WorldWideScience

Sample records for actinium 227

  1. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  2. Neutron-Induced Fission of Actinium-227, Protactinium-231 and Neptunium-237: Mass Distribution

    Results of radiochemical studies on the mass distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinium-227, protactinium-231 and neptunium-237 have been presented. This work has been carried out as part of a programme to determine the mass distribution in the fission of heavy elements as a function of Z and A. All irradiations have been carried out in the core of the swimming-pool type reactor APSARA with cadmium shielding wherever necessary. Relative yields of several fission product nuclides have been obtained by a method involving a comparison of the fission product activities from the respective targets with those formed from uranium-235 simultaneously irradiated. Thermal-neutron fission yields of uranium-235 have been assumed. These results indicate a predominantly asymmetric mass distribution in all the three cases, and also a distinct though small symmetric peak in the case of actinium-227. (author)

  3. A new method for the determination of low-level actinium-227 in geological samples

    We developed a new method for the determination of 227Ac in geological samples. The method uses extraction chromatographic techniques and alpha-spectrometry and is applicable for a range of natural matrices. Here we report on the procedure and results of the analysis of water (fresh and seawater) and rock samples. Water samples were acidified and rock samples underwent total dissolution via acid leaching. A DGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) extraction chromatographic column was used for the separation of actinium. The actinium fraction was prepared for alpha spectrometric measurement via cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. Recoveries of actinium in water samples were 80 ± 8 % (number of analyses n = 14) and in rock samples 70 ± 12 % (n = 30). The minimum detectable activities (MDA) were 0.017-0.5 Bq kg-1 for both matrices. Rock sample 227Ac activities ranged from 0.17 to 8.3 Bq kg-1 and water sample activities ranged from below MDA values to 14 Bq kg-1of 227Ac. From the analysis of several standard rock and water samples with the method we found very good agreement between our results and certified values. (author)

  4. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development. PMID:22697483

  5. Radium, thorium, and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manganese-oxide-coated fiber

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency with which improved manganese-oxide-coated acrylic fibers extract radium, thorium, and actinium from seawater. Tests were made using surface seawater spiked with 227Ac, 227Th and 223Ra. For sample volumes of approximately 30 liters and flow rates up to 0.5 liters per minute, radium and actinium are removed quantitatively. Approximately 80-95% of the thorium is removed under these same conditions. (Auth.)

  6. Extraction of actinium with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid from hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions

    The extraction of actinium with HDEHP from Cl- and NO3- systems has been investigated. It was found that extraction of actinium from HCl solutions is much better than from HNO3 solutions. Stability constants of actinium complexes Ac(X-)+2 with Cl- and NO3- ligands were determined. Our results show that the actinium formed less stable complexes with Cl- than with NO3- ligands. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  7. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results

  8. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  9. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  10. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  11. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  12. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces ∼100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 GeV protons

  13. AAS 227: Day 2

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  14. Exposure to radioactive aerosols in mining and milling operations: the importance of 227Ac and 231Pa

    'Full-Text:' 227Ac (half-life of 21.8 y) is the daughter or 231Pa; a beta emitter and parent of a subseries with five short-lived alpha-emitters. 231Pa (half-life of 3.27x104 y) is an alpha-emitter of the actinium series, the decay chain of 235U. As daughters of this uranium isotope they are thought to be unimportant as a radiological hazard, despite the fact that their ALI values for ingestion and inhalation are the lowest of any other radionuclide. Both nuclides can be considered as being in secular equilibrium with uranium in most geological media and so the mass concentration of 231Pa is the same of the 226Ra and that of 227Ac is the same of the 210Pa, to mention only two radionuclides of radiological concern. It is shown in this paper that if 231Pa and 227Ac are considered in the evaluations of dose commitments incurred by inhalation of aerosols in mining and milling operations, the results can be 70% higher than those calculated by the methodology of ICRP Publication 47. (author)

  15. AAS 227: Day 1

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  16. AAS 227: Day 3

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  17. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  18. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  19. AAS 227: Day 4

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  20. AAS 227: Day 4

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  1. AAS 227: Day 2

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  2. AAS 227: Welcome!

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Greetings from the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting in Kissimmee, Florida! This week, along with several fellow authors from astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre an author or referee (or plan to be!) and youre here at the meeting, consider joining us at our Author and Referee Workshop on Wednesday in the Tallahassee room, where well be sharingsome of the exciting new features of the AAS journals. You can drop intoeither of the two-hour sessions(10 AM 12 PM or 1 PM 3 PM), and there will be afree buffet lunch at noon.Heres the agenda:Morning SessionTopic Speaker10:00 am 10:05 amIntroductionsJulie Steffen10:05 am 10:35 amChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac10:35 am 11:00 amThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton11:00 am 11:15 amAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler11:15 am 11:30 amFixing Software and Instrumentation Publishing: New Paper Styles in AAS JournalsChris Lintott11:30 am 11:45 amMaking Article Writing Easier with the New AASTeX v6.0Greg Schwarz11:45 am 12:00 pmBringing JavaScript and Interactivity to Your AAS Journal FiguresGus MuenchLunch SessionTopic Speaker12:00 pm 12:15 pmUnified Astronomy ThesaurusKatie Frey12:15 pm 12:30 pmAAS/ADS ORCID Integration ToolAlberto Accomazzi12:30 pm 12:45 pmWorldWide Telescope and Video AbstractsJosh Peek12:45 pm 01:00 pmArizona Astronomical Data Hub (AADH)Bryan HeidornAfternoon SessionTopic Speaker01:00 pm 01:05 pmIntroductionsJulie Steffen01:05 pm 01:35 pmChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac01:35 pm 02:00 pmThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton02:00 pm 02:15 pmAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler02:15 pm 02:30 pm

  3. 49 CFR 238.227 - Suspension system.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.227 Section 238.227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.227 Suspension system. On or after November 8, 1999— (a) All passenger equipment...

  4. 7 CFR 227.40 - Program information.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program information. 227.40 Section 227.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 227.40...

  5. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227 Section 223.227 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.227 Sale advertisement. (a) The Forest Service...

  6. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS—towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm − 1 which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  7. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    2010-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific environmental... of direct environmental impact....

  8. 18 CFR 3b.227 - Mailing lists.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mailing lists. 3b.227 Section 3b.227 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... specifically authorized by law. This provision shall not be construed to require the withholding of names...

  9. 49 CFR 227.115 - Hearing protectors.

    2010-10-01

    ... greater. The hearing protectors should be used to reduce sound levels to within those levels required by... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing protectors. 227.115 Section 227.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...

  10. 27 CFR 44.227 - Customs procedure.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs procedure. 44.227..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.227 Customs procedure. The customs... having inspected the articles and supervised the lading thereof on the export carrier, the...

  11. 40 CFR 227.5 - Prohibited materials.

    2010-07-01

    ... 227.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact § 227.5... environmental impact criteria of this subpart B; (d) Persistent inert synthetic or natural materials which...

  12. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  13. 48 CFR 227.7103-6 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... software or computer software documentation (see 227.72), commercial items (see 227.7102-3), existing works (see 227.7105), special works (see 227.7106), or when contracting under the Small Business Innovation... Software Previously Delivered to the Government, in solicitations when the resulting contract will...

  14. 40 CFR 227.18 - Factors considered.

    2010-07-01

    ... Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.18 Factors considered. The assessment of the potential for impacts on esthetic, recreational and economic values will be based on an evaluation of the...

  15. 7 CFR 227.5 - Program funding.

    2010-01-01

    ... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.5 Program funding. (a... programs. FNS funds for the Program shall augment current nutrition education and training programs and... assessment in the State, (iii) Developing a State Plan for nutrition education and training......

  16. 7 CFR 227.2 - Definitions.

    2010-01-01

    ... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.2 Definitions. (a... support services. (m) Program means the Nutrition Education and Training Program authorized by section 19...), reach and success of any current nutrition education activities, including those relating to:...

  17. 7 CFR 227.3 - Administration.

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.3 Administration. (a) Within the Department, FNS shall act on behalf of the Department in the administration of the Program....

  18. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 227 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 227 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 227, App. A Appendix A to Part 227—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for...

  19. 34 CFR 300.227 - Direct services by the SEA.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct services by the SEA. 300.227 Section 300.227... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.227 Direct services by the SEA. (a) General. (1) An SEA must use the payments that would otherwise have been available to an LEA or to a...

  20. 20 CFR 227.5 - Employer tax credits.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer tax credits. 227.5 Section 227.5... SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.5 Employer tax credits. Employers are entitled to tax credits if they pay non.... The tax credits for each month equal the sum of the reductions for employer pensions in...

  1. 7 CFR 227.42 - Grant closeout procedures.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant closeout procedures. 227.42 Section 227.42 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 227.42...

  2. 50 CFR 665.227 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665.227 Section 665.227 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.227 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may be...

  3. 48 CFR 3452.227-70 - Publication and publicity.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication and publicity. 3452.227-70 Section 3452.227-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 3452.227-70 Publication...

  4. 48 CFR 352.227-70 - Publications and publicity.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publications and publicity. 352.227-70 Section 352.227-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.227-70 Publications and publicity. As prescribed...

  5. 48 CFR 227.7103-2 - Acquisition of technical data.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of technical data. 227.7103-2 Section 227.7103-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Rights in Technical Data 227.7103-2 Acquisition of technical data. (a) Contracting officers shall...

  6. 48 CFR 2453.227 - Patents, data, and copyrights.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patents, data, and copyrights. 2453.227 Section 2453.227 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 2453.227 Patents, data, and copyrights....

  7. New method for large scale production of medically applicable Actinium-225 and Radium-223

    Alpha-emitters (211At, 212Bi, 213Bi, 223Ra, 225Ac) are promising for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. Only two alpha decays near a cell membrane result in 50% death of cancer cell and only a single decay inside the cell is required for this. 225Ac may be used either directly or as a mother radionuclide in 213Bi isotope generator. Production of 225Ac is provided by three main suppliers - Institute for Transuranium Elements in Germany, Oak Ridge National Laboratory in USA and Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in Obninsk, Russia. The current worldwide production of 225Ac is approximately 1.7 Ci per year that corresponds to only 100-200 patients that could be treated annually. The common approach for 225Ac production is separation from mother 229Th or irradiation of 226Ra with protons in a cyclotron. Both the methods have some practical limitations to be applied routinely. 225Ac can be also produced by irradiation of natural thorium with medium energy protons . Cumulative cross sections of 225Ac, 227Ac, 227Th, 228Th formations have been obtained recently. Thorium targets (1-9 g) were irradiated by 114-91 MeV proton beam (1-50 μA) at INR linear accelerator. After dissolution in 8 M HNO3 + 0.004 M HF thorium was removed by double LLX by HDEHP in toluene (1:1). Ac and REE were pre-concentrated and separated from Ra and most fission products by DGA-Resin (Triskem). After washing out by 0.01 M HNO3 Ac was separated from REE by TRU Resin (Triskem) in 3 M HNO3 media. About 6 mCi 225Ac were separated in hot cell with chemical yield 85%. The method may be upscaled for production of Ci amounts of the radionuclide. The main impurity is 227Ac (0.1% at the EOB) but it does not hinder 225Ac from being used for medical 225Ac/213Bi generators. (author)

  8. 223Ra for endoradiotherapeutic applications prepared from an immobilized 227Ac/227Th source

    A method is described for the production of 223Ra (t1/2 = 11.4 d) in a quality useful for endoradiotherapeutic applications. The method is based on a long term operating generator with a source of 227Ac (t1/2 = 21.7 years), from which 223Ra is eluted. The 227Ac was isolated from a 231Pa source using the f-element selective extraction chromatographic material TRU-resin. The purified 227Ac/227Th source was subsequently applied to another extraction chromatographic resin, containing the extractant P,P'-di(2-ethylhexyl)methanediphosphonic acid on silica (Dipex-2) and used as a generator for 223Ra. From the generator column, the yield of 223Ra was about 60 kBq per 100 kBq of 227Ac with a highly effective separation of 223Ra from the precursors. In production runs, the activity of 227Ac was found to be 6 x 10-6 relative to the eluted activity of 223Ra. By using a second column of Dipex-2 for additional purification, the activity of Ac was reduced to below 7 x 10-8 relative to 223Ra with nearly quantitative recovery of 223Ra. The described procedure resulted in a high purity 223Ra preparation, potentially useful in, e.g., targeted radiotherapy of tumors. (orig.)

  9. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    A technique of selenium purification from 232Th, 238U, 226,228Ra, 227Ac and 40K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  10. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz); Warot, G. [CEA-CNRS, Modane (France). Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM); Karaivanov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), Sofia (Bulgaria); Kochetov, O.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Filosofov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Sadikov, I.I. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz)

    2013-07-01

    A technique of selenium purification from {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 227}Ac and {sup 40}K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  11. 12 CFR 227.21 - Definitions.

    2010-01-01

    ...-end credit,” “credit card,” and “charge card” have the same meanings as in 12 CFR 226.2. The following... the requirements of 12 CFR 226.5b that are accessible by a credit or charge card; (2) Overdraft lines... DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Consumer Credit Card Account Practices Rule § 227.21...

  12. 12 CFR 227.13 - Unfair credit contract provisions.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unfair credit contract provisions. 227.13... RESERVE SYSTEM UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule § 227.13 Unfair credit contract provisions. It is an unfair act or practice for a bank to enter into a consumer...

  13. 7 CFR 227.44 - Management evaluations and reviews.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management evaluations and reviews. 227.44 Section 227.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM...

  14. Feasibility study of direct cyclotron production of 227-Th

    Kozempel, J.; Vlk, M.; Mičolová, P.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Moša, M.; Morgenstern, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, 2 Supplement (2013), S191-S192. ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). 19.10.2013-23.10.2013, Lyon] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : 227Th * alternative method of production 227Th * cyclotron U-120M Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  15. 14 CFR 417.227 - Toxic release hazard analysis.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Toxic release hazard analysis. 417.227..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.227 Toxic release hazard... hazard associated with toxic release and demonstrate compliance with the public risk criterion of §...

  16. Dicty_cDB: AFF227 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFF227 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16373-1 AFF227P (Link to Original ... fnssfkf****y***w*y***rinkk*www**i**qi*ksktt t**kr**skw ***q****kfk*kpyck***iyitii*lssfr*irkgkretrl*nhl*y* ...

  17. 20 CFR 227.4 - Reduction for employer pension.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for employer pension. 227.4 Section... COMPUTING SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.4 Reduction for employer pension. (a) General. The supplemental annuity for each month is reduced by the amount of any private pension the employee is receiving for...

  18. 14 CFR 121.227 - Pressure cross-feed arrangements.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressure cross-feed arrangements. 121.227 Section 121.227 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... cross-feed arrangements. (a) Pressure cross-feed lines may not pass through parts of the airplane...

  19. Dicty_cDB: VSC227 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSC227 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12232-1 VSC227Z (Link to Original ... mplet... 121 1e-26 AB211503_1( AB211503 |pid:none) Drosera ... adelae RNase DA-I mRNA for... 120 2e-26 AB034248_1 ...

  20. 48 CFR 52.227-3 - Patent Indemnity.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent Indemnity. 52.227-3... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-3 Patent Indemnity. As prescribed in 27.201-2(c)(1), insert the following clause: Patent Indemnity (APR 1984) (a)...

  1. 48 CFR 3452.227-72 - Advertising of awards.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising of awards. 3452.227-72 Section 3452.227-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions...

  2. Research on Transport Properties of HFC-227ea

    Lin Shi; Xiaojun Liu; Yuanyuan Duan; Lizhong Han; Mingshan Zhu

    2001-01-01

    HFC-227ea(1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane) is considered as a promising refrigerant alternative, especially as a component in mixtures, to replace to CFC-12, HCFC-22 and R502. But reliable transport properties data for HFC-227ea are very limited. In this paper, experimental data of viscosity along the saturation line and gaseous thermal conductivity of HFC-227ea are given. The viscosity of HFC-227ea was measured with a capillary viscometer at temperatures between 263.15 K and 333.15 K along the saturation line and its uncertainty of the results is estimated to be no more than +3%. The thermal conductivity of gaseous HFC-227ea was also measured with a transient hot-wire instrument at temperatures between 259.28 K and 341.75 K and pressures up to 1.289MPa, and its uncertainty of the results is estimated to be less than +1%.

  3. Canadair CL-227 Remotely Piloted Vehicle

    Clark, Andrew S.

    1983-08-01

    The Canadair CL-227 is a rotary winged Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) intended initially as the air-vehicle for a medium range battlefield surveillance and target acquisition system. The concept on which this vehicle is based brings together in-house expertise as a designer and manufacturer of surveillance drones (AN-USD-50l -MIDGE-) with experience in rigid rotor technology from the CL-84 tilt wing VTOL program. The vehicle is essentially modular in design with a power module containing the engine, fuel and related systems, a rotor module containing the two counter-rotating rotors and control actuators, and a control module containing the autopilot, data link and sensor system. The vehicle is a true RPV (as opposed to a drone) as it is flown in real time by an operator on the ground and requires relatively little skill to pilot.

  4. 48 CFR 252.227-7019 - Validation of asserted restrictions-Computer software.

    2010-10-01

    ... restrictions-Computer software. 252.227-7019 Section 252.227-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...—Computer software. As prescribed in 227.7104(e)(3) or 227.7203-6(c), use the following clause: Validation of Asserted Restrictions—Computer Software (JUN 1995) (a) Definitions. (1) As used in this...

  5. 7 CFR 227.43 - Participation of adults.

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 227.43... available or distributing to adults education materials, resources, activities or programs authorized...

  6. 7 CFR 227.31 - Audits, management reviews, and evaluations.

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 227.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM State... institutions of higher education and public or private nonprofit educational or research agencies,...

  7. 7 CFR 227.4 - Application and agreement.

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.4 Application and... Program shall enter into a written agreement with the Department for the administration of the Program...

  8. 7 CFR 227.1 - General purpose and scope.

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.1 General purpose... carry out a nutrition information and education program through a system of grants to State agencies to... management training of school foodservice personnel, and (c) the conduct of nutrition education......

  9. 7 CFR 227.41 - Recovery of funds.

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 227.41 Recovery of... determines, through a review of the State agency's reports, program, or financial analysis, monitoring,...

  10. 40 CFR 98.227 - Records that must be retained.

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.227 Records that must be retained... paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section for each nitric acid production facility: (a) Records of... hours in the calendar year for each nitric acid train (hours). (e) Annual nitric acid...

  11. 48 CFR 227.7003 - Claims for copyright infringement.

    2010-10-01

    ... Claims, Licenses, and Assignments 227.7003 Claims for copyright infringement. The procedures set forth herein will be followed, where applicable, in copyright infringement claims. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims for...

  12. 48 CFR 227.7203-4 - License rights.

    2010-10-01

    ... or documentation or the licensor of the software or documentation if the development contractor is... Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-4 License rights. (a) Grant of license. The Government obtains rights in computer software or computer software documentation, including a...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.227-84 - Patent rights clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent rights clauses. 1852... 1852.227-84 Patent rights clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the following provision as prescribed in 1827.303-70(e): Patent Rights Clauses (DEC 1989) This solicitation contains the patent...

  14. 40 CFR 264.227 - Emergency repairs; contingency plans.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency repairs; contingency plans... FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.227 Emergency repairs; contingency plans. (a) A surface impoundment... days after detecting the problem. (c) As part of the contingency plan required in subpart D of...

  15. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  16. 40 CFR 180.227 - Dicamba; tolerances for residues.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dicamba; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.227 Dicamba; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for the combined residues...

  17. 40 CFR 227.6 - Constituents prohibited as other than trace contaminants.

    2010-07-01

    ... trace contaminants. 227.6 Section 227.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.6 Constituents prohibited as other than trace contaminants. (a) Subject to the..., of materials containing the following constituents as other than trace contaminants will not...

  18. 19 CFR 10.227 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment. 10.227 Section 10.227 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF...-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act § 10.227 Verification and justification of claim for...

  19. 48 CFR 227.675-1 - International Traffic in Arms Regulations.

    2010-10-01

    ... set forth in the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, 22 CFR, et seq.) Before authorizing such... Arms Regulations. 227.675-1 Section 227.675-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.675-1 International Traffic in...

  20. 30 CFR 227.104 - What will MMS do when it receives a State's delegation proposal?

    2010-07-01

    ... record the receipt date. MMS will notify you in writing within 15 business days whether your proposal is... delegation proposal? 227.104 Section 227.104 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Delegation Proposals § 227.104 What will MMS...

  1. 48 CFR 227.7104 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 227.7104 Section 227.7104 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, when technical data or... PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7104 Contracts under the Small...

  2. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 227 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 227 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 227, App. B Appendix B to Part 227—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC06OC91.012...

  3. 40 CFR 227.16 - Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping.

    2010-07-01

    ... ocean dumping. 227.16 Section 227.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.16 Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping. (a) A need for...

  4. 48 CFR 252.227-7027 - Deferred ordering of technical data or computer software.

    2010-10-01

    ... technical data or computer software. 252.227-7027 Section 252.227-7027 Federal Acquisition Regulations... data or computer software. As prescribed at 227.7103-8(b), use the following clause: Deferred Ordering of Technical Data or Computer Software (APR 1988) In addition to technical data or computer...

  5. 48 CFR 252.227-7026 - Deferred delivery of technical data or computer software.

    2010-10-01

    ... technical data or computer software. 252.227-7026 Section 252.227-7026 Federal Acquisition Regulations... data or computer software. As prescribed at 227.7103-8(a), use the following clause: Deferred Delivery of Technical Data or Computer Software (APR 1988) The Government shall have the right to require,...

  6. 47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided with transmitters for ship... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY...

  7. 42 CFR 435.227 - Individuals under age 21 who are under State adoption assistance agreements.

    2010-10-01

    ... determines that— (i) At the time of the adoption placement, the child had special needs for medical or rehabilitative care that made the child difficult to place; and (ii) There is in effect an adoption assistance... adoption assistance agreements. 435.227 Section 435.227 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE &...

  8. 48 CFR 52.227-2 - Notice and Assistance Regarding Patent and Copyright Infringement.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice and Assistance Regarding Patent and Copyright Infringement. 52.227-2 Section 52.227-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  9. 21 CFR 1.227 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What definitions apply to this subpart? 1.227 Section 1.227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... kitchens, day care kitchens, and nursing home kitchens are restaurants; and (ii) Pet shelters, kennels,...

  10. 48 CFR 252.227-7006 - License grant-running royalty.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License grant-running... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7006 License grant—running royalty. As prescribed at 227.7009-4(a...—Running Royalty (AUG 1984) (a) The Contractor hereby grants to the Government, as represented by...

  11. 48 CFR 252.227-7007 - License term-running royalty.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License term-running... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7007 License term—running royalty. As prescribed at 227.7009-4(b), insert the following clause in patent releases, license agreements, and assignments: License...

  12. 48 CFR 227.7009-3 - Additional clauses-contracts except running royalty contracts.

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts except running royalty contracts. 227.7009-3 Section 227.7009-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—contracts except running royalty contracts. The following clauses are examples for use in patent release and settlement agreements, and license agreements not providing for payment by the Government of a...

  13. 48 CFR 227.7204 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovative Research Program.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts under the Small Business Innovative Research Program. 227.7204 Section 227.7204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... under the Small Business Innovative Research Program. When contracting under the Small...

  14. 77 FR 5615 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance

    2012-02-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... this notice to advise the public of the first meeting of RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards...

  15. 48 CFR 252.227-7039 - Patents-reporting of subject inventions.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents-reporting of... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7039 Patents—reporting of subject inventions. As prescribed in 227.303(1), use the following clause: Patents—Reporting of Subject Inventions (APR 1990)...

  16. 48 CFR 252.227-7012 - Patent license and release contract.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent license and release... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7012 Patent license and release contract. As prescribed at 227.7012, insert the following clause in patent releases, license agreements, and assignments: (Contract...

  17. 12 CFR 227.26 - Unfair charging of security deposits and fees for the issuance or availability of credit to...

    2010-01-01

    ... for the issuance or availability of credit to consumer credit card accounts. 227.26 Section 227.26... UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Consumer Credit Card Account Practices Rule § 227... consumer credit card accounts. (a) Limitation for first year. During the first year, a bank must not...

  18. 40 CFR 227.14 - Criteria for evaluating the need for ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping.

    2010-07-01

    ... ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping. 227.14 Section 227.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.14 Criteria for evaluating the need for...

  19. In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [11C]BF-227 PET

    In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [11C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [11C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)

  20. In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET

    Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Shiga, Yusei; Itoyama, Yasuhito [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Sendai (Japan); Furumoto, Shozo [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tashiro, Manabu [Tohoku University, Division of Cyclotron Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tsuboi, Yoshio [Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Fukuoka (Japan); Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki [Institute of Development, Aging, and Cancer, Tohoku University, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Division of Brain Sciences, Sendai (Japan); Iwata, Ren [Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Kudo, Yukitsuka [Tohoku University, Innovation of New Biomedical Engineering Center, Sendai (Japan); Doh-ura, Katsumi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Prion Research, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [{sup 11}C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)

  1. Surgical intervention for advanced valvular heart disease in 227 cases

    ZHANG Xi; ZHONG Fo-tian; XU Zhe; XU Ying-qi; WANG Zhi-ping; WU Zhong-kai; TANG Bai-yun; XIONG Mai; YAO Jian-ping; SUN Pei-wu

    2005-01-01

    Background Although the results of surgical treatment in cardiac valve disease continue to improve, the postoperative mortality rate and the rate of complications in patients with advanced valvular heart disease (AVHD) are still very high. We did this retrospective study to summarize the surgical experience of heart valve replacement for patients with AVHD and discuss effective ways to improve the surgical outcome.Results The operative mortality rate was 13.2% (30/227). The main causes of death included multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), low cardiac output syndrome and ventricular fibrillation. From the results of the binary noncounterpart multivariate logistic regression, the following statistically significant factors were found to influence the operative mortality rate: redo operation, age ≥55 years, preoperative NYHA cardiac function grading, extracorporeal circulation time ≥120 minutes and postoperative usage of GIK (glucose, insulin and potassium) solution. All factors were risk ones except postoperative application of GIK. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit coefficient of this model was 0.976.Conclusions The risk factors associated with postoperative mortality rate in the patients with AVHD were redo operation, age ≥55 years, preoperative NYHA cardiac function grading and extracorporeal circulation time ≥120 minutes. Postoperative usage of GIK acted as a kind of metabolic therapy and will improve the recovery for patients with AVHD. Active perioperative management and care will play a very important role in reducing the operative risk and improving the short term outcome of surgical treatment for the patients with AVHD.

  2. Development, integration and test of an automatic UAV recovery system for the CL227 VTOL-UAV

    Μπώκος, Γιώργος Δ.; Ferrier, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    The CL227 autoland program was designed to operate at sea from small ship combatants. This article highlights the evolution of the automated ship recovery system being developed in support of the CL227 UAV. Test results are provided concentrating on system response and control aspects affecting the performance of the CL227 recovery activity. A brief summary of the feasibility and simulation studies is given. A description of the data link software and hardware components is presented.

  3. Application of MRP-227-A boarding inspection guidelines to NPP Almaraz

    It has developed a proposal for inspection program to the internal components of the vessels of Almaraz NPP reactors for the extended operation of the plant, taking as a reference the MRP-227-A document of EPRI, which contains guidelines for inspection and evaluation of the internal components during long-term operation. In line with the guidelines of the MRP-227-A, inmates have been classified into four groups, according to which the relevant requirements of inspection and acceptance criteria have been established. The application of this new inspection program ensures compliance of NUREG-1801 Rev.2.

  4. 25 CFR 900.227 - Can the awarding official change the decision after it has been made?

    2010-04-01

    ... has been made? 900.227 Section 900.227 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... change the decision after it has been made? (a) The decision of the awarding official is final and... is timely commenced as authorized by the Contract Disputes Act. Once the decision has been made,...

  5. 48 CFR 252.227-7018 - Rights in noncommercial technical data and computer software-Small Business Innovation Research...

    2010-10-01

    ... technical data and computer software-Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 252.227-7018 Section... Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. As prescribed in 227.7104(a), use the following clause: Rights in Noncommercial Technical Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program (JUN...

  6. 48 CFR 227.7009-4 - Additional clauses-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty.

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. 227.7009-4 Section 227.7009-4 Federal Acquisition... clauses—contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. The clauses set forth below are examples... desired to cover the subject matter thereof and the contract provides for payment of a running royalty....

  7. CSAR 81-001 addendum 2: Use of a plexiglass contamination barrier in HC-227-T

    Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) Engineering requested a criticality safety evaluation (Appendix 1) to support a revision of Criticality Prevention Specification CPS-Z-165-80601 allowing a plexiglass enclosure (PGE) to be placed inside the HC-227T hood as a contamination barrier. The HC-227T hood is the receiving/transfer enclosure for Pu nitrate solution contained in Product Removal containers (PR Cans), L10 Containers (L10, Fl-10, 10 L) or L-3 Containers. Within the HC-227T, a 1.349 square meter (15 square foot) enclosure, PGE, has been created to provide contamination control around the weighing scale. Two or more standard criticality drains shall be installed on this enclosure prior to beneficial usage. The evaluation considered the normal process, spillage scenarios, waste/container accumulations within the enclosure, and interactions of Pu within the enclosure as well as other containers external to the enclosure. The results from the criticality safety analysis by CRA shows that such as contamination barrier can be placed inside the HC-227T Hood if the PGE is equipped with adequate criticality drains. In addition, other limits as well as administrative controls listed in CPS-Z-165-80601 Rev./Mod. B/0 and CPS-Z-165-80010 Rev./Mod. C/1 shall also apply

  8. 7 CFR 227.37 - State plan for nutrition education and training.

    2010-01-01

    ... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM State Coordinator Provisions § 227.37 State plan for nutrition education and training. (a) General... year; (5) Provisions for coordinating the nutrition education and training programs carried out...

  9. Has California's Passage of Proposition 227 Made a Difference in the Way We Teach?

    Arellano-Houchin, Anna; Flamenco, Claudia; Merlos, Moises M.; Segura, Lorena

    2001-01-01

    Examined how teachers were impacted by California's Proposition 227, highlighting changes in teaching styles and beliefs about the proposition and its effectiveness. Teachers had to change their teaching strategies to accommodate the new curriculum. They were not sufficiently trained for immediate implementation of English-only education. Teaching…

  10. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25... Inspection of premises, books and accounts. Lessee shall agree to allow the lessor and his agents or any... Department; and their books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be...

  11. An ISO far-infrared survey of line and continuum emission for 227 galaxies

    Brauher, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Far-infrared line and continuum fluxes are presented for a sample of 227 galaxies observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer on the Infrared Space Observatory, selected from the ISO Data Archive and having an IRAS 60/100 mu m color ration of 0.2-1.4 and IRAS 60 mu m flux density between 0.1 Jy and 1300 Jy.

  12. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazards to fishing, navigation... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may present a serious obstacle to fishing or navigation may be dumped only at disposal sites and...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.227-11 - Patent Rights-Retention by the Contractor (Short Form).

    2010-10-01

    ... of tier, for experimental, developmental, research, design, or engineering work to be performed by... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent Rights-Retention by... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.227-11 Patent Rights—Retention by the Contractor (Short...

  14. The Political Discourse of the Campaign against Bilingual Education: From "Proposition 227" to "Horne v. Flores"

    Yamagami, Mai

    2012-01-01

    Using the frameworks of critical discourse analysis, representation theory, and legitimization theory, this study examines the political discourse of the campaign for Proposition 227 in California--particularly, the key social representations of languages, their speakers, and the main political actors in the campaign. The analysis examines the…

  15. 48 CFR 227.7009 - Patent releases, license agreements, and assignments.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent releases, license... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Infringement Claims, Licenses, and Assignments 227.7009 Patent releases, license agreements,...

  16. 48 CFR 52.227-10 - Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of Patent... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-10 Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter. As prescribed at 27.203-2, insert the following clause: Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject...

  17. 48 CFR 52.227-4 - Patent Indemnity-Construction Contracts.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent Indemnity... Clauses 52.227-4 Patent Indemnity—Construction Contracts. As prescribed in 27.201-2(d)(1), insert the following clause: Patent Indemnity—Construction Contracts (DEC 2007) Except as otherwise provided,...

  18. 48 CFR 52.227-7 - Patents-Notice of Government Licensee.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents-Notice of... Clauses 52.227-7 Patents—Notice of Government Licensee. As prescribed at 27.202-5(b), insert the following provision: Patents—Notice of Government Licensee (APR 1984) The Government is obligated to pay a...

  19. 30 CFR 250.227 - What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the EP?

    2010-07-01

    ... harvest practices, recreation, recreational and commercial fishing (including typical fishing seasons... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What environmental impact analysis (EIA... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.227 What environmental impact analysis...

  20. Treatment of HER2-Expressing Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Cells With Alpha Particle-Emitting 227Th-Trastuzumab

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of low-dose-rate alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate 227Th-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-DOTA-trastuzumab (227Th-trastuzumab [where DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid]) internalized by breast and ovarian cancer cell lines in order to assess the potential of 227Th-trastuzumab as a therapeutic agent against metastatic cancers that overexpress the HER2 oncogene. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival and cell growth rates of breast cancer cells treated with 227Th-trastuzumab were compared with rates of cells treated with nonbinding 227Th-rituximab, cold trastuzumab, and X-radiation. Cell growth experiments were also performed with ovarian cancer cells. Cell-associated radioactivity was measured at several time points, and the mean radiation dose to cells was calculated. Results: SKBR-3 cells got 50% of the mean absorbed radiation dose from internalized activity and 50% from cell surface-bound activity, while BT-474 and SKOV-3 cells got 75% radiation dose from internalized activity and 25% from cell surface-bound activity. Incubation of breast cancer cells with 2.5 kBq/ml 227Th-trastuzumab for 1 h at 4oC, followed by washing, resulted in mean absorbed radiation doses of 2 to 2.5 Gy. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and an increase in apoptosis were induced in all cell lines. Conclusions: Clinically relevant activity concentrations of 227Th-trastuzumab induced a specific cytotoxic effect in three HER2-expressing cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of 227Th-trastuzumab was higher than that of single-dose X-radiation (relative biological effectiveness = 1.2). These results warrant further studies of treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer with 227Th-trastuzumab.

  1. Initial evaluation of 227Th-p-benzyl-DOTA-rituximab for low-dose rate α-particle radioimmunotherapy

    Radioimmunotherapy has proven clinically effective in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radioimmunotherapy trials have so far been performed with β-emitting isotopes. In contrast to β-emitters, the shorter range and high linear energy transfer (LET) of α particles allow for more efficient and selective killing of individually targeted tumor cells. However, there are several obstacles to the use of α-particle immunotherapy, including problems with chelation chemistry and nontarget tissue toxicity. The α-emitting radioimmunoconjugate 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab is a new potential anti-lymphoma agent that might overcome some of these difficulties. The present study explores the immunoreactivity, in vivo stability and biodistribution, as well as the effect on in vitro cell growth, of this novel radioimmunoconjugate. To evaluate in vivo stability, uptake in balb/c mice of the α-particle-emitting nuclide 227Th alone, the chelated form, 227Th-p-nitrobenzyl-DOTA and the radioimmunoconjugate 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab was compared in a range of organs at increasing time points after injection. The immunoreactive fraction of 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab was 56-65%. During the 28 days after injection of radioimmunoconjugate only, very modest amounts of the 227Th had detached from DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab, indicating a relevant stability in vivo. The half-life of 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab in blood was 7.4 days. Incubation of lymphoma cells with 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab resulted in a significant antigen-dependent inhibition of cell growth. The data presented here warrant further studies of 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab

  2. Analysis of early phase [11C]BF-227 PET, and its application for anatomical standardization of late-phase images for 3D-SSP analysis

    To examine the usefulness of the early phase [11C]BF-227 positron emission tomography (PET) for (1) conferring additional diagnostic value by providing perfusion-like information and (2) obtaining the appropriate anatomical standardization (AS) using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) method. This study included 20 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 19 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 17 normal cognitive (NC) subjects. Early- and late-phase BF-227 PET images were obtained 0-10 and 40-60 min after the injection, respectively. AS for late-phase BF-227 images were performed by 2 methods: (1) method A, for AS of late-phase BF-227 images using 8F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) images of the same subject and (2) method B, for AS of late-phase BF-227 images using early phase BF-227 images. Method B was successfully used for AS in all cases. The Z score maps of 3D-SSP analyses of FDG PET and early phase BF-227 PET for AD and MCI groups showed a typical AD-like pattern. Regional analyses revealed that the early phase BF-227 PET showed significant differences between AD and NC, and MCI and NC. The early phase BF-227 PET images showed significant abnormal findings for the AD and MCI groups. AS of late-phase BF-227 images using early phase BF-227 images were successful, and enabled appropriate 3D-SSP analyses. (author)

  3. The sensitivity of female NMRI mice of different ages for osteosarcoma induction with 227thorium

    The effect of age on osteosarcoma induction after incorporation of the short-lived alpha-emitter 227Th was studied in 12 month old and young (1 month and 3 month old) female NMRI mice. Injection of 1 μCi/kg 227Th in 1 month or 12 month old mice induced osteosarcomas with a similar incidence in both groups (21% and 16%, maximum corrected cumulative incidence 32% and 43%). The osteosarcoma appearance time in the older animals was shorter and there was no significant difference in the age at appearance of osteosarcomas in the two groups. After injection of 5 μCi/kg 227Th the maximum corrected cumulative osteosarcoma incidence was considerably lower in the older group (10%) than in the younger group (61%) despite the fact that there were 32 survivors in the older group at the time of appearance of the last osteosarcoma. Incorporation of 2x1 μCi/kg 227Th at the age of 12 months and 14 months or 3 months and 5 months induced osteosarcoma with a similar maximum corrected cumulative osteosarcoma incidence (62% and 68% respectively). The mean osteosarcoma appearance time after the first incorporation was shorter in the older age group than in the younger age group but osteosarcomas still appeared overall at a younger age in the younger age group. The mean osteosarcoma appearance time after the first incorporation following fractionation of the internal irradiation period, by injection of 1 μCi/kg at the age of 3 months and 12 months, was significantly longer than in either the 3-months/5-months group or the 12-months /14-months group. (orig.)

  4. Human Cystathionine-β-Synthase Phosphorylation on Serine227 Modulates Hydrogen Sulfide Production in Human Urothelium.

    Roberta d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca

    Full Text Available Urothelium, the epithelial lining the inner surface of human bladder, plays a key role in bladder physiology and pathology. It responds to chemical, mechanical and thermal stimuli by releasing several factors and mediators. Recently it has been shown that hydrogen sulfide contributes to human bladder homeostasis. Hydrogen sulfide is mainly produced in human bladder by the action of cystathionine-β-synthase. Here, we demonstrate that human cystathionine-β-synthase activity is regulated in a cGMP/PKG-dependent manner through phosphorylation at serine 227. Incubation of human urothelium or T24 cell line with 8-Bromo-cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP but not dibutyryl-cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (d-cAMP causes an increase in hydrogen sulfide production. This result is congruous with the finding that PKG is robustly expressed but PKA only weakly present in human urothelium as well as in T24 cells. The cGMP/PKG-dependent phosphorylation elicited by 8-Br-cGMP is selectively reverted by KT5823, a specific PKG inhibitor. Moreover, the silencing of cystathionine-β-synthase in T24 cells leads to a marked decrease in hydrogen sulfide production either in basal condition or following 8-Br-cGMP challenge. In order to identify the phosphorylation site, recombinant mutant proteins of cystathionine-β-synthase in which Ser32, Ser227 or Ser525 was mutated in Ala were generated. The Ser227Ala mutant cystathionine-β-synthase shows a notable reduction in basal biosynthesis of hydrogen sulfide becoming unresponsive to the 8-Br-cGMP challenge. A specific antibody that recognizes the phosphorylated form of cystathionine-β-synthase has been produced and validated by using T24 cells and human urothelium. In conclusion, human cystathionine-β-synthase can be phosphorylated in a PKG-dependent manner at Ser227 leading to an increased catalytic activity.

  5. Interplay of fission modes in mass distribution of light actinide nuclei 225,227Pa

    Dubey, R.; Sugathan, P.; Jhingan, A.; Kaur, Gurpreet; Mukul, Ish; Mohanto, G.; Siwal, D.; Saneesh, N.; Banerjee, T.; Thakur, Meenu; Mahajan, Ruchi; Kumar, N.; Chatterjee, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Fission-fragment mass distributions were measured for 225,227Pa nuclei formed in fusion reactions of 19F + 206,208Pb around fusion barrier energies. Mass-angle correlations do not indicate any quasi-fission like events in this bombarding energy range. Mass distributions were fitted by Gaussian distribution and mass variance extracted. At below-barrier energies, the mass variance was found to increase with decrease in energy for both nuclei. Results from present work were compared with existing data for induced fission of 224,226Th and 228U around barrier energies. Enhancement in mass variance of 225,227Pa nuclei at below-barrier energies shows evidence for presence of asymmetric fission events mixed with symmetric fission events. This is in agreement with the results of mass distributions of nearby nuclei 224,226Th and 228U where two-mode fission process was observed. Two-mode feature of fission arises due to the shell effects changing the landscape of the potential-energy surfaces at low excitation energies. The excitation-energy dependence of the mass variance gives strong evidence for survival of microscopic shell effects in fission of light actinide nuclei 225,227Pa with initial excitation energy ∼30-50 MeV.

  6. Interplay of fission modes in mass distribution of light actinide nuclei 225,227Pa

    R. Dubey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fission-fragment mass distributions were measured for 225,227Pa nuclei formed in fusion reactions of 19F+206,208Pb around fusion barrier energies. Mass-angle correlations do not indicate any quasi-fission like events in this bombarding energy range. Mass distributions were fitted by Gaussian distribution and mass variance extracted. At below-barrier energies, the mass variance was found to increase with decrease in energy for both nuclei. Results from present work were compared with existing data for induced fission of 224,226Th and 228U around barrier energies. Enhancement in mass variance of 225,227Pa nuclei at below-barrier energies shows evidence for presence of asymmetric fission events mixed with symmetric fission events. This is in agreement with the results of mass distributions of nearby nuclei 224,226Th and 228U where two-mode fission process was observed. Two-mode feature of fission arises due to the shell effects changing the landscape of the potential-energy surfaces at low excitation energies. The excitation-energy dependence of the mass variance gives strong evidence for survival of microscopic shell effects in fission of light actinide nuclei 225,227Pa with initial excitation energy ∼30–50 MeV.

  7. The half-life of 227Th by direct and indirect measurements

    Utilising a chemically purified solution the radioactive half-life of 227Th has been determined indirectly by observation of the ingrowth of 223Ra using an ionisation chamber (IC) and for the first time by direct observation of the change in activity with time using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) γ-ray spectrometer. The radioactive decay was observed for ~104 days (~5.6 half-lives) by γ-ray spectrometry and approximately 63 days and 72 days (~3.4 and ~3.9 half-lives) using an ionisation chamber (IC). The resulting half-life values – 18.695 (4) days (IC) and 18.683 (20) days (HPGe) – are consistent and detailed uncertainty budgets are presented for the two measurement techniques. A weighted mean of our results of 18.695 (4) days is inconsistent with the most precise published half-life value of 18.7176 (52) days (Jordan and Blanke, 1967). A critical evaluation of literature data has been performed, indicating a paucity of reliable and independent measurements. Selected independent published values have been used to determine a recommended half-life of 18.697 (7) days. A method has been introduced in the course of this work so that the recommended half-life of 227Th as determined by ingrowth can be modified if a different 223Ra half-life has been determined, evaluated and adopted. - Highlights: • First direct measurement of 227Th half-life by HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. • Precision half-life measurement by ionisation chamber. • New half-life of 18.695 (4) days determined. • Critical evaluation of published half-lives and recommended value determined

  8. Interplay of fission modes in mass distribution of light actinide nuclei 225,227Pa

    R Dubey; Sugathan, P; Jhingan, A.; Gurpreet Kaur; Ish Mukul; G. Mohanto; Siwal, D.; Saneesh, N.; T Banerjee; Meenu Thakur; Ruchi Mahajan; Kumar, N; Chatterjee, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Fission-fragment mass distributions were measured for 225,227 Pa nuclei formed in fusion reactions of 19 F + 206,208 Pb around fusion barrier energies. Mass-angle correlations do not indicate any quasi-fission like events in this bombarding energy range. Mass distributions were fitted by Gaussian distribution and mass variance extracted. At below-barrier energies, the mass variance was found to increase with decrease in energy for both nuclei. Results from present work were compared with exis...

  9. Decommissioning of TA-21-153, a 227Ac contaminated old filter building

    An exhaust air filter building contaminated with 227Ac was decommissioned at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, in 1978. The building was constructed in the late 1940s to clean exhaust air from several buildings at TA-21, DP Site. It was in service until March 1970. The project involved preliminary decontamination, dismantling the building, and burying the debris at an on-site waste disposal/storage area. This report presents the details on the decommissioning procedures, health physics, waste management, environmental surveillance, and costs for the operation

  10. Facile solvent extraction separation of Th-227 and Ac-225 based on room-temperature ionic liquids

    New separation methodologies for radioisotopes are crucial to many medical applications. In this work, the solvent extraction of Th-227 and Ac-225 based on ionic liquids (ILs) was investigated using N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) or di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as an extractant. Four ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(perfluoroethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][BETI]), 1-butyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BuI5][NTf2]), and 1-benzyl pyridinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([PhCH2Py][NTf2]) with different cation or anion structural features were used as diluents for the separation of Th-227 and Ac-225. Excellent extraction efficiencies and selectivities were found for Th-227/Ac-225 when HDEHP was used as an extractant in these ILs. The effects of different extractant concentrations in ILs and different aqueous phase acidities on extraction efficiencies and selectivities of Th-227/Ac-225 are also presented. The success in separation of Th-227 and Ac-225 isotopes highlights great potentials of use of ionic liquids in isotope production. (orig.)

  11. MRP-227 Reactor vessel internals inspection planning and initial results at the Oconee nuclear station unit 2

    The U.S. PWR industry has pro-actively developed generic inspection requirements and standards for reactor vessel (RV) internals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Materials Reliability Program (MRP) has issued MRP-227-A and MRP-228 with mandatory and needed requirements based on the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) document NEI 03-08. The inspection and evaluation guidelines contained in MRP-227-A consider eight age-related degradation mechanisms: stress corrosion cracking (SCC), irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), wear, fatigue, thermal aging embrittlement, irradiation embrittlement, void swelling and irradiation growth, and thermal and irradiation-enhanced stress relaxation or irradiation-enhanced creep. This paper will discuss the decision planning efforts required for implementing the MRP-227-A and MRP-228 requirements and the results of these initial inspections at the Oconee Nuclear power station (ONS) units. Duke Energy and AREVA overcame a significant technology and NDE challenge by successfully completing the first-of-a-kind MRP-227-A scope requirements at ONS-1 in one outage below the estimated dose and with zero safety issues or events. This performance was repeated at ONS-2 a year later. The remote NDE tooling and processes developed to examine the MRP-227-A scope for ONS-1 and ONS-2 are transferable to other PWRs

  12. MRP-227/228 component inspections supporting nuclear power plant license renewal

    Highlights: • Inspections meeting the new requirements of MRP-227/228 are presented. • These inspections allow utilities to comply with requirements for license extension. • Modeling results for UT inspection methods are presented. • Defects down to 1% cross-sectional area were detected in a blind demonstration. • All MRP-required demonstrations were successfully passed. - Abstract: As the world’s nuclear reactor fleet continues to age, the importance of verifying the structural integrity of critical reactor components and systems has continued to increase. Some critical components are the reactor internals found in close proximity to the nuclear fuel rods which are exposed not only to high stresses and temperatures, but also to high radiation and neutron fluxes. The Materials Reliability Program (MRP-227/228) has provided guidance indicating which components are of the highest importance and susceptibility to the aging mechanisms found in nuclear reactors. These components must be either inspected or replaced in order for plants to be granted license renewals to continue commercial operations. Several inspection methods are presented that were successfully demonstrated and comply with these new guidelines to meet the requirements for license renewal

  13. Interplay of fission modes in mass distribution of light actinide nuclei 225,227Pa

    Dubey, R; Jhingan, A; Kaur, Gurpreet; Mukul, Ish; Mohanto, G; Siwal, D; Saneesh, N; Banerjee, T; Thakur, Meenu; Mahajan, Ruchi; Kumar, N; Chatterjee, M B

    2015-01-01

    Fission-fragment mass distributions were measured for 225,227Pa nuclei formed in fusion reactions of 19F + 206, 208Pb around fusion barrier energies. Mass-angle correlations do not indicate any quasi-fission like events in this bombarding energy range. Mass distributions were fitted by Gaussian distribution and mass variance extracted. At below-barrier energies, the mass variance was found to increase with decrease in energy for both nuclei. Results from present work were compared with existing data for induced fission of 224, 226Th and 228U around barrier energies. Enhancement in mass variance of 225, 227Pa nuclei at below-barrier energies shows evidence for presence of asymmetric fission events mixed with symmetric fission events. This is in agreement with the results of mass distributions of nearby nuclei 224, 226Th and 228U where two-mode fission process was observed. Two-mode feature of fission arises due to the shell effects changing the landscape of the potential energy surfaces at low excitation energ...

  14. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Low-Dose-Rate Radioimmunotherapy by the Alpha-Emitting Radioimmunoconjugate Thorium-227-DOTA-Rituximab

    Purpose: To determine whether the low-dose-rate α-particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate 227Th-1,4,7,10-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7, 10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-rituximab can be used to inactivate lymphoma cells growing as single cells and small colonies. Methods and Materials: CD20-positive lymphoma cell lines were treated with 227Th-DOTA-rituximab for 1-5 weeks. To simulate the in vivo situation with continuous but decreasing supply of radioimmunoconjugates from the blood pool, the cells were not washed after incubation with 227Th-DOTA-rituximab, but half of the medium was replaced with fresh medium, and cell concentration and cell-bound activity were determined every other day after start of incubation. A microdosimetric model was established to estimate the average number of hits in the nucleus for different localizations of activity. Results: There was a specific targeted effect on cell growth of the 227Th-DOTA-rituximab treatment. Although the cells were not washed after incubation with 227Th-DOTA-rituximab, the average contribution of activity in the medium to the mean dose was only 6%, whereas the average contribution from activity on the cells' own surface was 78%. The mean dose rates after incubation with 800 Bq/mL 227Th-DOTA-rituximab varied from 0.01 to 0.03 cGy/min. The average delay in growing from 105 to 107 cells/mL was 15 days when the cells were treated with a mean absorbed radiation dose of 2 Gy α-particle radiation from 227Th-DOTA-rituximab, whereas it was 11 days when the cells were irradiated with 6 Gy of X-radiation. The relative biologic effect of the treatment was estimated to be 2.9-3.4. Conclusions: The low-dose-rate radioimmunoconjugate 227Th-DOTA-rituximab is suitable for inactivation of single lymphoma cells and small colonies of lymphoma cells.

  15. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum LZ227, a potential probiotic strain producing B-group vitamins.

    Li, Ping; Zhou, Qingqing; Gu, Qing

    2016-09-20

    B-group vitamins play an important role in human metabolism, whose deficiencies are associated with a variety of disorders and diseases. Certain microorganisms such as Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to have capacities for B-group vitamin production and thus could potentially replace chemically synthesized vitamins for food fortification. A potential probiotic strain named Lactobacillus plantarum LZ227, which was isolated from raw cow milk in this study, exhibits the ability to produce B-group vitamins. Complete genome sequencing of LZ227 was performed to gain insights into the genetic elements involved in B-group vitamin production. The genome of LZ227 contains a circular 3,131,750-bp chromosome, three circular plasmids and two predicted linear plasmids. LZ227 also contains gene clusters for biosynthesis of both riboflavin and folate. This genome sequence provides a basis for further elucidation of its molecular genetics and probiotic functions, and will facilitate its applications as starter cultures in food industry. PMID:27480344

  16. 27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of running of... Limitations § 70.227 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26...

  17. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a...

  18. Accelerating growth of HFC-227ea (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane) in the atmosphere

    Laube, J.C.; Martinerie, P.; Witrant, E.;

    2010-01-01

    We report the first measurements of 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ea), a substitute for ozone depleting compounds, in air samples originating from remote regions of the atmosphere and present evidence for its accelerating growth. Observed mixing ratios ranged from below 0.01 ppt in deep...

  19. 78 FR 9420 - Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 227

    2013-02-08

    ... 227 will begin at 9 a.m., Wednesday, March 20, 2013, at the Mercedes-Benz Superdome, 1500 Sugarbowl... to 66 FR 28002 (published May 21, 2001), 69 FR 23211 (published April 28, 2004), 72 FR 27590 (published May 16, 2007), 72 FR 35720 (published June 29, 2007), 73 FR 63505 (published October 24,...

  20. Age related retention and dose burden after injection of 224Ra and 227Th in mice

    Incorporation of 224Ra in different aged female NMRI mice was investigated. The retention in skeleton (long bones) decreased continuously with age and remained constant after an age of about 10 months (decrease of percentage uptake from 50 to 25%). Rather similar conditions were found for the retention of 227Th, but with a somewhat smaller decrease (45 to 35%). These skeletal doses are often based on the values of femur concentration. In the case of mice, however, most bone tumours occur in the lumbar vertebrae, where the retention does not vary much with age. In contrast to the skeleton the retention of 224Ra was increased with age in the spleen, reaching concentrations even higher than that in the skeleton of old animals. It was remarkable that radium was retained in the spleen in this high concentration only when it was injected directly (as 224Ra) but much less, when it was given indirectly i.e. as the daughter nuclide 223Ra of its parent 227Th. If equal skeletal doses for different aged animals are to be intended, the reduced retention in the higher age has to be taken into account. Since dosage is mostly related to body weight (for instance Bq per kilogram) the resulting skeletal dose will be too small if the body weight and skeletal weight would be proportional. Since by the growth of fat tissue the body weight normally increases more than skeletal weight (after an age of a few months), the lowered retention might be more or less corrected for by relating to body weight. 3 refs.; 3 figs

  1. Study on the Relationship between Blood Stasis Syndrome and Clinical Pathology in 227 Patients with Primary Glomerular Disease

    李深; 饶向荣; 王素霞; 张改华; 李晓玫; 戴希文; 陈可冀

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the severity of Chinese medicine(CM) bloodstasis syndrome(BSS) with clinical features and renal lesion indexes of the primary glomerular disease. Methods:An epidemiological survey was conducted to collect the data of 227 patients diagnosed as chronic primary glomerular diseases,and their severity of BSS were scored three days before renal biopsies were performed.The following clinical indexes were analyzed:age,course of glomerular diseases,24-h urine protein ration...

  2. Structural basis for nematode eIF4E binding an m(2,2,7)G-Cap and its implications for translation initiation.

    Liu, Weizhi; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Piecyk, Karolina; Dickson, Laura; Wallace, Adam; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Stepinski, Janusz; Stolarski, Ryszard; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Kieft, Jeffrey; Zhao, Rui; Jones, David N M; Davis, Richard E

    2011-11-01

    Metazoan spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing generates mRNAs with an m(2,2,7)G-cap and a common downstream SL RNA sequence. The mechanism for eIF4E binding an m²²⁷G-cap is unknown. Here, we describe the first structure of an eIF4E with an m(2,2,7)G-cap and compare it to the cognate m⁷G-eIF4E complex. These structures and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data indicate that the nematode Ascaris suum eIF4E binds the two different caps in a similar manner except for the loss of a single hydrogen bond on binding the m(2,2,7)G-cap. Nematode and mammalian eIF4E both have a low affinity for m(2,2,7)G-cap compared with the m⁷G-cap. Nematode eIF4E binding to the m⁷G-cap, m(2,2,7)G-cap and the m(2,2,7)G-SL 22-nt RNA leads to distinct eIF4E conformational changes. Additional interactions occur between Ascaris eIF4E and the SL on binding the m(2,2,7)G-SL. We propose interactions between Ascaris eIF4E and the SL impact eIF4G and contribute to translation initiation, whereas these interactions do not occur when only the m(2,2,7)G-cap is present. These data have implications for the contribution of 5'-UTRs in mRNA translation and the function of different eIF4E isoforms. PMID:21965542

  3. Outcomes From AAS Hack Day at the 227th AAS Meeting

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This is a final post from the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. This special summary of AAS Hack Day, a meeting of AAS members to collaboratively work on various small projects, was written by Meredith Rawls (@Merrdiff) and was originally posted on astrobites.com.As the 227thAmerican Astronomical Society meeting drew to a close (see highlights from Day 1, Day 2, Day 3, and Day 4), a group of at least 50 attendees spent Day 4working on small projects fondly called hacks. Thanks to sponsorship from LSST and Northrup Grumman, the industrious hackers werewell-caffeinated and fed so we could devote time and energy toworking in groups on one-day projects.TheHack Day beganat 10am with pitches. Anybody with a project idea was welcome to briefly speak and try to convince others to work with them. Only someideas panned out, but the enthusiasm was palpable. Its not every day you get a full room of astronomers and affiliates eager to spend hours working on fun and useful projects to benefit the community.#hackAAS is getting underway! #aas227 pic.twitter.com/yX7jlOnSCK James R A Davenport (@jradavenport) January 8, 2016Here is a rundown of what we accomplished. Pretty impressive for a single day! Many thanks to fellow astrobiter Erika Nesvold (now at Carnegie DTM; @erikanesvold) whose hack was live-documenting all the other hacks. Her tweets as @astrobites appeared with the #hackaas hashtag, and her notes made this recap post infinitely easier to write.Interested in joining the fun? Sign up for Hack Day at the 2017 JanuaryAAS meeting (its free with meeting registration), and consider applying for the .Astronomy conference this summer.Towards Optimal Session Scheduling:Adrian Price-Whelan (Columbia), David Hogg (NYU), and Scott Idem (AAS) began writing a program to take all submitted abstracts to a conference like AAS and sort them using keywords to avoid scheduling similar talks in parallel sessions. Its impossible to make everyone happy, but minimizing conflicts

  4. LiB 3O 5 crystal structure at 20, 227 and 377 °C

    Shepelev, Yu. F.; Bubnova, R. S.; Filatov, S. K.; Sennova, N. A.; Pilneva, N. A.

    2005-10-01

    Crystal structure of LiB 3O 5 (a framework of [B 3O 5] - rings and Li atoms located in interspaces) was refined at high temperatures using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Mo Kα-radiation, anharmonic approximation, orthorhombic; Pna2 1; Z=4; 20 °C ( a=8.444, b=7.378, c=5.146 Å, 1411 F( hkl), R=0.022); 227 °C ( a=8.616, b=7.433, c=5.063 Å, 1336 F( hkl), R=0.026), 377 °C ( a=8.746, b=7.480, c=5.013 Å, 1193 F( hkl), R=0.035). A high mobility of Li atoms and their highly asymmetric vibrations are revealed. Ellipsoid of Li thermal vibrations is oviform. Li is shifted on heating to 0.26 Å mainly along a-axis causing high thermal expansion in this direction; Li temperature factors are multiplied by 4 on heating. Rigid boron-oxygen groups in LiB 3O 5 remain practically stable on heating similar to α-Na 2B 8O 13 and α-CsB 5O 8. At the same time these groups rotate relative to each other like hinges leading to extremely anisotropic thermal expansion ( α a=101, α b=31, α c=-71, α v=60×10 -6 °C -1, 20-530 °C, HTXRPD data).

  5. Interaction between supernova remnant G22.7–0.2 and the ambient molecular clouds

    We have carried out 12CO (J = 1-0 and 2-1), 13CO (J = 1-0), and C18O (J = 1-0) observations in the direction of the supernova remnant (SNR) G22.7–0.2. A filamentary molecular gas structure, which is likely part of a larger molecular complex with V LSR ∼ 75-79 km s–1, is detected and is found to surround the southern boundary of the remnant. In particular, the high-velocity wing (77-110 km s–1) in the 12CO (J = 1-0 and J = 2-1) emission shows convincing evidence of the interaction between SNR G22.7–0.2 and the 75-79 km s–1 molecular clouds (MCs). Spectra with redshifted profiles, a signature of shocked molecular gas, are seen in the southeastern boundary of the remnant. The association between the remnant and the 77 km s–1 MCs places the remnant at the near distance of 4.4 ± 0.4 kpc, which agrees with a location on the Scutum-Crux arm. We suggest that SNR G22.7–0.2, SNR W41, and H II region G022.760-0.485 are at the same distance and are associated with GMC G23.0–0.4.

  6. Removal of actinium from europium for the determination of specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki

    Measurements of specific radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as 152Eu and 60Co have been carried out to check the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for the atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima (exposed to uranium bomb) and Nagasaki (exposed to plutonium bomb). The use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry, however, has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic-bomb and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic-bomb, and the chemical procedure has been successful for the materials exposed to atomic-bomb within 1400 m in slant distance from the explosion point. As for Nagasaki, materials exposed in the distances farther than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, determination of specific radioactivity of 152Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to Nagasaki atomic-bomb at a distant place from the explosion point was undertaken. But, because of radioactive decay during this ∝60 years since 1945 and long distance from the explosion point, the present specific radioactivity of 152Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be ∝3 x 10-4 Bq-152Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem is interferences from daughters of 227Ac (half-life: 21.8 y) in the measurement of ultra low-level radioactivity of 152Eu. Hence, our chemical procedure to obtain Eu-enriched counting source should be improved, and much attention is being denoted to removal of Ac from Eu. (orig.)

  7. LiB3O5 crystal structure at 20, 227 and 377 deg. C

    Crystal structure of LiB3O5 (a framework of [B3O5]- rings and Li atoms located in interspaces) was refined at high temperatures using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, MoKα-radiation, anharmonic approximation, orthorhombic; Pna21; Z=4; 20 deg. C (a=8.444, b=7.378, c=5.146 A, 1411 F(hkl), R=0.022); 227 deg. C (a=8.616, b=7.433, c=5.063 A, 1336 F(hkl), R=0.026), 377 deg. C (a=8.746, b=7.480, c=5.013 A, 1193 F(hkl), R=0.035). A high mobility of Li atoms and their highly asymmetric vibrations are revealed. Ellipsoid of Li thermal vibrations is oviform. Li is shifted on heating to 0.26 A mainly along a-axis causing high thermal expansion in this direction; Li temperature factors are multiplied by 4 on heating. Rigid boron-oxygen groups in LiB3O5 remain practically stable on heating similar to α-Na2B8O13 and α-CsB5O8. At the same time these groups rotate relative to each other like hinges leading to extremely anisotropic thermal expansion (αa =101, αb =31, αc =-71, αv =60x10-6 deg. C-1, 20-530 deg. C, HTXRPD data). - Graphical abstract: Li anharmonic thermal vibrations in LiB3O5 crystal structures. Display Omitted

  8. The HB22.7 Anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody enhances bortezomib-mediated lymphomacidal activity in a sequence dependent manner

    Martin Shiloh M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL initially respond to chemotherapy, but relapse is common and treatment is often limited by chemotherapy-related toxicity. Bortezomib, is a highly selective proteasome inhibitor with anti-NHL activity; it is currently FDA approved for second-line treatment of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL. Bortezomib exerts its activity in part through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and also by the induction of apoptosis. We previously validated CD22 as a potential target in treating NHL and have shown that the anti-CD22 ligand blocking antibody, HB22.7, has significant independent lymphomacidal properties in NHL xenograft models. We sought to determine whether or not these agents would work synergistically to enhance cytotoxicity. Our results indicate that treatment of NHL cell lines with HB22.7 six hours prior to bortezomib significantly diminished cell viability. These effects were not seen when the agents were administered alone or when bortezomib was administered prior to HB22.7. Additionally, HB22.7 treatment prior to bortezomib increased apoptosis in part through enhanced ROS generation. Finally, in a mouse xenograft model, administration of HB22.7 followed 24 hours later by bortezomib resulted in 23% smaller tumor volumes and 20% enhanced survival compared to treatment with the reverse sequence. Despite the increased efficacy of HB22.7 treatment followed by bortezomib, there was no corresponding decrease in peripheral blood cell counts, indicating no increase in toxicity. Our results suggest that pre-treatment with HB22.7 increases bortezomib cytotoxicity, in part through increased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis, and that this sequential treatment combination has robust efficacy in vivo.

  9. Combined renin inhibition/(prorenin receptor blockade in diabetic retinopathy--a study in transgenic (mREN227 rats.

    Wendy W Batenburg

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of renin-angiotensin system (RAS contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. Prorenin, the precursor of renin is highly elevated in ocular fluid of diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy. Prorenin may exert local effects in the eye by binding to the so-called (prorenin receptor ((PRR. Here we investigated the combined effects of the renin inhibitor aliskiren and the putative (PRR blocker handle-region peptide (HRP on diabetic retinopathy in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic transgenic (mRen227 rats (a model with high plasma prorenin levels as well as prorenin stimulated cytokine expression in cultured Müller cells. Adult (mRen227 rats were randomly divided into the following groups: (1 non-diabetic; (2 diabetic treated with vehicle; (3 diabetic treated with aliskiren (10 mg/kg per day; and (4 diabetic treated with aliskiren+HRP (1 mg/kg per day. Age-matched non-diabetic wildtype Sprague-Dawley rats were used as control. Drugs were administered by osmotic minipumps for three weeks. Transgenic (mRen227 rat retinas showed increased apoptotic cell death of both inner retinal neurons and photoreceptors, increased loss of capillaries, as well as increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. These pathological changes were further exacerbated by diabetes. Aliskiren treatment of diabetic (mRen227 rats prevented retinal gliosis, and reduced retinal apoptotic cell death, acellular capillaries and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. HRP on top of aliskiren did not provide additional protection. In cultured Müller cells, prorenin significantly increased the expression levels of IL-1α and TNF-α, and this was completely blocked by aliskiren or HRP, their combination, (PRR siRNA and the AT1R blocker losartan, suggesting that these effects entirely depended on Ang II generation by (PRR-bound prorenin. In conclusion, the lack of effect of HRP on top of aliskiren, and the Ang II-dependency of the ocular

  10. Eta' photoproduction on the proton for photon energies from 1.527 to 2.227 GeV.

    Dugger, M; Ball, J P; Collins, P; Pasyuk, E; Ritchie, B G; Adams, G; Ambrozewicz, P; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Batourine, V; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Bültmann, S; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Chen, S; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Coltharp, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Credé, V; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; DeVita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Deur, A; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Donnelly, J; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Feldman, G; Feuerbach, R J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Huertas, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Juengst, H G; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, J; Kuhn, S E; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Lee, T; Lima, A C S; Livingston, K; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; Maximon, L C; McAleer, S; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mibe, T; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morrow, S A; Muccifora, V; Mueller, J; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Paterson, C; Philips, S A; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ronchetti, F; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatié, F; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Tkabladze, A; Tkachenko, S; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zana, L; Zhang, J

    2006-02-17

    Differential cross sections for the reaction gamma p --> eta' p have been measured with the CLAS spectrometer and a tagged photon beam with energies from 1.527 to 2.227 GeV. The results reported here possess much greater accuracy than previous measurements. Analyses of these data suggest for the first time the coupling of the eta'N channel to both the S11(1535) and P11(1710) resonances, known to couple strongly to the etaN channel in photoproduction on the proton, and the importance of J = 3/2 resonances in the process. PMID:16605984

  11. Development of the method for treatment for bone metastasis by using disequilibrium-type alpha particle emitting in vivo generator: 227Th-EDTMP

    To evaluate the efficacy of an alpha emitting radiopharmaceutical, 227Th-EDTMP for treatment of bone metastasis, 1) the process of bone metastasis on rats were monitored by radiography and gamma scintigraphy, and 2) 227Th-EDTMP were administered to bone metastasis model rats and assessed its palliation effect by von Frey filament test and measured tumor size. Two weeks after tumor cell inoculation, rats showed osteolytic change on cell inoculated site and bone lesion was detected by scintigraphy. In the therapy study, the rats showed no toxic effect by 227Th-EDTMP. However, the tumor volume size was increased with time and the bone pain palliation was comparable to control groups. Further experiment was necessary. (author)

  12. Developing 226Ra and 227Ac age-dating techniques for nuclear forensics to gain insight from concordant and non-concordant radiochronometers

    The model age or 'date of purification' of a nuclear material is an important nuclear forensic signature. In this study, chemical separation and MC-ICP-MS measurement techniques were developed for 226 Ra and 227Ac: grand-daughter nuclides in the 238U and 235U decay chains respectively. The 230Th-234U, 226Ra-238U, 231Pa-235U, and 227Ac-235U radiochronometers were used to calculate model ages for CRM-U100 standard reference material and two highly-enriched pieces of uranium metal from the International Technical Working Group Round Robin 3 Exercise. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the accuracy of the 226Ra-238U and 227Ac-235U chronometers and provide information about nuclide migration during uranium processing

  13. Developing 226Ra and 227Ac age-dating techniques for nuclear forensics to gain insight from concordant and non-concordant radiochronometers

    The model age or 'date of purification' of a nuclear material is an important nuclear forensic signature. In this study, chemical separation and MC-ICP-MS measurement techniques were developed for 226Ra and 227Ac: grand-daughter nuclides in the 238U and 235U decay chains, respectively. The 230Th-234U, 226Ra-238U, 231Pa-235U, and 227Ac-235U radiochronometers were used to calculate model ages for CRM-U100 standard reference material and two highly-enriched pieces of uranium metal from the International Technical Working Group Round Robin 3 Exercise. Results demonstrate the accuracy of the 226Ra-238U and 227Ac-235U chronometers and provide information about nuclide migration during uranium processing. (author)

  14. A modified method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging using [11C]BF-227

    Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) analyses have been widely used in dementia imaging studies. However, 3D-SSP sometimes shows paradoxical results on amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) analyses. This is thought to be caused by errors in anatomical standardization (AS) based on an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) template. We developed a new method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging, and used it to analyze 11C-labeled 2-(2-[2-dimethylaminothiazol-5-yl]ethenyl)-6-(2-[fluoro]ethoxy) benzoxazole (BF-227) PET images of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects were 20 with MCI, 19 patients with AD, and 17 healthy controls. Twelve subjects with MCI were followed up for 3 years or more, and conversion to AD was seen in 6 cases. All subjects underwent PET with both FDG and BF-227. For AS and 3D-SSP analyses of PET data, Neurostat (University of Washington, WA, USA) was used. Method 1 involves AS for BF-227 images using an FDG template. In this study, we developed a new method (Method 2) for AS: First, an FDG image was subjected to AS using an FDG template. Then, the BF-227 image of the same patient was registered to the FDG image, and AS was performed using the transformation parameters calculated for AS of the corresponding FDG images. Regional values were normalized by the average value obtained at the cerebellum and values were calculated for the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. For statistical comparison of the 3 groups, we applied one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test. For statistical comparison between converters and non-converters, the t test was applied. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Among the 56 cases we studied, Method 1 demonstrated slight distortions after AS of the image in 16 cases and heavy distortions in 4 cases in which the distortions were not observed with Method 2. Both methods demonstrated that the

  15. Assessment of long-term radiotoxicity after treatment with the low-dose-rate alpha-particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate 227Th-rituximab

    The anti-CD20 antibody rituximab labelled with the α-particle-emitting radionuclide 227Th is of interest as a radiotherapeutic agent for treatment of lymphoma. Complete regression of human lymphoma Raji xenografts in 60% of mice treated with 200 kBq/kg 227Th-rituximab has been observed. To evaluate possible late side effects of 227Th-rituximab, the long-term radiotoxicity of this potential radiopharmaceutical was investigated. BALB/c mice were injected with saline, cold rituximab or 50, 200 or 1,000 kBq/kg 227Th-rituximab and followed for up to 1 year. In addition, nude mice with Raji xenografts treated with various doses of 227Th-rituximab were also included in the study. Toxicity was evaluated by measurements of mouse body weight, white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts, serum clinical chemistry parameters and histological examination of tissues. Only the 1,000 kBq/kg dosage resulted in decreased body weight of the BALB/c mice. There was a significant but temporary decrease in WBC and platelet count in mice treated with 400 and 1,000 kBq/kg 227Th-rituximab. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 200 kBq/kg. The maximum tolerated activity was between 600 and 1,000 kBq/kg. No significant signs of toxicity were observed in histological sections in any examined tissue. There were significantly (p 227Th-rituximab or non-labelled antibody when compared with control mice. The maximum tolerated dose to bone marrow was between 2.1 and 3.5 Gy. Therapeutically relevant dose levels of 227Th-rituximab were well tolerated in mice. Bone marrow suppression, as indicated by decrease in WBC count, was the dose-limiting radiotoxicity. These toxicity data together with anti-tumour activity data in a CD20-positive xenograft mouse model indicate that therapeutic effects could be obtained with relatively safe dosage levels of the radioimmunoconjugate. (orig.)

  16. CSRL-V ENDF/B-V 227-group neutron cross-section library and its application to thermal-reactor and criticality safety benchmarks

    Characteristics and contents of the CSRL-V (Criticality Safety Reference Library based on ENDF/B-V data) 227-neutron-group AMPX master and pointwise cross-section libraries are described. Results obtained in using CSRL-V to calculate performance parameters of selected thermal reactor and criticality safety benchmarks are discussed

  17. A synchrotron study of Na2.27Ho7.73(SiO46O0.72

    Luis Fuentes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A well crystallized powder sample of sodium holmium orthosilicate oxyapatite, Na2.27Ho7.73(SiO46O0.72, was obtained after mechanical milling and thermal treatment at 1123 K. Crystal structure analysis was performed from the results of Rietveld refinement of the synchrotron diffraction data. As in other rare-earth orthosilicate apatites, sodium cations appear located sharing with holmium the 4f Wyckoff position at the center of a tricapped trigonal prism. In its turn, holmium almost fully occupies the 6h position at the center of a seven-coordinated pentagonal bipyramid. A small quantity of Na atoms was found at this site. No vacancies are present in the two independent crystallographic sites available for Ho and Na atoms.

  18. Two-dimensional Langevin modeling of fission dynamics of the excited compound nuclei 188Pt, 227Pa and 251Es

    Eslamizadeh, H.

    2016-02-01

    A stochastic approach based on one- and two-dimensional Langevin equations is applied to calculate the pre-scission neutron multiplicity, fission probability, anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution, fission cross section and the evaporation cross section for the compound nuclei 188Pt, 227Pa and 251Es in an intermediate range of excitation energies. The chaos weighted wall and window friction formula are used in the Langevin equations. The elongation parameter, c, is used as the first dimension and projection of the total spin of the compound nucleus onto the symmetry axis, K, considered as the second dimension in Langevin dynamical calculations. A constant dissipation coefficient of K, γK = 0.077(MeV zs)-1/2, is used in two-dimensional calculations to reproduce the above mentioned experimental data. Comparison of the theoretical results of the pre-scission neutron multiplicity, fission probability, fission cross section and the evaporation cross section with the experimental data shows that the results of two-dimensional calculations are in better agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, it is shown that the two-dimensional Langevin equations together with a dissipation coefficient of K, γK = 0.077(MeV zs)-1/2, can satisfactorily reproduce the anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution for the heavy compound nucleus 251Es. However, a larger value of γK = 0.250(MeV zs)-1/2 is needed to reproduce the anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution for the lighter compound nucleus 227Pa.

  19. Modifications in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameters After α-Particle-Emitting {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab Therapy of HER2-Expressing Ovarian Cancer Xenografts

    Heyerdahl, Helen, E-mail: Helen.Heyerdahl@rr-research.no [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital - The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Røe, Kathrine [Department of Oncology, Division of Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog (Norway); Brevik, Ellen Mengshoel [Department of Research and Development, Algeta ASA, Oslo (Norway); Dahle, Jostein [Nordic Nanovector AS, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of α-particle-emitting {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab radioimmunotherapy on tumor vasculature to increase the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab. Methods and Materials: Human HER2-expressing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts were grown bilaterally in athymic nude mice. Mice with tumor volumes 253 ± 36 mm{sup 3} (mean ± SEM) were treated with a single injection of either {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab at a dose of 1000 kBq/kg body weight (treated group, n=14 tumors) or 0.9% NaCl (control group, n=10 tumors). Dynamic T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) was used to study the effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab on tumor vasculature. DCEMRI was performed before treatment and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after therapy. Tumor contrast-enhancement curves were extracted voxel by voxel and fitted to the Brix pharmacokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the tumors that underwent radioimmunotherapy were compared with the corresponding parameters of control tumors. Results: Significant increases of k{sub ep}, the rate constant of diffusion from the extravascular extracellular space to the plasma (P<.05), and k{sub el,} the rate of clearance of contrast agent from the plasma (P<.01), were seen in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection, compared with the control group. The product of k{sub ep} and the amplitude parameter A, associated with increased vessel permeability and perfusion, was also significantly increased in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection (P<.01). Conclusions: Pharmacokinetic modeling of MRI contrast-enhancement curves evidenced significant alterations in parameters associated with increased tumor vessel permeability and tumor perfusion after {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab treatment of HER2-expressing ovarian cancer xenografts.

  20. Structural insights into parasite eIF4E binding specificity for m7G and m2,2,7G mRNA caps.

    Liu, Weizhi; Zhao, Rui; McFarland, Craig; Kieft, Jeffrey; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Stepinski, Janusz; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jones, David N M; Davis, Richard E

    2009-11-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E recognizes the mRNA cap, a key step in translation initiation. Here we have characterized eIF4E from the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Schistosome mRNAs have either the typical monomethylguanosine (m(7)G) or a trimethylguanosine (m(2,2,7)G) cap derived from spliced leader trans-splicing. Quantitative fluorescence titration analyses demonstrated that schistosome eIF4E has similar binding specificity for both caps. We present the first crystal structure of an eIF4E with similar binding specificity for m(7)G and m(2,2,7)G caps. The eIF4E.m(7)GpppG structure demonstrates that the schistosome protein binds monomethyl cap in a manner similar to that of single specificity eIF4Es and exhibits a structure similar to other known eIF4Es. The structure suggests an alternate orientation of a conserved, key Glu-90 in the cap-binding pocket that may contribute to dual binding specificity and a position for mRNA bound to eIF4E consistent with biochemical data. Comparison of NMR chemical shift perturbations in schistosome eIF4E on binding m(7)GpppG and m(2,2,7)GpppG identified key differences between the two complexes. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrated significant thermodynamics differences for the binding process with the two caps (m(7)G versus m(2,2,7)G). Overall the NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry data suggest the importance of intrinsic conformational flexibility in the schistosome eIF4E that enables binding to m(2,2,7)G cap. PMID:19710013

  1. A sorption study of 85Sr, 137Cs and 227Th onto glacial sand as part of an interlaboratory exercise

    A number of radionuclide batch sorption tests have been carried out on core material from boreholes on the BNFL Drigg site, Cumbria, as part of an intercomparison exercise with BNFL, Sellafield. This report describes the nature of the materials used, the method and the results of the BGS side of the interlaboratory exercise. Another report will describe the intercomparison. These experiments formed part of a wider programme of laboratory tests by BGS to ascertain the sorption properties of the Drigg sands and silts as an information base for designing artificial in-situ radionuclide migration experiments on site at Drigg. Three radionuclides were used, 85Sr, 137Cs, and 227Th. Interestingly, although sorption of strontium was about 15 times less than for thorium, the pattern of sorption as a function of borehole depth i.e. mineralogical composition, was very similar. Sorption of 137Cs was found to be non-linear, depending strongly on caesium concentration in the groundwater. Isotherm fits were used to determine the energy of sorption in the ion exchange process, the mechanism responsible for uptake. There is a need for a standard batch sorption method to be in common use. (author)

  2. MUC1 (CD227) interacts with lck tyrosine kinase in Jurkat lymphoma cells and normal T cells.

    Mukherjee, P; Tinder, T L; Basu, G D; Gendler, S J

    2005-01-01

    MUC1 (CD227) is a large transmembrane epithelial mucin glycoprotein, which is aberrantly overexpressed in most adenocarcinomas and is a target for immune therapy for epithelial tumors. Recently, MUC1 has been detected in a variety of hematopoietic cell malignancies including T and B cell lymphomas and myelomas; however, its function in these cells is not clearly defined. Using the Jurkat T cell lymphoma cell line and normal human T cells, we demonstrate that MUC1 is not only expressed in these cells but is also phosphorylated upon T cell receptor (TCR) ligation and associates with the Src-related T cell tyrosine kinase, p56lck. Upon TCR-mediated activation of Jurkat cells, MUC1 is found in the low-density membrane fractions, where linker of T cell activation is contained. Abrogation of MUC1 expression in Jurkat cells by MUC1-specific small interfering RNA resulted in defects in TCR-mediated downstream signaling events associated with T cell activation. These include reduction in Ca2+ influx and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, leading to a decrease in CD69 expression, proliferation, and interleukin-2 production. These results suggest a regulatory role of MUC1 in modulating proximal signal transduction events through its interaction with proteins of the activation complex. PMID:15513966

  3. The prevalence of ABCB1:c.227_230delATAG mutation in affected dog breeds from European countries.

    Firdova, Zuzana; Turnova, Evelina; Bielikova, Marcela; Turna, Jan; Dudas, Andrej

    2016-06-01

    Deletion of 4-base pairs in the canine ABCB1 (MDR1) gene, responsible for encoding P-glycoprotein, leads to nonsense frame-shift mutation, which causes hypersensitivity to macrocyclic lactones drugs (e.g. ivermectin). To date, at least 12 purebred dog breeds have been found to be affected by this mutation. The aim of this study was to update information about the prevalence of ABCB1 mutation (c.227_230delATAG) in predisposed breeds in multiple European countries. This large scale survey also includes countries which were not involved in previous studies. The samples were collected in the period from 2012 to 2014. The overview is based on genotyping data of 4729 individuals. The observed mutant allele frequencies were 58.5% (Smooth Collie), 48.3% (Rough Collie), 35% (Australian Shepherd), 30.3% (Shetland Sheepdog), 28.1% (Silken Windhound), 26.1% (Miniature Australian Shepherd), 24.3% (Longhaired Whippet), 16.2% (White Swiss Shepherd) and 0% (Border Collie). The possible presence of an ABCB1 mutant allele in Akita-Inu breed has been investigated with negative results. This information could be helpful for breeders in optimization of their breeding strategy and for veterinarians when prescribing drug therapy for dogs of predisposed breeds. PMID:27234542

  4. Quantitative kinetic analysis of PET amyloid imaging agents [11C]BF227 and [18F]FACT in human brain

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare two amyloid imaging agents, [11C]BF227 and [18F]FACT (derivative from [11C]BF227) through quantitative pharmacokinetics analysis in human brain. Methods: Positron emission tomography studies were performed on six elderly healthy control (HC) subjects and seven probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients with [11C]BF227 and 10 HC subjects and 10 probable AD patients with [18F]FACT. Data from nine regions of interest were analyzed by several approaches, namely non-linear least-squared fitting methods with arterial input functions (one-tissue compartment model(1TCM), two-tissue compartment model (2TCM)), Logan plot, and linearized methods with reference region (Reference Logan plot (RefLogan), MRTM0, MRTM2). We also evaluated SUV and SUVR for both tracers. The parameters estimated by several approaches were compared between two tracers for detectability of differences between HC and AD patients. Results: For [11C]BF227, there were no significant difference of VT (2TCM, 1TCM) and SUV in all regions (Student t-test; p < 0.05) and significant differences in the DVRs (Logan, RefLogan, and MRTM2) and SUVRs in six neocortical regions (p < 0.05) between the HC and AD groups. For [18F]FACT, significant differences in DVRs (RefLogan, MRTM0, and MRTM2) were observed in more than four neocortical regions between the HC and AD groups (p < 0.05), and the significant differences were found in SUVRs for two neocortical regions (inferior frontal coretex and lateral temporal coretex). Our results showed that both tracers can clearly distinguish between HC and AD groups although the pharmacokinetics and distribution patterns in brain for two tracers were substantially different. Conclusion: This study revealed that although the PET amyloid imaging agents [11C]BF227 and [18F]FACT have similar chemical and biological properties, they have different pharmacokinetics, and caution must be paid for usage of the tracers

  5. Systematic identification of non-coding RNA 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine cap structures in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Skogerbø Geir

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG cap structure is an important functional characteristic of ncRNAs with critical cellular roles, such as some snRNAs. Here we used immunoprecipitation with both K121 and R1131 anti-TMG antibodies to systematically identify the TMG cap structures for all presently characterized ncRNAs in C. elegans. Results The two anti-TMG antibodies precipitated a similar group of the C. elegans ncRNAs. All snRNAs known to have a TMG cap structure were found in the precipitate, indicating that our identification system was efficient. Other ncRNA families related to splicing, such as SL RNAs and Sm Y RNAs, were also found in the precipitate, as were 7 C/D box snoRNAs. Further analysis showed that the SL RNAs and the Sm Y RNAs shared a very similar Sm binding site element (AAU4–5GGA, which sequence composition differed somewhat from those of other U snRNAs. There were also 16 ncRNAs without an Sm binding site element in the precipitate, suggesting that for these ncRNAs, TMG formation may occur independently of Sm proteins. Conclusion Our results showed that most ncRNAs predicted to be transcribed by RNA polymerase II had a TMG cap, while those predicted to be transcribed by RNA plymerase III or located in introns did not have a TMG cap structure. Compared to ncRNAs without a TMG cap, TMG-capped ncRNAs tended to have higher expression levels. Five functionally non-annotated ncRNAs also have a TMG cap structure, which might be helpful for identifying the cellular roles of these ncRNAs.

  6. Absolute rate constant and O(3P yield for the O(1D+N2O reaction in the temperature range 227 K to 719 K

    S. A. Carl

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The absolute rate constant for the reaction that is the major source of stratospheric NOx, O(1D+N2O → products, has been determined in the temperature range 227 K to 719 K, and, in the temperature range 248 K to 600 K, the fraction of the reaction that yields O(3P. Both the rate constants and product yields were determined using a recently-developed chemiluminescence technique for monitoring O(1D that allows for higher precision determinations for both rate constants, and, particularly, O(3P yields, than do other methods. We found the rate constant, kR1, to be essentially independent of temperature between 400 K and 227 K, having a value of (1.37±0.11×10−10 cm3 s−1, and for temperatures greater than 450 K a marked decrease in rate constant was observed, with a rate constant of only (0.94±0.11×10−10 cm3 s−1 at 719 K. The rate constants determined over the 227 K–400 K range show very low scatter and are significantly greater, by 20% at room temperature and 15% at 227 K, than the current recommended values. The fraction of O(3P produced in this reaction was determined to be 0.002±0.002 at 250 K rising steadily to 0.010±0.004 at 600 K, thus the channel producing O(3P can be entirely neglected in atmospheric kinetic modeling calculations. A further result of this study is an expression of the relative quantum yields as a function of temperature for the chemiluminescence reactions (kCL1C2H + O(1D → CH(A + CO and (kCL2C2H + O(3P → CH(A + CO, both followed by CH(A → CH(X + hν, as kCL1(T/kCL2(T=(32.8T−3050/(6.29T+398.

  7. Cloning, functional organization, transcript studies, and phylogenetic analysis of the complete nitrogenase structural genes (nifHDK2) and associated genes in the archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri 227.

    Chien, Y T; Zinder, S. H.

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the nitrogenase structural genes (nifHDK2) from Methanosarcina barkeri 227 was completed in this study by cloning and sequencing a 2.7-kb BamHI fragment containing the 3' end of nifK2 and 1,390 bp of the nifE2-homologous genes. Open reading frame nifK2 is 1,371 bp long including the stop codon TAA and encodes a polypeptide of 456 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the nifK2 and nifE2 gene products from M. barke...

  8. Intoxicación por ciguatera: Estudio de 227 pacientes durante el periodo 1999 al 2005 Ciguatera poisoning: Study of 277 patients in the 1999-2005 period.

    Carlos Manuel Maya Entenza; Miladys Martín Labrador; Marisol Monteagudo Torres

    2007-01-01

    La ciguatera es la intoxicación alimentaría causada por el consumo de pescados ciguatóxicos, cuyos efectos sobre el ser humano pueden ser graves y conducir a la muerte. Se describieron las principales características epidemiológicas, clínicas y del tratamiento en los pacientes con ciguatera. La investigación incluyó 227 pacientes con ciguatera estudiados de forma prospectiva en el Hospital Clínico-Quirúrgico Universitario “Comandante Manuel Fajardo” de Ciudad de La Habana entre lo...

  9. Development of separation technology for the removal of radium-223 from decayed thorium-227 in drug formulations. Material screening and method development.

    Frenvik, Janne Olsen; Kristensen, Solveig; Ryan, Olav B

    2016-08-01

    Targeted thorium conjugates are currently being investigated as a new class of alpha-radiopharmaceuticals. The natural decay of thorium-227 ((227)Th) results in the ingrowth of radium-223 ((223)Ra). Consideration must, therefore, be given to define acceptable limits of (223)Ra in the drug product at the time of dose administration. By effective sequestration of (223)Ra, we aim to improve the radiochemical purity and extend the effective user window of drug products containing (227)Th. (223)Ra is the first progeny of (227)Th and the only one with a long half-life (days). We have, therefore, focused on the removal of this specific species since the progenies of (223)Ra will have a very limited lifetime in the formulation once (223)Ra is removed. In this study, we investigated a multitude of materials for their ability to reduce the (223)Ra level by: (1) passive diffusion or (2) by cartridge filtration on gravity columns. In addition, we probe the compatibility of these materials in the presence of antibody trastuzumab to assess the level of protein binding and estimate the quenching of radiolysis by binding of radionuclides. A screening matrix of organic and inorganic materials was established, i.e. strontium and calcium alginate gel beads, distearoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DSPG) liposomes, ceramic hydroxyapatite, Zeolite UOP type 4A and cation exchange resins AG50W-X8 and SOURCE 30S. First, passive diffusional uptake of (223)Ra by suspended materials present in the formulation was measured as a decrease in sample radioactivity after separation. Second, selected materials were packed on gravity columns in order to evaluate the efficiency of column separation versus diffusional adsorption. The retention of (223)Ra and (227)Th were characterized by measuring the radioactivity in the eluate and on the columns. Finally, the compatibility between trastuzumab, as a selected model antibody, and suspensions of the binding materials was analyzed during storage of the drug

  10. Fractionated therapy of HER2-expressing breast and ovarian cancer xenografts in mice with targeted alpha emitting 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-trastuzumab.

    Helen Heyerdahl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate therapeutic efficacy and normal tissue toxicity of single dosage and fractionated targeted alpha therapy (TAT in mice with HER2-expressing breast and ovarian cancer xenografts using the low dose rate radioimmunoconjugate (227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-trastuzumab. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nude mice carrying HER2-overexpressing subcutaneous SKOV-3 or SKBR-3 xenografts were treated with 1000 kBq/kg (227Th-trastuzumab as single injection or four injections of 250 kBq/kg with intervals of 4-5 days, 2 weeks, or 4 weeks. Control animals were treated with normal saline or unlabeled trastuzumab. In SKOV-3 xenografts tumor growth to 10-fold size was delayed (p<0.01 and survival with tumor diameter less than 16 mm was prolonged (p<0.05 in all TAT groups compared to the control groups. No statistically significant differences were seen among the treated groups. In SKBR-3 xenografts tumor growth to 10-fold size was delayed in the single injection and 4-5 days interval groups (p<0.001 and all except the 4 weeks interval TAT group showed improved survival to the control groups (p<0.05. Toxicity was assessed by blood cell counts, clinical chemistry measurements and body weight. Transient reduction in white blood cells was seen for the single injection and 4-5 days interval groups (p<0.05. No significant changes were seen in red blood cells, platelets or clinical chemistry parameters. Survival without life threatening loss of body weight was significantly prolonged in 4 weeks interval group compared to single injection group (p<0.05 for SKOV-3 animals and in 2 weeks interval group compared with the 4-5 days interval groups (p<0.05 for SKBR-3 animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The same concentration of radioactivity split into several fractions may improve toxicity of (227Th-radioimmunotherapy while the therapeutic effect is maintained. Thus, it might be possible to increase the cumulative absorbed radiation dose

  11. The V227A polymorphism at the PPARA locus is associated with serum lipid concentrations and modulates the association between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and serum high density lipoprotein concentrations in Chinese women.

    Chan, Edmund; Tan, Chuen Seng; Deurenberg-Yap, Mabel; Chia, Kee Seng; Chew, Suok Kai; Tai, E Shyong

    2006-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferators activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates the transcription of several proteins involved in human lipoprotein metabolism. We screened the PPARA locus for polymorphisms in 20 unrelated subjects from each of three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians). Only the V227A polymorphism was observed. We genotyped 4248 subjects (2899 Chinese, 761 Malay and 588 Asian Indians) and found allele frequencies for the A227 allele of 0.04 in Chinese, 0.006 in Malays and 0.003 in Asian Indians. We examined the associations between this polymorphism and serum lipid concentrations in Chinese. In women, but not in men, the presence of the A227 allele was associated with lower serum concentrations of total cholesterol [5.38mmol/l (95%CI: 5.22-5.54) versus 5.21mmol/l (95%CI: 4.99-5.43), p=0.047] and triglycerides [1.19mmol/l (95%CI: 1.10-1.28) versus 1.09mmol/l (95%CI: 0.98-1.21), p=0.048]. We also found that the V227A polymorphism modulates the association between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and serum high density lipoprotein concentration (p-value for interaction=0.049). Our findings implicate PPARalpha in the lipid lowering associated with diets high in PUFA and suggests that genetic variation at the PPARA locus may determine the lipid response to changes in PUFA intake. PMID:16288935

  12. Application of USP inlet extensions to the TSI impactor system 3306/3320 using HFA 227 based solution metered dose inhalers.

    Mogalian, Erik; Myrdal, Paul Brian

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this study was to further evaluate the need for a vertical inlet extension when testing solution metered dose inhalers using the TSI Model 3306 Impactor Inlet in conjunction with the TSI Model 3320 Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The configurations tested using the TSI system were compared to baseline measurements that were performed using the Andersen Mark II 8-stage cascade impactor (ACI). Seven pressurized solution metered dose inhalers were tested using varied concentrations of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), ethanol, and HFA 227 propellant. The inhalers were tested with the cascade impactor, and with the TSI system. The TSI system had three different configurations as the manufacturer provided (0 cm) or with inlet extensions of 20 and 40 cm. The extensions were located between the USP inlet and the Model 3306 Impactor Inlet. There were no practical differences between each system for the stem, actuator, or USP inlet. The fine particle mass (aerodynamic mass < 4.7 microm) was affected by extension length and correlated well with the ACI when an extension was present. APS particle size measurements were unaffected by the extension lengths and correlated well to particle size determined from the ACI analysis. It has been confirmed that an inlet extension may be necessary for the TSI system in order to give mass results that correlate to the ACI, especially for formulations having significant concentrations of low volatility excipients. Additionally, the results generated from this study were used to evaluate the product performance of HFA 227 based solution formulations that contain varying concentrations of ethanol as a cosolvent. PMID:16316853

  13. Effect of pressurized solution nitriding on phase changes and mechanical properties of ferritic Fe–22.7Cr–2.4Mo stainless steel

    Mohammadzadeh, Roghayeh, E-mail: r_mohammadzadeh@sut.ac.ir; Akbari, Alireza, E-mail: akbari@sut.ac.ir

    2014-01-13

    Pressurized solution nitriding (PSN) of ferritic Fe–22.7Cr–2.4Mo stainless steel at 1200 °C in nitrogen gas under pressure of 0.25 MPa for different times has been investigated. The structure and mechanical properties were characterized using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing. Phase transformation of ferrite to austenite starts from the sample surface and grows further into the core with increasing nitriding time. A fully austenitic structure was achieved after 9 h nitriding for plates of 2 mm thick. Strip-like chromium nitride precipitates with discontinuous morphology are found in the edges of the sample nitrided for 12 h. The average solute nitrogen content of austenite phase was estimated based on lattice parameter calculations to vary from 1.25 to 1.75 wt%. The yield strength is monotonically increased above 900 MPa with increasing the PSN time. The solution nitrided samples for 6 h exhibit high elongation to fracture (above 30%) and high tensile strength (above 1000 MPa). Solution nitriding changes the fracture mode from ductile to a mixed mode inter-granular and trans-granular brittle fracture. Formation of the planar slip bands plays a major role in brittle fracture of the austenite phase. Brittle fracture is favored with precipitation of chromium nitrides. The time of the PSN should be optimized to suppress chromium nitride precipitation.

  14. Effect of pressurized solution nitriding on phase changes and mechanical properties of ferritic Fe–22.7Cr–2.4Mo stainless steel

    Pressurized solution nitriding (PSN) of ferritic Fe–22.7Cr–2.4Mo stainless steel at 1200 °C in nitrogen gas under pressure of 0.25 MPa for different times has been investigated. The structure and mechanical properties were characterized using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing. Phase transformation of ferrite to austenite starts from the sample surface and grows further into the core with increasing nitriding time. A fully austenitic structure was achieved after 9 h nitriding for plates of 2 mm thick. Strip-like chromium nitride precipitates with discontinuous morphology are found in the edges of the sample nitrided for 12 h. The average solute nitrogen content of austenite phase was estimated based on lattice parameter calculations to vary from 1.25 to 1.75 wt%. The yield strength is monotonically increased above 900 MPa with increasing the PSN time. The solution nitrided samples for 6 h exhibit high elongation to fracture (above 30%) and high tensile strength (above 1000 MPa). Solution nitriding changes the fracture mode from ductile to a mixed mode inter-granular and trans-granular brittle fracture. Formation of the planar slip bands plays a major role in brittle fracture of the austenite phase. Brittle fracture is favored with precipitation of chromium nitrides. The time of the PSN should be optimized to suppress chromium nitride precipitation

  15. LASL experience in decontamination of the environment

    This discussion represents one part of a major effort in soil decontamination at the Los Alamos site. A contaminated industrial waste line in the Los Alamos townsite was removed, and a plutonium incineration facility, and a filter building contaminated with actinium-227 were dismantled. The former plutonium handling facility has been decontaminated, and canyons and an old firing site contaminated with strontium-90 have been surveyed

  16. Study of the origin of elements of the uranium-235 family observed in excess in the vicinity of the experimental nuclear EL4 reactor under dismantling. Lessons got at this day and conclusions; Etude de l'origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes en exces dans les environs du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement. Enseignements retires a ce jour et conclusion

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This study resumes the discovery of an excess of actinium 227 found around by EL4 nuclear reactor actually in dismantling. The search for the origin of this excess revealed a real inquiry of investigation during three years. Because a nuclear reactor existed in this area a particular attention will have concerned this region. The doubt became the line of conduct to find the answer to the human or natural origin of this excess. Finally and against any evidence, it appears that the origin of this phenomenon was natural, consequence of the particular local geology. The detail of the different investigations is given: search of a possible correlation with the composition of elevations constituent of lanes, search (and underlining) of new sites in the surroundings of the Rusquec pond and the Plouenez station, study of the atmospheric deposits under winds of the nuclear power plant and in the east direction, search of a possible relationship with the gaseous effluents of the nuclear power plant in the past, historical study of radioactive effluents releases in the fifty last years by the analysis of the sedimentary deposits in the Saint-Herbiot reservoir, search of a possible correlation between the excess of actinium 227 and the nuclear power plant activity; search of a possible correlation with a human activity without any relationship with the nuclear activities, search of a correlation with the underground waters, search of a correlation with the geological context, collect of information on the possible transfers in direction of the food chain, determination of the radiological composition of the underground waters ( not perturbed by human activity), search of the cause of an excess of actinium 227 in the old channel of liquid effluents release of the nuclear power plant. The results are given and discussed. And contrary to all expectations the origin of the excess of actinium 227 is completely natural. (N.C.)

  17. Anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of angiotensin-(1-7) in hypertensive transgenic (mRen2)27 rats.

    Almeida-Santos, Ana Flávia; Kangussu, Lucas M; Moreira, Fabrício A; Santos, Robson A S; Aguiar, Daniele C; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José

    2016-07-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], a counter-regulatory peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exerts its effects through the G-protein-coupled receptor Mas, which is expressed in different tissues, including the brain. Ang-(1-7) has a broad range of effects beyond the well-described cardiovascular and renal actions, including the modulation of emotional and behavioural responses. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that Ang-(1-7) could attenuate the anxiety- and depression-like behaviours observed in transgenic hypertensive (mRen2)27 rats (TGRs). We also hypothesized that Ang-(1-7) could be involved in the anxiolytic-like effect induced by ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) treatment in these hypertensive rats. Therefore, TGRs and Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) test, Forced Swimming Test (FST) and Novelty Suppressed Feeding (NSF). TGRs presented a decreased percentage of entries in the open arms of the EPM test, a phenotype reversed by systemic treatment with enalapril or intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang-(1-7). It is interesting that pre-treatment with A779, a selective Mas receptor antagonist, prevented the anxiolytic-like effect induced by the ACE inhibitor. In the NSF test, TGRs showed increased latency to eating, an indicative of a higher aversion in response to a new environment. These animals also showed increased immobility in the FST. Again, Ang-(1-7) reversed this phenotype. Thus, our data showed that Ang-(1-7) can modulate anxiety- and depression-like behaviours in TGRs and warrant further investigation as a new therapy for certain psychiatric disorders. PMID:27129185

  18. Absolute rate constant and O(3P) yield for the O(1D)+N2O reaction in the temperature range 227 K to 719 K

    Carl, S. A.; Peeters, J.; Vranckx, S.

    2008-01-01

    The absolute rate constant for the reaction that is the major source of stratospheric NOx, O(1D)+N2O → products, has been determined in the temperature range 227 K to 719 K, and, in the temperature range 248 K to 600 K, the fraction of the reaction that yields O(3P). Both the rate constants and product yields were determined using a recently-developed chemiluminescence technique for monitoring O(1D) that allows for higher precision determinations for both rate constants, and, particularl...

  19. Cloning, functional organization, transcript studies, and phylogenetic analysis of the complete nitrogenase structural genes (nifHDK2) and associated genes in the archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri 227.

    Chien, Y T; Zinder, S H

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the nitrogenase structural genes (nifHDK2) from Methanosarcina barkeri 227 was completed in this study by cloning and sequencing a 2.7-kb BamHI fragment containing the 3' end of nifK2 and 1,390 bp of the nifE2-homologous genes. Open reading frame nifK2 is 1,371 bp long including the stop codon TAA and encodes a polypeptide of 456 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the nifK2 and nifE2 gene products from M. barkeri showed that both genes cluster most closely with the corresponding nif-1 gene products from Clostridium pasteurianum, consistent with our previous analyses of nifH2 and nifD2. The nifE gene product is known to be homologous to that of nifD, and our analysis shows that the branching pattern for the nifE proteins resembles that for the nifD product (with the exception of vnfE from Azotobacter vinelandii), suggesting that a gene duplication occurred before the divergence of nitrogenases. Primer extension showed that nifH2 had a single transcription start site located 34 nucleotides upstream of the ATG translation start site for nifH2, and a sequence resembling the archaeal consensus promoter sequence [TTTA(A/T)ATA] was found 32 nucleotides upstream from that transcription start site. A tract of four T's, previously identified as a transcription termination site in archaea, was found immediately downstream of the nifK2 gene, and a potential promoter was located upstream of the nifE2 gene. Hybridization with nifH2 and nifDK2 probes with M. barkeri RNA revealed a 4.6-kb transcript from N2-grown cells, large enough to harbor nifHDK genes and their internal open reading frames, while no transcript was detected from NH4(+)-grown cells. These results support a model in which the nitrogenase structural genes in M. barkeri are cotranscribed in a single NH4(+)-repressed operon. PMID:8550408

  20. Intoxicación por ciguatera: Estudio de 227 pacientes durante el periodo 1999 al 2005 Ciguatera poisoning: Study of 277 patients in the 1999-2005 period.

    Carlos Manuel Maya Entenza

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available La ciguatera es la intoxicación alimentaría causada por el consumo de pescados ciguatóxicos, cuyos efectos sobre el ser humano pueden ser graves y conducir a la muerte. Se describieron las principales características epidemiológicas, clínicas y del tratamiento en los pacientes con ciguatera. La investigación incluyó 227 pacientes con ciguatera estudiados de forma prospectiva en el Hospital Clínico-Quirúrgico Universitario “Comandante Manuel Fajardo” de Ciudad de La Habana entre los años 1999 al 2005. Para la recolección de la muestra se elaboró una encuesta que recogió los datos demográficos, identidad personal, manifestaciones clínicas, tratamiento empleado en los pacientes, así como la especie que causó la intoxicación. Se encontró que existe un incremento significativo en la incidencia de pacientes con ciguatera que acuden al hospital en los últimos 3 años. Los meses de abril a septiembre son los de mayor incidencia de la enfermedad. Hubo predominio de las mujeres sobre los hombres. Los pacientes comprendidos entre las edades de 21 y 50 años son los más afectados. El promedio de edad de los enfermos es de 39,2±10 años. Las especies barracuda y gallego fueron las que más frecuentemente provocaron la intoxicación en 74 y 38 pacientes, respectivamente y 73 intoxicados desconocían la especie ingerida. Los síntomas referidos con mayor frecuencia por los pacientes fueron la fatiga muscular, los trastornos gastrointestinales y las manifestaciones sensitivas. Los hallazgos más frecuentes al examen físico fueron los sensitivos, los signos de deshidratación y la debilidad muscular. El tiempo transcurrido entre la ingestión del pescado y el inicio del cuadro clínico fue menor o igual a las 12 horas en 70,8 % de los casos. Los medicamentos que con más frecuencia se emplearon en los enfermos fueron los antieméticos, vitaminas, antihistamínicos y el manitol al 20 % resultando este último la única terapia que

  1. 两种试验方法对227名乡村医生潜伏性结核感染检测的结果分析

    胡冬梅; 侯月云; 宋渝丹; 熊勇超; 耿梦杰; 何广学

    2014-01-01

    目的 获得乡村医生潜伏性结核感染(latent tuberculosis irnfection,LTBI)情况,比较γ干扰素释放试验中的QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube(QFT GIT)和结核菌素皮肤试验(tuberculin skin test,TST)(纯化蛋白衍生物,PPD)检测LTBI的一致性.方法 采用横断面研究,选择内蒙古自治区巴彦淖尔市临河区为研究现场,于2011年11月对临河区227名乡村医生进行问卷调查,同时采用QFT-GIT和TST两种检测方法检测乡村医生中的LTBI者.共发放227份问卷,收回有效问卷227份,回收率100.0%.采用构成比、率等统计指标描述乡村医生的基本信息和LTBI率,计算Kappa值评价QFTGIT和TST结果的一致性.结果 227名乡村医生完成QFTGIT检测,以QFT-GIT检测结果为依据(排除2名不确定结果),225名乡村医生LTBI率为44.0%(99/225).226名乡村医生完成了TST检测,以TST检测结果为依据,乡村医生LTBI率分别为59.3%(134/226)(硬结平均直径≥5 mm)、41.2%(93/226)(硬结平均直径≥10 mm)、22.6%(51/226)(硬结平均直径≥15 mm).TST以硬结平均直径5 mm为阳性临界值时,Kappa值为0.415;以10 mm为阳性临界值时,Kappa值为0.444;以15 mm为阳性临界值时,Kappa值为0.358.结论 临河区被调查的乡村医生LTBI率较高,本研究显示两种检测一致性一般,有必要开展农村结核感染控制工作,降低乡村医生的LTBI率.

  2. 人才环境感知对研发人才工作绩效、工作嵌入的影响研究——以深圳227家高新技术企业为例%An Empirical Study of the Impact of the Perceived Talent Environment on Performance and Job Embeddedness of the R & D Talents——Taking 227 High -tech Enterprises in Shenzhen as Example

    李玉香; 刘军

    2009-01-01

    以深圳227家高新技术企业及其研发人才为样本,采用探索性分析方法,将研发人才环境感知分为人才政策环境感知、事业环境感知、生活环境感知三部分,并探讨研发人才环境感知对研发人才工作绩效和工作嵌入的影响.研究结果显示,企业对研发人才政策环境越满意,研发人才工作绩效越高;研发人才对事业环境越满意,其3-作绩效越高;对事业环境以及生活环境越满意,其工作嵌入越深.

  3. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228

    The activities of 228Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide 228Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO2 and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter 228Ra(228Ac), the daughter nuclide 228Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by 228Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9±0.1% was measured for 228Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317±0.013 cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1 g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of 228Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for 228Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure 228Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid scintillation analysis is used

  4. Linear free energy relationship applied to trivalent cations with lanthanum and actinium oxide and hydroxide structure

    Linear free energy relationships for trivalent cations with crystalline M2O3 and, M(OH)3 phases of lanthanides and actinides were developed from known thermodynamic properties of the aqueous trivalent cations, modifying the Sverjensky and Molling equation. The linear free energy relationship for trivalent cations is as ΔGf,MvX0=aMvXΔGn,M3+0+bMvX+βMvXrM3+, where the coefficients aMvX, bMvX, and βMvX characterize a particular structural family of MvX, rM3+ is the ionic radius of M3+ cation, ΔGf,MvX0 is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of MvX and ΔGn,M3+0 is the standard non-solvation free energy of the cation. The coefficients for the oxide family are: aMvX=0.2705, bMvX=-1984.75 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=197.24 (kJ/molnm). The coefficients for the hydroxide family are: aMvX=0.1587, bMvX=-1474.09 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=791.70 (kJ/molnm).

  5. Actinium: A RESTful Runtime Container for Scriptable Internet of Things Applications

    Kovatsch, Matthias; Lanter, Martin; Duquennoy, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Programming Internet of Things (IoT) applications is challenging because developers have to be knowledgeable in various technical domains, from low-power networking, over embedded operating systems, to distributed algorithms. Hence, it will be challenging to find enough experts to provide software for the vast number of expected devices, which must also be scalable and particularly safe due to the connection to the physical world. To remedy this situation, we propose an architecture that pr...

  6. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of 224Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides

  7. Bestimmung der Ionisationsenergie von Actinium und Ultraspurenanalyse von Plutonium mit resonanter Ionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS)

    Waldek, Achim Marcus

    2001-01-01

    ZusammenfassungDie Resonanzionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS) verbindet hohe Elementselektivität mit guter Nachweiseffizienz. Aufgrund dieser Eigenschaften ist die Methode für Ultraspurenanalyse und Untersuchungen an seltenen oder schwer handhabbaren Elementen gut geeignet. Für RIMS werden neutrale Atome mit monochromatischem Laserlicht ein- oder mehrfach resonant auf energetisch hoch liegende Niveaus angeregt und anschließend durch einen weiteren Laserstrahl oder durch ein elektrisches Fe...

  8. Synthesis of chelating agents for actinium 225 complexation and its application in radioimmunotherapy

    Immunotherapy with radiolabeled antibodies should allow fairly specific targeting of certain cancers. However, iodine 131 may not be the best isotope for tumor therapy because of its limited specific activity, low beta-energy, relatively long half life and strong gamma emission. Another approach to improve therapeutic efficacy is the use of replacement isotopes with better physical properties. Chelator that can hold radio-metals with high stability under physiological conditions are essential to avoid excessive damage to non-target cells; Moreover, the development of new bifunctional chelating agents is essential for this purpose. Accordingly, our efforts have been directed, for several years, to the synthesis of original chelating agents likely to form stable complexes in vivo with the numerous potential candidates for such applications. Therefore, we have developed a new simple and efficient synthesis pathway of 2-(4-iso-thio-cyanate-benzyl)-1,4,7,10,13,16- hexa-aza-cyclo-hexadecane- 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa-acetic acid, though functionalized on the cycle by a termination allowed coupling to an antibody or any other biological substance such as a hapten. (author)

  9. Radioimmunodetection of lymph node invasion in prostatic cancer. The use of iodine-123 (123I)-labeled monoclonal anti-prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) 227 A F(ab')2 antibody fragments in vivo

    The therapeutic indications in prostatic cancer depend on the regional and distant extension of the cancer and are difficult to assess before lymphadenectomy. Radioimmunodetection of lymph node involvement with monoclonal anti-prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) antibodies can be proposed as a noninvasive alternative to lymphadenectomy. Fifteen patients with various stages of histologically proven prostatic cancer were examined by immunolymphoscintigraphy (ILS) before treatment to detect lymph node metastases. These patients had Stage A (n = 7), Stage B (n = 3), Stage C (n = 2), and Stage D (n = 3) tumors. They received between 100 and 400 micrograms of monoclonal antibody 227 A in the form of F(ab')2 fragments labeled with iodine-123 (123I). The antibody was injected directly into the periprostatic area. ILS images were obtained after 1, 3, 6, and 24 hours. Three days later, each patient underwent a lymphadenectomy for histologic examination. The results of the histologic examination and ILS were compared. In ten patients, the examination did not show any images capable of being interpreted as lymphadenopathy and histologic examination confirmed the integrity of the nodes examined. In five cases, scintigraphy suggested the presence of lymph node invasion by prostatic cancer and this was confirmed by histologic examination in three of the five cases. Overall, in terms of lymphadenopathy, this examination had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 83%. Therefore, ILS appears to be capable of detecting lymph node metastases in prostatic cancer

  10. Testing nuclear forces by polarization transfer coefficients in d(\\vec p, \\vec p)d and d(\\vec p,\\vec d)p reactions at E^{lab}_p = 22.7 MeV

    Witala, H; Glöckle, W; Golak, J; Kamada, H; Kievsky, A; Nogga, A; Skibinski, R; Viviani, M

    2006-01-01

    The proton to proton polarization transfer coefficients K_x^{x'}, K_y^{y'}, K_z^{x'} and the proton to deuteron polarization transfer coefficients K_x^{x'}, K_y^{y'}, K_z^{x'}, K_x^{y'z'}, K_y^{z'z'}, K_z^{y'z'}, K_y^{x'z'} and K_y^{x'x'-y'y'} have been measured in d(\\vec p, \\vec p)d and d(\\vec p, \\vec d)p reactions at E^{lab}_p = 22.7 MeV, respectively. The data have been compared to predictions of modern nuclear forces obtained by solving the three-nucleon Faddeev equations in momentum space. Realistic (semi) phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potentials combined with model three-nucleon forces and modern chiral nuclear forces have been used. The AV18, CD Bonn, Nijm I and II nucleon-nucleon interactions have been applied alone or combined with the Tucson-Melbourne 99 three-nucleon force, adjusted separately for each potential to reproduce the triton binding energy. For the AV18 potential also the Urbana IX three-nucleon force have been used. In addition chiral NN potentials in the next-to-leading-order and ch...

  11. Variability of the quasi-2-day wave and interaction with longer period planetary waves in the MLT at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7°S, 45°W)

    Guharay, A.; Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.

    2015-08-01

    An exclusive study has been carried out with long term meteor wind data (2000-2014) to characterize the quasi-2-day wave (QTDW) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) and its interactions with the longer period planetary waves at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7°S, 45°W). The QTDW is observed to be dominant during late summer (January-February) all the years under consideration except 2013. All the wave parameters exhibit significant interannual variability. The maximum wave amplitude comes out to be 39 m/s, which is significantly higher than the reported northern hemispheric findings. The mean MLT period exhibits a wide range of variability (36-70 h) indicating the presence of multiple Rossby normal modes with varying zonal wave numbers. Modulations of the QTDW amplitude by the planetary waves with longer periodicities (>9 days) are evident, especially during summer. The nonlinear interactions between the 2-day wave and longer period waves are believed to give rise to a host of secondary waves with frequencies lying close to 2-day. The strong QTDW activity, as observed at this location, has potential to cause significant effect on the overlying ionosphere and hence the atmosphere-ionosphere dynamical coupling.

  12. Purification of snRNPs U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6 with 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine-specific antibody and definition of their constituent proteins reacting with anti-Sm and anti-(U1)RNP antisera.

    Bringmann, P; Rinke, J; Appel, B; Reuter, R; Lührmann, R

    1983-01-01

    Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) of the U-snRNP class from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were purified in a one-step procedure by affinity chromatography with antibodies specific for 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (m23.2.7G), which is part of the 5'-terminal cap structure of snRNAs U1-U5. Antibody-bound snRNPs are desorbed from the affinity column by elution with excess nucleoside m23.2.7G; this guarantees maintenance of their native structure. The snRNPs U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6 can b...

  13. 49 CFR 227.5 - Definitions.

    2010-10-01

    ... the meaning assigned by the regulations of the Surface Transportation Board (49 CFR part 120; General...) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated standard from the American National... second or less. Decibel (dB) means a unit of measurement of sound pressure levels. dB(A) means the...

  14. 50 CFR 600.227 - Lobbying.

    2010-10-01

    ... Commerce implementing regulations published at 15 CFR part 28, “New Restrictions on Lobbying.” These... general principles and detailed items of costs. (3) Under 2 CFR part 230, costs for certain lobbying... Management Council Grants and Cooperative Agreements summarized as follows: (1) Title 2 CFR part 230 -...

  15. QTL Information Table: 227 [Q-TARO

    Full Text Available Resistance or Tolerance Blast resistance Leaf blast incidence against the THL84 Mixture C)Inte... Pa-In, N., Vongsaprom, C., and Toojinda, T. (2002). Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Leaf and Neck Blast Resistanc... Res 9, 79-88. http://dnaresearch.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/9/3/79 ... ...e in Recombinant Inbred Line Population of Rice (Oryza Sativa). DNA

  16. Danish Media coverage of 22/7

    Hervik, Peter; Boisen, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    ’s Danish connections through an analysis of the first 100 days of Danish media coverage. We scrutinised 188 articles in the largest daily newspapers to find out how Danish actors related to ABB’s ideas. The key argument is that the discourses and opinions reflect pre-existing opinions and entrenched...

  17. 40 CFR 227.21 - Uses considered.

    2010-07-01

    ... limited to: (a) Commercial fishing in open ocean areas; (b) Commercial fishing in coastal areas; (c) Commercial fishing in estuarine areas; (d) Recreational fishing in open ocean areas; (e) Recreational fishing... EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Other...

  18. A francium-223 reservoir source

    By improving and accelerating a method which had been earlier tried for caesium-rubidium separation on a cellulose column, i.e. elution with 2N HCl-equilibrated phenol, the author succeeded in obtaining consecutive and quasi-selective elutions of francium-223, starting with actinium-227 fixed at the top of a small cellulose column to which ZrO2 had been added. The francium-223, rapidly eluted under pressure, is extracted by water while the phenol is extracted by ether; it can easily be cleared of any residual traces of radioactive contaminants (thallium-207, radium-223, thorium-227) by two consecutive BaSO4 precipitations. The preparation of a Fr223 solution (HCl-H2SO4) requires approximately 20 min; the time noted for Fr223 was closer to 22 than to 21 min. (author)

  19. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  20. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  1. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  2. Renal uptake of bismuth-213 and its contribution to kidney radiation dose following administration of actinium-225-labeled antibody

    Schwartz, J; O' Donoghue, J A; Humm, J L [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jaggi, J S [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Plainsboro, NJ (United States); Ruan, S; Larson, S M [Nuclear Medicine Service Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); McDevitt, M; Scheinberg, D A, E-mail: schwarj1@mskcc.org [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    Clinical therapeutic studies using {sup 225}Ac-labeled antibodies have begun. Of major concern is renal toxicity that may result from the three alpha-emitting progeny generated following the decay of {sup 225}Ac. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of {sup 225}Ac and non-equilibrium progeny in the mouse kidney after the injection of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and examine the dosimetric consequences. Groups of mice were sacrificed at 24, 96 and 144 h after injection with {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and kidneys excised. One kidney was used for gamma ray spectroscopic measurements by a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The second kidney was used to generate frozen tissue sections which were examined by digital autoradiography (DAR). Two measurements were performed on each kidney specimen: (1) immediately post-resection and (2) after sufficient time for any non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi to decay completely. Comparison of these measurements enabled estimation of the amount of excess {sup 213}Bi reaching the kidney ({gamma}-ray spectroscopy) and its sub-regional distribution (DAR). The average absorbed dose to whole kidney, determined by spectroscopy, was 0.77 (SD 0.21) Gy kBq{sup -1}, of which 0.46 (SD 0.16) Gy kBq{sup -1} (i.e. 60%) was due to non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi. The relative contributions to renal cortex and medulla were determined by DAR. The estimated dose to the cortex from non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi (0.31 (SD 0.11) Gy kBq{sup -1}) represented {approx}46% of the total. For the medulla the dose contribution from excess {sup 213}Bi (0.81 (SD 0.28) Gy kBq{sup -1}) was {approx}80% of the total. Based on these estimates, for human patients we project a kidney-absorbed dose of 0.28 Gy MBq{sup -1} following administration of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 with non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi responsible for approximately 60% of the total. Methods to reduce renal accumulation of radioactive progeny appear to be necessary for the success of {sup 225}Ac radioimmunotherapy.

  3. origin of elements of the Uranium-235 family observed in the Ellez river near the EL-4 experimental nuclear reactor in dismantling (Monts d'Arree- Finistere department)

    In a previous study which concerned the catchment basin of the harbour of Brest, the A.C.R.O. put in evidence a marking by artificial radioelements around the power plant of Brennilis which can be imputed without ambiguities to the nuclear installation. It also put in evidence abnormalities concerning the natural radioactivity which justifies this new study. In the area of the Monts d'Arree, actinium 227 (227Ac), non born by its ascendents which are 235U and 231Pa is observed. This phenomenon is characterized by mass activities superior to these ones of 235U and able to reach these ones of 238U. Its presence corresponds with the drainage of the Ellez river since the former channel of radioactive effluents releases from the nuclear power plant EL-4 up to the reservoir Saint-Herblot situated 6 km downstream. The strongest values of radioactivity are registered near the disused power plant, at this place a relationship exists between the level of actinium 227 and this one of the artificial radioactivity as it exists a relationship with the decay products of radon exhaled from the subsoil (210Pb). But its presence is not limited to a part of the Ellez river, it is equally observed in terrestrial medium, in places in priori not influenced by the direct liquid effluents of the power plant. This place is situated at more than 4 km and without any connection with the Ellez waters. At this stage of the study, it is not possible to answer with certainty the question of the origin of this phenomenon. A new reorientation is considered indispensable to clarify definitively the origin of this unknown phenomenon in the scientific publications and the environmental monitoring. (N.C.)

  4. Origin of elements of the Uranium-235 family observed in the Ellez river near the EL-4 experimental nuclear reactor in dismantling (Monts d'Arree- Finistere department); Origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes dans la riviere Ellez a proximite du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement (Mont d'Arree - departement du Finistere). Resultats et premiers constats annee 2006

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In a previous study which concerned the catchment basin of the harbour of Brest, the A.C.R.O. put in evidence a marking by artificial radioelements around the power plant of Brennilis which can be imputed without ambiguities to the nuclear installation. It also put in evidence abnormalities concerning the natural radioactivity which justifies this new study. In the area of the Monts d'Arree, actinium 227 ({sup 227}Ac), non born by its ascendents which are {sup 235}U and {sup 231}Pa is observed. This phenomenon is characterized by mass activities superior to these ones of {sup 235}U and able to reach these ones of {sup 238}U. Its presence corresponds with the drainage of the Ellez river since the former channel of radioactive effluents releases from the nuclear power plant EL-4 up to the reservoir Saint-Herblot situated 6 km downstream. The strongest values of radioactivity are registered near the disused power plant, at this place a relationship exists between the level of actinium 227 and this one of the artificial radioactivity as it exists a relationship with the decay products of radon exhaled from the subsoil ({sup 210}Pb). But its presence is not limited to a part of the Ellez river, it is equally observed in terrestrial medium, in places in priori not influenced by the direct liquid effluents of the power plant. This place is situated at more than 4 km and without any connection with the Ellez waters. At this stage of the study, it is not possible to answer with certainty the question of the origin of this phenomenon. A new reorientation is considered indispensable to clarify definitively the origin of this unknown phenomenon in the scientific publications and the environmental monitoring. (N.C.)

  5. Dicty_cDB: SHD227 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 1 BOHEC38TF BOHE Brassica oleracea genomic clone BOHEC38, DNA sequence. 32 3.1 2 CO214588 |CO214588.1 WS00929.B21...lignments: (bits) Value SHK418 (SHK418Q) /CSM/SH/SHK4-A/SHK418Q.Seq.d/ 1400 0.0 SHG576 (SHG576Q) /CSM/SH/SHG5-D/SHG576Q.Seq.d/ 1400... 0.0 SHG486 (SHG486Q) /CSM/SH/SHG4-D/SHG486Q.Seq.d/ 1400 0.0 SHG409 (SHG409Q) /CSM/SH/SHG4-A/SHG40...9Q.Seq.d/ 1400 0.0 SHG402 (SHG402Q) /CSM/SH/SHG4-A/SHG402Q.Seq.d/ 1400 0.0 SHD789 (SHD789Q) /CS...M/SH/SHD7-D/SHD789Q.Seq.d/ 1400 0.0 SHD746 (SHD746Q) /CSM/SH/SHD7-B/SHD746Q.Seq.d/ 1400

  6. 48 CFR 252.227-7020 - Rights in special works.

    2010-10-01

    ..., algorithms, processes, flow charts, formulae and related material that would enable the software to be... publicity, arising out of the creation, delivery, use, modification, reproduction, release,...

  7. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  8. 1935 15' Quad #227 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 7 CFR 227.30 - Responsibilities of State agencies.

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM State Agency... shall appoint a nutrition education specialist to serve as a State Coordinator for the Program who may.... Each State agency shall submit to the Secretary a State plan for Nutrition Education and Training...

  10. 7 CFR 227.36 - Requirements of needs assessment.

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM State Coordinator... nutrition education and training programs including their: (i) Goals and objectives; (ii) Source and level... currently available for nutrition education and training programs, and determine for each: (i)......

  11. 7 CFR 227.35 - Responsibilities of State coordinator.

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM State Coordinator... implementation of the State Plan, (f) Coordination of the Program with the Child Nutrition Programs at the State and local levels, (g) Coordination of the Program with other nutrition education and......

  12. 48 CFR 227.7203-5 - Government rights.

    2010-10-01

    ... or transfer of some or all of a business entity or it assets to another party; (5) Computer software... subject to the use and non-disclosure restrictions. Public announcements in the Commerce Business Daily or... planned software maintenance philosophy, anticipated time or user sharing requirements, and other...

  13. 25 CFR 227.22 - Diligence and prevention of waste.

    2010-04-01

    ... prevention of waste of oil or gas developed on the land, or the entrance of water through wells drilled by... prevention of waste. The lessee shall exercise diligence in drilling and operating wells for oil and gas on... the same and to shut off effectually all water from the oil or gas-bearing strata; not drill any...

  14. Dicty_cDB: VFF227 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available phoprotein P0. 1544 0.0 2 CD203589 |CD203589.1 Ls_AM1_10H07_T7 Litomosoides sigmodontis adult male 1 Litomos...oides sigmodontis cDNA clone Ls_AM1_10H07 5', mRNA sequence. 62 7e-07 2 AA901452 |AA9014...mal protein P0; 500 e-140 R5DOP0( S14012 ) ribosomal protein P0 - slime mold (Dictyostelium ... 496 e-139 AY...241 4e-62 AB284186_1( AB284186 |pid:none) Neospora caninum mRNA for ribosoma... 240 5e-62 AJ457827_1( AJ457827 |pid:none) Bombyx mo...spwklv tqpllqfhiqs*mlsriy*pshskpltlsmllknsnqplllpqllplhplllqlplprks sskkrkknqmmiwvwvsxikix*infffqk Homology

  15. 48 CFR 1852.227-70 - New technology.

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration. (For the purpose of this definition, the size standard contained in 13 CFR 121.3-8 for small business contractors and in 13 CFR 121.3-12 for small business subcontractors will be used.) Subject... Regulations, 14 CFR part 1245, subpart 1, have adopted the Presidential Memorandum on Government Patent...

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHC227 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available GGTA TCCCACCAGATCT sequence update 2002. 9.10 Translated Amino Acid sequence ---xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxi*xxx...LTGKTITLE VEGSDNIENVKTKIQDKEGIPPD Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ---xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxi*xxx...ENVKTKIQDKEGIPPD Frame B: ---xxmxxxxxxxxxixxxfsxxxkxwyxxfcxnpxw*xynxxklkvlxxlrmlk...pkxkt kkvfhqinxvsfspvxnwrmvvlslittfkrnplsi*fsd*evvckfl*klslvkplhxk lkvvttlrm*kqkfktkkvshqi Frame C: ---xxxxxxxxxkxxsxxxlvxxxxggxxx

  17. 49 CFR 192.227 - Qualification of welders.

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with section 6 of API 1104 (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7) or section IX of the ASME... produces a hoop stress of less than 20 percent of SMYS by performing an acceptable test weld, for the process to be used, under the test set forth in section I of Appendix C of this part. Each welder who...

  18. Dicty_cDB: CHG227 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available sitlg rsy*sles*tnflwfcwylyfimerrfrfnr*ts*s*kd*ss*vshveleerfrketssl *sfpsn*igq*k**csrikw*t*g*tifpyfkqri*yh*kf...YFFLILSFFLKFFFFKKKNXNNLIXNNNNNXKNNXXPLNFFXX--- ---SPLIMSIWTVPNRCKRSNHFHSRRYDSCNGVTKSHSIYDS*sqetl*sr*ewsitlg rsy*sles*tnflwfcwylyfimer...rfrfnr*ts*s*kd*ss*vshveleerfrketssl *sfpsn*igq*k**csrikw*t*g*tifpyfkqri*yh*kfktfpsk

  19. 48 CFR 227.7103-5 - Government rights.

    2010-10-01

    ..., component, or process, including logistics support and other factors which may have relevance for a... adequate competition among the sources; or (iii) Reverse engineering, or providing items from Government... reverse engineering....

  20. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    Kouts, H.

    1986-09-24

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  1. 49 CFR 227.103 - Noise monitoring program.

    2010-10-01

    ... opportunity to observe any noise dose measurements conducted pursuant to this section. (g) Reporting of... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated materials from the... decibels to 140 decibels shall be integrated into the noise measurements. (2) Noise measurements shall...

  2. 12 CFR Supplement I to Part 227 - Official Staff Commentary

    2010-01-01

    ..., such as that in the Wall Street Journal, even if the bank's own prime rate is one of several rates used.... Claims or defenses under Regulation Z, 12 CFR 226.12(c). When a consumer has asserted a claim or defense against the card issuer pursuant to 12 CFR 226.12(c), the bank must allocate consistent with 12 CFR...

  3. 7 CFR 2.27 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    2010-01-01

    ... Seed Act, as amended (7 U.S.C. 1551 et seq.); the (Laboratory) Animal Welfare Act, as amended (7 U.S.C....); the Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage Relief of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 630 et seq.); and any...

  4. Dicty_cDB: SSL227 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available developmental stages Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 34 0.79 2 BQ515661 |BQ515661.1 EST623076 Generation...60 |BQ515660.1 EST623075 Generation of a set of potato cDNA clones for microarray

  5. Study on laser atomic spectroscopy

    Laser atomic spectroscopic study on actinium element has been performed in many areas of spectroscopy. The study on characteristic of atomic vapor has been proceeded for copper atom and the spatial density distribution of copper vapor is measured. This experimental data has been compared with the theoretically calculated data. In spectroscopic experiment, the first and second excited states for actinium element are identified and the most efficient ionization scheme for actinium element is identified. In addition, the corrosion problem for filament material due to the heating of the actinium element has been studied. (Author)

  6. Development of an Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter for Trace Level Analysis

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Finn, Erin C.; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Panisko, Mark E.; Shaff, Sarah M.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    Low-level liquid scintillation counting (LSC) has been established as one of the radiation detection techniques useful in elucidating environmental processes and environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities. The Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter (ULB-LSC) under construction in the Shallow Underground Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory aims to further reduce the MDAs and/or required sample processing. Through layers of passive shielding in conjunction with an active veto and 30 meters water equivalent overburden, the background reduction is expected to be 10 to 100 times below typical analytic low-background liquid scintillation systems. Simulations have shown an expected background of around 14 counts per day. A novel approach to the light collection will use a coated hollow light guide cut into the inner copper shielding. Demonstration LSC measurements will show low-energy detection, spectral deconvolution, and alpha/beta discrimination capabilities, from trials with standards of tritium, strontium-90, and actinium-227, respectively. An overview of the system design and expected demonstration measurements will emphasize the potential applications of the ULB-LSC in environmental monitoring for treaty verification, reach-back sample analysis, and facility inspections.

  7. Enhanced radioactivity due to natural oil and gas production and related radiological problems

    Within the scope of a research contract, the following aspects are considered: External radiation exposure at production sites; internal radiation exposures during cleaning operations such as removing of scale by sand blasting; problems of waste disposal; internal radiation exposure due to radon inhalation by consumers; the origin of the high radium content of brines from oil and gas fields. Enhanced dose rates up to 50 μSv/h have been found at the external surface of saltwater tanks, but 72% of the 160 sites investigated did not show any increase above the natural background. Brines from gas contained radium-226 up to 286 Bq/1 and scale up to 1 kBq/g. In brines and scale from oil fields radium-228 was usually the dominating radionuclide. Some samples contained significant amounts of lead-210 and even actinium-227, too, but practically no uranium or thorium. The radon-222 concentrations in natural gas samples varied between 0.004 and 4 Bq/l with an average value of 0.6 Bq/l. Related radiological problems are discussed. (orig./HP)

  8. 227 Views of RNA: Is RNA Unique in Its Chemical Isomer Space?

    Cleaves, H James; Meringer, Markus; Goodwin, Jay

    2015-07-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is one of the two nucleic acids used by extant biochemistry and plays a central role as the intermediary carrier of genetic information in transcription and translation. If RNA was involved in the origin of life, it should have a facile prebiotic synthesis. A wide variety of such syntheses have been explored. However, to date no one-pot reaction has been shown capable of yielding RNA monomers from likely prebiotically abundant starting materials, though this does not rule out the possibility that simpler, more easily prebiotically accessible nucleic acids may have preceded RNA. Given structural constraints, such as the ability to form complementary base pairs and a linear covalent polymer, a variety of structural isomers of RNA could potentially function as genetic platforms. By using structure-generation software, all the potential structural isomers of the ribosides (BC5H9O4, where B is nucleobase), as well as a set of simpler minimal analogues derived from them, that can potentially serve as monomeric building blocks of nucleic acid-like molecules are enumerated. Molecules are selected based on their likely stability under biochemically relevant conditions (e.g., moderate pH and temperature) and the presence of at least two functional groups allowing the monomers to be incorporated into linear polymers. The resulting structures are then evaluated by using molecular descriptors typically applied in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies and predicted physicochemical properties. Several databases have been queried to determine whether any of the computed isomers had been synthesized previously. Very few of the molecules that emerge from this structure set have been previously described. We conclude that ribonucleosides may have competed with a multitude of alternative structures whose potential proto-biochemical roles and abiotic syntheses remain to be explored. PMID:26200431

  9. 48 CFR 252.227-7021 - Rights in data-existing works.

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text... includes literary, musical, and dramatic works; pantomimes and choreographic works; pictorial, graphic...

  10. AB227. Our experience of T-shaped shunt for the treatment of ischemic priapism

    Tang, Yuxin; Tan, Zhengyu; Zhou, Jun; Peng, Dongyi; Gan, Yu; Yang, Jianfu; He, Leye; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of T-shaped shunt operation for the treatment of ischemic priapism. Methods We retrospectively studied nine patients with ischemic priapism. All patients were given preoperative MRI examination, T-shaped shunt operation and heparin saline flushing were performed when conservative therapy failed, a wedge biopsy of corpus cavernosum were done during the operation for tissue diagnosis. Results All patients had satisfactory outcome of the T-shaped shunt surgery except two patients who were diagnosed as malignant priapism, one was due to perineal neuroendocrine carcinoma and he refused taking further therapy and died 3 months later; the other was caused by penile epithelioid sarcoma and then accepted partial resection of penis; during 6–12 months follow-up, five cases developed erectile dysfunction. Conclusions MRI appears to be valuable for the management of ischemic priapism. Although T-shaped shunt operation has advantages of simple operation, less complications and satisfactory efficacy, it is not suitable for the patient of ischemic priapism which is caused by tumor. A wedge biopsy of corpus cavernosum during operation is helpful to confirm malignant priapism.

  11. 48 CFR 252.227-7013 - Rights in technical data-Noncommercial items.

    2010-10-01

    ... recording, of a scientific or technical nature (including computer software documentation). The term does... paragraph (l) to the basic clause: (l) Publication for sale. (1) This paragraph only applies to technical... such data on its behalf if, prior to publication for sale by the Government and within twenty-four...

  12. 7 CFR Appendix to Part 227 - Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and Training

    2010-01-01

    ... Public schools 1 Private schools 2 Residential child care institutions 3 Nonresidential child care...) U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Education Division, NCES, Statistics of Public Schools, Fall 1977, prepublication data, Table 5 for States and areas, except (2) Northern Marianas...

  13. Erostratus Unbound: Norway’s 22/7 Converging Frames of War

    Meret, Susi; Hervik, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this introductory article is to set the stage for the theme issue on the 22 July 2011 terror attacks in Oslo and Utøya by mass murderer, Anders Behring Breivik. The article opens up with the historical and literary figure Erostratus to discuss the differences and similarities between...... “multiculturalism” appearing synonymous with “cultural Marxism” as well as subscribing to what goes under the term of Eurabia conspiracy. In addition, through centring on other catch-all concept of political correctness, the clusters of different anti-migration, anti-feminism and Islamophobic opposition are united...... together in news articles in a way not unlike the media coverage (and academic analyses) of the Danish Muhammad cartoon affair...

  14. Erostratus Unbound: Norway’s 22/7 Converging Frames of War

    Meret, Susi; Hervik, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this introductory article is to set the stage for the theme issue on the 22 July 2011 terror attacks in Oslo and Utøya by mass murderer, Anders Behring Breivik. The article opens up with the historical and literary figure Erostratus to discuss the differences and similarities between this lone wolf character and the acts of terrorist Anders Behring Breivik. It then situates Breivik firmly within an ideological landscape where communities of politicians, pundits and others dista...

  15. Puesta en valor de un espectógrafo Hilger E227, modelo grande

    Baravalle, Román; Bartolomé, I. L; Pereyra, E. L; Rumi, G.

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo fue realizado en el marco de un programa de capacitación en Comunicación Social de la Ciencia del Museo de Física de La Plata, en donde se buscó explotar la instancia de contacto directo con los instrumentos físicos históricos como un modo de aprendizaje tanto de principios físicos, de técnicas experimentales y de la historia de los instrumentos e investigadores de la época.

  16. 48 CFR 952.227-84 - Notice of right to request patent waiver.

    2010-10-01

    .... See DOE's patent waiver regulations at 10 CFR part 784. (End of provision) ... accordance with 48 CFR 927.409(t). Right To Request Patent Waiver (FEB 1998) Offerors have the right to... exceptional circumstances or intelligence activities. Therefore, small businesses and nonprofit...

  17. 30 CFR 227.1 - What is the purpose of this part?

    2010-07-01

    ... 205 of the Federal Oil and Gas Royalty Management Act of 1982 (the Act), 30 U.S.C. 1735, as amended by the Federal Oil and Gas Royalty Simplification and Fairness Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-185, August 13... investigation functions to States under Pub. L. 102-154 for solid mineral leases, geothermal leases and...

  18. 30 CFR 227.101 - What royalty management functions may MMS delegate to a State?

    2010-07-01

    ... Continental Shelf Lands Act, 43 U.S.C. 1337 (g), or solid mineral leases or geothermal leases on Federal lands... leases subject to the Act on Federal lands within your State, MMS may delegate the following royalty... verification. (b) If there are oil and gas leases subject to the Act on Federal lands within your State,...

  19. Latino Parent Agency within the Restrictionist Language Policy Environment of California's Proposition 227

    Farruggio, Peter

    2010-01-01

    CThe article is a study of Latino immigrant parents' agency toward primary language (L1) instruction in the face of restrictionist language policy. Certain attitudes and characteristics were associated with advocacy for Spanish L1 instruction. Interviews conducted in an urban California school district among parents with different background…

  20. 48 CFR 252.227-7014 - Rights in noncommercial computer software and noncommercial computer software documentation.

    2010-10-01

    ... government purpose rights in computer software development with mixed funding. (ii) Government purpose rights...), contract modification, or option exercise that required development of the computer software. (iii) The... rights to use, release, or disclose computer software. **Indicate whether development was exclusively...

  1. 48 CFR 252.227-7038 - Patent Rights-Ownership by the Contractor (Large Business).

    2010-10-01

    ... corporate structure of which the Contractor is a part; (B) Includes the right to grant sublicenses to the... Contractor made in the performance of work under this contract. (b) Contractor's rights—(1) Ownership. The... subject invention pursuant to an application for an exclusive license submitted in accordance with 37...

  2. 48 CFR 952.227-11 - Patent rights-retention by the contractor (short form).

    2010-10-01

    ... its domestic subsidiary and affiliates, if any, within the corporate structure of which the Contractor... subcontracting at 13 CFR 121.3-8 and 13 CFR 121.3-12, respectively, will be used. (6) Subject invention means any invention of the contractor conceived or first actually reduced to practice in the performance of work...

  3. 48 CFR 52.227-13 - Patent Rights-Ownership by the Government.

    2010-10-01

    ... domestic subsidiaries and affiliates within the corporate structure of which the Contractor is a part, and... of the Contractor made in the performance of work under this contract. (b) Ownership—(1) Assignment...) and in accordance with the procedures set forth in 37 CFR 401.6 and any supplemental regulations...

  4. 227 Views of RNA: Is RNA Unique in Its Chemical Isomer Space?

    Meringer, Markus; Goodwin, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is one of the two nucleic acids used by extant biochemistry and plays a central role as the intermediary carrier of genetic information in transcription and translation. If RNA was involved in the origin of life, it should have a facile prebiotic synthesis. A wide variety of such syntheses have been explored. However, to date no one-pot reaction has been shown capable of yielding RNA monomers from likely prebiotically abundant starting materials, though this does not rule out the possibility that simpler, more easily prebiotically accessible nucleic acids may have preceded RNA. Given structural constraints, such as the ability to form complementary base pairs and a linear covalent polymer, a variety of structural isomers of RNA could potentially function as genetic platforms. By using structure-generation software, all the potential structural isomers of the ribosides (BC5H9O4, where B is nucleobase), as well as a set of simpler minimal analogues derived from them, that can potentially serve as monomeric building blocks of nucleic acid–like molecules are enumerated. Molecules are selected based on their likely stability under biochemically relevant conditions (e.g., moderate pH and temperature) and the presence of at least two functional groups allowing the monomers to be incorporated into linear polymers. The resulting structures are then evaluated by using molecular descriptors typically applied in quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) studies and predicted physicochemical properties. Several databases have been queried to determine whether any of the computed isomers had been synthesized previously. Very few of the molecules that emerge from this structure set have been previously described. We conclude that ribonucleosides may have competed with a multitude of alternative structures whose potential proto-biochemical roles and abiotic syntheses remain to be explored. Key Words: Evolution—Chemical evolution—Exobiology—Prebiotic chemistry—RNA world. Astrobiology 15, 538–558. PMID:26200431

  5. 227 Views of RNA: Is RNA Unique in Its Chemical Isomer Space?

    Cleaves, H. James; Meringer, Markus; Goodwin, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is one of the two nucleic acids used by extant biochemistry and plays a central role as the intermediary carrier of genetic information in transcription and translation. If RNA was involved in the origin of life, it should have a facile prebiotic synthesis. A wide variety of such syntheses have been explored. However, to date no one-pot reaction has been shown capable of yielding RNA monomers from likely prebiotically abundant starting materials, though this do...

  6. 48 CFR 52.227-11 - Patent Rights-Ownership by the Contractor.

    2010-10-01

    ... require licensing pursuant to 35 U.S.C. 203 and 210(c), and in accordance with the procedures in 37 CFR... the subject invention is assigned in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 202(e) and 37 CFR 401.10; (3) Use the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent Rights-Ownership...

  7. 40 CFR 227.7 - Limits established for specific wastes or waste constituents.

    2010-07-01

    ... containing biodegradable constituents, or constituents which consume oxygen in any fashion, may be dumped in the ocean only under conditions in which the dissolved oxygen after allowance for initial mixing,...

  8. 48 CFR 952.227-13 - Patent rights-acquisition by the Government.

    2010-10-01

    ... date of award of this contract. See 10 CFR part 784. Agency licensing regulations and applicable agency... 10 CFR part 781. (b) Allocations of principal rights—(1) Assignment to the Government. The Contractor... (10 CFR part 784) to require the Contractor, an assignee, or exclusive licensee of a subject...

  9. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    2010-07-01

    ....29, will not exceed a toxicity threshold defined as 0.01 of a concentration shown to be acutely toxic... not cause unreasonable acute or chronic toxicity or other sublethal adverse effects based on...

  10. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.

    2010-07-01

    ... the case may be, may require that the separation of liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of the material be performed upon a mixture of the waste with ocean water rather than on the material... alkaline waste) based on guidance provided by EPA on particular cases, or in accordance with approved...