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Sample records for actinium 222

  1. Extraction of actinium with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid from hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions

    The extraction of actinium with HDEHP from Cl- and NO3- systems has been investigated. It was found that extraction of actinium from HCl solutions is much better than from HNO3 solutions. Stability constants of actinium complexes Ac(X-)+2 with Cl- and NO3- ligands were determined. Our results show that the actinium formed less stable complexes with Cl- than with NO3- ligands. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  2. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results

  3. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  4. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  5. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  6. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development. PMID:22697483

  7. Radium, thorium, and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manganese-oxide-coated fiber

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency with which improved manganese-oxide-coated acrylic fibers extract radium, thorium, and actinium from seawater. Tests were made using surface seawater spiked with 227Ac, 227Th and 223Ra. For sample volumes of approximately 30 liters and flow rates up to 0.5 liters per minute, radium and actinium are removed quantitatively. Approximately 80-95% of the thorium is removed under these same conditions. (Auth.)

  8. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces ∼100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 GeV protons

  9. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  10. Neutron-Induced Fission of Actinium-227, Protactinium-231 and Neptunium-237: Mass Distribution

    Results of radiochemical studies on the mass distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinium-227, protactinium-231 and neptunium-237 have been presented. This work has been carried out as part of a programme to determine the mass distribution in the fission of heavy elements as a function of Z and A. All irradiations have been carried out in the core of the swimming-pool type reactor APSARA with cadmium shielding wherever necessary. Relative yields of several fission product nuclides have been obtained by a method involving a comparison of the fission product activities from the respective targets with those formed from uranium-235 simultaneously irradiated. Thermal-neutron fission yields of uranium-235 have been assumed. These results indicate a predominantly asymmetric mass distribution in all the three cases, and also a distinct though small symmetric peak in the case of actinium-227. (author)

  11. A new method for the determination of low-level actinium-227 in geological samples

    We developed a new method for the determination of 227Ac in geological samples. The method uses extraction chromatographic techniques and alpha-spectrometry and is applicable for a range of natural matrices. Here we report on the procedure and results of the analysis of water (fresh and seawater) and rock samples. Water samples were acidified and rock samples underwent total dissolution via acid leaching. A DGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) extraction chromatographic column was used for the separation of actinium. The actinium fraction was prepared for alpha spectrometric measurement via cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. Recoveries of actinium in water samples were 80 ± 8 % (number of analyses n = 14) and in rock samples 70 ± 12 % (n = 30). The minimum detectable activities (MDA) were 0.017-0.5 Bq kg-1 for both matrices. Rock sample 227Ac activities ranged from 0.17 to 8.3 Bq kg-1 and water sample activities ranged from below MDA values to 14 Bq kg-1of 227Ac. From the analysis of several standard rock and water samples with the method we found very good agreement between our results and certified values. (author)

  12. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  13. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  14. Comment: 222 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available 222.png Shinobu Okamoto (Kazusa DNA Research Institute ) licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan シアノバクテリア 光学顕微鏡写真 撮影:岡本忍(かずさDNA研究所) bando 2010/02/15 15:28:38 2010/02/16 10:25:09 ...

  15. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS—towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm − 1 which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  16. MAT 222 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    mirat

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MAT 222 Week 1 Solving Proportions (Ash) MAT 222 Week 1 DQ 1 Can't Cancel Terms (Ash) MAT 222 Week 2 DQ 1 One-Variable Compound Inequalities (Ash) MAT 222 Week 2 Two-Variable Inequalities (Ash) MAT 222 Week 3 DQ 1 Simplifying Radicals (Ash) MAT 222 Week 3 Real World Radical Formulas (Ash) MAT 222 Week 4 DQ 1 Solving Quadratic Equations (Ash) MAT 222 Week 4 Real World Quadratic Functions (Ash) ...

  17. 40 CFR 61.222 - Standard.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard. 61.222 Section 61.222... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From the Disposal of Uranium Mill Tailings § 61.222 Standard. (a) Radon-222 emissions to the ambient air...

  18. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  19. Release of 222Rn from some soils

    M. Pérez

    Full Text Available Measurements have been made of 222Rn release from diverse soils in the region surrounding Málaga, Spain. These flux measurements were carried out by two methods. A direct method using a static chamber technique and another indirect method obtained from concentration profile measurements of 222Rn in the soil air. The effects of meteorological variables and other parameters on 222Rn flux were studied. The factors that most affected the instantaneous value of 222Rn release were humidity and soil thermal gradient. The directly measured 222Rn fluxes at investigated sites are higher than 222Rn fluxes derived by the indirect method.

  20. 42 CFR 93.222 - Research.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research. 93.222 Section 93.222 Public Health... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.222 Research. Research means a systematic experiment, study,...

  1. 29 CFR 553.222 - Sleep time.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleep time. 553.222 Section 553.222 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.222 Sleep time... enforcement personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude sleep...

  2. 14 CFR 13.222 - Evidence.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.222 Section 13.222 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.222 Evidence. (a... evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct any cross-examination that may be required for a...

  3. 33 CFR 2.22 - Territorial sea.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territorial sea. 2.22 Section 2... Jurisdictional Terms § 2.22 Territorial sea. (a) With respect to the United States, the following apply— (1) Territorial sea means the waters, 12 nautical miles wide, adjacent to the coast of the United States...

  4. 48 CFR 222.7404 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements 222.7404 Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.222-7006 Restrictions on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements, in all solicitations and contracts... commercial items, including commercially available off-the-shelf items....

  5. 222-S Laboratory maintenance implementation plan

    Heinemann, J.L.

    1997-08-13

    This Maintenance Improvement Plan has been developed for maintenance functions associated with the 222-S Laboratory. This plan is developed from the guidelines presented by Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4B, Maintenance Management Program (DOE 1994), Chapter 11. The objective of this plan is to provide information for establishing and identifying WMH conformance programs and policies applicable to implementation of DOE Order 4330.4B guidelines. In addition, this maintenance plan identifies the actions necessary to develop a cost effective and efficient maintenance program at 222-S Laboratory. Maintenance activities are mainly going to be performed by existing maintenance organizations within Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford (WMH). Most maintenance performed at 222-S Laboratory is performed by the 222-S Laboratory maintenance organization. This 222-S Laboratory Maintenance Implementation Plan provides the interface requirements and responsibilities as they apply specifically to 222-S Laboratory. This document provides an implementation schedule which has been developed for items considered to be deficient or in need of improvement. The discussion section as applied to 222-S Laboratory implementation has been developed from a review of programs and practices utilizing the graded approach. Biennial review and additional reviews are conducted as significant programmatic and mission changes are made. This document is revised as necessary to keep this document current and in compliance with DOE requirements.

  6. 222Rn at a Groundwater Treatment Plant

    Groundwater is a source of drinking water, usually of good quality, but compared with surface water the concentrations of radionuclides of natural origin are higher. A drinking water treatment plant for treating groundwater was monitored. The raw water is aerated, filtered through gravity sand filters and then aerated again. Radium-226 extracted from the raw water is partially retained in the filtration sand. Decay of the accumulated 226Ra generates gaseous 222Rn which is released into the treated water and into the air of the plant hall, especially during the washing of the filters. Radon-222 can pose a health risk to the operating personnel or to the public. The study evaluated the following factors: 222Ra and 226Ra concentrations in the raw and treated water, the amount of 226Ra accumulated in the filtration sand and the 222Rn concentration in the air of the plant. (author)

  7. Redox properties of Eu(222)3+/Eu(222)2+ and (222)H22+/H2,(222)H+ systems and their use as a reference potential in organic solvents

    The Eu(222)3+/Eu(222)2+ electrochemical system is reversible and rapid IN H2O, MeOH, DMSO, DMF, CH3CN and TMU and can be used as a potential reference. The (222)H22+/H2, (222)H+ system allows the measurement of the difference in basicity between those solvents

  8. Intercomparison of Rn-222 determination from groundwater

    Vesterbacka, P.; Pettersson, H.; Hanste, U.-M.;

    2010-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing, transpor......An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing...

  9. Radon-222 on the island of Hawaii

    The island of Hawaii, like other locations in a marine environment, has low levels of atmospheric 222Rn. The low concentrations of 222Rn and its decay products result from a low average flux density of 9.8 mBq m-2 s-1, the mixing of marine air from the Pacific having a 222Rn concentration of only 0.04 Bq m-3 with air from over the island, and the decay of 222Rn as it is transported in air masses across the Pacific primarily from the Asian continent. The overall mean concentration over the Island The overall mean concentration over the Island was found to be 0.44 Bq m-3 compared with a figure of about 8 Bq m-3 for air over continents. A consideration of the island as a source of 222Rn must take into account the relatively low average flux density associated with the lava fields and accompanying thin soils. The 222Rn formed from the U and 226Ra present in the lava cannot escape to the atmosphere. The deep agricultural soils, on the other hand, provide relatively high flux densities. When the areas of the soil types are taken into account, the exhalation for the lava fields, thin organic soils, and deep agricultural soils were 0.25, 1.7, and 32 MBq s-1, respectively. Measurements of indoor 222Rn on the island indicate levels of approximately 25 Bq m-3 which is appreciably lower than 40 Bq m-3 taken as an average for indoor levels on the mainland. Based on an assumed indoor occupancy level of 0.8, the effective dose equivalent for inhaled 222Rn and its decay products on Hawaii is 1.2 mSv y-1. This is only a little more than one-half of that for a resident of the continental United States who is estimated to receive an effective dose equivalent of 2 mSv y-1. The relatively low effective dose equivalent for the population on the island may have interesting effects in comparison with people living in areas where the inhaled dose from 222Rn is much higher

  10. Indoor 222Rn in Tennessee Valley houses

    A two-season survey of indoor 222Rn concentrations was conducted in 226 occupied houses in Roane County, TN, during 1985 and 1986. A similar survey of 86 houses in Madison County, AL, was conducted in 1988 and 1989. Alpha track detectors were placed in each of the houses for three or more months during the winter heating season, and during the following cooling season. Comparisons were made between winter and summer sampling times and between building types. For the data from Madison County, additional comparisons were made among regions of the county that differed in geological characteristics, especially the thickness of overburden above the Chattanooga Shale layer, a geological stratum that has high concentrations of 226Ra and is widely found in the southeastern United States. The geometric means of summer and winter measurements in Roane County were 33 and 54 Bq m-3, respectively. For Madison County, the summer and winter geometric means were 121 and 88 Bq m-3, respectively. The winter 222Rn concentrations for houses in Roane County exceeded summer 222Rn concentrations, as is generally the case for houses in the U.S. For houses in Madison County, we found the opposite and atypical situation of higher 222Rn concentrations in the summertime. 222Rn concentrations differed significantly among groups of houses in distinguishable regions of Madison County. (AB)

  11. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  12. 222-S laboratory quality assurance plan

    This document provides quality assurance guidelines and quality control requirements for analytical services. This document is designed on the basis of Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) technical guidelines and is used for governing 222-S and 222-SA analytical and quality control activities. The 222-S Laboratory provides analytical services to various clients including, but not limited to, waste characterization for the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), waste characterization for regulatory waste treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD), regulatory compliance samples, radiation screening, process samples, and TPA samples. A graded approach is applied on the level of sample custody, QC, data verification, and data reporting to meet the specific needs of the client

  13. 222-S laboratory quality assurance plan

    Meznarich, H.K.

    1995-04-01

    This document provides quality assurance guidelines and quality control requirements for analytical services. This document is designed on the basis of Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) technical guidelines and is used for governing 222-S and 222-SA analytical and quality control activities. The 222-S Laboratory provides analytical services to various clients including, but not limited to, waste characterization for the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), waste characterization for regulatory waste treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD), regulatory compliance samples, radiation screening, process samples, and TPA samples. A graded approach is applied on the level of sample custody, QC, data verification, and data reporting to meet the specific needs of the client.

  14. Dependence of indoor 222Rn level on building materials

    The radionuclide contents of typical building materials used in Hong Kong were studied by γ spectroscopic analysis. The physical properties of these building materials affecting the production and transportation of 222Rn to the surrounding air were examined; these include the emanation coefficient of 2'22Rn of the material, the diffusion coefficient of 222Rn in the material and the effect of surface coating and temperature on the rate of 222Rn exhalation. Results obtained in this study explain the indoor 222Rn concentration observed in our previous surveys and also suggest that the main source of indoor 222Rn in Hong Kong is building material. (3 figs., 4 tabs.)

  15. 222-S laboratory complex hazards assessment

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A, Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Operational Emergencies, requires that a facility specific hazards assessment be performed to support Emergency Planning activities. The Hazard Assessment establishes the technical basis for the Emergency Action Levels (EALs) and the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). Emergency Planning activities are provided under contract to DOE through the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This document represents the facility specific hazards assessment for the Hanford Site 222-S Laboratories. The primary mission of 222-S is to provide analytic chemistry support to the Waste Management, Chemical Processing, and Environmental programs at the Hanford Site

  16. Dicty_cDB: SHK222 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHK222 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16588-1 SHK222P (Link to Original ... *dhn*hlaivhstiqiystmhgtsfqwwmmnm*fprkhsnltyqnsqcnl*vtt ... swtntsy*lkhsmplmckhcqlfqsscwissttwmklqvrkvlfnwgygh ...

  17. 12 CFR 222.43 - Direct disputes.

    2010-01-01

    ... relationship with the consumer); (v) Information related to fraud alerts or active duty alerts; or (vi... CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Furnishers of Information § 222.43 Direct disputes. (a) General... performance or other conduct concerning an account or other relationship with the furnisher, such as...

  18. 12 CFR 222.3 - Definitions.

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING (REGULATION V) General Provisions § 222.3 Definitions. For purposes of this part, unless...) Common ownership or common corporate control means a relationship between two companies under which: (1... both companies, a relationship described in paragraphs (i)(1)(i) through (i)(1)(iii) of this...

  19. Redox properties of Eu(222)/sup 3+//Eu(222)/sup 2+/ and (222)H/sub 2//sup 2+//H/sub 2/,(222)H/sup +/ systems and their use as a reference potential in organic solvents

    Bessiere, J.; Lejaille, M.F.; Perdicakis, M.

    The Eu(222)/sup 3+//Eu(222)/sup 2+/ electrochemical system is reversible and rapid IN H/sub 2/O, MeOH, DMSO, DMF, CH/sub 3/CN and TMU and can be used as a potential reference. The (222)H/sub 2//sup 2+//H/sub 2/, (222)H/sup +/ system allows the measurement of the difference in basicity between those solvents.

  20. 20 CFR 222.35 - Relationship as stepchild.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as stepchild. 222.35 Section 222.35 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.35 Relationship as stepchild. A claimant will be considered to...

  1. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption. 222.33 Section 222.33 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal...

  2. 9 CFR 354.222 - Floors, walls, ceilings, etc.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Floors, walls, ceilings, etc. 354.222 Section 354.222 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Facilities § 354.222 Floors, walls, ceilings, etc. (a) Floors. All floors in rooms where exposed products...

  3. 7 CFR 1280.222 - Books and Records of Board.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Books and Records of Board. 1280.222 Section 1280.222... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Reports, Books, and Records § 1280.222 Books and Records of Board. The Board shall: (a) Maintain such books and records, which shall be...

  4. 7 CFR 1430.222 - Death, incompetency, or disappearance.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetency, or disappearance. 1430.222 Section 1430.222 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... Contract Program § 1430.222 Death, incompetency, or disappearance. In the case of death,...

  5. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  6. Factors associated with elevated 222Rn levels in Iowa

    The University of Iowa, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency's State Radon Survey Assistance Program, performed a 222Rn screening survey of 582 rural households in the winter of 1989. The distribution of maximum indoor 222Rn concentrations throughout Iowa as well as the relationship between 222Rn screening measurements, detector placement, and housing characteristics are summarized. This report is unique in that site-specific home construction characteristics were collected in the field from participants prior to 222Rn monitoring. The findings of the survey indicate that the significance of a particular housing characteristic on a 222Rn screening measurement is dependent on the placement of the radon detector

  7. Modeling the effects of exhaust ventilation on 222Rn entry rates and indoor 222Rn concentrations

    Continuous mechanical exhaust ventilation of moderately air-tight residences is common in Scandinavia and has recently been employed in several U.S. residences. Exhaust ventilation decreases the indoor pressure and, thus, increases the pressure difference which drives 222Rn entry. Relatively simple analytical (i.e. closed form) models were developed and used to examine the impacts of exhaust ventilation on 222Rn entry rates and concentrations in houses with either a crawl space or a basement. A more complex finite difference model was also developed for the house with a basement and yielded soil gas entry rates within 16% of those predicted with the analytical model. The models indicate that exhaust ventilation is suitable, but not optimal (from the perspective of indoor 222Rn), for houses with a vented crawl space. Exhaust ventilation is also indicated to be suitable for houses with basements surrounded by relatively impermeable soil (10(-12) m2 or less). If soil permeabilities are between 10(-12) and 10(-10) m2, exhaust ventilation may cause substantial increases in indoor 222Rn when soil gas 222Rn concentrations are above average. If soil permeabilities are greater than 10(-10) m2, exhaust ventilation is indicated to be inappropriate, unless some procedure is employed to inhibit soil gas entry. These conclusions should be considered tentative, since extensive verification of the models is still required

  8. 222Rn Observations for Climate and Air Quality Studies

    This paper identifies the current major applications for 222Rn in atmospheric research. Two of these applications, air mass transport and vertical mixing in the lower atmosphere, are illustrated by four separate case studies: (1) Using 222Rn to identify the geographical extent, strength and seasonal variability of land and oceanic emissions; (2) Using 222Rn in pollution studies to improve the performance of clustering algorithms used to define source regions; (3) Using near-surface hourly 222Rn gradient observations from towers as tall as 200 m to investigate diurnal dilution effects in the boundary layer with changing atmospheric stability; and (4) Using vertical 222Rn profile 'snapshots' measured from light aircraft up to 4 km above ground level to contrast boundary layer entrainment rates between clear-sky, convective and stratiform cloud cases. Lastly, a recent set of 222Rn and 222Rn progeny observations is used to discuss the 222Rn/progeny equilibrium factor and illustrate some common problems associated with using 222Rn progeny as a proxy for 222Rn. (author)

  9. A long range transport model of Rn-222

    In this report, we propose an analytical treatment about temporal variation of 222Rn concentration in the atmosphere with an aim to clarify origin and transport of 222Rn. Based on the results of numerical simulation of radon, we separate the 222Re concentration measured at Nagoya into the following two components : (1) 222Rn atom originated near from the measuring site, which is denoted by 'diurnal variation component'. From numerical simulation of radon, it has been shown that the measured diurnal variation can be explained by this component. (2) 222Rn atoms originated far from the measuring site (including Chinese Continent), which is denoted by 'background component'. For this component, we propose here a one layer transport model using air mass trajectory technique. By this model we can explain the temporal variation of background component and seasonal variation of 222Rn at Nagoya. (3 figs.)

  10. Radon and the environment - 222Rn

    After having presented some physical and chemical characteristics of radon 222, this report describes the presence of radon in the environment (in the atmosphere and in soft waters), discusses the radio-toxic effect of radon on human health (exposure, epidemiology, dose calculation, share of radon in population exposure to ionizing radiations), comments the presence of radon in buildings, briefly describes actions aimed at reducing radon concentration within buildings, briefly addresses the issue of professional exposure to radon, evokes regulatory aspects (at the international level, in France, in Switzerland), and comments principles and practices of radon measurement in buildings, water, and underground cavities

  11. Use of Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS222) for Euthanasia of Reptiles

    Conroy, CJ; Papenfuss, T; Parker, J; Hahn, NE

    2009-01-01

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) injected into the intracoelomic cavity of reptiles was evaluated as a chemical euthanasia method. Three western fence lizards, 2 desert iguanas, 4 garter snakes, and 6 geckos were euthanized by intracoelomic injection of 250 to 500 mg/kg of 0.7% to 1% sodium-bicarbonate–buffered MS222 solution followed by intracoelomic injection of 0.1 to 1.0 ml unbuffered 50% (v/v) MS222 solution. A simple 2-stage protocol for euthanasia of reptiles by using MS222 is outline...

  12. 36 CFR 222.29 - Relocation and disposal of animals.

    2010-07-01

    ... animals. 222.29 Section 222.29 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... disposal of animals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall, when he determines over-population of wild... animals from that particular territory. Such action shall be taken until all excess animals have...

  13. 40 CFR 222.3 - Notice of applications.

    2010-07-01

    ... 222.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING ACTION ON OCEAN DUMPING PERMIT APPLICATIONS UNDER SECTION 102 OF THE ACT § 222.3 Notice of applications. (a...; (ii) That the emergency poses an unacceptable risk relating to human health; (iii) That the...

  14. 40 CFR 222.12 - Appeal to Administrator.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal to Administrator. 222.12... ON OCEAN DUMPING PERMIT APPLICATIONS UNDER SECTION 102 OF THE ACT § 222.12 Appeal to Administrator. (a)(1) The Administrator delegates to the Environmental Appeals Board authority to issue...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 222 - Diagnostic Team Considerations

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagnostic Team Considerations F Appendix F to.... 222, App. F Appendix F to Part 222—Diagnostic Team Considerations For purposes of this part, a diagnostic team is a group of knowledgeable representatives of parties of interest in a highway-rail...

  16. 33 CFR 222.4 - Reporting earthquake effects.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting earthquake effects. 222..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ENGINEERING AND DESIGN § 222.4 Reporting earthquake effects. (a) Purpose. This... significant earthquakes. It primarily concerns damage surveys following the occurrences of earthquakes....

  17. 20 CFR 222.14 - Deemed marriage relationship.

    2010-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.14 Deemed marriage relationship. If a ceremonial or common-law marriage relationship cannot be established under State law, a claimant... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deemed marriage relationship. 222.14...

  18. 20 CFR 222.32 - Relationship as a natural child.

    2010-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.32 Relationship as a natural child. A claimant will be... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as a natural child. 222.32... first day of the month in which it actually occurred. (d) Other evidence of relationship. The...

  19. 40 CFR 22.2 - Use of number and gender.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of number and gender. 22.2 Section... PERMITS General § 22.2 Use of number and gender. As used in these Consolidated Rules of Practice, words in the singular also include the plural and words in the masculine gender also include the feminine,...

  20. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the National Forest System and on other lands under...

  1. 12 CFR 222.24 - Reasonable opportunity to opt out.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable opportunity to opt out. 222.24 Section 222.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... consumers to write a “yes” or “no” to indicate their opt-out preference or that requires the consumer...

  2. 222Rn surpluses in Warm-Core rings

    Measurements of 222Rn and 226Ra were made in the western Atlantic Ocean as part of the Warm-Core rings Program. A significant number of measurements on waters taken from the surface and deeper waters showed 222Rn concentrations in excess of those supported by the parent 226Ra. Since the source of these 222Rn surpluses is near-bottom shelf or slope water, and since the half-life of 222Rn is only 3.8 days, such 222Rn surpluses are indicative of rapid offshore advective and or mixing processes. Concentrations of 226Ra exhibit a small but measurable increase when moving from a Sargasso Sea, through the slope water, and up onto the shelf

  3. Photochemistry of Acrylates at 222 nm

    Excimer lamps as monochromatic UV sources with an intense short wavelength mission (specially Kr Cl, 222 nm) allow a photo initiator-free initiation of the acrylate polymerisation. Laser photolysis (Kr Cl excimer laser, pulse width 20 ns, up to 5 ml per pulse) gives rise to similar transient spectra (max << 280 nm) for all acrylates studied. As the rather unspecific spectra do not allow conclusions as to the main reaction channel, a product study has been performed by GC-MS following steady-state photolysis of acrylate solutions in acetonitrile, methanol and n-hexane. Somewhat unexpected, a-cleavage seems to be a main reaction channel, and quantum chemical calculations show that such a reaction can occur from either the excited singlet state or the un relaxed triplet state, but not from the relaxed triplet state that is observed spectroscopically. A reaction scheme accounting for the observed products is presented

  4. COOMET.RI(II)-S1.Rn-222 (169/UA/98): Rn-222 volume activity comparison

    According to a first program, a supplementary comparison of Rn-222 volume activity was drawn up as a bilateral supplementary comparison between NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and VNIIFTRI, Russia. It took place in March 2005. In April 2005, at the 5. meeting of COOMET held in Braunschweig (Germany), representatives of these institutes exchanged data which showed the comparability of the national standards of Ukraine and Russia for the check points. During the discussion of the procedure some other institutes decided to join the comparison program, which was extended to BelGIM (Belarus), PTB (Germany), VNIIM (Russia) and RMTC (Latvia). The national standards of volume activity of radon-222 were thus calibrated using one standard radon radiometer as the transfer standard. Results are shown in the Final Report of the comparison. (authors)

  5. COOMET.RI(II)-S1.Rn-222 (169/UA/98): Rn-222 volume activity comparison

    Skliarov, V. [National Scientific Centre, Institute of Metrology (NSC IM), Kharkiv (Ukraine); Rottger, A.; Honig, A. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Korostin, S.; Kuznetsov, S. [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Physical, Technical and Radio Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Moscow Region, Mendeleyevo (Russian Federation); Lapenas, A. [Latvian National Metrology Centre Ltd, Radiation Metrology and Testing Centre (RMTC), Salaspils (Latvia); Milevsky, V.; Ivaniukovich, A. [Belarussian State Institute of Metrology (BelGIM), Minsk (Belarus); Kharitonov, I.; Sepman, S. [D I Mendeleyev Institute of metrology (VNIIM), Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    According to a first program, a supplementary comparison of Rn-222 volume activity was drawn up as a bilateral supplementary comparison between NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and VNIIFTRI, Russia. It took place in March 2005. In April 2005, at the 5. meeting of COOMET held in Braunschweig (Germany), representatives of these institutes exchanged data which showed the comparability of the national standards of Ukraine and Russia for the check points. During the discussion of the procedure some other institutes decided to join the comparison program, which was extended to BelGIM (Belarus), PTB (Germany), VNIIM (Russia) and RMTC (Latvia). The national standards of volume activity of radon-222 were thus calibrated using one standard radon radiometer as the transfer standard. Results are shown in the Final Report of the comparison. (authors)

  6. 222Rn Measurements in Dwellings of Argentina

    Radon gas (222Rn) is responsible of about fifty per cent of the world population dose due to natural sources, being the most important pathway the inhalation of radon progeny, specially indoors. Radon concentration has been measured in dwellings at different locations in Argentina. The places selected to be evaluated are representative of the different geologic zones of the country. Near 3000 dwellings have been analyzed since 1983 up today. The measuring methods used in this case were track etched detectors, electrets and detectors based on activated charcoal adsorption. Two different methods with track etched detectors were used: a simple one, which determines only the average radon concentration, and a second one that measures both radon concentration and the equilibrium factor (F) between radon and its daughters. The last one is a method that uses two Makrofol passive track detectors in the same device. The average radon concentration value obtained from all the dwellings evaluated was 44.2 Bq.m-3. The annual effective dose calculated from this average concentration, using a dosimetric factor of 25 μSv.a-1.(Bq.m-3)-1, which assumes an equilibrium factor of 0.4, was 1.11 mSv. The average value obtained from the 222 dwellings evaluated by the second method was 49.3 Bq.m-3 and 0,37 the equilibrium factor, resulting the annual effective dose estimated 1,44 mSv. The measured equilibrium factor of 0,37 allows us to verify the assumed equilibrium factor of 0,4. Finally, radon levels in dwellings of Argentina are within the acceptable values for population, not being necessary to implement remedial actions, except in isolate cases that are still under study. (authors)

  7. 222Rn concentration in public secondary schools in Galicia (Spain)

    In the framework of a 222Rn screening campaign that was carried out in 58 public secondary schools in Galicia (NW Spain), the largest radon-prone area in the Iberian Peninsula, a positive correlation between indoor 222Rn concentration and outdoor gamma exposure rate was obtained. A new approach to the data acquisition in screening surveys was tested, improving the performances of this type of study and gathering useful data for future remedial actions. Using short-period detectors (charcoal canisters) firstly, in order to detect places showing 222Rn concentrations over 400 Bq m-3, the number of locations to be measured with long-period detectors (etched track detectors) is reduced. In this screening campaign, 34% of the schools surveyed presented at least one site exceeding the 400 Bq m-3 recommended action level established by the EU, and 15% had at least one site with 222Rn values over 800 Bq m-3. The maximum value recorded was 2084 ± 63 Bq m-3. These results are discussed and compared with data obtained in schools of several countries with similar geology. Seven schools were also studied for seasonal variations of 222Rn activity concentration. The results were not conclusive, and no significant correlation between season and 222Rn concentration was established. Finally, a continuous 222Rn concentration monitor was placed in the secondary school exhibiting a mean value of the 222Rn concentration very close to 400 Bq m-3. Maximum 222Rn concentration values were found to occur at times when the school was unoccupied.

  8. Dicty_cDB: SFL222 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ding frame ORF YGL055w. 56 3e-07 3 AQ874658 |AQ874658.1 V112D8 mTn-3xHA/lacZ Insertion Library, strain Y2278...clnllkniqvvnntltvilvkmqlkllmv*fksficc*kywifie Frame B: ylmy*gn*ndlktstrsi*kkyknsnkeiisinwfsdnwyifsictsmvfvtn...luding cell wall 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for SFL222 is end 5' end se...TA GTTTAAATCATTCATTTGCTGCTAGAAATATTGGATCTTTATAGAG Length of 3' end seq. 696 Connected se...q. ID SFL222P Connected seq. >SFL222P.Seq TTACCTCATGTACTGAGGCAATTGAAATGATCTCAAAACTTCCACAAGAAGTATTTGAA

  9. Atmospheric 222Rn in tourist caves of Slovenia, Yugoslavia

    Radon-222 concentrations in the air of 12 tourist caves in Slovenia, Yugoslavia were measured. In almost all the caves concentrations are higher than in the outdoor air, with the highest concentration in the Tabor Cave at about 6000 Bq m-3. From the 222Rn concentrations obtained, the activity of 222Rn inhaled by a visitor breathing cave air was calculated, and the bronchial dose was estimated. The inhaled activity and the bronchial dose were highest in the Tabor Cave with values of 10 kBq and 540 microSv, respectively

  10. Indoor 222Rn measurements using an activated charcoal detector

    A commercially available activated charcoal detector for measuring 222Rn activity concentrations in air was calibrated with known amounts of 222Rn and examined in terms of air luminescence counts and interferences from 220Rn and 219Rn. The results for conditions normally encountered indoor indicate that the detector is simple and reliable. The method has been applied to assay indoor 222Rn activity concentrations in 387 homes in Tokyo and the adjacent four prefectures, which ranged from 0.7 to 140 Bq/m3 and averaged 22.7 Bq/m3

  11. Sorption of radon-222 to natural sediments

    The sorption of radon to sediments was investigated, since this may affect the use of porewater radon profiles for estimating bed irrigation rates. Batch experiments showed that radon has an organic-carbon-normalized sediment-water partition coefficient (Koc, L kgoc-1) of 21.1 ± 2.9 for a Boston Harbor sediment, 25.3 ± 2.1 for a Charles River sediment, and 22.4 ± 2.6 for a Buzzards Bay sediment. These values are in close agreement with predictions using radon's octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), which was measured to be 32.4 ± 1.5. Temperature and ionic strength effects on Koc were estimated to be small. Given rapid sorption kinetics, the authors suggest that slurry stripping techniques used by many investigators to measure 222Rn in sediment samples collect both sorbed and dissolved radon. Sorption effects were included in a transport model to obtain revised estimates of irrigation rates from existing literature profiles. Irrigation rates had to be increased over previously reported values in proportion to the sediment organic matter content

  12. 40 CFR 98.222 - GHGs to report.

    2010-07-01

    ... GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.222 GHGs to report. (a) You must report N2O process emissions from each nitric acid production train as required by this subpart. (b) You must report...

  13. 48 CFR 222.406-6 - Payrolls and statements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payrolls and statements... Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 222.406-6 Payrolls and statements. (a) Submission..., Statement of Compliance, with each payroll report....

  14. 48 CFR 252.222-7005 - Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens-Guam.

    2010-10-01

    ... nonimmigrant aliens-Guam. 252.222-7005 Section 252.222-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7005 Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens—Guam. As prescribed in 222.7302, use the following clause: Prohibition on Use of Nonimmigrant Aliens—Guam (SEP...

  15. Excess bottom radon 222 distribution in deep ocean passages

    Radon 222 and STD profiles were obtained as part of the Geosecs program in the Vema Channel in the southwest Atlantic Ocean and in the Samoan, Clarion, and Wake Island passages in the Pacific Ocean. The standing crop of excess radon 222 is higher in the passages than at other nearby locations. The most likely explanation for this is that there is a high flux of radon 222 from the floor of the passages. Since much of the floor is covered with manganese nodules and encrustations, the high flux of radon 222 may be attributable to the high concentrations of radium 226 in the outer few millimeters of such deposits. Laboratory measurements of radon 222 emissivity from maganese encrustations obtained in Vema Channel support this hypothesis. The excess radon 222 in the Vema Channel and Wake Island Passage is found in substantial quantities at heights above bottom greatly exceeding the heights at which excess radon 222 is found in nonpassage areas. The horizontal diffusion of radon emanating from the walls of the passages is unlikely to be the cause of the observed concentrations because the ratio of wall surface area to water volume is very low. The profiles must therefore be a result of exceptionally high apparent vertical mixing in the passages. Further work is needed to determine the nature of this apparent vertical mixing. The excess radon 222 and STD data in all four passages have been fit with an empirical model in which it is assumed that the bouyancy flux is constant with distance above bottom. The fits are very good and yield apparent buoyancy fluxes that are between 1 and 3 orders of magnitude greater than those obtained at nearby stations outside the passages for three of the four passages

  16. Determination of (222)Rn absorption properties of polycarbonate foils by liquid scintillation counting. Application to (222)Rn measurements.

    Mitev, K; Cassette, P; Georgiev, S; Dimitrova, I; Sabot, B; Boshkova, T; Tartès, I; Pressyanov, D

    2016-03-01

    This work demonstrates that a Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) technique using a Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio counter with extending dead-time is very appropriate for the accurate measurement of (222)Rn activity absorbed in thin polycarbonate foils. It is demonstrated that using a toluene-based LS cocktail, which dissolves polycarbonates, the (222)Rn activity absorbed in thin Makrofol N foil can be determined with a relative standard uncertainty of about 0.7%. A LSC-based application of the methodology for determination of the diffusion length of (222)Rn in thin polycarbonate foils is proposed and the diffusion length of (222)Rn in Makrofol N (38.9±1.3µm) and the partition coefficient of (222)Rn in Makrofol N from air (112±12, at 20°C) and from water (272±17, at 21°C) are determined. Calibration of commercial LS spectrometers for (222)Rn measurements by LSC of thin polycarbonate foils is performed and the minimum detectable activities by this technique are estimated. PMID:26640234

  17. Acute Exposure from RADON-222 and Aerosols in Drinking Water

    Bernhardt, George Paul, IV

    Radon-222 in water is released when the water is aerated, such as during showering. As a result, a temporary burst of radon-222 can appear as a short term, or acute, exposure. This study looked at homes with radon-222 concentrations in water from 800 picocuries per liter (pCi/l) to 53,000 pCi/l to determine the buildup of radon gas in a bathroom during showering. Samples from the tap and drain, compared to determine the percentage of radon-222 released, showed that between 58% and 88% of radon-222 in the water was released. The resultant radon-222 increase in air, measured with a flow-through detector, ranged from 2 pCi/l to 114 pCi/l in bathrooms due to a 10 to 15 minute shower with water flow rates ranging from 3 l/min to 6 l/min. Significantly, these rates did not fall rapidly but stayed approximately the same for up to 15 minutes after the water flow ceased. In examining exposures, the true danger is in the radon-222 progeny rather than the radon itself. The progeny can be inhaled and deposited in the tracheobronchial passages in the lung. Filter samples of bathroom air measured in a portable alpha spectrometer showed an increase in radon-222 progeny, notably polonium-218 and -214, in the air after showering. These increases were gradual and were on the order of 0.5 pCi/l at the highest level. Tap samples measured in a portable liquid scintillator showed that the progeny are present in the water but are not in true secular equilibrium with the radon-222 in the water. Therefore, the radon-222 does not have to decay to produce progeny since the progeny are already present in the water. A two stage sampler was used to examine the percentage of radiation available in aerosols smaller than 7 microns. Repeated trials showed that up to 85% of the radiation available in the aerosols is contained in the smaller, more respirable particles.

  18. Preliminary experiences with 222Rn gas in Arizona homes

    Results of a survey of 222Rn gas using four-day charcoal canister tests in 759 Arizona homes are reported. Although the study was not random with respect to population or land area, it was useful in identifying areas at risk and locating several homes having elevated indoor 222Rn air concentrations. Approximately 18% of the homes tested exceeded 150 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1), with 7% exceeding 300 Bq m-3 (8 pCi L-1). Several Arizona cities had larger fractions of homes exceeding 150 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1), such as Carefree and Cave Creek (23%), Paradise Valley (30%), Payson (33%), and Prescott (31%). The Granite Dells and Groom Creek areas of Prescott had in excess of 40-60% of the houses tested exceeding 150 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1). Elevated 222Rn concentrations were measured for a variety of home types having different construction materials. Private well water was identified as a potentially significant source of 222Rn gas in Prescott homes, with water from one well testing over 3.5 MBq m-3 (94,000 pCi L-1). A 222Rn concentration in air exceeding 410,000 Bq m-3 (11,000 pCi L-1) was measured using a four-day charcoal canister test in a house in Prescott which had a well opening into a living space. Additional measurements in this 150-m3 dwelling revealed a strikingly heterogeneous 222Rn concentration. The excessive 222Rn level in the dwelling was reduced to less than 190 Bq m-3 (5.2 pCi L-1) by sealing the well head with caulking and providing passive ventilation through a pipe

  19. Mineral water 222 Rn activity decrease due to consumption habits

    Mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau springs, an elevated region with high natural radioactivity, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have significant 222 Rn concentration on site. The highest concentration in the waters are from: Fonte Villela - Aguas da Prata (∼ 1000 Bql-1); Fonte Grande Hotel - Pocinhos do Rio Verde (∼ 400 Brq-1) and Fonte CNEN Lab - Pocos de Caldas (∼ 290 Bql-1). These waters are used by the population as drinking water and due to consumption habits, can lead to internal doses above accepted limits for the public. This work deals with the decrease of 222 Rn activity in mineral waters fro two different popular consumption habits, and with the adult effective dose equivalent reduction due to water consumption habits. It has been found that the estimated dose based on the biokinetic Crawford-Brown model, can be one fourth of dose based on 222 Rn activity on site. (author)

  20. Realization of a reference system for the generation radon 222

    After some general considerations on radon and its calibration techniques, the methods and technologies developed in order to realize a reference system for the generation of radon 222 are presented. Two original patented techniques have been developed. The former technique deals with the realization of radon 222 solid sources from radium 226 deposit on acrylic fibres. This new technology offers the advantage of very quickly obtaining a constant emission rate near to 100%. The latter technique deals with the standard measurement of radon 222 volumic activity via gamma spectrometry of its short-lived daughters. This new procedure is the only one allowing to relate this measure to gaseous standards. An aeraulic/ventilation circuit makes it possible to calibrate the radon measurement instrumentation within a wide volumic activity range from to 4 to 4 000 Bq/m3

  1. 222Rn alpha dose to organs other than lung

    The alpha dose to cells in tissues or organs other theft the lung has been calculated using the solubility coefficients for 222 Rn measured in human tissue. The annual alpha dose equivalent f rom 222 Rn and decay products in most tissues is a maximum of 30% of the annual average natural background dose equivalent (1 mSv) for external and internally deposited nuclides. The dose to the small population of lymphocytes located in or under the bronchial epithelium is a special case and their annual dose equivalent is essentially the same as that to basal cells in bronchial epithelium (200 mSv) for continuous exposure to 200 Bq M-3. The significance of this dose is uncertain because the only excess cancer observed in follow up studies of underground miners with high 222 Rn exposure is bronchogenic carcinoma

  2. Indoor 222Rn survey in Zacatecas State, Mexico

    As part of a program for discovering whether afflicted areas exist, indoor 222Rn concentrations in the State of Zacatecas were surveyed, 222Rn concentration being measured by γ-ray spectrometry of radon decay products adsorbed into charcoal canisters. A survey was implemented during Summer 2001: 228 dwellings in the state were tested by taking mean 254 measurements. Concentrations exhibited a left-skewed distribution of indoor 222Rn, showing overall average, minimum, and maximum concentrations of 67, 26, and 511 Bq m-3, respectively. Only seven of the measurements (2.7%) were found equal to or greater than the US EPA action limit (148 Bq m-3). Thus, we conclude that the indoor radon environment in Zacatecas State is under US EPA action limit. The few high concentration spots suggest that geological conditions rather than construction materials may be the determinant factor

  3. Measurements of octupole collectivity in $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra using Coulomb excitation

    Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Hurst, A M; Voulot, D; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Siem, S; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S

    2008-01-01

    We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra ion beams from the REX facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^{-}$ states in these nuclei. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decays from the 3$^{-}$ state using the MINIBALL array we can obtain the transition matrix elements. This will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in these nuclei. We require 22 shifts to fulfil the aims of the experiment.

  4. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    2010-07-01

    ... RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, is authorized to cancel, modify, or suspend grazing and livestock..., executive order, development or revision of an allotment management plan, or other management needs....

  5. 12 CFR 222.20 - Coverage and definitions.

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.20 Coverage and definitions. (a...-existing business relationship—(i) In general. The term “pre-existing business relationship” means a relationship between a person, or a person's licensed agent, and a consumer based on— (A) A financial...

  6. 20 CFR 222.23 - Relationship as surviving divorced spouse.

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried Widow(er) § 222.23 Relationship as surviving divorced spouse. A claimant will be considered to be the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as surviving divorced...

  7. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    2010-04-01

    ... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.34 Relationship resulting from... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship resulting from equitable... adopted child. A claimant will have the relationship of an equitably adopted child for annuity and...

  8. 20 CFR 222.22 - Relationship as divorced spouse.

    2010-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried Widow(er) § 222.22 Relationship as divorced spouse. A claimant will be considered to be the divorced spouse of an... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as divorced spouse....

  9. 20 CFR 222.36 - Relationship as grandchild or stepgrandchild.

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.36 Relationship as grandchild or stepgrandchild. A claimant will have the relationship of grandchild or stepgrandchild of an employee, or the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as grandchild or...

  10. 20 CFR 222.13 - Common-law marriage relationship.

    2010-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.13 Common-law marriage relationship. Under the laws of some States, a common-law marriage is one which is not solemnized in a formal... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common-law marriage relationship....

  11. 20 CFR 222.12 - Ceremonial marriage relationship.

    2010-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.12 Ceremonial marriage relationship. A valid ceremonial marriage is one which would be recognized as valid by the courts of the State... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ceremonial marriage relationship....

  12. 20 CFR 222.11 - Determination of marriage relationship.

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.11 Determination of marriage relationship. A claimant will be considered to be the husband, wife, or widow(er) of an employee... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of marriage relationship....

  13. 12 CFR 222.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    2010-01-01

    ... consumer that is not imposed under any other law; or (2) Alter or affect any requirement imposed under any... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 222.83... RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding...

  14. 36 CFR 222.7 - Cooperation in management.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperation in management... RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.7 Cooperation in management. (a) Cooperation with local livestock associations—(1) Authority. The Chief, Forest Service,...

  15. Automatic monitor of radon-222 daughter elements concentration

    This paper developed a method to determine the concentration of radon-222 daughter radioactive elements in air. In order to implement this procedure a non-continuous monitor was built to measure the concentration of those elements by means of alpha spectroscopy. The fundamentals of the analytical method and construction details of the monitor is presented. (author)

  16. 33 CFR 183.222 - Flotation material and air chambers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flotation material and air... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.222 Flotation material and air...

  17. 40 CFR 180.222 - Prometryn; tolerances for residues.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prometryn; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.222 Prometryn; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues...

  18. Risk analysis of 222Rn gas received from East Anatolian Fault Zone in Turkey

    Yilmaz, Mucahit; Kulahci, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    In this study, risk analysis and probability distribution methodologies are applied for 222Rn gas data received from Sürgü (Malatya) station located on East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). 222Rn data are recorded between 21.02.2007 and 06.06.2010 dates. For study are used total 1151 222Rn data. Changes in concentration of 222Rn are modeled as statistically.

  19. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition of the Enterprise) from the Ministerio de Trabajo y S.S., Tesoreria General de la Seguridad Social... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish...

  20. Investigations into the long-distance atmospheric transport in Central Europe using Rn-222

    An measuring network was used to determine the atmospheric Rn-222 content in Central Europe (Northern and Southern Germany, Poland). Rn-222 is to serve as tracer for the long-distance atmospheric transport in central Europe. For several areas, an average Rn-222 flux density was found. The radon source 'continent' and the soil as radon source have been taken into account. (DG)

  1. 78 FR 61446 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S

    2013-10-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S AGENCY... RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the fourteenth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S DATES: The...

  2. 78 FR 8684 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S

    2013-02-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S AGENCY... RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twelfth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. DATES: The...

  3. 48 CFR 252.222-7006 - Restrictions on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements.

    2010-10-01

    ... Mandatory Arbitration Agreements. 252.222-7006 Section 252.222-7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Arbitration Agreements. As prescribed in 222.7404, use the following clause: Restrictions on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements (MAY 2010) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Covered...

  4. 50 CFR 222.305 - Rights of succession and transfer of permits.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights of succession and transfer of permits. 222.305 Section 222.305 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... THREATENED MARINE SPECIES General Permit Procedures § 222.305 Rights of succession and transfer of...

  5. 48 CFR 352.222-70 - Contractor cooperation in equal employment opportunity investigations.

    2010-10-01

    ... Opportunity (EEO) complaints processed pursuant to 29 CFR Part 1614. For purposes of this clause, the... equal employment opportunity investigations. 352.222-70 Section 352.222-70 Federal Acquisition... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.222-70 Contractor cooperation in equal employment...

  6. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    2010-10-01

    ... Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-18 Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or...

  7. Instruments to measure radon-222 activity concentration or exposure to radon-222. Intercomparison 2014

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices1 using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organisational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (EPTIS) and from the BfS websites.

  8. A reference measurement system for radon 222 calibration

    A Reference Measurement System (RMS) for Rn 222 calibration was recently developed at INMRI of ENEA and is setting up at INP. Main performances of this system, based on radon transfer and counting system calibrated by Ra 226 traceable standard liquid solution are published in the Symposium on Radionuclide Metrology and its applications (ICRM '95), held in Paris. The reference counting instrument is a cylindrical electrostatic cell with a PIPS detector. The combined uncertainty estimated for the calibration of Rn 222 sources as in a typical gas transfer system is about 1%. The excellent results obtained by this system on International comparison on radon measurements in 15 European laboratories organized in 1995, in the frame of EUROMET project are reported

  9. 2.2.2 Non-Ionizing Radiations

    Bernhardt, J. H.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Subsection '2.2.2 Non-Ionizing Radiations' of the Section '2.2 Kinds of Radiation' of the Chapter '2 Radiation and Biological Effects' with the contents:

  10. Dicty_cDB: VHD222 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHD222 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12398-1 - (Link to Original site) ... 2 1 EC594866 |EC594866.1 FU040e05 Asexual conidial life -cycle of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum Fus ... 2 1 EC594347 |EC594347.1 FU032f04 Asexual conidial life -cycle of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum Fus ...

  11. Using 222 Rn for hydrograph separationin a micro basin (Luxembourg)

    Hoffmann, L.; Tosheva, Z.; Hofmann, H.; Kies, A.; Pfister, L.

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain information on the hydrological signature of rivers during and after heavy rain events, small catchment areas are selected as experimental sites. Hydrograph separations based on environmental tracers are performed. Natural isotopic tracers such as 18O, 2H and particularly 222Rn may help to distinguish the components dominating the outflow, particularly of 'pre-event waters', 'event waters' and 'post-event waters'. Even with moderate concentrations in gro...

  12. Nitrogen heteroaromatic cations by [2+2+2] cycloaddition

    Čížková, Martina; Kolivoška, Viliam; Císařová, I.; Šaman, David; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Teplý, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2011), s. 450-462. ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1614; GA ČR GA203/09/0705; GA MŠk OC 140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : modular synthesis * N-heteroaromatic cation * [2+2+2] cycloaddition Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.696, year: 2011

  13. Low background counting of 222Rn, 220Rn and 219Rn with electrostatic counters

    Mong, Brian; EXO-200 Collaboration; nEXO Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. Supported by NSERC Project Grants ``Search for Double Beta Decay with EXO.''

  14. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 222-S Laboratory Complex

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the 222-S Laboratory Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-27). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the 222-S Laboratory Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this 222-S Laboratory Complex permit application documentation is current as of August 2000

  15. Estimation of 222Rn release from the phosphogypsum board used in housing panels

    Phosphogypsum board is a popular construction material used for housing panels in Korea. Phosphogypsum often contains 226Ra which decays into 222Rn through an α transformation. 222Rn emanated from the 226Ra-bearing phosphogypsum board has drawn the public concern due to its potential radiological impacts to indoor occupants. The emanation rate of 222Rn from the board is estimated in this paper. A mathematical model of the emanation rate of 222Rn from the board is presented and validated through a series of experiments. The back diffusion effect due to accumulation of 222Rn-laden air was incorporated in the model and found to have a strong impact on the 222Rn emanation characteristics

  16. Calibration of radon-222 detectors using closed circuit radium-226 sources; Calibracao de detectores de radonio-222 atraves do uso de fontes de radio-222 em circuito fechado

    Perna, Allan Felipe Nunes; Paschuk, Sergei Anatolyevich; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Del Claro, Flavia, E-mail: allan_perna@hotmail.com, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the calibration of the Radon-222 detectors used by the Laboratories specializing in measuring natural radiation from this gas. The research was conducted in collaboration between UTFPR, CDTN/CNEN, UFRN and IRD/CNEN. During the calibration the detectors were exposed in isolated chambers with radioactive calibrated sources. The calibration procedure was supported with four instant radon monitors AlphaGUARD (SAPHYMO Co.) responsible for radon activity measurements in the experimental chamber. The calibration procedure resulted an equation that relates the number of tracks found in solid-state detector CR-39 (Track-Etch detector) with the concentration of radon in the atmosphere. Obtained results are compatible with previously performed calibration at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan) using high activity levels of radon in air. Present results of calibration give the possibility to expand the calibration curve of CR-39 for medium and low activity levels of radon. (author)

  17. 22 CFR 40.68 - Aliens subject to INA 222(g).

    2010-04-01

    ... new nonimmigrant visa unless the alien complies with the requirements in 22 CFR 41.101 (b) or (c... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens subject to INA 222(g). 40.68 Section 40... § 40.68 Aliens subject to INA 222(g). An alien who, under the provisions of INA 222(g), has voided...

  18. Stress of anesthesia with M.S. 222 and Benzocaine in Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Wedemeyer, Gary

    1970-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) anesthetized with M.S. 222 for periods up to 12 min experience interrenal ascorbate depletion, uremia, and moderate hypercholesterolemia. Anesthesia with neutralized M.S. 222 (pH 7) or benzocaine prevented these changes and significantly reduced the variability in plasma glucose, cholesterol, and cortisol, indicating that the stress of anesthesia with M.S. 222 is due to the low pK of the sulfonic acid moiety.

  19. Predicting terrestrial 222Rn flux using gamma dose rate as a proxy

    F. Conen

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available 222Rn is commonly used as a natural tracer for validating climate models. To improve such models a better source term for 222Rn than currently used is necessary. The aim of this work is to establish a method for mapping this source term by using a commonly measured proxy, the gamma dose rate (GDR. Automatic monitoring of GDR has been networked in 25 European countries by the Institute for Environment and Sustainability at the Joint Research Centre (JRC IES in Ispra, Italy, using a common data format. We carried out simultaneous measurements of 222Rn flux and GDR at 63 locations in Switzerland, Germany, Finland and Hungary in order to cover a wide range of GDR. Spatial variations in GDR resulted from different radionuclide concentrations in soil forming minerals. A relatively stable fraction (20% of the total terrestrial GDR originates from the 238U decay series, of which 222Rn is a member. Accordingly, spatial variation in terrestrial GDR was found to describe almost 60% of the spatial variation in 222Rn flux. Furthermore, temporal variation in GDR and 222Rn was found to be correlated. Increasing soil moisture reduces gas diffusivity and the rate of 222Rn flux but it also decreases GDR through increased shielding of photons. Prediction of 222Rn flux through GDR for individual measurement points is imprecise but un-biased. Verification of larger scale prediction showed that estimates of mean 222Rn fluxes were not significantly different from the measured mean values.

  20. Radon-222 behavior at the Latera geothermal field (Northern Latium)

    Permanent probes to sample soil gases were placed at the Latera geothermal area, Vulsini Mts. (Latium, Italy). Due to the remarkable uranium and thorium concentrations in the alkali-potassic volcanites outcropping in the area, quite high Rn-222 values, ranging from 740 up to 11.640 pCi/L, were found. This area results as one of the most anomalous in Italy. The highest radon activities match geological and tectonic structures, such as fractures and faults, and a deep high structure, which constitutes the geothermal reservoir. These high radon values also conform to a major amount of helium-4 and carbon dioxide. The latter gases are enriched in the gaseous phase of the geothermal fluids, and their migration is also controlled by structural features. All this suggests that the enrichment of radon-222 in the soil gases sampled in connection with the geothermal reservoir can be linked to a direct contribution of radium-226 carried by deep seated fluids from the reservoir itself

  1. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using radon-222

    T. Kluge

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m−3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m3 per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake interaction.

  2. 222-S Laboratory Quality Assurance Plan. Revision 1

    Meznarich, H.K.

    1995-07-31

    This Quality Assurance Plan provides,quality assurance (QA) guidance, regulatory QA requirements (e.g., 10 CFR 830.120), and quality control (QC) specifications for analytical service. This document follows the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) issued Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP). In addition, this document meets the objectives of the Quality Assurance Program provided in the WHC-CM-4-2, Section 2.1. Quality assurance elements required in the Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Program Plans (QAMS-004) and Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project Plans (QAMS-005) from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are covered throughout this document. A quality assurance index is provided in the Appendix A. This document also provides and/or identifies the procedural information that governs laboratory operations. The personnel of the 222-S Laboratory and the Standards Laboratory including managers, analysts, QA/QC staff, auditors, and support staff shall use this document as guidance and instructions for their operational and quality assurance activities. Other organizations that conduct activities described in this document for the 222-S Laboratory shall follow this QA/QC document.

  3. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using radon-222

    Kluge, T.; Ilmberger, J.; von Rohden, C.; Aeschbach-Hertig, W.

    2007-06-01

    Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m-3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l) water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m3 per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake interaction.

  4. 222-S Laboratory Quality Assurance Plan. Revision 1

    This Quality Assurance Plan provides,quality assurance (QA) guidance, regulatory QA requirements (e.g., 10 CFR 830.120), and quality control (QC) specifications for analytical service. This document follows the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) issued Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP). In addition, this document meets the objectives of the Quality Assurance Program provided in the WHC-CM-4-2, Section 2.1. Quality assurance elements required in the Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Program Plans (QAMS-004) and Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project Plans (QAMS-005) from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are covered throughout this document. A quality assurance index is provided in the Appendix A. This document also provides and/or identifies the procedural information that governs laboratory operations. The personnel of the 222-S Laboratory and the Standards Laboratory including managers, analysts, QA/QC staff, auditors, and support staff shall use this document as guidance and instructions for their operational and quality assurance activities. Other organizations that conduct activities described in this document for the 222-S Laboratory shall follow this QA/QC document

  5. Factors controlling temporal variability of near-ground atmospheric 222Rn concentration over Central Europe

    M. Zimnoch

    2014-02-01

    222Rn content in Krakow was approximately 30 % higher when compared to Heidelberg (5.86 ± 0.09 Bq −3 and 4.50 ± 0.07 Bq m−3, respectively. Distinct seasonality of 222Rn signal was visible in both presented time series, with higher values recorded generally during late summer and autumn. The surface 222Rn fluxes in Krakow also revealed a distinct seasonality, with broad maximum observed during summer and early autumn and minimum during the winter. Averaged over 5 yr observation period, the night-time surface 222Rn flux was equal 46.8 ± 2.4 Bq m−2 h−1. Although the atmospheric 222Rn levels at Heidelberg and Krakow appeared to be controlled primarily by local factors, it was possible to evaluate the "continental effect" in atmospheric 222Rn content between both sites, related to the gradual build-up of 222Rn concentration in the air masses travelling between Heidelberg and Krakow. The mean value of this load was equal 0.78 ± 0.12 Bq m−3. The measured minimum 222Rn concentrations at both sites and the difference between them was interpreted in the framework of a simple box model coupled with HYSPLIT analysis of air mass trajectories. Best fit of experimental and model data was obtained for the average 222Rn flux over the European continent equal 52 Bq m−2 h−1, the mean transport velocity of the air masses within convective mixed layer of PBL on their route from the Atlantic coast to Heidelberg and Krakow equal 3.5 m s−1, the mean rate constant of 222Rn removal across the top of PBL equal to the 222Rn decay constant and the mean height of the convective mixed layer height equal 1600 m.

  6. 222Rn activity in soil gas across selected fault segments in the Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain

    222Rn activity in soil gas was measured across fault segments of the seismic active Ventaniella Fault and the seismic inactive Sabero-Gordón Fault in the Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain, in order to investigate the variability of the 222Rn concentration. The sampling took place in summer and autumn 2010. During the autumn measurement program, an additional 222Rn soil gas mapping was carried out in the Sabero-Gordón research area. Zones of elevated 222Rn activity in the soil gas were identified by background 222Rn values of the geological formations used for mapping and local background values from 222Rn values outside the elevated 222Rn activity zones. Unexpectedly, the Sabero-Gordón Fault showed higher 222Rn activity, up to 441 kBqm−3, compared to the 222Rn activity of the Ventaniella Fault which had a maximum of 106 kBqm−3. Comparison of the results shows that the values measured in summer are about 5 times higher than the autumn values. This difference is not reflected in petrophysical soil parameters or meteorological conditions documented during the field measurements. Based on the results of our work we conclude that the magnitude of 222Rn concentration in soil gas is not an indicator of local seismic activity of the investigated faults. For the studied segment of the aseismic Sabero-Gordón Fault we suggest active genesis of pathways for gas migration driven by aseismic fault slip causing the elevated 222Rn activity in soil gas.

  7. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: COOMET.RI(II)-S1.Rn-222 (169/UA/98): Rn-222 volume activity comparison

    Skliarov, V.; Röttger, A.; Honig, A.; Korostin, S.; Kuznetsov, S.; Lapenas, A.; Milevsky, V.; Ivaniukovich, A.; Kharitonov, I.; Sepman, S.

    2009-01-01

    According to a first program, a supplementary comparison of Rn-222 volume activity was drawn up as a bilateral supplementary comparison between NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and VNIIFTRI, Russia. It took place in March 2005. In April 2005, at the 5th meeting of COOMET held in Braunschweig (Germany), representatives of these institutes exchanged data which showed the comparability of the national standards of Ukraine and Russia for the check points. During the discussion of the procedure some other institutes decided to join the comparison program, which was extended to BelGIM (Belarus), PTB (Germany), VNIIM (Russia) and RMTC (Latvia). The national standards of volume activity of radon-222 were thus calibrated using one standard radon radiometer as the transfer standard. Results are shown in the Final Report of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by COOMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. 5 CFR 591.222 - How does OPM use the expenditure weights to combine price indexes?

    2010-01-01

    ... average (the nth root of the product of n numbers) of the price index(es) of all item(s) representing the... to combine price indexes? 591.222 Section 591.222 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... combine price indexes? OPM uses a three-step process to combine price indexes. (a) Step 1. For each...

  9. D2.2.2 Final Version of the LinkedUp Evaluation Framework

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Guy, Marieke; Scheffel, Maren

    2014-01-01

    This document (D2.2.2) describes the LinkedUp consortium’s experience in developing and on- going improvement of the LinkedUp Evaluation Framework throughout three web open educational data competitions: Veni, Vidi, Vici. D2.2.2 is the final report regarding the Evaluation Framework (EF). It synthes

  10. 12 CFR 222.90 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR 603.2(a). (9) Red Flag means a pattern, practice, or specific activity that indicates the possible... mitigation of identity theft. 222.90 Section 222.90 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Identity Theft...

  11. 12 CFR 222.21 - Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions.

    2010-01-01

    ... communication. (iii) A credit card issuer makes a marketing call to the consumer without using eligibility... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions. 222... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.21...

  12. 48 CFR 222.7301 - Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens. 222.7301 Section 222.7301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... aliens. (a) Any alien who is issued a visa or otherwise provided nonimmigrant status under Section...

  13. 42 CFR 414.222 - Items requiring frequent and substantial servicing.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Items requiring frequent and substantial servicing. 414.222 Section 414.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH...

  14. Present state of radio-strontium decorporation research with cryptand (222)

    The use of Cryptand (222) for the removal of Sr-90 from rats was studed. Tentative extrapolation from rat to man resulted in a probable treatment scheme. The decontamination effect as a function of the Cryptand (222) dose and the time interval between incorporation of the radionuclide and the start of treatment is discussed. (H.K.)

  15. [The content of radon 222Rn in deep borehole water of the Pojezierze Mazurskie terrain].

    Pachocki, K A; Gorzkowski, B; Majle, T; Rózycki, Z

    1997-01-01

    Radon 222Rn in deep borehole water of Pojezierze Mazurskie region has been quantitative determined. The measurement were performed using the alpha liquid scintillation counting method. The water samples were examined from three voivodships: Elblag, Olsztyn and Suwałki. In some cases the concentrations of 222Rn in investigated water samples exceed 11 Bq/l. PMID:9273666

  16. The contents of radon 222Rn in deep borehole water of Pojezierze Mazurskie region

    Radon 222Rn in deep borehole water of Pojezierze Mazurskie region has been quantitatively determined. The measurement were performed using the alpha liquid scintillation counting method. The water samples were examined from 3 provinces: Elblag, Olsztyn and Suwalki. In some cases the concentrations of 222Rn in investigated water samples exceed 11 Bq/l. (author)

  17. 48 CFR 52.222-46 - Evaluation of Compensation for Professional Employees.

    2010-10-01

    ... obtaining the quality of professional services needed for adequate contract performance. It is therefore in the Government's best interest that professional employees, as defined in 29 CFR 541, be properly and... for Professional Employees. 52.222-46 Section 52.222-46 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  18. 48 CFR 252.222-7003 - Permit from Italian Inspectorate of Labor.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit from Italian... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7003 Permit from Italian Inspectorate of Labor. As prescribed in 222.7201(b), use the following clause: Permit from Italian Inspectorate of Labor (JUN...

  19. Nationwide indoor 222Rn and 220Rn map for India: a review

    Considering the role of radon in epidemiology, an attempt was made to make a nation-wide map of indoor 222Rn and 220Rn for India. More than 5000 measurements have been carried out in 1500 dwellings across the country comprising urban and nonurban locations. The solid state nuclear track detectors based twin cup 222Rn/220Rn discrimination dosimeters were deployed for the measurement of indoor 222Rn, 220Rn and their progeny levels. The geometric means of estimated annual inhalation dose rate due to indoor 222Rn, 220Rn and their progeny in the dwellings was 0.94 mSvy-1 (geometric standard deviation 2.5). It was observed that the major contribution to the indoor inhalation dose was due to indoor 222Rn and its progeny. However, the contribution due to indoor 220Rn and its progeny was not trivial as it was found to be about 20% of the total indoor inhalation dose rates. The indoor 222Rn levels in dwellings was significantly different depending on the nature of walls and floorings. - Highlights: → A countrywide survey on 222Rn and 220Rn levels for India was carried out in dwellings. → The regional values are obtained from the data on a few houses in that area. → Calibration factors for the measurements were derived experimentally as well as theoretically. → The 222Rn and 220Rn levels are represented on the maps.

  20. A method for the determination of 222Rn flux from soil to atmosphere

    An accumulator and a portable electronic monitor were used for determinations of 222Rn flux exhalation from soil to atmosphere. This work describes a method of fitting the function that represents 222Rn concentration variation in the accumulator to experimental data, and tries to answer the practical questions of temperature, leakage and soil disturbance, that may influence 222Rn flux determinations. It is observed a deviation equal to 0.2 %, between the determined counting rate conversion factor of the monitor and the catalog reported factor, showing that the proposed method has a good accuracy. The smallest 222Rn flux that can be determined by this method is equal to 3.24 9 10-3 Bq m-2 s-1. These results encourage the use of this method to measure 222Rn flux from soil to atmosphere in other different places. (author)

  1. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide

    Balachandran, C.; Kumar, P. Saravana; Arun, Y.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Sundaram, R. Lakshmi; Vijayakumar, A.; Balakrishna, K.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Perumal, P. T.

    2015-02-01

    N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was obtained by acylation of benzylamine with trifluoroacetic anhydride using Friedel-Crafts acylation method. The synthesised compound was confirmed by spectroscopic and crystallographic techniques. N-Benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide was assessed for its antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties. It showed good antifungal activity against tested fungi and moderate antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of N-benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide against fungi were 15.62 μg/mL against A. flavus, 31.25 μg/mL against B. Cinerea and 62.5 μg/mL against T. mentagrophytes, Scopulariopsis sp., C. albicans and M. pachydermatis. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 78.97 ± 2.24 of antioxidant activity at 1,000 μg/mL. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was dependent on the concentration. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed (1.352 ± 0.04 mM Fe(II)/g) twofold higher value compared to the standard. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 75.3 % cytotoxic activity at the dose of 200 μg/mL with IC50 (54.7 %) value of 100 μg/mL. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was subjected to molecular docking studies for the inhibition AmpC beta-lactamase, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase and lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (CYP51) enzymes which are targets for antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Docking studies of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed low docking energy. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide can be evaluated further for drug development.

  2. 222Rn + 220Rn monitoring by alpha spectrometry

    Controlled 222Rn + 220Rn mixed atmospheres have been realised introducing calibrated sources in a stainless steel chamber. An electrostatic alpha monitor internal to the chamber has been used for an accurate discrimination of alpha peaks due to the products of the two isotopes. In the chamber, different specific activities are achieved in order to test the response of the internal reference instrument and to evaluate the possible interferences due to contemporary presence of both radon isotopes. Results show that: (i) the atmospheres are very stable, (ii) the monitor is adequate for their control because the various alpha lines are well evaluated and (iii) using TyvekR filter, the efficiency of monitor is stable and constant vs. activity. (authors)

  3. Radon-222 measurement in a uranium prospecting area in Brazil

    Rn-222 concentrations were determined in about 100 measuring points in an uranium prospecting area in the eastern part of Brazil. The single measurement results in open areas, identified as environmental points, present values between 4 ± 2 Bq/m-3 and 404 ± 16 Bq/m-3 with a mean value of 62 ± 10 Bq/m-3. Comparing the mean values for each measuring point, the values obtained are between 15 ± 2 Bq/m-3 in the deposit for mineral samples and 245 ±7 Bq/m-3 for the central point, AN08, of the prospective mine. Makrofol SSNTD were used for the measurements and exposed for 120 days alternated periods from May 1992 to May 1994. (authors). 8 refs., 1 tab

  4. Study of 222Rn variations in the soil air

    A significant source of radon in the indoor atmosphere is represented by 222Rn in the soil air, ie., by the fraction of radon atoms produced by alpha decay of 226Ra in soil grains that escaped into soil pores. In the paper the results are presented of a three year monitoring of radon in soil air, using a 125 ml Lucas type scintillation cell. Radon concentration depth profiles in the soil in various seasons of the year were also measured, and saturated concentration of radon in soil air was found at a depth of about 2 m. Monthly variations in the radon concentration were observed over several months and the possible causes of the variations are discussed. Daily courses of radon concentration were also measured and the results are presented. (A.K.)

  5. 222Rn and decay products in outdoor and indoor environments

    Radon-222 (radon) and radon daughter (RnD) measurement methodologies are analysed from both theoretical and experimental points of view. It is shown that exhalation from enclosed porous materials can be described in terms of the time-dependent diffusion theory. Deficiencies in the established accumulator method of radon exhalation measurement are shown. By the existing methods, the true free exhalation rate of thin samples may be underestimated by a factor of (1+α-1), in radon-tight accumulators (α is the outer to inner volume ratio of the sample). The term back-diffusion is clarified and shown applicable to steady-state conditions only. The wire-screen technique is utilized to separate aerosol-attached and unattached RnD in a 3 m3 radon cell. The effect of air-filtration on the RnDs is expressed as individual activity concentrations as well as in terms of effective dose equivalent rate, H. H has been reduced by a factor between 1.3 and 2.5 for the small-sized areosol particles used (surface area median less than 100 nm), at the filtration rate constant 5 h-1. The exact reduction value is dependent on initial aerosol load, type of filter, and dose model (Jacobi-Eisfeld and James-Birchall in this investigation). The concentration of radon and Pb-210 in the Arctic summer air averaged 75+-21 and 0.075+-0.028 mBq m-3, during the Swedish Ymer-80 expedition. It is shown that steadystate equilibrium models are unsuitable for estimation of the mean aerosol residence time in ocean air. A good qualitative agreement between radon-levels and the time since the air mass left larger land areas was found. The radon-222 and long-lived daughter (Pb-210, Po-210) measurements are insensitive to ship- and local contaminations. (author)

  6. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 222 - Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings G Appendix G to Part 222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt. 222, App. G Appendix G to Part 222—Excess Risk Estimates for...

  7. 36 CFR 222.26 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.

    2010-07-01

    ... horses and burros from private lands. 222.26 Section 222.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.26 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands. Owners of land upon...

  8. 36 CFR 222.21 - Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment.

    2010-07-01

    ...-roaming horses and burros and their environment. 222.21 Section 222.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.21 Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment. (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 222.27 - Maintenance of wild free-roaming horses and burros on privately-owned lands.

    2010-07-01

    ...-roaming horses and burros on privately-owned lands. 222.27 Section 222.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.27 Maintenance of wild free-roaming horses and burros on privately-owned...

  10. 20 CFR 404.222 - Use of benefit table in finding your primary insurance amount from your average monthly wage.

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance amount from your average monthly wage. 404.222 Section 404.222 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.222 Use of benefit table...

  11. 42 CFR 436.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    2010-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 436.222 Section 436.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID....222 Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may... assistance but who meet the income and resource requirements of the State's approved AFDC plan. (b)...

  12. Control of preferred (222) crystalline orientation of sputtered indium tin oxide thin films

    Pham, Duy Phong [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Phan, Bach Thang [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Faculty of Materials Science, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Hoang, Van Dung; Nguyen, Huu Truong [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Ta, Thi Kieu Hanh [Faculty of Materials Science, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Maenosono, Shinya [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Ishikawa (Japan); Tran, Cao Vinh, E-mail: tcvinh@hcmus.edu.vn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam)

    2014-11-03

    We report a two-step growth process for the fabrication of (222)-plane textured indium tin oxide (ITO) films. A thin ITO seed layer was grown in mixed Argon + Oxygen gases, followed by a thick ITO deposited in Argon gas. X-Ray diffraction shows that the sputtered ITO films exhibit strongly preferred (222) crystalline orientation. The (222)-plane textured ITO films have high transmittance above 80% in the visible range and carrier concentration, mobility and resistivity in the range of 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}, 40 cm{sup 2}/Vs and 10{sup −4} Ω·cm, respectively. The surface roughness of our (222) textured ITO films is 1.4 nm, which is one of the smallest value obtained from sputtered ITO thin films. - Highlights: • Control of preferred (222) crystalline orientation of indium tin oxide (ITO) films • A thin oxygen rich seed layer activates (222) orientation growth of overhead ITO films. • The surface roughness of (222)-plane textured ITO films is about 1.4 nm. • Carrier concentration and resistivity are about 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} and 10{sup −4} Ω·cm, respectively.

  13. Measurements of 222Rn activity in well water of the Curitiba metropolitan area (Brazil)

    Corrêa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F. N.; França, Alana C.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy

    2014-11-01

    Considering that 222Rn activity concentration in well water can contribute to indoor radon concentration levels, which represent a radiation risk for the public, measurements of 226Ra and 222Rn activity in well water in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil were performed. Each water sample was submitted to four measurements for radon concentration over an interval of three days. After two months, the same samples were submitted again to 222Rn concentration measurements with the objective of indirectly evaluating the amount of 226Ra in them. The 222Rn concentration measurements were performed with an AlphaGUARD radon monitor (SAPHYMO), and the 226Ra concentration was evaluated with the decay curves of 222Rn. Within a few hours after extraction, about 70% of water samples from monitored wells presented 222Rn concentration values above the limit of 11.1 Bq/L recommended by the EPA of the United States. The obtained activity values varied between 1.6 Bq/L and 215 Bq/L for radon concentration, and radium concentrations deviated within an interval of 0.50 Bq/L and 6.8 Bq/L. The results reveal that the biggest part of 222Rn found in water samples originated not from soluble 226Ra compounds but from gas exhalation by the soil and rocks adjacent to the well. The results point to the necessity of mitigation procedure development for better control of global alpha radioactivity in drinking water.

  14. Theoretical study of the diffusion 222Rn gas on activated charcoal

    The 222Rn adsorption coefficient is the fundamental parameter characterizing activated carbon's ability to adsorb 222Rn . In this work, it has been determined the 222Rn coefficient adsorption for 222Rn activated carbon detectors. Scintillation vials were used as detectors. The measurement of the 222Rn activity adsorbed in activated carbon was made by a liquid scintillation measurement of its alpha-beta progeny decay. On the other hand, in this work a diffusion and adsorption model has been developed for the transport of 222Rn in an activated carbon porous bed. The equation that describes these processes is a partial differential equation, of the second order with respect to axial coordinate, and the first order with respect to time. The equation was numerically solved using a finites differences method. With this model the 222Rn activity adsorbed in the detector, for several situations, was calculated. The results were tested with the data obtained from series of experiences made in our laboratories. (author)

  15. Relationship between 222Rn concentration in soil water and degree of saturation

    The object of the researches an analyzing downward flow to groundwater using 222Rn concentration in water as an indicator has been saturated flow. However, when groundwater table is low, downward flow from surface is unsaturated flow. In this paper, the authors represented the relationship between 222Rn concentration in soil water and degree of saturation, and measured the vertical distributions of 222Rn concentrations in groundwater and 222Rn concentration in water table in the fields. As the results, it was found that 222Rn concentrations in the vicinity of groundwater table decreased by unsaturated downward flow. Moreover, from the variation of 222Rn concentrations in groundwater table, it was possible to show the occurrence of the unsaturated downward flow by paddy fields irrigation, i.e., the downward flow of the soil water pushed out by irrigation water, the unsaturated percolation in the irrigation period, and the redistribution of the soil water after the release of ponding water. The degree of saturation in downward flow was calculated to be about 50% from 222Rn concentrations in the irrigation period and in the non-irrigation period. It was deduced that the value was within reasonable range considering the difference of the hydraulic conductivities between of the upper layer and of the lower layer. These results proved that the relationship between 222Rn concentrations in soil water and degree of saturation represented by the authors was reasonable and that the analytical method using 222Rn concentrations in groundwater table as an indicator was useful 10 analyze the actual stale of unsaturated downward flow. (author)

  16. Vibrations in the urban environment controlling {sup 222}Rn migration in soils

    Wiegand, J. [University of Essen, Department 9 - Geology, Essen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Comparable to investigations looking for a connection of {sup 222}Rn and earthquakes, this study shows the influence of subsurface vibrations on the {sup 222}Rn concentration of the soil-gas in urban environments. Generally, the {sup 222}Rn concentration increases through vibrations induced by trains, street-traffic and activities at project sites. The spatial radius of the {sup 222}Rn increase due to vibrations reach highest values at project sites where piled foundations or metal panels are rammed into the ground (> 60 m). Along railway tracks the radius is wider (> 30 m) than along heavy traffic roads (< 25 m). The average increase of {sup 222}Rn concentrations in soil-gas due to vibrations is the highest at project sites (53%). Along heavy traffic roads the increase of {sup 222}Rn concentrations by motor vehicle traffic is higher (37%) than that by railway traffic (11.5%). The maximum increase of 400% was observed in a distance of 1 m from a railway track. In the vicinity of railway tracks a difference of the vibration influence according to unconsolidated rock (11.1%) or solid rock (11.8%) was not noticed. Beside this vibration effect, the overall {sup 222}Rn level decreases with increasing distance to the vibration source, but only at locations laying above solid rocks. The observation of the increase of {sup 222}Rn concentrations can be explained by a `pump effect`: the mechanical vibration of soil and mineral particles leads to an upward motion of the whole volume of soil-gas. Therefore, {sup 222}Rn is pumped out of the soil to the atmosphere and as a result the upward transport is increased. (author)

  17. {sup 222}Rn concentration in public secondary schools in Galicia (Spain)

    Llerena, J.J., E-mail: juanjose.llerena@usc.e [Laboratorio de Analisis de Radiaciones (LAR), Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Cortina, D.; Duran, I.; Sorribas, R. [Laboratorio de Analisis de Radiaciones (LAR), Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    In the framework of a {sup 222}Rn screening campaign that was carried out in 58 public secondary schools in Galicia (NW Spain), the largest radon-prone area in the Iberian Peninsula, a positive correlation between indoor {sup 222}Rn concentration and outdoor gamma exposure rate was obtained. A new approach to the data acquisition in screening surveys was tested, improving the performances of this type of study and gathering useful data for future remedial actions. Using short-period detectors (charcoal canisters) firstly, in order to detect places showing {sup 222}Rn concentrations over 400 Bq m{sup -3}, the number of locations to be measured with long-period detectors (etched track detectors) is reduced. In this screening campaign, 34% of the schools surveyed presented at least one site exceeding the 400 Bq m{sup -3} recommended action level established by the EU, and 15% had at least one site with {sup 222}Rn values over 800 Bq m{sup -3}. The maximum value recorded was 2084 {+-} 63 Bq m{sup -3}. These results are discussed and compared with data obtained in schools of several countries with similar geology. Seven schools were also studied for seasonal variations of {sup 222}Rn activity concentration. The results were not conclusive, and no significant correlation between season and {sup 222}Rn concentration was established. Finally, a continuous {sup 222}Rn concentration monitor was placed in the secondary school exhibiting a mean value of the {sup 222}Rn concentration very close to 400 Bq m{sup -3}. Maximum {sup 222}Rn concentration values were found to occur at times when the school was unoccupied.

  18. Growth Of 222Rn By Using Merlin Gerin, Vinten 271/671 And Centronic Ionization Chambers

    Growth measurements of exp.222 Rn by using Merlin Gerin, Vinten 271/671 and Centronic 1G 11/A20 ionization chamber have been studied. The aim of this measurement is to determine the optimum growth in the seculer equilibrium of exp.222 Rn by using three ionization chambers. The optimum growth of exp.222 Rn by using merlin Gerin ionization chamber was (19.06 n 0.07) days, by using Vinten 271/671 ionization chamber was (19.20 n 0.01) days and with Centronic 1G 11/A20 ionization chamber was (19.64 n 0.43) days

  19. Copper-Catalyzed 2,2,2-Trifluoroethylthiolation of Aryl Halides.

    Chen, Shouxiong; Zhang, Mengjia; Liao, Xuebin; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2016-09-01

    Herein, a copper-catalyzed 2,2,2-trifluoroethylthiolation reaction of aryl bromides and iodides with elemental sulfur, and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-iodoethane is described. The reaction showed excellent functional group tolerance and allowed the synthesis of various substituted aryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl thioethers with good to excellent yields. This transformation constitutes a one-pot synthesis of 2,2,2-trifluoroethylthiolated compounds from inexpensive, readily available starting materials. Utility of the protocol was further demonstrated in the late-stage synthesis of the pirfenidone derivative. The copper thiolate species were prepared and proposed as key intermediates in the catalytic cycle. PMID:27477255

  20. Contrasting behavior in octupole structures observed at high spin in 220Ra and 222Th

    Alternating-parity states connected by strong E1 transitions, characteristic of a reflection-asymmetric rotor, have been observed to high spins in the isotones 220Ra and 222Th. This level structure is observed up to Jπ=29-(31-) in 220Ra while it cannot be seen beyond J+=24+(25-) in 222Th. These observations are consistent with Woods-Saxon-Bogolyubov cranking calculations which predict that the yrast band of 222Th will undergo a shape transition at J=24ℎ, in contrast to that of 220Ra which maintains its reflection asymmetry to higher spins

  1. Kinetics of ingested 222Rn in humans determined from measurements with 133Xe. Project summary report

    The problem of naturally occurring 222-radon contamination has received a great deal of public and scientific attention over the past several years, and has become a major public health issue worldwide. The purpose of the work reported in this document was to provide information about the behavior of ingested 222-radon in the digestive system and other organs of the human body. 133-Xenon, an element which behaves in the same manner as 222-radon in tissue and differs only in tissue solubility, was used in studies on human subjects. The tissue solubility differences were accounted for by using the tissue/blood partition coefficients of the two gases

  2. Dose by 222 Rn in houses of the Chihuahua city

    Full text: The dose equivalent that the population of the Chihuahua city receives due to the radon in air that joined to values of uranium, thorium and potassium due to the floor and radon in water was determined, they give values very above the international and national norms. The state of Chihuahua contains near 56 locations distributed by the whole state. The city of Chihuahua, capital of the state, is surrounded of rocks with great content of uranium, for what their floor also contains to the 226 Ra that generates to the 222 Rn. The construction of the housings of the city of Chihuahua is mainly of brick, block and adobe; the material to elaborate them is take from the rocks and floor of the surroundings, this makes that the radon is presented in a great quantity of houses of this city. As the floor and water they also contain those natural radionuclides, the total dose equivalent that the inhabitants receive is bigger to other cities of the country. Diverse international organizations dedicated to the radioactivity, indicate that the level of the 222 Rn should not surpass the 148 Bq/m3, since this gas produces lung cancer. The state of Chihuahua has an index of deaths on the average by lung cancer of double the national average, the capital of the state also has a high index. The radon concentration in a house depends on the construction material with which was made, as well as of the existent climatic conditions. During the day, this concentration depends mainly on the interior temperature, so during the night and dawn increases the radon concentration. The radon is the biggest source of radioactive dose received by the human being and it can generate a problem of public health if the concentration is high during enough time, for what the city of Chihuahua has the geologic and climatic characteristics to have it. This study was carried out in 50 house-room of the city of Chihuahua. Built houses with brick, block and adobe were selected. The quantification of

  3. Measurements of indoor 222Rn concentration in two art galleries

    It is point out that radon and their decay products in environment give high dose to human lung. Studies indicate that the indoor radon inhalation by humans has been considered probably the second most important cause of lung cancer after of smoking. A passive-type radon detector was used for measuring indoor radon concentration in two art galleries at Rio de Janeiro city during 90 days January to March, 2009. The aim of this study is to evaluate the occupational and public radon exposure in art galleries and museums. This paper shows the preliminary results of samples collected at two art galleries located in Gavea, Rio de Janeiro city. 30 LEXAN (GE) track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor as well as outdoor). The samples were collected in the same building which is a construction of XIX century. The analysis of the results suggests that the 222Rn concentration levels are different in both sampling site, in closed environmental, demonstrating that, although the construction materials are the same the absence of circulating air is a factor very important to increase the concentration of indoor Rn. (author)

  4. Hydrograph separation using 222Rn in a micro basin (Luxembourg)

    In order to get information about the hydrological signature of small rivers during and after heavy rain events, a small catchment was selected as experimental site. Hydrograph separations based on environmental tracers are performed. Natural isotopic tracers such as 18O, 2H and particularly 222Rn may help to distinguish the components dominating the outflow, particularly of pre-event waters, event waters and post-event waters. Even with moderate concentrations in groundwater, radon can be a very sensitive indicator of groundwater input into rivers. The selected microbasin under investigation is situated in the western part of Luxembourg and belong to the Attert basin, the latter being integrated in the European Network of Experimental Research Basins (ERB). Radon gas detectors are optimised to measure continuously the radon activity in water. These detectors are installed at chosen points at the basin's outflow, together with high precision thermometer, conductivity meters, flow meters and automatic water samplers for chemical analysis. Besides the continuous measurements, grab water samples are taken for radon measurements at different locations along the stream, most of them during periods of heavy rain events. Presented are preliminary results over half a year measurement campaign. During the dry season i.e. during more or less continuous discharge conditions, the observed values do not show substantial variations and can be used as reference values. High fluctuations of the measured data during heavy rain events are discussed and the interplay between the different parameters analysed. (author)

  5. Using 222 Rn for hydrograph separationin a micro basin (Luxembourg

    L. Hoffmann

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain information on the hydrological signature of rivers during and after heavy rain events, small catchment areas are selected as experimental sites. Hydrograph separations based on environmental tracers are performed. Natural isotopic tracers such as 18O, 2H and particularly 222Rn may help to distinguish the components dominating the outflow, particularly of 'pre-event waters', 'event waters' and 'post-event waters'. Even with moderate concentrations in groundwater, radon can be a very sensitive indicator of groundwater input into rivers. The selected microbasin under investigation is situated in the western part of Luxembourg and belongs to the Attert River catchment. At chosen points at the basin's outflow radon detectors continuously measure radon activity in water. The radon monitors are installed together with high precision thermometers, conductivity meters, flow meters and automatic water samplers for chemical analysis. Besides the continuous measurements, grab water samples are taken at different locations along the stream, most of them during periods of heavy rain events. Presented are the results of a one year measurement campaign. During the dry season i.e. during more or less continuous discharge conditions, the observed mean values do not show substantial variations and can be used as reference values. Fluctuations of the measured data during rain events are discussed and the interplay between the different parameters analysed.

  6. 222Rn and 212Pb exposures at a Brazilian SPA

    Termas de Araxa spa is located in Araxa, State of Minas Gerais. In this region, several minerals rich in uranium and thorium are found. The mineral waters and mud from Termas de Araxa spa have been used for therapeutic and recreation purposes. In this study, the committed effective dose was evaluated for workers and patients at Araxa spa due to 222Rn and 212Pb inhalation. Radon measurements were carried out through the passive method with solid state nuclear track detectors (Makrofol E) over a period of 21 months, with results varying from 258 ± 20 to 1634 ± 111 Bq m-3. The 212Pb air concentration was assessed through the modified Kusnetz's method, the results varying from 0.3 ± 0.1 to 2.1 ± 0.2 Bq m-3. Doses received by the spa workers are below 20 mSv y-1, suggested by ICRP 60 as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure. The radiation doses for the patients are below the mean annual effective dose due to natural sources estimated to be 2.4 mSv.y-1. (authors)

  7. EFFECTS OF ANESTHESIA (TRICAINE METHANESULFONATE, MS-222) BIOTRANSFORMATION IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (3-aminobenzoic acid eithyl ester methanesulfonate, tricaine, MS-222, Finquel), an anesthetic for fish, has been used extensively in aquatic toxicology to allow surgical procedures for in vivo studies and to permit in vitro preparations of isolated perfu...

  8. EFFECTS OF ANESTHESIA (MS222) ON LIVER BIOTRANSFORMATION IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (3-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfonate; MS222) is a widely used fish anaesthetic. While there have been several studies addressing the impact of its use on subsequently measured biotransformation rates, the measured influence on normal functio...

  9. Applications of environmental radon-222 to some cases of water circulation

    We have proposed three methods to analyze water circulation and the changes caused by human activities by studying the changing distribution patterns of 222Rn concentrations in water. We investigated the results by applying the methods to some water circulation problems of Japan. The first method was a detailed analysis of the hydrogeological structure of an area, using the fact that the 222Rn concentration of water takes a value characteristic of the aquifer. In the second method we analyzed the state of mixing of surface water and groundwater by taking advantage of the fact that the 222Rn concentrations of the two are quite different. In the third method, we used the differing 222Rn concentrations in vadose water and in retention water to analyze the pressure acting on the aquifer or the groundwater

  10. Indoor 222Rn measurements in the region of Beijing, People's Republic of China

    Passive integrating activated C detectors were used to study the regional distribution and temporal variation of 222Rn in indoor air in dwellings in the Beijing region. Measurements were made in 537 dwellings, which were either detached houses or multi-family apartments. The city-wide study was completed in 1985. The distributions are approximately log-normal with 90% of the dwellings having 222Rn levels less than 60 Bq m-3. The weighted average 222Rn concentration has been found to be 22.4 Bq m-3. Averages for detached houses and multi-family dwellings are 25.9 and 15.2 Bq m-3, respectively. Assuming an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and an occupancy factor of 0.8, the average equilibrium equivalent concentration of 222Rn progeny is 11.2 Bq m-3 and the annual average effective dose equivalent is 1.1 mSv

  11. 12 CFR 222.23 - Contents of opt-out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices.

    2010-01-01

    ... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.23...) Alternative contents. If the consumer is afforded a broader right to opt out of receiving marketing than...

  12. Radon 222 levels in deep well waters of Toluca municipality (county)

    The levels of Radon 222 were determined in 46 deep (50-180m) wells in the city and county of Toluca, as well as the annual radiation dose that the stomach admits when ingesting such water. The method used for the quantification of Radon 222 was liquid scintillation counting. The result revealed that levels of Radon 222 in the studied area in the range of 0 to 320 pCi l-1. In the case of the equivalent annual dose that the stomach (empty) admits due to ingestion of water from the wells, values are in an interval between 0 to 95 mrem a-1. This values are well below the level established by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The wells that had the higher concentration of Radon 222 were found in the regions of Lodo Prieto, Seminario; San Antonio Buenavista and La Trinidad Huichochitlan. (Author)

  13. Ministry of Commerce Issued 222 the Most Competitive China's Market Brands

    2007-01-01

    @@ Recently, the Ministry of Commerce issued a total of 222 the most competitive China's market brands, which engage in 19 categories such as food, drink,apparel, household appliance and transportation.

  14. 12 CFR 222.26 - Delivery of opt-out notices.

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.26 Delivery of opt-out notices. (a... of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. 7001 et seq. (b)...

  15. Concrete samples for organic samples, data package and 222-S validation summary report. Addendum 1A

    Vogel, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    This document is in two parts: the first is the data package entitled ``Concrete Samples for Organic Samples`` and the second is entitled ``Concrete Samples for Organic Samples -- Addendum 1A`` which is the 222-S validation summary report.

  16. Evaluation of dose arising from 222Rn, decay products of 222Rn and 220Rn to staff from a certain nuclear power plant

    The staff of the plant was grouped on their work ranges. The annual effective dose resulted from radon and the decay products of 222Rn/220Rn is studied by measuring radon concentration with double filter membrane method and by measuring the concentration of 222Rn/220Rn short life radioactive decay products with five-count method. Based on the results, specific protection measures are proposed for high radon areas. The study results show that the monitoring data for all areas except the spent fuel pool was smaller than the recommended values by ICRP. (authors)

  17. Effectiveness of the anaesthetic MS-222 in gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata: effect of feeding time and day-night variations in plasma MS-222 concentration and GST activity.

    Vera, L M; Montoya, A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2013-02-17

    Feeding time is a potent zeitgeber capable of synchronising behavioural and physiological daily rhythms in fish. However, the effect of feeding time on the daily rhythm of drugs toxicity and/or effectiveness remains unexplored to date. In this paper we investigated the day/night variations in the effectiveness of an anaesthetic commonly used in fish (Tricaine, MS-222) in a teleost of great chronobiological and aquaculture interest (gilthead seabream). To this end, fish were kept under LD 12:12 and fed at mid-light (ML), mid-darkness (MD) or random times (RD). The time needed to induce anaesthesia (reduction of locomotor activity) during MS-222 exposure (65 mg/L) as well as the recovery period were investigated at ML and MD in the three experimental groups using specialised video tracking software. In addition, daily rhythms of GST activity in the liver (as an indicator of detoxification processes) and plasma MS-222 concentration (related to uptake) were determined. The results revealed that MS-222 effectiveness in the ML group was higher during the day than at night (significant reduction of activity after 3 min vs. 5 min) whereas in the MD group, the daily variation of MS-222 effectiveness was inverted (significant reduction of activity after 7 min at ML vs. 2 min at MD), suggesting that feeding time can shift the day-night variations in the effectiveness of MS-222. Hepatic GST also seemed to be affected by feeding time: in fish fed at MD or RD this enzyme activity showed significant differences during the day, and the highest levels were found at different times of the day in each group. Plasma MS-222 concentrations were higher at ML (142.4±12.8 ng/ml) than at MD (96.3±10.9 ng/ml) (t-Student, peffectiveness of this anaesthetic. Furthermore, manipulation of the feeding schedule can be used to modify the daily variations in MS-222 effectiveness, which has basic as well applied implications for optimising anaesthesia protocols in fish aquaculture. PMID:23291569

  18. microRNA-222 modulates liver fibrosis in a murine model of biliary atresia

    Shen, Wen-jun; Dong, Rui; Chen, Gong, E-mail: chengongzlp@hotmail.com; Zheng, Shan

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • The RRV infected group showed cholestasis, retardation and extrahepatic biliary atresia. • miR-222 was highly expressed, and PPP2R2A was inhibited in the murine biliary atresia model. • miR-222 profoundly modulated the process of fibrosis in the murine biliary atresia model. • miR-222 might represent a potential target for improving biliary atresia prognosis. - Abstract: microRNA-222 (miR-222) has been shown to initiate the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of miR-22 in a mouse model of biliary atresia (BA) induced by Rhesus Rotavirus (RRV) infection. New-born Balb/c mice were randomized into control and RRV infected groups. The extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. The experimental group was divided into BA group and negative group based on histology. The expression of miR-222, protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B alpha (PPP2R2A), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phospho-Akt were detected. We found that the experimental group showed signs of cholestasis, retardation and extrahepatic biliary atresia. No abnormalities were found in the control group. In the BA group, miR-222, PCNA and Akt were highly expressed, and PPP2R2A expression was significantly inhibited. Our findings suggest that miR-222 profoundly modulated the process of fibrosis in the murine BA model, which might represent a potential target for improving BA prognosis.

  19. Evaluation of radon-222 concentration in air of workplaces at Curitiba/PR, Brazil

    Del Claro, Flavia; Correa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: flaviadelclaro@gmail.com, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (IPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rocha@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The isotope Rn-222 is a noble gas that is responsible for approximately half of the effective annual dose received by the world population, and has very high probability to induce the lung cancer. The goal of present research is to evaluate the activity concentration of Rn-222 in the air of workplaces at Curitiba, Parana State. Simultaneously there were performed the measurements of Rn-222 emanation from soil and building materials occurred at evaluated workplaces. Indoor measurements of Rn-222 activity were performed using CR-39 detectors. The instant radon detector AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) was used in the measurements of the average concentrations of Rn-222 in soil gas and building materials. The average concentration of indoor Rn-222 obtained in the measurements of workplaces vary between 36+/-49 Bq/m³ and 164+/-51 Bq/m³. These values are considered within the reference limit of 200 Bq/m³ established by international agencies such as the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the International Commission on Radiological Protection, but slightly above the limit of 148 Bq/m³ established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The measurements involving building materials presented the concentration values of Rn-222 in a range from 427+/-310 Bq/m³ to 2053+/-700 Bq/m³. The Rn-222 concentrations in soil ranged from 31+/-2 kBq/m³ to 35+/-4 kBq/m³ and the average values of Rn-220 are found in a range of 41+/-6 kBq/m³ and 25+/-11 kBq/m³, thus the concentrations of radon gas soil are below the swedish criterion of 50 kBq/m³ that represent the minimum value for high-risk situation. (author)

  20. Anomalies of the emissions of Radon-222 before a tectonic earthquake

    A qualitative examination of claimed radon-222 precursors proposed in the international literature has been reviewed. Some data from continuous radon-222 soils measurements during five years in two Colombian departments are presented and some precursors results registered before seismotectonic events are discussed. Transport mechanisms of gases are discussed, as well as its possible physical interactions with soil minerals. Advection processes are the dominant transport mechanism of gases in the OVSM station

  1. Groundwater discharge quantification in marine, and desert environments using radium quartet, radon-222 and stable isotopes

    Luo, Xin; 羅新

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater discharge is an important component of global water cycle. Along with groundwater discharge, large amount of chemicals are transported and loaded into surface waters. This thesis investigates groundwater discharge in both terrestrial and marine environments using isotopic approaches. Radium quartet and radon-222 (222Rn), highly concentrated in groundwater and conservatively behaving during the transport, are proved to be effective tracers in quantifying groundwater discharge in va...

  2. Turbulent Transport of 222-Rn and its Short-lived Daughters in Convective Boundary Layers

    VINUESA JEAN; GALMARINI STEFANO

    2006-01-01

    222Rn is a natural radioactive compound with a half-life of 3.8 days. Because of its noble gas nature, it is a suitable tracer in studies of atmospheric boundary layers. Ground-based measurements and vertical distributions of 222Rn and its daughters have been extensively studied in the past, e.g., to characterize the turbulent properties of the atmospheric boundary layer, to perform regional and global circulation model benchmarking and to estimate regional surface flu...

  3. Diffusion coefficients of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol/water mixtures

    Pereira, Luís A.M.; Ramalho, João P. P.; Carvalho, Alfredo J. P.; Morgado, Pedro; Filipe, Eduardo J. M.; Martins, Luís F. G.

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous mixtures of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol have received significant attention in the last years because their applications, such as working fluid in Rankine cycle thermal engines or as solvent in studies of protein stability (protein folding). From the fundamental point of view, fluoroalcohols have an amphyphile character, due to the simultaneous presence of a hydrophobic (and alkane-phobic) fluorinated surface and a hydroxyl group. Mixtures of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol with hydrogenated alcoho...

  4. Radon-222 as a test of convective transport in a general circulation model

    The distribution of 222Rn over North America is simulated with a 3-d chemical tracer model (CTM) based on the meteorology of the GISS general circulation model (GCM). The GISS GCM has been used extensively for studies of climate change and global transport of chemical tracers. Simulation of 222Rn (e-folding lifetime 5.5 days) tests the ability of the model to describe the transport of pollutants in the boundary layer and the exchange of mass between the boundary layer and the free troposphere. Model results are compared to surface observations from 5 sites in the United States. It is found that the 222Rn concentrations are regulated primarily by dry convection. At night, the model underpredicts observations because it does not resolve the sharp 222Rn concentration gradient which forms near the surface. In daytime, the predicted and observed concentrations are usually in good agreement, indicating that vertical mixing of surface air is reasonably simulated. Inspection of seasonal trends reveals, however, several significant discrepancies which are traced to anomalies in the GCM meteorology. In particular, the simulated 222Rn concentrations over the northeastern United States are too high in the spring, because of excessive rainfall which suppresses dry convection, and too low in the fall, because of a severe drought which allows intense dry convection. Ventilation of 222Rn to the free troposphere is most efficient in the western half of the North American continent, due to intense dry convection, and is followed by rapid eastward advection of 222Rn in the upper westerlies. This transport mechanism produces a layer of high 222Rn concentrations in the upper troposphere over the eastern United States and over the western Atlantic Ocean in summer. (orig.)

  5. microRNA-222 modulates liver fibrosis in a murine model of biliary atresia

    Highlights: • The RRV infected group showed cholestasis, retardation and extrahepatic biliary atresia. • miR-222 was highly expressed, and PPP2R2A was inhibited in the murine biliary atresia model. • miR-222 profoundly modulated the process of fibrosis in the murine biliary atresia model. • miR-222 might represent a potential target for improving biliary atresia prognosis. - Abstract: microRNA-222 (miR-222) has been shown to initiate the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of miR-22 in a mouse model of biliary atresia (BA) induced by Rhesus Rotavirus (RRV) infection. New-born Balb/c mice were randomized into control and RRV infected groups. The extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. The experimental group was divided into BA group and negative group based on histology. The expression of miR-222, protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B alpha (PPP2R2A), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phospho-Akt were detected. We found that the experimental group showed signs of cholestasis, retardation and extrahepatic biliary atresia. No abnormalities were found in the control group. In the BA group, miR-222, PCNA and Akt were highly expressed, and PPP2R2A expression was significantly inhibited. Our findings suggest that miR-222 profoundly modulated the process of fibrosis in the murine BA model, which might represent a potential target for improving BA prognosis

  6. Root absorption of 222Rn and its transfer into above-ground plant organs

    Experimental data are given on the content of genetically related pairs of radionuclides (226Ra and 222Rn; 224Ra and 220Rn) in soils and the above-ground phytomass of plants growing on plots with differing genesis of the higher concentrations of natural radionuclides in soils. Methods for determining gaseous radionuclides in the above-ground phytomass are described. Different transport routes of 222Rn and 220Rn into above-ground plant organs are considered. The noted absence of balance between 222Rn and 226Ra in plants as well as higher 222Rn/226Ra ratios in the above-ground phytomass as compared to that of the root-containing soil layer (25- to 185-fold) appears to be accounted for by the root pathway of 222Rn uptake and transport of this radionuclide to above-ground plants organs. The existence of the root pathway for 222Rn uptake is proved by direct observations of daily radionuclide movement with bleeding sap in experiments on pumpkins. For the short-lived Rn isotopes, 220Rn and 218Rn, the root pathway of uptake and transport to the above-ground phytomass is less probable, and this causes a notable redistribution of gaseous radionuclides during their movement along the soil-plant route

  7. Waste analysis plan for 222-S dangerous and mixed waste storage area

    The 222-S Laboratory Complex, in the southeast corner of the 200 West Area, consists of the 222-S Laboratory, the 222-SA Standards Laboratory, and several ancillary facilities. Currently, 222-S Laboratory activities are in supporting efforts to characterize the waste stored in the 200 Areas single shell and double shell tanks. Besides this work, the laboratory also provides analytical services for waste-management processing plants, Tank Farms, B Plant, 242-A Evaporator Facility, Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant, Plutonium Finishing Plant, Uranium-Oxide Plant, Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility, environmental monitoring and surveillance programs, and activities involving essential materials and research and development. One part of the 222-SA Laboratory prepares nonradioactive standards for the 200 Area laboratories. The other section of the laboratory is used for cold (nonradioactive) process development work and standards preparation. The 219-S Waste Handling Facility has three storage tanks in which liquid acid waste from 222-S can be received, stored temporarily, and neutralized. From this facility, neutralized waste, containing radionuclides, is transferred to the Tank Farms. A 700-gallon sodium-hydroxide supply tank is also located in this facility. This plan provides the methods used to meet the acceptance criteria required by the 204-AR Waste Receiving Facility

  8. Variation of 222Rn concentration in outdoor air due to variation of the atmospheric boundary layer

    Variation of 222Rn concentration in outdoor air, returns of a monostatic acoustic sounder and sensible heat flux are simultaneously observed at Okayama-shi in Japan. The sensible heat flux is measured with an eddy correlation method using a sonic anemometer and a copper-constantan thermocouple thermometer. Using height of a surface-based inversion layer obtained by the acoustic sounder returns and two 222Rn concentrations during the presence of the surface-based inversion layer, the exhalation rate of 222Rn at this site is estimated to be about 0.01 Bq.m-2.s-1, which agrees well within the exhalation rate of 222Rn estimated at Nagoya-shi in Japan. Using the estimated exhalation rates of 222Rn and the variation of the 222Rn concentration in the daytime, heights of mixing layers are estimated. These heights of the mixing layers are larger than the height of the mixing layer estimated using the sensible heat flux and the representative vertical profile of the autumnal night time air temperature in this area. (author)

  9. Human miR-221/222 in Physiological and Atherosclerotic Vascular Remodeling

    Dmitry A. Chistiakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cluster of miR-221/222 is a key player in vascular biology through exhibiting its effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and endothelial cells (ECs. These miRNAs contribute to vascular remodeling, an adaptive process involving phenotypic and behavioral changes in vascular cells in response to vascular injury. In proliferative vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, pathological vascular remodeling plays a prominent role. The miR-221/222 cluster controls development and differentiation of ECs but inhibits their proangiogenic activation, proliferation, and migration. miR-221/222 are primarily implicated in maintaining endothelial integrity and supporting quiescent EC phenotype. Vascular expression of miR-221/222 is upregulated in initial atherogenic stages causing inhibition of angiogenic recruitment of ECs and increasing endothelial dysfunction and EC apoptosis. In contrast, these miRNAs stimulate VSMCs and switching from the VSMC “contractile” phenotype to the “synthetic” phenotype associated with induction of proliferation and motility. In atherosclerotic vessels, miR-221/222 drive neointima formation. Both miRNAs contribute to atherogenic calcification of VSMCs. In advanced plaques, chronic inflammation downregulates miR-221/222 expression in ECs that in turn could activate intralesion neoangiogenesis. In addition, both miRNAs could contribute to cardiovascular pathology through their effects on fat and glucose metabolism in nonvascular tissues such as adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscles.

  10. Effects of immobilization by electricity and MS-222 on brown trout broodstock and their progeny

    Redman, S.D.; Meinertz, J.R.; Gaikowski, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the effects of electrically and chemically induced immobilization on postspawn broodstock and their progeny, age-2 and age-3 female broodstock and age-2 male broodstock of brown trout Salmo trutta were immobilized with electricity or tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222), stripped of their eggs or milt, and weighed. Eggs taken from electrically immobilized females were fertilized with milt taken from age-2 males that were immobilized with electricity, and eggs taken from females immobilized with MS-222 were fertilized with milt taken from age-2 males that were immobilized with MS-222. After spawning, the mortality and weight of broodstock were compared twice over a 6-month period. Egg viability and growth of offspring fry from each treatment group were also compared. Electricity induced complete and consistent immobilization in brown trout broodstock. Electrically immobilized fish were more easily handled than fish immobilized with MS-222; however, electrically immobilized fish survival (70%) was significantly less than fish immobilized with MS-222 (83%). Broodstock growth differences were only noted at 6 months postexposure, when the mean weight of electrically immobilized fish was slightly less than the weight of fish immobilized with MS-222. Broodstock immobilization by electricity did not reduce egg viability or fry growth.

  11. 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in soil gas of Karkonosze-Izera Block (Sudetes, Poland)

    Soil gas 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations were measured at 18 locations in the Karkonosze-Izera Block area in southwestern Poland. Measurements were carried out in surface air and at sampling depths of 10, 40 and 80 cm. Surface air 222Rn concentrations ranged from 4 to 2160 Bq m-3 and 220Rn ranged from 4 to 228 Bq m-3. The concentrations for 10 and 40 cm varied from 142 Bq m-3 to 801 kBq m-3 and 102 Bq m-3 to 64 kBq m-3 for 222Rn and 220Rn, respectively. At 80 cm 222Rn concentrations ranged from 94 Bq m-3 to >1 MBq m-3. The 220Rn concentrations at 80 cm varied from 45 Bq m-3 to 48 kBq m-3. The concentration versus depth profiles for 222Rn differed for soils developed on fault zones, uranium deposits or both. Atmospheric air temperature and soil gas 222Rn and 220Rn were negatively correlated. At sampling sites with steep slopes, 220Rn concentrations decreased with depth

  12. FAM222B Is Not a Likely Novel Candidate Gene for Cerebral Cavernous Malformations.

    Spiegler, Stefanie; Kirchmaier, Bettina; Rath, Matthias; Korenke, G Christoph; Tetzlaff, Fabian; van de Vorst, Maartje; Neveling, Kornelia; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Kuss, Andreas W; Gilissen, Christian; Fischer, Andreas; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Felbor, Ute

    2016-07-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are prevalent slow-flow vascular lesions which harbour the risk to develop intracranial haemorrhages, focal neurological deficits, and epileptic seizures. Autosomal dominantly inherited CCMs were found to be associated with heterozygous inactivating mutations in 3 genes, CCM1 (KRIT1), CCM2 (MGC4607), and CCM3 (PDCD10) in 1999, 2003 and 2005, respectively. Despite the availability of high-throughput sequencing techniques, no further CCM gene has been published since. Here, we report on the identification of an autosomal dominantly inherited frameshift mutation in a gene of thus far unknown function, FAM222B (C17orf63), through exome sequencing of CCM patients mutation-negative for CCM1-3. A yeast 2-hybrid screen revealed interactions of FAM222B with the tubulin cytoskeleton and STAMBP which is known to be associated with microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome. However, a phenotype similar to existing models was not found, neither in fam222bb/fam222ba double mutant zebrafish generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases nor in an in vitro sprouting assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells transfected with siRNA against FAM222B. These observations led to the assumption that aberrant FAM222B is not involved in the formation of CCMs. PMID:27587990

  13. 34 CFR 222.76 - What does the Secretary do if appropriation levels are insufficient to pay in full the amounts...

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does the Secretary do if appropriation levels are insufficient to pay in full the amounts calculated under §§ 222.72 and 222.73? 222.76 Section 222.76... Educational Agencies Under Section 8003(f) of the Act § 222.76 What does the Secretary do if...

  14. Age dating of hyporheic groundwater with radon (Rn-222)

    Full text: Radon (Rn-222; Rn) has been used as a tracer for the dating of very young groundwater that has recently infiltrated from a river. The radon method uses the fact that minerals in rocks contain traces of the radium mother isotope, 226Ra. As an inert gas, radon (Rn) emanates from rock surfaces after the decay of 226Ra. River water usually contains little Rn and the Rn activity is in equilibrium with the atmosphere. During the recharge of aquifers by downwelling river water, the Rn activity increases in the flowing groundwater, with time and distance. Under plug flow conditions, the law of radioactive ingrowth governs the Rn activity of the recharge water. A maximum Rn concentration indicates that a steady state has been reached between ingrowth and decay. About 90 per cent of this steady state is reached after about 15 days (4 half-lives of Rn). Often groundwaters of different residence times are mixed in aquifers and plug-flow conditions do not apply. In the case of a binary mixing of very young groundwater that has recently infiltrated from a river and older groundwater, the residence time of the young water component can only be assessed with Rn, if the actual mixing ratio is known. To this end, mixing must be determined through additional measurements with non-reactive mixing tracer. Aquatic habitats in flood plains are characterized hydrologically by a strong interaction between river water and groundwater of alluvial sand-and-gravel aquifers. The transition zone between surface and subsurface waters is a hydrological continuum and an ecotone characterized by the hyporheic zone. If the riverbed is in direct contact with well-permeable aquifer material, and if the ground-water level is deeper than the river stage, the river can lose water to the subsurface (downwelling river). The freshly infiltrated water from losing reaches of the river is called 'hyporheic' groundwater. Hyporheic groundwater is distinguished from older alluvial groundwater by a very

  15. Radon-222 as communication and information tool about natural radioactivity

    The nuclear area still suffers from the psychological impact caused by the atomic bombs detonated at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also from the Chernobyl plant explosion. This situation results from two main reasons: manipulation of public opinion and lack of suitable information. In general, knowledge about radioactivity is very superficial, impregnated by preconceived notions transmitted by the media or by pacific organizations and ecologic groups. Rejection attitudes are observed among most of the general public that expresses an opinion although it does not know the subject. To change this situation has been the major challenge of the nuclear sector and needs to better communication with people at large. To teach is fundamental. This work reports on a didactic experiment carried out with 130 under graduating and graduating students in Biology and Environmental Science from the Fluminense Federal University. The goal was to try to perceive the existence of a natural radioactivity, hence not related to human activities, through radon-222 dosage. This practice complements the theoretical lessons, as it illustrates properties of ionizing radiation, and can easily be transposed to the general public. The monitoring equipment works detecting nuclear tracks. It is an easy to handle small and light device - hence friendly, to be put in the most used room of each one's house. It is taught how to use it and how to give correct information to interested people. Radon measurements are discussed with the students, and at the same time they perceive the existence of natural radioactivity, present everywhere, they start to change their own perception of radioactivity, which turns to be very different from their original nuclear imaginary. (author)

  16. Properties of membranes to permeation to radon 222. New development for the measurement of radon 222 in water and water-saturated soils

    Membranes that exclude water but are permeable to radon can extend the range of environments in which many radon detection systems could operate. We have studied the permeation of 222Rn through membranes separating air and water phases. The permeation coefficients and the activation energy were calculated for various conditions. Potential applications such as in situ detection of radon in water are discussed

  17. Distribution Log Normal of {sup 222} Rn in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico; Distribucion Log Normal de {sup 222} Rn en el estado de Zacatecas, Mexico

    Garcia, M.L.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L. [Universidad de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Frac. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: mluisagb@hotmail.com

    2006-07-01

    In this work the evaluation of the concentration of {sup 222} Rn in air for Zacatecas is shown. The Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were used as the technique for the realization of the measurements in large scale with cellulose nitrate LR-115, type 2, in open chambers of {sup 222} Rn. The measurements were carried out during three months in different times of the year. In the results it is presented the log normal distribution, arithmetic mean and geometric media for the concentration at indoor and outdoor of residence constructions, the concentration at indoor of occupational constructions and in the 57 municipal heads of the state of Zacatecas. The statistics of the values in the concentration showed variation according to the time of the year, obtaining high quantities in winter seasons for both cases. The distribution of the concentration of {sup 222} Rn is presented in the state map for each one of the municipalities, representing the measurement places in the entire state of Zacatecas. Finally the places where the values in the concentration of {sup 222} Rn in air are near to the one limit settled down by the EPA of 148 Bq/m{sup 3} are presented. (Author)

  18. Radon-222: tracer of geological systems dynamics. Methodology and signal processing, interpretation of radon-222 behaviour in active geological media

    of the gravimetric waves O1 and M2 in the sub-glacial laboratory of Argentiere tend to prove the relationship between mechanical deformations and variations of radon-222 activity. It is therefore theoretically possible to detect radon variations induced by the mechanical strain linked to an earthquake. However, hydrological effects (piston effect) cannot be not excluded as it is shown with data acquired on the Roselend site. On the Merapi volcano, we also demonstrate that the barometric wave S2, dissimulated in the radon activity and soils gas temperature, allows us to follow the evolution of the fracture self-sealing. This proved to be a precursory process of the 2006 eruption. These results demonstrate the strong potential of the measurement of radon-222 applied to the tracking of natural phenomena, providing, however, that one have a control on the instrumentation, a knowledge of physical processes associated with radon transport, and mostly that the tools of signals processing are applied. These tools are very promising for monitoring and understanding geodynamical processes. (author)

  19. Measurements of 222Rn activity in well water of the Curitiba metropolitan area (Brazil)

    Considering that 222Rn activity concentration in well water can contribute to indoor radon concentration levels, which represent a radiation risk for the public, measurements of 226Ra and 222Rn activity in well water in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil were performed. Each water sample was submitted to four measurements for radon concentration over an interval of three days. After two months, the same samples were submitted again to 222Rn concentration measurements with the objective of indirectly evaluating the amount of 226Ra in them. The 222Rn concentration measurements were performed with an AlphaGUARD radon monitor (SAPHYMO), and the 226Ra concentration was evaluated with the decay curves of 222Rn. Within a few hours after extraction, about 70% of water samples from monitored wells presented 222Rn concentration values above the limit of 11.1 Bq/L recommended by the EPA of the United States. The obtained activity values varied between 1.6 Bq/L and 215 Bq/L for radon concentration, and radium concentrations deviated within an interval of 0.50 Bq/L and 6.8 Bq/L. The results reveal that the biggest part of 222Rn found in water samples originated not from soluble 226Ra compounds but from gas exhalation by the soil and rocks adjacent to the well. The results point to the necessity of mitigation procedure development for better control of global alpha radioactivity in drinking water. - Highlights: • Radon activity in well water was measured. • Radium activity in well water was measured. • Experimental results were obtained and compared with International norms and regulations

  20. Knock-down of miR-221 and miR-222 in the radiosensitization of breast cancer cells

    Objective: To investigate the radiosensitizing effect of knock-down of miR-221 miR-222 on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and explore the possible mechanism. Methods: Antisense oligonucleotides of miR-221 and miR-222 (AS-miR-221 and AS-miR-222), mediated by lipofectamine, were transfected to MCF-7 cells to knock down miR-221 and miR-222, Northern blotting was conducted to detect the expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in transfected cells. The cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and Caspase-3 and Caspase-7 activity assay. Clonogenic assay was used to measure the sensitizing enhancement ratio. Target genes of miR-221 and miR-222 relevant to radio-sensitivity were searched using bioinformatics analysis. The targeted protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Results: The expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in the AS-miR-221/222 cells determined by Northern blotting was significantly reduced. Compared with the control group, the cell apoptosis and mitotic cell death after the radiation were significantly higher in AS-miR-221/222 cells. The sensitizing enhancement ratio was 1.87. Based on bioinformatics analysis, PTEN was a target gene of miR-221 and miR-222 which could enhance the radiosensitivity of MCF-7 cells. In AS-miR-221/222 cells, the expression of PTEN was up-regulated while pAkt down-regulated. Conclusions: AS-miR-221 and AS-miR-222 may enhance the radiosensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells by up-regulating the expression of PTEN. (authors)

  1. Trends and reduction scenarios for Rn 222 concentrations in dwellings

    effects of reduction scenarios on the effective dose equivalent are comparable to those in the Rn-222 concentration in dwellings. 5 figs., 7 tabs., 2 appendices, 26 refs

  2. Estuarine geochemistry of 224Ra, 226Ra, and 222Rn

    Desorption from river borne sediments is the most likely source of the excess 226Ra. Laboratory mixing experiments on Pee Dee River sediments show an increase in 226Ra desorption with increasing salinities with maximum desorption occurring at or above 200/oo salinity. Desorption and diffusion are the sources for 226Ra in the estuarine systems. In Winyah Bay the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio does not change significantly with salinity, averaging around 1.4, indicating desorption as the major source of 228Ra. In the Yangtze River the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio is constant (approx.1.90) until increasing linearly above 160/oo. A diffusive flux from regeneration by 232Th decay in shelf sediments is the source of the increase. In Delaware Bay 228Ra increases faster than 226Ra in the less than or equal to220/oo water, indicating a source in addition to desorption. The increase can be balanced by a 0.33 dpm/cm2-year flux over the upper part of the Bay where fine grained sediments predominate. 224Ra behavior is controlled by its 3.64 day half-life. In Winyah Bay a flux of around 0.4 dpm/cm2-day is necessary to support the standing crop of non-desorbed 224Ra in the water column. In Delaware Bay the nearly constant 224Ra in concentration over the 2.50/oo to 120/oo salinity range are maintained by regeneration from 228Th in the turbidity maximum zones and diffusion from bottom sediments. Water leaving on ebb tide from a salt marsh on Delaware Bay had increases in all three radium isotopes (224Ra > 228Ra > 226Ra) compared to water coming in on the flood tide. Excess 222Rn concentrations in a fresh water section of the Pee Dee River show a decreasing downstream gradient. Using these gradients to determine evasion rates, stagnant film thicknesses range from 21μ to 62μ

  3. Ra-226 and Rn-222 in saline water compartments of the Aral Sea region

    Highlights: • 222Rn and 226Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Aral Sea region. • 226Ra-analysis based on 222Rn-ingrowth versus MS-analysis after solid-phase extraction. • 226Ra in different groundwater types of the Aral Sea Basin. • 222Rn distribution in the Aral Sea, western basin. - Abstract: The Aral Sea has been shrinking since 1963 due to extensive irrigation and the corresponding decline in the river water inflow. Understanding of the current hydrological situation demands an improved understanding of the surface water/groundwater dynamics in the region. 222Rn and 226Ra measurements can be used to trace groundwater discharge into surface waters. Data of these radiometric parameters were not previously available for the study region. We determined 222Rn activities after liquid phase extraction using Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) with peak-length discrimination and analyzed 226Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Amu Darya Delta (surface waters, unconfined groundwater, artesian water, and water profiles from the closed Large Aral Sea (western basin). The water samples comprise a salinity range between 1 and 263 g/l. The seasonal dynamics of solid/water interaction under an arid climate regime force the hydrochemical evolution of the unconfined groundwater in the Amu Darya Delta to high-salinity Na(Mg)Cl(SO4) water types. The dissolved radium concentrations in the waters were mostly very low due to mineral over-saturation, extensive co-precipitation of radium and adsorption of radium on coexisting solid substrates. The analysis of very low 226Ra concentrations (<10 ppq) at remote study sites is a challenge. We used the water samples to test and improve different analytical methods. In particular, we modified a procedure developed for the α-spectrometric determination of 226Ra after solid phase extraction of radium using 3M Empore™ High Performance Extraction Disks (Purkl, 2002) for the analysis of the

  4. 222Rn, 220Rn Concentrations and Miner Doses in Non-Uranium Mines in China

    A preliminary survey of 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in non-uranium mines in China was conducted in 17 different types of mines. In total, 44 mines in 12 provinces were surveyed. The results showed that among 25 metal mines (n = 147) the arithmetic mean and geometric mean concentrations were 1214 ± 2358 and 313 ± 5.5 Bq/m3 for 222Rn, respectively (range 11–19 600 Bq/m3) and 268 ± 701 and 70 ± 4.4 Bq/m3 for 220Rn, respectively (range 222Rn, respectively (range 5–1784 Bq/m3) and 101 ± 207 and 67 ± 3.4 Bq/m3 for 220Rn, respectively (range 222Rn equilibrium factor was 0.33 ± 0.15 in underground mines and 0.47 ± 0.18 in above ground buildings. The average 222Rn concentrations in 15% of the sampled mines exceeded the workplace recommended limit of 1000 Bq/m3. The 222Rn concentration at some individual points exceeded 10 000 Bq/m3. The arithmetic mean 222Rn concentration in 14 coal mines in 6 provinces was 117 Bq/m3. Compared with the survey data from previous years, the 222Rn concentrations in coal mines had reduced significantly. However, high 222Rn exposure remains a problem in metal mines such as those for copper, tin, lead, zinc, gold and aluminum. The miners’ radon exposures were estimated from the above results. The average annual effective dose for miners in metal mines was 7.75 mSv, with doses exceeding 20 mSv in four such mines. The average dose in a rare earth mine was 1.41 mSv, of which 53% was contributed by 220Rn. The average dose in coal mines was 0.75 mSv, and in non-metal mines it was 0.38 mSv. (author)

  5. 222Rn levels in Kingsville, Texas, and vicinity near an in situ uranium mine

    An investigation of the 222Rn levels in ground water, soils, and indoor air has disclosed two 222Rn ground-water anomalies in the Kingsville, Texas, area from uranium-enriched sandstones of the Evangeline aquifer. Indoor air 222Rn levels were measured in summer 1991 (from undetectable to 3.2 pCi/l) and winter 1991-1992 (0.01 to 3.98 pCi/l) to determine seasonal extremes and risk to the public. Soil 222Rn concentration maps ranging from undetectable to 75.4 pCi/l correlate to the low levels found in homes. Results of this study are based on analyses of 218 water samples, 52 in situ soil samples, and 104 indoor air samples. Water samples were injected into a scintillation mix (EPA/EERF-Manual-78-1) and analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. Indoor air and soil samples were collected using passive charcoal canisters and analyzed by gamma-ray detection techniques (EPA 520/5-87-005). One ground-water 222Rn anomaly lies near the permitted boundary of a large uranium deposit that is being mined. Private wells near the ore body yielded, 1,023 to 23,256 pCi/l at the well head. A second anomaly is located 2.5 mi (4 km) north of the uranium ore body near Naval Air Station, Kingsville. Private water wells in this area yielded 442 to 1,950 pCi/l 222Rn at the well head. The radon anomalies are related to subsurface mineralization, which is one of the known natural geologic hazards of this area. Indoor air 222Rn levels are well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US/EPA) action limit of 4 pCi/l. However, the high levels of 222RN in ground water should be mitigated before entry into the home environment. High 222Rn levels in ground water were reduced to background levels in household waters by use of a pre-introduction large-capacity holding tank

  6. MicroRNA-221 and microRNA-222 regulate gastric carcinoma cell proliferation and radioresistance by targeting PTEN

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes via regulation of cell proliferation and/or apoptosis. MiR-221 and miR-222 were discovered to induce cell growth and cell cycle progression via direct targeting of p27 and p57 in various human malignancies. However, the roles of miR-221 and miR-222 have not been reported in human gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the impact of miR-221 and miR-222 on human gastric cancer cells, and identified target genes for miR-221 and miR-222 that might mediate their biology. The human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 was transfected with AS-miR-221/222 or transduced with pMSCV-miR-221/222 to knockdown or restore expression of miR-221 and miR-222, respectively. The effects of miR-221 and miR-222 were then assessed by cell viability, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, transwell, and clonogenic assay. Potential target genes were identified by Western blot and luciferase reporter assay. Upregulation of miR-221 and miR-222 induced the malignant phenotype of SGC7901 cells, whereas knockdown of miR-221 and miR-222 reversed this phenotype via induction of PTEN expression. In addition, knockdonwn of miR-221 and miR-222 inhibited cell growth and invasion and increased the radiosensitivity of SGC7901 cells. Notably, the seed sequence of miR-221 and miR-222 matched the 3'UTR of PTEN, and introducing a PTEN cDNA without the 3'UTR into SGC7901 cells abrogated the miR-221 and miR-222-induced malignant phenotype. PTEN-3'UTR luciferase reporter assay confirmed PTEN as a direct target of miR-221 and miR-222. These results demonstrate that miR-221 and miR-222 regulate radiosensitivity, and cell growth and invasion of SGC7901 cells, possibly via direct modulation of PTEN expression. Our study suggests that inhibition of miR-221 and miR-222 might form a novel therapeutic strategy for human gastric cancer

  7. 222Rn calibrated mercury fluxes from terrestrial surfaces of southern Africa derived from observations at Cape Point, South Africa

    Slemr F.; Brunke E.-G.; Whittlestone S.; Zahorowski W.; Ebinghaus R.; Kock H. H.; Labuschagne C.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and 222Rn, a radioactive gas of primarily terrestrial origin with a half-life of 3.8 days, have been measured simultaneously at Cape Point, South Africa, since March 2007. Between March 2007 and December 2009 altogether 59 events with high 222Rn concentrations were identified. GEM correlated with 222Rn in 41 of the events and was constant during the remaining events without significant correlation. The average GEM/222Rn emission ratio of all events was −0.0047 ...

  8. Anesthesia of juvenile Pacific Lampreys with MS-222, BENZOAK, AQUI-S 20E, and Aquacalm

    Christiansen, Helena E.; Gee, Lisa P.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2013-01-01

    Effective anesthetics are a critical component of safe and humane fish handling procedures. We tested three concentrations each of four anesthetics—Finquel (tricaine methanesulfonate, herein referred to as MS-222), BENZOAK (20% benzocaine), AQUI-S 20E (10% eugenol), and Aquacalm (metomidate hydrochloride)—for efficacy and safety in metamorphosed, outmigrating juvenile Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus. The anesthetics MS-222 (100 mg/L) and BENZOAK (60 mg/L) were the most effective for anesthetizing juvenile Pacific Lampreys to a handleable state with minimal irritation to the fish. Fish anesthetized with BENZOAK also had lower rates of fungal infection than those exposed to MS-222, AQUI-S 20E, or no anesthetic. Exposure to AQUI-S 20E irritated juvenile Pacific Lampreys, causing them to leap or climb out of the anesthetic solution, and Aquacalm anesthetized fish to a handleable state too slowly and incompletely for effective use with routine handling procedures. Our results indicate that MS-222 and BENZOAK are effective anesthetics for juvenile Pacific Lampreys, but field studies are needed to determine whether exposure to MS-222 increases risk of fungal infection in juvenile Pacific Lampreys released to the wild.

  9. Soil radon (222Rn) monitoring at Furnas Volcano (Sao Miguel, Acores): Applications and challenges

    A soil 222Rn continuous monitoring test was performed in 3 sampling points inside Furnas Volcano caldera and 222Rn concentration varied between 0 and 153000 Bq/m3. Multivariate regression and spectral analyses were applied to the time series registered in order to understand and filter the influence of external factors on soil 222Rn concentration and to recognise anomalies correlated with deep processes. The regression models show that barometric pressure, soil water content, soil temperature, soil CO2 flux, air temperature, relative air humidity and wind speed are the statistical meaningful variables explaining between 15.8% and 73.6% of 222Rn variations. Spectral analysis allowed to identify seasonal variations and daily variations associated with one cycle per day on winter months only in one of the monitored sites. This diurnal variation is correlated with air temperature, relative air humidity and wind speed cycles. The change in the location of the sampling points was caused by both artificial and natural constrains. On the 3 monitoring sites, after a period of continuous register, a sudden drop on the 222Rn concentration values was observed and the cause is still under debate. The work performed can be applied for seismo-volcanic monitoring and for public health risk assessment. (authors)

  10. Calibration factor determination for solid nuclear track detectors CR-39 type exposed to Rn-222

    In the detection method with solid nuclear track detector, when a heavy particle rests on the detector surface, causes a breakdown in their molecular structure forming a trace. One of the typical applications of these detectors is the measurement of the concentration of Rn -222 in air, a noble radioactive gas, part of the U-238 series, emitting alpha particles and important in epidemiological studies to protect individuals from natural radiation. To determine the concentration of Rn -222 in the air in a room is necessary to know the density of lines (traces / cm2) on the detector surface, the exposure time and the calibration factor. The determination of the calibration factor for CR-39 detectors was taken from the exposure of these to a known concentration of Rn-222. Therefore, the detectors were placed inside a cell of Lucas adapted and subsequently exposed to a concentration of Rn-222 15 kBq / m3, by means of the apparatus RN-150 Pylon Electronics Incorporation, which has a source of Ra-226 and releases known concentrations of Rn-222. Six calibration factor determinations were performed, the average value obtained was 0.0534 ±0.0021 (traces / cm2 per Bq / m3 day). The results are consistent with literature values for the same type of detector and showed good reproducibility

  11. 222Rn, 220Rn and their progeny concentrations in offices in Hong Kong

    An active sampling system using charcoal canisters and an HPGe γ-spectrometer was employed to survey 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in 65 offices in Hong Kong, and a traditional method was used to record simultaneously the potential α-energy concentrations (PAEC) of 222Rn and 220Rn progeny at the same sites. The mean values of gas concentration, PAEC and equilibrium factor for 222Rn were 48±32 Bq m-3, 5.2±5.1 mWL and 0.38±0.13, respectively, and the corresponding values for 220Rn were 14±7 Bq m-3, 2.7±2.1 mWL and 0.050±0.016. These values were in general higher than those in dwellings in Hong Kong, which was due to the poorer fresh air exchange in offices. Factors affecting the concentrations of 222Rn, 220Rn and their progeny were also studied. The type of air conditioners and the indoor and outdoor temperature difference show some effects on 222Rn, 220Rn and progeny concentrations, while rainfall and relative humidity affect only the progeny concentrations

  12. 222Rn and 14CO2 concentrations in the surface layer of the atmosphere

    Long-term monitoring of the Δ14C in the atmospheric near-ground CO2 has been realized in Bratislava and Zlkovce, situated near the nuclear power plant Jaslovske Bohunice. Until 1993, the monthly mean Δ14C values showed a high variability. The annual means of Δ14C were about 30 per mille higher at Zlkovce than in highly industrialised Bratislava. An important change in the behaviour of the 14C data has occurred since 1993. The records from both stations show the similar course, mainly due to the fact that there do not occur deep winter minima in Bratislava. This behaviour corresponds to the lower values of the total fossil fuel CO2 emissions in the years after 1993 when compared to the previous years. At present, both sets of data show that the 14C concentration is about 10% above the natural level. Since 1987 also the 222 Rn concentration in the surface layer of the atmosphere has been measured in Bratislava. These measurements provided an extensive set of the 222 Rn data characteristic for the inland environment with high level of atmospheric pollution. The seasonal and daily variations of the 222 Rn concentration were observed. The investigation of the relation between the monthly mean diurnal courses of the 222 Rn concentration and the atmospheric stability proved a high correlation between them. The 222 Rn data were used to interpret the anomalous Δ14C values in the surface layer of the atmosphere. (author)

  13. Measurement of Rn-222 in water by absorption in polycarbonates and liquid scintillation counting

    Mitev, K., E-mail: kmitev@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Sofia University ' St. Kliment Ohridski' , Department of Atomic Physics, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrova, I. [Sofia University ' St. Kliment Ohridski' , Department of Atomic Physics, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Zhivkova, V. [Kozloduy NPP, PP-1, Department of Radiochemistry, 3320 Kozloduy (Bulgaria); Georgiev, S.; Gerganov, G.; Pressyanov, D.; Boshkova, T. [Sofia University ' St. Kliment Ohridski' , Department of Atomic Physics, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2012-06-11

    This work presents a new technique for measurement of activity concentrations of Rn-222 in water which is based on liquid scintillation counting (LSC) of polycarbonates exposed in the water. The polycarbonate material has high absorption ability to radon and when exposed in a radon-containing environment (air or water), it absorbs and concentrates radon in its volume. This property of the polycarbonate material is used for sampling {sup 222}Rn from the water. The main new element in this work is that it proposes the LSC technique for measurement of the radiation, emitted from the polycarbonate material. This radiation is due to the decay of the absorbed {sup 222}Rn and its progeny. Experimental results of LSC of polycarbonate granules and thin foils exposed in water with different activity concentrations of Rn-222 are presented. In all cases a very good linear correlation between the LS counting rate and the activity concentration of the water is found. The LSC of polycarbonates shows similar or even higher sensitivity in comparison to that of LSC of water. The estimated radon-in-water minimal detectable activity concentrations of the proposed method are similar or lower than those of the LSC and lower than those obtained by gamma spectrometry. The proposed method is simple, robust, inexpensive and avoids the need of taking water samples for laboratory analysis. It facilitates studies of the spatial distribution of {sup 222}Rn in water basins by exposure of polycarbonate specimens at different spots or depths and subsequent liquid scintillation counting.

  14. Evaluation of groundwater discharge into small lakes based on the temporal distribution of radon-222

    Dimova, N.T.; Burnett, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate groundwater discharge into small lakes we constructed a model that is based on the budget of 222Rn (radon t1/2 5 3.8 d) as a tracer. The main assumptions in our model are that the lake's waters are wellmixed horizontally and vertically; the only significant 222Rn source is via groundwater discharge; and the only losses are due to decay and atmospheric evasion. In order to evaluate the groundwater-derived 222Rn flux, we monitored the 222Rn concentration in lake water over periods long enough (usually 1-3 d) to observe changes likely caused by variations in atmospheric exchange (primarily a function of wind speed and temperature). We then attempt to reproduce the observed record by accounting for decay and atmospheric losses and by estimating the total 222Rn input flux using an iterative approach. Our methodology was tested in two lakes in central Florida: one of which is thought to have significant groundwater inputs (Lake Haines) and another that is known not to have any groundwater inflows but requires daily groundwater augmentation from a deep aquifer (Round Lake). Model results were consistent with independent seepage meter data at both Lake Haines (positive seepage of ??? 1.6 ?? 104 m3 d-1 in Mar 2008) and at Round Lake (no net groundwater seepage). ?? 2011, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  15. An application of 222Rn alpha particle's tracks to uranium exploration

    The uranium exploration method is based on the register of 222Rn alpha particles; 222Rn gas is generated in the chain 238U desintegration. The detection of alpha particles was performed with cellulose nitrate films (NTC), located in a grid at the region in study. The alpha particles produce latent tracks in the NTC films; these tracks may be enlarged by chemical etching and are observed with an ordinary optic microscope, ninety seven NTC films were used, these were distributed in an area of approximately seventeen square kilometers, located in the municipalities of Granados and Huasabas in Sonora Mexico, the detectors remain in the ground for a thirty days mean period. The results obtained show an area with high 222Rn concentration, this can be related with an underground uranium ore deposit. The more important conclusion is that the results obtained in this work can be used as preliminary results for other prospection methods in this particular area. (author)

  16. A calibration method of an ionization chamber for measuring 222Rn concentration

    When 222Rn concentration is measured with an ionization chamber, the conversion factor of ionization current to 222Rn concentration has been decided in individual case. A flow-type ionization chamber (the effective volume; 18 l) was used for measuring 222Rn concentration in this work. The conversion factor of this ionization chamber was obtained 1.11 (Bq/m3/fA) by the use of RaDEF standard source. From the results of three other literatures and this work, the following formula to calculate the conversion factor (a) was obtained as a function of the effective volume V (m3) of ionization chamber; a = (1.036 x 102-1) / [V·(log V + 6.908)] (Bq/m3/fA). (author)

  17. The correlation between exhalation from rocks and indoor concentration of 222Rn in the Sydney area

    The results of a survey of indoor 222Rn concentrations of 350 dwellings in the Sydney area are combined with measurements of 222Rn exhalation rates of principal rock types in the survey area. A linear regression is predicted which yields a positive regression coefficient of b=2.4±0.3, a constant of a=3.4±0.5, and a correlation coefficient of R2=0.15. This correlation was found to be highly significant by using three different statistical tests. The ratio of the indoor 222Rn concentrations in dwellings built on the two dominant rock types, the Wianamatta Shale and the Hawkesbury Sandstone, was found to be about 1.6. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  18. Radon-222 content in the internal atmosphere of Hungarian residential buildings

    The use in home buildings in Hungary of some substitute materials, e.g., coal-ash, fly-ash, etc., caused greater background radiation than the traditional building materials because of their higher content of natural radioactivity. The radon-222 concentration was measured in 1182 flats (apartments) along with the concentrations of its short-lived daughter elements and radon-220 in room air and the radiation dose to the epithelium of the bronchial tubes of the lung was estimated. The average annual radon-222 concentration in open air was estimated as being 0.2 pCi/l. To confirm this estimate the radon-222 concentration in the atmosphere near the surface of the earth and its annual fluctuation was measured. (U.S.)

  19. Measuring techniques for environmental 3H, 14C and 222Rn by liquid scintillation counter

    Measuring techniques for environmental 3H, 14C and 222Rn with a liquid scintillation counter have been studied. 3H in environmental water was enriched by electrolysis and measured with a low background liquid scintillation counter. By this technique, 3H concentration of ground water, river water, sea water and rain water at Tokyo was founded to be 0.1 ∼ 2.5 Bq/1. 14C in taurine and ethyl-alcohol was measured directly liquid scintillation counter. By this 14C measuring, natural products, contain low level 14C, were distinguished from synthesised products contain no 14C. 222Rn in toluene extracted from environmental water or air was measured by scintillation pulse interval analysis method. By this technique, 222Rn was able to be measured under very low background counting rate, 0.03cpm, and high efficiency. (author)

  20. Direct determination of 222Rn gas using the electret to remove daughters at formation

    Five compact, portable, continuous 222Rn monitors have been constructed inhouse. Printed data can be obtained from intervals ranging from 10 minutes to 990 minutes. One hour count interval provides a lower limit of detection of 0.03 pCi 222Rn/l-1 which is sufficient for measurement of any environmental level encountered. Calibration of the units was accomplished in the EML radon calibration room and the typical calibration factor is 165 counts per hour per pCi 222Rn/l. The units are now being field tested. Two indoor/outdoor pairs are located in a single family dwelling and in a high rise apartment. One unit is being used for special studies

  1. Peak tailing correction in measurement of 222Rn/220Rn activity concentration with α spectrum method

    α spectrum method is one of the most important methods in measurement of 222Rn/220Rn concentration in environment. However, the peak tailing from high energy particles is an obstacle for accurate measurement. To improve the accuracy of measurement, study on the mechanism and effect of the tailing were carried out, and calibrating experiments on peak tailing correction factors were also realized using ERS-2 monitor. The peak tailing correction factors and calibration factors of 222Rn and 220Rn were measured by experiment and their accuracy were also tested. It is suggested that during calibrating α spectrum monitor of 222Rn/220Rn activity concentration, the peak tailing correction and calibration factors should be recalibrated if necessary. (authors)

  2. Optimized procedure for the continuous measurement of 222Rn in the atmosphere

    In conjunction with other natural and artificial radionuclide measurements, such as 210Pb, 7Be, 3H, 14C, 85Kr and 133Xe 222Rn data provide a useful constraint in evaluating air transport models and in identifying global atmospheric conditions. Long range transport studies are best made from coastal or high-altitude sites free of local 222Rn sources. In the frame of the Global Atmospheric Watch Programme of the World Meteorological Organization measurements are also performed at the environmental research platform Schneefernerhaus (2600 m a.s.l.) below the top of Germany's highest mountain Zugspitze by the German Meteorological Service. With the aim to measure concentrations less than 30 mBq/m3 a measuring device was constructed based on the principle of electrostatic deposition of 222Rn daughters: the air is drawn through a filter that removes all the ambient progeny but allows the inert gas 222Rn to pass. The 222Rn then flows continuously in a decay chamber with a silicon detector. The dimensions and geometry of the chamber, the high voltage and the pressure inside were optimized to deposit the decay product 218Po on the silicon detector with a sufficient efficiency. Taking a radioactive equilibrium into account the concentration of 222Rn was calculated. It was demanded for a system with minimized manual handling and an easy way of continuous calibration. The sensitivity of the instrument is dependant on the volume of the decay chamber, the flow rate, the chamber geometry, progeny capture efficiency, humidity, sampling interval and counter efficiency. The calibration procedure was performed using a Rn calibration source traceable to a primary source. The sensitivity accuracy and the instrumental background were evaluated. (author)

  3. Horizontal and vertical distribution of 222Rn and 220Rn in a dwelling, Bangalore, India

    The 222Rn and 220Rn have been identified as potential radiological health hazards and the dose estimation due to their exposure is an important task. Understanding their behavior in indoor environment helps in calculating the inhalation doses due to them. Effective doses due to inhalation of indoor 222Rn and its progeny account on an average for about one-half of all natural sources of radiation. However, recently the indoor surveys in Asia revealed that the dose contribution from 220Rn and its progeny can be equal to or even exceed that of 222Rn and its progeny. In view of this an attempt has been made to observe the distribution of 222Rn and 220Rn levels in a typical dwelling for the environment of Bangalore Metropolitan, India. Present study aims at the distribution of 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in a typical dwelling. Higher concentrations were observed at the wall and flooring of the room and the concentrations were found to decrease as the detector is moved away from walls and floorings. The concentration of 222Rn is found to be invariant in indoor environment. An attempt has also been made to study the horizontal and vertical distribution pattern of 220Rn in a dwelling. The 220Rn concentration is found to drop exponentially as a function of distance from the source (wall/floor). Solution of one dimensional diffusion equation is used for regression fittings for 220Rn variation, from which the diffusion constants and the exhalation rates were calculated. The diffusion constants varied from 0.00195 to 0.00540 m2s-1. Results are discussed in detail

  4. Design and construction of a system to determine Radon-222 through alpha spectroscopy; Diseno y construccion de un sistema para determinar Radon-222 mediante espectroscopia alfa

    Bonifacio M, J. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico. Facultad de Quimica. Toluca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this work consists in the design a radon-222 gas measurement system utilizing a surface barrier detector with the objective to obtain a more accurate measurement for this isotope through an alpha particle spectrum and so to address as to avoid the activity influence of the descendants of short half-life, which are too beta particles emitters, already other methods it must be correction series to obtain the real value of radon activity. Here are presented the general properties properties of radon, the experimental part description indicating the design to measure the radon-222 gas and its parts, as well as too the standard separation of radium-226 starting from carnotite mineral. Finally, it is presented the results obtained with a discussion about it. (Author) results obtained with a discussion about it. (Author)

  5. The contents of radon {sup 222}Rn in deep borehole water of Pojezierze Mazurskie region; Wystepowanie radonu {sup 222}Rn w wodzie z ujec glebinowych na terenie Pojezierza Mazurskiego

    Pachocki, K.A.; Gorzkowski, B.; Majle, T.; Rozycki, Z. [Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Radon {sup 222}Rn in deep borehole water of Pojezierze Mazurskie region has been quantitatively determined. The measurement were performed using the alpha liquid scintillation counting method. The water samples were examined from 3 provinces: Elblag, Olsztyn and Suwalki. In some cases the concentrations of {sup 222}Rn in investigated water samples exceed 11 Bq/l. (author) 11 refs, 4 tabs

  6. Measurement of Rn-222 concentrations in building materials used in jordan

    In this work, the concentrations of the radiative inert gas Rn-222 emanated from the building materials that are commonly in jordan have been studied. For this purpose, samples of ten jordanian building materials of different masses were prepared in plastic cans sealed to passive integrated dosimeters containing CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors which are very sensitive to alpha-particles. The Rn-222 concentrations in these samples range from 137 Bq/m3 to 267 Bq/m3 with an average of 189 Bq/m3. These levels were found to be consistent with those measured by other workers in other countries. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. An extensive indoor 222Rn/220Rn monitoring in North-East India

    The behaviour of ubiquitous radon (Rn222), thoron (Rn220) and their progeny in the indoor atmosphere generally reflect a complex interplay between a number of processes, the most important of which are radioactive α-decay, ventilation, attachment to aerosols and deposition on the surfaces. The present work involved a long-term (1997-2000) passive monitoring of Rn222 and Rn220 in the indoor environment of the North-Eastern region of India. This region being a zone of high seismicity, the indoor radon and thoron measurement of the region will provide a better insight and a valuable database for any study related to radon and thoron anomalies

  8. Radon 222 and Tritium in the identification and quantification of NAPL contamination in ground water. 2. 222RN, 3H and CL patterns

    This is a second and last paper on these theme and presents the typical behavior of Rn222and 3H at the Northern Havana-Matanzas Heavy Oil Belt for the following cases: a) fresh ground waters (unaffected by sea water intrusion), b) fresh ground water affected by isolated advances of sea water intrusion, c) fresh ground water intruded by sea water, d) ground water affected by oil spill and e) ground water affected by produced water spill

  9. Measurements of the radon-222 concentration in residences of Lima - Peru; Mediciones de la concentracion de radon 222 en residencias de Lima - Peru

    Pereyra, P.; Lopez, M. E.; Perez, B., E-mail: ppereyr@pucp.edu.pe [Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Seccion Fisica, Av. Universitaria 1801, Lima (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The measurement of the Radon-222 levels was realized in the first semester of 2013 in residences corresponding to 16 districts of the metropolitan area of Lima, including to the zones North, Center and South of the city, during one period of 3 to 6 months in continuous form, with measurement periods of 1 to 2 months. The houses where the measurements were made were selected considering diverse variables as antiquity, construction materials, coatings, soil type, occupational use of the monitored rooms, etc. The measurements were realized in basements, first and second floor of the residences. For the Radon-222 measurements passive detectors of cellulose nitrate (Lr-115) were used. The procedure of data collection, dosimeters reading and the measurement results are shown in this work; this monitoring is the first one that is carried out in this city. The results are only indicators of the present radon rate, by the detectors type not is possible to discriminate the presence of the Radon-222 descendants. (Author)

  10. Mineral water {sup 222} Rn activity decrease due to consumption habits; Determinacao do decrescimo da atividade de radonio-222 em aguas minerais simulando habitos de consumo

    Cipriani, Moacir; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio

    2001-07-01

    Mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau springs, an elevated region with high natural radioactivity, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have significant {sup 222} Rn concentration on site. The highest concentration in the waters are from: Fonte Villela - Aguas da Prata ({approx} 1000 Bql{sup -1}); Fonte Grande Hotel - Pocinhos do Rio Verde ({approx} 400 Brq{sup -1}) and Fonte CNEN Lab - Pocos de Caldas ({approx} 290 Bql{sup -1}). These waters are used by the population as drinking water and due to consumption habits, can lead to internal doses above accepted limits for the public. This work deals with the decrease of {sup 222} Rn activity in mineral waters fro two different popular consumption habits, and with the adult effective dose equivalent reduction due to water consumption habits. It has been found that the estimated dose based on the biokinetic Crawford-Brown model, can be one fourth of dose based on {sup 222} Rn activity on site. (author)

  11. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  12. 34 CFR 222.23 - How does a local educational agency determine the aggregate assessed value of its eligible...

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a local educational agency determine the aggregate assessed value of its eligible Federal property for its section 8002 payment? 222.23 Section 222.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY...

  13. 20 CFR 222.53 - When a legally adopted child is dependent-child adopted after entitlement.

    2010-04-01

    ... the employee is not more than one-half the period from the child's birth to the employee's date of... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a legally adopted child is dependent-child adopted after entitlement. 222.53 Section 222.53 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  14. 40 CFR 436.222 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.222 Section 436.222 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  15. 34 CFR 222.22 - How does the Secretary treat compensation from Federal activities for purposes of determining...

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Secretary treat compensation from Federal activities for purposes of determining eligibility and payments? 222.22 Section 222.22 Education Regulations....22 How does the Secretary treat compensation from Federal activities for purposes of...

  16. 34 CFR 222.36 - What minimum number of federally connected children must a local educational agency have to...

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What minimum number of federally connected children... 8003(b) and (e)? 222.36 Section 222.36 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS...

  17. 48 CFR 52.222-23 - Notice of Requirement for Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal Employment Opportunity for...

    2010-10-01

    ... Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal Employment Opportunity for Construction. 52.222-23 Section 52.222-23... Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal Employment Opportunity for Construction. As prescribed in 22.810(b), insert... with Executive Order 11246, as amended, and the regulations in 41 CFR 60-4 shall be based on (1)...

  18. 42 CFR 435.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    2010-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid to... program but who meet the income and resource requirements of the State's approved AFDC plan. (b)...

  19. A process-based 222Rn flux map for Europe and its comparison to long-term observations

    Karstens, U.; Schwingshackl, C.; Schmithüsen, D.; Levin, I.

    2015-06-01

    Detailed 222Rn flux maps are an essential prerequisite for the use of radon in atmospheric transport studies. Here we present a high-resolution222Rn flux map for Europe, based on a parameterization of 222Rn production and transport in the soil. The 222Rn exhalation rate was parameterized based on soil properties, uranium content, and modelled soil moisture from two different land-surface reanalysis data sets. Spatial variations in exhalation rates are primarily determined by the uranium content of the soil, but also influenced by local water table depth and soil texture. Temporal variations are related to soil moisture variations as the molecular diffusion in the unsaturated soil zone depends on available air-filled pore space. The implemented diffusion parameterization was tested against campaign-based 222Rn profile measurements. Monthly 222Rn exhalation rates from European soils were calculated with a nominal spatial resolution of 0.083° × 0.083° and compared to long-term direct measurements of 222Rn exhalation rates in different areas of Europe. The two realizations of the 222Rn flux map, based on the different soil moisture data sets, both realistically reproduce the observed seasonality in the fluxes but yield considerable differences for absolute flux values. The average 222Rn flux from soils in Europe is estimated to be 10 or 15 mBq m-2 s-1, depending on the soil moisture data set, and the seasonal variations in the two realisations range from 7.1 mBq m-2 s-1 in February to 13.9 mBq m-2 s-1 in August and from 10.8 mBq m-2 s-1 in March to 19.7 mBq m-2 s-1 in July, respectively. This systematic difference highlights the importance of realistic soil moisture data for a reliable estimation of 222Rn exhalation rates.

  20. In situ soil 222Rn and 220Rn and their relationship with meteorological parameters in tropical Northern Peninsular Malaysia

    This study focused on the relationship between soil 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure, humidity, and terrestrial gamma radiation) in Northern Peninsular Malaysia. Measurements of in situ soil 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations were performed in surface air and at a sampling depth of 50 cm using two active techniques: RAD7 radon detector and radon continuous monitor (Sun Nuclear Corporation). The surface air 222Rn concentration ranged from 6 Bq m−3 to 79 Bq m−3, whereas at the depth of 50 cm, the 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations varied from 133 Bq m−3 to 143,059 Bq m−3 and from 55 Bq m−3 to 403 Bq m−3, respectively. The gamma dose rate (DR) in air was measured using a GR-135 spectrometer (Exploranium). The dose rate varied from 80 nGy h−1 to 258 nGy h−1. The 222Rn concentration in the soil (143 kBq m−3) was high considering that the concentration in typical soil samples is only 40 kBq m−3. The 222Rn concentration in surface air varied within the recommended activity values prescribed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Weak positive and negative correlations were observed between the (222Rn and 220Rn) concentrations and the meteorological parameters. - Highlights: • DR varies (80–258 nGy h−1), no correlation between acidity and radon concentration. • 222Rn in soil (143 kBq m−3) high considering than in typical soil 40 kBq m−3. • 222Rn in surface air varied within EPA and ICRP. • All sites exhibited larger DR compared with the world of 84 nGy h−1 except for two sites. • A statistically significant correlation between 222Rns–220Rn

  1. Baseline air mass selection at Cape Point, South Africa: application of 222Rn and other filter criteria to CO2

    Concentrations of 222Rn (March 1999-August 2002) from a recently installed analyser at the station Cape Point (34oS, 18oE), South Africa, were analysed statistically. The combination of 222Rn with information on wind direction and carbon monoxide (CO) permitted a classification of air masses into continental, marine, and mixtures of both. The ability to select trace gas data representing purely maritime conditions is shown through application to carbon dioxide (CO2) data. 222Rn levels at Cape Point ranged from near zero to above 5000 mBq m-3. Monthly percentiles show practically no seasonal dependence for values up to the 25th percentile (P25), corresponding to 222Rn -3 which is considered typical for marine air. In contrast, 222Rn percentiles exceeding P50 reveal an austral winter maximum, related to a higher incidence of continental air at that time of the year. The wind sector pattern for 222Rn concentrations largely coincides with that observed for CO, but covers a wider sector to the east, reflecting continental source areas. Air masses with 222Rn levels between 100 and 250 mBq m-3 were found to be still affected by terrestrial sources. Our routinely used percentile-based statistical filter applied to CO2 accepted 222Rn -3), which only yielded 18%, but is more stringent in excluding terrestrial influences. CO2 data filtered by using a combination of various selection parameters agreed well with data obtained for 222Rn -3, confirming that this 222Rn threshold is a suitable criterion for purely maritime data. Nonetheless, for CO2 the statistical filter, which does not depend on other species and has better data coverage, still retains its applicability for routine trace gas filtering with respect to baseline concentrations. (author)

  2. Felodipine-diazabicyclo 2.2.2 octane-water (1/1/1)

    Solanko, K. A.; Surov, A. O.; Perlovich, G. L.;

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C18H19Cl2NO4 center dot C6H12N2 center dot H2O, is a cocrystal hydrate containing the active pharmaceutical ingredient felodipine and diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO). The DABCO and water molecules are linked through O-H center dot center dot center dot N hydrogen bonds into...

  3. Physiological Stress Responses to Prolonged Exposure to MS-222 and Surgical Implantation in Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Skalski, John R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Eppard, Matthew B. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, OR (United States)

    2014-07-17

    While many studies have investigated the effects of transmitters on fish condition, behavior, and survival, to our knowledge, no studies have taken into account anesthetic exposure time in addition to tag and surgery effects. We investigated stress responses to prolonged MS-222 exposure after stage 4 induction in surgically implanted juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Survival, tag loss, plasma cortisol concentration, and blood Na+, K+, Ca2+, and pH were measured immediately following anesthetic exposure and surgical implantation and 1, 7, and 14 days post-treatment. Despite the prolonged anesthetic exposure, 3-15 minutes post Stage 4 induction, there were no mortalities or tag loss in any treatment. MS-222 was effective at delaying immediate cortisol release during surgical implantation; however, osmotic disturbances resulted, which were more pronounced in longer anesthetic time exposures. From day 1 to day 14, Na+, Ca2+, and pH significantly decreased, while cortisol significantly increased. The cortisol increase was exacerbated by surgical implantation. There was a significant interaction between MS-222 time exposure and observation day for Na+, Ca2+, K+, and pH; variations were seen in the longer time exposures, although not consistently. In conclusion, stress response patterns suggest stress associated with surgical implantation is amplified with increased exposure to MS-222.

  4. 12 CFR 222.91 - Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address.

    2010-01-01

    ... described in § 222.90(a) that issues a debit or credit card (card issuer). (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Cardholder means a consumer who has been issued a credit or debit card. (2) Clear and... notification of a change of address for a consumer's debit or credit card account and, within a short period...

  5. Standardization of 222Rn by LSC and comparison with α- and γ-spectrometry

    Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) was used for the measurement of 222Rn in equilibrium with its daughters, with detection efficiency close to 5. The appropriate corrections were considered, including one related to the probability that the 165-μs half-life 214Po decays during the dead time of the counter initiated by the disintegration of his parent nuclide, 214Bi. The dead-time determination of a commercial LS counter is also presented using a 222Rn standard source. The LSC 222Rn sources were prepared by transfer of 222Rn produced by a solid 226Ra source into LSC cocktail frozen at 77K, flame-sealed afterwards. They were measured using the LNHB triple coincidence counter with adjustable extending-type dead-time unit, between 8 and 100μs; two different procedures were used to calculate an effective dead time and then to deduce the counting rate extrapolated to zero dead-time value. The LSC results were compared with those obtained by cryogenic α-particle spectrometry (LNHB system) and by γ-ray spectrometry for the same radon source in the LSC vial; the geometry transfer coefficient was calculated using the ETNA software. Measurement results and uncertainties are discussed

  6. 34 CFR 222.30 - What is “free public education”?

    2010-07-01

    ... educational program as determined under State law through grade 12; and (B) Preschool education, whether or... claimed and, except for preschool education, does not include a program that provides only— (i... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is âfree public educationâ? 222.30 Section...

  7. 222Rn in the outdoor atmosphere - trends, variations and radiation exposure

    The long-term monitoring of 222Rn in the atmosphere of Bratislava showed that the annual average values of the volume activity of 222Rn vary up to 27 % around the average value 5,5 Bq.m-3. The substantial change of this average value is possible to expect only as a consequence of the long-tenn change of the intensity of the vertical mixture of the atmosphere in the measured locality. Our obtained average volume activity of the 222Rn in the surface layer of the atmosphere appears in the middle of the range of the volume activities of 222Rn measured in the atmosphere in the other parts of the world. Furthermore there was showed that the effective dose rates from radon in the outdoor atmosphere may change during a day as well as during a year almost by factor of 2. The lowest effective dose rates by radon were found out during a day in the afternoon hours and the highest ones in the early morning hours. During a year the highest effective dose rates by radon were occurred in the winter months and the lowest ones in spring, the most often in April. (authors)

  8. 49 CFR 173.222 - Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.222 Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. Hazardous materials in machinery or apparatus are excepted from the specification packaging requirements of...

  9. 48 CFR 52.222-5 - Davis-Bacon Act-Secondary Site of the Work.

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 52.222-5 Davis-Bacon Act—Secondary Site of the Work. As prescribed in 22.407(h), insert the following provision: Davis-Bacon Act—Secondary Site of the Work (JUL 2005) (a)(1) The offeror shall notify... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon...

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-Overtime Compensation.

    2010-10-01

    ... duplicate those required for construction work by Department of Labor regulations at 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-4 Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Overtime... Contractor that are subject to the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. (d) Payrolls and...

  11. Measurement of radon 222 in drinking water and air by liquid scintillation

    This is a brief description of the liquid scintillation measuring method for determining radon 222 in drinking water and air. Discussed are the advantages of this method and its reliability or accuracy, as well as some conclusions from the results. (orig.)

  12. Determination of activity of the 222-Rn and 220-Rn in the air aerosols

    The accumulation filter method at aerosol sampling stations in Bratislava was used. For the measurement of the accumulated total activity of the daughter products of the nuclides (Rn-222, Rn-220 of the U-238 and Th-232) natural decay series on the filters a low level alpha-beta proportional detector was used

  13. Development of a transfer standard for the measurement of low Rn-222 activity concentration in air

    A large volume transfer standard has been developed to calibrate commercial radon measurement devices in a homogeneous Rn-222 reference atmosphere. The transfer standard serves for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of the unit Bq/m3 below 1 kBq/m3. The transfer standard consists of a multi-wire impulse ionization chamber, electronic measurement equipment and the corresponding software. The multi-wire impulse ionization chamber is composed of two parallel printed boards. Between the boards, 478 vertical electrode wires are soldered in to include a volume of 10 L. In the dependency of the energy, the α-particles of Rn-222 and the decay products are detected in the active volume of the multi-wire impulse ionization chamber. By means of the measurement software an α-energy spectrum is produced. Via different algorithms, the activity concentration of the Rn-222 reference atmosphere is determined. - Highlights: • Transfer standard with a volume of 10 L developed for Rn-222. • Activity concentration below 1 kBq/m3 measured with low statistical uncertainties. • Calibration conversion with combined relative standard uncertainty of <2% achieved

  14. Dosimetry of Rn-222 in the air in environments located above and below ground level

    Exposure of the general population to ionizing radiation comes mainly from natural sources. The main contribution is due to inhalation of radon (Rn-222), a gas that occurs naturally (UNSCEAR, 2000). The Rn-222 concentration in the environment is controlled by factors such as soil permeability and water content, the weather variability, materials used in the foundation and the usual positive pressure differential between the soil and the internal environment. Studies indicate that the concentration of radon shows a wide variation in the basement, ground floor and upper floors of buildings. The objective of this study is to determine radon levels in basements, ground floor and floors above ground level, at a university in the city of Sao Paulo and in one residential building in the city of Peruibe. Rn-222 measurements were performed using the method with nuclear track of solid state detectors (CR-39). The studied environments present Rn-222 concentration well below the values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, published in the 2009 document, of 300 Bq/m3 for homes and 1000 Bq/m3 for the workplace. In the residential building, the concentration of Ra-266, Th-232 and K-40 in the materials used in the building construction was also analyzed, by gamma spectrometry. The effective total dose for the resident due to external exposure was 0.8 mSv y-1, lower than the annual dose limit for the general public of 1 mSv y-1. (author)

  15. Calibration of a degassing-emanation line for 222Rn determination in seawater samples

    The purpose of this study is to calibrate a degassing-emanation line and to determine 222Rn and 226Ra activity concentrations in seawater samples. This methodology, also called Lucas method, consists in the extraction of radon (originally dissolved in seawater), collection of the gas in a liquid nitrogen cold trap and transfer from the trap to an alpha scintillation cell. Total extraction efficiencies of the 4 degassing-emanation systems were determined by measuring 226Ra reference solutions. The efficiencies obtained for these 4 systems varied from 21 % to 62%. This work also presents preliminary results of a study carried out in a series of small embayements of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State-Brazil: Flamengo Bay, Fortaleza Bay, Mar Virado Bay and Ubatuba Bay. Concentration of Rn in excess varied from 0,011 to 0,317 Bq/L for Flamengo Bay, from 0,009 to 0,130 Bq/L for Fortaleza Bay, from 0,018 to 0,050 Bq/L for Mar Virado Bay and from 0,004 to 0,120 Bq/L for Ubatuba Bay. The results obtained for the concentration of 222Rn in excess in a transect at Flamengo Bay varied from 0,002 to 0,036 Bq/L. Higher concentrations of 222Rn in excess were obtained in Flamengo Bay, Fortaleza Bay and Ubatuba bay. It was also observed that the concentration of 222Rn in excess increases with depth, as expected. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Radon-222 exhalation rate from uranium mine waste rock pile

    The 222 Rn exhalation from waste rock piles is an important item to be assessed in uranium mines decommissioning process. In this work are presented the INB-Caldas Uranium Mine waste rock pile number 4 (BF4) surface 222 Rn exhalation rate. The BF4 waste rock pile contains low concentration uranium ore, below the concentration needed to feed the uranium extraction milling plant, and its surface has been partially covered with clay to prevent acid drainage formation from air oxygen reaction with pyrite ore. The sample collection was performed using passive coal trap collectors for 222 Rn exhalation. The traps were placed on the waste rock pile surface during adequate collection periods and gamma counted after four hours to allow for radon daughters in growth. The waste rock pile (BF4) has been divided into five areas, according to mining periods. Measurements were made in three of these areas, during dry and rain seasons, 141 samples in all. The 222 Rn exhalation geometric mean (pCi/m-2.sec-1) obtained by area were 21.8±253 (min=0..6, max =1809) for area A; 11.9±33 (min=0.5, max=160) for area B; 6.6±11 (min=0.6, max=47) for area D. (author)

  17. 12 CFR 222.22 - Scope and duration of opt-out.

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.22 Scope and duration of opt-out.... (2) Continuing relationship—(i) In general. If the consumer establishes a continuing relationship... connection with— (A) A single continuing relationship or multiple continuing relationships that the...

  18. Efficient direct 2,2,2-trifluoroethylation of indoles via C-H functionalization.

    Tolnai, Gergely L; Székely, Anna; Makó, Zita; Gáti, Tamás; Daru, János; Bihari, Tamás; Stirling, András; Novák, Zoltán

    2015-03-14

    A novel highly C3 selective metal free trifluoroethylation of indoles using 2,2,2-trifuoroethyl(mesityl)-iodonium triflate was developed. The methodology enables the introduction of a trifluoroethyl group in a fast and efficient reaction under mild conditions with high functional group tolerance. Beyond the synthetic developments, quantum chemical calculations provide a deeper understanding of the transformation. PMID:25682991

  19. 12 CFR 222.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.25 Reasonable and... electronically mailed or processed at an Internet Web site, if the consumer agrees to the electronic delivery of... opt-out under the Act, and the affiliate marketing opt-out under the Act, by a single method, such...

  20. Relation between 222Rn concentration in outdoor air and lower atmosphere

    Using the height of the surface-based inversion layer obtained by the acoustic sounder returns and the variation of the 222Rn concentration in the outdoor air during the presence of the surface-based inversion layer, the exhalation rate of 222Rn is estimated to be 0.020 Bq·m-2·s-1, which is observed elsewhere on land. Furthermore, the exposure rate at 1 m above the air-ground interface due to the short-lived 222Rn daughters in the outdoor air during the presence of the surface-based inversion layer can be estimated using the height of the surface-based inversion layer and the 222Rn concentrations in the outdoor air at the ground level before and after the onset of the surface-based inversion layer. From these treatment, it is clearly demonstrated that the monostatic acoustic sounder is useful as a supplementary method for a weather survey which forms a part of monitoring around the nuclear facilities. (author)

  1. Design and construction of a system to analyze Radon 222 by means of alpha spectroscopy

    Design and construction of a system to measure gaseous Radon 222 which arise from a source of Radium 226 electrodeposited in a stainless disc is described. Such a system allows to differentiate the energies of radium where they come from, as well as energies of daughter products. In this way it is possible to have a more precise measure of the alpha activity of this isotope. The system was constructed in a stainless steel hermetic container made of the camera, a cape and a valve, the used sample was a standards of Radium 226 attained from carnotite ore. The Radon 222 alpha particles, as well as the alpha particles of its decay products namely Polonium 210. Polonium 218 and Polonium 214 were identified by a surface barrier detector. The results in this manner obtained shows clearly well definite peaks of Radon 222 and also peaks of the Radon 222 daughter products with energies of 5.43, 5.31, 6.0 and 7.69 Mev respectively. The system allows to separate and to indentify the energies of Radon and its daughter products coming directly from a standard solid sample of Radium 226 (Author)

  2. One year of 222Rn concentration in the atmospheric surface layer

    S. Galmarini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-year time series of 222Rn measured in a rural area in the North of Italy in 1997 is analyzed. The scope of the investigation is to better understand the behavior of this common atmospheric tracer in relation to the meteorological conditions at the release site. Wavelet analysis is used as one of the investigation tools of the time series. The measurements and scalograms of 222Rn are compared to those of wind-speed, pressure, relative humidity, temperature and NOx. The use of wavelet analysis allows the identification of the various scales controlling the influence of the meteorological variables on 222Rn dispersion in the surface layer that are not visible through classical Fourier analysis or direct time series inspection. The analysis of the time series has identified specific periods during which the usual diurnal variation of radon is superimposed to a linear growth thus indicating the build up of concentration at the measurement level. From these specific cases an estimate of the surface flux of 222Rn is made. By means of a simple model these special cases are reproduced.

  3. 20 CFR 222.31 - Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment purposes.

    2010-04-01

    ... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.31 Relationship as... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as child for annuity and lump... the employee. For procedures on how a determination of the person's relationship to the employee...

  4. 20 CFR 222.44 - Other relationship determinations for lump-sum payments.

    2010-04-01

    ... THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.44 Other relationship determinations for lump-sum payments. Other claimants will be considered to... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other relationship determinations for...

  5. 20 CFR 222.24 - Relationship as remarried widow(er).

    2010-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried Widow(er) § 222.24 Relationship as remarried widow(er). (a) New eligibility. A claimant will have the relationship... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as remarried widow(er)....

  6. 20 CFR 222.41 - Determination of relationship and support for parent.

    2010-04-01

    ... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.41 Determination of relationship and support for parent. (a) Annuity claimant. For purposes of applying for an... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship and support...

  7. 20 CFR 222.30 - When determinations of relationship as child are made.

    2010-04-01

    ... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.30 When determinations of relationship as child are made. (a) Determinations will be made regarding a person's relationship as the child... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When determinations of relationship as...

  8. 48 CFR 52.222-19 - Child Labor-Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child Labor-Cooperation... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-19 Child Labor—Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies. As prescribed in 22.1505(b), insert the following clause: Child Labor—Cooperation With Authorities and...

  9. Prediction of 222 Rn exhalation rates from phosphogypsum based stacks. Part I: parametric mathematical modeling

    Radon-222 is a radionuclide exhaled from phosphogypsum by-produced at phosphate fertilizer industries. Alternative large-scale application of this waste may indicate a material substitute for civil engineering provided that environmental issues concerning its disposal and management are overcome. The first part of this paper outlines a steady-state two-dimensional model for 222Rn transport through porous media, inside which emanation (source term) and decay (sink term) exist. Boussinesq approach is evoked for the laminar buoyancy-driven interstitial air flow, which is also modeled according to Darcy-Brinkman formulation. In order to account for simultaneous effects of entailed physical parameters, governing equations are cast into dimensionless form. Apart from usual controlling parameters like Reynolds, Prandtl, Schmidt, Grashof and Darcy numbers, three unconventional dimensionless groups are put forward. Having in mind 222Rn transport in phosphogypsum-bearing porous media, the physical meaning of those newly introduced parameters and representative values for the involved physical parameters are presented. A limiting diffusion-dominated scenario is addressed, for which an analytical solution is deduced for boundary conditions including an impermeable phosphogypsum stack base and a non-zero fixed concentration activity at the stack top. Accordingly, an expression for the average Sherwood number corresponding to the normalized 222Rn exhalation rate is presented

  10. Distribution Log Normal of 222 Rn in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico

    In this work the evaluation of the concentration of 222 Rn in air for Zacatecas is shown. The Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were used as the technique for the realization of the measurements in large scale with cellulose nitrate LR-115, type 2, in open chambers of 222 Rn. The measurements were carried out during three months in different times of the year. In the results it is presented the log normal distribution, arithmetic mean and geometric media for the concentration at indoor and outdoor of residence constructions, the concentration at indoor of occupational constructions and in the 57 municipal heads of the state of Zacatecas. The statistics of the values in the concentration showed variation according to the time of the year, obtaining high quantities in winter seasons for both cases. The distribution of the concentration of 222 Rn is presented in the state map for each one of the municipalities, representing the measurement places in the entire state of Zacatecas. Finally the places where the values in the concentration of 222 Rn in air are near to the one limit settled down by the EPA of 148 Bq/m3 are presented. (Author)

  11. Equilibration correction of temporal measurements for sudden 222Rn concentration changes

    Tan, Y.; Tokonami, S.; Liu, H.; Kearfott, K. J.

    2016-02-01

    222Rn and 220Rn can be used as tracers of groundwater or submarine springs, and 222Rn in water also could indicate indoor radon problems in some regions. The half-life of 222Rn is long enough that its concentration may remain significant during transit over relatively long distances, while that of 220Rn is not. Prior research revealed that it took about 15 min for the radon to achieve gas equilibrium at a water flow rate of 17.5 L min-1, which is approximately equivalent to the time required for the 222Rn-218Po pair to approach radioactive equilibrium and is limiting in terms of measurements of sudden radon concentration change. In this work, an algorithm is applied to improve the continuous tracing of radon concentrations in the field environment. Results of a laboratory experiment analyzed applying the analysis method illustrated its ability to allow immediate identification of sharp concentration increases. In this paper we find that a precipitous drop in radon concentrations lead to improper corrected values as the result of measurement uncertainties prior to the drop, and a method using zero instead negative values for reducing the uncertainties under such condition also is proposed.

  12. Measurement of 222Rn indoors and outdoors. Progress report, June 1, 1982-May 31, 1983

    Research progress is reported on a study of the levels and variability of Radon 222 both indoors and outdoors. Sensors were deployed in a single family dwelling and in a high-rise apartment building. Temperature, pressure, relative humidity, rainfall, and wind data were also collected at these sites. Modeling of indoor radon concentrations has been initiated

  13. 7 CFR 2.22 - Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs.

    2010-01-01

    ... otherwise assigned. (ii) Conduct marketing efficiency research and development activities directly... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs... Secretary, the Under Secretaries and Assistant Secretaries § 2.22 Under Secretary for Marketing...

  14. 36 CFR 222.23 - Removal of other horses and burros.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 CFR 261.7 and 262.10. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of other horses and... AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.23 Removal of...

  15. [2+2+2]-Cyklotrimerization in synthesis of C-aryldeoxyribosides

    Novák, P.; Hocek, Michal; Kotora, Martin

    Bern: DCB University of Bern, 2006. s. 278. [IRT-International Roundtable on Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids /17./. 03.09.2006-07.09.2006, Bern] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : C-nucleosides * extension of the genetic alphabet * [2+2+2]-cyclotrimerization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  16. Equilibration correction of temporal measurements for sudden 222Rn concentration changes

    222Rn and 220Rn can be used as tracers of groundwater or submarine springs, and 222Rn in water also could indicate indoor radon problems in some regions. The half-life of 222Rn is long enough that its concentration may remain significant during transit over relatively long distances, while that of 220Rn is not. Prior research revealed that it took about 15 min for the radon to achieve gas equilibrium at a water flow rate of 17.5 L min−1, which is approximately equivalent to the time required for the 222Rn-218Po pair to approach radioactive equilibrium and is limiting in terms of measurements of sudden radon concentration change. In this work, an algorithm is applied to improve the continuous tracing of radon concentrations in the field environment. Results of a laboratory experiment analyzed applying the analysis method illustrated its ability to allow immediate identification of sharp concentration increases. In this paper we find that a precipitous drop in radon concentrations lead to improper corrected values as the result of measurement uncertainties prior to the drop, and a method using zero instead negative values for reducing the uncertainties under such condition also is proposed

  17. INDOOR 222RN IN TENNESSEE VALLEY HOUSES: SEASONAL, BUILDING AND GEOLOGICAL FACTORS

    A two-season survey of indoor 222Rn concentrations was conducted in 226 occupied houses in Roane County, TN, during 1985 and 1986. A similar survey of 86 houses in Madison County, AL, was conducted in 1988 and 1989. Alpha track detectors were placed in each of the houses for thre...

  18. miR-221/222 Target the DNA Methyltransferase MGMT in Glioma Cells

    Roscigno, Giuseppina; Romano, Giulia; Diaz-Lagares, Angel; Iaboni, Margherita; Donnarumma, Elvira; Fiore, Danilo; De Marinis, Pasqualino; Soini, Ylermi; Esteller, Manel; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most deadly types of cancer. To date, the best clinical approach for treatment is based on administration of temozolomide (TMZ) in combination with radiotherapy. Much evidence suggests that the intracellular level of the alkylating enzyme O6-methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) impacts response to TMZ in GBM patients. MGMT expression is regulated by the methylation of its promoter. However, evidence indicates that this is not the only regulatory mechanism present. Here, we describe a hitherto unknown microRNA-mediated mechanism of MGMT expression regulation. We show that miR-221 and miR-222 are upregulated in GMB patients and that these paralogues target MGMT mRNA, inducing greater TMZ-mediated cell death. However, miR-221/miR-222 also increase DNA damage and, thus, chromosomal rearrangements. Indeed, miR-221 overexpression in glioma cells led to an increase in markers of DNA damage, an effect rescued by re-expression of MGMT. Thus, chronic miR-221/222-mediated MGMT downregulation may render cells unable to repair genetic damage. This, associated also to miR-221/222 oncogenic potential, may poor GBM prognosis. PMID:24147153

  19. MiR-221/222 target the DNA methyltransferase MGMT in glioma cells.

    Cristina Quintavalle

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is one of the most deadly types of cancer. To date, the best clinical approach for treatment is based on administration of temozolomide (TMZ in combination with radiotherapy. Much evidence suggests that the intracellular level of the alkylating enzyme O(6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT impacts response to TMZ in GBM patients. MGMT expression is regulated by the methylation of its promoter. However, evidence indicates that this is not the only regulatory mechanism present. Here, we describe a hitherto unknown microRNA-mediated mechanism of MGMT expression regulation. We show that miR-221 and miR-222 are upregulated in GMB patients and that these paralogues target MGMT mRNA, inducing greater TMZ-mediated cell death. However, miR-221/miR-222 also increase DNA damage and, thus, chromosomal rearrangements. Indeed, miR-221 overexpression in glioma cells led to an increase in markers of DNA damage, an effect rescued by re-expression of MGMT. Thus, chronic miR-221/222-mediated MGMT downregulation may render cells unable to repair genetic damage. This, associated also to miR-221/222 oncogenic potential, may poor GBM prognosis.

  20. Evaluation of the anesthetic effects of MS222 in the adult Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum

    Zullian C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiara Zullian,1 Aurore Dodelet-Devillers,1 Stéphane Roy,2 Pascal Vachon1 1Département de Biomédecine Vétérinaire, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, 2Département de Stomatologie, Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Montréal, Québec, Canada Abstract: The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum is a unique research model in several fields of medicine, where surgical and invasive procedures may be required. As yet, little is known about the efficacy of MS222 (tricaine methanesulfonate, which is the most commonly used anesthetic agent in amphibians. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the anesthetic effects and physiological changes in adult axolotls following a 20-minute immersion bath, containing progressive MS222 concentrations starting at 0.1%. Depth of anesthesia and physiological changes were evaluated every 15 minutes post-MS222 exposure with the following parameters: righting behavior, withdrawal reflex, acetic acid test response, heart rate, and blood oxygen saturation, as well as cloacal and body surface temperatures. A 20-minute exposure in a 0.1% MS222 immersion bath (n=6 animals had no anesthetic effects on adult axolotls after 20 minutes of exposure. With a 0.2% MS222 solution, all axolotls (n=9 were deeply anesthetized at 15 minutes, and 80% were still unresponsive at 30 minutes postexposure. Blood oxygen saturation and heart rate were slightly, but significantly, increased when compared with the baseline value and remained stable up to recovery. There was no significant increase in surface and cloaca temperatures, compared with baseline. With the 0.4% MS222 solution, the duration of anesthesia lasted for 90 minutes to at least 120 minutes (n=3 animals and this concentration was deemed too high. In conclusion, a 20-minute immersion bath with 0.2% MS222 may be used for short procedures (15–30 minutes requiring anesthesia of adult axolotls. Keywords: Ambystoma mexicanum

  1. Measurement of 222Rn concentration in drinking water in Sakarya, Turkey

    In this paper, the first measurement of 222Rn concentrations in drinking water from wells, springs and bottled waters in the city of Sakarya, Turkey was presented. The measurements were performed using RAD 7, a solid-state alpha detector, with RAD H2O (radon in water) accessory manufactured by Durridge Company, Inc. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 1.98 to 20.80 Bq l-1 with an average value of 9.05 Bq l-1 for well water, from 0.75 to 59.65 Bq l-1 with an average value of 13.78 Bq l-1 for spring water and from 0.75 to 22.8 Bq l-1 with an average value of 5.41 Bq l-1 for bottled water. Although these results indicated relatively high 222Rn concentrations compared with that from other parts of the Turkey, they are still below the World Health Organization recommended level of 100 Bq l-1 for radon. Using the measured activities of 222Rn, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of 222Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from 222Rn were estimated to range from 2.59 to 205.97 μSv y-1, from 1.55 to 123.28 μSv y-1 and from 1.31 to 104.48 μSv y-1 for age groups 1-2, 8-12 and >17 y, respectively. (authors)

  2. Distribution characteristics of Rn-222 concentrations on Misasa spa district, Tottori Pref., JAPAN

    We have carried out convenient and highly sensitive radon measurement using absorption to means of a detecting active charcoal and a liquid scintillation spectrometer, Packard Pico-rad System. The α and β radioactivities of its decay products originated from radon gas absorbed detector exposed to air were measured. Its detection limit is 1.7Bq/m3 in air with an accuracy of about 10% on 200 minutes of counting time, and correction coefficient, the ratio of measured radon concentration to standard radon concentration (about 300Bq/m3) is 0.75 on the standard radon gas chamber of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. Misasa district, Tottori pref. is famous for the radioactive spa in Japan. We have measured the Rn-222 concentrations in air with a set of indoor and outdoor. The distribution range of Rn-222 concentrations in air on Misasa spa district from 1995 to 1998 are 8 - 194Bq/m3 indoors, 2 - 150Bq/m3 outdoors, the former generally are higher than those outdoor and these ratios fluctuate on the range 1.1 - 2.3. Rn-222 concentrations in air on Asahi, Takeda and Misasa districts geologically formed from granite strata were higher than those on Mitoku and Osika districts formed from volcanic rocks (Andesite and Basalt), and its ratio of indoor to outdoor were similar trend too. The strata is also a influence on Rn-222 concentration in air. The Rn-222 concentrations on Higashi-osaka as control area are 4.9 - 17Bq/m3 indoors and 0.33 - 10Bq/m3 outdoors. (author)

  3. Transport of 222Rn using the regional model REMO: a detailed comparison with measurements over Europe

    The 222Rn concentration simulated by the regional atmospheric model REMO over Europe and western Siberia is compared to in-situ records in Europe, and discussed in the context of site effects for stations that are also part of a CO2 observing network. The REMO model has a limited spatial domain, forced at its lateral boundaries with meteorological fields of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and with tracer concentrations issued from the TM3 global transport model. The modelled Rn field is compared to measurements at six stations: two coastal ones (Atlantic Ocean and Baltic Sea), two low-elevation sites in plains, one mountain station and one high-altitude station. We show that the synoptic and diurnal 222Rn variability as simulated by REMO (55 km by 55 km) is realistic. In some cases REMO performs better than TM3, which is of coarser resolution, but this is not always true. At Mace Head, a station located near the western edge of the REMO domain, we show that the 222Rn 'baseline' concentration is strongly influenced by boundary conditions, reflecting 222Rn transport from North America across the Atlantic Ocean. At Schauinsland, a mountain station in south-western Germany, even though the spatial resolution of REMO is not fine enough to reproduce transport processes induced by local topography, a fairly good agreement between model and measurements can be obtained, provided that one can determine from comparison of observed and modelled diurnal temperature changes which layer of the model is suitable for comparison with the data. Finally, the implications of modelling 222Rn are discussed here in the broader context of interpreting site effects that may also affect CO2 continental observations in Europe

  4. 34 CFR 222.177 - What eligibility requirements must an LEA meet to apply for an emergency grant under the first...

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What eligibility requirements must an LEA meet to apply for an emergency grant under the first priority? 222.177 Section 222.177 Education Regulations of the... the Act Eligibility § 222.177 What eligibility requirements must an LEA meet to apply for an...

  5. Radon ((222)Rn) concentration in indoor air near the coal mining area of Nui Beo, North of Vietnam.

    Nhan, Dang Duc; Fernando, Carvalho P; Thu Ha, Nguyen Thi; Long, Nguyen Quang; Thuan, Dao Dinh; Fonseca, Heloisa

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of radioactive radon gas ((222)Rn) were measured using passive monitors based on LR115 solid state track detectors during June-July 2010 in indoor air of dwellings in the Nui Beo coal mining area, mostly in Cam Pha and Ha Long coastal towns, Quang Ninh province, in the North of Vietnam. Global results of (222)Rn concentrations indoors varied from ≤6 to 145 Bq m(-3) averaging 46 ± 26 Bq m(-3) (n = 37), with a median value of 47 Bq m(-3). This was similar to outdoor (222)Rn concentrations in the region, averaging 43 ± 19 Bq m(-3) (n = 10), with a median value of 44 Bq m(-3). Indoor (222)Rn concentrations in the coastal town dwellings only were in average lower although not significantly different from indoor (222)Rn concentrations measured at the coal storage field near the harbor, 67 ± 4 Bq m(-3) (n = 3). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the average (222)Rn concentration in indoor air measured in the coastal towns region and those at the touristic Tuan Chau Island located about 45 km south of the coal mine, in the Ha Long Bay. The indoor (222)Rn concentration in a floating house at the Bai Tu Long Bay, and assumed as the best estimate of the baseline (222)Rn in surface air, was 27 ± 3 Bq m(-3) (n = 3). Indoor average concentration of (222)Rn in dwellings at the Ha Noi city, inland and outside the coal mining area, was determined at 30 Bq m(-3). These results suggest that (222)Rn exhalation from the ground at the Nui Beo coal mining area may have contributed to generally increase (222)Rn concentration in the surface air of that region up to 1.7 times above the baseline value measured at the Bai Tu Long Bay and Ha Noi. The average indoor concentration of (222)Rn in Cam Pha-Ha Long area is about one-third of the value of the so-called Action Level set up by the US EPA of 148 Bq m(-3). Results suggest that there is no significant public health risk from (222)Rn exposure in the study region. PMID

  6. Radon (222Rn) concentration in indoor air near the coal mining area of Nui Beo, North of Vietnam

    Concentrations of radioactive radon gas (222Rn) were measured using passive monitors based on LR115 solid state track detectors during June-July 2010 in indoor air of dwellings in the Nui Beo coal mining area, mostly in Cam Pha and Ha long coastal towns, Quang Ninh province, in the north of Vietnam. Global results of 222Rn concentrations indoors varied from ≤6 to 145 Bq m-3, averaging 46 ± 26 Bq m-3 (n = 37), with a median value of 47 Bq m-3. This was similar to outdoor 222Rn concentrations in the region, averaging 43 ± 19 Bq m-3 (n = 10), with a median value of 44 Bq m-3. Indoor 222Rn concentrations in the coastal town dwellings only were in average lower although not significantly different from indoor 222Rn concentrations measured at the coal storage field near the harbor, 67 ± 4 Bq m-3 (n = 3). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the average 222Rn concentration in indoor air measured in the coastal towns region and those at the tourist Tuan Chau Island located about 45 km south of the coal mine, in the Ha Long Bay. The indoor 222Rn concentration in a floating house at the Bai Tu Long Bay, and assumed as the best estimate of the baseline 222Rn in surface air, was 27 ± 3 Bq m-3 (n = 3). Indoor average concentration of 222Rn in dwellings at the Ha Noi city, inland and outside the coal mining area, was determined at 30 Bq m-3. These results suggest that 222Rn exhalation from the ground at the Nui Beo coal mining area may have contributed to generally increase 222Rn concentration in the surface air of that region up to 1.7 times above the baseline value measured at the Bai Tu Long Bay and Ha Noi. The average indoor concentration of 222Rn in Cam Pha-Ha Long area is about one-third of the value of the so-called Action Level set up by the US EPA of 148 Bq m-3. Results suggest that there is no significant public health risk from 222Rn exposure in the study region. (author)

  7. 222Rn activity in groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, eastern Canada: relation with local geology and health hazard

    One hundred ninety-eight groundwater wells were sampled to measure the 222Rn activity in the region between Montreal and Quebec City, eastern Canada. The aim of this study was to relate the spatial distribution of 222Rn activity to the geology and the hydrogeology of the study area and to estimate the potential health risks associated with 222Rn in the most populated area of the Province of Quebec. Most of the groundwater samples show low 222Rn activities with a median value of 8.6 Bq/L. Ninety percent of samples show 222Rn activity lower than 100 Bq/L, the exposure limit in groundwater recommended by the World Health Organization. A few higher 222Rn activities (up to 310 Bq/L) have been measured in wells from the Appalachian Mountains and from the magmatic intrusion of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, known for its high level of indoor radon. The spatial distribution of 222Rn activity seems to be related mainly to lithology differences between U-richer metasediments of the Appalachian Mountains and magmatic intrusions and the carbonaceous silty shales of the St. Lawrence Platform. Radon is slightly enriched in sodium-chlorine waters that evolved at contact with clay-rich formations. 226Ra, the parent element of 222Rn could be easily adsorbed on clays, creating a favorable environment for the production and release of 222Rn into groundwater. The contribution of groundwater radon to indoor radon or by ingestion is minimal except for specific areas near Mont-Saint-Hilaire or in the Appalachian Mountains where this contribution could reach 45% of the total radioactive annual dose. - Highlights: • 222Rn measured in 198 groundwater wells between Montreal and Quebec City. • First extensive radon survey in the most populated area of Quebec. • Groundwater shows low 222Rn activity, except a few anomalies. • Regional distribution of 222Rn activity related to the geology of the aquifers. • 222Rn in groundwater could locally increase the received dose by ingestion

  8. Design and construction of a system for determining Radon-222 through Alpha spectroscopy; Diseno y construccion de un sistema para determinar Radon-222 mediante Espectroscopia alfa

    Bonifacio, J.; Iturbe, J.L

    1992-02-15

    The study of the present work consists on designing a system to measure gas {sup 222} Rn, using a surface barrier detector, in order to obtaining a more accuracy measure of this isotope by means of an alpha particle spectra and thus to try to avoid the influence of the radioactivity of the isotope descendants of short half life, which are also emitting of alpha particles, since by other methods its should make a series of corrections to obtain the real value of the radon activity. (Author)

  9. The Distribution Characteristics of 222Rn and 220Rn Concentrations in Soil Gas In Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, China

    A mapping survey of 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in soil gas was conducted for the first time using a RAD7 portable radon monitor at 67 locations across an area of 1800 km2 in Zhongshan City (ZSC), Guangdong Province. It was found that 222Rn concentrations increased with increasing depth, whereas 220Rn concentrations were almost unchanged at different depths. The sites with high 222Rn values were located mainly in granite outcrops, while those with low values were located in a sedimentary region. The distribution patterns of 220Rn coincide with the patterns of activity concentration of 232Th in soil. (author)

  10. Synthesis and Transformations of di-endo-3-Aminobicyclo-[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Márta Palkó

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available all-endo-3-amino-5-hydroxybicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid (13 and all-endo-5-amino-6-(hydroxymethylbicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ol (10 were prepared via dihydro-1,3-oxazine or g-lactone intermediates by the stereoselective functionalization of an N-protected derivative of endo-3-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylic acid (2. Ring closure of b-amino ester 4 resulted in tricyclic pyrimidinones 15 and 16. The structures, stereochemistry and relative configurations of the synthesized compounds were determined by IR and NMR.

  11. Radon (222Rn) concentration in indoor air near the coal mining area of Nui Beo, North of Vietnam

    Concentrations of radioactive radon gas (222Rn) were measured using passive monitors based on LR115 solid state track detectors during June–July 2010 in indoor air of dwellings in the Nui Beo coal mining area, mostly in Cam Pha and Ha Long coastal towns, Quang Ninh province, in the North of Vietnam. Global results of 222Rn concentrations indoors varied from ≤6 to 145 Bq m−3 averaging 46 ± 26 Bq m−3 (n = 37), with a median value of 47 Bq m−3. This was similar to outdoor 222Rn concentrations in the region, averaging 43 ± 19 Bq m−3 (n = 10), with a median value of 44 Bq m−3. Indoor 222Rn concentrations in the coastal town dwellings only were in average lower although not significantly different from indoor 222Rn concentrations measured at the coal storage field near the harbor, 67 ± 4 Bq m−3 (n = 3). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the average 222Rn concentration in indoor air measured in the coastal towns region and those at the touristic Tuan Chau Island located about 45 km south of the coal mine, in the Ha Long Bay. The indoor 222Rn concentration in a floating house at the Bai Tu Long Bay, and assumed as the best estimate of the baseline 222Rn in surface air, was 27 ± 3 Bq m−3 (n = 3). Indoor average concentration of 222Rn in dwellings at the Ha Noi city, inland and outside the coal mining area, was determined at 30 Bq m−3. These results suggest that 222Rn exhalation from the ground at the Nui Beo coal mining area may have contributed to generally increase 222Rn concentration in the surface air of that region up to 1.7 times above the baseline value measured at the Bai Tu Long Bay and Ha Noi. The average indoor concentration of 222Rn in Cam Pha–Ha Long area is about one-third of the value of the so-called Action Level set up by the US EPA of 148 Bq m−3. Results suggest that there is no significant public health risk from 222Rn exposure in the study region. - Highlights: ► 222Rn in indoor and outdoor air was

  12. 222Rn behavior at the latera geothermal field (Northern Latium, Italy)

    Permanent probes to sample soil gases were placed at the Latera geothermal field, located in the Volsini Mts., Latium, Italy. Due to high uranium concentrations in the area's alkali-potassic volcanics outcropping, quite high 222Rn values, ranging from 9,260 up to 753,000 Bq/m3, were found. The highest radon activities match tectonic structures such as fractures and faults, and a deep high structure which consitutes the geothermal reservoir. These high radon values also conform to a major amount of 4He and CO2. The latter gases are enriched in the gaseous phase of the geothermal fluids, and their migration is also controlled by structural features. This suggests that the enrichment of 222Rn in the soil gases, can be linked to a direct contribution of 226Ra, carried by deep-seated fluids from the reservoir itself. (author) 17 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Metformin inhibits lung cancer cells proliferation through repressing microRNA-222.

    Wang, Yuqi; Dai, Weimin; Chu, Xiangyang; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Ming; Sun, Yu'e

    2013-12-01

    Metformin, which is commonly used as an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent of the biguanide family, may reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis. However, the mechanism by which metformin affects various cancers, including lung cancer, remains unknown. MiR-222 induces cell growth and cell cycle progression via direct targeting of p27, p57 and PTEN in cancer cells. In the present study, we used A549 and NCI-H358 human lung cancer cell lines to study the effects and mechanisms of metformin. Metformin treatment reduced expression of miR-222 in these cells (p metformin. Therefore, these data provide novel evidence for a mechanism that may contribute to the anti-neoplastic effects of metformin suggested by recent population studies and justifying further work to explore potential roles for it in lung cancer treatment. PMID:23974492

  14. Full range determination of 222Rn at the watershed scale by liquid scintillation counting

    222Rn has been increasingly used to identify groundwater contribution to surface water. Particular attention has been paid to analytical protocols and counting parameters used for liquid alpha scintillation measurements over a range of activities covering river and groundwater domains. Direct measurements and Rn-extraction protocols are optimized, and scintillometer efficiency is calibrated using international standards over the 0.5–35 Bq/L range. The interval of activities was performed in surface water and groundwater from a small Canadian watershed. - Highlights: ► Several analytical tests were developed to optimize protocols for 222Rn measurements in water. ► Two analytical procedures, direct and extraction methods were found in order to guarantee a 0.5–35 Bq/L range of measurement. ► A specific test has been conducted to evidence that both methods are well calibrated. ► Those protocols have been tested on water from a small Canadian watershed

  15. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    1999-01-01

    rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete,autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 m Bq h"-"1 kg "-"1. Under consideration of the......This report describes a closed-chamber method for laboratory measurements of the rate at which radon-222 degasses (exhales) from small building material samples. The chamber is 55 L in volume and the main sample geometry is a slab of dimensions 5x30x30cm"3 . Numerical modelling is used to assess...... specific applications of the investigated building materials, the contribution to the indoor radon-222concentration in a single-family reference house is calculated. Numerical modelling is used to help extrapolate the laboratory measurements on small samples to full scale walls. Application of typical...

  16. Relationship of 220Rn and 222Rn progeny levels in Canadian underground U mines

    Radon-222 and 220Rn progeny are found in some Canadian underground U mines. Because both can contribute to lung dose, their experimental determinations are important. The relationship between 222Rn progeny Working Level [WL(Rn)] and 220Rn progeny Working Level [WL(Tn)] has been investigated in U mines. Experimental measurements extended from 1981 to 1986 and consisted of about 700 measurements of each WL(Rn) and WL(Tn). The data were analyzed by standard linear and power-function regression analysis. A power-function relationship between WL(Rn) and WL(Tn) seemed to fit the experimental data best. The relationship obtained permits the calculation of WL(Tn) from experimental values of WL(Rn). The relationship is useful for lung-dose-calculation purposes and in mine-ventilation-engineering calculations

  17. Design and construction of a system to determine Radon-222 through alpha spectroscopy

    The purpose of this work consists in the design a radon-222 gas measurement system utilizing a surface barrier detector with the objective to obtain a more accurate measurement for this isotope through an alpha particle spectrum and so to address as to avoid the activity influence of the descendants of short half-life, which are too beta particles emitters, already other methods it must be correction series to obtain the real value of radon activity. Here are presented the general properties properties of radon, the experimental part description indicating the design to measure the radon-222 gas and its parts, as well as too the standard separation of radium-226 starting from carnotite mineral. Finally, it is presented the results obtained with a discussion about it. (Author) results obtained with a discussion about it. (Author)

  18. 222Rn and stable nuclides as natural tracers in an artificial recharge system

    Radon and stable nuclides were used as a tracer of groundwater/surface water interaction study in a artificial groundwater recharge system near Nakdong river in Korea. The 222Rn concentration at the observation well groundwater was decreased. The activity variation of each monitoring wells during short and long term experiment were 6.5-12.4 Bq/L at OBS-1, 3.8-6.8 Bq/L at OBS-2, 30.9-55.9 Bq/L at OBS-3, 5.9-25.5 Bq/L at OBS-4, 22.1-34.6 Bq/L at OBS-5 and 7.1-28.3 Bq/L at OBS-6. The 222Rn concentration of OBS-1 and 5 were decrease about 35 % but OBS-6 was increased. (author)

  19. Determination of 222Rn concentrations in Lithuanian spa waters by liquid scintillation counting

    Characterisation of 222Rn concentrations in Lithuanian spa waters and comparison of the measured radon concentrations in spa waters with those in ground waters with a small content of mineral salts and in waters from private wells were the objectives of this study. The measurements were performed in 34 spa water sources in four different places of Lithuania using the liquid scintillation method with a Packard Liquid Scintillation Analyser Tri-Carb 2770 TR/SL and the Packard BioScience cocktail. Techniques of 222Rn extraction from water samples with a high mineralization to toluene in order to exclude precipitation in a mixture with organic scintillation cocktail are discussed. Results of comparison of the two methods - liquid scintillation counting and that using E-PERMS(R) system electrets - are also presented. (author)

  20. Detection of Solar Rotational Variability in the LYRA 190 - 222 nm Spectral Band

    Shapiro, A. V.; Shapiro, A. I.; Dominique, M.; Dammasch, I. E.; Wehrli, C.; Rozanov, E.; Schmutz, W.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the variability of the spectral solar irradiance during the period from 7 January, 2010 until 20 January, 2010 as measured by the Herzberg channel (190-222 nm) of the Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) onboard PROBA2. In this period of time observations by the LYRA nominal unit experienced degradation and the signal produced by the Herzberg channel frequently jumped from one level to another. Both these factors significantly complicates the analysis. We present the algorithm which allow...

  1. Fate of 2,2,2-trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate) produced during trichloroethylene oxidation by methanotrophs.

    Newman, L M; Wackett, L P

    1991-01-01

    Four different methanotrophs expressing soluble methane monooxygenase produced 2,2,2-trichloroacetaldehyde, or chloral hydrate, a controlled substance, during the oxidation of trichloroethylene. Chloral hydrate concentrations decreased in these cultures between 1 h and 24 h of incubation. Chloral hydrate was shown to be biologically transformed to trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. At elevated pH and temperature, chloral hydrate readily decomposed an...

  2. Rhodium(I) catalyzed [2+2+2] cycloaddition reactions: experimental and theoretical studies

    Dachs Soler, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The [2+2+2] cycloaddition reaction involves the formation of three carbon-carbon bonds in one single step using alkynes, alkenes, nitriles, carbonyls and other unsaturated reagents as reactants. This is one of the most elegant methods for the construction of polycyclic aromatic compounds and heteroaromatic, which have important academic and industrial uses. The thesis is divided into ten chapters including six related publications. The first study based on the Wilkinson’s catalyst, RhCl(PPh3)...

  3. Fungal Origins of the Bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane Ring System of Prenylated Indole Alkaloids

    Finefield, Jennifer M.; Frisvad, Jens C.; Sherman, David H.;

    2012-01-01

    Over eight different families of natural products consisting of nearly 70 secondary metabolites that contain the bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane ring system have been isolated from various Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Malbranchea species. Since 1968, these secondary metabolites have been the focus of...... ring system. Furthermore, the diverse fungal origin of these natural products is closely examined and, in many cases, updated to reflect the currently accepted fungal taxonomy....

  4. Investigation of radon-222 in subsurface waters as an earthquake predictor

    Changes of radon-222 content of well waters in seismically active regions may provide earthquake precursor signals, according to reports of recent Chinese and Russian work. A high-precision γ-ray system for continuous monitoring of radon in wells and springs has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where monitoring began in April 1975, and has been extended to other sites including the San Andreas fault zone

  5. Measurements of 222Rn and220Rn with a large size collector of radon progeny

    People have paid more attention to radon since 1980s. Radon concentrations in high background radiation areas in the south are higher than others in China, especially 220 Rn concentration is significantly high. Therefore, measurement of 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentration should be carried out there. I will introduce a large size collector of radon progeny and its applications in this paper. The collector is a sheet of polyvinyl chloride fibre with electrostatics of -500V ∼ -700V. Its size (60mm in diameter) is larger than others (26mm in diameter) that work as the same principle. The collector is more effective to adsorb radon progeny than most of others. The equipment of ZnS(Ag) Scintillation Counting System is available for large size collectors to detect radon progeny. Therefore its sensitivity of measurement is high than others. According to the different half life of radon progeny and based on both theory and experiment, a formula for discrimination and calculation of 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations was deduced. The 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations were surveyed with electrostatic collectors of radon progeny on the campus of commercial school and some other areas in Hainan, southern China. Neither 222 Rn nor 220 Rn concentrations were found significant high. However several faults underground were delineated. The collector is also used to study radon transportation. Results indicate that radon changes regularly with date when it has transported for a certain distance. Velocities of radon migration in the four media are quite different. Radon migrates more quickly in vertical tube than in the horizontal tube

  6. Measurements of indoor 222RN activity in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba (Brazil)

    Corrêa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Del Claro, Flávia; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F. N.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy

    2014-11-01

    The present work describes the results of systematic measurements of radon (222Rn) in residential environments and workplaces in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba (Paraná State, Brazil) during the period 2004-2012. For radon in air activity measurements, polycarbonate Track Etch Detectors CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers protected by borosilicate glass fiber filters, were used. After being exposed in air, the CR-39 detectors were submitted to a chemical etching in a 6.25 M NaOH solution at 70 °C for 14 h. The alpha particle tracks were identified and manually counted with an optical microscope, and with the results of previously performed calibrations, the indoor activity concentration of 222Rn was calculated. The calibration of CR-39 and the alpha particle tracks chemical development procedures were performed in collaboration the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan). The major part of indoor 222Rn concentration in residences was found to be below 100 Bq/m3. In the case of working places, all measurements of 222Rn concentrations were below 100 Bq/m3. These values are considered within the limits set by international regulatory agencies, such as the US EPA and ICRP, which adopt up to 148 and 300 Bq/m3 as upper values for the reference levels for radon gas activity in dwellings, respectively. The latest value of 300 Bq/m3 for radon activity in air is proposed by ICRP considering the upper value for the individual dose reference level for radon exposure of 10 mSv/yr.

  7. [2+2+2] cycloaddition reactions involving allenes catalysed by rhodium

    Haraburda, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    The development of new chemical processes for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds is an important topic in organic chemistry. In particular, the transition metal catalysed [2+2+2] cycloaddition reaction is a highly efficient synthetic tool that allows six-membered polysubstituted carbo- and heterocyclic derivatives to be obtained in an atom economy process. Allenes are versatile substrates for cycloaddition reactions that provide a good reactivity profile together with the ability to increas...

  8. Indoor 222Rn and 220Rn variations as an evidence for Boyle's law

    The 222Rn and 220Rn levels were measured for Bangalore Metropolitan, India was focused on various types of houses with respect to ventilation characteristics. Dimension of room was taken into account to correlate the air rate the virtue of number of windows and ventilation openings. Integrated and long-term measurements of radon were carried out in the dwellings using twin cup dosimeters with Solid State Nuclear Track Detector. Result shows that the concentration exponentially with the increase in room volume. (author)

  9. Measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn with a Large Size Collector of Radon Progeny

    Wu Qifan; Jia Wenyi; Fang Fang; Wang Jun; Cheng Jianping; Liu Guilin; Zhu Li

    2003-01-01

    Radon concentrations in high background radiation areas in the south are higher than those of others in China, especially 220Rn concentration is significantly high. Therefore, measurements of 222Rn and 220 Rn concentrations should be carried out there. This paper introduces a large size collector of radon progeny and its applications. The collector is a sheet of polyvinyl chloride fiber with electrostatics of (-500 V) - ( -700 V). Its size (60 mm in diameter) is larger than those of others (26 mm in diameter) that work with the same principle. The collector is more effective to adsorb radon progeny than most of others. The equipment of ZnS(Ag) Scintillation Counting System is available for large size collectors to detect radon progeny. Therefore, its sensitivity of measurement is higher than that of others.According to the different half lives of radon progeny, and based on both theory and experiments, a formula for discrimination and calculation of 222 Rn and 220Rn concentrations is deduced. The 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations were surveyed with electrostatic collectors of radon progeny on the campus of com-mercial school and some other areas in Hainan, southern China. Neither 222Rn nor 220Rn concentration was found significantly high. However, several faults underground were delineated. The collector is also used to study radon transportation. Results indicate that radon changes regularly with date when it has transported for a certain distance. Velocities of radon migration in the four media are quite different.Radon migrates more quickly in vertical tube than in the horizontal tube.

  10. 77 FR 29682 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Central Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 216/222

    2012-05-18

    ... Availability (NOA) of a Record of Decision (ROD) on a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS... Area (CPA) Lease Sale 216/222 Authority: This NOA is published pursuant to the regulations (40 CFR...

  11. Investigation of natural levels of radon-222 in groundwater in Maine for assessment of related health effects

    We have used an inexpensive radon (222Rn) measurement method using liquid scintillation counting to remeasure potable water from 10 sites near Raymond, Maine, to determine the accuracy and reproducibility of earlier measurements. Duplication or triplication of samples shows a high degree of reproducibility for the liquid scintillation method. A hypothesis emerged from analysis of the measured values of 222Rn near Raymond, Maine, that high values (50,000 to 200,000 pCi/liter) are associated with granite. This was shown to be correct for several large areas of granite such as the Sebago, Lucern, Waldo, and Waldoboro granites. The presence of high 222Rn concentrations in granite areas hundreds of kilometers from the Raymond area shows that the high 222Rn levels in water are a statewide and perhaps a regional problem rather than a western Maine problem

  12. Design and construction of a cryogenic facility providing absolute measurements of radon 222 activity for developing a primary standard

    Radon 222 metrology is required to obtain higher accuracy in assessing human health risks from exposure to natural radiation. This paper describes the development of a cryogenic facility that allows absolute measurements of radon 222 in order to obtain a primary standard. The method selected is the condensation of a radon 222 sample on a geometrically defined cold surface with a constant, well known and adjustable temperature and facing an alpha particles detector. Counting of the alpha particles reaching the detector and the precisely known detection geometry provide an absolute measurement of the source activity. After describing the cryogenic facility, the measurement accuracy and precision are discussed and a comparison made with other measurement systems. The relative uncertainty is below 1 pc (1 σ). The facility can also be used to improve our knowledge of the nuclear properties of radon 222 and to produce secondary standards. (author)

  13. Environmental effects on 222Rn fluence rate from reclaimed uranium mill tailings

    The author measured 222Rn fluence rate from 2 plots with uranium mill tailings buried beneath 30 cm of overburden and 30 cm of topsoil. An additional 30 cm of clay covered the tailings on 1 of the plots and each plot was subdivided into bare soil and vegetated subplots. The author also measured a control plot, identical to the plot without a clay cap but having no tailings. In addition to fluence rate, The author measured moisture in each of the plot layers, atmospheric pressure, air temperature and relative humidity during each sampling period. The author used linear correlation, two-way ANOVA and stepwise multiple regression to analyze the effects of the plot characteristics and the environmental variables on 222Rn fluence rate. The mean fluence rate from the plot having both a clay cap and a vegetated surface was over 3 times that of the vegetated plot without a clay cap and 14 times that of the bare plot with a clay cap. The interaction effect may be due to the proliferation of roots in the moist clay and active transport of dissolved 222Rn to the surface in water

  14. 222Rn Measurements at Federal University of Technology (UTFPR, Curitiba, PR, Brazil)

    Corrêa, Janine Nicolosi; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Fior, Loriane; Schelin, Hugo R.; da Silva, Ruben D. Flores; Pöttker, Fabiana; de Paula Melo, Vicente

    2008-08-01

    Numerous studies and reports indicate that the indoor radon inhalation by humans has to be considered as the main source of radiological hazard and probably the second most important cause of lung cancer after that of smoking. During the last decades, many countries have put considerable efforts into direct measurements and monitoring of 222Rn and its progeny exposure, as well as 222Rn concentration mapping. Present measurements were performed with an aim to study possible correlation between used construction materials and 222Rn indoor concentration levels. For this purpose, 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor as well as outdoor) during two months (June and July) within the central region of Curitiba and Campo Largo (Parana St., Brazil). Since this period of the year is usually rather cold in the South of Brazil, exposition time was chosen to prevent possible saturation of alpha tracks. The second step of measurements was performed during the months of November, December and January, when 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor and outdoor) within the same urban area. Achieved results are being compared with other experimental data.

  15. 222Rn Measurements at Federal University of Technology (UTFPR, Curitiba, PR, Brazil)

    Numerous studies and reports indicate that the indoor radon inhalation by humans has to be considered as the main source of radiological hazard and probably the second most important cause of lung cancer after that of smoking. During the last decades, many countries have put considerable efforts into direct measurements and monitoring of 222Rn and its progeny exposure, as well as 222Rn concentration mapping. Present measurements were performed with an aim to study possible correlation between used construction materials and 222Rn indoor concentration levels. For this purpose, 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor as well as outdoor) during two months (June and July) within the central region of Curitiba and Campo Largo (Parana St., Brazil). Since this period of the year is usually rather cold in the South of Brazil, exposition time was chosen to prevent possible saturation of alpha tracks. The second step of measurements was performed during the months of November, December and January, when 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor and outdoor) within the same urban area. Achieved results are being compared with other experimental data

  16. Simultaneous determination of Rn-220 and Rn-222 concentrations in atmospheres by cellulose nitrate ionographic detectors

    A method for the indoor determination of airborne radon and radon daughters is described, based in the utilization of cellulose nitrate (CN) ionographic detectors (LR-115-Kodak-Pathe) These track-etching detectors are coupled to an air sample and to a difusion chamber respectively. In the first system ambient air is pulled through a fiber glass filter for collection of airborne radon daughters (Flow: 230 ml/min). In the second system, the cellulose nitrate detectors is coupled/min). In the second system, the cellulose nitrate detectors is coupled to a difusion chamber electrostatic precipitator arrangement. Here the CN detector will register only the alpha particles given off by the decay products of Rn-222 formed within the sensitive volume of electrostatic precipitator. The construction of calibration curves for the two systems using adequate steady-state concentrations of Rn-220 and Rn-222 in an exposure chamber (1 cubic meter), will allow the use of the system for measurement of measurement of averaged integrated radon concentrations. The CN attached to the CN attached to the air sampler is exposed in the reference atmosphere with and without a mylar filter for discrimination of alpha particles with different energies Field sampling indicated however, that efficiency of the two systems are still low for the measurement of environmental levels of Rn-220 and Rn-222 within houses of the AENR, recommendations for efficienty improvement of the system are proposed

  17. Determination of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater - Recent applications for the investigation of river bank infiltration

    Freyer, K.; Treutler, H.C. [Leipzig-Halle Ltd, Permoserstr, Leipzig (Germany). Centre for Environmental Research; Dehnert, J.; Nestler, W. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft Dresrden, Dresden (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    With a half life of 3.8 days, the {sup 222}Rn found in all groundwater makes an excellent tracer for solving several problems in the field of environmental research and hydrology. In Germany alluvial aquifers connected to rivers are used for drinking water extraction. Consequently importance is attached to studying the exchange processes between surface water and groundwater in order to determine infiltration velocities and infiltrate retention times in the aquifer. However, such investigations require a reliable, reproducible method for determining radon activity concentrations in groundwater samples, as well as a suitable sampling technique. This paper reports on just such a method, containing detailed instructions for sampling, transportation and activity determination using liquid scintillation spectrometry following toluene extraction. Spectral analysis and {alpha}/{beta} separation improve the accuracy of measurement. The detection limit is about 0.05 Bq/1; the total error is <{+-}10%. Infiltration processes are studied with {sup 222}Rn by employing the effect that surface water infiltrating an aquifer absorbs {sup 222}Rn along the infiltration pathway. As the degree of uptake is a function of the retention time, flow paths and flow velocities can all be determined by measuring the radon activity concentrations at the various groundwater gauging stations along measuring profiles. Corresponding investigations were carried out into a pleistocene aquifer below the River Elbe near a waterworks extracting bank-filtered water. The findings are presented and the technique`s possibilities and limitations are discussed 12 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, northern peninsular Malaysia.

    Muhammad, B G; Jaafar, M S; Azhar, A R; Akpa, T C

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of (222)Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l(-1), 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l(-1) and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l(-1) in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l(-1). From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of (222)Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from (222)Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y(-1), for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively. PMID:21642647

  19. Occurrence of 222Rn in irrigation water from Wadi Al-Rummah Qassim province, Saudi Arabia

    El-Taher, Atef; Alashrah, Saleh

    2015-08-01

    Naturally accruing radioactive materials in the environment have received attention since they may be present in high level and pose risk to human health. The present work deals with measuring of 222Rn in irrigation water samples from Wadi Al-Rummah, Qassim province, in central of Saudi Arabia. 222Rn concentrations were measured by RAD7. It was found that the concentration of 222Rn ranged from 2.1 ± 1.2 to 7.2 ± 1.5 BqL-1. These values are below 11.1 BqL-1 the maximum contamination level recommended from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The calculated annual effective dose (AED) ranging from 7.5 to 26.1 µSv/y. It was evident that the total annual effective dose resulting from radon in irrigation groundwater in Wadi Al-Rummah in Qassim area were significantly lower than the recommended limit 1 mSv/y for the public.

  20. Use of 222Rn-resistant techniques in new home construction

    The objective of this project was to assess the status of the use of 222Rn-resistant construction techniques in new home construction in the eight Zone 1 counties of North Carolina. Zone 1 counties have an average predicted indoor 222Rn screening potential greater than 148 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1). To facilitate a response from builders, a brief survey form was designed and printed on the back of a self-addressed, postage-paid postcard. This survey form was mailed to 460 home builders in the Zone 1 counties. The response rate was 17%, which can be compared to the 4.9% response rate obtained in a national survey conducted by the National Association of Home Builders Research Center. In their survey, 62% of the responding builders reported that they had built some or many homes in 1996 using construction techniques to reduce the entry of radon into homes, but only 10% of the builders reported using these techniques for many homes. The National Association of Home Builders survey determined that, nationally, 30% of homes built in Zone 1 counties had 222Rn venting features. There is the potential for bias in the results of their survey (as well as in the results of the National Association of Home Builders survey) since the response rates were low

  1. Prediction of 222 Rn exhalation rates from phosphogypsum based stacks. Part II: preliminary numerical results

    The first part of this paper proposes a steady-state 2-D model for 222 Rn transport in phosphogypsum stacks. In this second part, the dimensionless model equations are solved numerically with the help of an existing finite-volume simulator that has been successfully used to solve heat and mass transfer problems in porous media. As a test case, a rectangular shaped stack is considered in order to verify the ability of the proposed parametric approach to account for concurrent effects on the 222 Rn exhalation into the local atmosphere. Air flow is supposed to be strictly buoyancy driven and the ground is assumed to be impermeable to 222 Rn and at a higher temperature under the stack base. Dimensionless controlling parameters are set to representative values and results are presented for Grashof number in the range 106 ≤Gr≤ 108, corresponding to very small to small temperature differences between incoming air and ground underneath the stack base. For the particular set of parameters and inasmuch as Gr increases, streamlines presented basically the same pattern while internal isotherms and iso concentration lines remained almost unchanged. Total average Sherwood number proved to be rather insensitive to Gr while total average Nusselt increased slightly with Gr. (author)

  2. Radon-222 measurements aboard an airplane for the description of atmospheric diffusion

    Radon-222 is absorbed aboard an airplane in tubes filled with 50 g of selected charcoal and cooked in Dewars by carbon dioxide and freon. After air collection at different heights up to 5 km, the tubes are evacuated and heated in the laboratory for desorption of the gas molecules and for transfer into a decay chamber covered with zinc-sulfide serving as a scintillator for the detection of alpha activity from radon-222 and its daughters. In general, the measurements show an exponential decrease of the concentration up to 5 km in height, if there is no cloud layer. The height for a reduction by a factor of two is about 900 meters. Assuming a constant diffusion coefficient K0 up to 5 km, the measurements yield a K0 of approximately 3.7 x 104 cm2s-1. For flights in stratiform clouds a decrease is observed of the concentration up to a certain height, then radon-222 is again increasing or remains constant. This must be explained with respect to the meteorological situation. Assuming only a constant value for K0 between the different flying heights, it was possible to appraise the development of the eddy diffusion coefficient with height

  3. Determination of 222Rn in groundwater - Recent applications for the investigation of river bank infiltration

    With a half life of 3.8 days, the 222Rn found in all groundwater makes an excellent tracer for solving several problems in the field of environmental research and hydrology. In Germany alluvial aquifers connected to rivers are used for drinking water extraction. Consequently importance is attached to studying the exchange processes between surface water and groundwater in order to determine infiltration velocities and infiltrate retention times in the aquifer. However, such investigations require a reliable, reproducible method for determining radon activity concentrations in groundwater samples, as well as a suitable sampling technique. This paper reports on just such a method, containing detailed instructions for sampling, transportation and activity determination using liquid scintillation spectrometry following toluene extraction. Spectral analysis and α/β separation improve the accuracy of measurement. The detection limit is about 0.05 Bq/1; the total error is 222Rn by employing the effect that surface water infiltrating an aquifer absorbs 222Rn along the infiltration pathway. As the degree of uptake is a function of the retention time, flow paths and flow velocities can all be determined by measuring the radon activity concentrations at the various groundwater gauging stations along measuring profiles. Corresponding investigations were carried out into a pleistocene aquifer below the River Elbe near a waterworks extracting bank-filtered water. The findings are presented and the technique's possibilities and limitations are discussed

  4. Measurements of soil and canopy exchange rates in the Amazon rain forest using Rn-222

    Trumbore, S. E.; Keller, M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Da Costa, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements were taken of the emission of Rn-222 from Amazon forest rocks and soils and used as a tracer of ventilation of the forest canopy layer at night. It was determined that the greatest resistance to transfer of trace gases from the soil to the atmosphere lies in the soil air space. Profiles of Rn-222 and CO2 showed steepest concentration gradients in the layer between 0 and 3 m above soil surface. Aerodynamic resistances calculated for this layer from Rn-222 and CO2 varied from 1.6 to 18 s/cm, with greater resistance during the afternoon than at night. The resistance to exchange with air from the entire 41 m layer below the canopy averaged 4.8 s/cm during 13 nights of CO2 profiles. The calculated average time to flush the layer below 41 m is 5.5 hr, and it is concluded that this indicates that significant exchange occurs despite nocturnal stratification.

  5. Measurements of the radon-222 concentration in residences of Lima - Peru

    The measurement of the Radon-222 levels was realized in the first semester of 2013 in residences corresponding to 16 districts of the metropolitan area of Lima, including to the zones North, Center and South of the city, during one period of 3 to 6 months in continuous form, with measurement periods of 1 to 2 months. The houses where the measurements were made were selected considering diverse variables as antiquity, construction materials, coatings, soil type, occupational use of the monitored rooms, etc. The measurements were realized in basements, first and second floor of the residences. For the Radon-222 measurements passive detectors of cellulose nitrate (Lr-115) were used. The procedure of data collection, dosimeters reading and the measurement results are shown in this work; this monitoring is the first one that is carried out in this city. The results are only indicators of the present radon rate, by the detectors type not is possible to discriminate the presence of the Radon-222 descendants. (Author)

  6. Indoor 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations and doses in Bangalore, India

    222Rn and 220Rn levels have been measured using passive detector technique by employing time integrated solid-state nuclear track detector-based dosemeters in various types of houses at 10 different locations in and around Bangalore Metropolitan, India. The measured geometric mean concentration values of 222Rn and 220Rn levels in 200 dwellings of different types of construction were found to be 32.2±1.6 and 21.4±1.0 Bq m-3, respectively. The dose rate received by the population of Bangalore ranged between 0.2 and 3.5 mSv y-1 with an average and the geometric mean of 1.14±0.05 and 1.06 mSv y-1, respectively. Overall, the result does not show much significant radiological risk for the inhabitants and the 222Rn levels are well within the limits of global average concentration of 40 Bq m-3. However, the 220Rn levels observed were found to be higher than the global average of 10 Bq m-3. (authors)

  7. A process-based 222radon flux map for Europe and its comparison to long-term observations

    Karstens, U.; Schwingshackl, C.; Schmithüsen, D.; Levin, I.

    2015-11-01

    Detailed 222radon (222Rn) flux maps are an essential pre-requisite for the use of radon in atmospheric transport studies. Here we present a high-resolution 222Rn flux map for Europe, based on a parameterization of 222Rn production and transport in the soil. The 222Rn exhalation rate is parameterized based on soil properties, uranium content, and modelled soil moisture from two different land-surface reanalysis data sets. Spatial variations in exhalation rates are primarily determined by the uranium content of the soil, but also influenced by soil texture and local water-table depth. Temporal variations are related to soil moisture variations as the molecular diffusion in the unsaturated soil zone depends on available air-filled pore space. The implemented diffusion parameterization was tested against campaign-based 222Rn soil profile measurements. Monthly 222Rn exhalation rates from European soils were calculated with a nominal spatial resolution of 0.083° × 0.083° and compared to long-term direct measurements of 222Rn exhalation rates in different areas of Europe. The two realizations of the 222Rn flux map, based on the different soil moisture data sets, both realistically reproduce the observed seasonality in the fluxes but yield considerable differences for absolute flux values. The mean 222Rn flux from soils in Europe is estimated to be 10 mBq m-2 s-1 (ERA-Interim/Land soil moisture) or 15 mBq m-2 s-1 (GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) Noah soil moisture) for the period 2006-2010. The corresponding seasonal variations with low fluxes in winter and high fluxes in summer range in the two realizations from ca. 7 to ca. 14 mBq m-2 s-1 and from ca. 11 to ca. 20 mBq m-2 s-1, respectively. These systematic differences highlight the importance of realistic soil moisture data for a reliable estimation of 222Rn exhalation rates. Comparison with observations suggests that the flux estimates based on the GLDAS Noah soil moisture model on average better

  8. miR-222 is Necessary for Exercise-induced Cardiac Growth and Protects Against Pathological Cardiac Remodeling

    Liu, Xiaojun; Xiao, Junjie; Zhu, Han; Wei, Xin; Platt, Colin; Damilano, Federico; Xiao, Chunyang; Bezzerides, Vassilios; Boström, Pontus; Che, Lin; Zhang, Chunxiang; Spiegelman, Bruce M.; Rosenzweig, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Exercise induces physiological cardiac growth and protects the heart against pathological remodeling. Recent work suggests exercise also enhances the heart’s capacity for repair, which could be important for regenerative therapies. While microRNAs are important in certain cardiac pathologies, less is known about their functional roles in exercise-induced cardiac phenotypes. We profiled cardiac microRNA expression in two distinct models of exercise and found microRNA-222 (miR-222) was upregula...

  9. Primary investigation and study on 222Rn and 220Rn levels of underground coal mines in China

    From Dec. of 2002 to Aug. of 2004, by using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs), the 222Rn concentrations of 8 underground coal mines, i.e., Beijing Shijiaying, Beijing Fangshanchengguan, Shanxi Gujiaoxiqu, Shanxi Taiyuan Wangfang, Hunan Baifang, Hunan Songbai, Guizhou Honglin and Zhejiang Anrenjinjiang, Respectively, had been measured during a period of 12 months (once a three-month). The surveyed data showed that the annual average 222Rn concentrations (with number of measuring points) are 550(69), 3187(28), 45(224), 117(72), 88(79), 79(58), 40(72) and 136(116) Bq/m3, respectively. The 222Rn concentrations of underground coal mines vary with ventilation condition, geological structure and other factors, and the 222Rn concentration in the mine with bad ventilation is generally high, and varies with seasons i.e., higher in summer and autumn and lower in winter. The 222Rn concentration in mines with good ventilation is generally low and no notable variation with the season. These are also some characters of 222Rn levels in Chinese coal mines, such as the 222Rn concentrations in state-run coal mines are general low, but those in Beijing area are very high, and those in Zhejiang rock coal mines are not so high as expected, etc., the possible reasons have been discussed in the paper. The 220Rn levels of 4 coal mines in Beijing and Hunan were also measured, the ratios of alpha potential energy concentration of 220Rn daughters to that of 222Rn daughters are between 0.036 and 0.42. (authors)

  10. Determination of 222Rn in water samples from wells and springs in Tokyo by a modified integral counting method

    222Rn in 2L-water samples was extracted with 30 mL toluene, and 21 mL of the toluene solution was transferred into a liquid scintillation vial, in which PPO - 2,5-diphenyloxazole was placed in advance. The total activity of 222Rn in the water sample was calculated based on the Ostwald's coefficient of solubilities of 222Rn in toluene and water at the temperature of the sample water and the volume of water and toluene. About 40% of 222Rn dissolved in 2L-water sample can be collected. After allowing to stand for 3.5 h, the equilibrium mixture of 222Rn and its daughters was measured with an Aloka liquid scintillation spectrometer using a modified integral counting method which extrapolates the integral counting curve not to the zero pulse-height, but to the zero detection threshold, an average energy required to produce a measurable pulse, of the liquid scintillation spectrometer. The general method which agitates water sample (usually about 10 mL) with a liquid scintillation cocktail is practical when the activity of 222Rn is high. By adding 10 mL of water sample, however, it is possible also to add variable amounts of quencher. In some cases water sample is preserved with nitric acid. The slope of the integral counting rate curve increases as quench level of the sample increases. Therefore, it is clear that the modified integral counting method gives more accurate 222Rn concentrations for water samples of strong quench than the conventional integral counting method. 222Rn sample of 0.2 Bq/L can be determined within an overall uncertainty of 3.1%

  11. Numerical simulation of {sup 222}RN exhalation from phosphogypsum building blocks and accumulation inside a closed chamber

    Rabi Junior, Jose A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos]. E-mail: jrabi@fzea.usp.br; Silva, Nivaldo C. da [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)]|[Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio]. E-mail: ncsilva@pucpcaldas.br; ncsilva@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    Zero-order models for {sup 222}Rn exhalation from phosphogypsum-bearing building materials and its transient indoor accumulation assume uniform distribution inside the enclosure. Conversely, this paper numerically simulates a transient two-dimensional {sup 222}Rn accumulation in a test chamber that contains a phosphogypsum board at one wall. Results show that above hypothesis might be oversimplified when spatial dependence is considered. (author)

  12. MicroRNA-222 Controls Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line Capan-2 Proliferation by P57 Targeting

    Zhao, Yingying; Wang, Yuqiong; Yang, Yuefeng; Liu, Jingqi; Song, Yang; Cao, Yan; Chen, Xiaoyu; Yang, Wenzhuo; Wang, Fei; Gao, Jun; Li, Zhaoshen; Yang, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most common cancers and has a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis and ineffective therapeutic multimodality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are a group of non-coding, small RNAs with active biological activities. In our investigation, human pancreatic cancer cell line Capan-2 were transfected with miR-222 mimics, inhibitors or their negative controls. Cell proliferation was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), EdU incorporation assay and cell cycle determination by flow cytometry. MiR-222 and putative target gene expression levels including p27, p57 and PTEN were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions and Western blotting. Our results showed that miR-222 could lead to increased vitality and proliferative rate of Capan-2 cells, and also higher S-phase and lower G1-phase of cell cycle. Further, we found p57 at protein level, but not p27 nor PTEN, was regulated by miR-222 in Capan-2 cells. Finally, we co-transfected miR-222 inhibitor and p57 si-RNA into Capan-2 cells, and found that proliferation-suppressing effects of miR-222 inhibitor on Capan-2 cells could be partially reversed by silencing p57. Our results indicate that miR-222 controls Capan-2 cell proliferation by targeting p57. This study provides a novel idea for developing effective therapeutic strategy for PC patients through inhibiting miR-222. PMID:26535064

  13. The Inhibition of the Highly Expressed Mir-221 and Mir-222 Impairs the Growth of Prostate Carcinoma Xenografts in Mice

    Mercatelli, Neri; Coppola, Valeria; Bonci, Desirée; Miele, Francesca; Costantini, Arianna; Guadagnoli, Marco; Bonanno, Elena; Muto, Giovanni; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; De Maria, Ruggero; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Farace, Maria Giulia; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna

    2008-01-01

    Background MiR-221 and miR-222 are two highly homologous microRNAs whose upregulation has been recently described in several types of human tumors, for some of which their oncogenic role was explained by the discovery of their target p27, a key cell cycle regulator. We previously showed this regulatory relationship in prostate carcinoma cell lines in vitro, underlying the role of miR-221/222 as inducers of proliferation and tumorigenicity. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a number of in vivo approaches confirming our previous data. The ectopic overexpression of miR-221 is able, per se, to confer a high growth advantage to LNCaP-derived tumors in SCID mice. Consistently, the anti-miR-221/222 antagomir treatment of established subcutaneous tumors derived from the highly aggressive PC3 cell line, naturally expressing high levels of miR-221/222, reduces tumor growth by increasing intratumoral p27 amount; this effect is long lasting, as it is detectable as long as 25 days after the treatment. Furthermore, we provide evidence in favour of a clinical relevance of the role of miR-221/222 in prostate carcinoma, by showing their general upregulation in patient-derived primary cell lines, where we find a significant inverse correlation with p27 expression. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that modulating miR-221/222 levels may have a therapeutic potential in prostate carcinoma. PMID:19107213

  14. Estimation of the radiological risk related to the presence of radon 222 in a hydrotherapy centre of Tunisia

    The 222Rn concentration in air was measured in a thermal water spa used as a hydrotherapy centre in Tunisia. The associated health risk for employees and patients due to the inhalation of 222Rn and its progeny was estimated. A protection scheme for the employees of the spas has been designed. Results show that the 222Rn concentration varies in the range [33-589] Bq.m-3. The 222Rn concentrations measured in the present study show lower values in comparison to those reported for the thermal spas of other countries. The 222Rn concentration in different rooms of the spa depends mainly on the ventilation rate. A model based on dosimetric approach was adopted to estimate radon risk considering the 222Rn concentration, the time spent in the spa, and the radioactive equilibrium factor F. The annual effective dose was found varying between 0.2 and 1.7 mSv for workers while the range for patients was from 2.8 10-4 to 110 10-4 mSv. These values are within the ICRP recommended value. (author)

  15. Estimation of the radiological risk related to the presence of radon 222 in a hydrotherapy centre in Tunisia

    The 222Rn concentration in air was measured in a thermal water spa used as a hydrotherapy centre in Tunisia. The associated health risk for employees and patients due to the inhalation of 222Rn and its progeny was estimated. A protection scheme for the employees of the spas has been designed. Results show that the 222Rn concentration varies in the range 33-589 Bq m-3. The 222Rn concentrations measured in the present study show lower values in comparison to those reported for thermal spas in other countries. The 222Rn concentration in different rooms of the spa depends mainly on the ventilation rate. A model based on a dosimetric approach was adopted to estimate the radon risk considering the 222Rn concentration, the time spent in the spa, and the radioactive equilibrium factor F. The annual effective dose was found to vary between 0.2 and 1.7 mSv for workers while the range for patients was from 2.8 x 10-4 to 1.1 x 10-4 mSv. These values are within the ICRP recommended values. (note)

  16. Estimation of the radiological risk related to the presence of radon 222 in a hydrotherapy centre in Tunisia

    Labidi, S [Institut Superieur des Technologies Medicales de Tunis (Tunisia); Essafi, F [Faculte de Medecine de Tunis, Section de Biophysique, Tunis (Tunisia); Mahjoubi, H [Institut Superieur des Technologies Medicales de Tunis (Tunisia)

    2006-09-15

    The {sup 222}Rn concentration in air was measured in a thermal water spa used as a hydrotherapy centre in Tunisia. The associated health risk for employees and patients due to the inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its progeny was estimated. A protection scheme for the employees of the spas has been designed. Results show that the {sup 222}Rn concentration varies in the range 33-589 Bq m{sup -3}. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations measured in the present study show lower values in comparison to those reported for thermal spas in other countries. The {sup 222}Rn concentration in different rooms of the spa depends mainly on the ventilation rate. A model based on a dosimetric approach was adopted to estimate the radon risk considering the {sup 222}Rn concentration, the time spent in the spa, and the radioactive equilibrium factor F. The annual effective dose was found to vary between 0.2 and 1.7 mSv for workers while the range for patients was from 2.8 x 10{sup -4} to 1.1 x 10{sup -4} mSv. These values are within the ICRP recommended values. (note)

  17. Estimated average annual radon-222 concentrations around the former uranium mill site in Shiprock, New Mexico. Final technical note

    Uranium mills, as a part of the nuclear fuel cycle, produce large volumes of wastes which contain both the long and short-lived radionuclides from the naturally-occurring uranium decay chain. A relatively short-lived member of the chain, radon-222, is a noble gas and can diffuse from the wastes and be transported from its point of origin by prevailing winds. The airborne radon-222 decays into other short-lived radioactive progeny which may result in human inhalation exposures at considerable distances from the point of origin. Since the parent of radon-222 has a half-life of 1620 years, exposure to radon and its progeny will persist for thousands of years. This study was made to estimate the annual average radon-222 concentrations around the former Shiprock, New Mexico uranium mill site in order to identify areas which may require limited or restricted occupancy and to evaluate the effectiveness of the site decontamination activities in reducing the ambient airborne radon-222 concentrations. Using on- and off-site meteorological data and radon source term estimations, average annual radon-222 isoconcentration lines were determined by computer modeling for the mill site area. The lines were determined for both pre- and post-decontamination periods

  18. Dissolved 222Rn concentration in water samples of a natural hot water spa of Puttur, coastal Karnataka

    Hot water springs or spas are very common in Himalayan region of India and the water samples of these spas are studied extensively for the activity concentrations of 222Rn and other radionuclides. It is also reported that water of some of these spas show significantly higher concentration of 222Rn. It is rare to find hot water spas in southern India. One of the natural hot water spas is situated near Puttur, about 60 km from the west coast city of Mangalore. This paper presents the results of gamma radiation level measurements around the spa and the 222Rn concentration in water. The gamma radiation levels were measured using GM tube based gamma survey meter and the absorbed dose rate was in the range 53-70 nGyh-1. Soil samples from the region were analyzed for 226Ra concentration by gamma spectrometry method using a HPGe detector and the concentration was found to vary in the range 32.1-48.1 Bq.kg-1. The 222Rn concentration in water was measured by emanometry method. The 222Rn concentration in spa water was found to be in the range be 0.68-1.57 Bq.L-1. The 222Rn concentration observed in water sample of spa was comparable to those observed for open well water. The results of these studies are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  19. Polish national inter calibrations of measurement methods of 222Rn concentration in waters

    This paper presents the results of intercalibration exercises to measure 222Rn concentrations in water samples. In total, 11 laboratories from many Polish research and commercial institutions took part in the above-mentioned exercises. Seven of them participated in 3 intercalibration exercises organized in 2001-2003. In 2001 and 2002, the intercalibration measurements were carried out in the Sudety Mountains (at the Szczawno Zdroj and Swieradow Zdroj health resorts, respectively). During these two experiments, water samples were taken from mineral springs, considered medicinal in Poland. They are characterized by an increased CO2 concentration (0.53-2.54 g/L), as well as different values of total dissolved solids (0.15-3.82 g/L) and radon concentrations (10-1170 Bq/L), and other distinct differences in chemical composition and physical properties. In 2003, experimental measurements were carried out in water samples prepared in the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection in Warsaw. The samples were produced by the aeration of a 10 L container filled with tap water with air enriched by 222Rn coming from a PylonTM source comprising 502.5 kBq of 226Ra. During all the intercalibration exercises, the concentration of 222Rn in 7 water samples (2, 3 and 2 in 2001, 2002 and 2003, respectively) was determined. Special care was taken to ensure the same conditions of collecting water samples for each participant. The laboratories participating in the experiments applied different techniques to determine the concentration of 222Rn in the water samples: a liquid scintillation method, gamma detectors, Lucas cells and ionization chambers. The results confirmed that keeping the containers with water samples closed tightly from the moment of collecting until the measurement was of great importance. It happened twice, in different laboratories, that a leakage in the measurement set-up (in the AlphaGUARDTM + AquaKITTM system) resulted in underestimates of 222Rn concentration

  20. Investigation and analysis on seasonal variations of indoor 222Rn and 220Rn concentration in Longdong district, Gansu Province

    Objective: To study the seasonal variation of indoor 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in Longdong district, Gansu Province. Methods: A total of 44 houses from 5 different types of raw soil architectures and 5 ordinary brick houses from a typical area were selected in Longdong district, Gansu Province in China. The LD-P discriminative 222Rn and 220Rn detectors were used to measure the indoor concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn during four seasons in one year. Results: The indoor concentrations of 222Rn showed a significant seasonal variation,which varied with different types of houses. 222Rn concentrations of ordinary brick houses, soil brick houses and the cave dwellings were higher in winter and autumn and lower in summer. The average concentrations of 222Rn were 55.3-90.3 Bq/m3 in winter,36.4-65.7 Bq/m3 in spring, 35.6-63.9 Bq/m3 in summer, and 60.7-87.2 Bq/m3 in autumn. For cave dwellings,open-cut cave dwellings and the underground cave dwellings, 222Rn concentrations were higher in summer and autumn, and lower in winter and spring. The average concentrations of 222Rn ranged from 139-184 Bq/m3 in winter,135-199 Bq/m3 in spring, 179-252 Bq/m3 in summer,172-242 Bq/m3 in autumn. The seasonal variation of indoor 220Rn was basically consistent in six types of houses, and lower in winter and spring and highest in autumn. The average concentrations of 220Rn ranged from 43.4-64.3 Bq/m3 in winter, 60.6-537 Bq/m3 in spring, 77.7-792 Bq/m3 in summer, 63.2-1077 Bq/m3 in autumn. The indoor concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn were different among different types of houses, and they were generally higher in type of raw soft architectures than in that of ordinary brick houses. Conclusions: 222Rn concentrations indoors showed a significant seasonal variation and varied with different types of houses. (authors)

  1. Advance research on microRNA-221,microRNA-222 and malignant tumor%microRNA-221和microRNA-222与恶性肿瘤的研究进展

    张春智; 康春生; 浦佩玉

    2009-01-01

    It has become clear that particular microRNAs(miRNAs) function either as tumor suppres-sors or oncogenes, whose loss or overexpression, respectively, has diagnostic and prognostic significance.Mi-croRNA-221 and microRNA-222 are a cluster microRNAs of oncogenes.They are overexpressed in some malig-nant tumors, including glioblstoma, prostate carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and so on.By regulating particular target mRNAs, microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 perform pro- oneogenie role.p27kip1 and p57kip2 are target genes of microRNA-221 and mieroRNA-222.MicroRNA-221 and microRNA-222 promote oncogensis and tumor grow by down-regulating p27kip1 and p57kip2 expression.%微RNA(micmRNA)-221和microRNA-222是成簇的microRNA,在恶性肿瘤中起促癌作用,在胶质母细胞瘤、前列腺癌、乳头状甲状腺癌等恶性肿瘤中高表达.microRNA-221和microRNA-222通过调控其特定的靶基因行使促癌作用.在所有预测的靶基因中,p27kip1和p57kip2是已被验证的靶基因,microRNA-221和microRNA-222通过下调p27kip1和p57kip2的表达来促进肿瘤的形成和生长.

  2. Radon-222 in urban atmosphere: assessing the local fluxes of CO2 and CH4

    Full text: Radon-222 is an inert, alpha-emitting radioactive gas with the half-life of 3.8 days. It is a product of decay of 226Ra which belongs to 238U-decay series. Uranium-238 and its decay product 226Ra are ubiquitous in the upper erth's crust and in the soils. Radon-222 which is being released into the pore space of soils, diffuses into the atmosphere where it decays to lead 210Pb. The release rate of 222Rn is controlled by source term (226Ra content in the soil and its vertical distribution) and by physical properties of the upper soil layer (mineral structure, porosity, water content). It depends also on the position of groundwater table and fluctuations of atmospheric pressure. Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 constitute an important component of the carbon budget, both on global and regional scales. For heavily industrialized and populated areas such as western and central Europe, a large proportion of the total CO2 flux entering the atmosphere is attributed to burning of fossil fuels. Also CH4 has important anthropogenic sources (leakages of gas networks, landfills, cows, etc.). Global and regional models of carbon cycle rely mainly on emission statistics to quantify the magnitude and variability of anthropogenic CO2 and CH4 fluxes into the atmosphere. Direct measurements of those fluxes, particularly in urban environment, are very difficult. Therefore, alternative ways of assessing their magnitude and variability are needed. Krakow (50o04'N, 19o55'E, 220 m a.s.l.) is a large urban agglomeration located in the southern Poland, with about 1 million inhabitants, rapidly growing car traffic and significant industrial activities. Consumption of coal, gas and oil for communal and transport purposes generates major fluxes of anthropogenic CO2 within the region. Leakages of old-fashioned city gas network constitute an important source of CH4 in the area. In addition, due to prevailing westerly air circulation, the Krakow region is

  3. Controls on 222Rn variations in a fractured crystalline rock aquifer evaluated using aquifer tests and geophysical logging

    Concentrations of 222Rn in ground water may vary considerably within megascopically homogeneous rocks over relatively short distances. Calculations indicate that different hydraulic apertures of water-bearing fractures may account for variations in dissolved 222Rn concentration measured in domestic water wells completed in fractured Pikes Peak Granite, assuming that all other factors influencing dissolved 222Rn concentrations are constant. Concentrations of dissolved 222Rn range from 124 to 840 kBq/m3 [3,360 to 22,700 picocuries/liter] within a 2.5 km2 well field. Aquifer tests show that transmissivities range from 0.072 to 160 m2/day within the well field. Acoustic televiewer and heat-pulse flow meter logging of four wells reveals that, despite tens to hundreds of fractures that intersect each well, a single fracture supplies all the flow to three wells, and one fracture provides 65% of the flow to the fourth well. Type-curve interpretation of early-time data from aquifer tests reveals classic half-slope behavior on log-log plots of drawdown versus time for two wells, suggesting linear flow to a single fracture. Drawdown versus time for the other two wells indicates radial or pseudo-radial flow, which suggests a higher degree of fracture interconnectivity near those boreholes. Hydraulic apertures calculated using the cubic law are 0.024 and 0.038 cm for producing fractures in the first hydraulically connected well pair and 0.011 and 0.020 cm for flowing fractures in the second well pair. Assuming uniform distribution of 226Ra along fracture walls and long residence time of water relative to 222Rn decay, the ratio of fracture apertures should equal the inverse ratio of 222Rn concentration in each well. Differences in 222Rn concentration between wells in the hydraulically connected pairs can be attributed solely to differences in hydraulic aperture

  4. Efficacy of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 as an anesthetic agent for blocking sensory-motor responses in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Carlana Ramlochansingh

    Full Text Available Anesthetics are drugs that reversibly relieve pain, decrease body movements and suppress neuronal activity. Most drugs only cover one of these effects; for instance, analgesics relieve pain but fail to block primary fiber responses to noxious stimuli. Alternately, paralytic drugs block synaptic transmission at neuromuscular junctions, thereby effectively paralyzing skeletal muscles. Thus, both analgesics and paralytics each accomplish one effect, but fail to singularly account for all three. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 is structurally similar to benzocaine, a typical anesthetic for anamniote vertebrates, but contains a sulfate moiety rendering this drug more hydrophilic. MS-222 is used as anesthetic in poikilothermic animals such as fish and amphibians. However, it is often argued that MS-222 is only a hypnotic drug and its ability to block neural activity has been questioned. This prompted us to evaluate the potency and dynamics of MS-222-induced effects on neuronal firing of sensory and motor nerves alongside a defined motor behavior in semi-intact in vitro preparations of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Electrophysiological recordings of extraocular motor discharge and both spontaneous and evoked mechanosensory nerve activity were measured before, during and after administration of MS-222, then compared to benzocaine and a known paralytic, pancuronium. Both MS-222 and benzocaine, but not pancuronium caused a dose-dependent, reversible blockade of extraocular motor and sensory nerve activity. These results indicate that MS-222 as benzocaine blocks the activity of both sensory and motor nerves compatible with the mechanistic action of effective anesthetics, indicating that both caine-derivates are effective as single-drug anesthetics for surgical interventions in anamniotes.

  5. Development of an atmospheric {sup 222}Rn concentration model using a hydrodynamic meteorological model: II. Three-dimensional research-purpose model

    Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a new type of three-dimensional numerical model for {sup 222}Rn transport in an atmospheric boundary layer. The model is a combination of a prognostic hydrodynamic meteorological model including a turbulence closure model and an atmospheric diffusion model for {sup 222}Rn. The first part provides the second part with the meteorological conditions needed for calculations of the {sup 222}Rn transport and diffusion. The model is capable of giving consideration to horizontal source distribution, complex terrain, and non-uniform nd non-steady atmosphere. The model`s results were compared with {sup 222}Rn concentration in nocturnal drainage flows. The model was also applied to the transport of {sup 222}Rn in a seacoast are. These results indicated that the model could be effective as a research tool for numerical analysis of {sup 222}Rn behavior under various atmospheric conditions. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Alpha radioactivity monitoring related to Radon-222 in water from wells in metropolitan area of Curitiba (PR), Brazil; Monitoramento da radioatividade alfa relacionada ao radonio-222 em aguas de pocos da regiao metropolitana de Curitiba (PR)

    Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Paschuk, Sergei Anatolyevich; Kappke, Jaqueline; Claro, Flavia Del; Perna, Allan Felipe Nunes; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy; Schelin, Hugo Reuters [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (IPPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita Oliveira [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    This research objective was to assess the level of randon-222 concentration in well water of the metropolitan region of Curitiba, Parana. Current work presents the results of indoor {sup 222}Rn activity ground water samples from artesian wells from aquifers of the region. The studies of radon activity in water were performed using the radon detector AlphaGUARD. The calculations of initial radon activity in water were done considering the {sup 222}Rn decay correction as well as equilibrium level of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra observed after 30 days of measurements. Obtained results show that about 70% of measured activity levels of {sup 222}Rn are higher than the recommended value of 11.1 Bq.L{sup -1}, which represent the risk for the human health associated with this radionuclide. The case study showed that previous measurements of radon are recommended for a construction project is implemented. In this case, it is observed that the radon concentrations decrease about 56% in the first water tank and 83% in the second water tank over the well. This fact shows that the actions for mitigation of radon are viable and do not require major modifications to the usual systems of construction. (author)

  7. Modeling study of gaseous Rn-222, Xe-133, and He-4 for uranium exploration

    Jeter, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    This work presents one-dimensional mathematical models to simulate the transport of gaseous radon-222 (Rn-222), xenon-133 (Xe-133), and helium-4 (He-4) away from uranium ore deposits. The resulting concentrations of indicator nuclides in the overburden are used to infer the detectability of ore deposits by emanation methods. In the case of homogeneous, non-radioactive formations, Rn-222 and some of its daughter products are calculated to be detectable at distances of several tens of meters from a planar uranium ore deposit (1 m tickness, 0.6% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, 20% emanation). Models of He-4 diffuson in rock yield highly uncertain results because measurements of diffusion coefficients in actual rock types are lacking and because the flux of helium from deep within the earth is generally unknown. Comparisons of model results to field data suggest that He-4 diffusion coefficients of 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2//sec are appropriate. It is speculated that moisture in the rock column could reduce the coefficient significantly compared to the dry-soil case. Inhomogeneity in rock formations is simulated by a multiple-layer model. A comparison of fluorometric uranium data to gamma spectra measurements suggests the migration and deposition of Ra-226 near the water table. Modeling results are improved when this process is taken into account. A constant soil gas velocity of 1 x 10/sup -4/ cm/sec causes indicator concentrations to change by several orders of magnitude. If steady upward soil gas motion exists in nature, the detectability of uranium ore by emanation methods will be significantly different from that indicated by pure diffusion models. Barometric influences on gas transport are simulated by time-dependent numerical models.

  8. Using 222Rn as a tracer of geodynamical processes in underground environments

    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, were measured and analyzed, with the aim to assess the potential use of this radioactive noble gas as a tracer of geological processes in underground environments. La Carolina gold mine and Los Cóndores tungsten mine are today used as tourism mines. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose. Measurements were performed during both winter and summer seasons. The findings show that in these environments, significant radon concentrations are subject to large seasonal fluctuations, due to the strong dependence on natural ventilation with the outside temperature variations. For both mines, higher concentration values of 222Rn were observed in summer than in winter; with an extreme ratio of 2.5 times between summer and winter seasons for Los Cóndores mine. The pattern of radon transport inside La Carolina mine revealed, contrary to what was believed, that this mine behaves as a system with two entrances located at different levels. However, this feature can only be observed in the winter season, when there is a marked difference between the inside and outside temperatures of the mine. In the case of Los Cóndores mine, the radon concentration pattern distribution is principally established by air current due to chimney-effect in summer and winter seasons. In both cases, the analyses of radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents, and then localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments. - Highlights: • 222Rn levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina • CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose • higher concentration values of 222Rn were observed in summer than in winter • radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents • it localizes unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments

  9. Exhalation velocity of radon-222 of Dutch building materials and the influence of paint systems

    In order to achieve a better insight concerning the source terms of radon in the Dutch dwelling in the framework of the RENA-programme an investigation has been performed into the exhalation velocity of radon-222 from building materials. From this investigation it turned out that the ventilation factor does not have any influence upon the exhalation velocity, neither an influence of alteration of air pressure could be demonstrated. The influence of air humidity upon the exhalation velocity showed a twofold picture; for gypsum a linear increase of the exhalation velocity with vapour pressure was found, while for concrete a linear decrease with vapour pressure was observed. Further it has been investigated in how far paint systems diminish the exhalation velocity of the Rn-222 from gypsum and concrete. Acryl paints, mostly used in the Dutch dwelling, did not show a decrease of the exhalation velocity and structure paints did even cause an increase of the exhalation velocity. Other types of paint based on chlorous rubber, epoxy resins and poly-urethane, in contrast, showed a clear reduction. From these those based on poly-urethane showed the largest reduction (60-75%) at a double sided treatment of the wall. With the help of a mathematical modelling of the exhalation estimations have been made of the exhalation velocity of Rn-222 at single sided treatment of a wall and for the exhalation velocity of Rn-220. For the fore mentioned poly-urethane-paints this yelds, at an estimate, a reduction of respectively 90-95% and 100%. (author). 40 refs.; 15 figs.; 8 tabs

  10. 222Rn, 220Rn and other dissolved gases in mineral waters of southeast Brazil

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity due to 222Rn and 220Rn in mineral waters occurring at São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, Brazil, that are extensively used for drinking in public places, bottling and bathing purposes, among other. The measurements of these alpha-emitting radionuclides were also accompanied by the monitoring of temperature and some dissolved gases (O2, CO2 and H2S) in 75 water sources located in 14 municipalities of those states. Eight water sources yielded 220Rn activity concentration values below the detection limit of 4 mBq/L. On other hand, 222Rn activity concentration values exceeding the WHO guidance level of 100 Bq/L in drinking-water for public water supplies were found in two springs, named Villela and Dona Beja, whose discharge occurs in areas characterized by the presence of enhanced levels of natural radioelements in rocks. The obtained results were compared with the guidelines of the Brazilian Code of Mineral Waters (BCMW) that was established in 1945 and is still in force in the country. The 222Rn and 220Rn activity concentration data allowed perform dose radiation calculations based on the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), whose implications for health risk have been also considered in this paper. - Highlights: • First thoron data in mineral waters occurring in well-known Brazilian spas. • Integration of thoron and radon data with those of others dissolved gases in mineral waters. • Comparison of the acquired data with the guidelines of the Brazilian Code of Mineral Waters. • Comparison of the radiation dose due to radon and thoron in the mineral waters

  11. Modeling study of gaseous Rn-222, Xe-133, and He-4 for uranium exploration

    This work presents one-dimensional mathematical models to simulate the transport of gaseous radon-222 (Rn-222), xenon-133 (Xe-133), and helium-4 (He-4) away from uranium ore deposits. The resulting concentrations of indicator nuclides in the overburden are used to infer the detectability of ore deposits by emanation methods. In the case of homogeneous, non-radioactive formations, Rn-222 and some of its daughter products are calculated to be detectable at distances of several tens of meters from a planar uranium ore deposit (1 m tickness, 0.6% U3O8, 20% emanation). Models of He-4 diffuson in rock yield highly uncertain results because measurements of diffusion coefficients in actual rock types are lacking and because the flux of helium from deep within the earth is generally unknown. Comparisons of model results to field data suggest that He-4 diffusion coefficients of 10-4 to 10-5 cm2/sec are appropriate. It is speculated that moisture in the rock column could reduce the coefficient significantly compared to the dry-soil case. Inhomogeneity in rock formations is simulated by a multiple-layer model. A comparison of fluorometric uranium data to gamma spectra measurements suggests the migration and deposition of Ra-226 near the water table. Modeling results are improved when this process is taken into account. A constant soil gas velocity of 1 x 10-4 cm/sec causes indicator concentrations to change by several orders of magnitude. If steady upward soil gas motion exists in nature, the detectability of uranium ore by emanation methods will be significantly different from that indicated by pure diffusion models. Barometric influences on gas transport are simulated by time-dependent numerical models

  12. Using {sup 222}Rn as a tracer of geodynamical processes in underground environments

    Valladares, D.L. [GEA, Instituto de Matemática Aplicada San Luis (IMASL), Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); Silva, A.A.R. da [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O.Box 66318, 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Serviço Especializado em Engenharia de Segurança e Medicina do Trabalho, Departamento de Saúde, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua da Reitoria, 109, 05508-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lacerda, T. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n" o, Gragoatá, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n" o, Gragoatá, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Rosas, J.P. de [GEA, Instituto de Matemática Aplicada San Luis (IMASL), Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); Tognelli, G. [Departamento de Geología, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-01

    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, were measured and analyzed, with the aim to assess the potential use of this radioactive noble gas as a tracer of geological processes in underground environments. La Carolina gold mine and Los Cóndores tungsten mine are today used as tourism mines. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose. Measurements were performed during both winter and summer seasons. The findings show that in these environments, significant radon concentrations are subject to large seasonal fluctuations, due to the strong dependence on natural ventilation with the outside temperature variations. For both mines, higher concentration values of {sup 222}Rn were observed in summer than in winter; with an extreme ratio of 2.5 times between summer and winter seasons for Los Cóndores mine. The pattern of radon transport inside La Carolina mine revealed, contrary to what was believed, that this mine behaves as a system with two entrances located at different levels. However, this feature can only be observed in the winter season, when there is a marked difference between the inside and outside temperatures of the mine. In the case of Los Cóndores mine, the radon concentration pattern distribution is principally established by air current due to chimney-effect in summer and winter seasons. In both cases, the analyses of radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents, and then localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments. - Highlights: • {sup 222}Rn levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina • CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose • higher concentration values of {sup 222}Rn were observed in summer than in winter • radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents • it localizes unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments.

  13. Analyses of atmospheric radon 222 / canisters exposed by Greenpeace in Niger (Arlit / Akokan sector)

    The companies SOMAIR and COMINAK, subsidiaries of the AREVA group, are mining uranium deposits in northern Niger. In the course of a field mission carried out in November 2009, a Greenpeace International team deposited detectors (canisters of activated charcoal) to measure radon 222, a radioactive gas formed by the decay of the radium 226 present in the uranium ore. This report includes the results of the analysis of the activated charcoal canisters conducted in CRIIRAD's laboratory, and a brief commentary on the interpretation of the results. (authors)

  14. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YLR222C, YNR041C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Full Text Available YLR222C UTP13 Nucleolar protein, component of the small subunit (SSU) processome containing the ... bait (1) Rows with this bait as prey (0) YNR041C COQ 2 Para hydroxybenzoate: polyprenyl transferase, cat ... alyzes the second step in ubiq uinone (coenzyme Q ) biosynthesis Rows with this pre ... bait as prey (0) Prey ORF YNR041C Prey gene name COQ 2 Prey description Para hydroxybenzoate: polyprenyl ... transferase, catalyzes the second step in ubiq uinone (coenzyme Q ) biosynthesis Rows with this pre ...

  15. Investigations on the Formation of 4-Aminobicyclo[2.2.2]-octanones

    Robert Weis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Benzylidene acetone reacts with thiocyanates derived from secondary amines in a one-pot reaction to give 4-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ones. The reaction mixture was investigated for the presence of possible intermediates using GC-MS. These intermediates – diketones and enamines – were prepared and exposed to the same reaction conditions to examine the reaction mechanism. The reaction of ethyl styryl ketone with thiocyanates of secondary amines yielded cyclohexanone derivatives instead of the expected bicyclo- octanones. Their structures were established by means of a single crystal structure analysis.

  16. 222 Rn determination and physicochemical characteristic and biological in aquifers in the Toluca Valley

    Concentration levels of 222 Rn and 226 Rn have been analyzed in water samples from boreholes belonging to the drinking water supply system around Toluca, Mexico. The 222 Rn source is the decay of 226 Rn within the solid matrix of the aquifer. The study was performed during the dry and rainy seasons. 222 Rn concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation technique, 226 Rn was determined by gamma spectrometry, the physicochemical parameters and bacteriological analysis were performed by conventional chemical techniques. Solubilized trace elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (Icp-Ms). The radon level fluctuations at the boreholes in Toluca city and Almoloya spring indicated differences in the radon content. At borehole Lodos Prietos 2, the temperature and radon level were systematically the highest in comparison with the other boreholes and the spring indicating a contribution of a regional flow to the water of this particular borehole. The result for 226 Rn, the average 222 Rn observed during the sampling period, no correspondence occurs between the radium and the radon content indicating that, radon is not supported by radium, but is incorporated into the water through fissures in the rocks in contact with the water. The radon levels obtained in house faucets which water is supplied by boreholes decrease as a function of the distance from the source borehole to the house. With the chemical composition of each one of the studied boreholes and spring a Piper diagram was draw indicating the kind of water. The boreholes and spring can be classified as bicarbonate calcium/magnesium. Almost no fluctuation on time was observed in the chemical species and trace elements only a slight increase was observed at the end of the rain season. At Almoloya, spring pollution with coliform bacteria and nitrates showed an anthropogenic contribution to the water deterioration probable and fertilizers and detritus. Most of the studied water

  17. Design and construction of a system for determining Radon-222 through Alpha spectroscopy

    The study of the present work consists on designing a system to measure gas 222 Rn, using a surface barrier detector, in order to obtaining a more accuracy measure of this isotope by means of an alpha particle spectra and thus to try to avoid the influence of the radioactivity of the isotope descendants of short half life, which are also emitting of alpha particles, since by other methods its should make a series of corrections to obtain the real value of the radon activity. (Author)

  18. Detection of Solar Rotational Variability in the Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) 190 - 222 nm Spectral Band

    Shapiro, A. V.; Shapiro, A. I.; Dominique, M.; Dammasch, I. E.; Wehrli, C.; Rozanov, E.; Schmutz, W.

    2013-08-01

    We analyze the variability of the spectral solar irradiance during the period from 7 January 2010 until 20 January 2010 as measured by the Herzberg channel (190 - 222 nm) of the Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) onboard PROBA2. In this period of time, observations by the LYRA nominal unit experienced degradation and the signal produced by the Herzberg channel frequently jumped from one level to another. Both factors significantly complicate the analysis. We present the algorithm that allowed us to extract the solar variability from the LYRA data and compare the results with SORCE/SOLSTICE measurements and with modeling based on the Code for the Solar Irradiance (COSI).

  19. Detection of Solar Rotational Variability in the LYRA 190 - 222 nm Spectral Band

    Shapiro, A V; Dominique, M; Dammasch, I E; Wehrli, C; Rozanov, E; Schmutz, W

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the variability of the spectral solar irradiance during the period from 7 January, 2010 until 20 January, 2010 as measured by the Herzberg channel (190-222 nm) of the Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) onboard PROBA2. In this period of time observations by the LYRA nominal unit experienced degradation and the signal produced by the Herzberg channel frequently jumped from one level to another. Both these factors significantly complicates the analysis. We present the algorithm which allowed us to extract the solar variability from the LYRA data and compare the results with SORCE/SOLSTICE measurements and with modeling based on the Code for the Solar Irradiance (COSI).

  20. Evolution of 222 Rn and chemical species related with eruptive processes of the Popocatepetl volcano

    The 222 Rn monitoring in the Popocatepetl volcano was initiated on 1993. At December 21, 1994 it is initiated an eruptive stage in the volcano with gas emission, ashes and the lava dome formation on the crater at middle 1996. During all this time it has been determined radon concentrations on soils with active and passive detectors. In this work the changes in radon contents are reported also the physicochemical parameters in spring water related with the volcanic building associated to the recent activity of the volcano. (Author)

  1. Reflection matrices with $U_q[osp^{(2)}(2|2m)]$ symmetry

    Vieira, R S

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report and classify the reflection $K$ matrices with the $U_q[osp^{(2)}(2|2m)]$ symmetry. This correspond to a special case of the multiparametric $U_q[osp^{(2)}(2n+2|2m)]$ vertex model which, for $m=0$, reduces to the multiparametric $U_q[D_{n+1}^{(2)}]$ vertex model. The corresponding reflection $K$ matrices for the multiparametric $U_q[D_{n+1}^{(2)}]$ vertex model were presented by us before.

  2. Photo-fenton process: Optimization and decolourization and mineralization of reactive blue 222 dye

    Shumaila Kiran; Shahzad Ali Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Dye house effluents of textile industries leads to severe environmental problems when disposed to aquatic bodies without proper treatment. This work was carried out to optimize the Photo-Fenton process for decolorization and mineralization of a commercial textile dye, Reactive Blue 222. The effect of different process parameters on decolorization efficiency of Photo-Fenton process was investigated. The optimal conditions for process were observed as; pH level 3.5, H2O2 concentration 1× 10-2M,...

  3. Phase diagrams of (hexane + methanol + 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol) at three temperatures: Measurement and correlation

    Results from gas-liquid chromatography are presented for (liquid + liquid) equilibrium of the system of mixed solvents of (hexane + methanol + 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol) at the temperatures T = (288.15, 298.15, 303.15) K, and under atmospheric pressure. The system presents type (II) liquid-liquid phase diagram. The NRTL and UNIQUAC equations reliably represent the measured data with an average root-mean-square deviation in phase-compositions equal to 1.2%. The binary interaction parameters for the associated (nonpolar + polar) system are estimated by means of the same equations. The temperature effect on the system miscibility is reasonably important

  4. Grignard-mediated reduction of 2,2,2-trichloro-1-arylethanones.

    Essa, Ali H; Lerrick, Reinner I; Çiftçi, Eçe; Harrington, Ross W; Waddell, Paul G; Clegg, William; Hall, Michael J

    2015-05-28

    2,2,2-Trichloro-1-aryl-ethanones can be reduced by RMgX to the corresponding 2,2-dichloro-1-arylethen-1-olates and trapped with a range of electrophiles resulting in either reduction, reduction/aldol, reduction/Claisen condensation or reduction/aldol-Tishchenko products. In addition we demonstrate that 2,2-dichloro-1-arylethen-1-olates undergo counter-ion controlled Darzens condensations, which can be followed by a thermal rearrangement as a route to 1,3-diaryl-3-chloropropane-1,2-diones. PMID:25906144

  5. High-sensitive integral method of volume 222Rn activity determination on the base of charcoal

    The aim of this report was to develop the sensitive method for integral measurement of radon-222 which is based on its capture on the activated charcoal. We obtained the time dependence of the charcoal adsorption of radon on the exposure time for the used type of the charcoal and filter paper. We tested the application of the different detector system for the determination of the radon activity adsorbed on the charcoal. The high sensitivity of the determination of the radon activity can be reached by means of the one litre scintillation chamber into which the radon is transported from the charcoal. (authors)

  6. (±)-trans-3-Benzoyl-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid.

    Lalancette, Roger A; Thompson, Hugh W; Brunskill, Andrew P J

    2008-01-01

    The title keto acid, C(16)H(18)O(3), displays significant twisting of all three ethyl-ene bridges in its bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane structure owing to steric inter-actions; the bridgehead-to-bridgehead torsion angles are 13.14 (12), 13.14 (13) and 9.37 (13)°. The compound crystallizes as centrosymmetric carboxyl dimers [O⋯O = 2.6513 (12) Å and O-H⋯O = 178°], which have two orientations within the cell and contain no significant carboxyl disorder. PMID:21201657

  7. (±-trans-3-Benzoylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid

    Andrew P. J. Brunskill

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The title keto acid, C16H18O3, displays significant twisting of all three ethylene bridges in its bicyclo[2.2.2]octane structure owing to steric interactions; the bridgehead-to-bridgehead torsion angles are 13.14 (12, 13.14 (13 and 9.37 (13°. The compound crystallizes as centrosymmetric carboxyl dimers [O...O = 2.6513 (12 Å and O—H...O = 178°], which have two orientations within the cell and contain no significant carboxyl disorder.

  8. Radium-226 and radon-222 in domestic water of Houston-Harris County, Texas

    This study showed that anomalous concentrations of Ra-226 and Rn-222 exist in parts of the upper Texas Gulf Coast. While all factors influencing the distribution and fate of pollutants in underground porous media might not be easy to measure or even identify, often the very expectation of this great complexity prevents one from observing patterns that otherwise might be quite helpful. The findings summarized in this communication present an encouraging picture for predicting depths and locations in the Gulf Coast where elevated Ra and Rn concentrations may be encountered. Two to four key variables accounted for the statistically significant variation (from 38 to 74 percent) in concentrations observed under field conditions

  9. Environmental benefits of parking-integrated photovoltaics: A 222kWp experience

    Serrano-Luján, Lucía; García-Valverde, Rafael; Espinosa, Nieves; García-Cascales, M. Socorro; Sánchez-Lozano, Juan M.; Urbina, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle assessment of a grid-connected, parking integrated, 222kWp cadmium telluride photovoltaic system has been performed. The system was built at the University of Murcia and has been monitored for 2.5years (sampling data every 5min). The detailed material inventory, the energy embedded...... in the system, the energy payback time, and the energy return factor of the facility have been obtained and are 6.31TJ equivalent primary energy, 2.06 and 12.16years, respectively. The average performance ratio is 0.8 with a slight monthly variation. Additionally, the environmental benefits of the...

  10. Uranium, radon-222 and polonium-210 in drinking waters from metropolitan area of Recife, PE, Brazil

    There is only scarce information on the presence of radionuclides in water for public consumption in Brazil. A recently issued federal regulation requires that waters from public supplies be screened to determine their content of alpha and beta emitters. In order to comply with this requirement the present work was carried out with the purpose of determining the concentration of natural uranium, 222 Rn and 210 Po in water supplies in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil. The analyses were performed in 17 points of supply of superficial water and 94 points of groundwater supply. The concentrations of uranium were determined by the fluorimetric method, whereas the liquid scintillation method was used to determine the concentration of 222 Rn. Polonium-210, on the other hand, was determined by alpha spectrometry, following its spontaneous deposition on copper disks. The water analyzer presented uranium concentrations varying from 35.3 to 1146.5 mBq/L for superficial resources and from 20.2 to 919.15 mBq/L for underground sources. The concentration of uranium in superficial water showed significant correlation with some parameters such as conductivity, alkalinity and total hardness, as well as, with the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Cl, K, SO4 and Mn. No correlation, however, was shown with the concentrations of Fe, NO2 and NO3. The concentrations of 222 Rn varied from 5.3 to 83.7 Bq/L in the groundwater analyzer. Radon concentration was not measured in superficial water due to the high emanation rate of radon in open air conditions. As far as 210 Po is concerned, the analyses showed concentrations ranging from 210 Po did not show and correlation with physico-chemical parameters. The average concentrations of uranium and 210 Po in superficial water were of 44.7 mBq/L, respectively. These values correspond to effective doses of 5.8 x 10-4 mSv/yr and 4.5 x 10-2 mSv/yr, for uranium and 210 Po, respectively. The average values for the concentrations of uranium, 222 Rn and

  11. Estimation of the global 222Rn flux density from the earth's surface

    Global 222Rn flux density distributions with a spatial resolution of 1deg in latitude and longitude were estimated for each month in the period of 1979-2007 using an 222Rn exhalation model based on a porous media diffusion theory. This exhalation model calculated the 222Rn flux density as a function of the 226Ra content, soil water saturation, and soil temperature. The influence of the topographical ruggedness of the ground surface on the flux density was also considered in the model. The global average of the flux density during the 29-year period was estimated to be 21.3 mBq m-2 s-1. The annual variation in the globally averaged flux density showed a slight but steady increase since 1999. The seasonal variation in the globally averaged flux density was estimated to range from a minimum of 18.8 mBq m-2 s-1 in March to a maximum of 23.6 mBq m-2 s-1 in September. The regional averages for the annual flux density varied from 8.3 mBq m-2 s-1 for the northern part of North America to 33.5 mBq m-2 s-1 for Australia. The latitudinal distribution of zonally averaged flux density was found to be in good agreement with the latitudinal decline at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. The spatial and temporal variations were caused mainly by variations in the soil water content and soil 226Ra content, but to a lesser extent by the soil temperature. The topographical ruggedness was found to increase the flux density by only 2% globally but by more than 10% in mountainous regions. Atmospheric transport simulation using the estimated flux density as input data showed that the simulated atmospheric 222Rn concentration was substantially lower than that measured at Hachijo Island, implying that the flux density of the present study with topographical ruggedness is still underestimated in the East Asian region. (author)

  12. Tris{N-[bis(dimethylaminophosphinoyl]-2,2,2-trichloroacetamido}(triphenylphosphine oxideholmium(III

    Oleksiy V. Amirkhanov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ho(C6H12Cl3N3O2P3(C18H15OP], the HoIII ion is surrounded by six O atoms from the three bidentate N-[bis(dimethylaminophosphinoyl]-2,2,2-trichloroacetamido ligands (L− and by one O atom from the triphenylphosphine oxide ligand, with the formation of a distorted monocapped octahedron. In one ligand L−, the trichloromethyl group is rotationally disordered between two orientations in a 1:1 ratio, while two dimethylamino groups in another ligand L− are disordered between two conformations, each with the same 1:1 ratio.

  13. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium for Binary Mixtures of 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane with Ethylenediamine, Ethanolamine, and Ethylene Glycol

    Trejbal, Jiří

    2009-04-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibria of mixtures of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane with ethylenediamine, ethanolamine, and ethylene glycol were studied. Ideal behavior in the ethylenediamine and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane mixture was observed. Ethanolamine and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane form an azeotrope with a minimum boiling point whereas ethylene glycol and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane form an azeotrope with a maximum boiling point. Non-ideal behavior of the mixtures was described by the NRTL equation, and the corresponding constants were calculated.

  14. A complexity analysis of 222Rn concentration variation: A case study for Domica cave, Slovakia for the period June 2010–June 2011

    In this paper we have analyzed 222Rn concentration variation in Domica cave (Slovakia) for the period June 2010–June 2011. In that sense we have applied a complexity analysis on 222Rn concentration time series. We have considered possible existence of a periodical component in the variation of 222Rn concentration and some environmental parameters, as well as possible correlation between them. In addition we have offered novel complexity measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity (KC), i.e. the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum, its highest value (KCM) and the integral Kolmogorov complexity (KCI). These measures have been applied on 222Rn concentration time series: (i) to establish the dependence of 222Rn concentration on cave environmental parameters (wind speed inside the cave, external wind speed, air temperature, atmospheric pressure and CO2 concentration) and (ii) to see whether influence of some parameters make the distribution of measured quantity less or more stochastic. - Highlights: • We have analyzed annual 222Rn concentration variation in Domica cave (Slovakia). • We have applied a complexity analysis on 222Rn concentration time series. • We have suggested novel complexity measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity. • We have analyzed dependence of 222Rn time series on cave environmental parameters. • We have analyzed stochasticity in 222Rn concentration time series

  15. Alpha radioactivity monitoring related to Radon-222 in water from wells in metropolitan area of Curitiba (PR), Brazil

    This research objective was to assess the level of randon-222 concentration in well water of the metropolitan region of Curitiba, Parana. Current work presents the results of indoor 222Rn activity ground water samples from artesian wells from aquifers of the region. The studies of radon activity in water were performed using the radon detector AlphaGUARD. The calculations of initial radon activity in water were done considering the 222Rn decay correction as well as equilibrium level of 222Rn and 226Ra observed after 30 days of measurements. Obtained results show that about 70% of measured activity levels of 222Rn are higher than the recommended value of 11.1 Bq.L-1, which represent the risk for the human health associated with this radionuclide. The case study showed that previous measurements of radon are recommended for a construction project is implemented. In this case, it is observed that the radon concentrations decrease about 56% in the first water tank and 83% in the second water tank over the well. This fact shows that the actions for mitigation of radon are viable and do not require major modifications to the usual systems of construction. (author)

  16. Novel instruments for in situ continuous Rn-222 measurement in groundwater and the application to river bank infiltration.

    Gilfedder, B S; Hofmann, H; Cartwright, I

    2013-01-15

    There is little known about the short-term dynamics of groundwater-surface water exchange in losing rivers. This is partly due to the paucity of chemical techniques that can autonomously collect high-frequency data in groundwater bores. Here we present two new instruments for continuous in situ (222)Rn measurement in bores for quantifying the surface water infiltration rate into an underlying or adjacent aquifer. These instruments are based on (222)Rn diffusion through silicone tube membranes, either wrapped around a pole (MonoRad) or strung between two hollow end pieces (OctoRad). They are combined with novel, robust, low-cost Geiger counter (222)Rn detectors which are ideal for long-term autonomous measurement. The down-hole instruments have a quantitative response time of about a day during low flow, but this decreases to water bank infiltration during moderate to high river flow during two field experiments. Mass-balance calculations using the (222)Rn data gave a maximum infiltration rate of 2 m d(-1). These instruments offer the first easily constructible system for continuous (222)Rn analysis in groundwater, and could be used to trace surface water infiltration in many environments including rivers, lakes, wetlands, and coastal settings. PMID:23205525

  17. Dose by {sup 222} Rn in houses of the Chihuahua city; Dosis por {sup 222} Rn en casas-habitacion de la ciudad de Chihuahua

    Colmenero S, L.H.; Talamantes F, C. [ITCH II, Ave. de las Industrias 11101, Chihuahua (Mexico); Villalba, M.L. [UACH, Facultad de Ingenieria, Chihuahua (Mexico); Dobson, P.F. [Laboratorio Nacional Lawrence Berkeley, California (United States); Ortalejo M, B. [UACH, Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: luis.colmenero@cimav.edu.mx

    2007-07-01

    Full text: The dose equivalent that the population of the Chihuahua city receives due to the radon in air that joined to values of uranium, thorium and potassium due to the floor and radon in water was determined, they give values very above the international and national norms. The state of Chihuahua contains near 56 locations distributed by the whole state. The city of Chihuahua, capital of the state, is surrounded of rocks with great content of uranium, for what their floor also contains to the {sup 226} Ra that generates to the {sup 222} Rn. The construction of the housings of the city of Chihuahua is mainly of brick, block and adobe; the material to elaborate them is take from the rocks and floor of the surroundings, this makes that the radon is presented in a great quantity of houses of this city. As the floor and water they also contain those natural radionuclides, the total dose equivalent that the inhabitants receive is bigger to other cities of the country. Diverse international organizations dedicated to the radioactivity, indicate that the level of the {sup 222} Rn should not surpass the 148 Bq/m{sup 3}, since this gas produces lung cancer. The state of Chihuahua has an index of deaths on the average by lung cancer of double the national average, the capital of the state also has a high index. The radon concentration in a house depends on the construction material with which was made, as well as of the existent climatic conditions. During the day, this concentration depends mainly on the interior temperature, so during the night and dawn increases the radon concentration. The radon is the biggest source of radioactive dose received by the human being and it can generate a problem of public health if the concentration is high during enough time, for what the city of Chihuahua has the geologic and climatic characteristics to have it. This study was carried out in 50 house-room of the city of Chihuahua. Built houses with brick, block and adobe were

  18. Measurements of {sup 222} Rn in the indoor of dwellings in the Argentinean Republic; Mediciones de {sup 222} Rn en el interior de viviendas de la Republica Argentina

    Canoba, A.; Lopez, F. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (1429) (Argentina)]. e-mail: acanoba@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The {sup 222} Rn is responsible for approximately half of the dose in the population resultant of the exposure to natural radiation. Most of this dose comes from the inhalation of the offspring of the {sup 222} Rn, and these doses they are specially important in set closed. The concentration of gas radon has been measured in housings of different cities of the Argentinean Republic. The elected cities are representative of the different geologic areas of our territory. For this its were used as detecting measurement method of nuclear tracks, electret detectors and detectors based on the adsorption in activated coal. Its were analyzed a total of 2689 housings from 1983 to the date. The average value of the radon concentration obtained starting from the 2689 monitored housings was of 41.6 Bq.m{sup -3}. The effective annual dose calculated starting from this radon concentration, using a dosimetric factor of 25 {mu}Sv.a{sup -1} (Bq.m{sup -3}), which assumes an equilibrium factor of 0.4, was of 1.04 mSv. Also, with the objective of determining the dose in form more exact, during the year 2000 it put on to point a passive technique for the simultaneous measurement such the radon concentration like of the equilibrium factor. This technique uses in oneself device two detectors of nuclear traces. The average value obtained starting from 204 monitored housings by this method of simultaneous measurement turns out to be 47.1 Bq.m{sup -3} and 0.36 the equilibrium factor, being obtained a value of effective annual dose of 1.38 mSv. It fits to highlight that are very few the values above 200 Bq.m{sup -3} and in any case the 300 Bq.m{sup -3} is overcome. Analyzing the average equilibrium factor measured of 0.36, it was concluded that having assumed an equilibrium factor of 0.4 was adequate, for what for great measurement campaigns it can continue using the simple method that determines only the radon concentration. Comparing the obtained results by both methods, although the first

  19. Determination of {sup 222}Rn and its physico-chemical and biological characteristics in aquifers of Toluca valley; Determinacion de {sup 222}Rn y caracteristicas fisicoquimicas y biologicas en acuiferos del Valle de Toluca

    Hernandez, A.; Aranda, P.; Ceballos, S.; Cruz, D.; Jauregui, B.; Lopez, R.; Pena, P.; Salazar, S.; Segovia, N.; Tamez, E. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    In this work it is realized a geochemical study which includes the evaluation of {sup 222} Rn concentration in drinking water wells at Toluca city and a spring water of Almoloya de Juarez municipality at State of mexico. the same is studied about evolution of {sup 222} Rn concentration in water of the hydrating which supply it to those wells. the geochemical evaluation also covers the determination of major and minor elements or trace and the biological analysis of water. The study includes two seasonal cycles, the low water mark one and other the rainy for being able to evaluate the aquifers reloading effects in the water composition. (Author)

  20. Celecoxib increases miR-222 while deterring aromatase-expressing breast tumor growth in mice

    Breast cancer is one of the most deadly diseases in women. Inhibiting the synthesis of estrogen is effective in treating patients with estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that use of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors is associated with reduced breast cancer risk. In the present study, we employed an established mouse model for postmenopausal breast cancer to evaluate the potential mechanisms of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Aromatase-expressing MCF-7 cells were transplanted into ovariectomized athymic mice. The animals were given celecoxib at 1500 ppm or aspirin at 200 ppm by oral administration with androstenedione injection. Our results showed that both COX inhibitors could suppress the cancer xenograft growth without changing the plasma estrogen level. Protein expression of ERα, COX-2, Cyclin A, and Bcl-xL were reduced in celecoxib-treated tumor samples, whereas only Bcl-xL expression was suppressed in those treated with aspirin. Among the breast cancer-related miRNAs, miR-222 expression was elevated in samples treated with celecoxib. Further studies in culture cells verified that the increase in miR-222 expression might contribute to ERα downregulation but not the growth deterrence of cells. Overall, this study suggested that both celecoxib and aspirin could prevent breast cancer growth by regulating proteins in the cell cycle and apoptosis without blocking estrogen synthesis. Besides, celecoxib might affect miR expression in an undesirable fashion

  1. Behaviour of 222Rn and its daughter products in open atmosphere

    In this contribution the influence of the meteorological conditions on activity concentrations of the outdoor 222Rn and its daughter products is discussed in detail. In addition, the correlation between concentrations of measured radionuclides is studied and empirical relations for concentrations of radon daughter products are presented. he courses of the activity concentrations of 222Rn and its short-lived decay products in the outdoor atmosphere are very similar even in some details. The average equilibrium factor F determined on the basis of our measurements in the outdoor atmosphere is approximately about 20 % lower than the value F recommended by UNSCEAR 1996 for the open air (F = 0,7). The obtained nonlinear relations between radon and its decay products reduce the applications of decay products in the atmospheric studies on one hand but on the other hand they can be useful at the calculation of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration with the aim to determine the effective radon dose on the basis of the measurements of its activity concentrations only. (authors)

  2. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Alternative Rn-222 Flux Density Models Used in Performance Assessment

    Greg J. Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2007-06-01

    Performance assessments for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site have used three different mathematical models to estimate Rn-222 flux density. This study describes the performance, uncertainty, and sensitivity of the three models which include the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 3.64 analytical method and two numerical methods. The uncertainty of each model was determined by Monte Carlo simulation using Latin hypercube sampling. The global sensitivity was investigated using Morris one-at-time screening method, sample-based correlation and regression methods, the variance-based extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test, and Sobol's sensitivity indices. The models were found to produce similar estimates of the mean and median flux density, but to have different uncertainties and sensitivities. When the Rn-222 effective diffusion coefficient was estimated using five different published predictive models, the radon flux density models were found to be most sensitive to the effective diffusion coefficient model selected, the emanation coefficient, and the radionuclide inventory. Using a site-specific measured effective diffusion coefficient significantly reduced the output uncertainty. When a site-specific effective-diffusion coefficient was used, the models were most sensitive to the emanation coefficient and the radionuclide inventory.

  3. 222Rn daughters influence on scaler mode of the ARGO-YBJ detector

    Giroletti, Elio; Cattaneo, Claudio; Liguori, Giuseppe; Salvini, Paola; Vallania, Piero; Vigorito, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is a full coverage air shower array; its lowest energy threshold is reached using the "scaler mode technique". Working in this mode, the signals generated by any particle hitting each cluster are put in coincidence every 150 ns and read by four independent scaler channels, giving the counting rates of multiplicity \\geq1, \\geq2, \\geq3 and \\geq4 (C1, C2, C3 and C4, respectively). The study of these counting rates pointed out a different behaviour of C1 respect to C2, C3 and C4, suggesting that C1 is detecting not only cosmic rays. This work shows that the radon (222Rn) gamma emitter daughters present in the ARGO-YBJ building air are contributing to C1 counts at the level of 1 Hz each Bq/m3 of radon. The uncertainty about this contribution is great, because of the high variability of 222Rn concentration and the building ventilation. The radon monitoring will allow the C1 correction improving the sensitivity of the ARGO-YBJ experiment at its lowest energy threshold.

  4. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using a simple method for radon-222 analysis

    T. Kluge

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m−3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m³ per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake water interaction.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of partially folded states of myoglobin in presence of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol

    Highlights: • 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol induced molten globule state of myoglobin characterised. • Thermodynamics of unfolding addressed via formation of molten globule state. • ANS binds to molten globule state of myoglobin at two types of binding sites. • Common structural properties of molten globule addressed by energetics of ANS binding. - Abstract: The thermal denaturation of myoglobin was studied in the presence of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) at various pH values using differential scanning calorimetry and UV–visible spectroscopy. The most obvious effect of TFE was lowering the transition temperature up to 1.5 mol · kg−1, beyond which no thermal transitions were observed. The protein conformation was analysed by fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements. Quantitative binding of ANS to the TFE induced molten globule state of myoglobin was studied by using isothermal titration calorimetry. The results enable quantitative estimation of the binding strength of ANS with the molten globule state of myoglobin along with the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the binding process. The results suggest occurrence of common structural features of the molten globule states of proteins offering two types of binding sites to ANS molecules which are a widely used fluorescence probe to characterise partially folded states of proteins

  6. Effect of indoor activity size distribution of 222Rn progeny in-depth dose estimation

    In this work, the attached and unattached activity size distribution of 222Rn progeny (214Bi and 218Po) were measured indoor. The fraction of attached progeny was collected using a low-pressure Berner cascade-impactor technique. A constructed wire screen diffusion battery was used for collecting the fraction of unattached progeny. Most of the attached activities for 214Bi progeny were associated with the aerosol particles of the accumulation mode. The active median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of this mode for 214Bi was determined to be 350 nm with a geometric standard division (GSD) of 3. The GSD of unattached size distributions for 218Po was 1.3 with an active median aerodynamic diameter (AMTD) of 1.3 nm. Given that dose estimation is sensitive to environmental conditions, an analytical method was introduced to compute the local energy deposition of 218Po alpha particles in a target volume of 1 μm spheres located at different depths in bronchial epithelium. While the depth–dose distributions for nuclides uniformly distributed within the epithelium were found to be practically constant with depth, they decreased in an almost linear fashion with increasing depth for nuclides on the airway surface. - Highlights: • The activity size distribution of short-lived 222Rn progeny in indoor air is determined. • Radiation depth dose in lung from radon progeny is determined experimentally. • Mechanism of 218Po alpha particles deposition in bronchial airways is described. • Dose conversion factors as functions of depth are produced

  7. Study of 222Rn emanation levels present in naturally occurring radioactive materials - NORM

    The presence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), contaminating oil and gas installations, is usual in the petroleum industry, and can be severe enough to expose the workers to elevated levels of radiation. The segregation of contaminated residues although necessary, is still a problem without a satisfactory solution. Currently, the most practical and economic option for discarding this material is to stock it in areas of the installation with controlled access. Certain equipment used in the petroleum industry has scale and sludge that could be associated to important levels of radioactivity. Typically, the scales are mixtures of carbonate and sulphate minerals, such as barite (BaSO4), that easily incorporate 226Ra and 228Ra in their structures. The objective of this work was to measure the emanations of the radon present in NORM samples, via diffusion chambers containing a nuclear track detector (CR-39). The images of α particle tracks emanated by 222Rn registered on CR-39 were observed with a Nikon E400 optic microscope and captured by a Nikon Coolpix digital camera and then stored in a database, to later count the tracks using the computational program, Image Pro plus. Since the number of those tracks resulted proportional to the emanation rate of 222Rn this methodology allowed the comparison of contamination levels in analyzed samples. (author)

  8. Measurement of 222Rn dissolved in water at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Blevis, I

    2004-01-01

    The technique used at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) to measure the concentration of 222Rn in water is described. Water from the SNO detector is passed through a vacuum degasser (in the light water system) or a membrane contact degasser (in the heavy water system) where dissolved gases, including radon, are liberated. The degasser is connected to a vacuum system which collects the radon on a cold trap and removes most other gases, such as water vapor and nitrogen. After roughly 0.5 tons of H2O or 6 tons of D2O have been sampled, the accumulated radon is transferred to a Lucas cell. The cell is mounted on a photomultiplier tube which detects the alpha particles from the decay of 222Rn and its daughters. The overall degassing and concentration efficiency is about 38% and the single-alpha counting efficiency is approximately 75%. The sensitivity of the radon assay system for D2O is equivalent to ~3 E(-15) g U/g water. The radon concentration in both the H2O and D2O is sufficiently low that the rate of ba...

  9. Assessment of radon-222 concentrations and exhalation rates of rocks and building materials

    One hundred samples were collected from two regions (Bir El-Sid and Wady El-Gemal ) in the Nile Valley. It contain various types of igneous and metamorphic rock samples (acidic dykes, intermediate dykes, basic dykes, serpentinite, metagabbro, menalge). Another set of samples were collected from different regions of Germany. Samples were analyzed and the concentrations in Bq/kg dry weight of radium were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detector. A direct method is used to measure 222Rn emanated from the samples, which was analyzed in laboratory using the portable radon monitor Prassi. 222Rn activity concentrations (Bq/m3) were in the range from 36.1± 2 to 96.4 ± 6, 17.8 ± 3 to 73.6 ± 4 and 18.0 ± 2 to 188.1 ± 15 Bq/m3 for samples collected from Bir Elsid, Wadi El-Gemal and samples from Germany respectively. The corresponding values of exhalation rates were from 0.0012 to 0.004, 0.005 to 0.015 and 0.007 to 0.0069 Bq/gs for these areas respectively. (author)

  10. 222Rn determination in some thermal baths of a central eastern Italian area

    Some recent Italian laws, based on the Euratom Directive 26/96, introduce the obligation of monitoring the exposition to natural radioactivity in particular worksites (thermal baths, mines, basements, etc.). Results of 222Rn measurements in some thermal baths of Rimini and Pesaro-Urbino provinces (Central Eastern Italy), by Radosys-2000, a complete set suitable to radon concentration measurements with CR-39 plastic alpha-track detectors are reported. Some areas where radon could accumulate (bathing, reaction, muddy, inhalation, insufflation rooms and swimming pools) were selected for the investigation. The dosimeters have been exposed for 98 days. The results show that 222Rn concentrations are very low in the considered thermal baths (7-71 Bq x m-3). Moreover, no difference was observed between the concentrations measured in the therapy rooms (bathing, muddy, inhalation and insufflation rooms, swimming pools) and in the normal areas (passages, reaction rooms, dressing rooms, etc.). The calculated dose contribution to workers was about one tenth of the legally suggested value. (author)

  11. Study of the emanation levels of 222Rn present in Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials - NORM

    The presence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), contaminating oil and gas facilities, is a common fact in the petroleum industry, and can be severe enough to expose the workers to elevated levels of radiation. Thus, contaminated residues need to be segregated but, this is still a problem without a satisfactory solution. Currently, the most practical and economic option for discarding this material is to stock it in areas of the facility whose access is controlled. Certain equipment used in the petroleum industry has scale and sludge that could be associated to important levels of radioactivity. Typically, the scale is a mixture of carbonate and sulphate minerals, such as barite (BaSO4), that easily incorporates 226Ra and 228Ra in its structures. The objective of this work was to measure the emanations of the radon present in these NORM samples, via diffusion chambers containing a nuclear track detector (CR-39). The images of particle alpha tracks emanated by 222Rn registered on CR-39 were observed with a Nikon E400 optic microscope and captured by a Nikon Coolpix digital camera and then stored in a database, to later count the tracks using the computational program, Image Pro plus. Being that the emanation rate of 222Rn was proportional to the number of these tracks the methodology permitted the comparison of contamination levels of the analyzed samples. (author)

  12. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using a simple method for radon-222 analysis

    Kluge, T.; Ilmberger, J.; von Rohden, C.; Aeschbach-Hertig, W.

    2007-09-01

    Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m-3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l) water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m³ per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake water interaction.

  13. Radon (222Rn) exhalation rate from the building materials of Tiruchirappalli District (Tamil Nadu State, India)

    Tiruchirappalli district is the central district of Tamil Nadu state having a population of 2,722,290 and area of 4,509 Sq.km and naturally endowed with rich building material resources, like stone, granite, sand, brick, cement etc. which are also supplied to the neighbouring districts. The measurement of radon level in these building materials is important, because radon (222Rn), a radioactive gas, is one of the major causative factors for human lung cancer and hence it is imperative to assess its impact on human health. The samples of building materials were collected from their original sources spread over Tiruchirappalli district. As such 14 sedimentary rock (sand stone) samples, 9 igneous rock (granite) samples, 5 sand samples, 10 brick samples and 11 cement samples were analyzed for activity concentration of 222Rn .The Sealed Can Technique using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) was employed for the measurement of radon emanation. The activity concentrations of radon in sedimentary rocks analyzed ranged from 13.2 Bq m-3 to 218.0 Bq m-3 with the geometric mean activity of 46.3 Bq m-3

  14. Assessment of 222Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to 222Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm2, placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The 222Rn concentrations varied from 196 ± 9 and 2048 ± 81 Bq·m-3. The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv·y-1. This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  15. Measurement of 222Rn diffusion through sandy soil with solar cells photodiodes as the detector

    An experimental system was developed to study the diffusion rate of radon (222Rn) gas through porous media as a function of soil porosity/grain size and soil water content. Columns with different grain sizes, soil water content and soil depths were used. The system used solar cells photodiodes as alpha (α) detectors. This new detector is highly efficient and low cost compared to other known detectors. Soil water content was found to be the most dominant factor affecting the 222Rn diffusion rate. A maximum diffusion rate value of (6.5 ± 0.07) × 10−6 m2/s was found in dry conditions. The minimum diffusion value of less than (3.9 ± 0.14) × 10−7 m2/s was found in 2% soil water content. The experimental results were compared with theoretical calculations done with the “GREEN equation”. Two discrepancies were observed: the time to equilibrium state in the measurements was longer compare to the calculated values and the α count rates were lower in the experiment compared with the theoretical calculations. These results can be explained by the differences in the system geometry. - Highlights: ► A new experimental system was developed to study the diffusion rate of radon gas. ► Developing a new prototype of alpha detector based on solar photodiodes. ► Measuring radon diffusion rates and as a function of soil parameters.

  16. Determination of Rn222 in samples of well water and domicile of the cities of Chihuahua and Aldama, Mexico

    The study of the content of dissolved Rn222 is presented in underground water and of domicile of the cities of Chihuahua and Aldama of the State of Chihuahua. The existence of the Rn222 in the underground waters comes from its constant production in the rocks of the terrestrial bark. It has been determined that the radon is a noble gas of more solubility in the water, this solubility induces high concentrations in underground water, as well as bigger risk to the health in the human body once ingested or inhaled. Of the 32 wells studied in the cities of Chihuahua and Aldama, the content of dissolved Rn222 in the water of 22 of them is bigger than 11 Bq/l and of 73 studied samples of water of domiciles 47 show bigger values that 11 Bq/l. These radon contents are attributable to the uraniferous rocks present in the aquifers. (Author)

  17. Dose ratio of 222Rn to 220Rn progeny in a pit using in-suit HPGe γ spectrometry

    To probe potential α energy concentration (PAEC) ratio and dose ratio of 222Rn to 220Rn progeny in a pit, in-situ HPGe γ spectrometry was used under atmospheric ventilation and without atmospheric ventilation conditions. The measurement data was analysed using relative efficiency method and PAEC method. The measurement results show that the average PAEC ratio and dose ratio of 222Rn to 220Rn progeny under without atmospheric ventilation is 3.6 and 10.8, respectively, which is 1.2 and 3.6 in first 8 hours under atmospheric ventilation. After 14 hours atmospheric ventilation, PAEC ratio and dose ratio are 0.2 and 0.6 stably. In-situ HPGe γ spectrometry has a great space in 222Rn and 220Rn dose research in the future. (authors)

  18. 222-S radioactive liquid waste line replacement and 219-S secondary containment upgrade, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to: (1) replace the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) radioactive liquid waste drain lines to the 219-S Waste Handling Facility (219-S); (2) upgrade 219-S by replacing or upgrading the waste storage tanks and providing secondary containment and seismic restraints to the concrete cells which house the tanks; and (3) replace the transfer lines from 219-S to the 241-SY Tank Farm. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1500-1508), and the DOE Implementing Procedures for NEPA (10 CFR 1021). 222-S is used to perform analytical services on radioactive samples in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System and Hanford Site environmental restoration programs. Activities conducted at 222-S include decontamination of analytical processing and support equipment and disposal of nonarchived radioactive samples. These activities generate low-level liquid mixed waste. The liquid mixed waste is drained through pipelines in the 222-S service tunnels and underground concrete encasements, to two of three tanks in 219-S, where it is accumulated. 219-S is a treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit, and is therefore required to meet Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations, and the associated requirements for secondary containment and leak detection. The service tunnels are periodically inspected by workers and decontaminated as necessary to maintain as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) radiation levels. Although no contamination is reaching the environment from the service tunnels, the risk of worker exposure is present and could increase. 222-S is expected to remain in use for at least the next 30 years to serve the Hanford Site environmental cleanup mission

  19. Genetic effects of radon 222 in a population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically exposed; Efectos geneticos del radon 222 en una poblacion de Drosophila melanogaster cronicamente expuesta

    Salceda, V.M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    It was investigated the mutagenic effect of Radon 222 during a experimental period of 11 generations. In this lapse Drosophila melanogaster larvae line Canton-S were maintained in a radon atmosphere. In each test generation had been extracted males, consequently exposed to radiation which were subjected to a crossing series with a bearer marker genes of according to the Wallace experimental design (1956). Due to the experimental conditions it only was determined the recessive lethal mutations frequency for the second chromosome in the 1,4,7 and 11 generations. Of all study it was conduced in parallel way a non-treated witness population. The concentrations at which was subjected the experimental population varied of generation to generation from 12 {+-} 2 to 43 {+-} 5 kBq/m{sup 3}. Our analysis correspond to lethality determination in 1182 second chromosomes distributed between two populations and the different exposition generations. The study allow to determine the respective frequencies of recessive lethal genes varying according to the population and/or generation between 10.53 and 22.02%. The statistical analysis of data did not show significant differences among the different populations. (Author)

  20. Determination of 222Rn and its physico-chemical and biological characteristics in aquifers of Toluca valley

    In this work it is realized a geochemical study which includes the evaluation of 222 Rn concentration in drinking water wells at Toluca city and a spring water of Almoloya de Juarez municipality at State of mexico. the same is studied about evolution of 222 Rn concentration in water of the hydrating which supply it to those wells. the geochemical evaluation also covers the determination of major and minor elements or trace and the biological analysis of water. The study includes two seasonal cycles, the low water mark one and other the rainy for being able to evaluate the aquifers reloading effects in the water composition. (Author)

  1. Studies Towards the Synthesis of Optically Active Bicyclo[2.2.2]octa-2,5-dienes

    Lybbert, Breeyawn Nycole

    2012-01-01

    Optically active 2,5-disubstituted bicyclo[2.2.2]octa-2,5-dienes (bod) have found use within synthetic organic chemistry as chiral ligands for rhodium asymmetric catalysis reactions. These chiral ligands often provide greater enantioselectivity than their phosphorus-based chiral ligand cousins when employed in the formation of carbon-carbon bonds under rhodium catalysis. The drawback to using these types of 2,5-disubstituted bicyclo[2.2.2]octa-2,5-diene ligands is that they are very expensive...

  2. Risk of 222 Rn ingestion by water consumption in the phosphate rich of the Northeast of Brazil

    Geological survey performed in the coastal region of the northeast of Brazil revealed the presence of uranium phosphate deposits in a land strip covering the Pernambuco-Bahia sedimentary basin. The water consumed by the local population crosses the phosphate area and presents higher tna normal concentration of uranium and its progeny. This work is aimed to determine the cancer risk, based on the rate ingestion of the 222'Rn due to water consumption. The results of the analysis showed increments of 1.25% for cancer occurrences due to Rn-222 ingestion for the local population. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. The Inhibition of the Highly Expressed Mir-221 and Mir-222 Impairs the Growth of Prostate Carcinoma Xenografts in Mice

    Neri Mercatelli; Valeria Coppola; Desirée Bonci; Francesca Miele; Arianna Costantini; Marco Guadagnoli; Elena Bonanno; Giovanni Muto; Giovanni Vanni Frajese; Ruggero De Maria; Luigi Giusto Spagnoli; Maria Giulia Farace; Silvia Anna Ciafrè

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MiR-221 and miR-222 are two highly homologous microRNAs whose upregulation has been recently described in several types of human tumors, for some of which their oncogenic role was explained by the discovery of their target p27, a key cell cycle regulator. We previously showed this regulatory relationship in prostate carcinoma cell lines in vitro, underlying the role of miR-221/222 as inducers of proliferation and tumorigenicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a n...

  4. Concentrations of 222Rn in groundwaters flowing through different crystalline rocks: An example from Sleza Massif (SW Poland)

    Sleza Massif is situated in the south-western part of Poland, about 30 km SW of Wroclaw, the capital city of Lower Silesia. The geological setting of the research area is typical of the Sudety Mountains. Different types of crystalline rocks, of both igneous and metamorphic origin, occur over an area of 25 km2. On the surface of this relatively small area, Lower Carboniferous to Lower Permian Strzegom-Sobotka Granite and Devonian Sleza Ophiolite are uncovered. The result is the occurrence of granites, gabbros, amphibolites and serpentinites, directly neighbouring on each other. The author selected this area for determining the influence of rock type on the concentration of 222Rn dissolved in groundwater flowing through crystalline rocks. The first stage of the research consisted of determining typical values of 222Rn concentration in groundwater flowing through different types of rocks and describing the scale of seasonal changes in 222Rn concentration. In the next stage of the research, an attempt to apply 222Rn as one of the isotopic hydrogeochemical tracers of the flow pathway of fissure groundwater will be undertaken. The results show that the highest values of 222Rn concentration (reaching 229 Bq/L) were observed in groundwater flowing out of springs located within granite, whereas the lowest one (1.1 Bq/L) was noted in a spring located within serpentinite. The average 222Rn concentrations obtained in groundwater flowing out of two springs within granite were 170 and 103 Bq/L, whereas the average values in two springs located within amphibolites reached 7.3 and 8.2 Bq/L. The average 222Rn concentrations in the springs flowing out of gabbro and serpentinite amounted to 7.6 and 1.2 Bq/L respectively. The 222Rn concentration in the groundwater flowing out of the spring located within serpentinites was stable during the whole year -- likewise for the discharge of the spring. 222Rn concentrations between 1.1 ± 0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 Bq/L were measured. On the other

  5. The role of mesoscale meteorology in modulating the 222Rn concentrations in Huelva (Spain) – impact of phosphogypsum piles

    The combined analysis of 222Rn activity concentrations and mesoscale meteorological conditions at Huelva city (Spain) was addressed in this study to understand the potential impact of phosphogypsum piles on the 222Rn activity concentrations registered at this area. Hourly mean data from April 2012 to February 2013 registered at two sampling sites (Huelva city and in the background station of El Arenosillo, located 27 km to the south-east) have been used in the study. The results of the present study showed a large difference in mean radon concentrations between the two stations during the sampling period, 6.3 ± 0.4 Bq m−3 at Huelva and 3.0 ± 0.2 Bq m−3 at El Arenosillo. The analysis has demonstrated that hourly 222Rn concentrations at Huelva city above 22 Bq m−3, with nocturnal peaks up to 50 Bq/m3, mainly coincided with the occurrence of a pure sea-land breeze cycle. Mesoscale circulations in this region are mainly characterized by two patterns of sea-land breeze, pure and non-pure, with the phosphosypsum piles directly upstream (south) of the city during the afternoon on pure sea-breeze days. The difference between mean 222Rn activity concentrations at Huelva city were 9.9 ± 1.5 Bq m−3 for the pure pattern and 3.3 ± 0.5 Bq m−3 for the non-pure pattern, while in the background station concentrations were 3.9 ± 0.4 Bq m−3 and 2.8 ± 0.4 Bq m−3 respectively. Considering these large differences, a detailed analysis of composites and case studies of representative sea-land breeze cycles of both types and their impact on 222Rn activity concentration was performed. The results suggested that the presence of the phosphogypsum piles was necessary in order to justify the high 222Rn activity concentrations observed at Huelva compared with the background station in the afternoons on pure sea breeze days (1.5–2.0 Bq m−3). On the other hand, large night time differences between the two sites on these days were likely to be

  6. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan;

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 ...

  7. 36 CFR 222.25 - Protection of wild free-roaming horses and burros when they are upon other than the National...

    2010-07-01

    ...-roaming horses and burros when they are upon other than the National Forest System or public lands. 222.25... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.25 Protection of wild free-roaming horses... animals and herds of wild free-roaming horses and burros will be under the protection of the Chief,...

  8. A preliminary Investigation of 222Rn and 220Rn levels in non-uranium mines in China%我国非铀矿山222Rn和220Rn水平初步调查研究

    尚兵; 崔宏星; 武云云; 张庆召; 苏旭

    2008-01-01

    Objective To measure levels of 222Rn and 220Rn in typical non-uranium mines, China, and to estimate dose from the occupational radon exposure in the miners. Methods Using typical sampling scheme,44 mines were selectcd in 12 provinces, which can be classified into 4 categories and 17 types of mines. The radon-thoron discriminative detectors were used to measure 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in mines. Result The concentration of 222Rn or 220Rn was log-normally distributed. The arithmetic mean (AM) concentration and geometric mean (GM) concentration of 222Rn and 220Rn in 25 metal mines (n=147) were estimated to be (1211±2359) Bq/m3(AM) and (311±5.5) Bq/m3(GM), and (269±700) Bq/m3(AM) and (71±4.4)Bq/m3(GM), respectively. The mean concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn in 18 non-metal mines (n=118) were (98±207) Bq/m3(AM) and(55±2.5) Bq/m3(GM), and (60±76) Bq/m3(AM) and (38±2.4)Bq/m3(GM),respectively. In total, we measured 222 Rn concentration in 44 underground mines, 6 of them, accounted for 15%, with the mean radon concentration exceeding 1000 Bqm-3 (limit of workplace in China). Approximately 7% of radon concentration in mines measured were higher than 3700 Bq/m3(current limit in uranium mine in China), some points even exceeded 10 000 Bq/m3. Based on this typical measurements, the equilibrium factor for 222Rn was estimated to be 0.33±0.15 in underground mines and 0.47±0.18 in nearby houses. Equilibrium factor for 222Rn ranged from 0.001 to 0.032. Using the data obtained in this typical survey, the average annual effective dose of underground miners exposed to radon and thoron was estimated to be 8.15 mSv/a. Conclusions High levels of 222Rn exists in metal mines, such as copper, tin, lead and zinc, gold, and aluminum mines among others. More study and administrative measures are needed to address the radiation protection of workers occupationally exposed to high radon in mines.%目的 测量非铀矿山222Rn、220Rn水平,了解我国矿山氡超标比

  9. The Rn-222 with natural tracer in the study of natural gas transport within sterile cells of mining; O Rn-222 como tracador natural no estudo de transporte de gases no interior de pilhas de estereis de mineracao

    Chagas, Eduardo G.L. das; Dias, Danila C.S.; Guerrero, Eder T. Z.; Alberti, Heber L.C.; Couto, Jeferson A.; Silva, Nivaldo C., E-mail: duglchagas@hotmail.com, E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Braz, Marcelo L. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Abreu, Carolina B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lopez, Dina [Universidade de Ohio (United States); Branco, Otavio [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil); Fleming, Peter M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this work are mapping of Rn-222 concentration in the interstitial air of the cell 4 (BF-4) barren of uranium mining in the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG - Brazil, as well as build an automatic system for collection of interstitial gases.

  10. Continuous on-line calibration of diffusive soil-atmosphere trace gas transport using vertical 220Rn- and 222Rn-activity profiles

    Continuous monitoring of 220Rn- and 222Rn-activities above and below the soil surface combined with sporadic direct 222Rn-flux measurements is used to quantify diffusive trace gas transport in the air-filled pore space of soil, through the soil-atmosphere interface and in the lowest layers of the atmosphere. In a calm night, 222Rn-activities above the surface first build-up near the ground (z 222Rn-flux from activity profiles measured in soil gas, (2) from direct flux determinations and (3) using information about atmospheric diffusion parameters from 220Rn-activities measured near the surface it is possible to model the temporal evolution of the vertical 222Rn-profiles in a night with stable weather and constant soil conditions. The system operates automatically for extended periods of time in the field enabling a better understanding of transport processes in response to changing environmental conditions (wind, rain, soil humidity). (orig.)

  11. High-resolution ion pulse ionization chamber with air filling for the Rn-222 decays detection

    Gavrilyuk, Yu M; Gezhaev, A M; Etezov, R A; Kazalov, V V; Kuzminov, V V; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S; Tekueva, D A; Yakimenko, S P

    2015-01-01

    The construction and characteristics of the cylindrical ion pulse ionization chamber (CIPIC) with a working volume of 3.2 L are described. The chamber is intended to register alpha-particles from the $^{222}$Rn and its daughter's decays in the filled air sample. The detector is less sensitive to electromagnetic pick-ups and mechanical noises. The digital pulse processing method is proposed to improve the energy resolution of the ion pulse ionization chamber. An energy resolution of 1.6% has been achieved for the 5.49 MeV alpha-line. The dependence of the energy resolution on high voltage and working media pressure has been investigated and the results are presented.

  12. Development of Radon-222 as Natural Tracer for Monitoring the Remediation of NAPL in the Subsurface

    Brian M. Davis; Lewis Semprini; Jonathan Istok

    2003-02-27

    Naturally occurring 222-radon in ground water can potentially be used as an in situ partitioning tracer to characterize dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) saturations. The static method involves comparing radon concentrations in water samples from DNAPL-contaminated and non-contaminated portions of an aquifer. During a push-pull test, a known volume of test solution (radon-free water containing a conservation tracer) is first injected (''pushed'') into a well; flow is then reversed and the test solution/groundwater mixture is extracted (''pulled'') from the same well. In the presence of NAPL radon transport is retarded relative to the conservative tracer. Assuming linear equilibrium partitioning, retardation factors for radon can be used to estimate NAPL saturations.The utility of this methodology was evaluated in laboratory and field settings.

  13. High-resolution ion pulse ionization chamber with air filling for the 222Rn decays detection

    Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Gezhaev, A. M.; Etezov, R. A.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Tekueva, D. A.; Yakimenko, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    The construction and characteristics of the cylindrical ion pulse ionization chamber (CIPIC) with a working volume of 3.2 L are described. The chamber is intended to register α-particles from the 222Rn and its daughter's decays in the filled air sample. The detector is less sensitive to electromagnetic pick-ups and mechanical noises. The digital pulse processing method is proposed to improve the energy resolution of the ion pulse ionization chamber. An energy resolution of 1.6% has been achieved for the 5.49 MeV α-line. The dependence of the energy resolution on high voltage and working media pressure has been investigated and the results are presented.

  14. Calibration of radon-222 detectors using closed circuit radium-226 sources

    This paper presents the results of the calibration of the Radon-222 detectors used by the Laboratories specializing in measuring natural radiation from this gas. The research was conducted in collaboration between UTFPR, CDTN/CNEN, UFRN and IRD/CNEN. During the calibration the detectors were exposed in isolated chambers with radioactive calibrated sources. The calibration procedure was supported with four instant radon monitors AlphaGUARD (SAPHYMO Co.) responsible for radon activity measurements in the experimental chamber. The calibration procedure resulted an equation that relates the number of tracks found in solid-state detector CR-39 (Track-Etch detector) with the concentration of radon in the atmosphere. Obtained results are compatible with previously performed calibration at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan) using high activity levels of radon in air. Present results of calibration give the possibility to expand the calibration curve of CR-39 for medium and low activity levels of radon. (author)

  15. Study of radon-222 released from water during typical household activities

    Small quantities of radon-222 can be found in all ground water from natural sources as a result of decay of radium-226 both in water and the soils and soil matrix surrounding the water. Radon in drinking water has previously been considered a source of radiation exposure primarily from an ingestion standpoint. However, the EPA, Office of Radiation Programs, is investigating the potential for exposure to individuals from inhalation of gaseous radon released from water. This report describes the results of a study to determine the fraction of radon released from water during typical household activities such as clothes washing, dishwashing, showering, etc., and estimates the potential radon concentration in air and resulting working levels in structures

  16. Effect of shell structure on neutron multiplicity of fissioning systems 220,222,224Th nuclei

    Goyal Savi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pre- and post-scission neutron multiplicities have been extracted for the 220,222,224Th nuclei for the excitation energy range of 40 MeV to 64 MeV using the National Array of Neutron Detectors (NAND. The Th isotopes are populated from the fusion reaction of 16O+204,206,208Pb systems in order to investigate the dynamics of fusion-fission reactions using the neutron multiplicity as a probe. The theoretical calculations were performed using the Bohr-Wheeler fission width as well as the dissipative dynamical fission width from Kramers prescription. It is observed that the Bohr-Wheeler fission width underestimates the pre-scission yields to a large extent. A large amount of dissipation is required in the Kramers width to fit the observed pre-scission neutron multiplicities.

  17. RADEX: an active monitor for continuous measurement of 222Rn flux in soil

    A radon exhalation monitor, RADEX, was developed at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. RADEX is an active radon monitor that continuously samples radon gas emanating from the soil. A hemispherical accumulator is placed on the soil and radon gas is drawn into the RADEX counter at a low, controlled flow rate. As 222Rn decays, the resulting radon daughters are focused by an electrostatic field, deposited directly onto a semiconductor detector, and counted. RADEX's ability to detect rapid changes in radon exhalation is made possible by analyzing RaA alphas with fast decay times. The pulses produced by the radon daughters are integrated hourly and are recorded. This system can operate unattended for 1 week, at which time a desiccant column must be changed. Thus, RADEX allows one to observe and to record continuously the radon flux from the soil. 8 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  18. Seasonal variations of 222Rn concentrations in the air of a tunnel located in Nagano City

    The survey of 222Rn concentrations in the air of tunnels constructed during World War II at Nagano City has been performed using a solid-state nuclear track detector technique. Concentrations of several thousands Bq m-3 were observed at inner most areas of the tunnel. A seasonal variation was clearly observed; in summer, several times higher concentrations than in winter were observed, which may be due to a stack effect induced by the temperature difference between the tunnel air and the outside air in each season. The concentrations of radon in the tunnel air decrease exponentially towards the openings of the tunnel, which indicates that the radon concentration in the tunnel is basically governed by diffusion and mixing of radon gas with air. (author)

  19. Radon (222Rn) in underground drinking water supplies of the Southern Greater Poland Region

    Activity concentration of the 222Rn radionuclide was determined in drinking water samples from the Southern Greater Poland region by liquid scintillation technique. The measured values ranged from 0.42 to 10.52 Bq/dm3 with the geometric mean value of 1.92 Bq/dm3. The calculated average annual effective doses from ingestion with water and inhalation of this radionuclide escaping from water were 1.15 and 11.8 μSv, respectively. Therefore, it should be underlined that, generally, it's not the ingestion of natural radionuclides with water but inhalation of the radon escaping from water which is a substantial part of the radiological hazard due to the presence of the natural radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series in the drinking water. (author)

  20. 222Rn descendents radioactivity in the low atmosphere and its significance for pollution dust dynamics study

    Original data about the diurnal evolution of natural radioactivity, caused mainly by 222Rn descendants in low atmosphere, and about the solid dust air pollution (measured by the blackening of the aspiration filters with PB-4 are presented. Besides the alpha radioactivity diurnal evolution of Rn descendants collected on aspiration filters, the diurnal evolution of the main meteorological parameters such as: air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure wind speed and direction, cloud amount has been simultaneously studied. The visual estimation of smoke screens, fog and precipitation ensured a complete study of all the meteorological influences and of pollutant sources on atmospheric radioactivity. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis by means of linear correlation coefficients and harmonic analysis highlighted the importance of Rn as a tracer in the air-mass dynamics study. (author)

  1. Uranium-series disequilibrium in quaternary soils - significance of 222Rn hazard assessment

    Radon and its daughter products have been identified as major sources of environmental radiation. Estimates of the amount of exposure to human beings indicate that this radiation may be a leading cause of lung cancer. An important part of studies that assess the potential radon hazard is accurate measurement of natural radioactivity in the surficial geologic environment or soil zone. Sources of surficial geologic radioactivity on a regional scale can be measured by laboratory estimates of quantities of uranium, thorium, and potassium in typical mapped geological units or by airborne gamma spectrometric surveys. In both of these methods, assumptions are made about the distribution of uranium and its decay products, including 222Rn, in soils and surficial geologic materials. In this paper the authors show that the distribution of uranium and its decay products in soils can be complex and difficult to predict

  2. Development of Radon-222 as Natural Tracer for Monitoring the Remediation of NAPL in the Subsurface

    Naturally occurring 222-radon in ground water can potentially be used as an in situ partitioning tracer to characterize dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) saturations. The static method involves comparing radon concentrations in water samples from DNAPL-contaminated and non-contaminated portions of an aquifer. During a push-pull test, a known volume of test solution (radon-free water containing a conservation tracer) is first injected (''pushed'') into a well; flow is then reversed and the test solution/groundwater mixture is extracted (''pulled'') from the same well. In the presence of NAPL radon transport is retarded relative to the conservative tracer. Assuming linear equilibrium partitioning, retardation factors for radon can be used to estimate NAPL saturations.The utility of this methodology was evaluated in laboratory and field settings

  3. A study on the risk from indoor radon 220 and radon 222 exposures

    The hazards from radon (radon 220 and 222) in dwelling atmospheres have been studied. In the first part devoted to the present state of the problem, an analysis is made of the formation mechanisms and the evolution of radon and its daughters indoors. The main physical and dosimetric quantities required for the risk evaluation are defined. The theoretical and experimental analysis of the methods of measurements of radon and its daughters used in the measurement campaign are considered in the second part. The progress and the result of the national survey are developed in the third part. The effects of several factors on indoor levels are discussed. The conclusions of a particular study in the Finistere ''department'' are presented. The data collected make it possible to assess the mean exposure of man to natural radiation

  4. Removal of the long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters from copper and stainless steel surfaces

    Zuzel, G., E-mail: grzegorz.zuzel@uj.edu.pl [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 103 980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Wojcik, M. [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-06-01

    Removal of the long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters from copper and stainless steel surfaces was investigated. Etching and electropolishing were applied to discs exposed earlier to a strong radon source for {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po deposition. Cleaning efficiency for {sup 210}Pb was tested with a n-type high purity germanium spectrometer, for {sup 210}Bi a beta spectrometer and for {sup 210}Po an alpha spectrometer was used. According to the performed measurements electropolishing removes very effectively all the isotopes from copper and stainless steel. Copper etching reduces efficiently lead and bismuth however for polonium the effect is negligible because of its fast re-deposition. For stainless steel, etching is much more effective compared to copper and it also works for {sup 210}Po.

  5. Removal of long-lived 222Rn daughters by electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel

    Schnee, R. W.; Bowles, M. A.; Bunker, R.; McCabe, K.; White, J.; Cushman, P.; Pepin, M.; Guiseppe, V. E.

    2013-08-01

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the 222Rn decay chain on detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay. Removal of tens of microns of material via electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing radon daughters implanted into material surfaces. Some applications, however, require the removal of uniform and significantly smaller thicknesses. Here, we demonstrate that electropolishing steel plates reduces the contamination efficiently, by a factor > 100. Examination of electropolished wires with a scanning electron microscope confirms that the thickness removed is reproducible and reasonably uniform. Together, these tests demonstrate the effectiveness of removal of radon daughters for a proposed low-radiation, multi-wire proportional chamber (the BetaCage), without compromising the screener's energy resolution. More generally, electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel may effectively remove radon daughters without compromising precision-machined parts.

  6. Removal of long-lived $^{222}$Rn daughters by electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel

    Schnee, R W; Bunker, R; McCabe, K; White, J; Cushman, P; Pepin, M; Guiseppe, V E

    2014-01-01

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the $^{222}$Rn decay chain on detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double-beta decay. Removal of tens of microns of material via electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing radon daughters implanted into material surfaces. Some applications, however, require the removal of uniform and significantly smaller thicknesses. Here, we demonstrate that electropolishing 100. Examination of electropolished wires with a scanning electron microscope confirms that the thickness removed is reproducible and reasonably uniform. Together, these tests demonstrate the effectiveness of removal of radon daughters for a proposed low-radiation, multi-wire proportional chamber (the BetaCage), without compromising the screener's energy resolution. More generally, electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel may effectively remove radon daughters without compromising precision-machined parts.

  7. Removal of long-lived Rn-222 daughters by electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel

    Frascatore, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Bowles, M. A.; Bunker, R.; McCabe, K.; White, J.; Cushman, P.; Pepin, M.; Guiseppe, V. E.

    2013-10-01

    Long-lived daughter particles from the 222Rn decay chain may present a limiting background in dark matter detecting experiments. Electropolishing has proven to be an effective method at removing these daughter particles from material surfaces, particularly stainless steel. The removal of steel reduces the sample daughter contamination by a factor > 100. The total thickness removed due to electropolishing is fairly uniform, as observed by examining samples with a scanning electron microscope. Electropolishing can therefore be used for precision-machined equipment and applications which require the removal of uniform and significantly small thicknesses. Here, the relationship between thickness removed and removal of daughter contamination is studied, including corrections for systematic uncertainties produced by drifts in the digital scale calibration, alpha detector gain drifts, and grow-in of 210Po.

  8. Removal of the long-lived 222Rn daughters from copper and stainless steel surfaces

    Zuzel, G.; Wójcik, M.

    2012-06-01

    Removal of the long-lived 222Rn daughters from copper and stainless steel surfaces was investigated. Etching and electropolishing were applied to discs exposed earlier to a strong radon source for 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po deposition. Cleaning efficiency for 210Pb was tested with a n-type high purity germanium spectrometer, for 210Bi a beta spectrometer and for 210Po an alpha spectrometer was used. According to the performed measurements electropolishing removes very effectively all the isotopes from copper and stainless steel. Copper etching reduces efficiently lead and bismuth however for polonium the effect is negligible because of its fast re-deposition. For stainless steel, etching is much more effective compared to copper and it also works for 210Po.

  9. Continuous 222Rn measurements in water to perform a hydrograph separation

    To get information about the different components of runoff before, during and after heavy rain events, micro catchments were selected to perform hydrograph separations using the radioactive noble gas 222Rn and the stable isotope 18O as natural occurring, conservative tracers. These tracers help to separate 'pre event', 'event', and 'post event' water in the total runoff. The selected micro basins are situated in the western part of Luxembourg and belong to the Attert River catchment area. Our investigations are a part of the project 'Cycleau' which is studying risk assessments in the Attert River area. By combining the databases great opportunities for comparison were realized. So far the catchment areas have been studied for two years. Continuous monitoring radon detectors were installed at selected measuring points, which were important for the different flow regimes. Along with the detectors precision thermometers, conductivity instruments, CO2-detectors, flow meter, v-notches, and automatic sampler for chemical analysis were set up. Besides the continuous measurements for 222Rn, point samples were taken for liquid scintillation analysis (LCS). Single rain events will have been sampled and measured intensively for 222Rn (LCS) and 18O in two to three days field campaigns, for a comparison of the continuous method with the 18O results and to strengthen our data by the end of march 2004. During the first year of this study instrument testing and evaluation was performed. Different radon monitor units were examined to find instruments that work best under field conditions. Additionally, separate units had to be constructed for a degassing of the solved gases out of the water, because the instruments for radon measuring were constructed for radon in air not for radon in water. A 'bubbler' had be developed that performs the degassing process. The techniques will be presented. Through stable results from our instrument developments, we observed different radon peaks

  10. Estimated doses related to 222Rn concentration in bunker for radiotherapy and storage of radioisotopes

    It was done a survey in radiotherapy services underground hospitals and clinics of Venezuela and Paraguay in order to estimate the concentrations of radon and its possible consequences on worker occupational exposure. Passive dosimeters were used to assess nuclear traces (NTD type CR-39®). The concentration of 222Rn is determined based on the density of traces using the calibration coefficient of 1 tr/cm2 equivalent to 0,434 Bqm-3 per month of exposure. Assuming the most likely environmental conditions and the dose conversion factor equal to 9.0 x 10-6 mSv h -1 by Bqm-3, it was determined the average values and estimated the possible risks to health that are on average 3.0 mSva-1 and 150 micro risk cancer

  11. BECK FOUMULA REVISION FOR 222Rn ESCAPE AND WATER CONTENT IN SOIL

    姜让荣; 卢兆伦; 等

    1995-01-01

    This paper points out the limitation of Beck formula and gives a revised formula owing to the water content and 222Rn escape in soil for calculating γ radiation dose rate through the experimental fitting from 576 sets of measured values in Zhejiang Province,When the revised formula is applied to Beijing Municipality,wherer there is a great difference in the meteorology and soil conditions,the calculated average in general is only 3.5% different from that measured;those of every position deviate only2.1% averagely;and their dispersion is in the experimental errors.Therefore,the revised formula possesses a high reliability and a broad suitability,and is an effective method to estimate the γ radiation dose rate onb the land.

  12. Establishment of the {sup 222}Rn traceability chain with the Romanian standard system

    Sahagia, M., E-mail: msahagia@nipne.r [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute of R and D for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH, POB MG-6, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Luca, A.; Waetjen, A.C.; Antohe, A.; Ivan, C. [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute of R and D for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH, POB MG-6, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Varlam, C.; Faurescu, I. [National Institute of R and D for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, ICSI Rm. Valcea (Romania); Cassette, P. [LNE-CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the results obtained in the establishment of the upper level of the traceability chain, primary and secondary {sup 222}Rn measurements, with the standard system realized at IFIN-HH, Romania. The following subjects are presented: (i) the principle of establishing the traceability chain; (ii) the setting up of the final metallic system for the radon standardization and the experimental method; (iii) results obtained in the realization of the traceability chain, by absolute radon standardization with the liquid scintillation counting method (LSC) and relative measurements of activity, using the HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry method and the CENTRONIC IG12/20A ionization chamber, and its validation. The final purpose of the work is to calibrate adequately the secondary standard systems, HPGe spectrometer and ionization chamber, for using them in the measurement of the working standards, various types of recipients containing radon gas, prepared in the laboratory with the radon system.

  13. Roles of Radon-222 and other natural radionuclides in earthquake prediction

    The concentration of 222Rn in subsurface waters is one of the natural parameters being investigated to help develop the capability to predict destructive earthquakes. Since 1966, scientists in several nations have sought to link radon variations with ongoing seismic activity, primarily through the dilatancy model for earthquake occurrences. Within the range of these studies, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-radiation detection techniques have been used in both discrete-sampling and continiuous-monitoring programs. These measured techniques are reviewed in terms of instrumentation adapted to seismic-monitoring purposes. A recent Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory study conducted in central California incorporated discrete sampling of wells in the aftershock area of the 1975 Oroville earthquake and continuous monitoring of water radon in a well on the San Andreas Fault. The results presented show short-term radon variations that may be associated with aftershocks and diurnal changes that may reflect earth tidal forces

  14. Estimates concentrations in bottled 222Rn of the dose due to mineral waters in Iran

    Radon is a radionuclide that has the main role in exposure. Radon in water causes exposure in whole body but the largest dose being received by the stomach, as EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) estimates that radon in drinking water causes about 168 cancer deaths per year: 89percentfrom lung cancer caused by breathing released to the indoor air from water and 11percentfrom stomach cancer caused by consuming water containing radon. Now days the consumption of bottled mineral waters has become very popular. As is known, some kinds of mineral waters contain naturally occurring radionuclides in higher concentration than the usual drinking (tap) water. Surveys and reports on radon in most surface waters is low compared with radon level in groundwater and mineral water. In our work, the concentration of Rn(222) was determined in some bottled mineral waters available in Iran , and in next step the dose contribution ; due to ingestion ; for 1 l d-1 bottled mineral water consumption.

  15. Radionuclide content of and 222Rn emanation from building materials made from phosphate industry waste products.

    Paredes, C H; Kessler, W V; Landolt, R R; Ziemer, P L; Paustenbach, D J

    1987-07-01

    The radionuclide content and 222Rn emanation coefficients of selected construction materials were determined. The materials were analyzed for 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K by gamma-ray spectrometry. Mineral wool insulation, which is made from Tennessee phosphate slag, and commonly used insulation, which is made from blast furnace slag, had similar concentrations of these radionuclides. Concrete blocks made with phosphate slag had enhanced 226Ra and 228Ra contents when compared to ordinary concrete block. The mineral wool insulation materials which were examined had emanation coefficients that were a few (2-6) times 10(-3). All other materials had emanation coefficients that ranged from 6 X 10(-4) to 4 X 10(-2). PMID:3597095

  16. Radionuclide content of and 222Rn emanation from building materials made from phosphate industry waste products

    The radionuclide content and 222Rn emanation coefficients of selected construction materials were determined. The materials were analyzed for 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K by gamma-ray spectrometry. Mineral wool insulation, which is made from Tennessee phosphate slag, and commonly used insulation, which is made from blast furnace slag, had similar concentrations of these radionuclides. Concrete blocks made with phosphate slag had enhanced 226Ra and 228Ra contents when compared to ordinary concrete block. The mineral wool insulation materials which were examined had emanation coefficients that were a few (2-6) times 10(-3). All other materials had emanation coefficients that ranged from 6 X 10(-4) to 4 X 10(-2)

  17. Partitioning of 222Rn entry into a structure surrounded by soil

    This paper describes the entry rate of 222Rn into a basement structure surrounded by a sandy clay loam soil. The highest indoor radon concentrations occurred when the rate of entry was lowest. Data from in-situ measurements were used to identify the entry pathways and also the origins of the radon during periods when the entry rate was low. Results indicated that 25% of the radon entered through the floor-wall joint and 75% through the floor and walls. About 30% of the radon originated in the concrete. Diffusion was the primary transport mechanism. However, radon entry through the floor-wall joint was a combination of diffusion and a convective flow between the subslab region and the interior of the structure. 18 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Numerical modelling of radon-222 entry into houses: An outline of techniques and results

    Andersen, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical modelling is a powerful tool for studies of soil gas and radon-222 entry into houses. It is the purpose of this paper to review some main techniques and results. In the past, modelling has focused on Darcy flow of soil gas (driven by indoor–outdoor pressure differences) and combined...... diffusive and advective transport of radon. Models of different complexity have been used. The simpler ones are finite-difference models with one or two spatial dimensions. The more complex models allow for full three-dimensional and time dependency. Advanced features include: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy......, fractures, moisture, non-uniform soil temperature, non-Darcy flow of gas, and flow caused by changes in the atmospheric pressure. Numerical models can be used to estimate the importance of specific factors for radon entry. Models are also helpful when results obtained in special laboratory or test structure...

  19. Radon-222 as an indicator of continental air masses and air mass boundaries over ocean areas

    Radon (222Rn) has proven to be an excellent indicator of the continental nature of over-ocean air and air mass boundaries. Radon is almost exclusively of continental origin, and low-level real-time monitoring is possible with our improved radon measurement techniques. The transition from continental to maritime air in offshore and onshore winds is rather obvious and can easily be established near large islands or continents as an order-of-magnitude change in radon concentration from a few tens of picocuries per cubic meter or more to a few picocuries per cubic meter or less. Sharply changing radon concentrations are usually associated with frontal areas. Our data have offered insights into air movements, and hence transport of continental materials and pollutants over oceanic areas

  20. Measurements of environmental radon-222 concentrations in indoors and outdoors in Egypt

    The major contribution to population exposure from natural radiation arises from the inhalation of the decay products of radon. Substantial surveys are being conducted by several investigators to estimate the indoor and outdoor exposure nationally and to discover regional variations. In this work, radon concentration in the indoor and outdoor air was determined using the can technique and employing CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector for lengthy exposures. The range of radon-222 activity in this survey was 54 ... 299 pCi.m-3 in Cairo, 22 ... 171 pCi.m-3 in Alexandria and 89 ... 370 pCi.m-3 in Asiut. Measurements carried out in Aswan and Sinai ranged between 98 ... 411 pCi.m-3. Values of indoors and outdoors radon concentrations were found to vary with geographic location, season and height above ground. Further work is going on to study the different parameters affecting the levels of the environmental radon. (orig.)

  1. Measurements of environmental radon-222 concentration in indoor and outdoors in Egypt

    The major contribution to population exposure to natural radiation arises from the inhalation of the decay products of radon. Substantial surveys are being conducted by several investigators to estimate the indoor and outdoor exposure nationally in Egypt and to discover regional variations. In this work, radon concentration in the indoor and the outdoor air was determined using the can technique and employing CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors. The range of 222Rn activity in this survey was 2-11 Bq.m-3 in Cairo, 0.81-6.3Bq.m-3 in Alexandria and Aswan and Sinai ranged between 3.6-15.2 Bq.m-3. Values of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations were found to vary with time of day, geographic location, season and height above the ground. (author)

  2. Time variation of 222Rn concentration and gamma level in a half-basement room

    Correlation between 222Rn (radon) concentration and gamma level in a half-basement has been discussed. In order to decrease the background count of a whole-body counter (WBC), a ventilation blower of 72 m2h-1 was installed. The device succeeded in a big reduction of radon concentration in the half-basement and then the background of WBC (NaI(Tl)) decreased to the 76.5% of the saturated value. Through a radon saturation test the exhalation rate of radon from concrete wall was estimated as 2.1 Bqm-2h-1 by a simple model calculation. In addition, through a ventilation test, the procedure was analyzed by another simple model. (author)

  3. Bethe Ansatz for Supersymmetric Model Constructed from Uq[osp(2|2)(2)] R-Matrix

    YANG Wen-Li; ZHEN Yi

    2001-01-01

    Using the algebraic Bethe ansatz method, we obtain the eigenvalues of transfer matrix of the supersymmetric model constructed from the R-matrix of the twisted affine superalgebra Uq[osp(2|2)(2)] in periodic boundary condition and twisted boundary condition.``

  4. Experimental and theoretical study on cation–π interaction of the univalent thallium cation with [2.2.2]paracyclophane

    Makrlík, E.; Böhm, S.; Sýkora, D.; Klepetářová, B.; Vaňura, P.; Polášek, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 642, DEC 2015 (2015), s. 39-42. ISSN 0009-2614 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 20/2015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : cation–π interaction * thallium cation * [2.2.2]paracyclophane Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2014

  5. National survey on the natural radioactivity and Rn-222 exhalation rate of building materials in the Netherlands

    de Jong, P.; van Dijk, W.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Groot, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports on results of a nationwide survey on the natural radioactivity concentrations and Rn-222 exhalation rates of the prevailing building materials in the Netherlands. In total 100 samples were taken and analyzed for the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, and K-4

  6. Elevation of miR-221 and -222 in the internal mammary arteries of diabetic subjects and normalization with metformin.

    Coleman, Chasity B; Lightell, Daniel J; Moss, Stephanie C; Bates, Michael; Parrino, Patrick E; Woods, T Cooper

    2013-07-15

    Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is associated with increased intimal thickening and accelerated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. We measured the expression of two microRNAs that promote intimal thickening, miR-221/222, and mRNA encoding a downstream target, p27(Kip1), in internal mammary artery (IMA) segments collected from 37 subjects undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The segments were stratified into three groups: non-diabetic subjects (ND), diabetic subjects not on metformin (DMMet-), and diabetic subjects on metformin (DMMet+). The DMMet- group exhibited a significant increase in miR-221/222 and decrease in p27(Kip1) mRNA compared to both the ND and DMMet+ groups. miR-221/222 levels inversely correlated with metformin dose. VSMCs isolated from the IMAs of the DMMet- group proliferate at a faster rate than those of the ND and DMMet+ groups. Further studies into the importance of miR-221/222 in the increased intimal thickening observed in diabetic subjects is warranted. PMID:23648338

  7. Using 222Rn to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and the associated nutrient fluxes into Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea

    Highlights: • The SGD fluxes were estimated using a 222Rn balance model in Xianshan Bay, East China Sea. • A tidal pumping mechanism is an important process driving SGD. • SGD rates decrease with distance from the shoreline. • The SGD and associated nutrients fluxes were higher than those from local streams. • SGD has a significant effect on the marine ecosystem of Xiangshan Bay and the adjacent East China Sea. -- Abstract: Continuous radon (222Rn) monitoring was conducted at two stations (site A and site B) with different perpendicular distance from the shoreline in Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea. Based on a 222Rn balance model (various sources and sinks of 222Rn in coastal water), the average rate of SGD was estimated to be 0.69 cm/day and 0.23 cm/day for site A and site B, respectively. The results from a nutrient analysis of the groundwater indicate that the associated nutrients fluxes loading through the SGD pathway were 4.27 × 106 mol/day for DIN, 2.24 × 104 mol/day for DIP and 1.82 × 106 mol/day for DSi, respectively, which were comparable to or even higher than the levels observed in the local streams. Therefore, adequate attention should be paid to the importance of SGD as one source of nutrients during the eutrophication control process in this area

  8. Use of 222Rn to trace submarine groundwater discharge in a tidal period along the coast of Xiangshan, Zhejiang, China

    222Rn is one of the operative tracers for submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), which plays a significant role in the land-ocean interaction of the estuarine and coastal regions. By the distribution pattern of 222Rn in atmosphere, groundwater and surface seawater, in a full tidal period (25 h) in March 2012, SGD was estimated along the coast of Xiangshan, Zhejiang, China. 222Rn activity in Xiangshan coast was in range of 2.4 x 104 - 1.7 x 105 Bq/m3 with an average of 9.6 x 104 Bq/m3 for groundwater; 0.2 x 102-2.8 x 102 Bq/m3 with an average of 1.1 x 102 Bq/m3 for surface seawater. 222Rn activities in groundwater were much greater than those in surface water, suggesting that the major source of radon came from coastal groundwater discharge. Rn fluxes of atmospheric emissions, sediment, and of 226Ra in situ decay can be negligible in this study, but the tidal effects play a crucial role in Rn fluxes. Using a radon inventory equilibrium model, we estimated that the average SGD was 13.2 cm/day and the average terrestrial SGD flux was 1.8 x 108 m3/day. Furthermore, SGD may have a vital impact on the composition and structure of nutrients in seawater, and contribute to eutrophication events occurring in spring season along the coast of the East China Sea. (author)

  9. Characterization of Rn-222 production in Campo do Cercado C/09 Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais State

    A systematic study for correlating the Rn-222 escape with the main geochemical and mineralogical factors for understanding of some change processes from uranium deposits in Campo do Cercado C-09 in Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais State is described. (author)

  10. A study of the technologically modified sources of 222Rn and its environmental impact in an Indian U mineralised belt.

    Jha, S; Khan, A H; Mishra, U C

    2001-01-01

    These investigations present qualitative and quantitative assessments of the 222Rn contributing potential of the technologically modified sources, e.g. mine exhausts and tailings piles, arising due to the mining and processing of uraniferous minerals at Jaduguda, India. The overall geometric mean of the 222Rn flux from low-grade uranium (U) mill tailings being 1.19 Bq m-2 s-1, requisite attenuation of 37.8% to the recommended limit of 0.74 Bq m-2 s-1 can be attained by a typical clay coverage of 20 cm. Theoretically, feasible options for selection of overburden materials for stabilisation of the tailings piles are examined. Extrapolation studies with a turbulent diffusion model yield an atmospheric dispersion pattern of 222Rn in reasonable correspondence with the prevailing concentrations, especially for locations beyond a 4 km radius. The overall 222Rn contribution of the U complex to the ambient air is the same as that contributed by the adjoining land mass of 2.75 km radius in this mineralised terrain. PMID:11378939

  11. Phosphogypsum as an alternative building material: preliminary modeling and simulation of radon-222 exhalation from blocks and indoor accumulation

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product from the phosphate fertilizer industry and its large-scale utilization as an alternative construction material copes with radiological issues related to radon-222. Zero-order models for radon-222 exhalation from phosphogypsum building blocks and its time-varying accumulation in closed domains (e.g. indoor accumulation) presume homogeneous distribution of radon-222 throughout the enclosure. Having in mind radiological protection design, exhalation characterization of a block sample is a valuable parameter for the corresponding building performance simulation and it can be accomplished by placing a test block inside a test chamber together with a suitable nuclear detector (their relative positioning depends on the chamber geometry). As breakdown of the uniform concentration hypothesis is likely to occur, this preliminary work numerically investigates such model oversimplification. Along with emanation and decay processes, the present mathematical model assumes time-dependent two-dimensional diffusion-dominant mass transfer in a domain containing a sample of porous material, namely the phosphogypsum block of finite thickness. Conversely, as the test chamber is quite small and air-tight closed, convective mass transfer is neglected. Numerically simulated results have confirmed that a non-uniform radon-222 distribution takes place, which can obviously influence the position of the nuclear detector (or its primary element), thus affecting its readings. (author)

  12. 222Rn and 226Ra activity concentrations in groundwaters of southern Poland. New data and selected genetic relations

    Since 2008, the authors have been conducting research into 222Rn and 226Ra activity concentrations in shallow circulation groundwaters in southern Poland. Measurements have been performed with a liquid-scintillation method and ultra low-level liquid-scintillation spectrometers α/β Quantulus 1220. The research carried out so far has demonstrated that in the Sudetes groundwaters with high activity concentrations of 222Rn and 226Ra are common. In other studied areas in southern Poland no shallow circulation groundwaters with high radon or radium concentrations have been found yet. The conducted research has demonstrated that the activity concentration of 222Rn dissolved in shallow circulation groundwaters in the Sudetes depends chiefly on the amount of radon, which after being released as gas from reservoir rocks is dissolved in waters flowing through these rocks. At the same time, the concentration of 222Rn dissolved in some shallow circulation groundwaters in the Carpathians is influenced significantly by the amount of radon produced from the decay of its parent ion 226Ra2+ dissolved in these waters. (author)

  13. 20 CFR 222.10 - When determinations of relationship as wife, husband, widow or widower of employee are made.

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.10 When determinations of relationship as wife, husband, widow or widower of... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When determinations of relationship as...

  14. 20 CFR 222.20 - When determination of relationship as divorced spouse, surviving divorced spouse, or remarried...

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When determination of relationship as...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried Widow(er) § 222.20 When...

  15. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When determinations of relationship are...

  16. Improved green-light-emitting pyrotechnic formulations based on tris(2,2,2-trinitroethyl)borate and boron carbide.

    Klapötke, Thomas M; Krumm, Burkhard; Rusan, Magdalena; Sabatini, Jesse J

    2014-08-28

    Green-light-emitting pyrotechnic compositions based on tris(2,2,2-trinitroethyl)borate (TNEB) and boron carbide have been investigated. The best performing formulations were found to be insensitive to various ignition stimuli, and exhibited very high spectral purities and luminosities compared to previously reported green-light-emitting formulations. PMID:25012058

  17. Improved green-light-emitting pyrotechnic formulations based on tris(2,2,2-trinitroethyl)borate and boron carbide

    Klapötke, Thomas M.; Krumm, Burkhard; Rusan, Magdalena; Sabatini, Jesse J.

    2014-01-01

    Green-light-emitting pyrotechnic compositions based on tris(2,2,2-trinitroethyl)borate (TNEB) and boron carbide have been investigated. The best performing formulations were found to be insensitive to various ignition stimuli, and exhibited very high spectral purities and luminosities compared to previously reported green-light-emitting formulations.

  18. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 222 - Interagency Guidelines Concerning the Accuracy and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer...

    2010-01-01

    ... furnished to consumer reporting agencies; consider whether new, additional, or different policies and... accuracy and integrity of the information it provides to consumer reporting agencies; and whether new... and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies E Appendix E to Part 222...

  19. 12 CFR 222.30 - Obtaining or using medical information in connection with a determination of eligibility for credit.

    2010-01-01

    ... history information in his credit report, the creditor may consider such medical information in evaluating... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining or using medical information in... (REGULATION V) Medical Information § 222.30 Obtaining or using medical information in connection with...

  20. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    2010-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... farm weeds. (2) The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and other Federal or State agencies...

  1. Estimation of submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient fluxes in eastern Laizhou Bay, China using 222Rn

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Hailong; Wang, Xuejing; Zheng, Chunmiao; Wang, Chaoyue; Xiao, Kai; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei; Guo, Huaming

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that the inputs of nutrients to the Bohai Sea are closely related to submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). In this study, the naturally occurring isotope of radon (222Rn) was used as a tracer to assess SGD in eastern Laizhou Bay. The 222Rn concentration during a tidal period was measured continuously and a mass balance model that included atmospheric loss, tidal effects, mixing loss, diffusion from sediments, and SGD was established. The model budget indicated that 222Rn flux attributed to SGD accounted for 58.3% of the total tracer input to the study area. The time-series of 222Rn revealed that the SGD flux ranged from 6.64 to 7.21 cm d-1, with an average of 6.93 cm d-1, in September 2014. The estimated SGD flux is reasonable compared with those previously estimated in other studies by direct measurement methods, hydrogeological simulation and geochemical tracers. This result, as well as the current understanding of nutrients dissolved in groundwater, confirms the importance of SGD in delivering nutrients to Laizhou Bay and possible impact on marine ecological environment.

  2. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303

  3. Radon-222 as communication and information tool about natural radioactivity; O radonio-222 como instrumento na comunicacao e informacao sobre radioatividade natural

    Pelliccione, Nina Beatriz B.; Gouvea, Rita de Cassia S.; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria (LARARA)]. E-mail: egbakel@vm.uff.br; Gouvea, Vandir A. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The nuclear area still suffers from the psychological impact caused by the atomic bombs detonated at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also from the Chernobyl plant explosion. This situation results from two main reasons: manipulation of public opinion and lack of suitable information. In general, knowledge about radioactivity is very superficial, impregnated by preconceived notions transmitted by the media or by pacific organizations and ecologic groups. Rejection attitudes are observed among most of the general public that expresses an opinion although it does not know the subject. To change this situation has been the major challenge of the nuclear sector and needs to better communication with people at large. To teach is fundamental. This work reports on a didactic experiment carried out with 130 under graduating and graduating students in Biology and Environmental Science from the Fluminense Federal University. The goal was to try to perceive the existence of a natural radioactivity, hence not related to human activities, through radon-222 dosage. This practice complements the theoretical lessons, as it illustrates properties of ionizing radiation, and can easily be transposed to the general public. The monitoring equipment works detecting nuclear tracks. It is an easy to handle small and light device - hence friendly, to be put in the most used room of each one's house. It is taught how to use it and how to give correct information to interested people. Radon measurements are discussed with the students, and at the same time they perceive the existence of natural radioactivity, present everywhere, they start to change their own perception of radioactivity, which turns to be very different from their original nuclear imaginary. (author)

  4. Persistence of radon-222 flux during monsoon at a geothermal zone in Nepal

    The Syabru-Bensi hydrothermal zone, Langtang region (Nepal), is characterized by high radon-222 and CO2 discharge. Seasonal variations of gas fluxes were studied on a reference transect in a newly discovered gas discharge zone. Radon-222 and CO2 fluxes were measured with the accumulation chamber technique, coupled with the scintillation flask method for radon. In the reference transect, fluxes reach exceptional mean values, as high as 8700 ± 1500 g m-2 d-1 for CO2 and 3400 ± 100 x 10-3 Bq m-2 s-1 for radon. Gases fluxes were measured in September 2007 during the monsoon and during the dry winter season, in December 2007 to January 2008 and in December 2008 to January 2009. Contrary to expectations, radon and its carrier gas fluxes were similar during both seasons. The integrated flux along this transect was approximately the same for radon, with a small increase of 11 ± 4% during the wet season, whereas it was reduced by 38 ± 5% during the monsoon for CO2. In order to account for the persistence of the high gas emissions during monsoon, watering experiments have been performed at selected radon measurement points. After watering, radon flux decreased within 5 min by a factor of 2-7 depending on the point. Subsequently, it returned to its original value, firstly, by an initial partial recovery within 3-4 h, followed by a slow relaxation, lasting around 10 h and possibly superimposed by diurnal variations. Monsoon, in this part of the Himalayas, proceeds generally by brutal rainfall events separated by two- or three-day lapses. Thus, the recovery ability shown in the watering experiments accounts for the observed long-term persistence of gas discharge. This persistence is an important asset for long-term monitoring, for example to study possible temporal variations associated with stress accumulation and release.

  5. Evaluation of radon-222 concentrations levels at workplaces of Curitiba, PR, Brazil

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Martins Neto, Manoel R., E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba - PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (FPP), Curitiba - PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The radon is noble radioactive gas, which when inhaled and undergoing spontaneous decay emits alpha particles that interacting with the cells of biological tissue stimulates the development of lung cancer. The isotope {sup 222}Rn is responsible for approximately half of the effective dose received by the population from natural radiation sources. Current work is focused at the evaluation of the radon concentration levels in air of different workplaces at Curitiba-PR. For this purpose 126 track-etched detectors CR-39 were mounted inside the diffusion chambers that were distributed at workplaces of three enterprises environments for a period of three months approximately. The diffusion chambers were protected by a borosilicate glass fiber filters. After the exposition in air the detectors were submitted to chemical etching using a solution of 6.25M NaOH at 70°C during 14 hours. Such chemical treatment enables to count alpha particle track using an optical microscope with 100x objective magnification. The density of alpha particle tracks in CR-39 was converted to the radon activity concentration in air using the results of previous calibration performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan. Obtained results show that the concentration of {sup 222}Rn in air at studied workplaces varied from 16±2 Bq/m³ to 78±9 Bq/m³. These values are considered within the limits established by international regulatory agencies such as EPA and ICRP, which consider as normal the radon activity up to 200 Bq/m³ and 148 Bq/m³, respectively. (author)

  6. Quantification of Submarine Groundwater Discharge Using a Radon (222-Rn) Mass Balance and Hydrogeological Modelling

    Petermann, Eric; Stollberg, Reiner; Scholten, Jan; Knöller, Kay; Schubert, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Apart from river and surface water runoff subsurface discharge of groundwater plays a key role in coastal water and matter budgets. Two major forms of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can be distinguished: (i) pure freshwater discharge from continental aquifers that are connected to the coastal sea driven by a positive hydraulic gradient (fresh SGD) and (ii) re-circulation of seawater that has penetrated permeable coastal sediments (re-circulated SGD), e.g. driven by tidal pumping. The localization of SGD zones and the quantification of SGD fluxes is of high interest for coastal water management due to potential threats related to SGD, namely (i) the detrimental impact of discharging nutrient- or contaminant-laden groundwater on coastal seawater quality, an aspect that is of relevance along coastlines which are impacted by agriculture, industry or intense urbanization, and (ii) the loss of freshwater to the ocean, an issue that is of major relevance in all coastal areas with (seasonally) limited freshwater availability. In this work, we discuss estimates for the total (fresh + re-circulated) SGD fluxes derived from a mass balance of the radioactive noble gas radon (222-Rn) with estimates of fresh SGD fluxes derived by hydrogeological modelling. The precision of the mass balance results depends on the adequate determination of the mass balance source and sink terms. These terms are calculated based on field observations of environmental tracers (salinity, δ18O, 222-Rn, 223-Ra, 224-Ra, 226-Ra) in seawater and porewater, as well as on meteorological data. The numerical hydrogeological model estimates groundwater flow based on groundwater monitoring data, river flow data, groundwater recharge estimates, tidal dynamics, and density effects along the freshwater/seawater interface. We compare these two independent methodological approaches of SGD flux estimation, discuss results regarding their relevance for the regional water balance and reason the implications of

  7. The exposure assessment of Rn-222 gas in the atmosphere(II)

    Dose assessment to inhalation exposure of indoor 222Rn daughters in 12 residential areas in Korea has been performed by long term averaged radon concentrations measured with passive CR-39 radon cups. A simple mathematical lung dosimetry model based on the ICRP-30 was derived to estimate the indoor radon daughters exposure. The long term average indoor 222Rn concentrations and corresponding equilibrium equivalent radon concentrations (EECRn) in 12 areas showed a range of 33.82 ∼ 61.42 Bq.m-3 (median : 48.90 Bq.m-3) and of 13.53 ∼ 24.57 Bq.m-3 (median: 19.55 Bq.m-3), respectively. Reference dose conversion functions for evaluation of regional lung dose and effective dose equivalent for unit exposure to EECRn have been derived for an adult. The effective dose equivalent conversion factor was estimated to be 1.07 x 10-5 mSv/Bq.h.m-3 and this conversion factor agreed well with that recommended by the ICRP and UNSCEAR report. The annual average dose equivalents(H) to Tracheo-Bronchial and Pulmonary region of the lung, and total lung from exposure to measured EECRn were estimated to be 17.52 mSv.y-l, 3.35 mSv.y-l and 20.90 mSv.y-1, respectively, and the resulting effective dose equivalent(HE) was estimated to be 1.25 mSv.y-l, which is almost 50% of the natural radiation exposure of 2.40 mSv.y-l reported by the UNSCEAR. (Author)

  8. Measurement of (222)Rn by absorption in plastic scintillators and alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination.

    Mitev, Krasimir K

    2016-04-01

    This work demonstrates that common plastic scintillators like BC-400, EJ-200 and SCSF-81 absorb radon and their scintillation pulse decay times are different for alpha- and beta-particles. This allows the application of pulse shape analysis for separation of the pulses of alpha- and beta-particles emitted by the absorbed radon and its progeny. It is shown that after pulse shape discrimination of beta-particles' pulses, the energy resolution of BC-400 and EJ-200 alpha spectra is sufficient to separate the peaks of (222)Rn, (218)Po and (214)Po and allows (222)Rn measurements that are unaffected by the presence of thoron ((220)Rn) in the environment. The alpha energy resolution of SCSF-81 in the experiments degrades due to imperfect collection of the light emitted inside the scintillating fibers. The experiments with plastic scintillation microspheres (PSM) confirm previous findings of other researchers that PSM have alpha-/beta-discrimination properties and show suitability for radon measurements. The diffusion length of radon in BC-400 and EJ-200 is determined. The pilot experiments show that the plastic scintillators are suitable for radon-in-soil-gas measurements. Overall, the results of this work suggest that it is possible to develop a new type of radon measurement instruments which employ absorption in plastic scintillators, pulse-shape discrimination and analysis of the alpha spectra. Such instruments can be very compact and can perform continuous, real-time radon measurements and thoron detection. They can find applications in various fields from radiation protection to earth sciences. PMID:26851823

  9. Evaluation of the atmospheric transport model NIRE-CTM-96 by using measured radon-222 concentrations

    An atmospheric transport model, NIRE-CTM-96, was evaluated by using measured radon-222 concentrations. The model has 2,5x2,5 degree horizontal resolution and 15 vertical levels. Assimilated global meteorological data for 1990-1996 from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts were used to drive the model. We used an emanation rate of radon-222 of 1 atom/cm2/s over mostly ice-free land. Simulated concentrations were compared with measured concentrations for 22 sites worldwide including 10 stations in China. Simulated annual mean concentrations for Freiburg, Germany, and Socorro, New Mexico, and for four stations in northern China were consistent with the measured concentrations. Simulated daily concentrations for Ogasawara-Hahajima, Japan, correlated well with the measured concentrations. Simulated upper tropospheric concentrations for Moffet Field, California, demonstrated the cross-Pacific transport from central Eurasia and India-Indochina area. Simulated concentrations for two stations in southern China were almost half of the measured concentrations. Mixing layer depth in the model was consistent with other estimates which indicates higher emanation rate there. Simulated concentrations for the South Indian Ocean and the Antarctic during summer were significantly lower than the measured concentrations; this difference was accounted for when emanation from the ocean at a rate of 0.01 atom/cm2/s was included in the model. The model failed to simulate amplitudes of high-concentration events at Mauna Loa. These high-concentration events were possibly a result of filament-like horizontal structure or laminated vertical structure. The vertical as well as horizontal resolution of the model were supposed to be insufficient to reproduce these fine structures

  10. Persistence of radon-222 flux during monsoon at a geothermal zone in Nepal

    Girault, Frederic [Equipe de Geomagnetisme, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, UMR-7154 and Universite Paris-Diderot, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: girault@ipgp.jussieu.fr; Koirala, Bharat Prasad [National Seismic Centre, Department of Mines and Geology, Lainchaur, Kathmandu (Nepal); Perrier, Frederic [Equipe de Geomagnetisme, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, UMR-7154 and Universite Paris-Diderot, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Richon, Patrick [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Equipe de Geologie des Systemes Volcaniques, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, UMR-7154, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Rajaure, Sudhir [National Seismic Centre, Department of Mines and Geology, Lainchaur, Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2009-11-15

    The Syabru-Bensi hydrothermal zone, Langtang region (Nepal), is characterized by high radon-222 and CO{sub 2} discharge. Seasonal variations of gas fluxes were studied on a reference transect in a newly discovered gas discharge zone. Radon-222 and CO{sub 2} fluxes were measured with the accumulation chamber technique, coupled with the scintillation flask method for radon. In the reference transect, fluxes reach exceptional mean values, as high as 8700 {+-} 1500 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for CO{sub 2} and 3400 {+-} 100 x 10{sup -3} Bq m{sup -2} s{sup -1} for radon. Gases fluxes were measured in September 2007 during the monsoon and during the dry winter season, in December 2007 to January 2008 and in December 2008 to January 2009. Contrary to expectations, radon and its carrier gas fluxes were similar during both seasons. The integrated flux along this transect was approximately the same for radon, with a small increase of 11 {+-} 4% during the wet season, whereas it was reduced by 38 {+-} 5% during the monsoon for CO{sub 2}. In order to account for the persistence of the high gas emissions during monsoon, watering experiments have been performed at selected radon measurement points. After watering, radon flux decreased within 5 min by a factor of 2-7 depending on the point. Subsequently, it returned to its original value, firstly, by an initial partial recovery within 3-4 h, followed by a slow relaxation, lasting around 10 h and possibly superimposed by diurnal variations. Monsoon, in this part of the Himalayas, proceeds generally by brutal rainfall events separated by two- or three-day lapses. Thus, the recovery ability shown in the watering experiments accounts for the observed long-term persistence of gas discharge. This persistence is an important asset for long-term monitoring, for example to study possible temporal variations associated with stress accumulation and release.

  11. Direct initiation of the photopolymerization of acrylates by 222 nm excimer UV radiation

    Complete text of publication follows. Usually, the photopolymerisation of functionalised monomers and oligomers requires the addition of one or several photoinitiators to the formulation. The light of typically used mercury lamps (1>250 nm) is mainly absorbed by the photoinitiator leading to initiating species (radicals) with a high quantum yield. The introduction of excimer lamps as monochromatic UV sources with an intense short-wavelength emission opens up new possibilities for a photoinitiator-free initiation of the acrylate polymerisation. Like most other organic compounds, acrylates strongly absorb light with a wavelength shorter than about 220 to 240 nm, and they can therefore be directly excited by the 222 nm excimer radiation from a KrCl* lamp. Real-time FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used to study the reactivity of various neat acrylates. Depending on the absorption coefficient, aliphatic acrylates can be cured up to a thickness of several microns whereas for highly absorbing aromatic acrylates, the depth of cure reaches only some hundred nanometres. Since the radical yield is low, photopolymerisation without photoinitiator has to be performed in an inert atmosphere. Laser photolysis experiments were carried out with a KrCl* excimer laser (pulse width 20 ns, up to 5 mJ per pulse) to investigate the primary processes of the direct initiation. Additionally, quantum chemical calculations were performed to assist the interpretation of the photolysis data. For all acrylates studied, direct excitation at 222 nm first leads to the formation of a triplet state which is highly localized at the vinyl double bond (and not at the carbonyl group). This triplet state may undergo different reactions like inter- and intramolecular hydrogen transfer and biradical formation as well as the addition to a ground state molecule (chain start). Our current interpretation of the experimental results and the quantum chemical calculations will be presented and discussed

  12. Summary of Laboratory Capabilities Fact Sheets Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility and 222-S Laboratory Complex

    This summary of laboratory capabilities is provided to assist prospective responders to the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) Requests for Proposal (RFP) issued or to be issued. The RFPs solicit development of treatment technologies as categorized in the CHG Requests for Information (RFI): Solid-Liquid Separations Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG01; Cesium and Technetium Separations Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG02; Sulfate Removal Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG03; Containerized Grout Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG04; Bulk Vitrification Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG05; and TRU Tank Waste Solidification for Disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG06 Hanford Analytical Services, Technology Project Management (TPM), has the capability and directly related experience to provide breakthrough innovations and solutions to the challenges presented in the requests. The 222-S Complex includes the 70,000 sq ft 222-S Laboratory, plus several support buildings. The laboratory has 11 hot cells for handling and analyzing highly radioactive samples, including tank farm waste. Inorganic, organic, and radiochemical analyses are performed on a wide variety of air, liquid, soil, sludge, and biota samples. Capabilities also include development of process technology and analytical methods, and preparation of analytical standards. The TPM staff includes many scientists with advanced degrees in chemistry (or closely related fields), over half of which are PhDs. These scientists have an average 20 years of Hanford experience working with Hanford waste in a hot cell environment. They have hundreds of publications related to Hanford tank waste characterization and process support. These would include, but are not limited to, solid-liquid separations engineering, physical chemistry, particle size analysis, and inorganic chemistry. TPM has had revenues in excess of $1 million per year for the past decade in above

  13. Radon-222 in Brazil: an outline of indoor and outdoor measurements

    This study discusses the methodology for measuring and assessing the radon concentration in indoor and outdoor environments. A research study was developed to investigate the long-term behavior of the diurnal and seasonal fluctuations of radon 222Rn EEC (Equilibrium-Equivalent Concentration) and the influence of temperature and other climatic aspects on this behavior. The study was performed by means of both integrated and instantaneous measurements of radon and its short-lived daughter products for a period of 1 year in an indoor environment in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil (reference environment), with continuous measurement, using a radon monitor with an alpha spectrometry detector. For a single day, a variability of about 50% could be observed in the 222Rn EEC values measured on a hourly basis, with a maximum occurring early in the morning and a minimum in the afternoon. For the long-term period, seasonality is responsible for a two order of magnitude variability, with a maximum of 50 Bq.m-3 in winter (dry season) and a minimum of 0.5 Bq.m-3 in the summer months (wet season), outdoors. A negative correlation with temperature was observed. The conclusions of this experiment led to a survey of radon gas concentration in dwellings in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, in urban area with nearly 7 million inhabitants, through integrated sampling methods, using a Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors Technique (SSNTD). The study was conducted in different geomorphological locations in town. The radon gas concentration in Rio de Janeiro dwellings ranged from 5 Bq.m-3 to 200 Bq.m-3. A good correlation between indoor radon gas concentration and location of dwellings was observed. The seashore areas presented the lowest levels of indoor radon concentration, whereas the highest levels were found close to the mountains

  14. Specificity of the Spectrophotometry for Detecting Aminopolyether K2.2.2 in 18F-FDG

    ZHANG Jin-ming

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 氨基聚醚(K2.2.2含量是18F-FDG质控中的关键指标,比较了两种常用测量K2.2.2方法的专属性。分别采用分光光度计和半定量TLC 碘显色法测量了14个样品,其中9个阴性样品、2个阳性样品和3个供试品,并与LC-MS/MS测量对比。结果显示:9个阴性样品经分光光度计法测量均为阳性,K2.2.2的测量结果在6.7~470.0 μg/mL;2个阳性样品结果偏高(53,73 μg/mL),3个供试品的K2.2.2含量在14.3~19.2 μg/mL;半定量TLC 碘显色法测量9个阴性样品结果为阴性,2个阳性样品半定量结果与实际一致,3个供试品的K2.2.2含量低于10 μg/mL;LC-MS/MS法测量的14个样品的结果与半定量TLC 碘显色法的结果一致。以上结果表明,半定量TLC 碘显色法测量K2.2.2的专属性较好,适用于测量18F-FDG溶液中K2.2.2含量。

  15. Development of method for quantification of 222Rn exhalation ratio at radioactive waste dam and soil study as mitigator material

    The Brazilian uranium mining company (INB) processed 2.32 106 tons of uranium ore in its ore treatment unit (UTM - Caldas), located in the Pocos de Caldas plateau. During 16 years of operation, this unit discarded 2.39 106 tons of solid waste in a tailing dam, with an average activity concentration of 226Ra of 7311 ± 184 Bq kg-1. Most of the atoms of 222Rn generated from the radioactive waste of the tailing dam remain bounded to the mineral structure. However, a fraction of these atoms can be released from the mineral structure and then emanate. Reaching the porous space of the waste piles, the 222Rn moves towards the interface waste-atmosphere, exhaling into the atmosphere. The featuring properties of the 222Rn transport and the biological damage caused by its progeny transform this small chain of radionuclides into a scourge of nature. Because of that, the dry area of the tailing dam was the scope of this work. A methodology was developed for quantifying the exhalation rate of 222Rn. Moreover, the soil from its surroundings was experimentally evaluated as a cover material to reduce the exhalation of 222Rn. A collector of 222Rn was developed, being denominated 607. This collector was proved to be exact and precise after laboratory tests, when a standard for 222Rn exhalation was prepared with caldasite, an uranium ore with high concentration of 226Ra (26611 ± 581 Bq kg-1), crushed to the granulometric interval from 1.168 mm to 0.589 mm. The results of 222Rn exhalation rate using the collector 607 were not influenced by the adsorption of water steam, considering sampling periods lower than 5 days and mass of water steam lower than 7 g. Sampling for measuring 222Rn exhalation rates in the dry area of the tailing dam was carried out using the collector 607, following the experimental design established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The average exhalation rate in the west part of the tailing dam was 1.30 ± 1.24 Bq m-2 s-1 in the

  16. Effect of anaesthetics MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    Feng, G.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Kynard, B.; Shi, X.; Duan, M.; Liu, J.; Huang, X.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were studied. MS-222 caused higher glucose (GLU) concentrations in anaesthetic test groups than for the control group. Triglyceride (TGL) concentrations of fish in the 140 and 160mgL-1 groups were also significantly higher than those of other groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than the level in 80, 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than those in the 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Levels of total protein (TP), cholesterol (CHOL) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in anaesthetic test groups were not significantly influenced by MS-222. Clove oil did not have significant effects on levels of GLU, TP, CHOL, ALT and ALP. TGL concentration of fish exposed to 180mgL-1 clove oil was significantly higher than those of the rest anaesthetic groups. AST activities of fish exposed to 120, 150 and 180mgL-1 were significantly higher than those of 60 and 90mgL-1. Overall, TGL and AST could be potentially used as indicators of anaesthetic stress for juvenile Siberian sturgeon. Based on blood biochemical parameters, the appropriate anaesthetic concentrations of MS-222 and clove oil were 80-120mgL-1 and 60-90mgL-1, respectively. Clove oil was a promising alternative to MS-222. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  17. Role of miR-222-3p in c-Src-Mediated Regulation of Osteoclastogenesis

    Shinya Takigawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play a mostly post-transcriptional regulatory role in gene expression. Using RAW264.7 pre-osteoclast cells and genome-wide expression analysis, we identified a set of miRNAs that are involved in osteoclastogenesis. Based on in silico analysis, we specifically focused on miR-222-3p and evaluated its role in osteoclastogenesis. The results show that the inhibitor of miR-222-3p upregulated the mRNA levels of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, while its mimicking agent downregulated their mRNA levels. Western blot analysis showed that its inhibitor increased the protein levels of TRAP and cathepsin K, while its mimicking agent decreased their levels. Genome-wide mRNA expression analysis in the presence and absence of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL predicted c-Src as a potential regulatory target of miR-222-3p. Live cell imaging using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET technique revealed that miR-222-3p acted as an inhibitor of c-Src activity, and a partial silencing of c-Src suppressed RANKL-induced expression of TRAP and cathepsin K, as well as the number of multi-nucleated osteoclasts and their pit formation. Collectively, the study herein demonstrates that miR-222-3p serves as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis and c-Src mediates its inhibition of cathepsin K and TRAP.

  18. Insights on the structural perturbations in human MTHFR Ala222Val mutant by protein modeling and molecular dynamics.

    Abhinand, P A; Shaikh, Faraz; Bhakat, Soumendranath; Radadiya, Ashish; Bhaskar, L V K S; Shah, Anamik; Ragunath, P K

    2016-04-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) protein catalyzes the only biochemical reaction which produces methyltetrahydrofolate, the active form of folic acid essential for several molecular functions. The Ala222Val polymorphism of human MTHFR encodes a thermolabile protein associated with increased risk of neural tube defects and cardiovascular disease. Experimental studies have shown that the mutation does not affect the kinetic properties of MTHFR, but inactivates the protein by increasing flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) loss. The lack of completely solved crystal structure of MTHFR is an impediment in understanding the structural perturbations caused by the Ala222Val mutation; computational modeling provides a suitable alternative. The three-dimensional structure of human MTHFR protein was obtained through homology modeling, by taking the MTHFR structures from Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus as templates. Subsequently, the modeled structure was docked with FAD using Glide, which revealed a very good binding affinity, authenticated by a Glide XP score of -10.3983 (kcal mol(-1)). The MTHFR was mutated by changing Alanine 222 to Valine. The wild-type MTHFR-FAD complex and the Ala222Val mutant MTHFR-FAD complex were subjected to molecular dynamics simulation over 50 ns period. The average difference in backbone root mean square deviation (RMSD) between wild and mutant variant was found to be ~.11 Å. The greater degree of fluctuations in the mutant protein translates to increased conformational stability as a result of mutation. The FAD-binding ability of the mutant MTHFR was also found to be significantly lowered as a result of decreased protein grip caused by increased conformational flexibility. The study provides insights into the Ala222Val mutation of human MTHFR that induces major conformational changes in the tertiary structure, causing a significant reduction in the FAD-binding affinity. PMID:26273990

  19. Is 222Rn a suitable tracer of stream–groundwater interactions? A case study in central Italy

    Highlights: ► Modeling riverbank infiltration in an alluvial plain. ► 222Rn gave information about the river water residence times within the aquifer. ► TDS allowed to estimate the extent of mixing between surface waters and groundwater. ► Stream-bank infiltration velocities are smaller in the high-flow than in the low-flow period. - Abstract: River water infiltration into an unconfined porous aquifer (∼73% gravels, ∼12% sands, ∼15% silts and clays) in the Petrignano d’Assisi plain, central Italy, was traced combining isotopic techniques (222Rn) with hydrochemical and hydrogeologic techniques in order to characterize the system under study. The 222Rn gave information about the river water residence times within the aquifer and hydrochemical data, in a two-component mixing model, which allowed estimating the extent of mixing between surface waters and groundwater in wells at increasing distances from the river. The mixing measured in the well closer to the riverbank indicated a higher contribution of river water (up to 99%) during the groundwater recession phase and a moderate contribution (up to 64%) during the recharge phase. A model describing 222Rn concentrations in groundwater as the result of both parent/daughter nuclide equilibrium and mixing process (222Rn mixing/saturation model) was used to describe observed Rn concentrations and mixing index trends with the aim of evaluating water mean infiltration velocities along the transect. The stream bank infiltration velocities obtained by the model ranged from 1 m day−1 during groundwater recharge periods, when river water infiltration is lower, to 39 m day−1 during recession phases, when river water infiltration is larger

  20. Functional characterisation of the regulation of CAAT enhancer binding protein alpha by GSK-3 phosphorylation of Threonines 222/226

    Hastie CJ

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK3 activity is repressed following insulin treatment of cells. Pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 mimics the effect of insulin on Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK, Glucose-6 Phosphatase (G6Pase and IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP1 gene expression. CAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα regulates these gene promoters in liver and is phosphorylated on two residues (T222/T226 by GSK3, although the functional outcome of the phosphorylation has not been established. We aimed to establish whether CEBPα is a link between GSK3 and these gene promoters. Results C/EBPα represses the IGFBP1 thymine-rich insulin response element (TIRE, but mutation of T222 or T226 of C/EBPα to non-phosphorylatable alanines has no effect on C/EBPα activity in liver cells (towards the TIRE or a consensus C/EBP binding sequence. Phosphorylation of T222/T226 is decreased by GSK3 inhibition, suggesting GSK3 does phosphorylate T222/226 in intact cells. However, phosphorylation was not altered by treatment of liver cells with insulin. Meanwhile C/EBPα activity in 3T3 L1 preadipocytes was enhanced by mutation of T222/T226 and/or S230 to alanine residues. Finally, we demonstrate that C/EBPα is a very poor substrate for GSK3 in vitro and in cells. Conclusion The work demonstrates an important role for this domain in the regulation of C/EBPα activity in adipocytes but not hepatocytes, however GSK3 phosphorylation of these residues does not mediate regulation of this C/EBP activity. In short, we find no evidence that C/EBPα activity is regulated by direct phosphorylation by GSK3.

  1. Lysine at position 222 of the goat prion protein inhibits the binding of monoclonal antibody F99/97.6.1.

    Mazza, Maria; Guglielmetti, Chiara; Pagano, Marianna; Sciuto, Simona; Ingravalle, Francesco; Martucci, Francesca; Caramelli, Maria; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2012-09-01

    Prion protein (PrP) is encoded by the PRNP gene, which is highly polymorphic in goats, with polymorphisms encoding amino acid substitutions at the protein level. In the current study, the reactivity of monoclonal antibody (mAb) F99/97.6.1 in binding PrP from goats polymorphic at PRNP codon 222 was investigated. Nervous tissue from 30 scrapie-negative goats with 3 different genotypes (222Q/Q, 222Q/K, and 222K/K) was analyzed by Western blot using mAbs P4 and F99/97.6.1. Although PrP was detected in all 30 samples by mAb P4, detection of PrP by mAb F99/97.6.1 was limited to 222Q/Q (12/12). No PrP was detected by mAb F99/97.6.1 in the 222K/K samples (n = 6), and the signal intensity of mAb F99/97.6.1 for PrP was lower for the 222Q/K samples (12/12 samples). To further investigate these results, additional Western blot analyses were performed, and the PrP signals detected by mAbs F99/97.6.1 and SAF84 were then quantified. The mean F99/SAF84 ratio (± standard deviation) calculated for the 222Q/Q group was 0.73 ± 1.26, and the mean for the 222Q/K group was 0.27 ± 1.31. Statistical analysis of these values evidenced statistically significant differences between the 222Q/Q and 222Q/K samples. The results of the study thus revealed an inhibition by lysine at position 222 on the binding of mAb F99/97.6.1 to goat PrP. This has implications for the use of mAb F99/97.6.1 for diagnostic purposes. Because the 222K allele could be a target for genetic selection in goats, the differential reactivity of mAb F99/97.6.1 could be exploited with a genotyping test setup. PMID:22914824

  2. Down-regulation of MicroRNAs 222/221 in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia with Deranged Core-Binding Factor Subunits

    Matteo Brioschi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Core-binding factor leukemia (CBFL is a subgroup of acutemyeloid leukemia (AML characterized by genetic mutations involving the subunits of the core-binding factor (CBF. The leukemogenesis model for CBFL posits that one, or more, gene mutations inducing increased cell proliferation and/or inhibition of apoptosis cooperate with CBF mutations for leukemia development. One of the most commonmutations associated with CBF mutations involves the KIT receptor. A high expression of KIT is a hallmark of a high proportion of CBFL. Previous studies indicate that microRNA (MIR 222/221 targets the 3′ untranslated region of the KIT messenger RNA and our observation that AML1 can bind the MIR-222/221 promoter, we hypothesized that MIR-222/221 represents the link between CBF and KIT. Here, we show that MIR-222/221 expression is upregulated after myeloid differentiation of normal bone marrow AC133+ stem progenitor cells. CBFL blasts with either t(8;21 or inv(16 CBF rearrangements with high expression levels of KIT (CD117 display a significantly lower level of MIR-222/221 expression than non-CBFL blasts. Consistently, we found that the t(8;21 AML1-MTG8 fusion protein binds the MIR-222/221 promoter and induces transcriptional repression of a MIR-222/221-LUC reporter. Because of the highly conserved sequence homology, we demonstrated concomitant MIR-222/221 down-regulation and KIT up-regulation in the 32D/WT1 mouse cell model carrying the AML1-MTG16 fusion protein. This study provides the first hint that CBFL-associated fusion proteins may lead to up-regulation of the KIT receptor by down-regulating MIR-222/221, thus explaining the concomitant occurrence of CBF genetic rearrangements and overexpression of wild type or mutant KIT in AML.

  3. Functional balance between the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 HA D222 variants.

    Jean-Sébastien Casalegno

    Full Text Available D222G/N substitutions in A(H1N1pdm09 hemagglutinin may be associated with increased binding of viruses causing low respiratory tract infections and human pathogenesis. We assessed the impact of such substitutions on the balance between hemagglutinin binding and neuraminidase cleavage, viral growth and in vivo virulence.Seven viruses with differing polymorphisms at codon 222 (2 with D, 3 G, 1 N and 1 E were isolated from patients and characterized with regards hemagglutinin binding affinity (Kd to α-2,6 sialic acid (SAα-2,6 and SAα-2,3 and neuraminidase enzymatic properties (Km, Ki and Vmax. The hemagglutination assay was used to quantitatively assess the balance between hemagglutinin binding and neuraminidase cleavage. Viral growth properties were compared in vitro in MDCK-SIAT1 cells and in vivo in BALB/c mice. Compared with D222 variants, the binding affinity of G222 variants was greater for SAα-2,3 and lower for SAα-2,6, whereas that of both E222 and N222 variants was greater for both SAα-2,3 and SAα-2,6. Mean neuraminidase activity of D222 variants (16.0 nmol/h/10(6 was higher than that of G222 (1.7 nmol/h/10(6 viruses and E/N222 variants (4.4 nmol/h/10(6 viruses. The hemagglutination assay demonstrated a deviation from functional balance by E222 and N222 variants that displayed strong hemagglutinin binding but weak neuraminidase activity. This deviation impaired viral growth in MDCK-SIAT1 cells but not infectivity in mice. All strains but one exhibited low infectious dose in mice (MID50 and replicated to high titers in the lung; this D222 strain exhibited a ten-fold higher MID50 and replicated to low titers. Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase balance status had a greater impact on viral replication than hemagglutinin affinity strength, at least in vitro, thus emphasizing the importance of an optimal balance for influenza virus fitness. The mouse model is effective in assessing binding to SAα-2,3 but cannot differentiate SAα-2,3- from SA

  4. The HIV-1 Tat protein modulates CD4 expression in human T cells through the induction of miR-222

    Orecchini, Elisa; Doria, Margherita; Michienzi, Alessandro; Giuliani, Erica; Vassena, Lia; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia; Galardi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Several cellular microRNAs show substantial changes in expression during HIV-1 infection and their active role in the viral life cycle is progressively emerging. In the present study, we found that HIV-1 infection of Jurkat T cells significantly induces the expression of miR-222. We show that this induction depends on HIV-1 Tat protein, which is able to increase the transcriptional activity of NFkB on miR-222 promoter. Moreover, we demonstrate that miR-222 directly targets CD4, a key receptor...

  5. A direct evidence for high carbon dioxide and radon-222 discharge in Central Nepal

    Perrier, F.; Byrdina, S. [Inst Phys Globe, UMR 7154, Equipe Geomagnetisme, F-75005 Paris (France); Univ Paris Diderot, F-75005 Paris (France); Richon, P.; Bollinger, L.; Bureau, S. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, DIF, Dept Anal Surveillance Environm, 91 (France); Richon, P. [Inst Phys Globe, UMR 7154, Equipe Geol Syst Volcan, F-75005 Paris (France); France-Lanord, Ch. [CNRS, Ctr Rech Petrog and Geochim, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Rajaure, S.; Koirala, Bharat Prasad; Shrestha, Prithvi Lal; Gautam, Umesh Prasad; Tiwari, Dilli Ram; Sapkota, Soma Nath [Natl Seism Ctr, Dept Mines and Geol, Kathmandu (Nepal); Revil, A. [Colorado Sch Mines, Dept Geophys, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Revil, A. [Univ Savoie, Equipe Volcans, CNRS, LGIT, UMR 5559, Chambery (France); Contraires, S. [Inst Phys Globe, Equipe Geomat and Environm, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2009-02-15

    Gas discharges have been identified at the Syabru-Bensi hot springs, located at the front of the High Himalaya in Central Nepal, in the Main Central Thrust zone. The hot spring waters are characterized by a temperature reaching 61 C, high salinity, high alkalinity and {delta}{sup 13}C varying from +0. 7 parts per thousand to +4. 8 parts per thousand. The gas is mainly dry carbon dioxide, with a {delta}{sup 13}C of -0. 8 parts per thousand. The diffuse carbon dioxide flux, mapped by the accumulation chamber method, reached a value of 19000 g m{sup -2}day{sup -1}, which is comparable with values measured on active volcanoes. Similar values have been observed over a two-year time interval and the integral around the main gas discharge amounts to 0. 25 {+-} 0. 07 mol s{sup -1}, or 350 {+-} 100 ton a{sup -1}. The mean radon-222 concentration in spring water did not exceed 2. 5 Bq L{sup -1}, exponentially decreasing with water temperature. In contrast, in gas bubbles collected in the water or in the dry gas discharges, the radon concentration varied from 16 000 to 41000 Bq m{sup -3}. In the soil, radon concentration varied from 25000 to more than 50000 Bq m{sup -3}. Radon flux, measured at more than fifty points, reached extreme values, larger than 2 Bq m{sup -2}s{sup -1}, correlated to the larger values of the carbon dioxide flux. Our direct observation confirms previous studies which indicated large degassing in the Himalaya. The proposed understanding is that carbon dioxide is released at mid-crustal depth by metamorphic reactions within the Indian basement, transported along pre-existing faults by meteoric hot water circulation, and degassed before reaching surface. This work, first, confirms that further studies should be undertaken to better constrain the carbon budget of the Himalaya, and, more generally, the contribution of mountain building to the global carbon balance. Furthermore, the evidenced gas discharges provide a unique natural laboratory for

  6. Measurements of 222 Rn in the indoor of dwellings in the Argentinean Republic

    The 222 Rn is responsible for approximately half of the dose in the population resultant of the exposure to natural radiation. Most of this dose comes from the inhalation of the offspring of the 222 Rn, and these doses they are specially important in set closed. The concentration of gas radon has been measured in housings of different cities of the Argentinean Republic. The elected cities are representative of the different geologic areas of our territory. For this its were used as detecting measurement method of nuclear tracks, electret detectors and detectors based on the adsorption in activated coal. Its were analyzed a total of 2689 housings from 1983 to the date. The average value of the radon concentration obtained starting from the 2689 monitored housings was of 41.6 Bq.m-3. The effective annual dose calculated starting from this radon concentration, using a dosimetric factor of 25 μSv.a-1 (Bq.m-3), which assumes an equilibrium factor of 0.4, was of 1.04 mSv. Also, with the objective of determining the dose in form more exact, during the year 2000 it put on to point a passive technique for the simultaneous measurement such the radon concentration like of the equilibrium factor. This technique uses in oneself device two detectors of nuclear traces. The average value obtained starting from 204 monitored housings by this method of simultaneous measurement turns out to be 47.1 Bq.m-3 and 0.36 the equilibrium factor, being obtained a value of effective annual dose of 1.38 mSv. It fits to highlight that are very few the values above 200 Bq.m-3 and in any case the 300 Bq.m-3 is overcome. Analyzing the average equilibrium factor measured of 0.36, it was concluded that having assumed an equilibrium factor of 0.4 was adequate, for what for great measurement campaigns it can continue using the simple method that determines only the radon concentration. Comparing the obtained results by both methods, although the first counts with a statistic more important, both are

  7. A direct evidence for high carbon dioxide and radon-222 discharge in Central Nepal

    Gas discharges have been identified at the Syabru-Bensi hot springs, located at the front of the High Himalaya in Central Nepal, in the Main Central Thrust zone. The hot spring waters are characterized by a temperature reaching 61 C, high salinity, high alkalinity and δ13C varying from +0. 7 parts per thousand to +4. 8 parts per thousand. The gas is mainly dry carbon dioxide, with a δ13C of -0. 8 parts per thousand. The diffuse carbon dioxide flux, mapped by the accumulation chamber method, reached a value of 19000 g m-2day-1, which is comparable with values measured on active volcanoes. Similar values have been observed over a two-year time interval and the integral around the main gas discharge amounts to 0. 25 ± 0. 07 mol s-1, or 350 ± 100 ton a-1. The mean radon-222 concentration in spring water did not exceed 2. 5 Bq L-1, exponentially decreasing with water temperature. In contrast, in gas bubbles collected in the water or in the dry gas discharges, the radon concentration varied from 16 000 to 41000 Bq m-3. In the soil, radon concentration varied from 25000 to more than 50000 Bq m-3. Radon flux, measured at more than fifty points, reached extreme values, larger than 2 Bq m-2s-1, correlated to the larger values of the carbon dioxide flux. Our direct observation confirms previous studies which indicated large degassing in the Himalaya. The proposed understanding is that carbon dioxide is released at mid-crustal depth by metamorphic reactions within the Indian basement, transported along pre-existing faults by meteoric hot water circulation, and degassed before reaching surface. This work, first, confirms that further studies should be undertaken to better constrain the carbon budget of the Himalaya, and, more generally, the contribution of mountain building to the global carbon balance. Furthermore, the evidenced gas discharges provide a unique natural laboratory for methodological studies, and appear particularly important to study as a function of time

  8. Deposition of Chernobyl-derived transuranium nuclides and short- lived radon-222 progeny in Finland

    In this study the atmospheric deposition of radionuclides was investigated from two different viewpoints. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986 caused a widely spread plume of radionuclides, including transuranium elements. The regional deposition of these elements in Finland was assessed based on lichen and peat samples. Unlike the deposition of transuranium elements from the weapons tests in the 1950's and 1960's, the deposition from the Chernobyl accident was very unevenly distributed in Finland. Also, the Chernobyl-derived deposition of 299,240Pu even in the most contaminated regions in Finland was still only some 10 per cent of the global fallout from weapons tests. On the other hand, the measured activity concentrations of 241Pu in the upper parts of lichen samples are comparable to those found in samples comparable during the heaviest weapons-test fallout in the early 1960's. The observed average 241Pu/239,240Pu activity ratio in the upper parts of lichen, 95, can be expected to lead at its maximum in the year 2059 to 241Am/239,240Pu activity ratio of 2.8 in the Chernobyl-derived deposition, exclusive of the 241Am present in the original deposition in 1986. The deposition pattern of transuranium elements observed in this work resembles that of refractory gamma-emitting nuclides such as 95Zr and 141Ce. The sampling area of this investigation does not cover the northern part of Finland. However, the fallout pattern of 95Zr would suggest that the deposition of transuranium nuclides north of the 65th latitude was very low. Biological half-lives of 730 d and 320 d for Pu and Am, respectively, were obtained in lichen in this study. The second part of this work is concerned with the factors affecting the wet deposition efficiency of the natural short-lived radon-222 progeny. This was studied with two methods: using recordings of external gamma radiation in central Finland, and using an automatic precipitation gamma analyser in northern Finland

  9. Calibration of a degassing-emanation line for 222Rn determination in seawater samples; Calibracao de uma linha de emanacao para determinacao de {sup 222}Rn em amostras de agua do mar

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to calibrate a degassing-emanation line and to determine {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in seawater samples. This methodology, also called Lucas method, consists in the extraction of radon (originally dissolved in seawater), collection of the gas in a liquid nitrogen cold trap and transfer from the trap to an alpha scintillation cell. Total extraction efficiencies of the 4 degassing-emanation systems were determined by measuring {sup 226}Ra reference solutions. The efficiencies obtained for these 4 systems varied from 21 % to 62%. This work also presents preliminary results of a study carried out in a series of small embayements of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State-Brazil: Flamengo Bay, Fortaleza Bay, Mar Virado Bay and Ubatuba Bay. Concentration of Rn in excess varied from 0,011 to 0,317 Bq/L for Flamengo Bay, from 0,009 to 0,130 Bq/L for Fortaleza Bay, from 0,018 to 0,050 Bq/L for Mar Virado Bay and from 0,004 to 0,120 Bq/L for Ubatuba Bay. The results obtained for the concentration of {sup 222}Rn in excess in a transect at Flamengo Bay varied from 0,002 to 0,036 Bq/L. Higher concentrations of {sup 222}Rn in excess were obtained in Flamengo Bay, Fortaleza Bay and Ubatuba bay. It was also observed that the concentration of {sup 222}Rn in excess increases with depth, as expected. (author)

  10. Study of Rn-222 exhalation in phosphogypsum through the adsorption technique in activated coal; Estudo da exalacao de Rn-222 em fosfogesso por meio da tecnica de adsorcao em carvao ativado

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa; Campos, Marcia Pires de, E-mail: mbnisti@ipen.b, E-mail: mpcampos@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The radon exhalation was estimated through the adsorption in activated carbon technique. Classified as TENORM, the radon exhalation determination on the phosphogypsum piles was performed through the adsorption ratio of radon in activated carbon, from the concentration of descendants of {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi obtained by gamma spectrometry. The results obtained in this work were compatibles with the values found in the literature

  11. Dosimetry of Rn-222 in the air in environments located above and below ground level; Dosimetria de Rn-222 no ar em ambientes localizados acima e abaixo do nivel do solo

    Cazula, Camila Dias

    2015-07-01

    Exposure of the general population to ionizing radiation comes mainly from natural sources. The main contribution is due to inhalation of radon (Rn-222), a gas that occurs naturally (UNSCEAR, 2000). The Rn-222 concentration in the environment is controlled by factors such as soil permeability and water content, the weather variability, materials used in the foundation and the usual positive pressure differential between the soil and the internal environment. Studies indicate that the concentration of radon shows a wide variation in the basement, ground floor and upper floors of buildings. The objective of this study is to determine radon levels in basements, ground floor and floors above ground level, at a university in the city of Sao Paulo and in one residential building in the city of Peruibe. Rn-222 measurements were performed using the method with nuclear track of solid state detectors (CR-39). The studied environments present Rn-222 concentration well below the values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, published in the 2009 document, of 300 Bq/m{sup 3} for homes and 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} for the workplace. In the residential building, the concentration of Ra-266, Th-232 and K-40 in the materials used in the building construction was also analyzed, by gamma spectrometry. The effective total dose for the resident due to external exposure was 0.8 mSv y{sup -1}, lower than the annual dose limit for the general public of 1 mSv y{sup -1}. (author)

  12. Investigation of some factors affecting on release of radon-222 from phosphogypsum waste associated with phosphate ore processing.

    Hilal, M A; El Afifi, E M; Nayl, A A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is oriented to investigate the influence of some physicochemical factors such as radium distribution, grain size, moisture content and chemical constituents on releases of radon-222 from the accumulated phosphogypsum (PG) waste. The emanation fraction, activity concentration in the pore and the surface exhalation rate of radon-222 in the bulk PG waste are 34.5 ± 0.3%, 238.6 ± 7.8 kBq m(-3) and 213 ± 6.9 mBq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. These values were varied and enhanced slightly in the fine grain sizes (F1 roads or dam construction. PMID:25863719

  13. Atmospheric chemistry observation at the summit of Mt. Fuji using 7Be and 222Rn as atmospheric tracers

    Observations on atmospheric naturally occurring radionuclides, which have definite sources could provide useful information on emission, transport and removal processes, etc for other important atmospheric chemical species. For the purpose, 7Be and 222Ru seem most useful to know about the free tropospheric processes. We have observed 7Be and 222Ru at the summit of Mt. Fuji (3,776 m a.s.l.) along with O3, SO2, CO. Those data were analyzed to suggest the possible transport of O3 from the upper atmosphere and of polluted air mass from the boundary layer over the Asian continent to the lower free troposphere over Japan. The present work shows the possible application of the atmospheric radionuclides data to understanding the atmospheric physical and chemical processes. (author)

  14. Precursory Subsurface 222Rn and 220Rn Degassing Signatures of the 2004 Seismic Crisis at Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys; Marrero, Rayco; Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Nolasco, Dácil

    2007-12-01

    Precursory geochemical signatures of radon degassing in the subsurface of the Tenerife Island were observed several months prior to the recent 2004 seismic-volcanic crisis. These premonitory signatures were detected by means of a continuous monitoring of 222Rn and 220Rn activity from a bubbling CO2-rich gas spot located at 2.850 m depth inside a horizontal gallery for groundwater exploitation at Tenerife. Multivariate Regression Analysis (MRA) on time series of the radon activity was applied to eliminate the radon activity fluctuation due to external variables such as barometric pressure, temperature and relative humidity as well as power supply. Material Failure Forecast Method (FFM) was successfully applied to forecast the anomalous seismicity registered in Tenerife Island in 2004. The changes in the 222Rn/220Rn ratio observed after the period of anomalous seismicity might suggest a higher gas flow rate and/or changes in the vertical permeability induced by seismic activity.

  15. Experimental test on the use of MS-222 for ostracod anaesthesia: concentration, immersion period and recovery time

    Francesc MEZQUITA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia of animals may be useful for different purposes, particularly for veterinary reasons or in experimental research, for manipulation or treatment of immobilized but alive animals. Its use in crustaceans is not uncommon, but it has never been described for Ostracoda. We provide brief and preliminary guidelines on the use of the tricaine mesylate (MS-222 on the widespread freshwater ostracod Eucypris virens and we show that this compound is an effective anaesthetic used as a bath treatment at minimum concentrations of 500 mg L-1. This value is considerably higher than that recommended for other aquatic animals like fish. Recovery time, ranging from 5 to 15 minutes, is mostly determined by anaesthetic bath concentration, while bath duration influenced to a lesser extent. Anaesthesia induced with MS-222 can prove useful for minute manipulation of living ostracods e.g. for identification, marking or image capture under the microscope.

  16. A long-period Cepheid variable in the starburst cluster VdBH222

    Clark, J S; Lohr, M E; Dorda, R; González-Fernández, C; Lewis, F; Roche, P

    2015-01-01

    Galactic starburst clusters play a twin role in astrophysics, serving as laboratories for the study of stellar physics and also delineating the structure and recent star formation history of the Milky Way. In order to exploit these opportunities we have undertaken a multi-epoch spectroscopic survey of the red supergiant dominated young massive clusters thought to be present at both near and far ends of the Galactic Bar. Significant spectroscopic variability suggestive of radial pulsations was found for the yellow supergiant VdBH 222 #505. Follow-up photometric investigations revealed modulation with a period of ~23.325d; both timescale and pulsational profile are consistent with a Cepheid classification. As a consequence #505 may be recognised as one of the longest period Galactic cluster Cepheids identified to date and hence of considerable use in constraining the bright end of the period/luminosity relation at solar metallicities. In conjunction with extant photometry we infer a distance of ~6kpc for VdBH22...

  17. Using (222)Rn as a tracer of geodynamical processes in underground environments.

    Valladares, D L; da Silva, A A R; Lacerda, T; Anjos, R M; Rizzotto, M; Velasco, H; de Rosas, J P; Tognelli, G; Yoshimura, E M; Ayub, J Juri

    2014-01-15

    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, were measured and analyzed, with the aim to assess the potential use of this radioactive noble gas as a tracer of geological processes in underground environments. La Carolina gold mine and Los Cóndores tungsten mine are today used as tourism mines. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose. Measurements were performed during both winter and summer seasons. The findings show that in these environments, significant radon concentrations are subject to large seasonal fluctuations, due to the strong dependence on natural ventilation with the outside temperature variations. For both mines, higher concentration values of (222)Rn were observed in summer than in winter; with an extreme ratio of 2.5 times between summer and winter seasons for Los Cóndores mine. The pattern of radon transport inside La Carolina mine revealed, contrary to what was believed, that this mine behaves as a system with two entrances located at different levels. However, this feature can only be observed in the winter season, when there is a marked difference between the inside and outside temperatures of the mine. In the case of Los Cóndores mine, the radon concentration pattern distribution is principally established by air current due to chimney-effect in summer and winter seasons. In both cases, the analyses of radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents, and then localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments. PMID:24012891

  18. Parameters of calibration of the measurement system of 222 Rn based in LR-115

    Since the SSNTD technique (Solid State Nuclear Track Detection) it was discovered it has been used as passive method for the detection of subnuclear particles in great variety of fields of the science. The use of the technique in measurements of 222 Rn in air have already been established implying better methodologies in the exhibition to the environment until their engraving and reading processes. The SSNTD technique is since a method by comparison since the material it can be used a single time, therefore it requires of calibration in one controlled radon atmosphere, using gauged standards. The objective of this work is to show the calibration of the devices used as radon monitors based on SSNTD. The material used as SSNTD is LR-115 Il. The standardization of the parameters used in the exhibition to radon in air, engraving and reading process, its are based on the response of the LR-115 Il, the one arrangement of the device, engraving speed and mainly the calibration factor. They are considered two types of monitors: Open camera and Closed camera, the difference among the calibration factors of both cameras is the percentage of the descendants of radon in the open camera. The standardized parameters are operation voltage of the counting system; temperature, time and concentration of the engraving solution; and thickness. (Author)

  19. Genetic effects of radon 222 in a population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically exposed

    It was investigated the mutagenic effect of Radon 222 during a experimental period of 11 generations. In this lapse Drosophila melanogaster larvae line Canton-S were maintained in a radon atmosphere. In each test generation had been extracted males, consequently exposed to radiation which were subjected to a crossing series with a bearer marker genes of according to the Wallace experimental design (1956). Due to the experimental conditions it only was determined the recessive lethal mutations frequency for the second chromosome in the 1,4,7 and 11 generations. Of all study it was conduced in parallel way a non-treated witness population. The concentrations at which was subjected the experimental population varied of generation to generation from 12 ± 2 to 43 ± 5 kBq/m3. Our analysis correspond to lethality determination in 1182 second chromosomes distributed between two populations and the different exposition generations. The study allow to determine the respective frequencies of recessive lethal genes varying according to the population and/or generation between 10.53 and 22.02%. The statistical analysis of data did not show significant differences among the different populations. (Author)

  20. Estimating the relation between groundwater and river water by measuring the concentration of Rn-222

    Yoneda, Minoru; Morisawa, Shinsuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the relationship between groundwater in shallow layer and river water by determining the concentrations of {sup 222}Rn and nitric nitrogen along with water temperature. The region around ca. 20 km along river A in a certain basin was chosen as a test area. The Rn concentration of groundwater was determined by Rn extracting with toluene and counting in liquid scintillation counter, whereas for river water, it was determined by activated charcoal passive collector method developed by the authors, by which the amount of Rn adsorbed on activated charcoal was estimated by Ge-solid state detector. In addition, water temperature and nitric nitrogen concentration were measured at various points in the test area. Thus, a distribution map of the three parameters was made on the basis of the data obtained in December, 1989. Since Rn concentration is generally higher in ground water than river water and the water temperature in December is higher in the former, it seems likely that the concentrations of Rn and nitric nitrogen would become higher in the area where ground water soaks into river water. Thus, the directions of ground water flow at the respective sites along river A were estimated from the data regarding the properties of ground water. (M.N.)