to represent on a more realistic way the leaching of radionuclides from PG and fertilizers to soil and agricultural products. (author)

  1. A 2 Tesla Full Scale High Performance Periodic Permanent Magnet Model for Attractive (228 KN) and repulsive Maglev

    Stekly, Z. J. J.; Gardner, C.; Domigan, P.; Baker, J.; Hass, M.; McDonald, C.; Wu, C.; Farrell, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Two 214.5 cm. long high performance periodic (26 cm period) permanent magnet half-assemblies were designed and constructed for use as a wiggler using Nd-B-Fe and vanadium permendur as hard and soft magnetic materials by Field Effects, a division of Intermagnetics General Corporation. Placing these assemblies in a supporting structure with a 2.1 cm pole to pole separation resulted in a periodic field with a maximum value of 2.04 T. This is believed to be the highest field ever achieved by this type of device. The attractive force between the two 602 kg magnet assemblies is 228 kN, providing enough force for suspension of a 45,500 kg vehicle. If used in an attractive maglev system with an appropriate flat iron rail, one assembly will generate the same force with a gap of 1.05 cm leading to a lift to weight ratio of 38.6, not including the vehicle attachment structure. This permanent magnet compares well with superconducting systems which have lift to weight ratios in the range of 5 to 10. This paper describes the magnet assemblies and their measured magnetic performance. The measured magnetic field and resulting attractive magnetic force have a negative spring characteristic. Appropriate control coils are necessary to provide stable operation. The estimated performance of the assemblies in a stable repulsive mode, with eddy currents in a conducting guideway, is also discussed.

  2. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb determination in surface water and groundwater by liquid scintillation counting

    Faria, Ligia S.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: ligsfaria@gmail.com, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The municipalities of Brumadinho and Nova Lima are located in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte city, in the State of Minas Gerais. These two sites are important due to being located inside an Environmental Protection Area inserted in the Iron Quadrangle. In addition to the mineral wealth, the region has geological features that include quartz conglomerates associated with uranium and a significant groundwater potential exhibiting quite peculiar and complex hydrogeological features, such as the quartzite aquifer itself. Nuclear techniques applied to hydrology, such as Liquid Scintillation Counting technique (LSC), make possible the evaluation of natural radioactivity in surface water and groundwater. The objectives of this study were the determination of the activities of the long half-life radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series, such as {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb, and provide an effective methodology to define if the direct consumption of these waters can cause risk to health due to its radioactivity. The results were compared with the recommendations of the Ministry of Health. (author)

  3. Bioavailability pf radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb present in Brazilian phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of phosphate fertilizers industries. The USEPA classified PG as a - Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM). Its worldwide production on 2006 was estimated in 150 million tons. Annually the three main phosphate industries in Brazil are responsible for 5.5x106 tons of phosphogypsum, which is stored in stacks. The level of radionuclides present in phosphogypsum is well-known and makes its disposal or reutilization an environmental concern. Part of this byproduct can be reused, for example, to improve fertility of agricultural soils. To assess the long term environmental impact of radioactive contamination of ecosystems, information on source term including radionuclide speciation, mobility and biological uptakes have high importance. This paper intends to evaluate the bioavailability of the radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb to the environment by following a procedure established by the EC (European Community), which includes a single EDTA-NH4 0.05M extraction at pH 7.0 prior to the analyses. These results is compared with the total activity concentration of these radionuclides in Brazilian PG and the most used phosphate fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP). This procedure intends to represent on a more realistic way the leaching of radionuclides from PG and fertilizers to soil and agricultural products. (author)

  4. Current (1984) status of the study of 226Ra and 228Ra in humans at the Center for Human Radiobiology

    The Center for Human Radiobiology has identified 5784 persons by name and type of exposure to 226Ra and 228Ra. Included are 4863 dial painters (mostly women) and non-laboratory employees of the radium dial industry, 410 laboratory workers, 399 persons who received radium for supposed therapeutic effects, and 112 in other categories. Body contents of radium have been measured in 1916 of the dial workers and about one-half of the subjects in the other groups. Bone sarcomas, carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoids, and deterioration of skeletal tissue are still the only effects unequivocally attributable to internal radium. Excess leukemias have not been observed and other malignancies, if in excess, appear more likely to be related to external gamma radiation or radon than to internal radium. Positive correlations with radium burdens have been found for the incidence of benign exostoses among subjects exposed to radium before age 18 and for shortened latency of ocular cataracts. 26 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  5. 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb determination in surface water and groundwater by liquid scintillation counting

    The municipalities of Brumadinho and Nova Lima are located in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte city, in the State of Minas Gerais. These two sites are important due to being located inside an Environmental Protection Area inserted in the Iron Quadrangle. In addition to the mineral wealth, the region has geological features that include quartz conglomerates associated with uranium and a significant groundwater potential exhibiting quite peculiar and complex hydrogeological features, such as the quartzite aquifer itself. Nuclear techniques applied to hydrology, such as Liquid Scintillation Counting technique (LSC), make possible the evaluation of natural radioactivity in surface water and groundwater. The objectives of this study were the determination of the activities of the long half-life radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series, such as 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb, and provide an effective methodology to define if the direct consumption of these waters can cause risk to health due to its radioactivity. The results were compared with the recommendations of the Ministry of Health. (author)

  6. Spatial distribution of natural and fallout level of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K and 137Cs in grab sediments of Mumbai Harbour Bay

    Radionuclides introduced from fall-out and nuclear installations into the marine surface water subjected to movement and mixing with tides and current, undergo horizontal dispersion, dilution and get bound to suspended particles by various physical, chemical, and biological processes. For this study, about 250 g of meshed grab sediments of eight sampling locations were transferred to a suitable cylindrical acrylic container, sealed and kept for 30 days to allow for in-growth of radon gas in order to achieve secular equilibrium between 226Ra, 214Pb and 214Bi in the 238U decay chain and between 212Pb, 208TI and 228Ac in the 232Th decay chain. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K and 137Cs were measured using Gamma spectrometry system

  7. A sequential and fast method for low level of 226Ra , 228Ra, 210Pb e 210Po in mine effluents and uranium processing plant

    Due to biological risk and long half lives, the radionuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po should be frequently monitored to check for any environmental contamination around mines and uranium plants. Currently, the methods used for the determination of these radionuclides take about thirty days to reach the radioactive equilibrium of the 210Pb and 226Ra daughter's. The evaluation of effluent discharges and leakage of deposits to water bodies in monitoring programs, require quick answers to implement corrective measures. Thereby fast determination methods must be implemented. This work presents a fast and sequential method to, in three days, determine accurately and sensitively, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, in water and effluent samples

  8. Development of a liquid scintillation method for in vitro determination of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228} Ra in bioassay samples

    Fernandes, Paulo Cesar P.; Sousa, Wanderson O.; Juliao, Ligia M.Q.C.; Dantas, Bernardo M., E-mail: pcesar@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radium isotopes are dispersed in the environment according to their physicochemical characteristics. The intake of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in humans can occur by inhalation and ingestion and the risk of internal exposure are related to their long half-lives, characteristics of the emission and biokinetics of the isotopes in the human body. The goal of this work is to develop a methodology for the analysis of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in excreta samples (urine and feces), using liquid scintillation technique. Excreta samples were provided by non-exposed humans for the purpose of standardizing the methodology and the establishment of a background level of radium excretion. Radium isotopes were concentrated and separated from the constituents of the sample by co-precipitation with barium sulphate. The precipitate of Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} was filtrated and weighted for the determination of the chemical yield. The filter containing the precipitate was transferred to a scintillation vial. In the scintillation vial, 8 mL of water, 8 mL of Instagel XF and 4 mL of UltimaGold were added, forming a gel suspension, after stirring the solution. The {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra activities were determined 21 days after the precipitation of samples. The samples were counted in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The technique presented adequate sensitivity and reproducibility for the analysis of urine and feces. The activities of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in excreta samples provide useful information for the identification of the main route of intake and for the assessment of the internal exposure of occupationally exposed workers and inhabitants of high background areas. (author)

  9. Estimation of annual effective dose from 226Ra 228Ra due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of high level natural radiation of Ramsar, Iran

    Full text: A knowledge of natural radioactivity in man and his environment is important since naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to man. Radioactive nuclides present in the natural environment enter the human body mainly through food and water.Besides, measurement of naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment can be used not only as a reference when routine releases from nuclear installation or accidental radiation exposures are assessed, but also as a baseline to evaluate the impact caused by non-nuclear activities. In Iran, measurement of natural and artificial radionuclides in environmental samples in normal and high-background radiation areas have been performed by some investigators but no information has been available on 226Ra and 228Ra in foodstuffs. Therefore we have started measurements of 226Ra and 228Ra in foodstuffs of Ramsar which is a coastal city in the north part of Iran and has been known as one of the world's high level natural radiation areas, using low level gamma spectrometry measurement system .The results from our measurements and food consumption rates for inhabitants of Ramsar city have been used for the estimation of annual effective dose due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of Ramsar city. A total of 33 samples from 11 different foodstuffs including root vegetables (beetroot), leafy vegetables (lettuce, parsley and spinach) and tea, meat,chicken, pea,broad bean, rice, and cheese were purchased from markets and were analyzed for their 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations. The highest concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined in tea samples with 1570 and 1140 mBq kg-1 respectively and the maximum estimated annual effective dose from 226 Ra and Ra due to consumption foodstuffs were determined to be 19.22 and 0.71 μSv from rice and meat samples respectively

  10. Clinical experience in treatment of 228 cases with idiopathic teratospermia%特发性畸形精子症228例临床治疗的研究

    梁文君; 谷春会; 高利伟; 程俊杰; 付璐璐; 郑连文

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between clinical efficacy of the drug and its treatment time for patients with diopathic teratospermia. Methods Total of 228 patients with idiopathic teratospermia who were treated with VC+VE+ folic acid+ l-carnitine + undecanoic acid testosterone therapy in the Reproductive Center of the Second Hospital of Jilin University from Sep.2011 to Apr. 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The percentages of normal sperm morphology before treatment and after 3 and/or 6 months treatment were statistically analzyed. Results After 3 months treatment, the effective rate was 68.32%, it was obviously improved in the percentage of normal morphology sperm compared to that of pre-treatment (P<0.05). After 6 months treatment, the effective rate was 81.99%, it was obviously improved in the percentage of normal morphology sperm compared to that of pre-treatment(P<0.05).There was significant different in the percentage of normal morphology sperm between patients treated for 6 months and patients treated for 3 months (P<0.05). Conclusion VC+VE+folicacid+l-carnitine+ undecanoic acid testosterone therapy can obviously improve the percenrage of normal morphology sperm in patients with idiopathic teratospermia. Efficacy of long term treatment (6 months) is superior to that of short term treatment (3 months).%目的:探讨特发性畸形精子症药物治疗效果及与治疗时间的关系。方法回顾性选择2011年9月至2013年4月就诊于吉林大学第二医院生殖医学中心男科门诊确诊为特发性畸形精子症、予以VC+VE+叶酸+左旋肉碱+十一酸睾酮方案治疗的患者,共228例,收集治疗前、治疗3个月后和(或)6个月后正常形态精子百分比,并予以统计学分析。结果治疗3个月后,有效率68.32%,正常形态精子百分比较治疗前明显提高(P<0.05);治疗6个月后,有效率81.99%,正常形态精子百分比较治疗前明显提高(P<0.05

  11. Tracking of activity of major daughter products (212Bi, 212Pb and 228Ac) in Thorium ore with time in a hermetically sealed container

    During this work activities of 212Bi, 212 Pb and 228Ac were tracked at different time intervals for 30 days in hermetically sealed closed container. IAEA-RGTh-1 reference materials having 2.89% Th with floated silica powder of similar grain size distribution ( 232Th in the composite sample (ore) is 3250 ± 270 Bq kg-1. Gamma measurement was carried on a high-purity p-type germanium (HPGe) detector having a relative efficiency of 50%. Data obtained during this work clearly shows that there is only minor variation in the concentration of 212Bi, 212Pb and 228Ac from the time of sealing to 30th day. Mean concentration of 232Th evaluated using gamma energy line of 228Ac (912 keV) and 212Bi (728 keV) shows a deviation of only 0.05%, and 5.66% respectively from the certified mean value of 232Th, whereas a large negative deviation of 29.9% was observed in the case of 212Pb (239 keV). (author)

  12. Daily ingestion of 232Th, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in vegetables by inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro City

    The concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides 232Th, 238U, 210Pb, 226Ra and 228Ra were determined in the vegetables (leafy vegetables, fruit, root, bean and rice) and derived products (sugar, coffee, manioc flour, wheat flour, corn flour and pasta) consumed most by the adult inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro City. A total of 88 samples from 26 different vegetables and derived products were analyzed. The highest contribution to radionuclide intake arises from bean, wheat flour, manioc flour, carrot, rice, tomato and potato consumption. The estimated daily intakes due to the consumption of vegetables and derived products are 1.9 mBq of 232Th (0.47 μg), 2.0 mBq of 238U (0.17 μg), 19 mBq of 226Ra, 26 mBq of 210Pb and 47 mBq of 228Ra. The estimated annual effective dose due to the ingestion of vegetables and their derived products with the long-lived natural radionuclides is 14.5 μSv. Taking into account literature data for water and milk from Rio de Janeiro the dose value increases to 29 μSv, with vegetables and derived products responsible for 50% of the dose and water for 48%. 210Pb (62%) and 228Ra (24%) were found to be the main sources for internal irradiation

  13. 226Ra and 228Ra tracer study on material transport in the east coast of Hainan Island, China: a case of nutrients

    Ni SU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Material fluxes (e.g. nutrients from coast to offshore play an important role in controlling the water quality in the concerned adjacent sea not only by the increase of nutrient concentration but by the change of nutrient structure. In the present work, naturally occurring isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra had been measured by alpha spectrometry in Wenjiao/Wenchang and Wanquan river estuaries and adjacent sea water of the east coast of Hainan Island. The excess dissolved 226Ra and 228Ra activities were observed in comparison with the values expected from the conservative mixing of freshwater and seawater end-members in both estuaries. Using 1-Dimensional Diffusion model, the estimated horizontal eddy diffusion coefficients (Kh derived from 228Ra activities away from its sources was 3.16?105 cm2 s-1. Furthermore, the corresponding nutrient fluxes into the coastal area were assessed. The results can provide useful information for the processes of mixing and exchange of coastal water as well as the transportation of dissoluble pollutants in this sea area.

  14. Verification of anticlockwise gyre in the semi-closed water area of Lake Nakaumi, southwest Japan, by using 224Ra/228Ra activity ratios

    The Honjyo area in Lake Nakaumi is a semi-closed brackish water area where some mixing of up-flowing marine water and down-flowing lake water take place. A large-scale gyre that caused by the residual circulation was once indicated by a temporal algal blooming that spread over the semi-closed Honjyo area in brackish Lake Nakaumi. In order to verify this type of water circulation, we examined 224Ra (t1/2=3.66 d)/228Ra (t1/2=5.75 y) activity ratios of both upper and lower waters that differentiated by a well-developed halocline. The 224Ra/228Ra ratios in the upper water were lowest in the central area, suggesting the formation of anticlockwise gyre. The ratios in the lower water were rather uniform, but a basin-wide anticlockwise flow of water is also indicated. The 224Ra/228Ra ratio is clearly effective to trace the water flow for both the deep and surface waters. (author)

  15. Using the British National Collection of Asters to Compare the Attractiveness of 228 Varieties to Flower-Visiting Insects.

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife-friendly gardening practices can help conserve biodiversity in urban areas. These include growing ornamental plant varieties attractive to flower-visiting insects. Because varieties vary greatly in attractiveness, there is a need to quantify it in order to give objective advice to gardeners. Here, we used the British national collection of asters to compare the attractiveness of varieties to flower-visiting insects. We counted and identified insects as they foraged on flowers in 228 varieties growing in discrete patches that flowered during the survey period, 14 September-20 October 2012. In each variety, we also determined the overall capitulum size, the central disc floret area, and the ray floret color (blue, red, purple, or white). We also scored attributes relevant to gardening: attractiveness to humans, ease of cultivation, and availability in the United Kingdom. There was great variation among varieties in their attractiveness to insects, ranging from 0.0 to 15.2 per count per square meter, and highly skewed, with most being unattractive. A similar skew held for the two main insect categories, honey bees and hover flies, which comprised 28 and 64% of all insects, respectively. None of the floral traits or attributes relevant to gardening correlated significantly with attractiveness to insects. Our study shows the practicality of using a national collection for quantifying and comparing the attractiveness of ornamental varieties to flower-visiting insects. These results imply that choosing varieties carefully is likely to be of conservation benefit to flower-visiting insects, and that doing so is a no-cost option in terms of garden beauty and workload. PMID:26313970

  16. Validation of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb measurements in soil and sediment samples through high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    Dias, Danila Carrijo da Silva; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Bonifacio, Rodrigo Leandro; Guerrero, Eder Tadeu Zenun [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides found in ore extraction waste materials are a great source of concern regarding public health and environmental safety. One technique to determine the concentration of substances is high resolution gamma ray spectrometry using HPGe. Validating a measurement technique is essential to warrant high levels of quality to any scientific work. The Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas of the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy partakes into a Quality Management System project, seeking Accreditation under ISO/IEC 17025 through the validation of techniques of chemical and radiometric analysis of environmental samples from water, soil and sediment. The focus of the Radon Laboratory at LAPOC is validation of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210 concentration determinations in soil and sediment through a gamma spectrometer system. The stages of this validation process included sample reception and preparation, detector calibration and sample analyses. Dried samples were sealed in metallic containers and analyzed after radioactive equilibrium between Ra-226 and daughters Pb-214 and Bi-214. Gamma spectrometry was performed using CANBERRA HPGe detector and gamma spectrum software Genie 2000. The photo peaks used for Ra-226 determination were 609 keV and 1020 keV of Bi-214 and 351 keV of Pb-214. For the Ra-228 determination a photopeak of 911 keV was used from its short half-life daughter Ac-228 (T1/2 = 6.12 h). For Pb-210, the photopeak of 46.5 keV was used, which, due to the low energy, self-absorption correction was needed. Parameters such as precision, bias/accuracy, linearity, detection limit and uncertainty were evaluated for that purpose. The results have pointed to satisfying results. (author)

  17. Molecular characterization of resistance to Rifampicin in an emerging hospital-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone ST228, Spain

    Liñares Josefina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA has been endemic in Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Barcelona, since 1990. During the 1990-95 period the Iberian clone (ST-247; SCCmec-I was dominant. Isolates of clonal complex 5 (ST-125; SCCmec-IV gradually replaced the Iberian clone from 1996 to 2003. A new multiresistant MRSA phenotype showing rifampicin resistance emerged in 2004 and rapidly increased from 25% in 2004 to 45% in 2006. The aims of this study were i the molecular characterisation of rifampicin resistant MRSA isolates, ii the study of the rifampicin resistance expression by disk diffusion, microdilution and E-test, and iii the analysis of the rpoB gene mutations involved in rifampicin resistance. Results A sample of representative 108 rifampicin-resistant MRSA isolates belonged to a single PFGE genotype, ST-228, SCCmec type I and spa type t041. Of 108 isolates, 104 (96% had a low-level rifampicin resistance (MICs, 2 to 4 mg/L and 4 a high-level rifampicin resistance (MICs, 128 - ≥ 256 mg/L. Disk diffusion and E-test methods failed to identify a low-level rifampicin resistance in 20 and 12 isolates, respectively. A low-level rifampicin resistance was associated with amino acid substitution 481His/Asn in the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase. Isolates with a high-level rifampicin resistance carried additional mutations in the rpoB gene. Conclusions The emergence of MRSA clone ST228-SCCmecI, related to the Southern Germany clone, involved a therapeutical challenge for treating serious MRSA infections. Decreased susceptibility to rifampicin in MRSA strains of ST228-SCCmecI was associated with one or two specific mutations in the rpoB gene. One fifth of isolates with low-level rifampicin-resistance were missed by the diffusion methods.

  18. Monitoring of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in manioc (Manihot utilissima) and its flour in uranium mining in Caetite - Tropical area in Brazil

    Full text: Tropical ecosystems have few developments from the radioecology point of view. In Brazil, radioecology studies had their development mainly in the 50's decade, but a little attention has been given to the radionuclides in food. The Uranium Concentrate Unit of 'Caetite' started operation in the 90's decade, and was preceded by the environmental pre-operational monitoring program, carried out during 15 years (1982-1999), according to established licensing procedures, using biological samples from the human and animal food chain. This work shows the results of last ten years of the pre-operational monitoring program of 'Caetite' in manioc (Manihot utilissima) and it's flour. The parameters studied are Ra-226 and Ra-228. Manioc (and it's flour) was chosen because of its role as the most important component of human food chain (82 kg/year for manioc and de same for manioc flour). This study was performed in 44 results of Ra-226 and 44 results of Ra-228 analyses, in 22 samples of manioc and 22 samples of manioc flour. For the analysis, initially, the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit test for the maximum likelihood to the gaussian distribution is executed. With the data adjusted to the gaussian curve, an Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is executed. If there is difference between concentrations, t Student tests are then executed. The data have shown best goodness-of-fit to the log-normal distribution. After proper transformation (y=Ln(x+1)), data have shown best goodness-of-fit to the normal distribution. The ANOVA test applied to normalized data have pointed differences in concentrations, that were identified by t Student tests as the Ra-226 values in manioc and the Ra-228 values in manioc flour. All other values are statistically equal. (author)

  19. Fractionation of 226Ra and 228Ra in waste material of coal mines and coal fired power plants and the effect of speciation on plant uptake

    The potential radiological risk of contaminated areas by enhanced level of natural occurring radionuclides is depend on chemical and ecological behavior of these radionuclides. Fractionation is a proper method to determine the mobility of radionuclides which is assumed closely related to bioavailability and uptake by biota. In the present work four different areas were investigated. Sites which are located in Upper Silesia have been used for discharging of pit water. Sites in Hungary are used as a deposit of waste material from coal fired power plants. Because the 226Ra and 228Ra are the most prominent radionuclides among the potential contaminants around mining sites and waste deposit, our research was focused on investigation the behavior of Ra. The level of 226Ra activity-concentration in sediment samples from the regions of Upper Silesia is varied between 0.5-25 kBq/kg and the level in ash samples from Hungarian sites changes in a range of 0.20-3.30 kBq/kg. The paper summarized two studies. The first investigation has concerned to the determination of mobility of radionuclides in waste materials. The second study is dealing with plant uptake of 226Ra and 228Ra and the determination of site specific concentration factors on these areas. Different sequential extraction procedures were applied to investigate the speciation of radium. The ratio of radium was determined in 'water' fraction, 'readily exchangeable' fraction, in the 'bound to carbonate' fraction and in the 'bound to Fe and Mn oxide' fraction respectively. To calculate a realistic CR for 226Ra and 228Ra we take into account mobility of radionuclides. CR values were calculated on base of dry matters of sampled natural vegetation. The value of CR for the Ra on sites of depository in Hungary and on the settling ponds in Poland varied between (0.05-2.4), (0.06-51.0) respectively due to the mobile fraction. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in sediments from Antarctica in the Admiralty Bay region

    Mora, Tamires de A.; Oliveira, Joselene de, E-mail: tamires.mora@usp.br, E-mail: jolivei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Sousa, Silvia H.M., E-mail: rfigueira@usp.br, E-mail: mahiques@usp.br, E-mail: smsousa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we performed the radiochemical characterization of a sedimentary record (1B profile), collected in the vicinity of Admiralty Bay, King George Island in Antarctic Operation XXXI (January/2013). The activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined by the counting of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the precipitates of Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} and PbCrO{sub 4}. Those measurements were carried out in a low background gas flow proportional detector. The {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were measured after 21 days of the final precipitation. The {sup 210}Pb activity was determined after 10 days of the precipitation date by gross beta counting of its {sup 210}Bi decay product. The activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra ranged from 11±1 (mBq g-1) to 54±3 (mBq g{sup -1}), and the {sup 228}Ra ranged from 48±5 (mBq g{sup -1}) to 155±16 (mBq g{sup -1}). The activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb varied from 8±1 (mBq g{sup -1}) to 458±46 (mBq g{sup -1}), while unsupported {sup 210}Pb ranged from 6±1 (mBq g{sup -1}) to 434±65 (mBq g{sup -1}). The {sup 210}Pb concentrations in sediments have often been used to dating events like deposition and accumulation in various marine environments. Taking into account the results of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra activities obtained in testimony-1B it was estimated the unsupported {sup 210}Pb activity which was applied to the CIC geochronological dating model (Constant Initial Concentration). Based in these data, the sedimentation rate obtained was 0.63±0.02 cm year{sup -1}. (author)

  1. A Preliminary Flight Test on a Basic Performance of the Flight Research Airplane Do 228:Velocity v.s. Glide Path Angle

    Yoshikazu, Miyazawa; Takatsugu, Ono; Yasuhito, Kawagoe

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary flight test was conducted of the research airplane Dornier Do228-200 that is being modified for use as an in-flight simulator by the National Aerospace Laboratory. The basic performance of the airplane was evaluated by the flight test. Glide path angles were examined with various parameters, such as velocity, altitude, and power. The flight test results were compared with those of a mathematical model based on the Dornier GmbH wind-tunnel test data. Since an onboard data acquisi...

  2. Activity concentrations of Rn-222, Ra-226, Ra-228, U-238 and Cs-137 in water samples of Styria/Austria; Aktivitaetskonzentrationen von Rn-222, Ra-226, Ra-228, U-238 und Cs-137 in Wasserproben aus der Steiermark/Oesterreich

    Pichl, E. [Verein zur Foerderung der Strahlenforschung Oesterreich, Graz (Austria). Strahlenmesstechnik Graz; Rauch, P. [Land Steiermark (Austria). Abt. 15 - Energie, Wohnbau, Technik

    2015-07-01

    Activity concentrations of radon (Rn-222), radium (Ra-226, Ra-228), uranium (U-238), and radiocesium (Cs-137), were determined in 50 water samples from different geogenic regions of Styria/Austria. Samples were collected in the years 2010, 2011 and 2012, by experts of the Styrian government. For measuring activities of U-238 we used a low energy-semiconductor detector, and a high purity-semiconductor detector to analyze the activities of all the other radionuclides. More than 90% of the activity concentrations of Rn-222 in all water samples were lower than 50 Bq/l. All activity concentrations observed for radium and uranium were lower than the detection limits of the corresponding radionuclides (Ra-226: 0,02 Bq/l, Ra-228: 0,03 Bq/l, U-238: 0,06 Bq/l). None of the water samples were contaminated by Cs-137.

  3. Androgen dependence of hirsutism, acne, and alopecia in women: retrospective analysis of 228 patients investigated for hyperandrogenism.

    Karrer-Voegeli, Sandra; Rey, François; Reymond, Marianne J; Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Gaillard, Rolf C; Gomez, Fulgencio

    2009-01-01

    Hirsutism, acne, alopecia, and oligo-amenorrhea are clinical expressions of hyperandrogenism, one of the most frequent endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. Women referred to our endocrine clinics for skin symptoms of hyperandrogenism underwent a laboratory workup to evaluate hormone measurements and received antiandrogen therapy. We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of 228 consecutive patients investigated over 6 years.Patients with hirsutism had higher levels of androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and salivary testosterone; lower levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG); and a higher prevalence of oligo-amenorrhea than patients with alopecia, while patients with acne showed intermediate values. Hirsutism score correlated positively with androstenedione, DHEAS, and salivary testosterone, and correlated negatively with SHBG; salivary testosterone showed the highest correlation coefficient. Total testosterone was not significantly different among patients with hirsutism, alopecia, or acne, and did not significantly correlate with hirsutism score. Hirsutism and oligo-amenorrhea were the most sensitive symptoms of hyperandrogenism, and no androgenic parameter alone allowed us to identify all cases of hyperandrogenism.Patients of central European origin sought consultation with milder hirsutism scores than patients of southern European origin. There was, however, no difference in the clinical-biological correlation between these groups, arguing against differences in skin sensitivity to androgens.Polycystic ovary syndrome, defined as hyperandrogenism (hirsutism or elevated androgens) and oligo-amenorrhea, was diagnosed in 63 patients (27.6%), an underestimate compared with other reports that include systematic ovarian ultrasound studies. Neither pelvic ultrasound, used in a limited number of cases, nor the luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio helped to distinguish patients with polycystic ovary syndrome from

  4. Studies of transport pathways of Th, rare earths, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to plants and farm animals. Progress report, April 1, 1985-February 28, 1986

    The field study is to assess the soil-to-plant and soil-to-animal concentration factors of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, 232Th, 230Th, and 228Th, as well as of the light rare earth elements (REE), La, Ce and Nd. Farms situated near the center of a deeply weathered alkalic intrusive known as the Pocos de Caldas (PC) plateau were selected for study because of their proximity (i.e., within a few kilometers) to what may be the largest single near-surface deposit of Th (approx.30,000 tonnes) and REE's (>100,000 tonnes) situated near the summit of a hill (the Morro do Ferro (MF)). An ancillary field study is being conducted in Orange County, New York, where a local cattleman has permitted sampling members of the herd as well as soil and feeds which are all grown on the premises. Vegetable samples and soil have also been analyzed from five additional farms in Orange County, NY. 64 refs., 25 figs., 45 tabs

  5. Resistência de soja a insetos: II. Teste de livre escolha entre a linhagem IAC 73/228 e o cultivar Paraná, infestados por Nezara viridula (L. em telado Resistance of soybean to insects: II. Free choice test between the line IAC 73/228 and the cultivar Paraná infested by Nezara viridula(L. under screen cage

    Carlos Jorge Rossetto

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A linhagem de soja IAC 73/228 foi comparada com o cultivar Paraná, em condições de telado e com infestação artificial de Nezara viridula (L. (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae. As plantas foram cultivadas diretamente no solo do telado. Utilizou-se um delineamento em blocos ao acaso com dois tratamentos e trinta repetições, sendo a parcela de uma planta individual. Não houve diferença no número de percevejos observados infestando os dois tratamentos. O número de vagens planas (não granadas resultantes do dano causado pelos insetos, também não diferiu nos dois tratamentos. O número total de vagens da linhagem IAC 73/228 foi em média 291 e, o do 'Paraná', 100. O número de vagens cheias (com grãos desenvolvidos e o peso de grãos comerciais colhidos da linhagem IAC 73/228 foram maiores que os do 'Paraná'. Comparando as produções em peso dos dois materiais, com infestação artificial do inseto e sem infestação em telado contíguo, observou-se que a linhagem não sofreu nenhuma perda na sua produção devida à infestação do inseto, enquanto o cultivar sofreu 67,5% de quebra na produção. Por ocasião da colheita, todas as plantas do 'Paraná' apresentavam o sintoma de retenção foliar, conhecido por "soja louca", contra apenas quatro plantas (13,3% da linhagem IAC 73/228. Concluiu-se que os quatro critérios mais práticos para discriminar materiais resistentes de suscetíveis em condições de alto nível de infestação foram: produção em peso de grãos, porcentagem de plantas com retenção foliar, índice de dano de vagens da região mediana da planta e porcentagem de grãos sadios.A free choice type experiment was made, with two treatments (line IAC 73/228 and cultivar Paraná and thirty replications, inside a screen cage with artificial infestation of Nezara viridula (L. (Hemiptera : Pentatomidae. The level of infestation used in this experiment was, approximately, 1 adult per plant during the reproductive phase of the

  6. The dietary intake of 238U, 234U, 230Th, 232Th, 228Th and 226Ra from food and drinking water by inhabitants of the Walbrzych region

    Intake with food and water of the natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series was determined for adult population of the south-western region in Poland, where in the 1950-ies an exploration of uranium ore was conducted. Concentration of the radionuclides was determined in food products and drinking water and their annual intake was estimated on the basis of the average annual consumption. The intake of 238U, 234U and 230Th occurred mainly with water (33% to 68%), whereas the intake of 232Th, 228Th and 226Ra was mainly with vegetables, potatoes, milk and flour. From the intake and dose coefficients the annual effective doses from the ingested radionuclides were calculated. The total dose was 5.6μSv, of which 74% originated from 226Ra. (author)

  7. Daily intakes of 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th and 226Ra in the adult population of central Poland

    Activity concentration of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides was determined in foodstuffs and drinking water in central Poland. Annual and daily intake for the adult population was estimated from the concentrations determined and average annual consumption of food and water. The daily intakes (in mBq) were 22.1 (238U), 26.5 (234U), 2.38 (232Th), 4.06 (230Th), 11.2 (228Th) and 42.2 (226Ra). The intake of uranium isotopes occurred mainly with water; the main intake of thorium isotopes was with animal products, vegetables, cereals and potatoes, whereas 226Ra entered mainly with animal products, cereals and vegetables. From the intake and dose coefficients, the annual effective doses for the ingested radionuclides were calculated. The annual effective dose was 5.95 μSv, of which 72.4% originated from 226Ra

  8. Daily intakes of 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th and 226Ra in the adult population of central Poland

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Rosiak, L.; Suplinska, M.M.; Chrzanowski, E.; Dembinska, S. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warsaw (Poland)

    2001-06-12

    Activity concentration of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides was determined in foodstuffs and drinking water in central Poland. Annual and daily intake for the adult population was estimated from the concentrations determined and average annual consumption of food and water. The daily intakes (in mBq) were 22.1 (238U), 26.5 (234U), 2.38 (232Th), 4.06 (230Th), 11.2 (228Th) and 42.2 (226Ra). The intake of uranium isotopes occurred mainly with water; the main intake of thorium isotopes was with animal products, vegetables, cereals and potatoes, whereas 226Ra entered mainly with animal products, cereals and vegetables. From the intake and dose coefficients, the annual effective doses for the ingested radionuclides were calculated. The annual effective dose was 5.95 {mu}Sv, of which 72.4% originated from 226Ra.

  9. Mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete state-of-the-art report of the RILEM technical committee 228-MPS on mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete

    Schutter, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The State-of-the-Art Report of RILEM Technical Committee 228-MPS on Mechanical properties of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) summarizes an extensive body of information related to mechanical properties and mechanical behaviour of SCC. Due attention is given to the fact that the composition of SCC varies significantly. A wide range of  mechanical properties are considered, including compressive strength, stress-strain relationship, tensile and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity, shear strength, effect of elevated temperature, such as fire spalling and residual properties after fire, in-situ properties, creep, shrinkage, bond properties, and structural behaviour. A chapter on fibre-reinforced SCC is included, as well as a chapter on specialty SCC, such as light-weight SCC, heavy-weight SCC, preplaced aggregate SCC, special fibre reinforced SCC, and underwater concrete.

  10. The interstellar extinction in the open clusters Tr 14, Tr 15, Tr 16/Cr 232 and Cr 228 in NGC 3372. New near-infrared photometry

    Near-infrared JHKL photometry of more than 200 stars, members of the open clusters Tr14, Tr15, Tr16, Cr228 and Cr232 in the Carina Nebula are presented. From comparing these results with the available visual photometry and spectroscopy, it is found that, except in Tr15, the intracluster reddening is characterized by a 'normal' extinction law at λ > 0.5μm but is highly anomalous and variable in the U- and B-bands. This behaviour may be explained by the presence of intracluster interstellar grains 'processed' by shock waves presumably associated with the explosive history of η Carinae. All clusters are found to be at the same distance from the Sun at d = 2.4 ± 0.2 kpc or Vsub(o) - Msub(v) 11.9 ± 0.2. The total amount of reddening, though, differs significantly from cluster to cluster. (author)

  11. Studies of transport pathways of Th, U, REE's, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to farm animals. Progress report, April 1-December 31, 1983

    This is a report on the Transport Pathways of Thorium, Uranium, Rare Earths Elements, Radium-228 and Radium-226 from Soil to Farm Animals. The investigation is taking place in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where an ore body (Morro de Ferro) exists that contains about 30,000 metric tons of thorium and more than 50,000 metric tons of rare earth elements. The ore body, which is believed to be about 60 million years old, has eroded to the surface and has been inundated by ground water. Nearby farmers are cooperating in the study. The analytical procedures have been modified to adapt them to the large volumes of biological material. The soils from the farm plots have been sampled, analyzed and characterized by standard pedological methods. Analyses for most of the substances of interest have been completed in pilot samples of vegetables and cow bone

  12. Effects of carbon dioxide and nitrogen on adhesive growth and expressions of E-cadherin and VEGF of human colon cancer cell CCL-228

    Kai-Lin Cai; Guo-Bing Wang; Li-Juan Xiong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of carbon dioxide on the metastatic capability of cancer cells, and to compare them with that of nitrogen.METHODS: The colon cancer cell CCL-228 was treated with 100 % carbon dioxide or nitrogen at different time points and then cultured under normal condition. Twelve hours after the treatment, the survival rates of suspension cells and the expressions of e-cadherin and VEGF were examined.RESULTS: After 60 min of carbon dioxide and longer time of nitrogen treatment, the suspended cells increased and the expression of e-cadherin decreased while the expression of VEGF was enhanced significantly. And the effects of nitrogen were similar to, but weaker than, those of carbon dioxide.CONCLUSION: Carbon dioxide may improve the metastatic capability of cancer cells and its effects are significantly stronger than that of nitrogen. A sequential use of carbon dioxide and nitrogen in pneumoperitoneum may take the advantage of both gases.

  13. Bioavailability of radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb present in the brazilian phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum; Avaliacao da biodisponibilidade dos radionuclideos {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra e {sup 210}Pb presentes nos fertilizantes fosfatados e no fosfogesso de procedencia nacional

    Russo, Ana Carolina

    2013-08-01

    Phosphogypsum, also called gypsum, by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, can be used as soil conditioner since it provides improvements in the soil-plant system. However, this by-product concentrates radionuclides of the U and Th series, present in the phosphate rock used as raw material, which can impact the environment. In order to study the bioavailability of radionuclides, samples of phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers (monoammonium phosphate and triple superphosphate) were analyzed. The concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined by gamma spectrometry. The samples were leached with a mild EDTA solution and the radionuclides present in the final solution were determined by total alpha and beta counting on a gas flow proportional counter. The percentage of extraction varied from 1.6% to 1.7% for {sup 210}Pb, from 0.5% to 1.4% for {sup 226}Ra and from 0.1% to 1.0% for the {sup 228}Ra in phosphogypsum samples. The low percentage of extraction obtained for the radionuclides can be partly explained by the low solubility of phosphogypsum, which ranged from 7.7% to 16%. For the monoammonium phosphate samples the percentage of extraction were less than 26% for {sup 226}Ra, less than 10% for '2{sup 28}Ra and less than 10% for {sup 210}Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 77% of monoammonium phosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. For the triple superphosphate samples, the percentage of extraction was 2.3% for {sup 226}Ra, 1.2% for {sup 228}Ra and 11.3% for {sup 210}Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 66% of triple superphosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the activity concentration of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in sediments from Antarctica in the Admiralty bay region

    The natural radionuclides from radioactive series of 238U, 235U and 232Th have been applied as tracers in environmental studies for understanding the dynamics that occur in both marine and terrestrial environment, as for example, in research of oceanic processes and management of the coastal region. In the marine environment, these radionuclides can be used to estimate biogeochemical fluxes of marine particles and nutrients that occur in the water column as well as in the sediment. Several research works applied the distribution and the respective disequilibrium degree of natural radionuclides in the environment, including geochronological models for obtaining historical information on samples of certain sediment profile. In this study we performed a radiochemical characterization of the distribution of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb from a sedimentary column called 1B (248 cm long) collected in the Admiralty Bay, Antarctic Peninsula region. The methodology used included the acid leaching of sediment samples followed by the radiochemical sequential separation of 226Ra and 228Ra by co-precipitation with Ba(Ra)SO4 and 210Pb by co-precipitation with PbCrO4. All measurements were carried out by counting of gross alpha and gross beta measures in a low background gas flow proportional detector. The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 210Pb were used to estimate the unsupported 210Pb activities present in sediment profile 1 B. Based on unsupported 210Pb data and the application of the CIC model (Constant Initial Concentration), it was possible to determine the sedimentation rate of 0.59 ± 0.05 cm /year. (author)

  15. 228Ra/226Ra ratio and 7Be concentration in the Sea of Japan as indicators for water transport: comparison with migration pattern of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP-derived 134Cs and 137Cs

    To assess the migration patterns of radiocesium emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), we analyzed 228Ra/226Ra ratios and 7Be concentrations and compared them with 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations in seawater samples collected within the Sea of Japan before and after the FDNPP accident (i.e., during the period 2007–2012) using low-background γ-spectrometry. The 228Ra/226Ra ratios in surface waters exhibited lateral and seasonal variations, reflecting the flow patterns of surface water. This indicates the transport patterns of the FDNPP-derived radiocesium by surface water. Cosmogenic 7Be (half-life: 53.3 d) exhibited markedly high concentrations (5–10 mBq/L) at depths shallower than 50 m, with concentrations decreasing steeply (0.2–2 mBq/L) at depths of 50–250 m. The distribution of 7Be concentrations suggests that the downward delivery of the FDNPP-derived radiocesium to below 50 m depth was negligible for a few months prior to its removal from the Sea of Japan. -- Highlights: • We analyzed 7Be and 228Ra/226Ra ratio with 134Cs and 137Cs in the Sea of Japan. • 228Ra/226Ra ratio explained lateral migration of FDNPP-derived radiocesium in surface. • Vertical profile of 7Be concentration indicated minimal downward delivery of radiocesium

  16. Determination of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in NORM products from oil and gas exploration: Problems in activity underestimation due to the presence of metals and self-absorption of photons

    Typical calibration of solid environmental samples for the determination of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb entails the use of standard reference materials which have a very similar matrix. However, TENORM samples from the oil and gas exploration contain unusually high amounts of calcium, strontium and barium which can severely attenuate the photons of 210Pb and 226Ra with their characteristic 46.1 keV and 186.2 keV gamma-rays, respectively and to some extent 228Ra with the characteristic gamma-rays of 911.2 keV and 969.0 keV. We used neutron activation analysis to evaluate the content of TENORM for calcium, barium and strontium and then used a software program SELABS to determine the self-absorption. Our results confirm that even in Petrie® containers with small dimensions the 210Pb can be underestimated by almost by a factor of four while 226Ra can be underestimated by 5%. The 228Ra activities are virtually unaffected due to the higher energy gamma-rays. However, the implications for TENORM studies that employ large Marinelli® containers having sample sizes between 0.25 and 1.0 L may be severely compromised by the presence of high Z elements in elevated concentrations. The usual spectral interferences on 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb coming from other radionuclides in the 234U, 235U and 238U decay chains are virtually nonexistent due the very high activity levels of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in the tens of thousands of Bq/kg

  17. Radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) in Na–Cl type groundwaters from Tohoku District (Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures) in Japan

    A total of 28 Na–Cl type groundwater samples were collected from Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures, in the Tohoku District of Japan, and their radium isotope (226Ra and 228Ra) concentrations were measured along with their chemical components and stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18Os). The 226Ra concentrations in groundwater samples varied widely, ranging from 8.8 to 1587 mBq kg−1. These concentrations showed an increasing tendency with the increase of the total dissolved solid (TDS) contents. The 228Ra/226Ra activity ratios were in the range from 0.3 to 4.2, with most data being around 0.5–2. These ratios were within those of 232Th/238U found in granitic and related rocks and so on in Japan, indicating that Ra isotopes mainly ejected into the groundwater by the alpha-recoil process. The relationship between 226Ra and other parameters suggested that Ra isotopes in groundwater samples in this study were mainly constrained by adsorption–desorption reactions depending on salinity with wide variation. Clear correlation between 226Ra-Ca, 226Ra-Sr, 226Ra–Ba and 226Ra–TDS observed in sulfate-free groundwater samples indicated that Ra isotopes of them were constrained by adsorption–desorption reactions depending on salinity under reducing condition. In contrast, relationship of 226Ra-Ca, 226Ra-Sr, 226Ra–Ba and 226Ra–TDS in sulfate-containing groundwater samples varied widely, and then, removal or enhanced mobility of Ra isotopes of them were observed. - Highlights: • Twenty-eight Na–Cl type groundwater samples were collected from Tohoku District in Japan. • Most of the groundwater samples were seawater (fossil seawater) in origin. • Ra isotopes in groundwaters were supplied by alpha-recoil from aquifer rock surface. • Adsorption–desorption reaction depending on the salinity constrained Ra activities in groundwater samples

  18. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type, Is Linked to Chromosome 8p22-8p21.1 in an Extended Belgian Family

    Delfien Syx

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint hypermobility is a common, mostly benign, finding in the general population. In a subset of individuals, however, it causes a range of clinical problems, mainly affecting the musculoskeletal system. Joint hypermobility often appears as a familial trait and is shared by several heritable connective tissue disorders, including the hypermobility subtype of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS-HT or benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS. These hereditary conditions provide unique models for the study of the genetic basis of joint hypermobility. Nevertheless, these studies are largely hampered by the great variability in clinical presentation and the often vague mode of inheritance in many families. Here, we performed a genome-wide linkage scan in a unique three-generation family with an autosomal dominant EDS-HT phenotype and identified a linkage interval on chromosome 8p22-8p21.1, with a maximum two-point LOD score of 4.73. Subsequent whole exome sequencing revealed the presence of a unique missense variant in the LZTS1 gene, located within the candidate region. Subsequent analysis of 230 EDS-HT/BJHS patients resulted in the identification of three additional rare variants. This is the first reported genome-wide linkage analysis in an EDS-HT family, thereby providing an opportunity to identify a new disease gene for this condition.

  19. White organic light-emitting diodes based on emission from DPVBi-doped 4,48-bis (2,28-diphenylvinyl)-1,18-biphenyl

    SONG Rui-li; XU Yuan-zhe; CHEN Shu-fen; SONG Ji-bin; SONG Ji-cheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ White organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated by using 4,48-bis (2,28-diphenylvinyl) -1,18-biphenyl (DPVBi) as a dopant with a structure of ITO/4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphthyl-1-)-N-phenyl-amino]-biphenyl (NPB,50 nm)/NPB:DPVBi (molecular weight ratio 10∶1,30 nm)/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(Alq3,20 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al.A broad emissive band with four major peaks of 438,464,496 and 520 nm was obtained by electroluminescence spectra,of which 438 nm-,464 nm- and 520 nm-peak come from emission of NPB,DPVBi and Alq3,respectively,and 496 nm-one resulted from the emissive superposition of three materials above.The emission from DPVBi was attributed to the charge trapping from NPB.The emission region was transferred partly from Alq3 to DPVBi-doped NPB by introducing the dopant DPVBi,which leads to emission of DPVBi and an enhanced emission from NPB.The maximum luminance and current efficiency were 4721 cd/m2 at 22 V and 0.80 cd/A at 5V,respectively.

  20. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type, Is Linked to Chromosome 8p22-8p21.1 in an Extended Belgian Family.

    Syx, Delfien; Symoens, Sofie; Steyaert, Wouter; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul J; Malfait, Fransiska

    2015-01-01

    Joint hypermobility is a common, mostly benign, finding in the general population. In a subset of individuals, however, it causes a range of clinical problems, mainly affecting the musculoskeletal system. Joint hypermobility often appears as a familial trait and is shared by several heritable connective tissue disorders, including the hypermobility subtype of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS-HT) or benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS). These hereditary conditions provide unique models for the study of the genetic basis of joint hypermobility. Nevertheless, these studies are largely hampered by the great variability in clinical presentation and the often vague mode of inheritance in many families. Here, we performed a genome-wide linkage scan in a unique three-generation family with an autosomal dominant EDS-HT phenotype and identified a linkage interval on chromosome 8p22-8p21.1, with a maximum two-point LOD score of 4.73. Subsequent whole exome sequencing revealed the presence of a unique missense variant in the LZTS1 gene, located within the candidate region. Subsequent analysis of 230 EDS-HT/BJHS patients resulted in the identification of three additional rare variants. This is the first reported genome-wide linkage analysis in an EDS-HT family, thereby providing an opportunity to identify a new disease gene for this condition. PMID:26504261

  1. Mean residence time of the shelf water in the East China and the Yellow Seas determined by 228Ra/226Ra measurements

    Increasing attention of oceanographers has recently been paid on East Asian marginal seas regarding their role on the global environment, yet geochemical investigations have been few to date. The authors here report new data on the distribution of 228Ra and 226Ra in the surface water of the East China and the Yellow seas in an effort to constrain the time necessary for the coastal and shelf waters to exchange with offshore waters. Such information is needed in evaluating the exchange of heat and water across the air-sea interface that affects the local climate and the fate of pollutants, nutrients and weathering products supplied from the continent. Based on the Ra isotope signals, the authors have estimated that the shelf water component contributes ∼ 20% of the Tsushima Current water passing through the Tsushima Strait and the mean residence time for the shelf water to mix with the Kuroshio surface water is ∼2.3 years. As many of materials derived from the continent such as heavy metals and the nutrients have their mean residence times less than a few months in the nearshore and shelf waters, they must largely deposit on the shelf sediments prior to the transport from the shelf to the open sea by mixing

  2. EC comparison on the determination of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U in water among European monitoring laboratories

    Waetjen, U., E-mail: uwe.waetjen@ec.europa.e [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Benedik, L.; Spasova, Y.; Vasile, M.; Altzitzoglou, T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Beyermann, M. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Koepenicker Allee 120-130, D-10318 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    In anticipation of new European requirements for monitoring radioactivity concentration in drinking water, IRMM organized an interlaboratory comparison on the determination of low levels of activity concentrations (about 10-100 mBq L{sup -1}) of the naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U in three commercially available mineral waters. Using two or three different methods with traceability to the International System of Reference (SIR), the reference values of the water samples were determined prior to the proficiency test within combined standard uncertainties of the order of 3%-10%. An overview of radiochemical separation and measurement methods used by the 45 participating laboratories are given. The results of the participants are evaluated versus the reference values. Several of the participants' results deviate by more than a factor of two from the reference values, in particular for the radium isotopes. Such erroneous analysis results may lead to a crucial omission of remedial actions on drinking water supplies or to economic loss by an unjustified action.

  3. R22(8 motifs in Aminopyrimidine sulfonate/carboxylate interactions: Crystal structures of pyrimethaminium benzenesulfonate monohydrate (2:2:1 and 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidinium sulfosalicylate dihydrate (4:2:2

    Muthiah Packianathan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrimethamine [2,4-diamino-5-(p-chlorophenyl-6-ethylpyrimidine] is an antifolate drug used in anti-malarial chemotherapy. Pyrimidine and aminopyrimidine derivatives are biologically important compounds owing to their natural occurrence as components of nucleic acids. Results In the crystal structures of two organic salts, namely pyrimethaminium benzenesulfonate monohydrate 1 and 2-amino-4, 6-dimethylpyrimidinium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonate dihydrate 2, pyrimethamine (PMN and 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (AMPY are protonated at one of the nitrogens in the pyrimidine rings. In both the PMN and AMPY sulfonate complexes, the protonated pyrimidine rings are hydrogen bonded to the sulfonate groups, forming a hydrogen-bonded bimolecular ring motif with graph-set notation R22(8. The sulfonate group mimics the carboxylate anion's mode of association, which is more commonly seen when binding with 2-aminopyrimidines. In compound 1, the PMN moieties are centrosymmetrically paired through a complementary DADA array of hydrogen bonds. In compound 2, two types of bimolecular cyclic hydrogen bonded R22(8 motifs (one involving the carboxylate group and the other involving sulfonate group coexist. Furthermore, this compound is stabilized by intra and intermolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds. Conclusion The crystal structures of pyrimethaminium benzenesulfonate monohydrate and 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidinium sulfosalicylate dihydrate have been investigated in detail. In compound 1, the R22(8 motif involving the sulfonate group is present. The role the sulfonic acid group plays in mimicking the carboxylate anions is thus evident. In compound 2, two types of bimolecular cyclic hydrogen bonded R22(8 motifs (one involving the carboxylate group and the other involving sulfonate group coexist. In both the compounds base pairing also occurs. Thus homo and hetero synthons are present.

  4. Measurement of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137CS and 40K in edible parts of two types of leafy vegetables cultivated in Tehran province-Iran and resultant annual ingestion radiation dose

    The sources of radioactivity in the environment have natural; terrestrial and extraterrestrial. and anthropogenic origins. Plants may get radioactive nuclides in two ways: (i) by the deposition of radioactive fallout, (ii) by absorption from the soil. Materials and Methods: The Concentrations of the natural radionuclides (226Ra, 228Ra, 40K) and the artificial radionuclide (137CS) in leek and parsley in Tehran province-Iran were determined using high-purity Ge detectors. Also the effective dose due to the ingestion of such vegetables by the population of Tehran province was studied. Results: The average value of radionuclide concentrations in parsley samples were measured 177.69 ± 12.47 mBq kg-1fresh for 226Ra; 349.62 ± 28.42 mBq kg-1fresh for 228Ra; 187364.6 mBq kg1fresh for 40K. The average value of radionuclide concentrations in leek samples were measured 94.31 ± 6.46 mBq kg-1fresh for 226Ra; 207.47 ± 19.46 mBq kg-1fresh for 228Ra; 174555 ± 1704.21 mBq kg-1fresh for 40K. The concentrations of 137Cs in most of Parsley and Leek samples were below the minimum detectable activity. Conclusion: The Average 226Ra and 228Ra activities in 29 leek and parsley samples were about 2.63 and 6.78 times the reference values, respectively. The annual effective dose resulting from the studied radionuclides for the adult population in Tehran province were found to be safe in comparison with normal background areas.

  5. Temporal evolution of natural radionuclides distributions 238U, 234Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the Bransfield strait, Antarctica peninsula

    Research on the distribution of natural radionuclides in Antarctica is rare and thus, there is great interest in to know their occurrence and factors related to its mobilization, transference and accumulation in this extremely fragile environment. Natural radionuclides have been used intensively as tracers in the ocean, helping to better understand processes as sinking and particle resuspension, water masses mixture and oceanic circulation. 234Th (t½ = 24.1 days) is a particle-reactive radionuclide produced continuously in seawater by the decay of its soluble precursor conservative with salinity 238U (t½ = 4.5 109 years). Since 234Th presents relatively short half-life, it is used to quantify processes that occur in temporal scale varying from days to weeks. The disequilibrium 234Th/238U in the surface ocean has been applied to estimate carbon fluxes exported via sinking material. The flux of particles biologically productive out of the euphotic zone in the Southern Ocean has special attention due to its importance in the control of CO2 atmospheric concentrations. The radionuclides 210Pb (t½ = 22.3 years) and 210Po (t½ = 138 days) are also particle-reactive. The disequilibrium 210Po/210Pb has been used to estimate fluxes of particles exported in the ocean in the time scale of weeks. The long-lived Ra isotopes, 226Ra (t½ = 1,600 years) and 228Ra (t½ = 5.75 years) are soluble in seawater, presenting unique properties that make them excellent tracers of water masses. This research work had the aim to study the distributions of natural radionuclides 238U, 234Th, 22'6Ra, 22'8Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the Bransfield Strait during 2 samplings carried out in the 2011 Austral Summer (OPERANTAR XXIX and XXX). (author)

  6. Missense mutations in PBP2A Affecting ceftaroline susceptibility detected in epidemic hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonotypes ST228 and ST247 in Western Switzerland archived since 1998.

    Kelley, William L; Jousselin, Ambre; Barras, Christine; Lelong, Emmanuelle; Renzoni, Adriana

    2015-04-01

    The development and maintenance of an arsenal of antibiotics is a major health care challenge. Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); however, no reports concerning MRSA ceftaroline susceptibility have been reported in Switzerland. We tested the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against an archived set of 60 MRSA strains from the University Hospital of Geneva collected from 1994 to 2003. Our results surprisingly revealed ceftaroline-resistant strains (MIC, >1 μg/ml in 40/60 strains; EUCAST breakpoints, susceptible [S], ≤1 μg/ml; resistant [R], >1 μg/ml) were present from 1998 to 2003. The detected resistant strains predominantly belonged to sequence type 228 (ST228) (South German clonotype) but also to ST247 (Iberian clonotype). A sequence analysis of these strains revealed missense mutations in the penicillin-binding protein 2A (PBP2A) allosteric domain (N146K or E239K and N146K-E150K-G246E). The majority of our ST228 PBP2A mutations (N146K or E150K) were distinct from ST228 PBP2A allosteric domain mutations (primarily E239K) recently described for MRSA strains collected in Thailand and Spain during the 2010 Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) global surveillance program. We also found that similar allosteric domain PBP2A mutations (N146K) correlated with ceftaroline resistance in an independent external ST228 MRSA set obtained from the nearby University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, collected from 2003 to 2008. Thus, ceftaroline resistance was observed in our archived strains (including two examples of an MIC of 4 µg/ml for the Iberian ST247 clonotype with the triple mutation N146K/E150K/G246E), at least as far back as 1998, considerably predating the commercial introduction of ceftaroline. Our results reinforce the notion that unknown parameters can potentially exert selective pressure on PBP2A that can subsequently modulate ceftaroline

  7. TAK-228 (formerly MLN0128), an investigational oral dual TORC1/2 inhibitor: A phase I dose escalation study in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.

    Ghobrial, Irene M; Siegel, David S; Vij, Ravi; Berdeja, Jesus G; Richardson, Paul G; Neuwirth, Rachel; Patel, Chirag G; Zohren, Fabian; Wolf, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    The PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways are frequently dysregulated in multiple human cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). This was the first clinical study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, maximal-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), pharmacokinetics, and preliminary clinical activity of TAK-228, an oral TORC1/2 inhibitor, in patients with MM, NHL, or WM. Thirty-nine patients received TAK-228 once daily (QD) at 2, 4, 6, or 7 mg, or QD for 3 days on and 4 days off each week (QDx3d QW) at 9 or 12 mg, in 28-day cycles. The overall median age was 61.0 years (range 46-85); 31 patients had MM, four NHL, and four WM. Cycle 1 DLTs occurred in five QD patients (stomatitis, urticaria, blood creatinine elevation, fatigue, and nausea and vomiting) and four QDx3d QW patients (erythematous rash, fatigue, asthenia, mucosal inflammation, and thrombocytopenia). The MTDs were determined to be 4 mg QD and 9 mg QDx3d QW. Thirty-six patients (92%) reported at least one drug-related toxicity; the most common grade ≥3 drug-related toxicities were thrombocytopenia (15%), fatigue (10%), and neutropenia (5%). TAK-228 exhibited a dose-dependent increase in plasma exposure and no appreciable accumulation with repeat dosing; mean plasma elimination half-life was 6-8 hr. Of the 33 response-evaluable patients, one MM patient had a minimal response, one WM patient achieved partial response, one WM patient had a minor response, and 18 patients (14 MM, two NHL, and two WM) had stable disease. These findings encourage further studies including combination strategies. Am. J. Hematol. 91:400-405, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26800393

  8. Entwicklung und Validierung einer kombinierten Schnellanalysenmethode zur Bestimmung der natürlichen Radionuklide 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra, 228Ra, 234U und 238U in Trinkwasser

    Schuster, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Der Richtwert der effektiven Dosis für den Verzehr von Trinkwasser beträgt 0,1 mSv pro Jahr. Zur Berechnung der Dosis müssen die Aktivitätskonzentrationen der relevanten Radionuklide bestimmt werden. Einige Analysenmethoden zur Bestimmung dieser natürlichen Radionuklide sind bekannt, jedoch benötigt man für jedes Nuklid einen komplett anderen und zeitaufwändigen Trennungsgang. In dieser Arbeit wird eine Analysenmethode vorgestellt, mit der die natürlichen Radionuklide 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra, 228...

  9. Determination of 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra, 228Ra and uranium isotopes in drinking water in order to comply with the requirements of the EU ‘Drinking Water Directive.

    Vasile, M; Loots, H; Jacobs, K; Verheyen, L; Sneyers, L; Verrezen, F; Bruggeman, M

    2016-03-01

    The European Union published in 2013 a new Drinking Water Directive with stricter requirements for measuring natural radioactivity. In order to adhere to this, a method for sequential separation of 210Pb, 210Po, 238U and 234U in drinking water was applied using UTEVA® and Sr resins. Polonium-210, 238U and 234U were quantified using alpha-particle spectrometry and 210Pb using liquid scintillation counting. Radium-226 and 228Ra were determined using 3M Empore Radium RAD Disks, and their quantification was done using a Quantulus™ 1220 liquid scintillation counter. PMID:27358946

  10. Activity concentration and radiological impact assessment of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in drinking waters from (OML) 30, 58 and 61 oil fields and host communities in Niger Delta region of Nigeria

    This paper presents the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 228Ra and 40K) measured in hand dug wells, boreholes and river waters collected from three oil mineral leases (OML) 30, 58 and 61 oil and gas fields onshore of the Niger delta, using gamma spectroscopy. Fifty-four water samples from the three sources of drinking water supply were collected within the oil fields and host communities and three water samples from a control site. The results showed average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K as 8.9 ± 1.0, 8.1 ± 0.9 and 39.8 ± 3.3 respectively for hand dug wells, 4.4 ± 0.8, 4.6 ± 0.5 and 28.5 ± 3.0 for borehole water and 8.2 ± 1.0, 6.7 ± 0.7 and 32.1 ± 3.5 for river water respectively. These 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K average are well above the WHO permissible levels of 1.0, 0.1 and 10 BqL−1 respectively and also above the control values. Although the hazard indices calculated are still within their tolerable levels, the estimated committed effective dose due to intake of the sampled water for all the four age groups considered are far above the ICPR 0.1 mSvyr−1 maximum permissible limit. The result indicates some level of water pollution in the studied area. - Highlights: ► The concentration of natural radioactive series nuclides varies widely within oil fields and from one oil field to another in the OML30. ► The radionuclide activity concentrations in most water samples are higher than world average values. ► Calculated hazard indices and committed effective dose to assess the potential radiological health risk in samples are well above their permissible limit. ► The sources of water in these oil fields have been polluted and may cause some health hazard to the public users.

  11. Temporal evolution of natural radionuclides distributions {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in the Bransfield strait, Antarctica peninsula; Evolucao temporal das distribuicoes dos radionuclideos naturais {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po no estreito de Bransfiel, peninsula Antartica

    Lapa, Flavia Valverde

    2013-07-01

    Research on the distribution of natural radionuclides in Antarctica is rare and thus, there is great interest in to know their occurrence and factors related to its mobilization, transference and accumulation in this extremely fragile environment. Natural radionuclides have been used intensively as tracers in the ocean, helping to better understand processes as sinking and particle resuspension, water masses mixture and oceanic circulation. {sup 234}Th (t½ = 24.1 days) is a particle-reactive radionuclide produced continuously in seawater by the decay of its soluble precursor conservative with salinity {sup 238}U (t½ = 4.5 10{sup 9} years). Since {sup 234}Th presents relatively short half-life, it is used to quantify processes that occur in temporal scale varying from days to weeks. The disequilibrium {sup 234}Th/{sup 238}U in the surface ocean has been applied to estimate carbon fluxes exported via sinking material. The flux of particles biologically productive out of the euphotic zone in the Southern Ocean has special attention due to its importance in the control of CO{sub 2} atmospheric concentrations. The radionuclides {sup 210}Pb (t½ = 22.3 years) and {sup 210}Po (t½ = 138 days) are also particle-reactive. The disequilibrium {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb has been used to estimate fluxes of particles exported in the ocean in the time scale of weeks. The long-lived Ra isotopes, {sup 226}Ra (t½ = 1,600 years) and {sup 228}Ra (t½ = 5.75 years) are soluble in seawater, presenting unique properties that make them excellent tracers of water masses. This research work had the aim to study the distributions of natural radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 22}'6Ra, {sup 22}'8Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in the Bransfield Strait during 2 samplings carried out in the 2011 Austral Summer (OPERANTAR XXIX and XXX). (author)

  12. Seasonal variations in activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 7Be, 228Ac, 99Tc, 90Sr, and 239/240Pu in Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum from the South-Eastern coast of Norway

    Brown algae have been proven to be useful indicator organisms for heavy metals and radionuclides in the marine environments due to their ability to concentrate elements from the ambient water. There is quite a lot of data available on 137Cs in brown algae, especially for Fucus Vesiculosus. Fucus Vesiculosus is also commonly used to monitor the impact of the releases of 99Tc from the reprocessing plant in Sellafield. There is however a lack of data for other long-lived anthropogenic nuclides as 90Sr and Pu, and for natural occurring radionuclides. There is also a need for more knowledge about the mechanisms for uptake and accumulation of the different elements, and about different factors influencing the uptake. In this study activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 7Be, 228Ac, 99Tc, 90Sr and 239/240Pu are measured in whole plants of Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum collected over a period of one year from the south-eastern coast of Norway. Significant differences between the two species have been found. For 137Cs, 40K, 7Be, 228Ra and 239/240Pu, the activity concentrations were significantly higher in Fucus vesiculosus than in Ascophyllum nodosum, whereas for 99Tc the activity concentrations were higher in Ascophyllum nodosum than in Fucus vesiculosus. There were great seasonal variations in the concentrations of the measured radionuclides. For 99Tc there was also a difference in the temporal pattern for the two species. Possible uptake mechanisms will be discussed based on the results and on the known physiological differences between the two species. (author)

  13. Observations of protons with energies Esub(p) >=100 MeV and electrons with energies Esub(e) >=20 MeV by means of the oriented Kosmos-208 and Kosmos-228 satellites

    Measurement results of cosmic radiation have been analyzed using scintillation-Cherenkov spectrometer SEhZ-1 in oriented ''Kosmos-208'' and ''Kosmos-228'' satellites. Applicability of the Mc Ilwain's parameter L for the description of planetary distribution of detected radiation is shawn. The effect of equatorial plato and reverse latitude pitch ip the equatorial area is discussed. An essential difference in the instrument readings during its axis orientation relative to nadir or zenith is domonstrated. When orienting the instrument axis relative to zenith the data on latitude pitch of radiatione detected by means of a channel with the 500 MeV threshold (protons), in the range of medium and high latitudes coincide with the results of battoo; experiments on xntensity and sctrum measurement of primary cosmic rays to the accuracy of 35%. A possibility of observation with the SEhZ-1 spectrometer of the dynamics of high-energy protons (and electrons) of the internal radiation belt of the Earth in the region of Brasil magnetic anomaly is shown

  14. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of 224Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides

  15. Bestimmung der Ionisationsenergie von Actinium und Ultraspurenanalyse von Plutonium mit resonanter Ionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS)

    Waldek, Achim Marcus

    2001-01-01

    ZusammenfassungDie Resonanzionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS) verbindet hohe Elementselektivität mit guter Nachweiseffizienz. Aufgrund dieser Eigenschaften ist die Methode für Ultraspurenanalyse und Untersuchungen an seltenen oder schwer handhabbaren Elementen gut geeignet. Für RIMS werden neutrale Atome mit monochromatischem Laserlicht ein- oder mehrfach resonant auf energetisch hoch liegende Niveaus angeregt und anschließend durch einen weiteren Laserstrahl oder durch ein elektrisches Fe...

  16. Linear free energy relationship applied to trivalent cations with lanthanum and actinium oxide and hydroxide structure

    Linear free energy relationships for trivalent cations with crystalline M2O3 and, M(OH)3 phases of lanthanides and actinides were developed from known thermodynamic properties of the aqueous trivalent cations, modifying the Sverjensky and Molling equation. The linear free energy relationship for trivalent cations is as ΔGf,MvX0=aMvXΔGn,M3+0+bMvX+βMvXrM3+, where the coefficients aMvX, bMvX, and βMvX characterize a particular structural family of MvX, rM3+ is the ionic radius of M3+ cation, ΔGf,MvX0 is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of MvX and ΔGn,M3+0 is the standard non-solvation free energy of the cation. The coefficients for the oxide family are: aMvX=0.2705, bMvX=-1984.75 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=197.24 (kJ/molnm). The coefficients for the hydroxide family are: aMvX=0.1587, bMvX=-1474.09 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=791.70 (kJ/molnm).

  17. Actinium: A RESTful Runtime Container for Scriptable Internet of Things Applications

    Kovatsch, Matthias; Lanter, Martin; Duquennoy, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Programming Internet of Things (IoT) applications is challenging because developers have to be knowledgeable in various technical domains, from low-power networking, over embedded operating systems, to distributed algorithms. Hence, it will be challenging to find enough experts to provide software for the vast number of expected devices, which must also be scalable and particularly safe due to the connection to the physical world. To remedy this situation, we propose an architecture that pr...

  18. Synthesis of chelating agents for actinium 225 complexation and its application in radioimmunotherapy

    Immunotherapy with radiolabeled antibodies should allow fairly specific targeting of certain cancers. However, iodine 131 may not be the best isotope for tumor therapy because of its limited specific activity, low beta-energy, relatively long half life and strong gamma emission. Another approach to improve therapeutic efficacy is the use of replacement isotopes with better physical properties. Chelator that can hold radio-metals with high stability under physiological conditions are essential to avoid excessive damage to non-target cells; Moreover, the development of new bifunctional chelating agents is essential for this purpose. Accordingly, our efforts have been directed, for several years, to the synthesis of original chelating agents likely to form stable complexes in vivo with the numerous potential candidates for such applications. Therefore, we have developed a new simple and efficient synthesis pathway of 2-(4-iso-thio-cyanate-benzyl)-1,4,7,10,13,16- hexa-aza-cyclo-hexadecane- 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa-acetic acid, though functionalized on the cycle by a termination allowed coupling to an antibody or any other biological substance such as a hapten. (author)

  19. 36 CFR 228.109 - Bonds.

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized Forest officer determines the financial instrument held by the Bureau of Land Management is not... give the operator the option of either increasing the financial instrument held by the Bureau of Land Management or filing a separate instrument with the Forest Service in the amount deemed adequate by...

  20. 22 CFR 228.01 - Definitions.

    2010-04-01

    ... shipped from a free port or bonded warehouse in the form in which received therein, “source” means the country from which the commodity was shipped to the free port or bonded warehouse. (m) State means the... Geographic Code means a code in the USAID Geographic Code Book which designates a country, a group...

  1. 48 CFR 228.370 - Additional clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... subcontractor is a permittee or licensee or has a right to use, including Government airfields. (iv) Revise...-7006, Compliance with Spanish Laws and Insurance, in solicitations and contracts for services or construction to be performed in Spain, unless the contractor is a Spanish concern....

  2. QTL Information Table: 228 [Q-TARO

    Full Text Available i 63 B C547 C2340 pha Xing, Z., Tan, F., Hua, P., Sun, L., Xu, G., and Zhang, Q. (2002). Characterization of the main effects..., epistatic effects and their environmental interactions of QTLs on the genetic basis of yield traits in rice. Theor Appl Genet 105, 248-257. ...

  3. 50 CFR 228.17 - Direct testimony.

    2010-10-01

    ... at the hearing by a witness shall be considered part of the record. Such direct testimony shall not... immaterial parts thereof; (b) The witness introducing direct testimony shall: (1) State his or her name... direct testimony if such party fails to present a witness to introduce the direct testimony. (d)...

  4. Remarks on the cavitation of Thorium-228

    Cardone, F; Petrucci, A

    2010-01-01

    In this short note we would like to provide some useful remarks on our previous work about the piezonuclear decay of Thorium and in general about the methods and protocols that we used in the experiments on piezonuclear reactions. The purpose of these remarks is to highlight the critical points of the experiments and equipment in order to design future experiments that may obtain positive evidences or that can be as more comparable to previous ones as possible.

  5. 49 CFR 228.203 - Program components.

    2010-10-01

    ... accuracy of the data for a specific employee but nevertheless errs in pre-populating a data field. (E) The... station; (4) Released location, either yard or station; (5) Operating territory (i.e., division or service...— (1) Calculate the total time on duty for each employee, using data entered by the employee...

  6. Study of 228Ac decay scheme

    Calibration in energy and efficiency of the system used. Obtainement of singles gamma ray spectra of low and high energy. Reduction of the data obtained in the spectrometer by means of computer: localization and determination of the areas of the peaks, also the analysis of the shape of the peaks for identification of doublets. Checking of the decay scheme

  7. 40 CFR 228.2 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies, public data archives, and social and economic studies and records of affected areas. (d) The term... social and economic studies and records of areas which would be affected by use of the proposed site. (e) The term management authority means the EPA organizational entity assigned responsibility...

  8. 36 CFR 228.41 - Scope.

    2010-07-01

    ... materials. Such mineral materials include deposits which, although they have economic value, are used for... determines that the removal is not detrimental to the values for which the segregation or withdrawal was made... the particular mineral a distinct and special value; nor do they include block pumice which in...

  9. The identification of soil radionuclides in the area of Puspiptek and surrounding

    The area of PUSPIPTEK and the surrounding are potentially exposed by radionuclides, because the operation of the nuclear research plant. The PPTN Serpong was operated long than 10 years, therefore soil radioactivity need to evaluate. The determination of radioactivity in the soil samples which be taken from research location using gamma spectrometry on June-August. The result of the research identified natural radionuclides K-40; Thorium decay series Ac-228, Bi-212, Pb-212, Tl-208, Ra-224 and Rn-220; Uranium decay series Bi-214, Pa-234, Pb-214 and Actinium decay series Bi-211, Po-211. There are no identification radionuclides produce from the activation of PPTN Serpong

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the Sandia National Laboratories and surrounding area

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during March and April 1993. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey includes the areas covered by a previous survey in 1981. The results of the aerial survey show a background exposure rate which varies between 5 and 18 μR/h plus an approximate 6 μR/h contribution from cosmic rays. The major radioactive isotopes found in this survey were: potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228, which are all naturally-occurring isotopes, and cobalt-60, cesium-137, and excess amounts of thallium-208 and actinium-228, which are due to human actions in the survey area. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from this survey's gamma ray measurements agree almost exactly with the exposure rates inferred from the 1981 survey. In addition to the aerial measurements, another survey team conducted in situ and soil sample radiation measurements at three sites within the survey perimeter. These ground-based measurements agree with the aerial measurements within ± 5%

  11. Physical Measurements and Clinical Findings of Persons with Radium Burdens

    Results of physical measurements and some clinical findings of persons with radium burdens are reported and discussed. Ten workers of the dial painting industry, two chemists, who have been working for between 10 and 20 yr in the radium- industry, one technician, who has been- working for over 20 yr with high-emanation radium preparations and one person with high radium intake of rather unknown history were measured in a whole-body counter for evaluation of the body burdens of radium-226 and radium-228+ actinium-228. In some cases the radon concentration of expired air was also measured. For four of the measured persons the radium-226 burden is of the order of the maximum permissible amount (MPA : 10-7 c) or more. In one case the burden amounts to more than three times the MPA, (3.4 x 10-7 c), in another case to more than 100 times the MPA (160 x 10-7 c). In one case the radium-228 + actinium-228 burden exceeds the MPA (6 x 10-8 c in bone). The measured radon concentrations in the expired air were used to calculate the excretion rate of radon. The average was 67%. Clinical findings with some of the measured persons are related to the measured body burdens. The patient with the high body burden of 160 x 10-7 c radium-226 shows heavy bone changes leading to spontaneous bone fractures. The blood picture shows a decrease in the number of erythrocytes and a low haemoglobin content but puncture of the sternum indicates normal haematopoiesis. It seems that the low number of erythrocytes is caused by chronic nephropathia, the reason for which might be an additional intake of uranium because.uranium was found in the urine by gamma spectroscopy. The results are discussed with respect to the MPA of radium-226 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  12. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  13. Renal uptake of bismuth-213 and its contribution to kidney radiation dose following administration of actinium-225-labeled antibody

    Schwartz, J; O' Donoghue, J A; Humm, J L [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jaggi, J S [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Plainsboro, NJ (United States); Ruan, S; Larson, S M [Nuclear Medicine Service Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); McDevitt, M; Scheinberg, D A, E-mail: schwarj1@mskcc.org [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    Clinical therapeutic studies using {sup 225}Ac-labeled antibodies have begun. Of major concern is renal toxicity that may result from the three alpha-emitting progeny generated following the decay of {sup 225}Ac. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of {sup 225}Ac and non-equilibrium progeny in the mouse kidney after the injection of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and examine the dosimetric consequences. Groups of mice were sacrificed at 24, 96 and 144 h after injection with {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and kidneys excised. One kidney was used for gamma ray spectroscopic measurements by a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The second kidney was used to generate frozen tissue sections which were examined by digital autoradiography (DAR). Two measurements were performed on each kidney specimen: (1) immediately post-resection and (2) after sufficient time for any non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi to decay completely. Comparison of these measurements enabled estimation of the amount of excess {sup 213}Bi reaching the kidney ({gamma}-ray spectroscopy) and its sub-regional distribution (DAR). The average absorbed dose to whole kidney, determined by spectroscopy, was 0.77 (SD 0.21) Gy kBq{sup -1}, of which 0.46 (SD 0.16) Gy kBq{sup -1} (i.e. 60%) was due to non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi. The relative contributions to renal cortex and medulla were determined by DAR. The estimated dose to the cortex from non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi (0.31 (SD 0.11) Gy kBq{sup -1}) represented {approx}46% of the total. For the medulla the dose contribution from excess {sup 213}Bi (0.81 (SD 0.28) Gy kBq{sup -1}) was {approx}80% of the total. Based on these estimates, for human patients we project a kidney-absorbed dose of 0.28 Gy MBq{sup -1} following administration of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 with non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi responsible for approximately 60% of the total. Methods to reduce renal accumulation of radioactive progeny appear to be necessary for the success of {sup 225}Ac radioimmunotherapy.

  14. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  15. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  16. On the kinetic and thermodynamic fragility of the Pt{sub 60}Cu{sub 16}Co{sub 2}P{sub 22} and Pt{sub 57.3}Cu{sub 14.6}Ni{sub 5.3}P{sub 22.8} bulk metallic glasses

    Gallino, Isabella, E-mail: i.gallino@mx.uni-saarland.de [Saarland University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Campus C6.3, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Gross, Oliver [Saarland University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Campus C6.3, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Dalla Fontana, Giulia [Department of Chemistry IFM and NIS, University of Torino, V. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Evenson, Zach; Busch, Ralf [Saarland University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Campus C6.3, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The studied Pt–Cu–(Ni,Co)–P glasses are more fragile than Zr-based alloys. • They show large increases in the C{sub p} at T{sub g} and small barriers for cooperative rearrangements of atoms. • They have fragility parameters among the lowest reported for BMG systems (D{sup *} = 10–12). • They crystallize into a state that melts with distinctly high entropy of fusion. • The microscopic origin of their fragility seems different than that for Zr- and Pd-based BMGs. - Abstract: The investigations in this study focus on bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloy families based on noble metals like Pt, which are more kinetically fragile than Zr-based BMG systems. Thermophysical properties have been investigated by calorimetry and thermal mechanical analyses for the determination of the specific heat capacity and viscosity, respectively. For the Pt{sub 60}Cu{sub 16}Co{sub 2}P{sub 22} and Pt{sub 57.3}Cu{sub 14.6}Ni{sub 5.3}P{sub 22.8} BMG compositions consistent Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann (VFT) fits of the viscosity measurements are established, and the temperature dependence of the configurational entropy is calculated from thermodynamic data. Fits to the Adam–Gibbs equation are performed using this configurational entropy change. Their fragile nature is compared to that of Zr-based alloys in terms of structural considerations.

  17. 49 CFR 228.101 - Distance requirement; definitions.

    2010-10-01

    ... construction or reconstruction of railroad employee sleeping quarters. (4) Placarded car shall mean a railroad... CFR 172.504). (5) The term L eq (8) shall mean the equivalent steady state sound level which in 8... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Construction of...

  18. 36 CFR 228.102 - Leasing analyses and decisions.

    2010-07-01

    ... at 43 CFR parts 1500-1508, and Forest Service implementing policies and procedures set forth in... accordance with the requirements of 36 CFR part 219 (Forest land and resource management planning) and/or, as... there is significant new information or circumstances as defined by 40 CFR 1502.9 requiring...

  19. 36 CFR 228.5 - Plan of operations-approval.

    2010-07-01

    ... (30) days of such receipt, analyze the proposal, considering the economics of the operation along with the other factors in determining the reasonableness of the requirements for surface resource... respect to mineral values, mineral resources, and mineral reserves. Further, the operator may request...

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSG228 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available fsppqimiiqyyh*itqhqqqepkeki iqliiiikelerlkdqylkhiqkdmnqn*rmilknlv*vmn*lnqlkriigknqqmfknk lyh*ylkveiqfshqlqvv... ---hasd*islidqrd*ifkifqk*qqqt*y*giv*iiv*fsppqimiiqyyh*itqhqq qepkekiiqliiiikelerlkdqylkhiqkdmnqn*rmilknlv*v... iqliiiikelerlkdqylkhiqkdmnqn*rmilknlv*vmn*lnqlkriigknqqmfknk lyh*ylkveiqfshqlqvvvklvltsyllykf*QLLKGNKLNYLKK

  1. Dicty_cDB: SFD228 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available invnfgsimrkvi*lskvicvt*rmkvcqlkvplekvn* slllilnihrilqmmilknslksyqklppllfqnlivnrlv...ny*tqslvvnsl*thwinvnfgsimrkvi*lskvicvt*rmkvcqlkvplekvn* slllilnihrilqmmilknslksyqklppllfqnlivnrlvsqr*TLIPTNK...rmkvcqlkvplek vn*slllilnihrilqmmilknslksyqklppllfqnlivnrlvsqr*tliptnkvlmvv lvvlinnmvvlmviknnnnkvlillilvlnlvv

  2. 48 CFR 1452.228-70 - Liability Insurance.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liability Insurance. 1452... Insurance. As prescribed in 1428.301, insert the following clause: Liability Insurance—Department of the... extension thereof liability insurance in form satisfactory to the Contracting Officer by an...

  3. 12 CFR 228.26 - Small bank performance standards.

    2010-01-01

    ... performance is evaluated pursuant to the following criteria: (1) The bank's loan-to-deposit ratio, adjusted for seasonal variation, and, as appropriate, other lending-related activities, such as...

  4. Dicty_cDB: VHC228 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available KHIKVLPSVGGASASNQSSSSSSLFQQSVRG--- ---c***y*nprnf*tcsiiskwf*ics*iifif*iyk*ttmenyyrtisigire*e*is kcn*ildyd*rvsksfrdl***nigii...gr-gss-dog-17000314594808 Dog Library Canis familiaris genomic, genomic survey se...nlnfk*krsiisiw*aiiq*lsr*iknnlnskn qlfsl*aiietlrfl*piqqrkvsrgnskd*kfgnltnl*irnrfkgtrlsfpfttyh*k flfyhssi...eyhhfqvqlgyhhstlke iykrlvihqnn*mi*lhqklhfqihwnqmyfkilklienmd*iqkf*qriylisi...pl*tnins*le*r*kifrgdfrs kty*sftkcwwc*r**siiiiiiiistkrsw--- ---

  5. 36 CFR 228.8 - Requirements for environmental protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... resources. (d) Scenic Values. Operator shall, to the extent practicable, harmonize operations with scenic... bars shall be constructed, and (4) The road surface shall be shaped to as near a natural contour...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.228 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    2010-01-01

    ... or policy of the United States Government, any foreign or State government, or any political... manner for the purpose of influencing any action or policy of the United States Government, any foreign... program expenditure allocations or administrative or program implementation; and (2) Direct...

  7. Dicty_cDB: AFO228 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available mato radicle, 5 d post-imbibition, Cornell University Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA clone cLEZ19K24 5', mRNA ...I782264 |AI782264.1 EST263143 tomato susceptible, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum

  8. Dicty_cDB: VSJ228 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available AAAAAAATAAAATAACCCCCACTTGCTGTTCA CTTT sequence update 2001. 3.22 Translated Amino Acid sequence qqwkenny...NLFKKKEKK--- ---XIYSKKKKKKKEHNDINKKNRKF*kk*nnphllft Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: qqwkenny

  9. 7 CFR 2.28 - Chief Financial Officer.

    2010-01-01

    ... and for the development and reporting of cost information, the integration of accounting and budgeting... Financial Officers Act of 1990, Public Law No. 101-576, 31 U.S.C. 902, including: (1) Reporting directly to... Department and component agencies. (3) Developing and maintaining an integrated accounting and...

  10. Transforming Libraries: Issues and Innovations in Preserving Digital Information. SPEC Kit 228 and SPEC Flyer 228. Issue Number 5.

    Soete, George J.

    The problem of preserving digital information and the strategies that are and might be employed to address it are the focus of this fifth issue of "Transforming Libraries." Twenty-one individuals involved at the technical or policy level in developing strategies for preserving digital information were interviewed. There is consensus on a number of…

  11. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Boiko R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search, 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β. The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  12. The Technological Enhancement of Normally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Red Mud due to the Production of Alumina

    Maurice O. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the level of technological enhancement of normally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM in the red mud waste due to the production of alumina in Jamaica. Technological enhancements factors (TEF were determined for the uranium, thorium, actinium series, their progenies, and the nonseries potassium-40 using gamma spectrometry. The study concluded that bauxite production technologically enhances the uranium progenies Th-234, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pa-234 and the thorium-232 progenies Ac-228, Pb-212, and Bi-212 in red mud. The actinium series was technologically enhanced, but K-40 and the thorium daughter, Tl-208, were reduced. The spectrometric comparison of Tl-208 (at 510 keV was unexpected since its other photopeaks at 583 keV, 934 keV, and 968 keV were markedly different. An explanation for this anomaly is discussed. An explanation regarding the process of accumulation and fractionation of organically derived phosphate deposits and potassium-feldspar is offered to explain the spectrometric differences between the alumina product and its waste material, red mud.

  13. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Boiko, R. S.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search), 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β). The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides) was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  14. Determination of radium in water

    These detailed work instructions (DWIs) are tailored for the analysis of radium-226 and radium-228 in drinking water supplies from ground water and surface water sources and composites derived from them. The instructions have been adapted from several sources, including a draft EPA method. One objective was to minimize the generation of mixed wastes. Quantitative determinations of actinium-228 are made at 911 keV. The minimum detection level (MDL) for the gamma spectrometric measurements at this energy vary with matrix, volume, geometry, detector, background, and counting statistics. The range of MDL's for current detectors is 0.07 to 0.5 Bq/sample. Quantitative determinations of radium-226 are made by counting the high energy alpha particles which radium-226 progeny emit using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The minimum detectable activity (MDA) is 3.8 E-3 Bq/sample. The maximum concentration which may be counted on available instruments without dilution is about 2 E + 5 Bq/sample. Typically, this determination of radium in a 2 L sample has a yield of 80%. If radium-228 is determined using a 16 h count after 50 h grow-in, the typical MDL is 1 E-9 to 8 E-9 μCi/mL (1 to 8 pCi/L). If radium-226 is determined using a 2.5 h count after 150 h grow-in, the typical MDA is about 1 E-10 μCi/mL (0. 1 pCi/L)

  15. Determination of radium in water

    Hohorst, F.A.; Huntley, M.W.; Hartenstein, S.D.

    1995-10-01

    These detailed work instructions (DWIs) are tailored for the analysis of radium-226 and radium-228 in drinking water supplies from ground water and surface water sources and composites derived from them. The instructions have been adapted from several sources, including a draft EPA method. One objective was to minimize the generation of mixed wastes. Quantitative determinations of actinium-228 are made at 911 keV. The minimum detection level (MDL) for the gamma spectrometric measurements at this energy vary with matrix, volume, geometry, detector, background, and counting statistics. The range of MDL`s for current detectors is 0.07 to 0.5 Bq/sample. Quantitative determinations of radium-226 are made by counting the high energy alpha particles which radium-226 progeny emit using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The minimum detectable activity (MDA) is 3.8 E-3 Bq/sample. The maximum concentration which may be counted on available instruments without dilution is about 2 E + 5 Bq/sample. Typically, this determination of radium in a 2 L sample has a yield of 80%. If radium-228 is determined using a 16 h count after 50 h grow-in, the typical MDL is 1 E-9 to 8 E-9 {mu}Ci/mL (1 to 8 pCi/L). If radium-226 is determined using a 2.5 h count after 150 h grow-in, the typical MDA is about 1 E-10 {mu}Ci/mL (0. 1 pCi/L).

  16. 48 CFR 1352.228-74 - Fair market value of aircraft.

    2010-10-01

    ... Fair market value of aircraft. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(e) and 48 CFR 1328.310-70(g) insert the following in all applicable contracts for leased aircraft: Fair Market Value of Aircraft (APR 2010... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value...

  17. Cumulative Noise and 5.9 GHz DSRC Extensions for ns-2.28

    Schmidt-Eisenlohr, Felix; Torrent-Moreno, Marc; Tielert, Tessa; Mittag, Jens; Hartenstein, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    The network simulator ns-2 is a widely used tool in the field of wired and wireless communications research. Although the ns-2 implementation is in constant evolution, it fails, for obvious reasons, to reflect all aspects related to the newest communication technologies. One example of such technology is 5.9GHz Direct Short Range Communications (DSRC) for vehicular environments, which is currently attracting attention due to its promises to reduce the amount of road fa...

  18. 40 CFR 228.5 - General criteria for the selection of sites.

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial or recreational navigation. (b) Locations and boundaries of disposal sites will be so chosen that... disposal operations anywhere within the site can be expected to be reduced to normal ambient seawater... long-range impacts. The size, configuration, and location of any disposal site will be determined as...

  19. Hospital management of abdominal trauma in Tehran, Iran: a review of 228 patients

    Javad Salimi; Mohammad Ghodsi; Maryam Nassaji Zavvarh; Ali Khaji

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Today, trauma is a major public health problem in some countries. Abdominal trauma is the source of significant mortality and morbidity with both blunt and penetrating injuries. We performed an epidemiological study of abdominal trauma (AT) in Tehran, Iran. We used all our sources to describe the epidemiology and outcome of patients with AT.Methods: This study was done in Tehran. The study population included trauma patients admitted to the emergency department of six general hospitals in Tehran during one year. The data were collected through a questionnaire that was completed by a trained physician at the trauma center. The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software (version 11.5 for Windows). The statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square and P<0.05 was accepted as being statistically significant.Results: Two hundred and twenty-eight (2.8%) out of 8 000 patients were referred to the above mentioned centers with abdominal trauma. One hundred and twenty-five (54.9%)of the patients were in their 2nd and 3rd decades of life and 189 (83%) of our patients were male. Road traffic accidents (RTA) were the leading cause of AT with 119 (52.2%) patients. Spleen was the commonly injured organ with 51 cases. Following the analysis of injury severity, 159 (69.7%) patients had mild injuries (ISS<16) and 69 (30.3%) patients had severe injuries (ISS= 16). The overall mortality rate was 46 (20.2%).Conclusions: Blunt abdominal trauma is more common than penetrating abdominal trauma. Road traffic accidents and stab wound are the most common causes of blunt and penetrating trauma, respectively. Spleen is the most commonly injured organ in these patients. The mortality rate is higher in blunt trauma than penetrating one.

  20. 18 CFR 367.2283 - Account 228.3, Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits.

    2010-04-01

    ... benefits, savings, relief, hospital and other provident purposes, where the funds are included in the assets of the service company either in general or in segregated fund accounts. (b) Amounts paid by the... employee pension or benefit plan funds are not included among the assets of the service company but...

  1. AB228. Research on the mechanism of androgen replacement therapy improving erectile dysfunction in castrated rats

    Cui, Kai; Li, Rui; WANG, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shaogang; Rao, Ke; Liu, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of androgen replacement therapy (ART) improving erectile dysfunction (ED) in castrated rats. Methods We randomly divided 40 8-week-old healthy male SD rats into 4 groups: group A was the control, and rats of the group B, C and D were castrated, then rats in the groups C and D were treated with different concentrations of testosterone undecanoate orally every day (C: 10 mg/kg, D: 20 mg/kg), while other groups with 0.9% NS instead. 8weeks’ treatment later,...

  2. AB228. Research on the mechanism of androgen replacement therapy improving erectile dysfunction in castrated rats

    Cui, Kai; Li, Rui; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shaogang; Rao, Ke; Liu, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of androgen replacement therapy (ART) improving erectile dysfunction (ED) in castrated rats. Methods We randomly divided 40 8-week-old healthy male SD rats into 4 groups: group A was the control, and rats of the group B, C and D were castrated, then rats in the groups C and D were treated with different concentrations of testosterone undecanoate orally every day (C: 10 mg/kg, D: 20 mg/kg), while other groups with 0.9% NS instead. 8weeks’ treatment later, we determined the level of serum testosterone and assessed the erectile function of rats. Western blot, immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the level of target proteins. Results (I) The level of serum testosterone and erectile function (Max ICP/MAP): group Bwas significantly lower than group A, C and D, and group D was higher compared with group C; (II) effect of castration and ART on endothelial cells and androgen receptor (AR)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/cyclin A pathway: the expression of CD31, vWF and AR/VEGF/cyclin A in group B were lower than group A, C and D, and group D was higher compared with group C; (III) effect of castration and ART on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs) and TGF-β/S1P2/RhoA/ROCK pathway: the expression of α-sma in group B were lower than group A, C and D, and group D was higher compared with group C; while the expression of TGF-β/S1P2/RhoA/ROCK1 were higher in group B than group A, C and D, and group D was lower compared with group C. Conclusions ART can improve ED in castrated rats through promoting the proliferation of corpus cavernosum endothelial cells by activating AR/VEGF/cyclin A pathway; decreasing the contraction of CCSMCs and corporal fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β/S1P2/RhoA/ROCK pathway, which provides reference for revealing the mechanism of ART treating ED associated late-onset hypogonadism.

  3. 36 CFR 228.44 - Disposal on existing Federal leased areas.

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Leasing Act, as amended (30 U.S.C. 181-187); section 402 of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1946 (5 U.S.C. Appendix); the 1947 Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands, as amended (30 U.S.C. 351 et seq.); and the 1970 Geothermal Steam Act (30 U.S.C. 1001-1025), provided that it has been determined...

  4. 22 CFR 228.35 - Construction services from foreign-owned local firms.

    2010-04-01

    ... integral part of the local economy. However, such a determination is contingent on first ascertaining that... contract. (b) A foreign-owned local firm is an integral part of the local economy provided: (1) It has...

  5. 12 CFR 228.43 - Content and availability of public file.

    2010-01-01

    ...) Banks with strategic plans. A bank that has been approved to be assessed under a strategic plan shall...) Location of public information. A bank shall make available to the public for inspection upon request...

  6. 48 CFR 252.228-7006 - Compliance with Spanish laws and insurance.

    2010-10-01

    ... Spanish Government laws pertaining to sanitation, traffic, security, employment of labor, and all other... damages as a result of death or injury to personnel or damage to real or personal property related to...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.228-82 - Insurance-Total Immunity From Tort Liability.

    2010-10-01

    ... AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of.... (b) If any suit or action is filed, or if any claim is made against the Contractor, the cost...

  8. 36 CFR 228.4 - Plan of operations-notice of intent-requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... bulldozers or backhoes, or the cutting of trees, unless those operations otherwise might cause a significant... as bulldozers or backhoes, or the cutting of trees, unless those operations otherwise will...

  9. 48 CFR 752.228-7 - Insurance-liability to third persons.

    2010-10-01

    ... of them purchase an automobile within the Cooperating Country, the Contractor agrees to make certain..., $5,000. The premium costs for such insurance shall not be a reimbursable cost under this...

  10. Study on laser atomic spectroscopy

    Laser atomic spectroscopic study on actinium element has been performed in many areas of spectroscopy. The study on characteristic of atomic vapor has been proceeded for copper atom and the spatial density distribution of copper vapor is measured. This experimental data has been compared with the theoretically calculated data. In spectroscopic experiment, the first and second excited states for actinium element are identified and the most efficient ionization scheme for actinium element is identified. In addition, the corrosion problem for filament material due to the heating of the actinium element has been studied. (Author)

  11. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    Polischuk, O. G.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2013-08-01

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain 238U, 226Ra and 232,228Th typically on the level of ˜ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO2, Nd2O3 and Gd2O3. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R&D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  12. Background radiation and individual dosimetry in the coastal area of Tamil Nadu (India)

    South coast of India is known as the high-level background radiation area (HBRA) mainly due to beach sands that contain natural radionuclides as components of the mineral monazite. The rich deposit of monazite is unevenly distributed along the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. An HBRA site that laid in 2x7 m along the sea was found in the beach of Chinnavillai, Tamil Nadu, where the maximum ambient dose equivalent reached as high as 162.7 mSv y-1. From the sands collected at the HBRA spot, the high-purity germanium semi-conductor detector identified six nuclides of thorium series, four nuclides of uranium series and two nuclides belonging to actinium series. The highest radioactivity observed was 43.7 Bq g-1 of Th-228. The individual dose of five inhabitants in Chinnavillai, as measured by the radiophotoluminescence glass dosimetry system, demonstrated the average dose of 7.17 mSv y-1 ranging from 2.79 to 14.17 mSv y-1. (authors)

  13. Enhanced radioactivity due to natural oil and gas production and related radiological problems

    Within the scope of a research contract, the following aspects are considered: External radiation exposure at production sites; internal radiation exposures during cleaning operations such as removing of scale by sand blasting; problems of waste disposal; internal radiation exposure due to radon inhalation by consumers; the origin of the high radium content of brines from oil and gas fields. Enhanced dose rates up to 50 μSv/h have been found at the external surface of saltwater tanks, but 72% of the 160 sites investigated did not show any increase above the natural background. Brines from gas contained radium-226 up to 286 Bq/1 and scale up to 1 kBq/g. In brines and scale from oil fields radium-228 was usually the dominating radionuclide. Some samples contained significant amounts of lead-210 and even actinium-227, too, but practically no uranium or thorium. The radon-222 concentrations in natural gas samples varied between 0.004 and 4 Bq/l with an average value of 0.6 Bq/l. Related radiological problems are discussed. (orig./HP)

  14. Soil and river sediments radionuclides monitoring at Aramar Experimental Center: an historical overview

    In order to evaluate possible effects to the environment resulting from the implementation of the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha - Centro Experimental Aramar (CTMSP-CEA) at Ipero in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, which came into operation in 1989, an Environmental Monitoring Program (PMA) was established in October, 1987. One of the aims of this program is to monitor the soil and river sediments radionuclides levels at CEA and beyond its boundary. The utilization of statistical tools to evaluate the results of radiometric environmental monitoring is a procedure required by National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The box plot is a simple statistical tool for displaying data. The central tendency and dispersion of the results as well as the observation of unusual results (outliers) in the dataset are easily visualized. Control chart is a graph that maps data and provides a picture of how a process is performing over time. A control chart always has a central line for the mean, an upper line for the upper control limit and a lower line for the lower control limit. Box plots and control charts were used to visualize the annual amount of natural uranium, lead-214, actinium-228 and lead-212 in soil and river sediment detected between 1987 and 2011, considering the measurements of all monitored places each year. This historical observation shows that, in average, the results obtained are below than the 1987-1988 levels (CEA's pre-operational) or below than the backgrounds radionuclides values. (author)

  15. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    Polischuk, O. G. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv, Ukraine and INFN, Section of Rome, La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Belli, P. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boiko, R. S.; Danevich, F. A.; Mokina, V. M.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Cappella, F.; Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Section of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S. [INFN, Gran Sasso National Laboratories, I-67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232,228}Th typically on the level of ∼ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R and D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  16. Radiological analysis of environmental samples in some points of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Full text: We describe in this paper the results obtained by the project 'Radiological analysis of environmental samples in some points of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico'. The purpose of the study is to identify and quantify the natural and anthropogenic radionuclides present from sediments, sand and seawater from several sites located along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribean Sea. The samples are analysed in a Canberra Multichannel analyzer system for gamma spectrometry, equipped with a detector of hyper pure germanium and a Genie 2000 software, in the 'Laboratory of Radiological Analysis of Environmental Samples', belonging to the Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The geographic sites were samples were taken include the states of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan and Quintana Roo. The results of this studies will be published at the end of the project and we hope they will be useful for the national health and industrial sectors. Until now we have identified and measured the presence of natural radionuclides such as Potassium-40 (K-40), Bismuth 212 (Bi-212), Lead-212 (Pb-212), Bismuth-214 (Bi-214), Lead-214 (Pb-214), Radium-226 (Ra-226), Actinium 228 (Ac-228), Uranium-235 (U-235), as well as some anthropogenic radionuclides found near the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. The project is scheduled to last for three years, finishing in 2009. At its ending we shall be able to present conclusions and identify some tendencies, in connection with the background and possible radioactive contamination of the studied zones. This project takes place under the auspice of the 'Program of Support to Projects of Research and Technological Innovation' of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. (author)

  17. Removal of actinium from europium for the determination of specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki

    Measurements of specific radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as 152Eu and 60Co have been carried out to check the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for the atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima (exposed to uranium bomb) and Nagasaki (exposed to plutonium bomb). The use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry, however, has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic-bomb and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic-bomb, and the chemical procedure has been successful for the materials exposed to atomic-bomb within 1400 m in slant distance from the explosion point. As for Nagasaki, materials exposed in the distances farther than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, determination of specific radioactivity of 152Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to Nagasaki atomic-bomb at a distant place from the explosion point was undertaken. But, because of radioactive decay during this ∝60 years since 1945 and long distance from the explosion point, the present specific radioactivity of 152Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be ∝3 x 10-4 Bq-152Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem is interferences from daughters of 227Ac (half-life: 21.8 y) in the measurement of ultra low-level radioactivity of 152Eu. Hence, our chemical procedure to obtain Eu-enriched counting source should be improved, and much attention is being denoted to removal of Ac from Eu. (orig.)

  18. Způsoby jmenování vlády:Studie č. 1.228

    Kuta, Martin; Němec, Jan; Pecháček, Štěpán

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares the process of nomination of then-to-be prime ministers in parliamentary and semi-presidential systems in which the existence of government depends strictly on the confidence vote expressed by the Parliament. The possibility of the Head of State to form the government poses questions to which extent the prime minister nominee may differ from the will of the parliamentary majority. The respective variations of the nomination process are assessed in terms of advantage for eit...

  19. Multi-MW 22.8 GHz Harmonic Multiplier - RF Power Source for High-Gradient Accelerator R&D

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-07-26

    Electrodynamic and particle simulation studies have been carried out to optimize design of a two-cavity harmonic frequency multiplier, in which a linear electron beam is energized by rotating fields near cyclotron resonance in a TE111 cavity in a uniform magnetic field, and in which the beam then radiates coherently at the nth harmonic into a TEn11 output cavity. Examples are worked out in detail for 7th and 2nd harmonic converters, showing RF-to-RF conversion efficiencies of 45% and 88%, respectively at 19.992 GHz (K-band) and 5.712 GHz (C-band), for a drive frequency of 2.856 GHz. Details are shown of RF infrastructure (S-band klystron, modulator) and harmonic converter components (drive cavity, output cavities, electron beam source and modulator, beam collector) for the two harmonic converters to be tested. Details are also given for the two-frequency (S- and C-band) coherent multi-MW test stand for RF breakdown and RF gun studies.

  20. Bug fixes on the IEEE 802.11 DCF module of the network simulator ns-2.28

    Schmidt-Eisenlohr, Felix; Letamendia-Murua, Jon; Torrent-Moreno, Marc; Hartenstein, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    The Network Simulator 2 (ns-2) is largely the most used simulator in the Ad Hoc research community. However, the 802.11 DCF module implemented in the default distribution of ns-2 presents some bugs, i.e., discordances with the IEEE 802.11 Standard specifications. We present in this Technical Report the result of an extensive analysis of both the IEEE 802.11 DCF specification and the ns-2 module. We first describe the discordances found with respect to the different DCF.s pr...

  1. Radon fixation for determination of {sup 224}Ra, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra via gamma-ray spectrometry

    Herranz, M. [Departamento Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. S. Ingenieros de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)]. E-mail: inphesom@bi.ehu.es; Idoeta, R. [Departamento Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. S. Ingenieros de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. S. Ingenieros de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Legarda, F. [Departamento Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. S. Ingenieros de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    The aim of this work is the improvement of the procedure for the determination of radium isotopes activities in water, which is done through radiochemical separation and subsequent gamma-ray spectrometry. In addition, radon gas retention is studied using different activated carbon materials. The results of the IAEA Proficiency test: 'Determination of radium and uranium radionuclides in water' of December 2002 [IAEA, 2003. Analytical quality control services: determination of radium and uranium radionuclides in water. Preliminary Report, Seibersdorf] are considered for this work.

  2. Michael Drewett and Martin Cloonan (eds.), Popular Music Censorship in Africa, Ashgate Publishing, 2006, 228 p. ISBN:0754652912

    Kirkegaard, Annemette

    2007-01-01

    Anmeldelse i et førende engelsk musiketnologisk tidsskrift af en antologi om musikcensur i Afrika. Bogen bebeskriver en række forskellige forekomster af forbud, restriktioner og vold overfor musikere og kunstnere i Afrika, og anmeldelsen konkluderer, at bogen på trods af en del mangler i forhold ...

  3. SU-E-J-228: MRI-Based Planning: Dosimetric Feasibility of Dose Painting for ADCDefined Intra-Prostatic Tumor

    Purpose: Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map may help to delineate the gross tumor volume (GTV) in prostate gland. Dose painting with external beam radiotherapy for GTV might increase the local tumor control. The purpose of this study is to explore the maximum boosting dose on GTV using VMAT without sacrificing sparing of organs at risk (OARs) in MRI based planning. Methods: VMAT plans for 5 prostate patients were generated following the commonly used dose volume (DV) criteria based on structures contoured on T2 weighted MRI with bulk electron density assignment using electron densities derived from ICRU46. GTV for each patient was manually delineated based on ADC maps and fused to T2-weighted image set for planning study. A research planning system with Monte Carlo dose engine (Monaco, Elekta) was used to generate the VMAT plans with boosting dose on GTV gradually increased from 85Gy to 100Gy. DV parameters, including V(boosting-dose) (volume covered by boosting dose) for GTV, V75.6Gy for PTV, V45Gy, V70Gy, V72Gy and D1cc (Maximum dose to 1cc volume) for rectum and bladder, were used to measure plan quality. Results: All cases achieve at least 99.0% coverage of V(boosting-dose) on GTV and 95% coverage of V75.6Gy to the PTV. All the DV criteria, V45Gy≤50% and V70Gy≤15% for bladder and rectum, D1cc ≤77Gy (Rectum) and ≤80Gy (Bladder), V72Gy≤5% (rectum and bladder) were maintained when boosting GTV to 95Gy for all cases studied. Except for two patients, all the criteria were also met when the boosting dose goes to 100Gy. Conclusion: It is dosimetrically feasible safe to boost the dose to at least 95Gy to ADC defined GTV in prostate cancer using MRI guided VMAT delivery. Conclusion: It is dosimetrically feasible safe to boost the dose to at least 95Gy to ADC defined GTV in prostate cancer using MRI guided VMAT delivery. This research is partially supported by Elekta Inc

  4. 40 CFR 228.13 - Guidelines for ocean disposal site baseline or trend assessment surveys under section 102 of the...

    2010-07-01

    ..., pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, and persistent organoha--logens. These samples shall be preserved for..., nickel, pesticides, persistent organohalogens, and petroleum hydrocarbons. These samples shall...

  5. Decree No 67-228 of 15 March 1967 regulating the protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation

    This Decree, together with its implementing Orders, contains the basic provisions for the protection of workers. However, it does not cover large nuclear installations and mainly applies to establishments dealing with sealed or unsealed sources and X-ray devices. It lays down the measures to be complied with by employers in such establishments to ensure the protection of staff and also sets out the maximum permissible equivalent radiation doses. (NEA)

  6. 5 CFR 591.228 - How does OPM convert the price index plus adjustment factor to a COLA rate?

    2010-01-01

    ... effective date of the results of the first survey conducted in each area. (c) OPM may reduce the COLA rate... for any COLA area cannot be effective until the effective date of the first survey conducted in...

  7. Radon fixation for determination of 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra via gamma-ray spectrometry

    The aim of this work is the improvement of the procedure for the determination of radium isotopes activities in water, which is done through radiochemical separation and subsequent gamma-ray spectrometry. In addition, radon gas retention is studied using different activated carbon materials. The results of the IAEA Proficiency test: 'Determination of radium and uranium radionuclides in water' of December 2002 [IAEA, 2003. Analytical quality control services: determination of radium and uranium radionuclides in water. Preliminary Report, Seibersdorf] are considered for this work

  8. Generator method of 225Ac production without a carrier for nuclear medicine

    The two-steps isotope generator scheme of 225Ac production from 229Th has been developed. The first step is used for separation of thorium, actinium, radium and daughter decay products (DDP), and removals of parent radionuclide. The second step provides additional separation of actinium from traces of radium and DDP, and conversion of actinium in the nitrate form. The chosen solutions provide optimal conditions for carry out of process. The yield of the 225Ac was 99.9% at minimal losses of parent 229Th (less than 0.1%)

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the Nevada Test Site

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site including three neighboring areas during August and September 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the Nevada Test Site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey included the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The results of the aerial survey showed a terrestrial background exposure rate that varied from less than 6 microroentgens per hour (mR/h) to 50 mR/h plus a cosmic-ray contribution that varied from 4.5 mR/h at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) to 8.5 mR/h at 2,400 meters (8,000 feet). In addition to the principal gamma-emitting, naturally occurring isotopes (potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228), the man-made radioactive isotopes found in this survey were cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-152, protactinium-234m an indicator of depleted uranium, and americium-241, which are due to human actions in the survey area. Individual, site-wide plots of gross terrestrial exposure rate, man-made exposure rate, and americium-241 activity (approximating the distribution of all transuranic material) are presented. In addition, expanded plots of individual areas exhibiting these man-made contaminations are given. A comparison is made between the data from this survey and previous aerial radiological surveys of the Nevada Test Site. Some previous ground-based measurements are discussed and related to the aerial data. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from the gamma-ray measurements collected during this survey agreed very well with the exposure rates inferred from previous aerial surveys

  10. New production in the South China Sea

    CAI; Pinghe

    2002-01-01

    [1]Dugdale, R. C., Goering, J. J., Uptake of new and regenerated nitrogen in primary productivity, Limnology and Oceanog-raphy, 1967, 12: 196-206.[2]Eppley, R. W., Peterson, B. J., Particulate organic matter flux and planktonic new production in the deep ocean, Nature, 1979, 282: 677-680.[3]Allen, C. B., Kanda, J., Laws, E. A., New production and photosynthetic rates within and outside a cyclonic mesoscale eddy in the North Pacific Subtropical gyre, Deep-Sea Research Ⅱ, 1996, 43(6): 917-936.[4]Jenkins, W. J., Tritium-helium dating in the Sargasso Sea: A measurement of oxygen utilization rates, Nature, 1977, 196: 291-292.[5]Spitzer, W. S., Jenkins, W. J., Rates of vertical mixing, gas exchange and new production: Estimates from seasonal gas cy-cle in the upper ocean near Bermuda, Journal of Marine Research, 1989, 47: 169-196.[6]Sarmiento, J. L., Thiele, G., Key, R. M. et al., Oxygen and nitrate new production and remineralization in the North At-lantic Subtropical Gyre, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1990, 95: 18303-18315.[7]Ku, T. L., Luo, S., Kusakabe, M. et al., 228Ra-derived nutrient budgets in upper equatorial Pacific and the role of "new" silicate in limiting productivity, Deep-Sea Research II, 1995, 42(2/3): 479-497.[8]Wheeler, P. A., Rates of nitrate assimilation at the equator during the US-JGOFS spring time series: Estimates of new pro-duction, EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 1992, 73: 281.[9]Huang, Y., Xie, Y., Chen, M. et al., Distribution feature of 228Ra in surface seawater of the Nansha sea area, in Isotopes Marine Chemistry of Nansha Islands Waters (in Chinese), Beijing: Ocean Press, 1996, 70-78.[10]Reid, D. F., Key, R. M., Schink, D., Radium, thorium and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manga-nese-oxide-coated fiber, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 1979, 43: 223-226.[11]Shi, W., Qiu, X., Huang, Y., Distribution of dissolved 226Ra in the Jiulongjiang-Xiamen bay

  11. TINGKAT KANDUNGAN UNSUR RADIOAKTIF AIR SUNGAI AYUNG DI DENPASAR BALI

    Dewa Nyoman Alit Ardana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ayung river is one of the longest rivers in Bali. The upstream of the river is in regency of Bangli, Badung, Buleleng, Tabananand downstream is located in Padang Galak beach, East Denpasar Sub-regency. As the sample of the study, the water of the river wastaken from the stream entering the city of Denpasar. The sample was taken in five different points and for each point was taken twice. Thefirst was taken at 5 p.m, and the second was at 6 a.m. This study aims at finding out the rate of radioactive content of Ayung river water inthe city of Denpasar.The water sample was analyzed in Radiometry Analysis Group of Radiation Physics and environmental research centre andNuclear Technique Development, Jalan Taman Sari 71 Bandung – 40132. The process of counting was conducted in this place in order toknow the rate of the element activities and then identification of elements contens in the sample. The result of the counting and identifyingwas compered with standard grade of radioactivity in the area.The element of identification result and the amount of activity rate found showed that the element were natural radioactiveelements, the content: 40K (Kalium-40, 234Th (Thorium-234, 233Th (Thorium-233, 228Ac (Actinium-288, 114mIn (Indium-114m. Thehighest activity of radioactive elements in each sample point: in E2 point content element 40K with the activity 2.08 Bq/lt, in point A1 234Thwith the activity 16.34 Bq/lt, in point E1 containts 233Th with activity 598.29 Bq/lt, in point E1 and E2 contain 228Ac with the activity939.63 Bq/lt. The height of activity value of the counting and identifying elements was still under the rate of the highest level.The result of the study showed that radioactive elements 40K had the tendency of increasing radioactivity. The same thinghappened to 233Th at the peak of energi 185.00 keV. The content of its radioactive tends to exist in each point of sample point and theactivity tends to increase. Though the rate of

  12. Spatial distribution of 40K, 228Ra, 226Ra, 238U and 137Cs in surface soil layer observed at small areas

    The main goal of this study is to give a more detailed insight into spatial radionuclide distribution in soils. It has been necessary in order to plant the future soil sampling procedure that would assure the representative soil samples for broader areas that are usually covered by in situ gamma-spectrometry measurements or aerial gamma-ray spectrometry. The spatial distributions of natural radionuclides and 137Cs activity in surface soil layer were studed in five regular grids, consisting of 9 points each. The distances between sampled points were 30 cm (A grid), 2.45 m (B grid), 19.5 m (C grid), 156 m (D grid) and 213 m (E grid), respectively. Soil samples were dominantly taken at agricultural ploughed fields from areas of ca. 315 cm2 (circle of a. 20 cm diameter), from surface up to 15 cm depth. The results indicate that representative soil sample must cover the broader area to provide data that could be compared with data collected by aerial gamma-spectrometry. The average sample on each locality must be prepared from several point samples. It seems that the central point and four points, each at approximately 50-100 m N, S, E, and W from the central point, could be enough

  13. 2.28 胃术后患者食管内酸及胆汁反流的同步监测*

    朱爱勇; 许国铭; 李兆申; 邹多武; 尹宁; 王雯

    2001-01-01

    目的研究不同类型胃术后患者食管内酸及胆汁反流情况.方法胃术后患者57例,按手术方式不同分为4组,A组为近端胃大部切除术后食管残胃吻合患者,共15例,B组为远端胃大部切除术后Billroth Ⅰ型吻合患者,共9例 ,C组为无端胃大部切除术后Billroth Ⅱ型吻合患者,共24例,D组为全胃切除术后食管空肠RouX-enY吻合患者共9例;正常对照组20例,男性14例,女性6例,年龄21~68岁,平均( 43.1±12.4)岁,均无胃食管反流症状,内镜证实无食管下段炎症,并排除消化道及严重全身器质性疾病.食管内pH及胆汁监测前分别对A、B、C、D 4组患者根据烧心、反酸、胸痛、呕吐胆汁每一症状不同程度进行症状评定及记分,计算出总积分.用Digitrapper MKⅢ型便携式pH监测仪及Bilitec 2000便携式胆汁监测仪(瑞典Medtronic Synectics公司)行食管内24h pH及胆汁监测.结果胃不同类型手术组患者D组症状积分高于A、B、C 3组(P值分别<0 .05,0.05,0.01),而其食管内酸及胆汁反流指标并不高于A、B、C 3组,提示全胃切除术后的不适症状与食管内的酸及胆汁反流无关.食管内pH监测发现A、B、D 3组反流时间%并不高于对照组(P>值0.05),C组酸反流时间%则明显高于对照组及A、B、D 3组(P 值<0.01,0.05,0.01,0.01),而后3组之间无差异.食管内胆汁反流监测发现:A、C 两组胆汁反流指标较对照组明显增高(P值均<0.01),B、D两组较对照组无差异,各手术组之间比较,食管内胆汁反流次数A组>B、D两组,C组>D组,反流大于5min次数A、C两组>B、D两组,最长反流时间、反流时间百分比A组>B、C、D 3组,B、C、D 3组间差别不显著,总体分析,食管内胆汁反流A、C两组>B、D两组.结论同步动态监测食管pH值及胆汁变化对不同类型胃手术患者有重要意义 .

  14. Organizações automatizadas - desenvolvimento e estrutura da empresa moderna. Nélio Oliveira. Rio de Janeiro: Editora LTC, 2007. 228p. ISBN: 8521614985.

    Mauro de Paula Freitas Filho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A Editora LTC lançou, em 2007, o livro de Nélio Oliveira, Organizações automatizadas: desenvolvimento e estrutura da empresa moderna. Mestre em Administração pela Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, atuou durante anos em diversas organizações públicas, privadas e de economia mista. Nélio Oliveira, no momento atual, é conceituado professor dos cursos de Administração e Sistemas de Informações na Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais. No meio de muitas literaturas disponíveis, a obra destaca-se pela simplicidade, pela objetividade e pelo cuidado com os quais ele trata uma nova configuração, as organizações automatizadas. Em linhas gerais, o autor concentra-se em um trabalho descritivo e procura caracterizar um novo formato organizacional, o qual surge em muitas empresas, em substituição às formas anteriores, vinculadas a modelos mecanizados ou mecanísticos. A obra tem como foco o modelo de cinco estruturas de Henry Mintzberg, base para todo o trabalho. O autor tem como propósito retratar uma realidade, na qual se observam as mudanças do mundo organizacional contemporâneo, o qual está cada vez mais adquirindo espaço no mundo empresarial.

  15. Microcystin quota, cell division and microcystin net production of precultured Microcystis aeruginosa CYA 228 (Chroococcales, Cyanophyceae) under field conditions

    Lyck, S.; Christoffersen, K.

    2003-01-01

    compared with previous data obtained from batch cultures. Growth of an easily recognizable unicellular culture alga in the field made it possible to evaluate different ways of expressing mcyst field data as the ratio of mcyst to dry weight, protein or chlorophyll a (Chl a) against the mcyst quota. The...... or mcyst: protein ratios in the field....

  16. EXECUTIVE LEADERSHIP AND DEVELOPMENT (IN INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY BY B. VONHALLER GILMER AND OTHERS. NEW YORK, MCGRAW-HILL, 1966/ 228-253).

    HILTON, THOMAS L.

    THIS CHAPTER FROM A LARGER WORK ON INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY DISCUSSES LEADERSHIP STEREOTYPES AND CONCEPTIONS, EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF ACTUAL LEADERSHIP FUNCTIONS, THE SELECTION OF POTENTIAL EXECUTIVES, AND METHODS OF EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT. THE MAJOR PROBLEM OF LEADERSHIP IS TO CREATE SITUATIONS IN WHICH FOLLOWERS WILLINGLY ACCEPT THE LEADER AS THEIR…

  17. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type, Is Linked to Chromosome 8p22-8p21.1 in an Extended Belgian Family

    Delfien Syx; Sofie Symoens; Wouter Steyaert; Anne De Paepe; Coucke, Paul J.; Fransiska Malfait

    2015-01-01

    Joint hypermobility is a common, mostly benign, finding in the general population. In a subset of individuals, however, it causes a range of clinical problems, mainly affecting the musculoskeletal system. Joint hypermobility often appears as a familial trait and is shared by several heritable connective tissue disorders, including the hypermobility subtype of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS-HT) or benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS). These hereditary conditions provide unique models fo...

  18. Laki korkeakoululaitoksen kehittamisesta 1967-81, No.228/6.4.1966; Asetus korkeakoululaitoksen kehittamisesta 1967-81, No.455/24.9.1966 (Act No.228/6.41966 and Decree No. 455/24.9.1966 on the Development of Universities and Institutes of Higher Education, 1967-81).

    Finland.

    This document is an English-language abstract (Approximately 1,500 words) of Finnish legislation covering higher education between 1967 and 1981. The main aim of the act is to increase educational opportunities in Finnish higher education in the next few years. The number of those expected to take postgraduate studies by 1981 is 60,000. The…

  19. 新疆"2.28"大风过程中热、动力作用的模拟分析%Simulation and Analysis of the Thermal-dynamics Characteristics of "2.28" Severe Wind Event in Xinjiang with WRF Model

    王澄海; 靳双龙; 杨世莉

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a severe wind event in Xinjiang on February 27-28, 2007 is simulated and analyzed by the use of the WRF model. The results showed that in addition to impact of weather systems and terrain,the downward momentum transmission of high-level caused by the vertical motion of baroclinic drives is a dynamical factor for the formation of the strong wind; The local adiabatic heating, the increase of sensible heat and latent heat flux, the turbulent above surface layer increasing the instability of atmosphere and producing a strong pressure gradient, and strong cold mass behind the cold front, were the main physical mechanism of the strong wind.%对发生在2007年2月27-28日新疆的一次大风天气过程使用WRF模式进行了模拟分析.结果表明,除直接影响天气系统和地形作用外,大风过程中的大气的斜压性产生的垂直速度,使得高空的动量向下传输,是大风形成的原因之一;而局地非绝热加热中的感热和潜热通量的增加,加强近地层的湍流运动,进一步增加了大气的不稳定性,同时和冷锋后部的冷空气形成较强的气压梯度,是此次大风形成的主要的物理机制.

  20. A survey of current status of knowledge,attitude and practice of 228 puerperae concerning infant and young children feeding in Chongqing%重庆市228例产妇婴幼儿喂养知识态度行为的现况调查

    张勇; 关蕴良; 赵勇; 刘达美; 李廷玉

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过调查重庆市部分产妇关于婴幼儿喂养的知识、态度、行为现况,为母婴保健宣传项目的 开展提供有效参考和指导.方法 对重庆医科大学附属第一、二医院妇产科住院产妇进行问卷调查,询问产妇对婴幼儿喂养相关知识的了解程度,以及与喂养相关的态度和行为情况.结果 产妇对婴幼儿喂养方面的知识平均得分率为(61.40±0.21)%,产妇对于哺乳相关知识掌握较好,但对婴幼儿营养相关疾病预防了解较少.正性的关于婴幼儿喂养的态度和行为产妇的比例并不高,尤其是纯母乳喂养的比例仅23.25%,超过半数的人对喂养没有信心.结论 重庆产妇关于婴幼儿喂养方面的知识、态度和行为情况并不理想,喂养方面的健康宣教有待进一步改进和加强.%Objective To investigate the current status of knowledge, attitude and practice of puerperae concerning infant and young children feeding in Chongqing city and provide effective reference and guidance for carrying out promotion project of maternal, infant and young children health care. Methods Questionary survey was conducted on hospitalized puerperae in obstetric and gynecology departments of the first and the second affiliated hoapital of Chongqing Medical University,and the understanding level, attitude and practice of the puerperae concerning infant and young children feeding were investigated. Results Average score rate of maternal knowledge of infant and young children feeding was(61. 40 + 0. 21)% showing a better understanding of breast-feeding in puerperae, but their knowledge of preventing infant and young children nutrition-related diseases were poor. The proportion of puer-pera who owned positive attitude and practice was not high, especially the proportion of exclusive breastfeeding with only 23. 25% , and more than half of the puerperae had no confidence in breastfeeding. Conclusion Current status of knowledge,attitude and practice of puerperae concerning infant and young children feeding in Chongqing city are not satisfactory and health promotion and education of infant and young children feeding need to be further improved and strengthened.

  1. I. The metabolic properties of plutonium and allied materials

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1948-05-24

    This report on the metabolic properties of plutonium and related radioactive materials presents experimental information in the following areas: radioautographic studies; tracer studies (with tables of accumulation in tissues) of actinium, radio-zirconium, technetium, radio-rubidium, radio-germanium, beryllium, and cadmium; decontamination and bone metabolism studies; and radio-chemical isolation.

  2. Snapshots of Proton Accommodation at a Microscopic Water Surface: Understanding the Vibrational Spectral Signatures of the Charge Defect in Cryogenically Cooled H(+)(H2O)(n=2-28) Clusters.

    Fournier, Joseph A; Wolke, Conrad T; Johnson, Mark A; Odbadrakh, Tuguldur T; Jordan, Kenneth D; Kathmann, Shawn M; Xantheas, Sotiris S

    2015-09-10

    We review the role that gas-phase, size-selected protonated water clusters, H(+)(H2O)n, have played in unraveling the microscopic mechanics responsible for the spectroscopic behavior of the excess proton in bulk water. Because the larger (n ≥ 10) assemblies are formed with three-dimensional cage morphologies that more closely mimic the bulk environment, we report the spectra of cryogenically cooled (10 K) clusters over the size range 2 ≤ n ≤ 28, over which the structures evolve from two-dimensional arrangements to cages at around n = 10. The clusters that feature a complete second solvation shell around a surface-embedded hydronium ion yield spectral signatures of the proton defect similar to those observed in dilute acids. The origins of the large observed shifts in the proton vibrational signature upon cluster growth were explored with two types of theoretical analyses. First, we calculate the cubic and semidiagonal quartic force constants and use these in vibrational perturbation theory calculations to establish the couplings responsible for the large anharmonic red shifts. We then investigate how the extended electronic wave functions that are responsible for the shapes of the potential surfaces depend on the nature of the H-bonded networks surrounding the charge defect. These considerations indicate that, in addition to the sizable anharmonic couplings, the position of the OH stretch most associated with the excess proton can be traced to large increases in the electric fields exerted on the embedded hydronium ion upon formation of the first and second solvation shells. The correlation between the underlying local structure and the observed spectral features is quantified using a model based on Badger's rule as well as via the examination of the electric fields obtained from electronic structure calculations. PMID:26158593

  3. Predit "Texture-Bruit" (subvention MENRT 03K228) : Compte rendu des relevés de profils réalisés à Bourges (18) sur la RD 16

    Marsac, Paul; Maisonneuve, Patrick; LABORATOIRE CENTRAL DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES - LCPC

    2005-01-01

    Le présent document rend compte des mesures de profils réalisées sur la toute départementale 16 à Bourges (18) par la section Infrastructure et Sécurité Routière du LCPC dans le cadre du PREDIT "bruit de contact pneumatique chaussée". La zone de mesure est située à l'entrée de Bourges en venant de La Chapelle Saint Ursin à la hauteur d'une voie sans issue environ 250m avant les feux tricolores, sur une section ne comportant pas de PR. Elle est constituée d'un revêtement en béton bitumineux tr...

  4. Expressões teóricas dos processos de libertação: novos paradigmas
    http://dx.doi.org/10.15601/1983-7631/rt.v6n11p213-228

    Manuel Alfonso Díaz Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    O objeto deste artigo é descrever os eixos comuns às três expressões teóricas dos processos de libertação e apontar os novos paradigmas propostos perante os desafios que a contemporaneidade apresenta com a ajuda dos autores mais representativos de cada área: na teologia, Gustavo Gutiérrez; na filosofia, Enrique Dussel; na pedagogia, Paulo Freire. A análise dos novos paradigmas é feita a partir de James Cone (raç...

  5. Comment on "Stoll H. et al. (2015): Interpretation of orbital scale variability in mid-latitude speleothem δ18O: Significance of growth rate controlled kinetic fractionation effects. Quat. Sci. Rev. 127, 215-228"

    Dreybrodt, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Stoll et al. (2015) have recently proposed that kinetic growth rate dependence of the oxygen isotope fractionation factor imprints an 18O isotope signal into the calcite precipitated to stalagmites. In their work growth rates of five stalagmites are related to negative offsets of δ18O from its equilibrium value. They report: "In the stalagmites contemplated here, growth rates of 4 - 80 μm year-1are equivalent to deposition rates of 3.4·10-9to 6.9·10-8 mol m-2 s-1assuming a density of calcite of 2.71 g/cm3."

  6. Niskin bottle data of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program in the North Pacific 100 miles north of Oahu, Hawaii for cruises HOT228-238 during 2011 (NODC Accession 0101146)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The HOT program makes repeated observations of the physics, biology and chemistry at a site approximately 100 km north of Oahu, Hawaii. Two stations are visited...

  7. Thermosalinograph Data of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program in the North Pacific 100 Miles North of Oahu, Hawaii for Cruises HOT228-238 during 2011 (NODC Accession 0103907)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The HOT program makes repeated observations of the physics, biology and chemistry at a site approximately 100 km north of Oahu, Hawaii. Two stations are visited...

  8. Comment on: "Geomorpho-tectonic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend" by Leomaris Domínguez-González, Louis Andreani, Klaus P. Stanek and Richard Gloaguen [Geomorphology, 228 (2015) 320-334

    Mitchell, Simon F.; James-Williamson, Sherene; Miller, David J.; Mandal, Arpita

    2016-06-01

    We provide comments on the paper: "Geomorpho-tectonic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend" by Domínguez-González et al. (2015). The literature review given is lacking in significant elements, particularly recent papers detailing the geology and uplift history of Jamaica. The paper undertakes a GIS analysis of a DEM and produces a drainage network for Jamaica, yet the networks created do not match the actual drainage network of the island. River profiles were extracted using 150 m contours and many of the knickpoints identified are not related to tectonics. The recognition of different erosional (and thus evolutionary) stages does not take into account the differing geology and the different geomorphological processes that were in operation, and the proposed model for the progressive uplift of different parts of Jamaica must therefore be treated with caution. This is particularly the case where their uplift model agrees neither with recent models based on provenance analysis or on the origin of Jamaican bauxite deposits. This paper demonstrates the problems of relying on remote sensing using inadequate datasets, no ground truthing and incomplete consideration of previous research.

  9. Missense mutations in PBP2A Affecting ceftaroline susceptibility detected in epidemic hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonotypes ST228 and ST247 in Western Switzerland archived since 1998

    Kelley, William; Jousselin, Ambre; Barras, Christine; Lelong, Emmanuelle; Renzoni, Adriana Maria

    2015-01-01

    The development and maintenance of an arsenal of antibiotics is a major health care challenge. Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); however, no reports concerning MRSA ceftaroline susceptibility have been reported in Switzerland. We tested the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against an archived set of 60 MRSA strains from the University Hospital of Geneva collected from 1994 to 2003. Our results surprisingly revealed cef...

  10. CTD data of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program in the North Pacific 100 miles north of Oahu, Hawaii for cruises HOT228-237 during 2011 (NODC Accession 0101727)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The HOT program makes repeated observations of the physics, biology and chemistry at a site approximately 100 km north of Oahu, Hawaii. Two stations are visited...

  11. Procedures for determination of 239,240Pu, 241Am, 237Np, 234,238U, 228,230,232Th, 99Tc and 210Pb-210Po in environmental material

    Since 1987, the Department of Nuclear Safety Research, Risoe National Laboratory has developed procedures for analysis of low-level amounts of radioactivity in large samples of 200 liters seawater, 10 gram sediment, soil and other environmental materials. These analytical procedures provide high chemical yields, good resolution and excellent decontamination factors for large environmental samples analysed by alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedures have been checked through practical analysis work and are used in Norway, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, France and Denmark. (au)

  12. Expressões teóricas dos processos de libertação: novos paradigmas http://dx.doi.org/10.15601/1983-7631/rt.v6n11p213-228

    Manuel Alfonso Díaz Muñoz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O objeto deste artigo é descrever os eixos comuns às três expressões teóricas dos processos de libertação e apontar os novos paradigmas propostos perante os desafios que a contemporaneidade apresenta com a ajuda dos autores mais representativos de cada área: na teologia, Gustavo Gutiérrez; na filosofia, Enrique Dussel; na pedagogia, Paulo Freire. A análise dos novos paradigmas é feita a partir de James Cone (raça e cultura, Wanda Deifelt (gênero, Leonardo Boff (ecologia, Hans Küng (diálogo e paz e Sturla Stalsett (globalização. O resultado é um artigo que pretende fundamentar os pressupostos de uma reflexão teológica/pedagógica libertadora contemporânea.

  13. Protein (Viridiplantae): 357126612 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Full Text Available 24:2780 3398:2780 4447:228 4734:228 38820:228 4479:228 359160:2357 147368:2136 147385:2136 15367:2136 15368:...2136 PREDICTED: random slug protein 5-like Brachypodium distachyon MGSSGGGDAGEGEWLKVAELRAMAEAQDPHVKEVDNMSLRR

  14. Gene : CBRC-PVAM-01-1225 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available 7-228) [Macaca mulatta] 1e-163 90% MAYDRFLAICRPLTYSTRMSQMVQRILVAVSWACAFTNALTHTVAISTLNFCGPNVINHFYCDLPQLFQLSCS...IGCITVTVPAMLGRLLSHTHTISYEACLSQLFFFHLLAGMDCFLLTAMAYDRFLAICRPLTYSTRMSQTVQRILVAVSWACALTNALTHTIALTTLNFCGPNEVNHFY

  15. Genetic and bibliographic information: Gabra4 [GenLibi

    Full Text Available Gabra4 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, subunit alpha 4 mouse Seizures (MeSH) Nervous ... iseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy ... (C10.228.140.490) > Seizures (C10.228.140.490.631) ...

  16. Genetic and bibliographic information: GABRA4 [GenLibi

    Full Text Available tem Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C1...0.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) > Seizures (C10.228.140.490.631) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neu...es (C23.888.592.742) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) 05A0765528 ... ...GABRA4 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 4 human Seizures (MeSH); epilepsy (MeSH) Nervous Sys

  17. Genetic and bibliographic information: P2rx1 [GenLibi

    Full Text Available em Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10....228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) > Seizures (C10.228.140.490.631) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neur...s (C23.888.592.742) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) 05A0765528 ... ...P2rx1 purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 1 rat Seizures (MeSH); epilepsy (MeSH) Nervous Syst

  18. Genetic and bibliographic information: Gabra4 [GenLibi

    Full Text Available Gabra4 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 4 rat Seizures (MeSH); epilepsy (MeSH) Nervous Syste...m Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10....228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) > Seizures (C10.228.140.490.631) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neuro... (C23.888.592.742) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) 05A0765528 ...

  19. Genetic and bibliographic information: CLCN2 [GenLibi

    Full Text Available CLCN2 chloride channel 2 human Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile (MeSH) Nervous System D...iseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228....140.490) > Epilepsies, Myoclonic (C10.228.140.490.250) > Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile (C10.228.140.490.250.670) 05A0446636 ...

  20. Genetic and bibliographic information: CACNB4 [GenLibi

    Full Text Available CACNB4 calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 4 subunit human Myoclonic Epilepsy,... Juvenile (MeSH) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy... (C10.228.140.490) > Epilepsies, Myoclonic (C10.228.140.490.250) > Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile (C10.228.140.490.250.670) 05A0446636 ...

  1. Genetic and bibliographic information: GABRA1 [GenLibi

    Full Text Available GABRA1 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 1 human Myoclonic Epilepsy,... Juvenile (MeSH) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy... (C10.228.140.490) > Epilepsies, Myoclonic (C10.228.140.490.250) > Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile (C10.228.140.490.250.670) 05A0446636 ...

  2. Genetic and bibliographic information: GABRD [GenLibi

    Full Text Available GABRD gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, delta human Myoclonic Epilepsy, Ju...venile (MeSH) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy... (C10.228.140.490) > Epilepsies, Myoclonic (C10.228.140.490.250) > Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile (C10.228.140.490.250.670) 05A0446636 ...

  3. Sorption studies of radioelements on geological materials

    Batch sorption experiments have been carried out to study the sorption of uranium, technetium, curium, neptunium, actinium, protactinium, polonium, americium and plutonium onto bentonite, granodiorite and tuff. Mathematical modelling using the HARPHRQ program and the HATCHES database was carried out to predict the speciation of uranium and technetium in the equilibrated seawater, and neptunium, americium and plutonium in the rock equilibrated water. Review of the literature for thermodynamic data for curium, actinium, protactinium and polonium was carried out. Where sufficient data were available, predictions of the speciation and solubility were made. This report is a summary report of the experimental work conducted by AEA Technology during April 1991-March 1998, and the main results have been presented at Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings and published as proceedings of them. (author)

  4. Investigation for determining the retention properties of rock over the ASSE II mine for dissolved radionuclides

    For a model consideration of groundwater movement and the associated transport of dissolved substance in deep groundwater, the retention properties of the ASSE II mine for radionuclides dissolved in water were determined. A series of properties of rocks were examined and described for this purpose. Apart from the chemical, mineralogical and petrophysical characteristics of the rocks, the retention was determined by 3 different methods and stated in the form of distribution coefficients for specific elements. A comparison of the results of vibration and diffusion experiments gave good agreement, while the results in through column experiments only reached the same order of magnitude after an expensive determination with the aid of a place concentration distribution. The distribution coefficients for the elements carbon, selenium, strontium, technetium, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, proto-actinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium are listed and collected for model rock packages. (orig./HP)

  5. Sorption studies of radioelements on geological materials

    Berry, J. A; 油井 三和; 北村 暁

    2007-01-01

    Batch sorption experiments have been carried out to study the sorption of uranium, technetium, curium, neptunium, actinium, protactinium, polonium, americium and plutonium onto bentonite, granodiorite and tuff. Mathematical modelling using the HARPHRQ program and the HATCHES database was carried out to predict the speciation of uranium and technetium in the equilibrated seawater, and neptunium, americium and plutonium in the rock equilibrated water. Review of the literature for thermodynamic ...

  6. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Boiko R.S.; Barabash A.S.; Belli P.; Bernabei R.; Cappella F.; Cerulli R.; Danevich F.A.; Incicchitti A.; Laubenstein M.; Mokina V.M.; Nisi S.; Poda D.V.; Polischuk O.G.; Tretyak V.I.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search), 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β). The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical an...

  7. LASL experience in decontamination of the environment

    This discussion represents one part of a major effort in soil decontamination at the Los Alamos site. A contaminated industrial waste line in the Los Alamos townsite was removed, and a plutonium incineration facility, and a filter building contaminated with actinium-227 were dismantled. The former plutonium handling facility has been decontaminated, and canyons and an old firing site contaminated with strontium-90 have been surveyed

  8. Study of the origin of elements of the uranium-235 family observed in excess in the vicinity of the experimental nuclear EL4 reactor under dismantling. Lessons got at this day and conclusions; Etude de l'origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes en exces dans les environs du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement. Enseignements retires a ce jour et conclusion

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This study resumes the discovery of an excess of actinium 227 found around by EL4 nuclear reactor actually in dismantling. The search for the origin of this excess revealed a real inquiry of investigation during three years. Because a nuclear reactor existed in this area a particular attention will have concerned this region. The doubt became the line of conduct to find the answer to the human or natural origin of this excess. Finally and against any evidence, it appears that the origin of this phenomenon was natural, consequence of the particular local geology. The detail of the different investigations is given: search of a possible correlation with the composition of elevations constituent of lanes, search (and underlining) of new sites in the surroundings of the Rusquec pond and the Plouenez station, study of the atmospheric deposits under winds of the nuclear power plant and in the east direction, search of a possible relationship with the gaseous effluents of the nuclear power plant in the past, historical study of radioactive effluents releases in the fifty last years by the analysis of the sedimentary deposits in the Saint-Herbiot reservoir, search of a possible correlation between the excess of actinium 227 and the nuclear power plant activity; search of a possible correlation with a human activity without any relationship with the nuclear activities, search of a correlation with the underground waters, search of a correlation with the geological context, collect of information on the possible transfers in direction of the food chain, determination of the radiological composition of the underground waters ( not perturbed by human activity), search of the cause of an excess of actinium 227 in the old channel of liquid effluents release of the nuclear power plant. The results are given and discussed. And contrary to all expectations the origin of the excess of actinium 227 is completely natural. (N.C.)

  9. The discoveries of uranium 237 and symmetric fission — From the archival papers of Nishina and Kimura

    IKEDA, Nagao

    2011-01-01

    Shortly before the Second World War time, Nishina reported on a series of prominent nuclear physical and radiochemical studies in collaboration with Kimura. They artificially produced 231Th, a member of the natural actinium series of nuclides, by bombarding thorium with fast neutrons. This resulted in the discovery of 237U, a new isotope of uranium, by bombarding uranium with fast neutrons, and confirmed that 237U disintegrates into element 93 with a mass number of 237. They also identified t...

  10. History of the unraveling of the natural decay series

    Milestones in the subject of radioactivity, which were important to the unraveling of natural decay series, have been identified and described. The interplay between all these issues is very complex, and some aspects of the development of the uranium series is discussed as an example, the thorium and actinium series evolved in a similar way from research by many of the same people. All three series as understood in 1913 are compared with their present-day representation. (orig.)

  11. History of the unraveling of the natural decay series

    Milestones in the subject of radioactivity, which were important to the unraveling of natural decay series, have been identified and described. The interplay between all these issues is very complex, and some aspects of the development of the uranium series is discussed as an example, the thorium and actinium series evolved in a similar way from research by many of the same people. All three series as understood in 1913 are compared with their present-day representation. (author)

  12. System for recovery of daughter isotopes from a source material

    Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Lewis, Leroy C [Idaho Falls, ID; Henscheid, Joseph P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-04

    A method of separating isotopes from a mixture containing at least two isotopes in a solution is disclosed. A first isotope is precipitated and is collected from the solution. A daughter isotope is generated and collected from the first isotope. The invention includes a method of producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product from a material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232. A solution is formed containing nitric acid and the material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232, and iodate is added to form a thorium iodate precipitate. A supernatant is separated from the thorium iodate precipitate and a second volume of nitric acid is added to the thorium iodate precipitate. The thorium iodate precipitate is stored and a decay product comprising actinium-225 and bismuth-213 is generated in the second volume of nitric acid, which is then separated from the thorium iodate precipitate, filtered, and treated using at least one chromatographic procedure. A system for producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product is also disclosed.

  13. Behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water (Crouzille, Limousin). Geochemical implications

    Understanding natural radionuclides behaviour in surface water is a required step to achieve uranium mine rehabilitation and preserve water quality. The first objective of this thesis is to determine which are the radionuclides sources in a drinking water reservoir. The second objective is to improve the knowledge about the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides, especially actinium. The investigated site is a brook (Sagnes, Limousin, France) which floods a peat bog contaminated by a former uranium mine and which empties into the Crouzille lake. It allows studying radionuclides transport in surface water and radionuclides retention through organic substance or water reservoir. Radionuclides distribution in particulate, colloidal and dissolved phases is determined thanks to ultra-filtrations. Gamma spectrometry allows measuring almost all natural radionuclides with only two counting stages. However, low activities of 235U series radionuclides impose the use of very low background well-type Ge detectors, such as those of the Underground Laboratory of Modane (France). Firstly, this study shows that no or few radionuclides are released by the Sagnes peat bog, although its radioactivity is important. Secondly, it provides details on the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water. More specifically, it provides the first indications of actinium solubility in surface water. Actinium's behaviour is very close to uranium's even if it is a little less soluble. (author)

  14. Genetic and bibliographic information: Acp1 [GenLibi

    Full Text Available Acp1 acid phosphatase 1, soluble rat Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile (MeSH) Nervous System... Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C

  15. 75 FR 54497 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    2010-09-08

    ... Register (FR). Historically, dredged material generated around Guam by the Navy and the Port Authority of... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation AGENCY... for continued use (40 CFR 228.5 and 40 CFR 228.6(a)). General Selection Criteria 1. The dumping...

  16. Genetic and bibliographic information: BRD2 [GenLibi

    Full Text Available BRD2 bromodomain containing 2 human epilepsy ... (MeSH) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nerv ... iseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy ... (C10.228.140.490) 04A0707570 ...

  17. Genetic and bibliographic information: CTSS [GenLibi

    Full Text Available CTSS cathepsin S human Seizures (MeSH); epilepsy (MeSH) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous Syst... Seizures (C10.228.140.490.631) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neurologic Manifestations (C10.597) > Seizur...mptoms (C23.888) > Neurologic Manifestations (C23.888.592) > Seizures (C23.888.592.742) Nervous System Disea...ses (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) 05A0765528 ... ...em Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) >

  18. Genetic and bibliographic information: Egr3 [GenLibi

    Full Text Available Egr3 early growth response 3 rat Seizures (MeSH); epilepsy (MeSH) Nervous System Di...seases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228....140.490) > Seizures (C10.228.140.490.631) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neurologic Manifestations (C10.597...gns and Symptoms (C23.888) > Neurologic Manifestations (C23.888.592) > Seizures (C23.888.592.742) Nervous System... Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) 05A0765528 ...

  19. European Federation of Neurological Societies Peripheral Nerve Society guideline on management of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Peripheral Nerve Society (Reprinted from Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System, vol 10, pg 220-228, 2005)

    R.A.C. Hughes; P. Bouche; D.R. Cornblath; E. Evers; R.D.M. Hadden; A. Hahn; I. Illa; C.L. Koski; J.M. Leger; E. Nobile-Orazio; J. Pollard; C. Sommer; P. van den Bergh; P.A. van Doorn; I.N. van Schaik; M.M. Mehndiratta; R. Hughes; J.B. Winer; R. de Haan; M. Vermeulen; P. Agarwal

    2006-01-01

    Numerous sets of diagnostic criteria have sought to define chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and randomized trials and systematic reviews of treatment have been published. The objective is to prepare consensus guidelines on the definition, investigation and treatment o

  20. Marine geology of the Gulf of California : Tj. H. van Andel and G. G. Shor Jr. (editors). American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Okla., memoir 3, 1964, 408 pp., 228 illus., 52 tables, 1 separate cover with 6 charts, $ 12.50

    Bouma, Arnold H.

    1965-01-01

    That an investigation of a certain area made by one or a few scientists can never result in a complete paper is clearly demonstrated by this magnificent book. The combined program for study of the Gulf of California by all available methods, such as geology, oceanography, marine geology, geophysics

  1. Academics are Reading More Electronic Journal Articles in More Subjects, Using Varying Strategies to Find and Manage Them. A Review of: Ollé, C., & Borrego, Á. (2010). A qualitative study of the impact of electronic journals on scholarlyinformation behavior. Library & Information Science Research, 32(3), 221-228.

    Christina E. Carter

    2010-01-01

    Objective – To assess how the increase in number of electronic journals available to academic scholars has changed their information-seeking or consulting behaviour, with respect to 1) the amount and diversity of sources they read; 2) strategies they use to keep up-to-date in their fields; 3) use of personalized information services; 4) determining the value and relevance of articles; and 5) personal management of scientific information. This study is a follow-up to an earlier quantitative st...

  2. Academics are Reading More Electronic Journal Articles in More Subjects, Using Varying Strategies to Find and Manage Them. A Review of: Ollé, C., & Borrego, Á. (2010. A qualitative study of the impact of electronic journals on scholarlyinformation behavior. Library & Information Science Research, 32(3, 221-228.

    Christina E. Carter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess how the increase in number of electronic journals available to academic scholars has changed their information-seeking or consulting behaviour, with respect to 1 the amount and diversity of sources they read; 2 strategies they use to keep up-to-date in their fields; 3 use of personalized information services; 4 determining the value and relevance of articles; and 5 personal management of scientific information. This study is a follow-up to an earlier quantitative study (Borrego, Anglada, Barrios, & Comellas, 2007 in the same setting.Design – Qualitative, using an open-ended questionnaire, followed by personal interviews of a small group of the respondents.Setting – Universities that are members of the Consortium of Academic Libraries of Catalonia (CBUC, which is made up of the eight public Catalan universities and the National Library of Catalonia, Spain.Subjects – One hundred thirty-seven scholars from the member universities of diverse ages and disciplines. Eleven of these academics were selected for personal interviews.Methods – The authors used a two-staged approach to gather comments from researchers on their use of electronic journals. First, an open-ended, self-administered questionnaire (with some pre-testing donewas sent by e-mail to some 490 academics who had provided e-mail addresses in the quantitative study; 137 were returned and analyzed. Personal interviews were then conducted with 11 scholars who had given the most detailed answers in the questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 28 to 67; each was from a different discipline, and from six of the universities.Informed consent sheets (describing the study and guaranteeing anonymity were given to the 11 interviewees. Personal interviews were conducted in the subjects’ offices by one of the authors, and lasted between 45-60 minutes. In the interview stage, the authors wanted to examine: use and assessment of the library, access to electronic information, and impact of e-resources on information behaviour. Subjects were also asked to provide three suggestions on improving access to scientific information.Main Results – The amount of reading and number of electronic journals and other sources consulted among the scholars who participated in this study has increased. Three-quarters of survey respondents consult more journals and read more articles. The scholars reported that they are grateful for the increase in electronic information and its enhanced ease of access, and are not overwhelmed by it. Their reading has become more discriminatory, though, with many reporting “skimming” much of what they read to save time. Scholars keep up-to-date in three main ways: web browsing of journal issues, library database searches, and TOC e-mail alerts. More than 90% of survey respondents reported conducting database searches. Google and Google Scholar were often mentioned ahead of specific library database names. In determining value and relevance of an article, its author and abstract are key for scholars. In addition, personal information management techniques used by scholars were all over the board. The three main methods were use of print or electronic folders, reference management software, and no system. Many of the academics felt their information management systems were “rudimentary” (p. 225.The request for suggestions and comments on the questionnaire was not answered by “most of the sample” (p. 226. Those who did respond to this request asked for more library resources. The main complaint expressed by scholars concerned the difficulty and complexity of finding journal article content using the Library website (e.g., varying databases, difficulty of interpreting what journal electronic and print holdings are available. Because of this, a number of scholars used Google to find library-subscribed content.Conclusion – By having greater and easier access to e-journals, scholars accessing the CBUC read more articles from more disciplines. Scholars would prefer a simpler library interface to search for online content. Due to the complexity of finding article content, they use web search tools like Google and Google Scholar to get to what they need faster. The authors of this study believe research should be conducted on the use of the Consortium’s metasearch tool to reduce the complexity. Research should also be conducted on value-added features of search interfaces for particular disciplines.

  3. Elementary, Middle, and High School Students Vary in Frequency and Purpose When Using Online Digital References. A review of: Silverstein, Joanne. “Just Curious: Children’s Use of Digital Reference for Unimposed Queries and Its Importance in Informal Education.” Library Trends 54.2 (Fall 2005): 228‐44.

    Julie Stephens

    2006-01-01

    Objective – To determine 1) how and with what frequency children use digital references to answer their own unimposed questions; 2) whether digital reference services support their self‐initiated learning; 3) whether digital reference services support the transfer of student motivation and curiosity from the formal to the informal; and 4) what instructional and software designers should consider in creating tools that support learning.Design – Inductive analysis.Setting – Virtual Reference De...

  4. Elementary, Middle, and High School Students Vary in Frequency and Purpose When Using Online Digital References. A review of: Silverstein, Joanne. “Just Curious: Children’s Use of Digital Reference for Unimposed Queries and Its Importance in Informal Education.” Library Trends 54.2 (Fall 2005: 228‐44.

    Julie Stephens

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine 1 how and with what frequency children use digital references to answer their own unimposed questions; 2 whether digital reference services support their self‐initiated learning; 3 whether digital reference services support the transfer of student motivation and curiosity from the formal to the informal; and 4 what instructional and software designers should consider in creating tools that support learning.Design – Inductive analysis.Setting – Virtual Reference Desk’s (VRD Learning Center (http://vrd.askvrd.org/ and the National Science Foundation’s (NSFdigital reference service (http://www.esteme.org during Excellence in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education Week (ESTEME, April 11‐16, 2005.Subjects – Elementary (K‐5, middle (6‐8,and high school (9‐12 students from the general public. One hundred fourteen questions were analyzed, however there is no indication of the number of different students who submitted the questions.Methods – This study was conducted using a pool of 600 questions from students, teachers, parents, and the general public that were submitted to two digital reference services intended for students. Three hundred experts in the fields of Math and Science volunteered to answer the submitted questions during Excellence in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education Week. Because the digital services employed a pull‐down menu to describe the user as a student, teacher, parent, etc., the questions could be narrowed to those submitted by students. The questions were also narrowed to those marked as “just curious” from a question purpose menu that contained categories including “written report,” “science fair project,” and “just curious.” A total of 114 unique questions from elementary, middle, and high school students were analyzed to determine the study objectives. The 114 questions were loaded into a qualitative software application (HyperResearch for inductive analysis. Questions from students were coded as elementary, middle, or high school and only those questions derived from students’ self‐initiated interests were analyzed.Main results – Analysis revealed that elementary students submitted a large portion of the questions. Middle school students asked the most questions, of which some questions were compound (more than one question in a given query. Older students submitted the least amount of questions. an unanticipated finding was that students’ grade levels correlated to the foci of their queries, which regarded “My Life,” “My Stuff,” “Other People,” “The World,”“The Universe,” or “Abstract Thought.” High school students were interested in the narrowest foci pertaining to their immediate circumstance rather than the larger topics of other people, the world, and the universe.T he majority of middle school students were interested in abstract concepts, and 45% of elementary school students’ queries were about how the world works. Although this study was not longitudinal, results suggest that student curiosity may shift over time. Results also indicated that younger children demonstrated interests outside the classroom that were related to formal learning previously introduced within the classroom. This carry over of interest declined in upper grades. Queries that were unimposed but related to an academic subject such as science or social studies were most evident in questions submitted by elementary students, while questions dealing more with career planning, health, death, and anxiety were most frequently addressed by middle school students. The findings also indicated that the use of digital reference services is at its highest in elementary school, peaks in middle school, and falls drastically in high school.Conclusion – 1 How and with what frequency do children use digital reference services to answer their own unimposed questions? The results of this study revealed a trend on the frequency and purpose of use of digital references when seeking answers to self‐initiated questions. Elementary students tend to use the digital reference services more often and for answers to questions that may be related to classroom curriculum. Middle school students utilize digital references to look for information pertaining to careers, health and welfare, death and anxiety. High school students submitted questions pertaining to their immediate circumstances (“My Life and My World” rather than focusing on others. 2Do digital reference services support self initiated learning? Of the original 2,258q uestions submitted, 13% were considered “informal.” These findings indicate that digital reference services support self initiated learning. 3 Could digital reference services support the transfer of student motivation and curiosity from formal to informal education and learning? The frequency of questions from elementary students that were coded as “Curriculum Related Interest” leads one to conclude that digital reference services can indeed support the transfer of student interest from formal to informal education. 4 What should instructional and software designers consider when creating tools that support the notion of transformed education and learning? Although it is impossible to actually know the nature of the difficulties experienced by users, duplicate questions from the same user were received by the reference services, which suggests that theu ser may be experiencing difficulty with the software or that the software may actually be malfunctioning during usage. Compound questions were also frequently submitted. Software designers should take note of these findings to design services that are age appropriate,especially regarding the type of questions each age group tends to ask, and that support the needs of elementary, middle, and high school students. Software designers should perhaps even consult with students who use these services during the design process.

  5. Reply to the comment of Mitchell et al. on "Geomorpho-tectonic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend" by L. Domínguez-González, L. Andreani, K.P. Stanek and R. Gloaguen [Geomorphology, 228 (2015) 320-334

    Domínguez-González, Leomaris; Andreani, Louis; Stanek, Klaus P.; Gloaguen, Richard

    2016-06-01

    We reply to the comments of Mitchell et al. on our paper entitled "Geomorpho-tectonic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend". The comments contain statements about the methods that need to be balanced. We agree that the interpretation of the modeled drainage network in some karstified parts of the Jamaican island is difficult, but this does not affect the validity of our analysis elsewhere. We consider that our geomorphic analyses (which also include topographic profiles and morphometric maps) are still valid. The view expressed by Mitchell et al. that we used serially developed landscapes to 'date' progressive uplift is an oversimplification of our discussion. We highlighted the differences between the geomorpho-tectonic provinces of Jamaica, and we proposed to explain these differences by a model which involves (1) a westward propagation of the restraining bend and (2) a difference in tectonic styles between the different provinces of Jamaica. Our interpretation does not contradict existing models based on seismotectonic data, provenance analysis or on the origin of Jamaican bauxite. There is a disagreement between James-Williamson et al. (2014), which suggested that central Jamaica was already being uplifted by the end of the Late Miocene, and Domínguez-González et al. (2015), which proposed a Pliocene to present onset of the NE-trending compression toward the SW. However, the timing of the deformation in central and western Jamaica is still poorly constrained and, at this time, any interpretation of the uplift history of central Jamaica should be considered as hypothetical.

  6. Amossy, R. (2010; La présentation de soi. Ethos et identité verbale. París: PUF. 228 pp. ISBN: 978-2-13-058095-9. Collection « L´interrogation philosophique », dirigée par Michel Meyer.

    Paulina BettendorffU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La Présentation de soi. Ethos et identité verbale, el más reciente libro de Ruth Amossy, profesora emérita de la Universidad de Tel Aviv, especialista en el área de estudios franceses, se presenta como una continuación de investigaciones y propuestas teóricas que llevan ya más de una década de desarrollo. Si bien sus textos han encontrado un espacio de lectura en determinado ámbito académico argentino, la falta de traducciones, con la excepción de Estereotipos y clichés, escrito en conjunto con Anne Herschberg Pierrot —en el que, por otra parte, no hay una exposición específica de la mencionada teoría—, reclama un informe, una “rendición de cuentas” en español de sus propuestas, ya que estas abren posibles caminos de investigación sobre la subjetividad, importantes no sólo dentro del área del Análisis del Discurso o la Retórica, sino también de la Sociología, la Teoría literaria y la Historia.

  7. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  8. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO2 as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with 231Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise

  9. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  10. Evidence for a Dual Role of an Active Site Histidine in [alpha]-Amino-[beta]-carboxymuconate-[epsilon]-semialdehyde Decarboxylase

    Huo, Lu; Fielding, Andrew J.; Chen, Yan; Li, Tingfeng; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Hosler, Jonathan P.; Chen, Lirong; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Que, Jr., Lawrence; Liu, Aimin (GSU); (Kansai); (UMMC); (UMM)

    2012-10-09

    The previously reported crystal structures of {alpha}-amino-{beta}-carboxymuconate-{epsilon}-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) show a five-coordinate Zn(II)(His){sub 3}(Asp)(OH{sub 2}) active site. The water ligand is H-bonded to a conserved His228 residue adjacent to the metal center in ACMSD from Pseudomonas fluorescens (PfACMSD). Site-directed mutagenesis of His228 to tyrosine and glycine in this study results in a complete or significant loss of activity. Metal analysis shows that H228Y and H228G contain iron rather than zinc, indicating that this residue plays a role in the metal selectivity of the protein. As-isolated H228Y displays a blue color, which is not seen in wild-type ACMSD. Quinone staining and resonance Raman analyses indicate that the blue color originates from Fe(III)-tyrosinate ligand-to-metal charge transfer. Co(II)-substituted H228Y ACMSD is brown in color and exhibits an electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum showing a high-spin Co(II) center with a well-resolved {sup 59}Co (I = 7/2) eight-line hyperfine splitting pattern. The X-ray crystal structures of as-isolated Fe-H228Y (2.8 {angstrom}) and Co-substituted (2.4 {angstrom}) and Zn-substituted H228Y (2.0 {angstrom} resolution) support the spectroscopic assignment of metal ligation of the Tyr228 residue. The crystal structure of Zn-H228G (2.6 {angstrom}) was also determined. These four structures show that the water ligand present in WT Zn-ACMSD is either missing (Fe-H228Y, Co-H228Y, and Zn-H228G) or disrupted (Zn-H228Y) in response to the His228 mutation. Together, these results highlight the importance of His228 for PfACMSD's metal specificity as well as maintaining a water molecule as a ligand of the metal center. His228 is thus proposed to play a role in activating the metal-bound water ligand for subsequent nucleophilic attack on the substrate.

  11. Genetic and bibliographic information: EGR3 [GenLibi

    Full Text Available EGR3 early growth response 3 human Seizures (MeSH); epilepsy (MeSH) Nervous System ...Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.22...8.140.490) > Seizures (C10.228.140.490.631) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neurologic Manifestations (C10.5...Signs and Symptoms (C23.888) > Neurologic Manifestations (C23.888.592) > Seizures (C23.888.592.742) Nervous System... Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) 05A0765528 ...

  12. Rapid determination of 226Ra in environmental samples

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.

    2012-02-04

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in natural water samples has been developed at the SRNL/EBL (Savannah River National Lab/ Environmental Bioassay Laboratory) that can be used for emergency response or routine samples. While gamma spectrometry can be employed with sufficient detection limits to determine {sup 228}Ra in solid samples (via {sup 228}Ac) , radiochemical methods that employ gas flow proportional counting techniques typically provide lower MDA (Minimal Detectable Activity) levels for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in water samples. Most radiochemical methods for {sup 228}Ra collect and purify {sup 228}Ra and allow for {sup 228}Ac daughter ingrowth for ~36 hours. In this new SRNL/EBL approach, {sup 228}Ac is collected and purified from the water sample without waiting to eliminate this delay. The sample preparation requires only about 4 hours so that {sup 228}Ra assay results on water samples can be achieved in < 6 hours. The method uses a rapid calcium carbonate precipitation enhanced with a small amount of phosphate added to enhance chemical yields (typically >90%), followed by rapid cation exchange removal of calcium. Lead, bismuth, uranium, thorium and protactinium isotopes are also removed by the cation exchange separation. {sup 228}Ac is eluted from the cation resin directly onto a DGA Resin cartridge attached to the bottom of the cation column to purify {sup 228}Ac. DGA Resin also removes lead and bismuth isotopes, along with Sr isotopes and {sup 90}Y. La is used to determine {sup 228}Ac chemical yield via ICP-MS, but {sup 133}Ba can also be used instead if ICP-MS assay is not available. Unlike some older methods, no lead or strontium holdback carriers or continual readjustment of sample pH is required.

  13. Genetic and bibliographic information: ASAH1 [GenLibi

    Full Text Available ASAH1 N-acylsphingosine amidohydrolase (acid ceramidase) 1 human Farber lipogranulomatosis (MeSH ... C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain ... Diseases (C10.228.140) > Brain ... Diseases, Metabolic ... (C10.228.140.163) > Brain ... Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn (C10.228.140.163.100) ... 6.320) > Metabolism, Inborn Errors (C16.320.565) > Brain ... Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn (C16.320.565.189) > Ly ... ic Diseases (C18) > Metabolic Diseases (C18.452) > Brain ... Diseases, Metabolic (C18.452.132) > Brain ... Diseases ...

  14. Mixed valency of the RE and Ac ions in solid states

    Full text: This review is devoted to consideration of the methods and results of the theoretical and experimental investigations of the electronic state of the rare earths and actinium ions in the separate compound. The methods of the high resolution X ray spectroscopy were used for our consideration. Energy of the X ray lines of the rare earths and actinium ions in free state and solid states was study carefully. Valency shifts of X Ray lines under change of electronic state of nf - ions in different oxide, fluoride and chloride compounds were determined for K -, L- and M - lines for these ions with accuracy near 10 -100 MeV. We studied the electronic state of nf- ions which is changed from '+2' to '+4' and determined the concentration of ions in different electronic state. Relative error for theoretical energy of the most lines for HFP - approach in comparison with experiment is less than 0.5%, and deviation for concentration is less than 5%

  15. A study of uranium and thorium migration at the Koongarra uranium deposit with application to actinide transport from nuclear waste repositories

    One way to gain confidence in modelling possible radionuclide releases is to study natural systems which are similar to components of the multibarrier waste repository. Several such analogues are currently under study and these provide useful data about radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment. One such system is the Koongarra uranium deposit in the Northern Territory. In this dissertation, the migration of actinides, primarily uranium and thorium, has been studied as an analogue for the behaviour of transuranics in the far-field of a waste repository. The major findings of this study are: 1. the main process retarding uranium migration in the dispersion fan at Koongarra is sorption, which suppresses dissolved uranium concentrations well below solubility limits, with ferrihydrite being a major sorbing phase; 2. thorium is extremely immobile, with very low dissolved concentrations and corresponding high distribution ratios for 230Th. Overall, it is estimated that colloids are relatively unimportant in Koongarra groundwater. Uranium migrates mostly as dissolved species, whereas thorium and actinium are mostly adsorbed to larger, relatively immobile particles and the stationary phase. However, of the small amount of 230Th that passes through a 1μm filter, a significant proportion is associated with colloidal particles. Actinium appears to be slightly more mobile than thorium and is associated with colloids to a greater extent, although generally present in low concentrations. These results support the possibility of colloidal transport of trivalent and tetravalent actinides in the vicinity of a nuclear waste repository. 112 refs., 23 tabs., 32 figs

  16. Low background counting of 222Rn, 220Rn and 219Rn with electrostatic counters

    Mong, Brian; EXO-200 Collaboration; nEXO Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. Supported by NSERC Project Grants ``Search for Double Beta Decay with EXO.''

  17. Measurement of nuclides of uranium and thorium series of disequilibrium using γ-spectroscopy

    刘广山; 黄奕普; 李静; 叶林

    2002-01-01

    The decay dynamic equations of two daughters were resolved as initial activities of daughters are not zero, and gave calculation formula of activities for measuring uranium and thorium series of disequilibrium using γ-spectroscopy. 238U, 234Th, 226Ra, 222Rn, 228Ra, 228Th, 224Ra, 212pb, 210pb and 40K in two sediment samples were determined as application.

  18. 77 FR 26703 - Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a...

    2012-05-07

    ... authority. See 77 FR 24416. In preparing that final ] rule for publication, three errors were made as... 24, 2012. See 77 FR 24416. FRA failed to account for an October 31, 2011 amendment to 49 CFR part 228... removed and reserved Sec. 228.21. See 76 FR 67073, 67087-88. In preparing the April 24, 2012, final...

  19. Genetic and bibliographic information: BBS5 [GenLibi

    Full Text Available BBS5 Bardet-Biedl syndrome 5 human Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (MeSH) Nervous System Dise...s (C10.228.140.617) > Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (C10.228.140.617.200) Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Disea... Multiple (C16.131.077) > Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (C16.131.077.112) 99A0284114 ...

  20. Drug: D08327 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available regation inhibitor thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase inhibitor [HSA:6916] [KO:K01832] ...D08327 Drug Ozagrel (INN); Cataclot (TN) C13H12N2O2 228.0899 228.2466 D08327.gif Anticoagulant, platelet agg

  1. National survey on the natural radioactivity and Rn-222 exhalation rate of building materials in the Netherlands

    de Jong, P.; van Dijk, W.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Groot, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports on results of a nationwide survey on the natural radioactivity concentrations and Rn-222 exhalation rates of the prevailing building materials in the Netherlands. In total 100 samples were taken and analyzed for the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, and K-4

  2. AcEST: DK958578 [AcEST

    Full Text Available A0S7R2_ONCHC Class III peroxidase OS=Oncidium Gower Ra... 228 4e-58 tr|A5AGY5|A5A...>tr|A0S7R2|A0S7R2_ONCHC Class III peroxidase OS=Oncidium Gower Ramsey PE=2 SV=1 Length = 332 Score = 228 bit

  3. 75 FR 33747 - Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final Rule for...

    2010-06-15

    ...) at 71 FR 27396 (May 11, 2006). The EPA is also restoring the coordinates for Site H at 40 CFR 228.15... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final... Final Rule for the Ocean Dumping; De-designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site and...

  4. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-CELE-05-0636 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-CELE-05-0636 gnl|UG|Cel#S5785392 Caenorhabditis elegans Serpentine Receptor, c...lass H family member (srh-228) (srh-228) mRNA, complete cds /cds=p(1,1011) /gb=NM_070545 /gi=17539061 /ug=Cel.32645 /len=1011 2e-50 35% ...

  5. 78 FR 31941 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    2013-05-28

    ... Foster Parent Study 1 228 .1 23 Contact Form DCFS Foster Parent Interview........ 228 2 .75 342 DCFS... youth who are at risk for long- term foster care and who experience the most serious barriers to timely... remain in foster care for 3 years or longer. In addition, evaluation plans were developed to...

  6. Preface to the injection tables

    Twelve groups of dogs received intravenous injections of various doses of 226Ra, 239Pu, 228Ra, 228Th, 90Sr, 241Am, 249Cf, or 252Cf at approximately 17 months of age. The animals were euthanized when death appeared imminent. Data are presented on the calculated radiation dose to the skeleton and pathological changes observed at autopsy

  7. Genetic and bibliographic information: PLEKHG4 [GenLibi

    Full Text Available PLEKHG4 pleckstrin homology domain containing, family G (with RhoGef domain) member 4 human Auto ... somal dominant cerebellar ataxia ; Cerebellar Ataxia ... (MeSH) Nervous System Diseases ... Cerebellar Diseases (C10.228.140.252) > Cerebellar Ataxia ... (C10.228.140.252.190) Nervous System Diseases (C10 ...

  8. AcEST: DK954188 [AcEST

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0019_M13 564 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0019_M13. 5' end seq ... A2R961|A2R961_ASPNC Similarity to many A. thaliana patent ... EST... 47 2e-08 tr|A4R228|A4R228_MAGGR Putative un ...

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05782-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available gagaatttcaaattagattaatagaattaggattantagagaaaacaaataa 522 |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||...||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 463 gatttatagagaatttcaaattagattaatagaattaggattantagagaaaacaaataa 522 Query: 523 aattacattaan...ig/Contig-U05782-1Q.Seq.d (630 letters) Database: CSM 6905 sequences; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequences producing significan...core = 410 bits (207), Expect = e-115 Identities = 228/228 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 403 gtaaatcattagcatcttcactttatttaata...nttcagaatttgaaaataacaatacaacatttaaatcantatcaattc 582 |||||

  10. Nuclear analytical techniques used in water quality control

    The present work describes the methodologies used for total α and β analysis, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, 228 Th, 230 Th, 40 K, U and Th, and those ones used for precision and accuracy of the Environmental Monitoring Program under execution in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  11. Azido analogs of neuroactive steroids

    Černý, Ivan; Vidrna, Lukáš; Pouzar, Vladimír; Borovská, Jiřina; Vyklický, Vojtěch; Chodounská, Hana; Vyklický ml., Ladislav

    Chicago : -, 2011. P2.28-P2.28. [Congress on Steroid Research. 27.03.2011-29.03.2011, Chicago] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NS10365 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neuroactive steroids * NMDA receptor * steroid azide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  12. Low Response Rate and Other Factors Render Academic Health Science Library System Study Ungeneralizable. A Review of: Folb, B. L., Wessel, C. B., & Czechowski, L. J. (2011. Clinical and academic use of electronic and print books: The Health Sciences Library System e-book study at the University of Pittsburgh. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 99(3, 218-228. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.99.3.009

    Maria Melssen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine the factors, barriersand facilitators, preference, and intended useof e-book compared to print book usage by allpatrons in a health science library system,which serves a university with health sciencedegree programs and a hospital system.Design – Two online surveys.Setting – University of Pittsburgh HealthSciences Library System, which includes theUniversity of Pittsburgh’s six schools of healthsciences (medicine, dental medicine, nursing,pharmacy, public health, and rehabilitationand the University of Pittsburgh MedicalCenter hospitals and programs.Subjects – All health sciences library systemusrers, including faculty, researchers, clinicians,residents, fellows, employees, and students.Methods – Two versions of the survey weredeployed in 2009 using Opinio. There were 46questions for the University of PittsburghMedical Center (UPMC survey and 47questions for the University of Pittsburgh (Pittsurvey. The surveys were pilot tested byHealth Sciences Library System (HSLSlibrarians and graduate students in a surveymethods class. The survey was edited based onthe feedback provided and receivedinstitutional review board approval as anexempt study.A total of 5,292 email addresses wererandomly selected by SPSS from a pool of 9,472 UPMC and Pitt patrons registered with a HSLS remote access password; 2,684 patrons from UPMC and 2,608 patrons from Pitt were selected. HSLS librarians were excluded from the survey. Participants were emailed a link to the survey in March of 2009. Three email reminders were sent at five day intervals. Data was collected for 22 days and exported from Opinio to SPSS statistics software. Survey results were analyzed using basic descriptive statistics and cross-tabulations.Main Results – Of the 5,292 emails sent, 979 surveys were submitted and 871 were completed fully. The 108 partially completed the surveys were analyzed using pair wise deletion. All HSLS user groups were represented and all rated their confidence in computer skills high. The mean age of respondents was 39.9 with the majority of respondents being female.Of the 871 completed surveys, over half (55.4% of the respondents reported using HSLS e-books: 66.7% men and 54.9% women. HSLS e-books were used for in-depth reading by 53.4% of men and 36.8% of women. At UPMC, 70% of attending physicians, interns, residents, fellows, and Pitt postdoctoral/fellows use HSLS e-books. The primary use of the e-books was for clinical care, by 75.3% of attending physicians; 86% of interns, residents, and fellows; and 38.9% of nurses. HSLS e-books are also used by 61.8% of respiratory care and physical therapists, 28.6% of administrators, and 56.8% of researchers.At Pitt, 73% of postdoctoral students or fellows and 64.7% of faculty used HSLS e-books. The primary use of the e-books was to support research. 76.5% of postdoctoral students and fellows and 54.1% of faculty used e-books for this purpose. Only 21.3% of faculty assigned e-books for class readings. Though 14% of undergraduate and 33.5% of medical students responded that they had been assigned readings from e-books, 51% of undergraduates and 62.1% of graduate and medical students used an e-book to complete an assignment.Over half (65.5% of respondents saw information about HSLS e-books on the HSLS website and 55.4% of respondents used an HSLS e-book. When using an e-book, 56.6% look up brief, factual information while 41.9% use e-books for in-depth study.Uses of HSLS e-book search tools were rated: the federated full text search tool was used by 67.2% of respondents and 74.3% of those who use this tool rated it as moderately to extremely useful. Google books and the library catalog were also rated moderately to extremely useful by respondents. The catalog received the lowest rating of the HSLS e-book search tools.More respondents (95.4% use the library’s website than come to the physical library (63.8%; however, 66.9% say they use both the website and physical library. Of the 63.8% of respondents who came to one of the HSLS libraries, 67.2% borrowed or used a HSLS print book. When using a book at the library, 23.4% only use print, 14.8% only use e-books, 44.7% use both, and 17.1% use neither. Fewer respondents (46.4% agreed or completely agreed they could locate an e-book compared to those who agreed or completely agreed they could locate a print book (66.7%.Nearly half (45.3% agreed that both HSLS e-books and print books were accessible where they needed to use them; however, only 27.9% agreed or completely agreed that they had time to go to the library and use a print book when they needed it. The closer a respondent worked to the library the more likely they used the physical library. Those also within one block of the library were greater users of HSLS e-books (67% of respondents than those who worked more than two blocks from the library (52.3% of respondents. When respondents did come to the library, 84.3% used a HSLS print book in the past year and 64.7% used an HSLS e-book. Of the respondents who did not have time to come to the library, 55.3% used a HSLS print book and 55.3% used a HSLS e-book.When using e-books, respondents preferred such features as printing, saving, and searching over features such as bookmarking, highlighting, and annotating. Respondents also preferred e-books for general reference and pharmaceutical reference, and print books for textbooks and handbooks. A finding of significance is that “those preferring print were more flexible about using e-books than those preferring e-books were about using print” (p. 224.Conclusion – HSLS e-book use varied depending on the respondent’s role at their institution (e.g., clinical physician, researcher and type of book (e.g., reference book they used. The heaviest HSLS e-book users were students, postdoctoral fellows, researchers, and clinical physicians. Respondents who used HSLS e-books most often were also those who used print books most often, and respondents within one block of the library were some of the heaviest HSLS e-book users. Respondents felt that reference and pharmaceutical books were more suitable as e-books. Also of note was that though faculty were not using e-books heavily for assigned readings, students were using HSLS e-books to complete assignments.The greatest drive to choosing between a print and e-book was the respondent’s information need and which book format was most convenient to access at that time. Respondents were flexible in their use of print books and e-books: respondents “would be willing to use a less preferred format if it were more convenient at the time of need” (p.226. In light of respondents’ flexibility between e-book and print book usage, the authors suggest that collection development librarians could reduce the duplication of book formats.Regarding awareness of e-books, survey results from this study were comparable to that of other studies. Also, the respondent’s comments indicate that the survey itself prompted e-book awareness: respondents felt that more advertising of e-books should be done. Such responses show that passive advertisement of e-books though the library’s catalog and on the website are not enough. E-books should be advertised during library instructional sessions.Respondents also prefer Web access to HSLS e-books as well as the HSLS federated e-book search rather than to access HSLS e-books from the library catalog. The authors’ recommendation is to make sure users can easily access e-book catalog records through the Web in order to best facilitate patrons’ use of e-books.Despite the conclusions that were drawn, there were several limitations of this study. Though the sample size was large enough and all HSLS users were included, the response rate was very low. Bias could be an issue as well: non-response bias as well as an overestimation of the number of HSLS e-book users could be contributing factors to the low response rate. In addition to the small sample size and possible bias, the lack of completed responses (11% was also a concern. Finally, respondents expressed confusion over how “e-books” were defined in the survey. Because of these issues, results of this survey may not be generalizable to other libraries.

  13. Isotope disequilibria 4n series in the Morro do Ferro System, Pocos de Caldas (MG)

    Thorium isotopic analyses were performed on well spoils of the main ore body at Morro do Ferro, Pocos de Caldas (MG), on groundwaters from several boreholes in the area and surface waters from a stream that originates at the base of the hill. For extraction of thorium a long chemical process was applied to samples; activities of Th-228 and Th-232 isotopes (4n series) were determined by alpha spectrometry method. The rations Th-228/Th-232 determined for well spoils did not show marked disequilibria between these isotopes. In ground and surface waters, the ratios Th-228/Th-232 showed marked isotopic fractionation between these nuclides, not related to selective leaching of Th-228 in relation to Th-232 or recoil of Th-228 nucleons. (author)

  14. Measurement of radium in hokutolite from Tamagawa hot spring

    The concentrations of radium isotopes and the progenies (226Ra, 228Ra and 228Th) in three hokutolite samples from Tamagawa hot spring were measured. These isotopes were analyzed by a well-type HPGe γ-ray spectrometer for the 351, 609, 911 and 583 keV γ-ray from 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac and 208Tl, respectively, each being in radioactive equilibrium with precursors. The 226Ra concentrations are in the range of 50-85 Bq/g, being higher in the lower layer. The 228Ra concentrations are in the range of 7.1-263 Bq/g, being higher in the upper layer. The activity ratios of 228Ra/226Ra provided the estimation of the growth rate (0.06-0.15 mm/y). These estimated growth rate were correlated with SO42- concentration in Tamagawa hot spring water. (author)

  15. Investigation on the Oral Health Status of Heroin Addicts in the Drug Addiction Treatment Center in Nanning,Guangxi%广西南宁市某戒毒所海洛因依赖者口腔健康状况调查分析

    梁登忠; 何克新; 梁纲; 李飞; 文春媚; 高碧云; 雷月娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the oral health status of heroin addicts in the Drug Addiction Treatment Center in Nanning,and to provide reference of the prevention plan. Methods Oral examination was done in 228 heroin addicts and the data were analyzed according to requirement of the Third National Oral Health Epidemiological Survey. Results Of the 228 heroin addicts,the incidences of caries,gums bleeding,dental calculus,periodontal pocket,periodontal attachment loss and oral mucosal disease were 66. 67%( 152/228 ),82.46%( 188/228 ),100%( 228/228 ),82.01%( 187/228 ),41. 23% ( 94/228 ) and 18. 86% ( 43/228 ), respectively. The incidences of gums bleeding and periodontal attachment loss of the subjects aged from 18 to 34 were lower than those of the subjects aged from 35 to 56( P 3 years,the incidences of gums bleeding,the periodontal pocket and periodontal attachment loss of the subjects whose duration of drug addiction ≤3 years were significantly lower( P < 0. 05 ). The incidences of periodontal attachment loss of the subjects with the education level of primary school or lower education were significantly lower than those of the subjects with the education level of junior school or either high school or higher education( P all <0.05 ). Conclusion For the oral health status of heroin addicts is related with age,duration of drug addiction and education level, oral health education should be strengthened to improve their life quality.%目的 调查海洛因依赖者口腔健康情况,为制定防治计划提供依据.方法 按照第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查的要求,对南宁市某戒毒所228名海洛因依赖者进行口腔检查.结果 228名海洛因依赖者中龋病、牙龈出血、牙结石、牙周袋、牙周附着丧失、口腔黏膜病的检出率分别为66.67%(152/228),82.46%(188/228)、100.00%(228/228)、82.01%(187/228)、41.23%(94/228)、18.86%(43/228);18~34岁年龄段牙龈出血、牙周附着丧失的检出率低于35~56

  16. Estimation of growth rate of Hokutolite from Tamagawa Hot-Spring, Akita, Japan

    Concentrations of radium isotopes and the progenies (226Ra, 228Ra and 228Th) in three hokutolite samples and the hot-spring water from Tamagawa hot-spring were measured. These isotopes were analyzed by a well-type HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer for the 351, 609, 911 and 583 keV gamma-rays from 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac and 208Tl, respectively, each being in radioactive equilibrium with precursors. Radium-226 concentrations of hokutolite were in the range of 50-85 Bq/g, being higher in the lower layer, and 228R concentrations were in the range of 7.1-263 Bq/g, being higher in the upper layer. The activity ratios of 228Ra/226Ra provided the estimation o the growth rate of hokutolite (0.06-0.15 mm/y). Activity ratios of 228Ra/226Ra of Tamagawa hot spring-water ranged from 6 to 24, the seasonal variation pattern showed the higher ratio in summer season. Figure shows that estimated growth rate of hokutolite samples were correlated with SO42- concentration in Tamagawa hot- spring water. Estimated 228Ra/226Ra activity ratios in Tamagawa hot-spring water from hokutolite surface activity were concordant with those of the hot-spring water.

  17. Purification system of gram-amount neptunium using anion exchange chromatography

    To develop a purification system of gram-amount neptunium using anion exchange chromatography, adsorption elution of excess amount of actinium in 6M HNO3 aqueous solution was studied using thorium and uranium tracer. The partition coefficient (Kd) of Th (IV) decreased from Kd=99.1 of tracer to Kd=44.0, 5% load. By decreasing the partition coefficient, we can wash until 30 Vs under the purification conditions of 1% load and 95% recovery. The retention volume of U (IV) was about 300 Vs, a large value. The partition coefficient of Np (IV) may be larger than it and the large amount of washable eluting solution may be obtained. Washing of impurity of 3d transition metal and actinide (VI) can be done until 20Vs. With washing of 150Vs, impurity of alkali earth metal, metals (III) and platinum group metals decreased less than 0.1%. (S.Y.)

  18. A francium-223 reservoir source

    By improving and accelerating a method which had been earlier tried for caesium-rubidium separation on a cellulose column, i.e. elution with 2N HCl-equilibrated phenol, the author succeeded in obtaining consecutive and quasi-selective elutions of francium-223, starting with actinium-227 fixed at the top of a small cellulose column to which ZrO2 had been added. The francium-223, rapidly eluted under pressure, is extracted by water while the phenol is extracted by ether; it can easily be cleared of any residual traces of radioactive contaminants (thallium-207, radium-223, thorium-227) by two consecutive BaSO4 precipitations. The preparation of a Fr223 solution (HCl-H2SO4) requires approximately 20 min; the time noted for Fr223 was closer to 22 than to 21 min. (author)

  19. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  20. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites Remedial Action Program. Radiological survey of the St. Louis Airport Storage Site, St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    Results of two radiological surveys of the St. Louis-Lambert Airport property, formerly known as the Airport Storage Site, St. Louis, Missouri, are presented. Uranium- and radium-bearing waste materials were stored from the 1940's to the late 1960's in this area. The surveys included direct measurements of beta-gamma radiation; determination of uranium, actinium, and radium concentrations in soil samples and from bore holes; determination of radionuclide concentrations in groundwater and surface water; measurement of radon flux from the ground surface; and measurements of 222Rn in air near the site. Results indicate that some offsite drainage pathways are becoming contaminated, probably by runoff from the site; no migration of 222Rn from the site was observed

  1. JAEA thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes. Refinement of thermodynamic data for trivalent actinoids and samarium

    Within the scope of the JAEA thermodynamic database project for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes, the refinement of the thermodynamic data for the inorganic compounds and complexes of trivalent actinoids (actinium(III), plutonium(III), americium(III) and curium(III)) and samarium(III) was carried out. Refinement of thermodynamic data for these elements was based on the thermodynamic database for americium published by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA). Based on the similarity of chemical properties among trivalent actinoids and samarium, complementary thermodynamic data for their species expected under the geological disposal conditions were selected to complete the thermodynamic data set for the performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive wastes. (author)

  2. Theoretical Study on Properties of New Isotope 265Bh

    2006-01-01

    The properties of nuclei belonging to the newly observed α-decay chain starting from 265Bh have been studied. The axially deformed relativistic mean-field calculation with the force NL-Z2 has been performed in the blockedBCS approximation. Some ground state properties such as binding energies, deformations, spins, and parities, as well as Q-values of the α-decay for this decay chain have been calculated and compared with known experimental data. Good agreement is found. The single-particle spectrum of the nucleus 265 Bh is studied and some new magic numbers are found,while the magnitudes of the shell gaps in superheavy nuclei are much smaller than those of nuclei before the actinium region, and the Fermi surfaces are close to the continuum. Thus the superheavy nuclei are usually not stable. The The methods which give good agreement with the data are selected.

  3. Proposed training program for construction personnel involved in remedial action work at sites contaminated by naturally occurring radionuclides

    Many sites used during the early days of the US atomic energy program are contaminated with radionuclides of the primordial decay chains (uranium, thorium, and actinium series). This contamination consists of residues resulting from refining and processing uranium and thorium. Preparation of these sites for release to unrestricted private use will involve the assistance of construction workers, many of whom have limited knowledge of the hazards associated with radioactive materials. Therefore, there is a need to educate these workers in the fundamentals of radioactive material handling to minimize exposures and possible spread of contamination. This training should disseminate relevant information at an appropriate educational level and should instill a cautious, common-sense attitude toward the handling of radioactive materials. The training should emphasize basic information concerning environmental radiation within a context of relative risk. A multi-media format, including colorful visual aids, demonstration, and discussion, should be used to maximize motivation and retention. A detailed, proposed training program design is presented

  4. Origin of elements of the Uranium-235 family observed in the Ellez river near the EL-4 experimental nuclear reactor in dismantling (Monts d'Arree- Finistere department); Origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes dans la riviere Ellez a proximite du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement (Mont d'Arree - departement du Finistere). Resultats et premiers constats annee 2006

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In a previous study which concerned the catchment basin of the harbour of Brest, the A.C.R.O. put in evidence a marking by artificial radioelements around the power plant of Brennilis which can be imputed without ambiguities to the nuclear installation. It also put in evidence abnormalities concerning the natural radioactivity which justifies this new study. In the area of the Monts d'Arree, actinium 227 ({sup 227}Ac), non born by its ascendents which are {sup 235}U and {sup 231}Pa is observed. This phenomenon is characterized by mass activities superior to these ones of {sup 235}U and able to reach these ones of {sup 238}U. Its presence corresponds with the drainage of the Ellez river since the former channel of radioactive effluents releases from the nuclear power plant EL-4 up to the reservoir Saint-Herblot situated 6 km downstream. The strongest values of radioactivity are registered near the disused power plant, at this place a relationship exists between the level of actinium 227 and this one of the artificial radioactivity as it exists a relationship with the decay products of radon exhaled from the subsoil ({sup 210}Pb). But its presence is not limited to a part of the Ellez river, it is equally observed in terrestrial medium, in places in priori not influenced by the direct liquid effluents of the power plant. This place is situated at more than 4 km and without any connection with the Ellez waters. At this stage of the study, it is not possible to answer with certainty the question of the origin of this phenomenon. A new reorientation is considered indispensable to clarify definitively the origin of this unknown phenomenon in the scientific publications and the environmental monitoring. (N.C.)

  5. origin of elements of the Uranium-235 family observed in the Ellez river near the EL-4 experimental nuclear reactor in dismantling (Monts d'Arree- Finistere department)

    In a previous study which concerned the catchment basin of the harbour of Brest, the A.C.R.O. put in evidence a marking by artificial radioelements around the power plant of Brennilis which can be imputed without ambiguities to the nuclear installation. It also put in evidence abnormalities concerning the natural radioactivity which justifies this new study. In the area of the Monts d'Arree, actinium 227 (227Ac), non born by its ascendents which are 235U and 231Pa is observed. This phenomenon is characterized by mass activities superior to these ones of 235U and able to reach these ones of 238U. Its presence corresponds with the drainage of the Ellez river since the former channel of radioactive effluents releases from the nuclear power plant EL-4 up to the reservoir Saint-Herblot situated 6 km downstream. The strongest values of radioactivity are registered near the disused power plant, at this place a relationship exists between the level of actinium 227 and this one of the artificial radioactivity as it exists a relationship with the decay products of radon exhaled from the subsoil (210Pb). But its presence is not limited to a part of the Ellez river, it is equally observed in terrestrial medium, in places in priori not influenced by the direct liquid effluents of the power plant. This place is situated at more than 4 km and without any connection with the Ellez waters. At this stage of the study, it is not possible to answer with certainty the question of the origin of this phenomenon. A new reorientation is considered indispensable to clarify definitively the origin of this unknown phenomenon in the scientific publications and the environmental monitoring. (N.C.)

  6. AcEST: DK960877 [AcEST

    Full Text Available ia with plantlets Developmental stage gametophytes with sporophytes...57 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0008_J14. 5' end sequence. Accession DK960877 Tissue type prothall...Q228Z0|Q228Z0_TETTH Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Tetrahymena thermophila SB210 Align length 40 Score (bit) 38.1 E-val...AAAYFTDQVDSA 365 >sp|A6RG85|NM111_AJECN Pro-apoptotic serine protease NMA111 OS=Ajellomyces capsulata (strai...228Z0_TETTH Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Tetrahymena thermophila SB210 GN=TTHERM_01466260 PE=4 SV=1 Length

  7. Radium in potable waters from Central Victoria : an application of the Australian drinking water guidelines

    Determinations of 226Ra and 228Ra in potable mineral waters from springs located in the Daylesford-Hepburn region of Victoria, Australia, were carried out. Concentrations ranged from 230-810 mBq L-1 for 228Ra. These levels approach or exceed the guideline limits recommended in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The annual committed effective dose and health risks from radium in potable water is discussed. Assuming consumption of 2 L per day the average committed effective dose received from 226Ra was 0.087 mSv y-1 and from 228Ra was 0.10 mSv y-1. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16055-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 9822 Start point 2742478 End point 2740389 Strand (PLUS/MINUS) MINUS Number of clones 9 Number of EST 15 Lin...055-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U16055-1Q.Seq.d Length = 2100 Score = 551 bits (278), Expect = e-156 Identities = 278/278 (100%) Strand...actccaatcactaccactaccacc 278 Score = 507 bits (256), Expect = e-143 Identities = 256/256 (100%) Strand...2 bits (228), Expect = e-126 Identities = 228/228 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1373 ttagctgaaattgagaag...371 bits (187), Expect = e-102 Identities = 193/193 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Q

  9. Reactor production of Thorium-229.

    Hogle, Susan; Boll, Rose Ann; Murphy, Karen; Denton, David; Owens, Allison; Haverlock, Tamara J; Garland, Marc; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2016-08-01

    Limited availability of (229)Th for clinical applications of (213)Bi necessitates investigation of alternative production routes. In reactor production, (229)Th is produced from neutron transmutation of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (227)Ac and (228)Th. Irradiations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (227)Ac targets at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor result in yields of (229)Th at 26 days of 74.0±7.4MBq/g, 260±10MBq/g, and 1200±50MBq/g, respectively. Intermediate radionuclide yields and cross sections are also studied. PMID:27163437

  10. Determination of the natural and artificial radioactivity of a selection of traditional Mexican medicinal herbs by gamma spectrometry

    This work presents the results of a gamma spectrometry analysis of 30 traditional Mexican medicinal herbs. The analysis was carried out using low level background shielding, a hyper-pure germanium detector, and a multichannel analyzer system. Natural and artificial radioactivity concentration from 226Ra (through 214Pb and 214Bi), 228Th (through 208Tl), 228Ra (through 228Ac), 40K, and 137Cs were determined in this analysis. The results show low concentration levels of natural radioactivity and no artificial radionuclides, and different contents of natural 40K, in the studied medicinal herbs. These low concentration levels of natural radionuclides, cannot be consider a health risk for common consumers. (author)

  11. 16 CFR 20.0 - Scope and purpose of the guides.

    2010-01-01

    ... Labeling Guides, 16 CFR part 228.) ... REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.0 Scope and purpose of the guides... (including advertising in electronic format, such as on the Internet) of used parts and assemblies...

  12. The Relation between Moral and Legal Obligation: an Alternative Kantian Reading

    Pavlakos, George

    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2015 - (Pavlakos, G.; Rodriguez-Blanco, V.), s. 228-243 ISBN 978-1-107-07072-1 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : moral obligation * legal obligation * philosophy of law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  13. Odpovědnost za lidský život

    Dolista, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2004), s. 211-228. ISSN 1211-7617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : Value of human life * giving life * origin of genotype Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  14. 78 FR 33144 - Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee

    2013-06-03

    ...-228--Minimum Performance Standards for Unmanned Aircraft Systems and PMC UAS Steering Committee... Functional Requirements and Safety Objectives for Unmanned Aircraft System Standards, RTCA Paper No. 102-13..., Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards (MASPS) for Required Navigation Performance for...

  15. Strict deformation quantization for actions of a class of symplectic lie groups

    We present explicit universal strict deformation quantization formulae for actions of Iwasawa subgroups AN of SN(1, n). This answers a question raised by Rieffel in [Contemp. Math. 228 (1998), 315]. (author)

  16. Errata: A survey of Bayesian predictive methods for model assessment, selection and comparison

    Aki Vehtari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Errata for “A survey of Bayesian predictive methods for model assessment, selection and comparison” by A. Vehtari and J. Ojanen, Statistics Surveys, 6 (2012, 142–228. doi:10.1214/12-SS102.

  17. Pediatric Palliative Care: A Personal Story

    Full Text Available ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close Pediatric Palliative Care: A Personal Story NINRnews Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 228 ... and her family. The story demonstrates how palliative care can positively influence a patient's and family's experience ...

  18. Stability of iron in clays under different leaching conditions

    Doušová, B.; Fuitová, L.; Koloušek, D.; Lhotka, M.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Spurná, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, 1-2 (2014), s. 145-152. ISSN 0009-8604 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Clays * Iron * Leaching Stability * Structure * Surface Properties Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.228, year: 2014

  19. Radiological characterization of pharmaceutical and cosmetic clays

    Natural radionuclide activity concentration (235U, 238U, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Th, 228Ra and 40K) in clay materials used for cosmetic and medical purposes was determined by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The activity concentration resulted in the range of 0.71 and 4.42 Bq kg-1 for 235U, 15.1-91.4 and 15.3-81.6 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 234U, respectively, 18.7-72.4 Bq kg-1 for 230Th, 27.6-59.7 for 226Ra, 7.80-55.0 and 8.76-58.1 for 232Th and 228Th, 8.60-66.9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra and 151.6-1,459 Bq kg-1 for 40K. In an oral treatment, the intake was calculated and for some radionuclides the results were higher than the annual dietary intake. (author)

  20. Characterization of plasma membrane respiratory chain and ATPase on the actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727

    Palese, L.; Gaballo, A.; Dobrová, Zuzana; Labonia, N.; Abbrescia, A.; Scacco, S.; Micelli, L.; Papa, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 228, č. 2 (2003), s. 233-239. ISSN 0378-1097 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cytochrome * respiration * oxidase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.932, year: 2003

  1. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 60011 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Full Text Available YP_007057806.1 1117:1107 1161:228 1185:4978 373984:3221 373994:3221 ABC-type Fe3+ transport system, peripl...TNPRFPVAHHSTRADAGAMINVAGVAVLRTTDQRKDVETLINYLLSRKSQSYFSQKTKEYPLRKGMKSPKGQIPLYRLNSPRINLTKLHSLEKTLNLLQQAGVI ...

  2. 76 FR 51956 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    2011-08-19

    ... acres for the construction of up to 3,770 acres of shallow ponds and associated infrastructure at the... acres because the ponds would restore such resources located between elevation -228 feet and -231...

  3. 28 CFR 18.1 - Purpose.

    2010-07-01

    ...); sections 223(d), 226 and 228(e) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, as amended (Juvenile Justice Act); and section 1407(F) of the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 (Victims of Crime Act)....

  4. Investigation of the operational quality of germanium gamma detectors. Estimation of Ge:Li detector survival rates

    A working group has produced tables of information on gamma semiconductor Ge detectors: Ge(Li) or intrinsic Ge. The information was obtained as a result of enquirres addressed to various laboratories, and concerns 228-sources in France and Belgium

  5. Certified reference materials for radionuclides in Bikini Atoll sediment (IAEA-410) and Pacific Ocean sediment (IAEA-412).

    Pham, M K; van Beek, P; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gurriaran, R; Hanley, O; Harms, A V; Herrmann, J; Hult, M; Ikeuchi, Y; Ilchmann, C; Kanisch, G; Kis-Benedek, G; Kloster, M; Laubenstein, M; Llaurado, M; Mas, J L; Nakano, M; Nielsen, S P; Osvath, I; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Schikowski, J; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Sýkora, I; Tarjan, S; Varga, B; Vasileva, E; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2016-03-01

    The preparation and characterization of certified reference materials (CRMs) for radionuclide content in sediments collected offshore of Bikini Atoll (IAEA-410) and in the open northwest Pacific Ocean (IAEA-412) are described and the results of the certification process are presented. The certified radionuclides include: (40)K, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (239)Pu, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am for IAEA-410 and (40)K, (137)Cs, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu and (239+240)Pu for IAEA-412. The CRMs can be used for quality assurance and quality control purposes in the analysis of radionuclides in sediments, for development and validation of analytical methods and for staff training. PMID:26631455

  6. Report on progress of researches by common utilization of JAERI nuclear facilities, for fiscal 1993

    The results of the joint researches by utilizing the facilities of JAERI in 1993 fiscal year were summarized. The number of research themes in 1993 was 228 cases. In this book, 243 reports are collected. (J.P.N.)

  7. Physical, biogeochemical, and isotopic tracer data collected aboard the FS POLARSTERN during the ARKXXIII/3 expedition in the Arctic Ocean from 24 August 2008 to 05 October 2008 (NODC Accession 0065370)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset includes chemical analyses of dissolved organic carbon, total dissolved nitrogen, nitrate, total alkalinity,delta 18-O, and 228-226-RA collected from...

  8. Management of freshwater invasive alien species

    Francis, R. A.; Pyšek, Petr

    London : Earthscan, 2012 - (Francis, R.), s. 435-446 ISBN 978-1-84971-228-6 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * management * freshwater habitats Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  9. Crypsis aculeata (L.) Ait

    Hroudová, Zdenka; Lustyk, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2009), s. 227-228. ISSN 1211-5258 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : endangered species * halophile vegetation * restoration of saline habitat Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  10. Transfer of natural radionuclides from the thorium radioactive family in the food chain in an area with elevated Th concentrations in the soil

    The study was intended to derive from radioecological findings predictive information on the nuclide ratios of ingested radionuclides from the thorium radioactive familiy which are of significance in faecal excretion analyses. Over a period from 1989 until 1997, several studies examined the transfer of Th-232, Th-228 and Ra-228, to some extent also Ra-226 and Th-230, by experimental analyses of food chains. As to forest ecosystems, the ingestion pathway particularly examined was that of transfer from plants to deer. Based on the findings, a conservative assessment is derived of annual intake of radioactivity due to the nuclides Th-232, Th-228 and Ra-228, both for adults or infants. (orig./CB)

  11. Communist Party Heroes

    2008-01-01

    When a catastrophic 8-magmtude earthquake hit south western Sichuan Province at 2:28 p.m. on May 12, causing 400,000 casualties and destroying towns and villages, the country faced a massive rescue operation.

  12. 2009 USGS New Jersey Lidar: Mercer County

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High accuracy LiDAR data covering Mercer County New Jersey (228 sq miles). These datasets will be the initial acquisition to support general geospatial needs of the...

  13. Funkční styl umělecký

    Fránek, Michal

    Brno : Didaktis, 2013 - (Adámková, P.), s. 88-91 ISBN 978-80-7358-228-9 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : functional styles * literature * stylistics Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  14. Moment tensors of events induced in Cotton Valley gas field from waveform inversion

    Eisner, L.; Šílený, Jan; Rutledge, J. T.

    Prague : Charles University, 2004, s. 225-228 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : moment tensors * induced microseismicity * hydraulic fracturing Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  15. Dosimetry of paranasal sinus and mastoid epithelia in radium-exposed humans

    Dose calculations for 228Ra and 226Ra are presented for the sinus and mastoid epithelia and lead to the conclusion that the isotopes are of comparable dosimetric significance for the production of carcinomas in patients exposed to comparable levels

  16. Anonymous figures

    Svoboda, Jiří

    Paris : Gallimard, 2009 - (Azoulay, E.), s. 228-231 ISBN 9782070125319. - (Editions Babylone) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Upper Paleolithic * female figurines * Eurasia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  17. SPECT brain perfusion findings in mild or moderate traumatic brain injury

    Background: The purpose of this manuscript is to present the findings in the largest series of SPECT brain perfusion imaging reported to date for mild or moderate traumatic brain injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective evaluation of 228 SPECT brain perfusion-imaging studies of patients who suffered mild or moderate traumatic brain injury with or without loss of consciousness (LOC). All patients had no past medical history of previous brain trauma, neurological, or psychiatric diseases, HIV, alcohol or drug abuse. The patient population included 135 males and 93 females. The ages ranged from 11-88 years (mean 40.8). The most common complaints were characteristic of the postconcussion syndrome: headaches 139/228 (61%); dizziness 61/228 (27%); and memory problems 63/228 (28%). LOC status was reported to be positive in 121/228 (53%), negative in 41/228 (18%), and unknown for 63/228 (28%). RESULTS: Normal studies accounted for 52/228 (23%). For abnormal studies (176/228 or 77%) the findings were as follows: basal ganglia hypoperfusion 338 lesions (55.2%); frontal lobe hypoperfusion 146 (23.8%); temporal lobes hypoperfusion 80 (13%); parietal lobes hypoperfusion 20 (3.7%); insular and or occipital lobes hypoperfusion 28 (4.6%). Patients' symptoms correlated with the SPECT brain perfusion findings. The SPECT BPI studies in 122/228 (54%) were done early within 3 months of the date of the accident, and for the remainder, 106/228 (46%) over 3 months and less than 3 years from the date of the injury. In early imaging, 382 lesions were detected; in 92 patients (average 4.2 lesions per study) imaging after 3 months detected 230 lesions: in 84 patients (average 2.7 lesions per study). CONCLUSIONS: Basal ganglia hypoperfusion is the most common abnormality following mild or moderate traumatic brain injury (p = 0.006), and is more common in patients complaining of memory problem (p = 0.0005) and dizziness (p = 0.003). Early imaging can detect more lesions than

  18. Genetic and bibliographic information: ARL6 [GenLibi

    Full Text Available ARL6 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 human Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (MeSH) Nervous Syst...Diseases (C10.228.140.617) > Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (C10.228.140.617.200) Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonata...lities, Multiple (C16.131.077) > Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (C16.131.077.112) 99A0284114 ...

  19. Analysis for the radionuclides of the natural uranium and thorium decay chains with special reference to uranium mine tailings

    A detailed review is made of the experimental techniques that are available, or are in the process of development, for the determination of 238U, 235U, 234U, 231Pa, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra, 226Ra, 223Ra, 210Po and 210Pb. These products of the uranium and thorium decay chains are found in uranium mine tailings. Reference is also made to a procedure for the selective phase extraction of mineral phases from uranium mine tailings

  20. Reference material for natural radionuclides in glass designed for underground experiments

    Povinec, P.; PHAM M. K.; Busto, J.; Cerna, C.; Degering, D.; Y. Hamajima; Holy, K.; Hult, Mikael; Jeskovsky, M.; Koehler, M; Kovacik, A.; Laubenstein, Matthias; Loaiza, P.; Mamedov, F.; Marquet, C.

    2015-01-01

    A reference material designed for the determination of natural radionuclides in solid samples (glass pellets) is described and the results of certification are presented. The material has been certified for 7 natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 235U and 238U). An information value is given for 210Pb. Radon (222Rn) emanation experiments showed results comparable within participating laboratories, however, the number of data and precision was too low to carry out a certifica...

  1. Airborne research in cool regions

    Steinhage, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The Alfred Wegener Institute uses ski-equipped aircraft to support and to conduct its research activities both polar regions since 1983 and provides access to the aircraft to the German scientific community. Beside logistic support of field groups, the aircraft were utilized in glaciology, geophysics, meteorology, and physics of the atmosphere. At the beginning Dornier aircraft, first POLAR 1, a Do128, and POLAR 2, a Do228, followed by two Dornier aircraft of typ Do228 were used. While one ai...

  2. NEW CYTOKINlNS - META-METHOXYTOPOLlNS IN MICROPROPAGATION OF COTINUS COGGYGRIA SCOP. 'ROYAL PURPLE'

    Podwyszynska, M.; Wegrzynowicz-Lesiak, E.; Doležal, Karel; Krekule, Jan; Strnad, Miroslav; Saniewski, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2012), s. 220-228. ISSN 1311-9109 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : BA-derivatives * early senescence * in vitro propagation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.492, year: 2012 http://www.journal-pop.org/2012_12_4_220-228.html

  3. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs)

    Xhixha, Gerti; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Colonna, Tommaso; Hasani, Fadil; Mantovani, Fabio; Shala, Ferat; Strati, Virginia; Kaçeli, Merita Xhixha

    2015-01-01

    Because potential Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed without regulatory criteria in many decades, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) has been performed. Among 52 gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples, we discover that relatively low activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K, which are 23 +/- 2 Bq/k...

  4. An analytical formulation of thermodynamic properties of dry and metastable steam suitable for computational fluid dynamics modelling of steam turbine flows

    Hrubý, Jan; Pátek, Jaroslav; Duška, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 228, č. 2 (2014), s. 120-128. ISSN 0957-6509 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905; GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/1593; GA MŠk LG13056 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : metastable steam * thermodynamic properties * computational fluid dynamics Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2014 http://pia.sagepub.com/content/228/2.toc

  5. Natural Radium Detection and Inventory Flux of Isotopes in Particulate and Dissolved Phases of Seawater at Kapar Coastal Area Caused by Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Mohamed, N.; Ariffin, N. A. N.; Mohamed, C. A. R.

    2016-07-01

    Distribution of 226Ra and 228Ra radioactive in marine have been studied at Kapar coastal area that closed to Sultan Salahudin Abdul Aziz Shah (SJSSAS) power station. The concentration level of 226Ra and 228Ra were measured in seawater include total suspended solids (TSSrw) and dissolved phases from September 2006 to February 2008. The measurement technique used for 226Ra and 228Ra was using cation exchange column and counted using Liquid Scintillator Ciunter (LSC). The radioactivities of 226Rasw and 228Rasw in the dissolved phase of seawater ranged from 1.29 ± 0.52 mBq/L - 3.69 ± 1.29 mBq/L and 2.12 ± 0.71 mbq/L - 17.07 ± 6.03 mBq/L respectively. The measurement of radioactivities of radium isotopes in the particulate phase of seawater ranged from 15.62 ± 1.99 Bq/kg - 241.76 ± 100.23 Bq/kg (226Ratsw) and 7.19 ± 3.21 Bq/kg - 879.66 ± 365.74 Bq/kg (228Ratsw). Radium isotopes inventory in this study showed that suspended solid have higher inventory value than seawater and sediment. Study also found that suspended solid play an important role for flux contribution at seawater. Based on the finding, the radioactivity concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra is higher in particulate phase than in dissolved phase.

  6. Counting of live mussels on a HPGe detector

    Martin, P.; Akber, R.A.; Marten, R. [Office of the Supervising Scientist, Jabiru, NT (Australia). Alligator Rivers Region Research Institute

    1994-12-31

    Four mussels collected from Mudginberri billabong were counted live on a HPGe detector. Count time was from 2 to 3 days. Radionuclides detectable by this method included {sup 226}Ra {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 210}Pb from the uranium series and {sup 228}Ac and {sup 212}Pb from the thorium series. The measured {sup 222}Rn retention varied from 7% to 17%. The {sup 228}Ac/{sup 226}Ra and {sup 212}Pb/{sup 228}Ac ratios were used to give an estimate of the mussel age based upon the known {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra - age and {sup 228}Th/{sup 228}Ra - age relations for mussels from Mudginberri billabong. Two mussels were recounted after living for several months in a 50:50 mix of water from Ranger Uranium Mines retention pond no. 2 with Magela Creek water. The {sup 234}Th peak at 63 keV was then measurable, probably due to uptake of the parent {sup 238}U. This means that live counting cannot be used for detection of {sup 226}Ra releases from uranium mine pond waters, as {sup 235}U interferes with the {sup 226}Ra peak at 186 keV. The method does show promise for studies of the kinetics of uptake of uranium in mussels. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. Radioactive secular equilibrium in 238U and 232Th series in granitoids from Greece

    Granitoid rocks belonging to plutons of Greece, covering a wide range of compositions and rock-types, have been studied for their specific activity (Bq/kg) of 238U and 226Ra from 238U radioactive series and 228Ra and 228Th from 232Th radioactive series by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Results on the radioactive secular equilibrium of both 238U and 232Th radioactive series are presented by studying the 226Ra/238U and 228Ra/228Th ratios. The majority of the samples are in radioactive secular equilibrium for 226Ra/238U±1σ. However, several samples exhibit 226Ra/238U ratios significantly different from 1. The distortion of the secular equilibrium in the 226Ra–238U isotopic system of those samples has occurred over the last 1 Ma, and can be associated with post-magmatic processes, mainly rock–water interactions. All studied samples have 228Ra/228Th ratios equal to unity ±1σ. Consequently, they can be considered to be in secular equilibrium for the last 40 a. - Highlights: ► Generally, a strong correlation between 238U and 226Ra is obvious. ► Post-magmatic processes caused radioactive disequilibrium in the 238U isotopic system. ► All samples are in radioactive secular equilibrium in the 232Τh isotopic system. ► There is no correlation between mineralogy, texture, colour, age and the isotopic ratios studied

  8. Radioactivity in hot spring water, Peitou, Taiwan and Taiwan earthquake in September, 1999

    Momoshima, N. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Sugihara, S. [Kyushu Univ., Graduate School of Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Huang, C.W. [Chung Yuan Christian Univ., Department of Chemistry, TW (China); Wu, C.W. [National Taiwan Univ., Institute of Agriculture Chemistry, TW (China)

    2000-07-01

    Hot spring water sometimes contains high amounts of radioactivity. Peitou hot spring, located in north of Taipei, Taiwan, is well known its high concentrations of radium isotopes and production of rare radioactive rock, hokutolite. Substances dissolved in hot spring water would be useful tools to examine geochemical processes occurring under ground. Radionuclides in hot spring water give us an information about a time scale involved in the geochemical processes. We have analyzed concentrations of radionuclides in hot spring water to understand geochemical processes occurring at Peitou. Hot spring water was collected monthly at Peitou, Taiwan from September 1996. Radium isotopes in the hot spring water were co-precipitated with BaSO{sub 4}. The radioactivities in the BaSO{sub 4} were measured by gamma spectrometry. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra concentrations were determined by concentrations of their daughter nuclides after attaining radioactive equilibrium. The concentrations of {sup 226}Ra were distributed in a range between 0.02 Bq/l and 0.05 Bq/l, showing a gradual decrease from September 1996 to July 1998 as a whole followed by a fairly constant period and it increased again from May 1999. The concentrations of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra were distributed in ranges between 0.6 Bq/l and 1.2 Bq/l for {sup 228}Ra and between 3 Bq/l and 7.80 Bq/l for {sup 224}Ra, respectively. The concentrations of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra were 2 or 3 orders magnitude higher compared to that of {sup 226}Ra. The Peitou hot spring water is rich in radium isotopes belonging to thorium decay series. The concentrations of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra also changed a similar manner to {sup 226}Ra. A relatively large deviation from the gradual decline was observed on the sample collected on December 1997 and the sample taken just before the Taiwan earthquake in 21 September 1999 showed significant low concentrations. We observed higher concentration of {sup 224}Ra than {sup

  9. Radioactivity in hot spring water, Peitou, Taiwan and Taiwan earthquake in September, 1999

    Hot spring water sometimes contains high amounts of radioactivity. Peitou hot spring, located in north of Taipei, Taiwan, is well known its high concentrations of radium isotopes and production of rare radioactive rock, hokutolite. Substances dissolved in hot spring water would be useful tools to examine geochemical processes occurring under ground. Radionuclides in hot spring water give us an information about a time scale involved in the geochemical processes. We have analyzed concentrations of radionuclides in hot spring water to understand geochemical processes occurring at Peitou. Hot spring water was collected monthly at Peitou, Taiwan from September 1996. Radium isotopes in the hot spring water were co-precipitated with BaSO4. The radioactivities in the BaSO4 were measured by gamma spectrometry. 226Ra, 228Ra and 224Ra concentrations were determined by concentrations of their daughter nuclides after attaining radioactive equilibrium. The concentrations of 226Ra were distributed in a range between 0.02 Bq/l and 0.05 Bq/l, showing a gradual decrease from September 1996 to July 1998 as a whole followed by a fairly constant period and it increased again from May 1999. The concentrations of 228Ra and 224Ra were distributed in ranges between 0.6 Bq/l and 1.2 Bq/l for 228Ra and between 3 Bq/l and 7.80 Bq/l for 224Ra, respectively. The concentrations of 228Ra and 224Ra were 2 or 3 orders magnitude higher compared to that of 226Ra. The Peitou hot spring water is rich in radium isotopes belonging to thorium decay series. The concentrations of 228Ra and 224Ra also changed a similar manner to 226Ra. A relatively large deviation from the gradual decline was observed on the sample collected on December 1997 and the sample taken just before the Taiwan earthquake in 21 September 1999 showed significant low concentrations. We observed higher concentration of 224Ra than 228Ra. The activity ratio of 224Ra/228Ra far exceeded unity, more than 6, that is unusual because 224Ra and

  10. Evidence for an essential role of intradimer interaction in catalytic function of carnosine dipeptidase II using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry.

    Okumura, Nobuaki; Tamura, Jun; Takao, Toshifumi

    2016-02-01

    Carnosine dipeptidase II (CN2/CNDP2) is an M20 family metallopeptidase that hydrolyses various dipeptides including β-alanyl-L-histidine (carnosine). Crystallographic analysis showed that CN2 monomer is composed of one catalytic and one dimerization domains, and likely to form homodimer. In this crystal, H228 residue of the dimerization domain interacts with the substrate analogue bestatin on the active site of the dimer counterpart, indicating that H228 is involved in enzymatic reaction. In the present study, the role of intradimer interaction of CN2 in its catalytic activity was investigated using electrospray-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS). First, a dimer interface mutant I319K was prepared and shown to be present as a folded monomer in solution as examined by using ESI-TOF MS. Since the mutant was inactive, it was suggested that dimer formation is essential to its enzymatic activity. Next, we prepared H228A and D132A mutant proteins with different N-terminal extended sequences, which enabled us to monitor dimer exchange reaction by ESI-TOF MS. The D132A mutant is a metal ligand mutant and also inactive. But the activity was partially recovered time-dependently when H228A and D132A mutant proteins were incubated together. In parallel, H228A/D132A heterodimer was formed as detected by ESI-TOF MS, indicating that interaction of a catalytic center with H228 residue of the other subunit is essential to the enzymatic reaction. These results provide evidence showing that intradimer interaction of H228 with the reaction center of the dimer counterpart is essential to the enzymatic activity of CN2. PMID:26549037

  11. Minor Actinide Burning in Thermal Reactors. A Report by the Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems

    The actinides (or actinoids) are those elements in the periodic table from actinium upwards. Uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) are two of the principal elements in nuclear fuel that could be classed as major actinides. The minor actinides are normally taken to be the triad of neptunium (Np), americium (Am) and curium (Cm). The combined masses of the remaining actinides (i.e. actinium, thorium, protactinium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium and fermium) are small enough to be regarded as very minor trace contaminants in nuclear fuel. Those elements above uranium in the periodic table are known collectively as the transuranics (TRUs). The operation of a nuclear reactor produces large quantities of irradiated fuel (sometimes referred to as spent fuel), which is either stored prior to eventual deep geological disposal or reprocessed to enable actinide recycling. A modern light water reactor (LWR) of 1 GWe capacity will typically discharge about 20-25 tonnes of irradiated fuel per year of operation. About 93-94% of the mass of uranium oxide irradiated fuel is comprised of uranium (mostly 238U), with about 4-5% fission products and ∼1% plutonium. About 0.1-0.2% of the mass is comprised of neptunium, americium and curium. These latter elements accumulate in nuclear fuel because of neutron captures, and they contribute significantly to decay heat loading and neutron output, as well as to the overall radio-toxic hazard of spent fuel. Although the total minor actinide mass is relatively small - approximately 20-25 kg per year from a 1 GWe LWR - it has a disproportionate impact on spent fuel disposal, and thus the longstanding interest in transmuting these actinides either by fission (to fission products) or neutron capture in order to reduce their impact on the back end of the fuel cycle. The combined masses of the trace actinides actinium, thorium, protactinium, berkelium and californium in irradiated LWR fuel are only about 2 parts per billion, which is far too low for

  12. Assessing and modeling sediment mobility in estuarine and coastal settings due to extreme climate events from natural short-lived isotope distribution

    Ghaleb, Bassam; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Ruiz Fernandez, Ana-Carolina; Sanchez Cabeza, Joan-Albert

    2016-04-01

    Climatic events (e.g. floods, storminess) and management activities (e.g. dredging) may result in the burial or removal and re-suspension of sediments in estuaries and coastal areas. When such sediments are contaminated, such processes may either help restoring better chemical environments or lead to their long-term contamination. Geochemical signatures in surface sediments may help identifying such sedimentological events. However, short-lived isotope data are generally required to set time-constraints on their occurrence. Whereas 210Pb and radioactive fallout isotope contents can help setting time constraints at ~50 to ~100 yr-time scales, natural disequilibria in the 232Th-228Ra-228Th sequence do provide information on processes which occurred within the last 30 yrs, as illustrated in the present study. Box-cored sediments from the Saguenay Fjord and lower estuary of the St. Lawrence (Canada) as well as from estuaries and lagoons from the Sinaloa Coast (Mexico) are used to document the behavior of these isotopes either under relatively steady conditions (St. Lawrence estuary) or under high-frequency extreme climate events (storms and floods; Saguenay Fjord, Coastal Sinaloa). 228Th/232Th activity ratios were determined by chemical extraction of Th and alpha counting of unspiked samples, rapidly after sampling (228Th/232Th). The activity of the intermediate isotope 228Ra was then estimated based on replicate measurements on aliquot samples made a few years later. Under steady conditions, core-top sediment shows an excess in 228Th vs 232Th (AR ~ 1.6), whereas the intermediate 228Ra depicts a deficit vs its parent 232Th (AR ~0.6). Downcore, radioactive decay carries rapidly 228Th-activities to those of the parent 228Ra within about 10 yrs (i.e., ~ 5 half-lives of 228Th), then both move during the next ~20 yrs (~ i.e., ~ 5 half-lives of 228Ra, when added to the 10 yrs of 228Th-excess) towards secular equilibrium with the parent long-lived 232Th. A few algorithms

  13. Thorium isotopes in human tissues

    Stehney, A.F.; Lucas, H.F.

    1991-12-31

    Concentrations of {sup 232}Th and activity ratios of {sup 228}Th to {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th to {sup 232}Th were determined in autopsy samples from five former employees of a thorium refinery. The ranges of {sup 232}Th activity concentrations (mBq g{sup {minus}1}) were 0.17--94 in lungs, 3.9--1210 in pulmonary lymph nodes, 0.14--1.19 in bones, 0.015--0.68 in liver, 0.97--5.8 in spleen, and 0.009--0.068 in kidneys. These concentrations are 10 to 1000 times greater than have been reported for persons not occupationally exposed to Th. In most of the samples, the ratios of {sup 230}Th to {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Th to {sup 232}Th activity at death of the subject were 0.1--0.2 and 0.2--0.4, respectively. Thorium-228 to {sup 228}Ra activity ratios ({plus_minus} standard errors) of 0.86 {plus_minus} 0.11 in lungs and 1.18 {plus_minus} 0.13 in lymph nodes of one subject were obtained by calculation from ratios of {sup 228}Th to {sup 232}Th.

  14. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs)

    Xhixha, Gerti; Callegari, Ivan; Colonna, Tommaso; Hasani, Fadil; Mantovani, Fabio; Shala, Ferat; Strati, Virginia; Kaçeli, Merita Xhixha

    2015-01-01

    Because potential Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed without regulatory criteria in many decades, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) has been performed. Among 52 gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples, we discover that relatively low activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K, which are 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 24 +/- 3 Bq/kg and 549 +/- 12 Bq/kg, respectively, come from oil-sand produced by hydrocarbon extraction from molasses formations. The mineralogical characterization together with the 228Ra/40K and 226Ra/40K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirm the geological and geodynamic model that predicts a dismantling of Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (+/- standard deviations) of the radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra) and of the 228Th and 40K radionuclides in soil samples are determined...

  15. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  16. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    Nicholas, R.G.; Lacy, N.H.; Butz, T.R.; Brandon, N.E.

    2004-10-06

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  17. Determination of long-lived natural Ra isotopes, 226Ra, in mineral and spring waters from Caxambu (MG) and Aguas de Lindoia (SP) spas

    The aim of this work was to study the long-lived Ra isotopes, 226Ra and 228Ra, natural distribution in mineral and spring waters from Caxambu (MG) and Aguas de Lindoia (SP) water parks. In Caxambu mineral waters it was observed 228Ra activity concentrations slightly higher than those of 226Ra. The elevated content of carbonates and bicarbonates of these waters can result in an increased solubility of the both Ra isotopes and may play an important role for the fate of 228Ra and its equilibrium distribution between solid and liquid phases. In Caxambu Thermal Spa, arithmetic mean activities ranged from 83 mBq L-1 to 3599 mBq L-1 and from 60 mBq L-1 to 4481 mBq L-1 for 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. The highest 226Ra activity was found in Venancio Spring, while the maximum 228Ra activity value was determined in Ernestina Guedes. 228Ra/ 226Ra activity ratios varied from 0.079 (Conde D'Eau and Princesa Isabel Spring) to 4.2 (Mairink II Spring). In Aguas de Lindoia, arithmetic mean activities ranged from 4.6 mBq L-1 to 41 mBq L-1 and from 30 mBq L-1 to 54 mBq L-1 for 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. The maximum 226Ra activity concentration was found in the bottled mineral water Sao Jorge, while the higher 228Ra activity concentration was determined in Santa Filomena Spring (public station 2). 228Ra/ 226Ra activity ratios varied from 1.2 (bottled mineral water Sao Jorge) to 9.1 (bottled mineral water Jatoba 1). This work also performed the dose assessment due to the ingestion of 226Ra and 228Ra in Caxambu and Aguas de Lindoia mineral and spring waters. The committed effective doses were estimated by using a conservative dosimetric model and taking into account the results over a lifetime (70 years) following intake of both long-lived Ra isotopes. The results from this radiological evaluation showed that the guidance committed effective dose level of 0.1 mSv y-1 recommended by World Health Organization was exceeded in almost all samples studied in Caxambu, except for Viotti

  18. AcEST: DK961645 [AcEST

    Full Text Available ed protein OS=Oryza... 257 4e-67 tr|A8D930|A8D930_9GENT ATP-dependent DEAD-box helicase OS=Apoc...I26 Definition sp|Q10I26|RH34_ORYSJ DEAD-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase 34 OS=Oryza sativa subsp. japonica A... RNA helicase FAL1 OS=Cryptoco... 228 2e-59 sp|Q4WEB4|FAL1_ASPFU ATP-dependent RNA helicase fal1 OS=Aspergil...nt RNA helicase FAL1 OS=Coccidio... 228 2e-59 sp|A6S4N4|FAL1_BOTFB ATP-depende...AL1 OS=Chaetomi... 228 3e-59 sp|A4QU31|FAL1_MAGGR ATP-dependent RNA helicase FAL1 OS=Magnapor... 227 5e-59 s

  19. Determination of the natural radioactivity levels present in the water used for the Sao Paulo State consumption

    This study aims to determine the activity concentrations of natural occurring radionuclides of the 238 U an 232 Th series in drinking water supplies of the State of Sao Paulo, covering the period 1994-1996. The gross alpha and beta activities, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 226 Rn concentrations were measured in most of the ground and surface waters consumed by the population. The gross alpha and beta particles activities were determined measuring water samples in a low background gas-flow proportional counter. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined by gross alpha and beta counting in a Ba(Ra)SO4 precipitate with the same detector. The 222 Rn concentrations were determine by liquid scintillation method. Gross alpha and beta activities ranging from 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 222 Rn respectively. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11208-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available :none) Caenorhabditis elegans cosmid F20B6, c... 233 2e-59 AF061324_1( AF061324 |pid:none) Homo sapiens sulfonyl...EPWTLLQNQ NGLLTWLVDETGPQNAIYLRKLAEAKKSGLDIKK*rk*stkxnlntppr Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ksif*lyiyl...mo sapiens c... 228 3e-58 L78243_2( L78243 |pid:none) Homo sapiens sulfonylurea receptor (SU... 228 3e-58 ( Q09428 ) RecNam...ly member 6; AltNam... 228 3e-58 L40625_1( L40625 |pid:none) Homo sapiens sulfonyl... AY251609_1( AY251609 |pid:none) Leishmania major pentamidine resis... 176 1e-42