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Sample records for actinium 222

  1. Extraction of actinium with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid from hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions

    The extraction of actinium with HDEHP from Cl- and NO3- systems has been investigated. It was found that extraction of actinium from HCl solutions is much better than from HNO3 solutions. Stability constants of actinium complexes Ac(X-)+2 with Cl- and NO3- ligands were determined. Our results show that the actinium formed less stable complexes with Cl- than with NO3- ligands. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  2. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results

  3. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  5. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  6. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development. PMID:22697483

  7. Radium, thorium, and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manganese-oxide-coated fiber

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency with which improved manganese-oxide-coated acrylic fibers extract radium, thorium, and actinium from seawater. Tests were made using surface seawater spiked with 227Ac, 227Th and 223Ra. For sample volumes of approximately 30 liters and flow rates up to 0.5 liters per minute, radium and actinium are removed quantitatively. Approximately 80-95% of the thorium is removed under these same conditions. (Auth.)

  8. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  9. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces ∼100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 GeV protons

  10. Neutron-Induced Fission of Actinium-227, Protactinium-231 and Neptunium-237: Mass Distribution

    Results of radiochemical studies on the mass distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinium-227, protactinium-231 and neptunium-237 have been presented. This work has been carried out as part of a programme to determine the mass distribution in the fission of heavy elements as a function of Z and A. All irradiations have been carried out in the core of the swimming-pool type reactor APSARA with cadmium shielding wherever necessary. Relative yields of several fission product nuclides have been obtained by a method involving a comparison of the fission product activities from the respective targets with those formed from uranium-235 simultaneously irradiated. Thermal-neutron fission yields of uranium-235 have been assumed. These results indicate a predominantly asymmetric mass distribution in all the three cases, and also a distinct though small symmetric peak in the case of actinium-227. (author)

  11. A new method for the determination of low-level actinium-227 in geological samples

    We developed a new method for the determination of 227Ac in geological samples. The method uses extraction chromatographic techniques and alpha-spectrometry and is applicable for a range of natural matrices. Here we report on the procedure and results of the analysis of water (fresh and seawater) and rock samples. Water samples were acidified and rock samples underwent total dissolution via acid leaching. A DGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) extraction chromatographic column was used for the separation of actinium. The actinium fraction was prepared for alpha spectrometric measurement via cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. Recoveries of actinium in water samples were 80 ± 8 % (number of analyses n = 14) and in rock samples 70 ± 12 % (n = 30). The minimum detectable activities (MDA) were 0.017-0.5 Bq kg-1 for both matrices. Rock sample 227Ac activities ranged from 0.17 to 8.3 Bq kg-1 and water sample activities ranged from below MDA values to 14 Bq kg-1of 227Ac. From the analysis of several standard rock and water samples with the method we found very good agreement between our results and certified values. (author)

  12. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  13. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  14. Comment: 222 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available 222.png Shinobu Okamoto (Kazusa DNA Research Institute ) licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan シアノバクテリア 光学顕微鏡写真 撮影:岡本忍(かずさDNA研究所) bando 2010/02/15 15:28:38 2010/02/16 10:25:09 ...

  15. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS—towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm − 1 which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  16. MAT 222 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    mirat

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MAT 222 Week 1 Solving Proportions (Ash) MAT 222 Week 1 DQ 1 Can't Cancel Terms (Ash) MAT 222 Week 2 DQ 1 One-Variable Compound Inequalities (Ash) MAT 222 Week 2 Two-Variable Inequalities (Ash) MAT 222 Week 3 DQ 1 Simplifying Radicals (Ash) MAT 222 Week 3 Real World Radical Formulas (Ash) MAT 222 Week 4 DQ 1 Solving Quadratic Equations (Ash) MAT 222 Week 4 Real World Quadratic Functions (Ash) ...

  17. 40 CFR 61.222 - Standard.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard. 61.222 Section 61.222... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From the Disposal of Uranium Mill Tailings § 61.222 Standard. (a) Radon-222 emissions to the ambient air...

  18. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  19. Release of 222Rn from some soils

    M. Pérez

    Full Text Available Measurements have been made of 222Rn release from diverse soils in the region surrounding Málaga, Spain. These flux measurements were carried out by two methods. A direct method using a static chamber technique and another indirect method obtained from concentration profile measurements of 222Rn in the soil air. The effects of meteorological variables and other parameters on 222Rn flux were studied. The factors that most affected the instantaneous value of 222Rn release were humidity and soil thermal gradient. The directly measured 222Rn fluxes at investigated sites are higher than 222Rn fluxes derived by the indirect method.

  20. 42 CFR 93.222 - Research.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research. 93.222 Section 93.222 Public Health... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.222 Research. Research means a systematic experiment, study,...

  1. 29 CFR 553.222 - Sleep time.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleep time. 553.222 Section 553.222 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.222 Sleep time... enforcement personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude sleep...

  2. 14 CFR 13.222 - Evidence.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.222 Section 13.222 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.222 Evidence. (a... evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct any cross-examination that may be required for a...

  3. 48 CFR 222.7404 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements 222.7404 Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.222-7006 Restrictions on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements, in all solicitations and contracts... commercial items, including commercially available off-the-shelf items....

  4. 33 CFR 2.22 - Territorial sea.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territorial sea. 2.22 Section 2... Jurisdictional Terms § 2.22 Territorial sea. (a) With respect to the United States, the following apply— (1) Territorial sea means the waters, 12 nautical miles wide, adjacent to the coast of the United States...

  5. 222-S Laboratory maintenance implementation plan

    Heinemann, J.L.

    1997-08-13

    This Maintenance Improvement Plan has been developed for maintenance functions associated with the 222-S Laboratory. This plan is developed from the guidelines presented by Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4B, Maintenance Management Program (DOE 1994), Chapter 11. The objective of this plan is to provide information for establishing and identifying WMH conformance programs and policies applicable to implementation of DOE Order 4330.4B guidelines. In addition, this maintenance plan identifies the actions necessary to develop a cost effective and efficient maintenance program at 222-S Laboratory. Maintenance activities are mainly going to be performed by existing maintenance organizations within Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford (WMH). Most maintenance performed at 222-S Laboratory is performed by the 222-S Laboratory maintenance organization. This 222-S Laboratory Maintenance Implementation Plan provides the interface requirements and responsibilities as they apply specifically to 222-S Laboratory. This document provides an implementation schedule which has been developed for items considered to be deficient or in need of improvement. The discussion section as applied to 222-S Laboratory implementation has been developed from a review of programs and practices utilizing the graded approach. Biennial review and additional reviews are conducted as significant programmatic and mission changes are made. This document is revised as necessary to keep this document current and in compliance with DOE requirements.

  6. 222Rn at a Groundwater Treatment Plant

    Groundwater is a source of drinking water, usually of good quality, but compared with surface water the concentrations of radionuclides of natural origin are higher. A drinking water treatment plant for treating groundwater was monitored. The raw water is aerated, filtered through gravity sand filters and then aerated again. Radium-226 extracted from the raw water is partially retained in the filtration sand. Decay of the accumulated 226Ra generates gaseous 222Rn which is released into the treated water and into the air of the plant hall, especially during the washing of the filters. Radon-222 can pose a health risk to the operating personnel or to the public. The study evaluated the following factors: 222Ra and 226Ra concentrations in the raw and treated water, the amount of 226Ra accumulated in the filtration sand and the 222Rn concentration in the air of the plant. (author)

  7. Redox properties of Eu(222)3+/Eu(222)2+ and (222)H22+/H2,(222)H+ systems and their use as a reference potential in organic solvents

    The Eu(222)3+/Eu(222)2+ electrochemical system is reversible and rapid IN H2O, MeOH, DMSO, DMF, CH3CN and TMU and can be used as a potential reference. The (222)H22+/H2, (222)H+ system allows the measurement of the difference in basicity between those solvents

  8. Intercomparison of Rn-222 determination from groundwater

    Vesterbacka, P.; Pettersson, H.; Hanste, U.-M.;

    2010-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing, transpor......An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing...

  9. Radon-222 on the island of Hawaii

    The island of Hawaii, like other locations in a marine environment, has low levels of atmospheric 222Rn. The low concentrations of 222Rn and its decay products result from a low average flux density of 9.8 mBq m-2 s-1, the mixing of marine air from the Pacific having a 222Rn concentration of only 0.04 Bq m-3 with air from over the island, and the decay of 222Rn as it is transported in air masses across the Pacific primarily from the Asian continent. The overall mean concentration over the Island The overall mean concentration over the Island was found to be 0.44 Bq m-3 compared with a figure of about 8 Bq m-3 for air over continents. A consideration of the island as a source of 222Rn must take into account the relatively low average flux density associated with the lava fields and accompanying thin soils. The 222Rn formed from the U and 226Ra present in the lava cannot escape to the atmosphere. The deep agricultural soils, on the other hand, provide relatively high flux densities. When the areas of the soil types are taken into account, the exhalation for the lava fields, thin organic soils, and deep agricultural soils were 0.25, 1.7, and 32 MBq s-1, respectively. Measurements of indoor 222Rn on the island indicate levels of approximately 25 Bq m-3 which is appreciably lower than 40 Bq m-3 taken as an average for indoor levels on the mainland. Based on an assumed indoor occupancy level of 0.8, the effective dose equivalent for inhaled 222Rn and its decay products on Hawaii is 1.2 mSv y-1. This is only a little more than one-half of that for a resident of the continental United States who is estimated to receive an effective dose equivalent of 2 mSv y-1. The relatively low effective dose equivalent for the population on the island may have interesting effects in comparison with people living in areas where the inhaled dose from 222Rn is much higher

  10. Indoor 222Rn in Tennessee Valley houses

    A two-season survey of indoor 222Rn concentrations was conducted in 226 occupied houses in Roane County, TN, during 1985 and 1986. A similar survey of 86 houses in Madison County, AL, was conducted in 1988 and 1989. Alpha track detectors were placed in each of the houses for three or more months during the winter heating season, and during the following cooling season. Comparisons were made between winter and summer sampling times and between building types. For the data from Madison County, additional comparisons were made among regions of the county that differed in geological characteristics, especially the thickness of overburden above the Chattanooga Shale layer, a geological stratum that has high concentrations of 226Ra and is widely found in the southeastern United States. The geometric means of summer and winter measurements in Roane County were 33 and 54 Bq m-3, respectively. For Madison County, the summer and winter geometric means were 121 and 88 Bq m-3, respectively. The winter 222Rn concentrations for houses in Roane County exceeded summer 222Rn concentrations, as is generally the case for houses in the U.S. For houses in Madison County, we found the opposite and atypical situation of higher 222Rn concentrations in the summertime. 222Rn concentrations differed significantly among groups of houses in distinguishable regions of Madison County. (AB)

  11. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  12. 222-S laboratory quality assurance plan

    Meznarich, H.K.

    1995-04-01

    This document provides quality assurance guidelines and quality control requirements for analytical services. This document is designed on the basis of Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) technical guidelines and is used for governing 222-S and 222-SA analytical and quality control activities. The 222-S Laboratory provides analytical services to various clients including, but not limited to, waste characterization for the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), waste characterization for regulatory waste treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD), regulatory compliance samples, radiation screening, process samples, and TPA samples. A graded approach is applied on the level of sample custody, QC, data verification, and data reporting to meet the specific needs of the client.

  13. 222-S laboratory quality assurance plan

    This document provides quality assurance guidelines and quality control requirements for analytical services. This document is designed on the basis of Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) technical guidelines and is used for governing 222-S and 222-SA analytical and quality control activities. The 222-S Laboratory provides analytical services to various clients including, but not limited to, waste characterization for the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), waste characterization for regulatory waste treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD), regulatory compliance samples, radiation screening, process samples, and TPA samples. A graded approach is applied on the level of sample custody, QC, data verification, and data reporting to meet the specific needs of the client

  14. Dependence of indoor 222Rn level on building materials

    The radionuclide contents of typical building materials used in Hong Kong were studied by γ spectroscopic analysis. The physical properties of these building materials affecting the production and transportation of 222Rn to the surrounding air were examined; these include the emanation coefficient of 2'22Rn of the material, the diffusion coefficient of 222Rn in the material and the effect of surface coating and temperature on the rate of 222Rn exhalation. Results obtained in this study explain the indoor 222Rn concentration observed in our previous surveys and also suggest that the main source of indoor 222Rn in Hong Kong is building material. (3 figs., 4 tabs.)

  15. 222-S laboratory complex hazards assessment

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A, Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Operational Emergencies, requires that a facility specific hazards assessment be performed to support Emergency Planning activities. The Hazard Assessment establishes the technical basis for the Emergency Action Levels (EALs) and the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). Emergency Planning activities are provided under contract to DOE through the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This document represents the facility specific hazards assessment for the Hanford Site 222-S Laboratories. The primary mission of 222-S is to provide analytic chemistry support to the Waste Management, Chemical Processing, and Environmental programs at the Hanford Site

  16. Dicty_cDB: SHK222 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHK222 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16588-1 SHK222P (Link to Original ... *dhn*hlaivhstiqiystmhgtsfqwwmmnm*fprkhsnltyqnsqcnl*vtt ... swtntsy*lkhsmplmckhcqlfqsscwissttwmklqvrkvlfnwgygh ...

  17. 12 CFR 222.43 - Direct disputes.

    2010-01-01

    ... relationship with the consumer); (v) Information related to fraud alerts or active duty alerts; or (vi... CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Furnishers of Information § 222.43 Direct disputes. (a) General... performance or other conduct concerning an account or other relationship with the furnisher, such as...

  18. 12 CFR 222.3 - Definitions.

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING (REGULATION V) General Provisions § 222.3 Definitions. For purposes of this part, unless...) Common ownership or common corporate control means a relationship between two companies under which: (1... both companies, a relationship described in paragraphs (i)(1)(i) through (i)(1)(iii) of this...

  19. Redox properties of Eu(222)/sup 3+//Eu(222)/sup 2+/ and (222)H/sub 2//sup 2+//H/sub 2/,(222)H/sup +/ systems and their use as a reference potential in organic solvents

    Bessiere, J.; Lejaille, M.F.; Perdicakis, M.

    The Eu(222)/sup 3+//Eu(222)/sup 2+/ electrochemical system is reversible and rapid IN H/sub 2/O, MeOH, DMSO, DMF, CH/sub 3/CN and TMU and can be used as a potential reference. The (222)H/sub 2//sup 2+//H/sub 2/, (222)H/sup +/ system allows the measurement of the difference in basicity between those solvents.

  20. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  1. 20 CFR 222.35 - Relationship as stepchild.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as stepchild. 222.35 Section 222.35 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.35 Relationship as stepchild. A claimant will be considered to...

  2. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption. 222.33 Section 222.33 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal...

  3. 9 CFR 354.222 - Floors, walls, ceilings, etc.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Floors, walls, ceilings, etc. 354.222 Section 354.222 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Facilities § 354.222 Floors, walls, ceilings, etc. (a) Floors. All floors in rooms where exposed products...

  4. 7 CFR 1280.222 - Books and Records of Board.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Books and Records of Board. 1280.222 Section 1280.222... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Reports, Books, and Records § 1280.222 Books and Records of Board. The Board shall: (a) Maintain such books and records, which shall be...

  5. 7 CFR 1430.222 - Death, incompetency, or disappearance.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetency, or disappearance. 1430.222 Section 1430.222 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... Contract Program § 1430.222 Death, incompetency, or disappearance. In the case of death,...

  6. Factors associated with elevated 222Rn levels in Iowa

    The University of Iowa, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency's State Radon Survey Assistance Program, performed a 222Rn screening survey of 582 rural households in the winter of 1989. The distribution of maximum indoor 222Rn concentrations throughout Iowa as well as the relationship between 222Rn screening measurements, detector placement, and housing characteristics are summarized. This report is unique in that site-specific home construction characteristics were collected in the field from participants prior to 222Rn monitoring. The findings of the survey indicate that the significance of a particular housing characteristic on a 222Rn screening measurement is dependent on the placement of the radon detector

  7. Modeling the effects of exhaust ventilation on 222Rn entry rates and indoor 222Rn concentrations

    Continuous mechanical exhaust ventilation of moderately air-tight residences is common in Scandinavia and has recently been employed in several U.S. residences. Exhaust ventilation decreases the indoor pressure and, thus, increases the pressure difference which drives 222Rn entry. Relatively simple analytical (i.e. closed form) models were developed and used to examine the impacts of exhaust ventilation on 222Rn entry rates and concentrations in houses with either a crawl space or a basement. A more complex finite difference model was also developed for the house with a basement and yielded soil gas entry rates within 16% of those predicted with the analytical model. The models indicate that exhaust ventilation is suitable, but not optimal (from the perspective of indoor 222Rn), for houses with a vented crawl space. Exhaust ventilation is also indicated to be suitable for houses with basements surrounded by relatively impermeable soil (10(-12) m2 or less). If soil permeabilities are between 10(-12) and 10(-10) m2, exhaust ventilation may cause substantial increases in indoor 222Rn when soil gas 222Rn concentrations are above average. If soil permeabilities are greater than 10(-10) m2, exhaust ventilation is indicated to be inappropriate, unless some procedure is employed to inhibit soil gas entry. These conclusions should be considered tentative, since extensive verification of the models is still required

  8. 222Rn Observations for Climate and Air Quality Studies

    This paper identifies the current major applications for 222Rn in atmospheric research. Two of these applications, air mass transport and vertical mixing in the lower atmosphere, are illustrated by four separate case studies: (1) Using 222Rn to identify the geographical extent, strength and seasonal variability of land and oceanic emissions; (2) Using 222Rn in pollution studies to improve the performance of clustering algorithms used to define source regions; (3) Using near-surface hourly 222Rn gradient observations from towers as tall as 200 m to investigate diurnal dilution effects in the boundary layer with changing atmospheric stability; and (4) Using vertical 222Rn profile 'snapshots' measured from light aircraft up to 4 km above ground level to contrast boundary layer entrainment rates between clear-sky, convective and stratiform cloud cases. Lastly, a recent set of 222Rn and 222Rn progeny observations is used to discuss the 222Rn/progeny equilibrium factor and illustrate some common problems associated with using 222Rn progeny as a proxy for 222Rn. (author)

  9. A long range transport model of Rn-222

    In this report, we propose an analytical treatment about temporal variation of 222Rn concentration in the atmosphere with an aim to clarify origin and transport of 222Rn. Based on the results of numerical simulation of radon, we separate the 222Re concentration measured at Nagoya into the following two components : (1) 222Rn atom originated near from the measuring site, which is denoted by 'diurnal variation component'. From numerical simulation of radon, it has been shown that the measured diurnal variation can be explained by this component. (2) 222Rn atoms originated far from the measuring site (including Chinese Continent), which is denoted by 'background component'. For this component, we propose here a one layer transport model using air mass trajectory technique. By this model we can explain the temporal variation of background component and seasonal variation of 222Rn at Nagoya. (3 figs.)

  10. Radon and the environment - 222Rn

    After having presented some physical and chemical characteristics of radon 222, this report describes the presence of radon in the environment (in the atmosphere and in soft waters), discusses the radio-toxic effect of radon on human health (exposure, epidemiology, dose calculation, share of radon in population exposure to ionizing radiations), comments the presence of radon in buildings, briefly describes actions aimed at reducing radon concentration within buildings, briefly addresses the issue of professional exposure to radon, evokes regulatory aspects (at the international level, in France, in Switzerland), and comments principles and practices of radon measurement in buildings, water, and underground cavities

  11. Use of Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS222) for Euthanasia of Reptiles

    Conroy, CJ; Papenfuss, T; Parker, J; Hahn, NE

    2009-01-01

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) injected into the intracoelomic cavity of reptiles was evaluated as a chemical euthanasia method. Three western fence lizards, 2 desert iguanas, 4 garter snakes, and 6 geckos were euthanized by intracoelomic injection of 250 to 500 mg/kg of 0.7% to 1% sodium-bicarbonate–buffered MS222 solution followed by intracoelomic injection of 0.1 to 1.0 ml unbuffered 50% (v/v) MS222 solution. A simple 2-stage protocol for euthanasia of reptiles by using MS222 is outline...

  12. 40 CFR 222.12 - Appeal to Administrator.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal to Administrator. 222.12... ON OCEAN DUMPING PERMIT APPLICATIONS UNDER SECTION 102 OF THE ACT § 222.12 Appeal to Administrator. (a)(1) The Administrator delegates to the Environmental Appeals Board authority to issue...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 222 - Diagnostic Team Considerations

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagnostic Team Considerations F Appendix F to.... 222, App. F Appendix F to Part 222—Diagnostic Team Considerations For purposes of this part, a diagnostic team is a group of knowledgeable representatives of parties of interest in a highway-rail...

  14. 33 CFR 222.4 - Reporting earthquake effects.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting earthquake effects. 222..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ENGINEERING AND DESIGN § 222.4 Reporting earthquake effects. (a) Purpose. This... significant earthquakes. It primarily concerns damage surveys following the occurrences of earthquakes....

  15. 20 CFR 222.14 - Deemed marriage relationship.

    2010-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.14 Deemed marriage relationship. If a ceremonial or common-law marriage relationship cannot be established under State law, a claimant... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deemed marriage relationship. 222.14...

  16. 20 CFR 222.32 - Relationship as a natural child.

    2010-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.32 Relationship as a natural child. A claimant will be... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as a natural child. 222.32... first day of the month in which it actually occurred. (d) Other evidence of relationship. The...

  17. 36 CFR 222.29 - Relocation and disposal of animals.

    2010-07-01

    ... animals. 222.29 Section 222.29 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... disposal of animals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall, when he determines over-population of wild... animals from that particular territory. Such action shall be taken until all excess animals have...

  18. 40 CFR 222.3 - Notice of applications.

    2010-07-01

    ... 222.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING ACTION ON OCEAN DUMPING PERMIT APPLICATIONS UNDER SECTION 102 OF THE ACT § 222.3 Notice of applications. (a...; (ii) That the emergency poses an unacceptable risk relating to human health; (iii) That the...

  19. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the National Forest System and on other lands under...

  20. 12 CFR 222.24 - Reasonable opportunity to opt out.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable opportunity to opt out. 222.24 Section 222.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... consumers to write a “yes” or “no” to indicate their opt-out preference or that requires the consumer...

  1. 40 CFR 22.2 - Use of number and gender.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of number and gender. 22.2 Section... PERMITS General § 22.2 Use of number and gender. As used in these Consolidated Rules of Practice, words in the singular also include the plural and words in the masculine gender also include the feminine,...

  2. 222Rn surpluses in Warm-Core rings

    Measurements of 222Rn and 226Ra were made in the western Atlantic Ocean as part of the Warm-Core rings Program. A significant number of measurements on waters taken from the surface and deeper waters showed 222Rn concentrations in excess of those supported by the parent 226Ra. Since the source of these 222Rn surpluses is near-bottom shelf or slope water, and since the half-life of 222Rn is only 3.8 days, such 222Rn surpluses are indicative of rapid offshore advective and or mixing processes. Concentrations of 226Ra exhibit a small but measurable increase when moving from a Sargasso Sea, through the slope water, and up onto the shelf

  3. Photochemistry of Acrylates at 222 nm

    Excimer lamps as monochromatic UV sources with an intense short wavelength mission (specially Kr Cl, 222 nm) allow a photo initiator-free initiation of the acrylate polymerisation. Laser photolysis (Kr Cl excimer laser, pulse width 20 ns, up to 5 ml per pulse) gives rise to similar transient spectra (max << 280 nm) for all acrylates studied. As the rather unspecific spectra do not allow conclusions as to the main reaction channel, a product study has been performed by GC-MS following steady-state photolysis of acrylate solutions in acetonitrile, methanol and n-hexane. Somewhat unexpected, a-cleavage seems to be a main reaction channel, and quantum chemical calculations show that such a reaction can occur from either the excited singlet state or the un relaxed triplet state, but not from the relaxed triplet state that is observed spectroscopically. A reaction scheme accounting for the observed products is presented

  4. COOMET.RI(II)-S1.Rn-222 (169/UA/98): Rn-222 volume activity comparison

    According to a first program, a supplementary comparison of Rn-222 volume activity was drawn up as a bilateral supplementary comparison between NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and VNIIFTRI, Russia. It took place in March 2005. In April 2005, at the 5. meeting of COOMET held in Braunschweig (Germany), representatives of these institutes exchanged data which showed the comparability of the national standards of Ukraine and Russia for the check points. During the discussion of the procedure some other institutes decided to join the comparison program, which was extended to BelGIM (Belarus), PTB (Germany), VNIIM (Russia) and RMTC (Latvia). The national standards of volume activity of radon-222 were thus calibrated using one standard radon radiometer as the transfer standard. Results are shown in the Final Report of the comparison. (authors)

  5. COOMET.RI(II)-S1.Rn-222 (169/UA/98): Rn-222 volume activity comparison

    Skliarov, V. [National Scientific Centre, Institute of Metrology (NSC IM), Kharkiv (Ukraine); Rottger, A.; Honig, A. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Korostin, S.; Kuznetsov, S. [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Physical, Technical and Radio Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Moscow Region, Mendeleyevo (Russian Federation); Lapenas, A. [Latvian National Metrology Centre Ltd, Radiation Metrology and Testing Centre (RMTC), Salaspils (Latvia); Milevsky, V.; Ivaniukovich, A. [Belarussian State Institute of Metrology (BelGIM), Minsk (Belarus); Kharitonov, I.; Sepman, S. [D I Mendeleyev Institute of metrology (VNIIM), Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    According to a first program, a supplementary comparison of Rn-222 volume activity was drawn up as a bilateral supplementary comparison between NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and VNIIFTRI, Russia. It took place in March 2005. In April 2005, at the 5. meeting of COOMET held in Braunschweig (Germany), representatives of these institutes exchanged data which showed the comparability of the national standards of Ukraine and Russia for the check points. During the discussion of the procedure some other institutes decided to join the comparison program, which was extended to BelGIM (Belarus), PTB (Germany), VNIIM (Russia) and RMTC (Latvia). The national standards of volume activity of radon-222 were thus calibrated using one standard radon radiometer as the transfer standard. Results are shown in the Final Report of the comparison. (authors)

  6. 222Rn Measurements in Dwellings of Argentina

    Radon gas (222Rn) is responsible of about fifty per cent of the world population dose due to natural sources, being the most important pathway the inhalation of radon progeny, specially indoors. Radon concentration has been measured in dwellings at different locations in Argentina. The places selected to be evaluated are representative of the different geologic zones of the country. Near 3000 dwellings have been analyzed since 1983 up today. The measuring methods used in this case were track etched detectors, electrets and detectors based on activated charcoal adsorption. Two different methods with track etched detectors were used: a simple one, which determines only the average radon concentration, and a second one that measures both radon concentration and the equilibrium factor (F) between radon and its daughters. The last one is a method that uses two Makrofol passive track detectors in the same device. The average radon concentration value obtained from all the dwellings evaluated was 44.2 Bq.m-3. The annual effective dose calculated from this average concentration, using a dosimetric factor of 25 μSv.a-1.(Bq.m-3)-1, which assumes an equilibrium factor of 0.4, was 1.11 mSv. The average value obtained from the 222 dwellings evaluated by the second method was 49.3 Bq.m-3 and 0,37 the equilibrium factor, resulting the annual effective dose estimated 1,44 mSv. The measured equilibrium factor of 0,37 allows us to verify the assumed equilibrium factor of 0,4. Finally, radon levels in dwellings of Argentina are within the acceptable values for population, not being necessary to implement remedial actions, except in isolate cases that are still under study. (authors)

  7. 222Rn concentration in public secondary schools in Galicia (Spain)

    In the framework of a 222Rn screening campaign that was carried out in 58 public secondary schools in Galicia (NW Spain), the largest radon-prone area in the Iberian Peninsula, a positive correlation between indoor 222Rn concentration and outdoor gamma exposure rate was obtained. A new approach to the data acquisition in screening surveys was tested, improving the performances of this type of study and gathering useful data for future remedial actions. Using short-period detectors (charcoal canisters) firstly, in order to detect places showing 222Rn concentrations over 400 Bq m-3, the number of locations to be measured with long-period detectors (etched track detectors) is reduced. In this screening campaign, 34% of the schools surveyed presented at least one site exceeding the 400 Bq m-3 recommended action level established by the EU, and 15% had at least one site with 222Rn values over 800 Bq m-3. The maximum value recorded was 2084 ± 63 Bq m-3. These results are discussed and compared with data obtained in schools of several countries with similar geology. Seven schools were also studied for seasonal variations of 222Rn activity concentration. The results were not conclusive, and no significant correlation between season and 222Rn concentration was established. Finally, a continuous 222Rn concentration monitor was placed in the secondary school exhibiting a mean value of the 222Rn concentration very close to 400 Bq m-3. Maximum 222Rn concentration values were found to occur at times when the school was unoccupied.

  8. Atmospheric 222Rn in tourist caves of Slovenia, Yugoslavia

    Radon-222 concentrations in the air of 12 tourist caves in Slovenia, Yugoslavia were measured. In almost all the caves concentrations are higher than in the outdoor air, with the highest concentration in the Tabor Cave at about 6000 Bq m-3. From the 222Rn concentrations obtained, the activity of 222Rn inhaled by a visitor breathing cave air was calculated, and the bronchial dose was estimated. The inhaled activity and the bronchial dose were highest in the Tabor Cave with values of 10 kBq and 540 microSv, respectively

  9. Dicty_cDB: SFL222 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ding frame ORF YGL055w. 56 3e-07 3 AQ874658 |AQ874658.1 V112D8 mTn-3xHA/lacZ Insertion Library, strain Y2278...clnllkniqvvnntltvilvkmqlkllmv*fksficc*kywifie Frame B: ylmy*gn*ndlktstrsi*kkyknsnkeiisinwfsdnwyifsictsmvfvtn...luding cell wall 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for SFL222 is end 5' end se...TA GTTTAAATCATTCATTTGCTGCTAGAAATATTGGATCTTTATAGAG Length of 3' end seq. 696 Connected se...q. ID SFL222P Connected seq. >SFL222P.Seq TTACCTCATGTACTGAGGCAATTGAAATGATCTCAAAACTTCCACAAGAAGTATTTGAA

  10. Indoor 222Rn measurements using an activated charcoal detector

    A commercially available activated charcoal detector for measuring 222Rn activity concentrations in air was calibrated with known amounts of 222Rn and examined in terms of air luminescence counts and interferences from 220Rn and 219Rn. The results for conditions normally encountered indoor indicate that the detector is simple and reliable. The method has been applied to assay indoor 222Rn activity concentrations in 387 homes in Tokyo and the adjacent four prefectures, which ranged from 0.7 to 140 Bq/m3 and averaged 22.7 Bq/m3

  11. Sorption of radon-222 to natural sediments

    The sorption of radon to sediments was investigated, since this may affect the use of porewater radon profiles for estimating bed irrigation rates. Batch experiments showed that radon has an organic-carbon-normalized sediment-water partition coefficient (Koc, L kgoc-1) of 21.1 ± 2.9 for a Boston Harbor sediment, 25.3 ± 2.1 for a Charles River sediment, and 22.4 ± 2.6 for a Buzzards Bay sediment. These values are in close agreement with predictions using radon's octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), which was measured to be 32.4 ± 1.5. Temperature and ionic strength effects on Koc were estimated to be small. Given rapid sorption kinetics, the authors suggest that slurry stripping techniques used by many investigators to measure 222Rn in sediment samples collect both sorbed and dissolved radon. Sorption effects were included in a transport model to obtain revised estimates of irrigation rates from existing literature profiles. Irrigation rates had to be increased over previously reported values in proportion to the sediment organic matter content

  12. 40 CFR 98.222 - GHGs to report.

    2010-07-01

    ... GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.222 GHGs to report. (a) You must report N2O process emissions from each nitric acid production train as required by this subpart. (b) You must report...

  13. 48 CFR 222.406-6 - Payrolls and statements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payrolls and statements... Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 222.406-6 Payrolls and statements. (a) Submission..., Statement of Compliance, with each payroll report....

  14. 48 CFR 252.222-7005 - Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens-Guam.

    2010-10-01

    ... nonimmigrant aliens-Guam. 252.222-7005 Section 252.222-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7005 Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens—Guam. As prescribed in 222.7302, use the following clause: Prohibition on Use of Nonimmigrant Aliens—Guam (SEP...

  15. Excess bottom radon 222 distribution in deep ocean passages

    Radon 222 and STD profiles were obtained as part of the Geosecs program in the Vema Channel in the southwest Atlantic Ocean and in the Samoan, Clarion, and Wake Island passages in the Pacific Ocean. The standing crop of excess radon 222 is higher in the passages than at other nearby locations. The most likely explanation for this is that there is a high flux of radon 222 from the floor of the passages. Since much of the floor is covered with manganese nodules and encrustations, the high flux of radon 222 may be attributable to the high concentrations of radium 226 in the outer few millimeters of such deposits. Laboratory measurements of radon 222 emissivity from maganese encrustations obtained in Vema Channel support this hypothesis. The excess radon 222 in the Vema Channel and Wake Island Passage is found in substantial quantities at heights above bottom greatly exceeding the heights at which excess radon 222 is found in nonpassage areas. The horizontal diffusion of radon emanating from the walls of the passages is unlikely to be the cause of the observed concentrations because the ratio of wall surface area to water volume is very low. The profiles must therefore be a result of exceptionally high apparent vertical mixing in the passages. Further work is needed to determine the nature of this apparent vertical mixing. The excess radon 222 and STD data in all four passages have been fit with an empirical model in which it is assumed that the bouyancy flux is constant with distance above bottom. The fits are very good and yield apparent buoyancy fluxes that are between 1 and 3 orders of magnitude greater than those obtained at nearby stations outside the passages for three of the four passages

  16. Determination of (222)Rn absorption properties of polycarbonate foils by liquid scintillation counting. Application to (222)Rn measurements.

    Mitev, K; Cassette, P; Georgiev, S; Dimitrova, I; Sabot, B; Boshkova, T; Tartès, I; Pressyanov, D

    2016-03-01

    This work demonstrates that a Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) technique using a Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio counter with extending dead-time is very appropriate for the accurate measurement of (222)Rn activity absorbed in thin polycarbonate foils. It is demonstrated that using a toluene-based LS cocktail, which dissolves polycarbonates, the (222)Rn activity absorbed in thin Makrofol N foil can be determined with a relative standard uncertainty of about 0.7%. A LSC-based application of the methodology for determination of the diffusion length of (222)Rn in thin polycarbonate foils is proposed and the diffusion length of (222)Rn in Makrofol N (38.9±1.3µm) and the partition coefficient of (222)Rn in Makrofol N from air (112±12, at 20°C) and from water (272±17, at 21°C) are determined. Calibration of commercial LS spectrometers for (222)Rn measurements by LSC of thin polycarbonate foils is performed and the minimum detectable activities by this technique are estimated. PMID:26640234

  17. Acute Exposure from RADON-222 and Aerosols in Drinking Water

    Bernhardt, George Paul, IV

    Radon-222 in water is released when the water is aerated, such as during showering. As a result, a temporary burst of radon-222 can appear as a short term, or acute, exposure. This study looked at homes with radon-222 concentrations in water from 800 picocuries per liter (pCi/l) to 53,000 pCi/l to determine the buildup of radon gas in a bathroom during showering. Samples from the tap and drain, compared to determine the percentage of radon-222 released, showed that between 58% and 88% of radon-222 in the water was released. The resultant radon-222 increase in air, measured with a flow-through detector, ranged from 2 pCi/l to 114 pCi/l in bathrooms due to a 10 to 15 minute shower with water flow rates ranging from 3 l/min to 6 l/min. Significantly, these rates did not fall rapidly but stayed approximately the same for up to 15 minutes after the water flow ceased. In examining exposures, the true danger is in the radon-222 progeny rather than the radon itself. The progeny can be inhaled and deposited in the tracheobronchial passages in the lung. Filter samples of bathroom air measured in a portable alpha spectrometer showed an increase in radon-222 progeny, notably polonium-218 and -214, in the air after showering. These increases were gradual and were on the order of 0.5 pCi/l at the highest level. Tap samples measured in a portable liquid scintillator showed that the progeny are present in the water but are not in true secular equilibrium with the radon-222 in the water. Therefore, the radon-222 does not have to decay to produce progeny since the progeny are already present in the water. A two stage sampler was used to examine the percentage of radiation available in aerosols smaller than 7 microns. Repeated trials showed that up to 85% of the radiation available in the aerosols is contained in the smaller, more respirable particles.

  18. Preliminary experiences with 222Rn gas in Arizona homes

    Results of a survey of 222Rn gas using four-day charcoal canister tests in 759 Arizona homes are reported. Although the study was not random with respect to population or land area, it was useful in identifying areas at risk and locating several homes having elevated indoor 222Rn air concentrations. Approximately 18% of the homes tested exceeded 150 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1), with 7% exceeding 300 Bq m-3 (8 pCi L-1). Several Arizona cities had larger fractions of homes exceeding 150 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1), such as Carefree and Cave Creek (23%), Paradise Valley (30%), Payson (33%), and Prescott (31%). The Granite Dells and Groom Creek areas of Prescott had in excess of 40-60% of the houses tested exceeding 150 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1). Elevated 222Rn concentrations were measured for a variety of home types having different construction materials. Private well water was identified as a potentially significant source of 222Rn gas in Prescott homes, with water from one well testing over 3.5 MBq m-3 (94,000 pCi L-1). A 222Rn concentration in air exceeding 410,000 Bq m-3 (11,000 pCi L-1) was measured using a four-day charcoal canister test in a house in Prescott which had a well opening into a living space. Additional measurements in this 150-m3 dwelling revealed a strikingly heterogeneous 222Rn concentration. The excessive 222Rn level in the dwelling was reduced to less than 190 Bq m-3 (5.2 pCi L-1) by sealing the well head with caulking and providing passive ventilation through a pipe

  19. Indoor 222Rn survey in Zacatecas State, Mexico

    As part of a program for discovering whether afflicted areas exist, indoor 222Rn concentrations in the State of Zacatecas were surveyed, 222Rn concentration being measured by γ-ray spectrometry of radon decay products adsorbed into charcoal canisters. A survey was implemented during Summer 2001: 228 dwellings in the state were tested by taking mean 254 measurements. Concentrations exhibited a left-skewed distribution of indoor 222Rn, showing overall average, minimum, and maximum concentrations of 67, 26, and 511 Bq m-3, respectively. Only seven of the measurements (2.7%) were found equal to or greater than the US EPA action limit (148 Bq m-3). Thus, we conclude that the indoor radon environment in Zacatecas State is under US EPA action limit. The few high concentration spots suggest that geological conditions rather than construction materials may be the determinant factor

  20. Realization of a reference system for the generation radon 222

    After some general considerations on radon and its calibration techniques, the methods and technologies developed in order to realize a reference system for the generation of radon 222 are presented. Two original patented techniques have been developed. The former technique deals with the realization of radon 222 solid sources from radium 226 deposit on acrylic fibres. This new technology offers the advantage of very quickly obtaining a constant emission rate near to 100%. The latter technique deals with the standard measurement of radon 222 volumic activity via gamma spectrometry of its short-lived daughters. This new procedure is the only one allowing to relate this measure to gaseous standards. An aeraulic/ventilation circuit makes it possible to calibrate the radon measurement instrumentation within a wide volumic activity range from to 4 to 4 000 Bq/m3

  1. Mineral water 222 Rn activity decrease due to consumption habits

    Mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau springs, an elevated region with high natural radioactivity, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have significant 222 Rn concentration on site. The highest concentration in the waters are from: Fonte Villela - Aguas da Prata (∼ 1000 Bql-1); Fonte Grande Hotel - Pocinhos do Rio Verde (∼ 400 Brq-1) and Fonte CNEN Lab - Pocos de Caldas (∼ 290 Bql-1). These waters are used by the population as drinking water and due to consumption habits, can lead to internal doses above accepted limits for the public. This work deals with the decrease of 222 Rn activity in mineral waters fro two different popular consumption habits, and with the adult effective dose equivalent reduction due to water consumption habits. It has been found that the estimated dose based on the biokinetic Crawford-Brown model, can be one fourth of dose based on 222 Rn activity on site. (author)

  2. 222Rn alpha dose to organs other than lung

    The alpha dose to cells in tissues or organs other theft the lung has been calculated using the solubility coefficients for 222 Rn measured in human tissue. The annual alpha dose equivalent f rom 222 Rn and decay products in most tissues is a maximum of 30% of the annual average natural background dose equivalent (1 mSv) for external and internally deposited nuclides. The dose to the small population of lymphocytes located in or under the bronchial epithelium is a special case and their annual dose equivalent is essentially the same as that to basal cells in bronchial epithelium (200 mSv) for continuous exposure to 200 Bq M-3. The significance of this dose is uncertain because the only excess cancer observed in follow up studies of underground miners with high 222 Rn exposure is bronchogenic carcinoma

  3. Measurements of octupole collectivity in $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra using Coulomb excitation

    Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Hurst, A M; Voulot, D; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Siem, S; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S

    2008-01-01

    We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra ion beams from the REX facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^{-}$ states in these nuclei. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decays from the 3$^{-}$ state using the MINIBALL array we can obtain the transition matrix elements. This will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in these nuclei. We require 22 shifts to fulfil the aims of the experiment.

  4. 12 CFR 222.20 - Coverage and definitions.

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.20 Coverage and definitions. (a...-existing business relationship—(i) In general. The term “pre-existing business relationship” means a relationship between a person, or a person's licensed agent, and a consumer based on— (A) A financial...

  5. 20 CFR 222.23 - Relationship as surviving divorced spouse.

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried Widow(er) § 222.23 Relationship as surviving divorced spouse. A claimant will be considered to be the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as surviving divorced...

  6. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    2010-04-01

    ... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.34 Relationship resulting from... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship resulting from equitable... adopted child. A claimant will have the relationship of an equitably adopted child for annuity and...

  7. 20 CFR 222.22 - Relationship as divorced spouse.

    2010-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried Widow(er) § 222.22 Relationship as divorced spouse. A claimant will be considered to be the divorced spouse of an... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as divorced spouse....

  8. 20 CFR 222.36 - Relationship as grandchild or stepgrandchild.

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.36 Relationship as grandchild or stepgrandchild. A claimant will have the relationship of grandchild or stepgrandchild of an employee, or the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as grandchild or...

  9. 20 CFR 222.13 - Common-law marriage relationship.

    2010-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.13 Common-law marriage relationship. Under the laws of some States, a common-law marriage is one which is not solemnized in a formal... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common-law marriage relationship....

  10. 20 CFR 222.12 - Ceremonial marriage relationship.

    2010-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.12 Ceremonial marriage relationship. A valid ceremonial marriage is one which would be recognized as valid by the courts of the State... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ceremonial marriage relationship....

  11. 20 CFR 222.11 - Determination of marriage relationship.

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.11 Determination of marriage relationship. A claimant will be considered to be the husband, wife, or widow(er) of an employee... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of marriage relationship....

  12. 12 CFR 222.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    2010-01-01

    ... consumer that is not imposed under any other law; or (2) Alter or affect any requirement imposed under any... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 222.83... RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding...

  13. 36 CFR 222.7 - Cooperation in management.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperation in management... RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.7 Cooperation in management. (a) Cooperation with local livestock associations—(1) Authority. The Chief, Forest Service,...

  14. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    2010-07-01

    ... RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, is authorized to cancel, modify, or suspend grazing and livestock..., executive order, development or revision of an allotment management plan, or other management needs....

  15. Automatic monitor of radon-222 daughter elements concentration

    This paper developed a method to determine the concentration of radon-222 daughter radioactive elements in air. In order to implement this procedure a non-continuous monitor was built to measure the concentration of those elements by means of alpha spectroscopy. The fundamentals of the analytical method and construction details of the monitor is presented. (author)

  16. 33 CFR 183.222 - Flotation material and air chambers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flotation material and air... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.222 Flotation material and air...

  17. 40 CFR 180.222 - Prometryn; tolerances for residues.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prometryn; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.222 Prometryn; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues...

  18. Risk analysis of 222Rn gas received from East Anatolian Fault Zone in Turkey

    Yilmaz, Mucahit; Kulahci, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    In this study, risk analysis and probability distribution methodologies are applied for 222Rn gas data received from Sürgü (Malatya) station located on East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). 222Rn data are recorded between 21.02.2007 and 06.06.2010 dates. For study are used total 1151 222Rn data. Changes in concentration of 222Rn are modeled as statistically.

  19. 50 CFR 222.305 - Rights of succession and transfer of permits.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights of succession and transfer of permits. 222.305 Section 222.305 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... THREATENED MARINE SPECIES General Permit Procedures § 222.305 Rights of succession and transfer of...

  20. Investigations into the long-distance atmospheric transport in Central Europe using Rn-222

    An measuring network was used to determine the atmospheric Rn-222 content in Central Europe (Northern and Southern Germany, Poland). Rn-222 is to serve as tracer for the long-distance atmospheric transport in central Europe. For several areas, an average Rn-222 flux density was found. The radon source 'continent' and the soil as radon source have been taken into account. (DG)

  1. 78 FR 61446 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S

    2013-10-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S AGENCY... RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the fourteenth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S DATES: The...

  2. 78 FR 8684 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S

    2013-02-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S AGENCY... RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twelfth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. DATES: The...

  3. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition of the Enterprise) from the Ministerio de Trabajo y S.S., Tesoreria General de la Seguridad Social... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish...

  4. 48 CFR 352.222-70 - Contractor cooperation in equal employment opportunity investigations.

    2010-10-01

    ... Opportunity (EEO) complaints processed pursuant to 29 CFR Part 1614. For purposes of this clause, the... equal employment opportunity investigations. 352.222-70 Section 352.222-70 Federal Acquisition... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.222-70 Contractor cooperation in equal employment...

  5. 48 CFR 252.222-7006 - Restrictions on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements.

    2010-10-01

    ... Mandatory Arbitration Agreements. 252.222-7006 Section 252.222-7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Arbitration Agreements. As prescribed in 222.7404, use the following clause: Restrictions on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements (MAY 2010) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Covered...

  6. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    2010-10-01

    ... Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-18 Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or...

  7. Instruments to measure radon-222 activity concentration or exposure to radon-222. Intercomparison 2014

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices1 using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organisational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (EPTIS) and from the BfS websites.

  8. A reference measurement system for radon 222 calibration

    A Reference Measurement System (RMS) for Rn 222 calibration was recently developed at INMRI of ENEA and is setting up at INP. Main performances of this system, based on radon transfer and counting system calibrated by Ra 226 traceable standard liquid solution are published in the Symposium on Radionuclide Metrology and its applications (ICRM '95), held in Paris. The reference counting instrument is a cylindrical electrostatic cell with a PIPS detector. The combined uncertainty estimated for the calibration of Rn 222 sources as in a typical gas transfer system is about 1%. The excellent results obtained by this system on International comparison on radon measurements in 15 European laboratories organized in 1995, in the frame of EUROMET project are reported

  9. Using 222 Rn for hydrograph separationin a micro basin (Luxembourg)

    Hoffmann, L.; Tosheva, Z.; Hofmann, H.; Kies, A.; Pfister, L.

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain information on the hydrological signature of rivers during and after heavy rain events, small catchment areas are selected as experimental sites. Hydrograph separations based on environmental tracers are performed. Natural isotopic tracers such as 18O, 2H and particularly 222Rn may help to distinguish the components dominating the outflow, particularly of 'pre-event waters', 'event waters' and 'post-event waters'. Even with moderate concentrations in gro...

  10. 2.2.2 Non-Ionizing Radiations

    Bernhardt, J. H.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Subsection '2.2.2 Non-Ionizing Radiations' of the Section '2.2 Kinds of Radiation' of the Chapter '2 Radiation and Biological Effects' with the contents:

  11. Dicty_cDB: VHD222 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHD222 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12398-1 - (Link to Original site) ... 2 1 EC594866 |EC594866.1 FU040e05 Asexual conidial life -cycle of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum Fus ... 2 1 EC594347 |EC594347.1 FU032f04 Asexual conidial life -cycle of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum Fus ...

  12. Nitrogen heteroaromatic cations by [2+2+2] cycloaddition

    Čížková, Martina; Kolivoška, Viliam; Císařová, I.; Šaman, David; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Teplý, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2011), s. 450-462. ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1614; GA ČR GA203/09/0705; GA MŠk OC 140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : modular synthesis * N-heteroaromatic cation * [2+2+2] cycloaddition Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.696, year: 2011

  13. Low background counting of 222Rn, 220Rn and 219Rn with electrostatic counters

    Mong, Brian; EXO-200 Collaboration; nEXO Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. Supported by NSERC Project Grants ``Search for Double Beta Decay with EXO.''

  14. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 222-S Laboratory Complex

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the 222-S Laboratory Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-27). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the 222-S Laboratory Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this 222-S Laboratory Complex permit application documentation is current as of August 2000

  15. Estimation of 222Rn release from the phosphogypsum board used in housing panels

    Phosphogypsum board is a popular construction material used for housing panels in Korea. Phosphogypsum often contains 226Ra which decays into 222Rn through an α transformation. 222Rn emanated from the 226Ra-bearing phosphogypsum board has drawn the public concern due to its potential radiological impacts to indoor occupants. The emanation rate of 222Rn from the board is estimated in this paper. A mathematical model of the emanation rate of 222Rn from the board is presented and validated through a series of experiments. The back diffusion effect due to accumulation of 222Rn-laden air was incorporated in the model and found to have a strong impact on the 222Rn emanation characteristics

  16. Calibration of radon-222 detectors using closed circuit radium-226 sources; Calibracao de detectores de radonio-222 atraves do uso de fontes de radio-222 em circuito fechado

    Perna, Allan Felipe Nunes; Paschuk, Sergei Anatolyevich; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Del Claro, Flavia, E-mail: allan_perna@hotmail.com, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the calibration of the Radon-222 detectors used by the Laboratories specializing in measuring natural radiation from this gas. The research was conducted in collaboration between UTFPR, CDTN/CNEN, UFRN and IRD/CNEN. During the calibration the detectors were exposed in isolated chambers with radioactive calibrated sources. The calibration procedure was supported with four instant radon monitors AlphaGUARD (SAPHYMO Co.) responsible for radon activity measurements in the experimental chamber. The calibration procedure resulted an equation that relates the number of tracks found in solid-state detector CR-39 (Track-Etch detector) with the concentration of radon in the atmosphere. Obtained results are compatible with previously performed calibration at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan) using high activity levels of radon in air. Present results of calibration give the possibility to expand the calibration curve of CR-39 for medium and low activity levels of radon. (author)

  17. 22 CFR 40.68 - Aliens subject to INA 222(g).

    2010-04-01

    ... new nonimmigrant visa unless the alien complies with the requirements in 22 CFR 41.101 (b) or (c... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens subject to INA 222(g). 40.68 Section 40... § 40.68 Aliens subject to INA 222(g). An alien who, under the provisions of INA 222(g), has voided...

  18. Stress of anesthesia with M.S. 222 and Benzocaine in Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Wedemeyer, Gary

    1970-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) anesthetized with M.S. 222 for periods up to 12 min experience interrenal ascorbate depletion, uremia, and moderate hypercholesterolemia. Anesthesia with neutralized M.S. 222 (pH 7) or benzocaine prevented these changes and significantly reduced the variability in plasma glucose, cholesterol, and cortisol, indicating that the stress of anesthesia with M.S. 222 is due to the low pK of the sulfonic acid moiety.

  19. Predicting terrestrial 222Rn flux using gamma dose rate as a proxy

    F. Conen

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available 222Rn is commonly used as a natural tracer for validating climate models. To improve such models a better source term for 222Rn than currently used is necessary. The aim of this work is to establish a method for mapping this source term by using a commonly measured proxy, the gamma dose rate (GDR. Automatic monitoring of GDR has been networked in 25 European countries by the Institute for Environment and Sustainability at the Joint Research Centre (JRC IES in Ispra, Italy, using a common data format. We carried out simultaneous measurements of 222Rn flux and GDR at 63 locations in Switzerland, Germany, Finland and Hungary in order to cover a wide range of GDR. Spatial variations in GDR resulted from different radionuclide concentrations in soil forming minerals. A relatively stable fraction (20% of the total terrestrial GDR originates from the 238U decay series, of which 222Rn is a member. Accordingly, spatial variation in terrestrial GDR was found to describe almost 60% of the spatial variation in 222Rn flux. Furthermore, temporal variation in GDR and 222Rn was found to be correlated. Increasing soil moisture reduces gas diffusivity and the rate of 222Rn flux but it also decreases GDR through increased shielding of photons. Prediction of 222Rn flux through GDR for individual measurement points is imprecise but un-biased. Verification of larger scale prediction showed that estimates of mean 222Rn fluxes were not significantly different from the measured mean values.

  20. 222-S Laboratory Quality Assurance Plan. Revision 1

    Meznarich, H.K.

    1995-07-31

    This Quality Assurance Plan provides,quality assurance (QA) guidance, regulatory QA requirements (e.g., 10 CFR 830.120), and quality control (QC) specifications for analytical service. This document follows the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) issued Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP). In addition, this document meets the objectives of the Quality Assurance Program provided in the WHC-CM-4-2, Section 2.1. Quality assurance elements required in the Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Program Plans (QAMS-004) and Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project Plans (QAMS-005) from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are covered throughout this document. A quality assurance index is provided in the Appendix A. This document also provides and/or identifies the procedural information that governs laboratory operations. The personnel of the 222-S Laboratory and the Standards Laboratory including managers, analysts, QA/QC staff, auditors, and support staff shall use this document as guidance and instructions for their operational and quality assurance activities. Other organizations that conduct activities described in this document for the 222-S Laboratory shall follow this QA/QC document.

  1. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using radon-222

    Kluge, T.; Ilmberger, J.; von Rohden, C.; Aeschbach-Hertig, W.

    2007-06-01

    Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m-3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l) water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m3 per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake interaction.

  2. Radon-222 behavior at the Latera geothermal field (Northern Latium)

    Permanent probes to sample soil gases were placed at the Latera geothermal area, Vulsini Mts. (Latium, Italy). Due to the remarkable uranium and thorium concentrations in the alkali-potassic volcanites outcropping in the area, quite high Rn-222 values, ranging from 740 up to 11.640 pCi/L, were found. This area results as one of the most anomalous in Italy. The highest radon activities match geological and tectonic structures, such as fractures and faults, and a deep high structure, which constitutes the geothermal reservoir. These high radon values also conform to a major amount of helium-4 and carbon dioxide. The latter gases are enriched in the gaseous phase of the geothermal fluids, and their migration is also controlled by structural features. All this suggests that the enrichment of radon-222 in the soil gases sampled in connection with the geothermal reservoir can be linked to a direct contribution of radium-226 carried by deep seated fluids from the reservoir itself

  3. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using radon-222

    T. Kluge

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m−3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m3 per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake interaction.

  4. 222-S Laboratory Quality Assurance Plan. Revision 1

    This Quality Assurance Plan provides,quality assurance (QA) guidance, regulatory QA requirements (e.g., 10 CFR 830.120), and quality control (QC) specifications for analytical service. This document follows the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) issued Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP). In addition, this document meets the objectives of the Quality Assurance Program provided in the WHC-CM-4-2, Section 2.1. Quality assurance elements required in the Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Program Plans (QAMS-004) and Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project Plans (QAMS-005) from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are covered throughout this document. A quality assurance index is provided in the Appendix A. This document also provides and/or identifies the procedural information that governs laboratory operations. The personnel of the 222-S Laboratory and the Standards Laboratory including managers, analysts, QA/QC staff, auditors, and support staff shall use this document as guidance and instructions for their operational and quality assurance activities. Other organizations that conduct activities described in this document for the 222-S Laboratory shall follow this QA/QC document

  5. Factors controlling temporal variability of near-ground atmospheric 222Rn concentration over Central Europe

    M. Zimnoch

    2014-02-01

    222Rn content in Krakow was approximately 30 % higher when compared to Heidelberg (5.86 ± 0.09 Bq −3 and 4.50 ± 0.07 Bq m−3, respectively. Distinct seasonality of 222Rn signal was visible in both presented time series, with higher values recorded generally during late summer and autumn. The surface 222Rn fluxes in Krakow also revealed a distinct seasonality, with broad maximum observed during summer and early autumn and minimum during the winter. Averaged over 5 yr observation period, the night-time surface 222Rn flux was equal 46.8 ± 2.4 Bq m−2 h−1. Although the atmospheric 222Rn levels at Heidelberg and Krakow appeared to be controlled primarily by local factors, it was possible to evaluate the "continental effect" in atmospheric 222Rn content between both sites, related to the gradual build-up of 222Rn concentration in the air masses travelling between Heidelberg and Krakow. The mean value of this load was equal 0.78 ± 0.12 Bq m−3. The measured minimum 222Rn concentrations at both sites and the difference between them was interpreted in the framework of a simple box model coupled with HYSPLIT analysis of air mass trajectories. Best fit of experimental and model data was obtained for the average 222Rn flux over the European continent equal 52 Bq m−2 h−1, the mean transport velocity of the air masses within convective mixed layer of PBL on their route from the Atlantic coast to Heidelberg and Krakow equal 3.5 m s−1, the mean rate constant of 222Rn removal across the top of PBL equal to the 222Rn decay constant and the mean height of the convective mixed layer height equal 1600 m.

  6. 222Rn activity in soil gas across selected fault segments in the Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain

    222Rn activity in soil gas was measured across fault segments of the seismic active Ventaniella Fault and the seismic inactive Sabero-Gordón Fault in the Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain, in order to investigate the variability of the 222Rn concentration. The sampling took place in summer and autumn 2010. During the autumn measurement program, an additional 222Rn soil gas mapping was carried out in the Sabero-Gordón research area. Zones of elevated 222Rn activity in the soil gas were identified by background 222Rn values of the geological formations used for mapping and local background values from 222Rn values outside the elevated 222Rn activity zones. Unexpectedly, the Sabero-Gordón Fault showed higher 222Rn activity, up to 441 kBqm−3, compared to the 222Rn activity of the Ventaniella Fault which had a maximum of 106 kBqm−3. Comparison of the results shows that the values measured in summer are about 5 times higher than the autumn values. This difference is not reflected in petrophysical soil parameters or meteorological conditions documented during the field measurements. Based on the results of our work we conclude that the magnitude of 222Rn concentration in soil gas is not an indicator of local seismic activity of the investigated faults. For the studied segment of the aseismic Sabero-Gordón Fault we suggest active genesis of pathways for gas migration driven by aseismic fault slip causing the elevated 222Rn activity in soil gas.

  7. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: COOMET.RI(II)-S1.Rn-222 (169/UA/98): Rn-222 volume activity comparison

    Skliarov, V.; Röttger, A.; Honig, A.; Korostin, S.; Kuznetsov, S.; Lapenas, A.; Milevsky, V.; Ivaniukovich, A.; Kharitonov, I.; Sepman, S.

    2009-01-01

    According to a first program, a supplementary comparison of Rn-222 volume activity was drawn up as a bilateral supplementary comparison between NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and VNIIFTRI, Russia. It took place in March 2005. In April 2005, at the 5th meeting of COOMET held in Braunschweig (Germany), representatives of these institutes exchanged data which showed the comparability of the national standards of Ukraine and Russia for the check points. During the discussion of the procedure some other institutes decided to join the comparison program, which was extended to BelGIM (Belarus), PTB (Germany), VNIIM (Russia) and RMTC (Latvia). The national standards of volume activity of radon-222 were thus calibrated using one standard radon radiometer as the transfer standard. Results are shown in the Final Report of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by COOMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. 12 CFR 222.90 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR 603.2(a). (9) Red Flag means a pattern, practice, or specific activity that indicates the possible... mitigation of identity theft. 222.90 Section 222.90 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Identity Theft...

  9. 12 CFR 222.21 - Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions.

    2010-01-01

    ... communication. (iii) A credit card issuer makes a marketing call to the consumer without using eligibility... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions. 222... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.21...

  10. 48 CFR 222.7301 - Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens. 222.7301 Section 222.7301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... aliens. (a) Any alien who is issued a visa or otherwise provided nonimmigrant status under Section...

  11. 42 CFR 414.222 - Items requiring frequent and substantial servicing.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Items requiring frequent and substantial servicing. 414.222 Section 414.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH...

  12. Present state of radio-strontium decorporation research with cryptand (222)

    The use of Cryptand (222) for the removal of Sr-90 from rats was studed. Tentative extrapolation from rat to man resulted in a probable treatment scheme. The decontamination effect as a function of the Cryptand (222) dose and the time interval between incorporation of the radionuclide and the start of treatment is discussed. (H.K.)

  13. 48 CFR 252.222-7003 - Permit from Italian Inspectorate of Labor.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit from Italian... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7003 Permit from Italian Inspectorate of Labor. As prescribed in 222.7201(b), use the following clause: Permit from Italian Inspectorate of Labor (JUN...

  14. 5 CFR 591.222 - How does OPM use the expenditure weights to combine price indexes?

    2010-01-01

    ... average (the nth root of the product of n numbers) of the price index(es) of all item(s) representing the... to combine price indexes? 591.222 Section 591.222 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... combine price indexes? OPM uses a three-step process to combine price indexes. (a) Step 1. For each...

  15. D2.2.2 Final Version of the LinkedUp Evaluation Framework

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Guy, Marieke; Scheffel, Maren

    2014-01-01

    This document (D2.2.2) describes the LinkedUp consortium’s experience in developing and on- going improvement of the LinkedUp Evaluation Framework throughout three web open educational data competitions: Veni, Vidi, Vici. D2.2.2 is the final report regarding the Evaluation Framework (EF). It synthes

  16. 48 CFR 52.222-46 - Evaluation of Compensation for Professional Employees.

    2010-10-01

    ... obtaining the quality of professional services needed for adequate contract performance. It is therefore in the Government's best interest that professional employees, as defined in 29 CFR 541, be properly and... for Professional Employees. 52.222-46 Section 52.222-46 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  17. [The content of radon 222Rn in deep borehole water of the Pojezierze Mazurskie terrain].

    Pachocki, K A; Gorzkowski, B; Majle, T; Rózycki, Z

    1997-01-01

    Radon 222Rn in deep borehole water of Pojezierze Mazurskie region has been quantitative determined. The measurement were performed using the alpha liquid scintillation counting method. The water samples were examined from three voivodships: Elblag, Olsztyn and Suwałki. In some cases the concentrations of 222Rn in investigated water samples exceed 11 Bq/l. PMID:9273666

  18. The contents of radon 222Rn in deep borehole water of Pojezierze Mazurskie region

    Radon 222Rn in deep borehole water of Pojezierze Mazurskie region has been quantitatively determined. The measurement were performed using the alpha liquid scintillation counting method. The water samples were examined from 3 provinces: Elblag, Olsztyn and Suwalki. In some cases the concentrations of 222Rn in investigated water samples exceed 11 Bq/l. (author)

  19. Nationwide indoor 222Rn and 220Rn map for India: a review

    Considering the role of radon in epidemiology, an attempt was made to make a nation-wide map of indoor 222Rn and 220Rn for India. More than 5000 measurements have been carried out in 1500 dwellings across the country comprising urban and nonurban locations. The solid state nuclear track detectors based twin cup 222Rn/220Rn discrimination dosimeters were deployed for the measurement of indoor 222Rn, 220Rn and their progeny levels. The geometric means of estimated annual inhalation dose rate due to indoor 222Rn, 220Rn and their progeny in the dwellings was 0.94 mSvy-1 (geometric standard deviation 2.5). It was observed that the major contribution to the indoor inhalation dose was due to indoor 222Rn and its progeny. However, the contribution due to indoor 220Rn and its progeny was not trivial as it was found to be about 20% of the total indoor inhalation dose rates. The indoor 222Rn levels in dwellings was significantly different depending on the nature of walls and floorings. - Highlights: → A countrywide survey on 222Rn and 220Rn levels for India was carried out in dwellings. → The regional values are obtained from the data on a few houses in that area. → Calibration factors for the measurements were derived experimentally as well as theoretically. → The 222Rn and 220Rn levels are represented on the maps.

  20. A method for the determination of 222Rn flux from soil to atmosphere

    An accumulator and a portable electronic monitor were used for determinations of 222Rn flux exhalation from soil to atmosphere. This work describes a method of fitting the function that represents 222Rn concentration variation in the accumulator to experimental data, and tries to answer the practical questions of temperature, leakage and soil disturbance, that may influence 222Rn flux determinations. It is observed a deviation equal to 0.2 %, between the determined counting rate conversion factor of the monitor and the catalog reported factor, showing that the proposed method has a good accuracy. The smallest 222Rn flux that can be determined by this method is equal to 3.24 9 10-3 Bq m-2 s-1. These results encourage the use of this method to measure 222Rn flux from soil to atmosphere in other different places. (author)

  1. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide

    Balachandran, C.; Kumar, P. Saravana; Arun, Y.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Sundaram, R. Lakshmi; Vijayakumar, A.; Balakrishna, K.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Perumal, P. T.

    2015-02-01

    N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was obtained by acylation of benzylamine with trifluoroacetic anhydride using Friedel-Crafts acylation method. The synthesised compound was confirmed by spectroscopic and crystallographic techniques. N-Benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide was assessed for its antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties. It showed good antifungal activity against tested fungi and moderate antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of N-benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide against fungi were 15.62 μg/mL against A. flavus, 31.25 μg/mL against B. Cinerea and 62.5 μg/mL against T. mentagrophytes, Scopulariopsis sp., C. albicans and M. pachydermatis. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 78.97 ± 2.24 of antioxidant activity at 1,000 μg/mL. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was dependent on the concentration. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed (1.352 ± 0.04 mM Fe(II)/g) twofold higher value compared to the standard. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 75.3 % cytotoxic activity at the dose of 200 μg/mL with IC50 (54.7 %) value of 100 μg/mL. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was subjected to molecular docking studies for the inhibition AmpC beta-lactamase, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase and lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (CYP51) enzymes which are targets for antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Docking studies of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed low docking energy. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide can be evaluated further for drug development.

  2. 222Rn + 220Rn monitoring by alpha spectrometry

    Controlled 222Rn + 220Rn mixed atmospheres have been realised introducing calibrated sources in a stainless steel chamber. An electrostatic alpha monitor internal to the chamber has been used for an accurate discrimination of alpha peaks due to the products of the two isotopes. In the chamber, different specific activities are achieved in order to test the response of the internal reference instrument and to evaluate the possible interferences due to contemporary presence of both radon isotopes. Results show that: (i) the atmospheres are very stable, (ii) the monitor is adequate for their control because the various alpha lines are well evaluated and (iii) using TyvekR filter, the efficiency of monitor is stable and constant vs. activity. (authors)

  3. Radon-222 measurement in a uranium prospecting area in Brazil

    Rn-222 concentrations were determined in about 100 measuring points in an uranium prospecting area in the eastern part of Brazil. The single measurement results in open areas, identified as environmental points, present values between 4 ± 2 Bq/m-3 and 404 ± 16 Bq/m-3 with a mean value of 62 ± 10 Bq/m-3. Comparing the mean values for each measuring point, the values obtained are between 15 ± 2 Bq/m-3 in the deposit for mineral samples and 245 ±7 Bq/m-3 for the central point, AN08, of the prospective mine. Makrofol SSNTD were used for the measurements and exposed for 120 days alternated periods from May 1992 to May 1994. (authors). 8 refs., 1 tab

  4. Study of 222Rn variations in the soil air

    A significant source of radon in the indoor atmosphere is represented by 222Rn in the soil air, ie., by the fraction of radon atoms produced by alpha decay of 226Ra in soil grains that escaped into soil pores. In the paper the results are presented of a three year monitoring of radon in soil air, using a 125 ml Lucas type scintillation cell. Radon concentration depth profiles in the soil in various seasons of the year were also measured, and saturated concentration of radon in soil air was found at a depth of about 2 m. Monthly variations in the radon concentration were observed over several months and the possible causes of the variations are discussed. Daily courses of radon concentration were also measured and the results are presented. (A.K.)

  5. 222Rn and decay products in outdoor and indoor environments

    Radon-222 (radon) and radon daughter (RnD) measurement methodologies are analysed from both theoretical and experimental points of view. It is shown that exhalation from enclosed porous materials can be described in terms of the time-dependent diffusion theory. Deficiencies in the established accumulator method of radon exhalation measurement are shown. By the existing methods, the true free exhalation rate of thin samples may be underestimated by a factor of (1+α-1), in radon-tight accumulators (α is the outer to inner volume ratio of the sample). The term back-diffusion is clarified and shown applicable to steady-state conditions only. The wire-screen technique is utilized to separate aerosol-attached and unattached RnD in a 3 m3 radon cell. The effect of air-filtration on the RnDs is expressed as individual activity concentrations as well as in terms of effective dose equivalent rate, H. H has been reduced by a factor between 1.3 and 2.5 for the small-sized areosol particles used (surface area median less than 100 nm), at the filtration rate constant 5 h-1. The exact reduction value is dependent on initial aerosol load, type of filter, and dose model (Jacobi-Eisfeld and James-Birchall in this investigation). The concentration of radon and Pb-210 in the Arctic summer air averaged 75+-21 and 0.075+-0.028 mBq m-3, during the Swedish Ymer-80 expedition. It is shown that steadystate equilibrium models are unsuitable for estimation of the mean aerosol residence time in ocean air. A good qualitative agreement between radon-levels and the time since the air mass left larger land areas was found. The radon-222 and long-lived daughter (Pb-210, Po-210) measurements are insensitive to ship- and local contaminations. (author)

  6. 36 CFR 222.26 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.

    2010-07-01

    ... horses and burros from private lands. 222.26 Section 222.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.26 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands. Owners of land upon...

  7. 36 CFR 222.21 - Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment.

    2010-07-01

    ...-roaming horses and burros and their environment. 222.21 Section 222.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.21 Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 222.27 - Maintenance of wild free-roaming horses and burros on privately-owned lands.

    2010-07-01

    ...-roaming horses and burros on privately-owned lands. 222.27 Section 222.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.27 Maintenance of wild free-roaming horses and burros on privately-owned...

  9. 20 CFR 404.222 - Use of benefit table in finding your primary insurance amount from your average monthly wage.

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance amount from your average monthly wage. 404.222 Section 404.222 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.222 Use of benefit table...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 222 - Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings G Appendix G to Part 222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt. 222, App. G Appendix G to Part 222—Excess Risk Estimates for...

  11. 42 CFR 436.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    2010-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 436.222 Section 436.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID....222 Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may... assistance but who meet the income and resource requirements of the State's approved AFDC plan. (b)...

  12. Control of preferred (222) crystalline orientation of sputtered indium tin oxide thin films

    Pham, Duy Phong [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Phan, Bach Thang [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Faculty of Materials Science, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Hoang, Van Dung; Nguyen, Huu Truong [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Ta, Thi Kieu Hanh [Faculty of Materials Science, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Maenosono, Shinya [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Ishikawa (Japan); Tran, Cao Vinh, E-mail: tcvinh@hcmus.edu.vn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam)

    2014-11-03

    We report a two-step growth process for the fabrication of (222)-plane textured indium tin oxide (ITO) films. A thin ITO seed layer was grown in mixed Argon + Oxygen gases, followed by a thick ITO deposited in Argon gas. X-Ray diffraction shows that the sputtered ITO films exhibit strongly preferred (222) crystalline orientation. The (222)-plane textured ITO films have high transmittance above 80% in the visible range and carrier concentration, mobility and resistivity in the range of 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}, 40 cm{sup 2}/Vs and 10{sup −4} Ω·cm, respectively. The surface roughness of our (222) textured ITO films is 1.4 nm, which is one of the smallest value obtained from sputtered ITO thin films. - Highlights: • Control of preferred (222) crystalline orientation of indium tin oxide (ITO) films • A thin oxygen rich seed layer activates (222) orientation growth of overhead ITO films. • The surface roughness of (222)-plane textured ITO films is about 1.4 nm. • Carrier concentration and resistivity are about 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} and 10{sup −4} Ω·cm, respectively.

  13. Measurements of 222Rn activity in well water of the Curitiba metropolitan area (Brazil)

    Corrêa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F. N.; França, Alana C.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy

    2014-11-01

    Considering that 222Rn activity concentration in well water can contribute to indoor radon concentration levels, which represent a radiation risk for the public, measurements of 226Ra and 222Rn activity in well water in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil were performed. Each water sample was submitted to four measurements for radon concentration over an interval of three days. After two months, the same samples were submitted again to 222Rn concentration measurements with the objective of indirectly evaluating the amount of 226Ra in them. The 222Rn concentration measurements were performed with an AlphaGUARD radon monitor (SAPHYMO), and the 226Ra concentration was evaluated with the decay curves of 222Rn. Within a few hours after extraction, about 70% of water samples from monitored wells presented 222Rn concentration values above the limit of 11.1 Bq/L recommended by the EPA of the United States. The obtained activity values varied between 1.6 Bq/L and 215 Bq/L for radon concentration, and radium concentrations deviated within an interval of 0.50 Bq/L and 6.8 Bq/L. The results reveal that the biggest part of 222Rn found in water samples originated not from soluble 226Ra compounds but from gas exhalation by the soil and rocks adjacent to the well. The results point to the necessity of mitigation procedure development for better control of global alpha radioactivity in drinking water.

  14. Theoretical study of the diffusion 222Rn gas on activated charcoal

    The 222Rn adsorption coefficient is the fundamental parameter characterizing activated carbon's ability to adsorb 222Rn . In this work, it has been determined the 222Rn coefficient adsorption for 222Rn activated carbon detectors. Scintillation vials were used as detectors. The measurement of the 222Rn activity adsorbed in activated carbon was made by a liquid scintillation measurement of its alpha-beta progeny decay. On the other hand, in this work a diffusion and adsorption model has been developed for the transport of 222Rn in an activated carbon porous bed. The equation that describes these processes is a partial differential equation, of the second order with respect to axial coordinate, and the first order with respect to time. The equation was numerically solved using a finites differences method. With this model the 222Rn activity adsorbed in the detector, for several situations, was calculated. The results were tested with the data obtained from series of experiences made in our laboratories. (author)

  15. Relationship between 222Rn concentration in soil water and degree of saturation

    The object of the researches an analyzing downward flow to groundwater using 222Rn concentration in water as an indicator has been saturated flow. However, when groundwater table is low, downward flow from surface is unsaturated flow. In this paper, the authors represented the relationship between 222Rn concentration in soil water and degree of saturation, and measured the vertical distributions of 222Rn concentrations in groundwater and 222Rn concentration in water table in the fields. As the results, it was found that 222Rn concentrations in the vicinity of groundwater table decreased by unsaturated downward flow. Moreover, from the variation of 222Rn concentrations in groundwater table, it was possible to show the occurrence of the unsaturated downward flow by paddy fields irrigation, i.e., the downward flow of the soil water pushed out by irrigation water, the unsaturated percolation in the irrigation period, and the redistribution of the soil water after the release of ponding water. The degree of saturation in downward flow was calculated to be about 50% from 222Rn concentrations in the irrigation period and in the non-irrigation period. It was deduced that the value was within reasonable range considering the difference of the hydraulic conductivities between of the upper layer and of the lower layer. These results proved that the relationship between 222Rn concentrations in soil water and degree of saturation represented by the authors was reasonable and that the analytical method using 222Rn concentrations in groundwater table as an indicator was useful 10 analyze the actual stale of unsaturated downward flow. (author)

  16. Vibrations in the urban environment controlling {sup 222}Rn migration in soils

    Wiegand, J. [University of Essen, Department 9 - Geology, Essen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Comparable to investigations looking for a connection of {sup 222}Rn and earthquakes, this study shows the influence of subsurface vibrations on the {sup 222}Rn concentration of the soil-gas in urban environments. Generally, the {sup 222}Rn concentration increases through vibrations induced by trains, street-traffic and activities at project sites. The spatial radius of the {sup 222}Rn increase due to vibrations reach highest values at project sites where piled foundations or metal panels are rammed into the ground (> 60 m). Along railway tracks the radius is wider (> 30 m) than along heavy traffic roads (< 25 m). The average increase of {sup 222}Rn concentrations in soil-gas due to vibrations is the highest at project sites (53%). Along heavy traffic roads the increase of {sup 222}Rn concentrations by motor vehicle traffic is higher (37%) than that by railway traffic (11.5%). The maximum increase of 400% was observed in a distance of 1 m from a railway track. In the vicinity of railway tracks a difference of the vibration influence according to unconsolidated rock (11.1%) or solid rock (11.8%) was not noticed. Beside this vibration effect, the overall {sup 222}Rn level decreases with increasing distance to the vibration source, but only at locations laying above solid rocks. The observation of the increase of {sup 222}Rn concentrations can be explained by a `pump effect`: the mechanical vibration of soil and mineral particles leads to an upward motion of the whole volume of soil-gas. Therefore, {sup 222}Rn is pumped out of the soil to the atmosphere and as a result the upward transport is increased. (author)

  17. {sup 222}Rn concentration in public secondary schools in Galicia (Spain)

    Llerena, J.J., E-mail: juanjose.llerena@usc.e [Laboratorio de Analisis de Radiaciones (LAR), Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Cortina, D.; Duran, I.; Sorribas, R. [Laboratorio de Analisis de Radiaciones (LAR), Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    In the framework of a {sup 222}Rn screening campaign that was carried out in 58 public secondary schools in Galicia (NW Spain), the largest radon-prone area in the Iberian Peninsula, a positive correlation between indoor {sup 222}Rn concentration and outdoor gamma exposure rate was obtained. A new approach to the data acquisition in screening surveys was tested, improving the performances of this type of study and gathering useful data for future remedial actions. Using short-period detectors (charcoal canisters) firstly, in order to detect places showing {sup 222}Rn concentrations over 400 Bq m{sup -3}, the number of locations to be measured with long-period detectors (etched track detectors) is reduced. In this screening campaign, 34% of the schools surveyed presented at least one site exceeding the 400 Bq m{sup -3} recommended action level established by the EU, and 15% had at least one site with {sup 222}Rn values over 800 Bq m{sup -3}. The maximum value recorded was 2084 {+-} 63 Bq m{sup -3}. These results are discussed and compared with data obtained in schools of several countries with similar geology. Seven schools were also studied for seasonal variations of {sup 222}Rn activity concentration. The results were not conclusive, and no significant correlation between season and {sup 222}Rn concentration was established. Finally, a continuous {sup 222}Rn concentration monitor was placed in the secondary school exhibiting a mean value of the {sup 222}Rn concentration very close to 400 Bq m{sup -3}. Maximum {sup 222}Rn concentration values were found to occur at times when the school was unoccupied.

  18. Growth Of 222Rn By Using Merlin Gerin, Vinten 271/671 And Centronic Ionization Chambers

    Growth measurements of exp.222 Rn by using Merlin Gerin, Vinten 271/671 and Centronic 1G 11/A20 ionization chamber have been studied. The aim of this measurement is to determine the optimum growth in the seculer equilibrium of exp.222 Rn by using three ionization chambers. The optimum growth of exp.222 Rn by using merlin Gerin ionization chamber was (19.06 n 0.07) days, by using Vinten 271/671 ionization chamber was (19.20 n 0.01) days and with Centronic 1G 11/A20 ionization chamber was (19.64 n 0.43) days

  19. Copper-Catalyzed 2,2,2-Trifluoroethylthiolation of Aryl Halides.

    Chen, Shouxiong; Zhang, Mengjia; Liao, Xuebin; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2016-09-01

    Herein, a copper-catalyzed 2,2,2-trifluoroethylthiolation reaction of aryl bromides and iodides with elemental sulfur, and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-iodoethane is described. The reaction showed excellent functional group tolerance and allowed the synthesis of various substituted aryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl thioethers with good to excellent yields. This transformation constitutes a one-pot synthesis of 2,2,2-trifluoroethylthiolated compounds from inexpensive, readily available starting materials. Utility of the protocol was further demonstrated in the late-stage synthesis of the pirfenidone derivative. The copper thiolate species were prepared and proposed as key intermediates in the catalytic cycle. PMID:27477255

  20. Contrasting behavior in octupole structures observed at high spin in 220Ra and 222Th

    Alternating-parity states connected by strong E1 transitions, characteristic of a reflection-asymmetric rotor, have been observed to high spins in the isotones 220Ra and 222Th. This level structure is observed up to Jπ=29-(31-) in 220Ra while it cannot be seen beyond J+=24+(25-) in 222Th. These observations are consistent with Woods-Saxon-Bogolyubov cranking calculations which predict that the yrast band of 222Th will undergo a shape transition at J=24ℎ, in contrast to that of 220Ra which maintains its reflection asymmetry to higher spins

  1. Kinetics of ingested 222Rn in humans determined from measurements with 133Xe. Project summary report

    The problem of naturally occurring 222-radon contamination has received a great deal of public and scientific attention over the past several years, and has become a major public health issue worldwide. The purpose of the work reported in this document was to provide information about the behavior of ingested 222-radon in the digestive system and other organs of the human body. 133-Xenon, an element which behaves in the same manner as 222-radon in tissue and differs only in tissue solubility, was used in studies on human subjects. The tissue solubility differences were accounted for by using the tissue/blood partition coefficients of the two gases

  2. Dose by 222 Rn in houses of the Chihuahua city

    Full text: The dose equivalent that the population of the Chihuahua city receives due to the radon in air that joined to values of uranium, thorium and potassium due to the floor and radon in water was determined, they give values very above the international and national norms. The state of Chihuahua contains near 56 locations distributed by the whole state. The city of Chihuahua, capital of the state, is surrounded of rocks with great content of uranium, for what their floor also contains to the 226 Ra that generates to the 222 Rn. The construction of the housings of the city of Chihuahua is mainly of brick, block and adobe; the material to elaborate them is take from the rocks and floor of the surroundings, this makes that the radon is presented in a great quantity of houses of this city. As the floor and water they also contain those natural radionuclides, the total dose equivalent that the inhabitants receive is bigger to other cities of the country. Diverse international organizations dedicated to the radioactivity, indicate that the level of the 222 Rn should not surpass the 148 Bq/m3, since this gas produces lung cancer. The state of Chihuahua has an index of deaths on the average by lung cancer of double the national average, the capital of the state also has a high index. The radon concentration in a house depends on the construction material with which was made, as well as of the existent climatic conditions. During the day, this concentration depends mainly on the interior temperature, so during the night and dawn increases the radon concentration. The radon is the biggest source of radioactive dose received by the human being and it can generate a problem of public health if the concentration is high during enough time, for what the city of Chihuahua has the geologic and climatic characteristics to have it. This study was carried out in 50 house-room of the city of Chihuahua. Built houses with brick, block and adobe were selected. The quantification of

  3. Hydrograph separation using 222Rn in a micro basin (Luxembourg)

    In order to get information about the hydrological signature of small rivers during and after heavy rain events, a small catchment was selected as experimental site. Hydrograph separations based on environmental tracers are performed. Natural isotopic tracers such as 18O, 2H and particularly 222Rn may help to distinguish the components dominating the outflow, particularly of pre-event waters, event waters and post-event waters. Even with moderate concentrations in groundwater, radon can be a very sensitive indicator of groundwater input into rivers. The selected microbasin under investigation is situated in the western part of Luxembourg and belong to the Attert basin, the latter being integrated in the European Network of Experimental Research Basins (ERB). Radon gas detectors are optimised to measure continuously the radon activity in water. These detectors are installed at chosen points at the basin's outflow, together with high precision thermometer, conductivity meters, flow meters and automatic water samplers for chemical analysis. Besides the continuous measurements, grab water samples are taken for radon measurements at different locations along the stream, most of them during periods of heavy rain events. Presented are preliminary results over half a year measurement campaign. During the dry season i.e. during more or less continuous discharge conditions, the observed values do not show substantial variations and can be used as reference values. High fluctuations of the measured data during heavy rain events are discussed and the interplay between the different parameters analysed. (author)

  4. Using 222 Rn for hydrograph separationin a micro basin (Luxembourg

    L. Hoffmann

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain information on the hydrological signature of rivers during and after heavy rain events, small catchment areas are selected as experimental sites. Hydrograph separations based on environmental tracers are performed. Natural isotopic tracers such as 18O, 2H and particularly 222Rn may help to distinguish the components dominating the outflow, particularly of 'pre-event waters', 'event waters' and 'post-event waters'. Even with moderate concentrations in groundwater, radon can be a very sensitive indicator of groundwater input into rivers. The selected microbasin under investigation is situated in the western part of Luxembourg and belongs to the Attert River catchment. At chosen points at the basin's outflow radon detectors continuously measure radon activity in water. The radon monitors are installed together with high precision thermometers, conductivity meters, flow meters and automatic water samplers for chemical analysis. Besides the continuous measurements, grab water samples are taken at different locations along the stream, most of them during periods of heavy rain events. Presented are the results of a one year measurement campaign. During the dry season i.e. during more or less continuous discharge conditions, the observed mean values do not show substantial variations and can be used as reference values. Fluctuations of the measured data during rain events are discussed and the interplay between the different parameters analysed.

  5. Measurements of indoor 222Rn concentration in two art galleries

    It is point out that radon and their decay products in environment give high dose to human lung. Studies indicate that the indoor radon inhalation by humans has been considered probably the second most important cause of lung cancer after of smoking. A passive-type radon detector was used for measuring indoor radon concentration in two art galleries at Rio de Janeiro city during 90 days January to March, 2009. The aim of this study is to evaluate the occupational and public radon exposure in art galleries and museums. This paper shows the preliminary results of samples collected at two art galleries located in Gavea, Rio de Janeiro city. 30 LEXAN (GE) track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor as well as outdoor). The samples were collected in the same building which is a construction of XIX century. The analysis of the results suggests that the 222Rn concentration levels are different in both sampling site, in closed environmental, demonstrating that, although the construction materials are the same the absence of circulating air is a factor very important to increase the concentration of indoor Rn. (author)

  6. 222Rn and 212Pb exposures at a Brazilian SPA

    Termas de Araxa spa is located in Araxa, State of Minas Gerais. In this region, several minerals rich in uranium and thorium are found. The mineral waters and mud from Termas de Araxa spa have been used for therapeutic and recreation purposes. In this study, the committed effective dose was evaluated for workers and patients at Araxa spa due to 222Rn and 212Pb inhalation. Radon measurements were carried out through the passive method with solid state nuclear track detectors (Makrofol E) over a period of 21 months, with results varying from 258 ± 20 to 1634 ± 111 Bq m-3. The 212Pb air concentration was assessed through the modified Kusnetz's method, the results varying from 0.3 ± 0.1 to 2.1 ± 0.2 Bq m-3. Doses received by the spa workers are below 20 mSv y-1, suggested by ICRP 60 as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure. The radiation doses for the patients are below the mean annual effective dose due to natural sources estimated to be 2.4 mSv.y-1. (authors)

  7. 12 CFR 222.23 - Contents of opt-out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices.

    2010-01-01

    ... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.23...) Alternative contents. If the consumer is afforded a broader right to opt out of receiving marketing than...

  8. Radon 222 levels in deep well waters of Toluca municipality (county)

    The levels of Radon 222 were determined in 46 deep (50-180m) wells in the city and county of Toluca, as well as the annual radiation dose that the stomach admits when ingesting such water. The method used for the quantification of Radon 222 was liquid scintillation counting. The result revealed that levels of Radon 222 in the studied area in the range of 0 to 320 pCi l-1. In the case of the equivalent annual dose that the stomach (empty) admits due to ingestion of water from the wells, values are in an interval between 0 to 95 mrem a-1. This values are well below the level established by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The wells that had the higher concentration of Radon 222 were found in the regions of Lodo Prieto, Seminario; San Antonio Buenavista and La Trinidad Huichochitlan. (Author)

  9. Concrete samples for organic samples, data package and 222-S validation summary report. Addendum 1A

    Vogel, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    This document is in two parts: the first is the data package entitled ``Concrete Samples for Organic Samples`` and the second is entitled ``Concrete Samples for Organic Samples -- Addendum 1A`` which is the 222-S validation summary report.

  10. EFFECTS OF ANESTHESIA (TRICAINE METHANESULFONATE, MS-222) BIOTRANSFORMATION IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (3-aminobenzoic acid eithyl ester methanesulfonate, tricaine, MS-222, Finquel), an anesthetic for fish, has been used extensively in aquatic toxicology to allow surgical procedures for in vivo studies and to permit in vitro preparations of isolated perfu...

  11. EFFECTS OF ANESTHESIA (MS222) ON LIVER BIOTRANSFORMATION IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (3-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfonate; MS222) is a widely used fish anaesthetic. While there have been several studies addressing the impact of its use on subsequently measured biotransformation rates, the measured influence on normal functio...

  12. Applications of environmental radon-222 to some cases of water circulation

    We have proposed three methods to analyze water circulation and the changes caused by human activities by studying the changing distribution patterns of 222Rn concentrations in water. We investigated the results by applying the methods to some water circulation problems of Japan. The first method was a detailed analysis of the hydrogeological structure of an area, using the fact that the 222Rn concentration of water takes a value characteristic of the aquifer. In the second method we analyzed the state of mixing of surface water and groundwater by taking advantage of the fact that the 222Rn concentrations of the two are quite different. In the third method, we used the differing 222Rn concentrations in vadose water and in retention water to analyze the pressure acting on the aquifer or the groundwater

  13. Indoor 222Rn measurements in the region of Beijing, People's Republic of China

    Passive integrating activated C detectors were used to study the regional distribution and temporal variation of 222Rn in indoor air in dwellings in the Beijing region. Measurements were made in 537 dwellings, which were either detached houses or multi-family apartments. The city-wide study was completed in 1985. The distributions are approximately log-normal with 90% of the dwellings having 222Rn levels less than 60 Bq m-3. The weighted average 222Rn concentration has been found to be 22.4 Bq m-3. Averages for detached houses and multi-family dwellings are 25.9 and 15.2 Bq m-3, respectively. Assuming an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and an occupancy factor of 0.8, the average equilibrium equivalent concentration of 222Rn progeny is 11.2 Bq m-3 and the annual average effective dose equivalent is 1.1 mSv

  14. Ministry of Commerce Issued 222 the Most Competitive China's Market Brands

    2007-01-01

    @@ Recently, the Ministry of Commerce issued a total of 222 the most competitive China's market brands, which engage in 19 categories such as food, drink,apparel, household appliance and transportation.

  15. 12 CFR 222.26 - Delivery of opt-out notices.

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.26 Delivery of opt-out notices. (a... of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. 7001 et seq. (b)...

  16. Effectiveness of the anaesthetic MS-222 in gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata: effect of feeding time and day-night variations in plasma MS-222 concentration and GST activity.

    Vera, L M; Montoya, A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2013-02-17

    Feeding time is a potent zeitgeber capable of synchronising behavioural and physiological daily rhythms in fish. However, the effect of feeding time on the daily rhythm of drugs toxicity and/or effectiveness remains unexplored to date. In this paper we investigated the day/night variations in the effectiveness of an anaesthetic commonly used in fish (Tricaine, MS-222) in a teleost of great chronobiological and aquaculture interest (gilthead seabream). To this end, fish were kept under LD 12:12 and fed at mid-light (ML), mid-darkness (MD) or random times (RD). The time needed to induce anaesthesia (reduction of locomotor activity) during MS-222 exposure (65 mg/L) as well as the recovery period were investigated at ML and MD in the three experimental groups using specialised video tracking software. In addition, daily rhythms of GST activity in the liver (as an indicator of detoxification processes) and plasma MS-222 concentration (related to uptake) were determined. The results revealed that MS-222 effectiveness in the ML group was higher during the day than at night (significant reduction of activity after 3 min vs. 5 min) whereas in the MD group, the daily variation of MS-222 effectiveness was inverted (significant reduction of activity after 7 min at ML vs. 2 min at MD), suggesting that feeding time can shift the day-night variations in the effectiveness of MS-222. Hepatic GST also seemed to be affected by feeding time: in fish fed at MD or RD this enzyme activity showed significant differences during the day, and the highest levels were found at different times of the day in each group. Plasma MS-222 concentrations were higher at ML (142.4±12.8 ng/ml) than at MD (96.3±10.9 ng/ml) (t-Student, peffectiveness of this anaesthetic. Furthermore, manipulation of the feeding schedule can be used to modify the daily variations in MS-222 effectiveness, which has basic as well applied implications for optimising anaesthesia protocols in fish aquaculture. PMID:23291569

  17. Evaluation of dose arising from 222Rn, decay products of 222Rn and 220Rn to staff from a certain nuclear power plant

    The staff of the plant was grouped on their work ranges. The annual effective dose resulted from radon and the decay products of 222Rn/220Rn is studied by measuring radon concentration with double filter membrane method and by measuring the concentration of 222Rn/220Rn short life radioactive decay products with five-count method. Based on the results, specific protection measures are proposed for high radon areas. The study results show that the monitoring data for all areas except the spent fuel pool was smaller than the recommended values by ICRP. (authors)

  18. Turbulent Transport of 222-Rn and its Short-lived Daughters in Convective Boundary Layers

    VINUESA JEAN; GALMARINI STEFANO

    2006-01-01

    222Rn is a natural radioactive compound with a half-life of 3.8 days. Because of its noble gas nature, it is a suitable tracer in studies of atmospheric boundary layers. Ground-based measurements and vertical distributions of 222Rn and its daughters have been extensively studied in the past, e.g., to characterize the turbulent properties of the atmospheric boundary layer, to perform regional and global circulation model benchmarking and to estimate regional surface flu...

  19. Diffusion coefficients of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol/water mixtures

    Pereira, Luís A.M.; Ramalho, João P. P.; Carvalho, Alfredo J. P.; Morgado, Pedro; Filipe, Eduardo J. M.; Martins, Luís F. G.

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous mixtures of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol have received significant attention in the last years because their applications, such as working fluid in Rankine cycle thermal engines or as solvent in studies of protein stability (protein folding). From the fundamental point of view, fluoroalcohols have an amphyphile character, due to the simultaneous presence of a hydrophobic (and alkane-phobic) fluorinated surface and a hydroxyl group. Mixtures of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol with hydrogenated alcoho...

  20. microRNA-222 modulates liver fibrosis in a murine model of biliary atresia

    Shen, Wen-jun; Dong, Rui; Chen, Gong, E-mail: chengongzlp@hotmail.com; Zheng, Shan

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • The RRV infected group showed cholestasis, retardation and extrahepatic biliary atresia. • miR-222 was highly expressed, and PPP2R2A was inhibited in the murine biliary atresia model. • miR-222 profoundly modulated the process of fibrosis in the murine biliary atresia model. • miR-222 might represent a potential target for improving biliary atresia prognosis. - Abstract: microRNA-222 (miR-222) has been shown to initiate the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of miR-22 in a mouse model of biliary atresia (BA) induced by Rhesus Rotavirus (RRV) infection. New-born Balb/c mice were randomized into control and RRV infected groups. The extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. The experimental group was divided into BA group and negative group based on histology. The expression of miR-222, protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B alpha (PPP2R2A), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phospho-Akt were detected. We found that the experimental group showed signs of cholestasis, retardation and extrahepatic biliary atresia. No abnormalities were found in the control group. In the BA group, miR-222, PCNA and Akt were highly expressed, and PPP2R2A expression was significantly inhibited. Our findings suggest that miR-222 profoundly modulated the process of fibrosis in the murine BA model, which might represent a potential target for improving BA prognosis.

  1. Evaluation of radon-222 concentration in air of workplaces at Curitiba/PR, Brazil

    Del Claro, Flavia; Correa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: flaviadelclaro@gmail.com, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (IPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rocha@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The isotope Rn-222 is a noble gas that is responsible for approximately half of the effective annual dose received by the world population, and has very high probability to induce the lung cancer. The goal of present research is to evaluate the activity concentration of Rn-222 in the air of workplaces at Curitiba, Parana State. Simultaneously there were performed the measurements of Rn-222 emanation from soil and building materials occurred at evaluated workplaces. Indoor measurements of Rn-222 activity were performed using CR-39 detectors. The instant radon detector AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) was used in the measurements of the average concentrations of Rn-222 in soil gas and building materials. The average concentration of indoor Rn-222 obtained in the measurements of workplaces vary between 36+/-49 Bq/m³ and 164+/-51 Bq/m³. These values are considered within the reference limit of 200 Bq/m³ established by international agencies such as the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the International Commission on Radiological Protection, but slightly above the limit of 148 Bq/m³ established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The measurements involving building materials presented the concentration values of Rn-222 in a range from 427+/-310 Bq/m³ to 2053+/-700 Bq/m³. The Rn-222 concentrations in soil ranged from 31+/-2 kBq/m³ to 35+/-4 kBq/m³ and the average values of Rn-220 are found in a range of 41+/-6 kBq/m³ and 25+/-11 kBq/m³, thus the concentrations of radon gas soil are below the swedish criterion of 50 kBq/m³ that represent the minimum value for high-risk situation. (author)

  2. Anomalies of the emissions of Radon-222 before a tectonic earthquake

    A qualitative examination of claimed radon-222 precursors proposed in the international literature has been reviewed. Some data from continuous radon-222 soils measurements during five years in two Colombian departments are presented and some precursors results registered before seismotectonic events are discussed. Transport mechanisms of gases are discussed, as well as its possible physical interactions with soil minerals. Advection processes are the dominant transport mechanism of gases in the OVSM station

  3. Groundwater discharge quantification in marine, and desert environments using radium quartet, radon-222 and stable isotopes

    Luo, Xin; 羅新

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater discharge is an important component of global water cycle. Along with groundwater discharge, large amount of chemicals are transported and loaded into surface waters. This thesis investigates groundwater discharge in both terrestrial and marine environments using isotopic approaches. Radium quartet and radon-222 (222Rn), highly concentrated in groundwater and conservatively behaving during the transport, are proved to be effective tracers in quantifying groundwater discharge in va...

  4. Radon-222 as a test of convective transport in a general circulation model

    The distribution of 222Rn over North America is simulated with a 3-d chemical tracer model (CTM) based on the meteorology of the GISS general circulation model (GCM). The GISS GCM has been used extensively for studies of climate change and global transport of chemical tracers. Simulation of 222Rn (e-folding lifetime 5.5 days) tests the ability of the model to describe the transport of pollutants in the boundary layer and the exchange of mass between the boundary layer and the free troposphere. Model results are compared to surface observations from 5 sites in the United States. It is found that the 222Rn concentrations are regulated primarily by dry convection. At night, the model underpredicts observations because it does not resolve the sharp 222Rn concentration gradient which forms near the surface. In daytime, the predicted and observed concentrations are usually in good agreement, indicating that vertical mixing of surface air is reasonably simulated. Inspection of seasonal trends reveals, however, several significant discrepancies which are traced to anomalies in the GCM meteorology. In particular, the simulated 222Rn concentrations over the northeastern United States are too high in the spring, because of excessive rainfall which suppresses dry convection, and too low in the fall, because of a severe drought which allows intense dry convection. Ventilation of 222Rn to the free troposphere is most efficient in the western half of the North American continent, due to intense dry convection, and is followed by rapid eastward advection of 222Rn in the upper westerlies. This transport mechanism produces a layer of high 222Rn concentrations in the upper troposphere over the eastern United States and over the western Atlantic Ocean in summer. (orig.)

  5. microRNA-222 modulates liver fibrosis in a murine model of biliary atresia

    Highlights: • The RRV infected group showed cholestasis, retardation and extrahepatic biliary atresia. • miR-222 was highly expressed, and PPP2R2A was inhibited in the murine biliary atresia model. • miR-222 profoundly modulated the process of fibrosis in the murine biliary atresia model. • miR-222 might represent a potential target for improving biliary atresia prognosis. - Abstract: microRNA-222 (miR-222) has been shown to initiate the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of miR-22 in a mouse model of biliary atresia (BA) induced by Rhesus Rotavirus (RRV) infection. New-born Balb/c mice were randomized into control and RRV infected groups. The extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. The experimental group was divided into BA group and negative group based on histology. The expression of miR-222, protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B alpha (PPP2R2A), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phospho-Akt were detected. We found that the experimental group showed signs of cholestasis, retardation and extrahepatic biliary atresia. No abnormalities were found in the control group. In the BA group, miR-222, PCNA and Akt were highly expressed, and PPP2R2A expression was significantly inhibited. Our findings suggest that miR-222 profoundly modulated the process of fibrosis in the murine BA model, which might represent a potential target for improving BA prognosis

  6. Variation of 222Rn concentration in outdoor air due to variation of the atmospheric boundary layer

    Variation of 222Rn concentration in outdoor air, returns of a monostatic acoustic sounder and sensible heat flux are simultaneously observed at Okayama-shi in Japan. The sensible heat flux is measured with an eddy correlation method using a sonic anemometer and a copper-constantan thermocouple thermometer. Using height of a surface-based inversion layer obtained by the acoustic sounder returns and two 222Rn concentrations during the presence of the surface-based inversion layer, the exhalation rate of 222Rn at this site is estimated to be about 0.01 Bq.m-2.s-1, which agrees well within the exhalation rate of 222Rn estimated at Nagoya-shi in Japan. Using the estimated exhalation rates of 222Rn and the variation of the 222Rn concentration in the daytime, heights of mixing layers are estimated. These heights of the mixing layers are larger than the height of the mixing layer estimated using the sensible heat flux and the representative vertical profile of the autumnal night time air temperature in this area. (author)

  7. Root absorption of 222Rn and its transfer into above-ground plant organs

    Experimental data are given on the content of genetically related pairs of radionuclides (226Ra and 222Rn; 224Ra and 220Rn) in soils and the above-ground phytomass of plants growing on plots with differing genesis of the higher concentrations of natural radionuclides in soils. Methods for determining gaseous radionuclides in the above-ground phytomass are described. Different transport routes of 222Rn and 220Rn into above-ground plant organs are considered. The noted absence of balance between 222Rn and 226Ra in plants as well as higher 222Rn/226Ra ratios in the above-ground phytomass as compared to that of the root-containing soil layer (25- to 185-fold) appears to be accounted for by the root pathway of 222Rn uptake and transport of this radionuclide to above-ground plants organs. The existence of the root pathway for 222Rn uptake is proved by direct observations of daily radionuclide movement with bleeding sap in experiments on pumpkins. For the short-lived Rn isotopes, 220Rn and 218Rn, the root pathway of uptake and transport to the above-ground phytomass is less probable, and this causes a notable redistribution of gaseous radionuclides during their movement along the soil-plant route

  8. Waste analysis plan for 222-S dangerous and mixed waste storage area

    The 222-S Laboratory Complex, in the southeast corner of the 200 West Area, consists of the 222-S Laboratory, the 222-SA Standards Laboratory, and several ancillary facilities. Currently, 222-S Laboratory activities are in supporting efforts to characterize the waste stored in the 200 Areas single shell and double shell tanks. Besides this work, the laboratory also provides analytical services for waste-management processing plants, Tank Farms, B Plant, 242-A Evaporator Facility, Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant, Plutonium Finishing Plant, Uranium-Oxide Plant, Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility, environmental monitoring and surveillance programs, and activities involving essential materials and research and development. One part of the 222-SA Laboratory prepares nonradioactive standards for the 200 Area laboratories. The other section of the laboratory is used for cold (nonradioactive) process development work and standards preparation. The 219-S Waste Handling Facility has three storage tanks in which liquid acid waste from 222-S can be received, stored temporarily, and neutralized. From this facility, neutralized waste, containing radionuclides, is transferred to the Tank Farms. A 700-gallon sodium-hydroxide supply tank is also located in this facility. This plan provides the methods used to meet the acceptance criteria required by the 204-AR Waste Receiving Facility

  9. 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in soil gas of Karkonosze-Izera Block (Sudetes, Poland)

    Soil gas 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations were measured at 18 locations in the Karkonosze-Izera Block area in southwestern Poland. Measurements were carried out in surface air and at sampling depths of 10, 40 and 80 cm. Surface air 222Rn concentrations ranged from 4 to 2160 Bq m-3 and 220Rn ranged from 4 to 228 Bq m-3. The concentrations for 10 and 40 cm varied from 142 Bq m-3 to 801 kBq m-3 and 102 Bq m-3 to 64 kBq m-3 for 222Rn and 220Rn, respectively. At 80 cm 222Rn concentrations ranged from 94 Bq m-3 to >1 MBq m-3. The 220Rn concentrations at 80 cm varied from 45 Bq m-3 to 48 kBq m-3. The concentration versus depth profiles for 222Rn differed for soils developed on fault zones, uranium deposits or both. Atmospheric air temperature and soil gas 222Rn and 220Rn were negatively correlated. At sampling sites with steep slopes, 220Rn concentrations decreased with depth

  10. Effects of immobilization by electricity and MS-222 on brown trout broodstock and their progeny

    Redman, S.D.; Meinertz, J.R.; Gaikowski, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the effects of electrically and chemically induced immobilization on postspawn broodstock and their progeny, age-2 and age-3 female broodstock and age-2 male broodstock of brown trout Salmo trutta were immobilized with electricity or tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222), stripped of their eggs or milt, and weighed. Eggs taken from electrically immobilized females were fertilized with milt taken from age-2 males that were immobilized with electricity, and eggs taken from females immobilized with MS-222 were fertilized with milt taken from age-2 males that were immobilized with MS-222. After spawning, the mortality and weight of broodstock were compared twice over a 6-month period. Egg viability and growth of offspring fry from each treatment group were also compared. Electricity induced complete and consistent immobilization in brown trout broodstock. Electrically immobilized fish were more easily handled than fish immobilized with MS-222; however, electrically immobilized fish survival (70%) was significantly less than fish immobilized with MS-222 (83%). Broodstock growth differences were only noted at 6 months postexposure, when the mean weight of electrically immobilized fish was slightly less than the weight of fish immobilized with MS-222. Broodstock immobilization by electricity did not reduce egg viability or fry growth.

  11. FAM222B Is Not a Likely Novel Candidate Gene for Cerebral Cavernous Malformations.

    Spiegler, Stefanie; Kirchmaier, Bettina; Rath, Matthias; Korenke, G Christoph; Tetzlaff, Fabian; van de Vorst, Maartje; Neveling, Kornelia; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Kuss, Andreas W; Gilissen, Christian; Fischer, Andreas; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Felbor, Ute

    2016-07-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are prevalent slow-flow vascular lesions which harbour the risk to develop intracranial haemorrhages, focal neurological deficits, and epileptic seizures. Autosomal dominantly inherited CCMs were found to be associated with heterozygous inactivating mutations in 3 genes, CCM1 (KRIT1), CCM2 (MGC4607), and CCM3 (PDCD10) in 1999, 2003 and 2005, respectively. Despite the availability of high-throughput sequencing techniques, no further CCM gene has been published since. Here, we report on the identification of an autosomal dominantly inherited frameshift mutation in a gene of thus far unknown function, FAM222B (C17orf63), through exome sequencing of CCM patients mutation-negative for CCM1-3. A yeast 2-hybrid screen revealed interactions of FAM222B with the tubulin cytoskeleton and STAMBP which is known to be associated with microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome. However, a phenotype similar to existing models was not found, neither in fam222bb/fam222ba double mutant zebrafish generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases nor in an in vitro sprouting assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells transfected with siRNA against FAM222B. These observations led to the assumption that aberrant FAM222B is not involved in the formation of CCMs. PMID:27587990

  12. Human miR-221/222 in Physiological and Atherosclerotic Vascular Remodeling

    Dmitry A. Chistiakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cluster of miR-221/222 is a key player in vascular biology through exhibiting its effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and endothelial cells (ECs. These miRNAs contribute to vascular remodeling, an adaptive process involving phenotypic and behavioral changes in vascular cells in response to vascular injury. In proliferative vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, pathological vascular remodeling plays a prominent role. The miR-221/222 cluster controls development and differentiation of ECs but inhibits their proangiogenic activation, proliferation, and migration. miR-221/222 are primarily implicated in maintaining endothelial integrity and supporting quiescent EC phenotype. Vascular expression of miR-221/222 is upregulated in initial atherogenic stages causing inhibition of angiogenic recruitment of ECs and increasing endothelial dysfunction and EC apoptosis. In contrast, these miRNAs stimulate VSMCs and switching from the VSMC “contractile” phenotype to the “synthetic” phenotype associated with induction of proliferation and motility. In atherosclerotic vessels, miR-221/222 drive neointima formation. Both miRNAs contribute to atherogenic calcification of VSMCs. In advanced plaques, chronic inflammation downregulates miR-221/222 expression in ECs that in turn could activate intralesion neoangiogenesis. In addition, both miRNAs could contribute to cardiovascular pathology through their effects on fat and glucose metabolism in nonvascular tissues such as adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscles.

  13. 34 CFR 222.76 - What does the Secretary do if appropriation levels are insufficient to pay in full the amounts...

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does the Secretary do if appropriation levels are insufficient to pay in full the amounts calculated under §§ 222.72 and 222.73? 222.76 Section 222.76... Educational Agencies Under Section 8003(f) of the Act § 222.76 What does the Secretary do if...

  14. Age dating of hyporheic groundwater with radon (Rn-222)

    Full text: Radon (Rn-222; Rn) has been used as a tracer for the dating of very young groundwater that has recently infiltrated from a river. The radon method uses the fact that minerals in rocks contain traces of the radium mother isotope, 226Ra. As an inert gas, radon (Rn) emanates from rock surfaces after the decay of 226Ra. River water usually contains little Rn and the Rn activity is in equilibrium with the atmosphere. During the recharge of aquifers by downwelling river water, the Rn activity increases in the flowing groundwater, with time and distance. Under plug flow conditions, the law of radioactive ingrowth governs the Rn activity of the recharge water. A maximum Rn concentration indicates that a steady state has been reached between ingrowth and decay. About 90 per cent of this steady state is reached after about 15 days (4 half-lives of Rn). Often groundwaters of different residence times are mixed in aquifers and plug-flow conditions do not apply. In the case of a binary mixing of very young groundwater that has recently infiltrated from a river and older groundwater, the residence time of the young water component can only be assessed with Rn, if the actual mixing ratio is known. To this end, mixing must be determined through additional measurements with non-reactive mixing tracer. Aquatic habitats in flood plains are characterized hydrologically by a strong interaction between river water and groundwater of alluvial sand-and-gravel aquifers. The transition zone between surface and subsurface waters is a hydrological continuum and an ecotone characterized by the hyporheic zone. If the riverbed is in direct contact with well-permeable aquifer material, and if the ground-water level is deeper than the river stage, the river can lose water to the subsurface (downwelling river). The freshly infiltrated water from losing reaches of the river is called 'hyporheic' groundwater. Hyporheic groundwater is distinguished from older alluvial groundwater by a very

  15. Radon-222 as communication and information tool about natural radioactivity

    The nuclear area still suffers from the psychological impact caused by the atomic bombs detonated at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also from the Chernobyl plant explosion. This situation results from two main reasons: manipulation of public opinion and lack of suitable information. In general, knowledge about radioactivity is very superficial, impregnated by preconceived notions transmitted by the media or by pacific organizations and ecologic groups. Rejection attitudes are observed among most of the general public that expresses an opinion although it does not know the subject. To change this situation has been the major challenge of the nuclear sector and needs to better communication with people at large. To teach is fundamental. This work reports on a didactic experiment carried out with 130 under graduating and graduating students in Biology and Environmental Science from the Fluminense Federal University. The goal was to try to perceive the existence of a natural radioactivity, hence not related to human activities, through radon-222 dosage. This practice complements the theoretical lessons, as it illustrates properties of ionizing radiation, and can easily be transposed to the general public. The monitoring equipment works detecting nuclear tracks. It is an easy to handle small and light device - hence friendly, to be put in the most used room of each one's house. It is taught how to use it and how to give correct information to interested people. Radon measurements are discussed with the students, and at the same time they perceive the existence of natural radioactivity, present everywhere, they start to change their own perception of radioactivity, which turns to be very different from their original nuclear imaginary. (author)

  16. Properties of membranes to permeation to radon 222. New development for the measurement of radon 222 in water and water-saturated soils

    Membranes that exclude water but are permeable to radon can extend the range of environments in which many radon detection systems could operate. We have studied the permeation of 222Rn through membranes separating air and water phases. The permeation coefficients and the activation energy were calculated for various conditions. Potential applications such as in situ detection of radon in water are discussed

  17. Distribution Log Normal of {sup 222} Rn in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico; Distribucion Log Normal de {sup 222} Rn en el estado de Zacatecas, Mexico

    Garcia, M.L.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L. [Universidad de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Frac. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: mluisagb@hotmail.com

    2006-07-01

    In this work the evaluation of the concentration of {sup 222} Rn in air for Zacatecas is shown. The Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were used as the technique for the realization of the measurements in large scale with cellulose nitrate LR-115, type 2, in open chambers of {sup 222} Rn. The measurements were carried out during three months in different times of the year. In the results it is presented the log normal distribution, arithmetic mean and geometric media for the concentration at indoor and outdoor of residence constructions, the concentration at indoor of occupational constructions and in the 57 municipal heads of the state of Zacatecas. The statistics of the values in the concentration showed variation according to the time of the year, obtaining high quantities in winter seasons for both cases. The distribution of the concentration of {sup 222} Rn is presented in the state map for each one of the municipalities, representing the measurement places in the entire state of Zacatecas. Finally the places where the values in the concentration of {sup 222} Rn in air are near to the one limit settled down by the EPA of 148 Bq/m{sup 3} are presented. (Author)

  18. Radon-222: tracer of geological systems dynamics. Methodology and signal processing, interpretation of radon-222 behaviour in active geological media

    of the gravimetric waves O1 and M2 in the sub-glacial laboratory of Argentiere tend to prove the relationship between mechanical deformations and variations of radon-222 activity. It is therefore theoretically possible to detect radon variations induced by the mechanical strain linked to an earthquake. However, hydrological effects (piston effect) cannot be not excluded as it is shown with data acquired on the Roselend site. On the Merapi volcano, we also demonstrate that the barometric wave S2, dissimulated in the radon activity and soils gas temperature, allows us to follow the evolution of the fracture self-sealing. This proved to be a precursory process of the 2006 eruption. These results demonstrate the strong potential of the measurement of radon-222 applied to the tracking of natural phenomena, providing, however, that one have a control on the instrumentation, a knowledge of physical processes associated with radon transport, and mostly that the tools of signals processing are applied. These tools are very promising for monitoring and understanding geodynamical processes. (author)

  19. Measurements of 222Rn activity in well water of the Curitiba metropolitan area (Brazil)

    Considering that 222Rn activity concentration in well water can contribute to indoor radon concentration levels, which represent a radiation risk for the public, measurements of 226Ra and 222Rn activity in well water in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil were performed. Each water sample was submitted to four measurements for radon concentration over an interval of three days. After two months, the same samples were submitted again to 222Rn concentration measurements with the objective of indirectly evaluating the amount of 226Ra in them. The 222Rn concentration measurements were performed with an AlphaGUARD radon monitor (SAPHYMO), and the 226Ra concentration was evaluated with the decay curves of 222Rn. Within a few hours after extraction, about 70% of water samples from monitored wells presented 222Rn concentration values above the limit of 11.1 Bq/L recommended by the EPA of the United States. The obtained activity values varied between 1.6 Bq/L and 215 Bq/L for radon concentration, and radium concentrations deviated within an interval of 0.50 Bq/L and 6.8 Bq/L. The results reveal that the biggest part of 222Rn found in water samples originated not from soluble 226Ra compounds but from gas exhalation by the soil and rocks adjacent to the well. The results point to the necessity of mitigation procedure development for better control of global alpha radioactivity in drinking water. - Highlights: • Radon activity in well water was measured. • Radium activity in well water was measured. • Experimental results were obtained and compared with International norms and regulations

  20. Knock-down of miR-221 and miR-222 in the radiosensitization of breast cancer cells

    Objective: To investigate the radiosensitizing effect of knock-down of miR-221 miR-222 on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and explore the possible mechanism. Methods: Antisense oligonucleotides of miR-221 and miR-222 (AS-miR-221 and AS-miR-222), mediated by lipofectamine, were transfected to MCF-7 cells to knock down miR-221 and miR-222, Northern blotting was conducted to detect the expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in transfected cells. The cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and Caspase-3 and Caspase-7 activity assay. Clonogenic assay was used to measure the sensitizing enhancement ratio. Target genes of miR-221 and miR-222 relevant to radio-sensitivity were searched using bioinformatics analysis. The targeted protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Results: The expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in the AS-miR-221/222 cells determined by Northern blotting was significantly reduced. Compared with the control group, the cell apoptosis and mitotic cell death after the radiation were significantly higher in AS-miR-221/222 cells. The sensitizing enhancement ratio was 1.87. Based on bioinformatics analysis, PTEN was a target gene of miR-221 and miR-222 which could enhance the radiosensitivity of MCF-7 cells. In AS-miR-221/222 cells, the expression of PTEN was up-regulated while pAkt down-regulated. Conclusions: AS-miR-221 and AS-miR-222 may enhance the radiosensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells by up-regulating the expression of PTEN. (authors)

  1. Trends and reduction scenarios for Rn 222 concentrations in dwellings

    effects of reduction scenarios on the effective dose equivalent are comparable to those in the Rn-222 concentration in dwellings. 5 figs., 7 tabs., 2 appendices, 26 refs

  2. Estuarine geochemistry of 224Ra, 226Ra, and 222Rn

    Desorption from river borne sediments is the most likely source of the excess 226Ra. Laboratory mixing experiments on Pee Dee River sediments show an increase in 226Ra desorption with increasing salinities with maximum desorption occurring at or above 200/oo salinity. Desorption and diffusion are the sources for 226Ra in the estuarine systems. In Winyah Bay the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio does not change significantly with salinity, averaging around 1.4, indicating desorption as the major source of 228Ra. In the Yangtze River the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio is constant (approx.1.90) until increasing linearly above 160/oo. A diffusive flux from regeneration by 232Th decay in shelf sediments is the source of the increase. In Delaware Bay 228Ra increases faster than 226Ra in the less than or equal to220/oo water, indicating a source in addition to desorption. The increase can be balanced by a 0.33 dpm/cm2-year flux over the upper part of the Bay where fine grained sediments predominate. 224Ra behavior is controlled by its 3.64 day half-life. In Winyah Bay a flux of around 0.4 dpm/cm2-day is necessary to support the standing crop of non-desorbed 224Ra in the water column. In Delaware Bay the nearly constant 224Ra in concentration over the 2.50/oo to 120/oo salinity range are maintained by regeneration from 228Th in the turbidity maximum zones and diffusion from bottom sediments. Water leaving on ebb tide from a salt marsh on Delaware Bay had increases in all three radium isotopes (224Ra > 228Ra > 226Ra) compared to water coming in on the flood tide. Excess 222Rn concentrations in a fresh water section of the Pee Dee River show a decreasing downstream gradient. Using these gradients to determine evasion rates, stagnant film thicknesses range from 21μ to 62μ

  3. Ra-226 and Rn-222 in saline water compartments of the Aral Sea region

    Highlights: • 222Rn and 226Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Aral Sea region. • 226Ra-analysis based on 222Rn-ingrowth versus MS-analysis after solid-phase extraction. • 226Ra in different groundwater types of the Aral Sea Basin. • 222Rn distribution in the Aral Sea, western basin. - Abstract: The Aral Sea has been shrinking since 1963 due to extensive irrigation and the corresponding decline in the river water inflow. Understanding of the current hydrological situation demands an improved understanding of the surface water/groundwater dynamics in the region. 222Rn and 226Ra measurements can be used to trace groundwater discharge into surface waters. Data of these radiometric parameters were not previously available for the study region. We determined 222Rn activities after liquid phase extraction using Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) with peak-length discrimination and analyzed 226Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Amu Darya Delta (surface waters, unconfined groundwater, artesian water, and water profiles from the closed Large Aral Sea (western basin). The water samples comprise a salinity range between 1 and 263 g/l. The seasonal dynamics of solid/water interaction under an arid climate regime force the hydrochemical evolution of the unconfined groundwater in the Amu Darya Delta to high-salinity Na(Mg)Cl(SO4) water types. The dissolved radium concentrations in the waters were mostly very low due to mineral over-saturation, extensive co-precipitation of radium and adsorption of radium on coexisting solid substrates. The analysis of very low 226Ra concentrations (<10 ppq) at remote study sites is a challenge. We used the water samples to test and improve different analytical methods. In particular, we modified a procedure developed for the α-spectrometric determination of 226Ra after solid phase extraction of radium using 3M Empore™ High Performance Extraction Disks (Purkl, 2002) for the analysis of the

  4. 222Rn, 220Rn Concentrations and Miner Doses in Non-Uranium Mines in China

    A preliminary survey of 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in non-uranium mines in China was conducted in 17 different types of mines. In total, 44 mines in 12 provinces were surveyed. The results showed that among 25 metal mines (n = 147) the arithmetic mean and geometric mean concentrations were 1214 ± 2358 and 313 ± 5.5 Bq/m3 for 222Rn, respectively (range 11–19 600 Bq/m3) and 268 ± 701 and 70 ± 4.4 Bq/m3 for 220Rn, respectively (range 222Rn, respectively (range 5–1784 Bq/m3) and 101 ± 207 and 67 ± 3.4 Bq/m3 for 220Rn, respectively (range 222Rn equilibrium factor was 0.33 ± 0.15 in underground mines and 0.47 ± 0.18 in above ground buildings. The average 222Rn concentrations in 15% of the sampled mines exceeded the workplace recommended limit of 1000 Bq/m3. The 222Rn concentration at some individual points exceeded 10 000 Bq/m3. The arithmetic mean 222Rn concentration in 14 coal mines in 6 provinces was 117 Bq/m3. Compared with the survey data from previous years, the 222Rn concentrations in coal mines had reduced significantly. However, high 222Rn exposure remains a problem in metal mines such as those for copper, tin, lead, zinc, gold and aluminum. The miners’ radon exposures were estimated from the above results. The average annual effective dose for miners in metal mines was 7.75 mSv, with doses exceeding 20 mSv in four such mines. The average dose in a rare earth mine was 1.41 mSv, of which 53% was contributed by 220Rn. The average dose in coal mines was 0.75 mSv, and in non-metal mines it was 0.38 mSv. (author)

  5. 222Rn levels in Kingsville, Texas, and vicinity near an in situ uranium mine

    An investigation of the 222Rn levels in ground water, soils, and indoor air has disclosed two 222Rn ground-water anomalies in the Kingsville, Texas, area from uranium-enriched sandstones of the Evangeline aquifer. Indoor air 222Rn levels were measured in summer 1991 (from undetectable to 3.2 pCi/l) and winter 1991-1992 (0.01 to 3.98 pCi/l) to determine seasonal extremes and risk to the public. Soil 222Rn concentration maps ranging from undetectable to 75.4 pCi/l correlate to the low levels found in homes. Results of this study are based on analyses of 218 water samples, 52 in situ soil samples, and 104 indoor air samples. Water samples were injected into a scintillation mix (EPA/EERF-Manual-78-1) and analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. Indoor air and soil samples were collected using passive charcoal canisters and analyzed by gamma-ray detection techniques (EPA 520/5-87-005). One ground-water 222Rn anomaly lies near the permitted boundary of a large uranium deposit that is being mined. Private wells near the ore body yielded, 1,023 to 23,256 pCi/l at the well head. A second anomaly is located 2.5 mi (4 km) north of the uranium ore body near Naval Air Station, Kingsville. Private water wells in this area yielded 442 to 1,950 pCi/l 222Rn at the well head. The radon anomalies are related to subsurface mineralization, which is one of the known natural geologic hazards of this area. Indoor air 222Rn levels are well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US/EPA) action limit of 4 pCi/l. However, the high levels of 222RN in ground water should be mitigated before entry into the home environment. High 222Rn levels in ground water were reduced to background levels in household waters by use of a pre-introduction large-capacity holding tank

  6. 222Rn calibrated mercury fluxes from terrestrial surfaces of southern Africa derived from observations at Cape Point, South Africa

    Slemr F.; Brunke E.-G.; Whittlestone S.; Zahorowski W.; Ebinghaus R.; Kock H. H.; Labuschagne C.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and 222Rn, a radioactive gas of primarily terrestrial origin with a half-life of 3.8 days, have been measured simultaneously at Cape Point, South Africa, since March 2007. Between March 2007 and December 2009 altogether 59 events with high 222Rn concentrations were identified. GEM correlated with 222Rn in 41 of the events and was constant during the remaining events without significant correlation. The average GEM/222Rn emission ratio of all events was −0.0047 ...

  7. MicroRNA-221 and microRNA-222 regulate gastric carcinoma cell proliferation and radioresistance by targeting PTEN

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes via regulation of cell proliferation and/or apoptosis. MiR-221 and miR-222 were discovered to induce cell growth and cell cycle progression via direct targeting of p27 and p57 in various human malignancies. However, the roles of miR-221 and miR-222 have not been reported in human gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the impact of miR-221 and miR-222 on human gastric cancer cells, and identified target genes for miR-221 and miR-222 that might mediate their biology. The human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 was transfected with AS-miR-221/222 or transduced with pMSCV-miR-221/222 to knockdown or restore expression of miR-221 and miR-222, respectively. The effects of miR-221 and miR-222 were then assessed by cell viability, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, transwell, and clonogenic assay. Potential target genes were identified by Western blot and luciferase reporter assay. Upregulation of miR-221 and miR-222 induced the malignant phenotype of SGC7901 cells, whereas knockdown of miR-221 and miR-222 reversed this phenotype via induction of PTEN expression. In addition, knockdonwn of miR-221 and miR-222 inhibited cell growth and invasion and increased the radiosensitivity of SGC7901 cells. Notably, the seed sequence of miR-221 and miR-222 matched the 3'UTR of PTEN, and introducing a PTEN cDNA without the 3'UTR into SGC7901 cells abrogated the miR-221 and miR-222-induced malignant phenotype. PTEN-3'UTR luciferase reporter assay confirmed PTEN as a direct target of miR-221 and miR-222. These results demonstrate that miR-221 and miR-222 regulate radiosensitivity, and cell growth and invasion of SGC7901 cells, possibly via direct modulation of PTEN expression. Our study suggests that inhibition of miR-221 and miR-222 might form a novel therapeutic strategy for human gastric cancer

  8. Evaluation of groundwater discharge into small lakes based on the temporal distribution of radon-222

    Dimova, N.T.; Burnett, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate groundwater discharge into small lakes we constructed a model that is based on the budget of 222Rn (radon t1/2 5 3.8 d) as a tracer. The main assumptions in our model are that the lake's waters are wellmixed horizontally and vertically; the only significant 222Rn source is via groundwater discharge; and the only losses are due to decay and atmospheric evasion. In order to evaluate the groundwater-derived 222Rn flux, we monitored the 222Rn concentration in lake water over periods long enough (usually 1-3 d) to observe changes likely caused by variations in atmospheric exchange (primarily a function of wind speed and temperature). We then attempt to reproduce the observed record by accounting for decay and atmospheric losses and by estimating the total 222Rn input flux using an iterative approach. Our methodology was tested in two lakes in central Florida: one of which is thought to have significant groundwater inputs (Lake Haines) and another that is known not to have any groundwater inflows but requires daily groundwater augmentation from a deep aquifer (Round Lake). Model results were consistent with independent seepage meter data at both Lake Haines (positive seepage of ??? 1.6 ?? 104 m3 d-1 in Mar 2008) and at Round Lake (no net groundwater seepage). ?? 2011, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  9. Anesthesia of juvenile Pacific Lampreys with MS-222, BENZOAK, AQUI-S 20E, and Aquacalm

    Christiansen, Helena E.; Gee, Lisa P.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2013-01-01

    Effective anesthetics are a critical component of safe and humane fish handling procedures. We tested three concentrations each of four anesthetics—Finquel (tricaine methanesulfonate, herein referred to as MS-222), BENZOAK (20% benzocaine), AQUI-S 20E (10% eugenol), and Aquacalm (metomidate hydrochloride)—for efficacy and safety in metamorphosed, outmigrating juvenile Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus. The anesthetics MS-222 (100 mg/L) and BENZOAK (60 mg/L) were the most effective for anesthetizing juvenile Pacific Lampreys to a handleable state with minimal irritation to the fish. Fish anesthetized with BENZOAK also had lower rates of fungal infection than those exposed to MS-222, AQUI-S 20E, or no anesthetic. Exposure to AQUI-S 20E irritated juvenile Pacific Lampreys, causing them to leap or climb out of the anesthetic solution, and Aquacalm anesthetized fish to a handleable state too slowly and incompletely for effective use with routine handling procedures. Our results indicate that MS-222 and BENZOAK are effective anesthetics for juvenile Pacific Lampreys, but field studies are needed to determine whether exposure to MS-222 increases risk of fungal infection in juvenile Pacific Lampreys released to the wild.

  10. Soil radon (222Rn) monitoring at Furnas Volcano (Sao Miguel, Acores): Applications and challenges

    A soil 222Rn continuous monitoring test was performed in 3 sampling points inside Furnas Volcano caldera and 222Rn concentration varied between 0 and 153000 Bq/m3. Multivariate regression and spectral analyses were applied to the time series registered in order to understand and filter the influence of external factors on soil 222Rn concentration and to recognise anomalies correlated with deep processes. The regression models show that barometric pressure, soil water content, soil temperature, soil CO2 flux, air temperature, relative air humidity and wind speed are the statistical meaningful variables explaining between 15.8% and 73.6% of 222Rn variations. Spectral analysis allowed to identify seasonal variations and daily variations associated with one cycle per day on winter months only in one of the monitored sites. This diurnal variation is correlated with air temperature, relative air humidity and wind speed cycles. The change in the location of the sampling points was caused by both artificial and natural constrains. On the 3 monitoring sites, after a period of continuous register, a sudden drop on the 222Rn concentration values was observed and the cause is still under debate. The work performed can be applied for seismo-volcanic monitoring and for public health risk assessment. (authors)

  11. Calibration factor determination for solid nuclear track detectors CR-39 type exposed to Rn-222

    In the detection method with solid nuclear track detector, when a heavy particle rests on the detector surface, causes a breakdown in their molecular structure forming a trace. One of the typical applications of these detectors is the measurement of the concentration of Rn -222 in air, a noble radioactive gas, part of the U-238 series, emitting alpha particles and important in epidemiological studies to protect individuals from natural radiation. To determine the concentration of Rn -222 in the air in a room is necessary to know the density of lines (traces / cm2) on the detector surface, the exposure time and the calibration factor. The determination of the calibration factor for CR-39 detectors was taken from the exposure of these to a known concentration of Rn-222. Therefore, the detectors were placed inside a cell of Lucas adapted and subsequently exposed to a concentration of Rn-222 15 kBq / m3, by means of the apparatus RN-150 Pylon Electronics Incorporation, which has a source of Ra-226 and releases known concentrations of Rn-222. Six calibration factor determinations were performed, the average value obtained was 0.0534 ±0.0021 (traces / cm2 per Bq / m3 day). The results are consistent with literature values for the same type of detector and showed good reproducibility

  12. 222Rn, 220Rn and their progeny concentrations in offices in Hong Kong

    An active sampling system using charcoal canisters and an HPGe γ-spectrometer was employed to survey 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in 65 offices in Hong Kong, and a traditional method was used to record simultaneously the potential α-energy concentrations (PAEC) of 222Rn and 220Rn progeny at the same sites. The mean values of gas concentration, PAEC and equilibrium factor for 222Rn were 48±32 Bq m-3, 5.2±5.1 mWL and 0.38±0.13, respectively, and the corresponding values for 220Rn were 14±7 Bq m-3, 2.7±2.1 mWL and 0.050±0.016. These values were in general higher than those in dwellings in Hong Kong, which was due to the poorer fresh air exchange in offices. Factors affecting the concentrations of 222Rn, 220Rn and their progeny were also studied. The type of air conditioners and the indoor and outdoor temperature difference show some effects on 222Rn, 220Rn and progeny concentrations, while rainfall and relative humidity affect only the progeny concentrations

  13. Measurement of Rn-222 in water by absorption in polycarbonates and liquid scintillation counting

    Mitev, K., E-mail: kmitev@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Sofia University ' St. Kliment Ohridski' , Department of Atomic Physics, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrova, I. [Sofia University ' St. Kliment Ohridski' , Department of Atomic Physics, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Zhivkova, V. [Kozloduy NPP, PP-1, Department of Radiochemistry, 3320 Kozloduy (Bulgaria); Georgiev, S.; Gerganov, G.; Pressyanov, D.; Boshkova, T. [Sofia University ' St. Kliment Ohridski' , Department of Atomic Physics, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2012-06-11

    This work presents a new technique for measurement of activity concentrations of Rn-222 in water which is based on liquid scintillation counting (LSC) of polycarbonates exposed in the water. The polycarbonate material has high absorption ability to radon and when exposed in a radon-containing environment (air or water), it absorbs and concentrates radon in its volume. This property of the polycarbonate material is used for sampling {sup 222}Rn from the water. The main new element in this work is that it proposes the LSC technique for measurement of the radiation, emitted from the polycarbonate material. This radiation is due to the decay of the absorbed {sup 222}Rn and its progeny. Experimental results of LSC of polycarbonate granules and thin foils exposed in water with different activity concentrations of Rn-222 are presented. In all cases a very good linear correlation between the LS counting rate and the activity concentration of the water is found. The LSC of polycarbonates shows similar or even higher sensitivity in comparison to that of LSC of water. The estimated radon-in-water minimal detectable activity concentrations of the proposed method are similar or lower than those of the LSC and lower than those obtained by gamma spectrometry. The proposed method is simple, robust, inexpensive and avoids the need of taking water samples for laboratory analysis. It facilitates studies of the spatial distribution of {sup 222}Rn in water basins by exposure of polycarbonate specimens at different spots or depths and subsequent liquid scintillation counting.

  14. 222Rn and 14CO2 concentrations in the surface layer of the atmosphere

    Long-term monitoring of the Δ14C in the atmospheric near-ground CO2 has been realized in Bratislava and Zlkovce, situated near the nuclear power plant Jaslovske Bohunice. Until 1993, the monthly mean Δ14C values showed a high variability. The annual means of Δ14C were about 30 per mille higher at Zlkovce than in highly industrialised Bratislava. An important change in the behaviour of the 14C data has occurred since 1993. The records from both stations show the similar course, mainly due to the fact that there do not occur deep winter minima in Bratislava. This behaviour corresponds to the lower values of the total fossil fuel CO2 emissions in the years after 1993 when compared to the previous years. At present, both sets of data show that the 14C concentration is about 10% above the natural level. Since 1987 also the 222 Rn concentration in the surface layer of the atmosphere has been measured in Bratislava. These measurements provided an extensive set of the 222 Rn data characteristic for the inland environment with high level of atmospheric pollution. The seasonal and daily variations of the 222 Rn concentration were observed. The investigation of the relation between the monthly mean diurnal courses of the 222 Rn concentration and the atmospheric stability proved a high correlation between them. The 222 Rn data were used to interpret the anomalous Δ14C values in the surface layer of the atmosphere. (author)

  15. Measuring techniques for environmental 3H, 14C and 222Rn by liquid scintillation counter

    Measuring techniques for environmental 3H, 14C and 222Rn with a liquid scintillation counter have been studied. 3H in environmental water was enriched by electrolysis and measured with a low background liquid scintillation counter. By this technique, 3H concentration of ground water, river water, sea water and rain water at Tokyo was founded to be 0.1 ∼ 2.5 Bq/1. 14C in taurine and ethyl-alcohol was measured directly liquid scintillation counter. By this 14C measuring, natural products, contain low level 14C, were distinguished from synthesised products contain no 14C. 222Rn in toluene extracted from environmental water or air was measured by scintillation pulse interval analysis method. By this technique, 222Rn was able to be measured under very low background counting rate, 0.03cpm, and high efficiency. (author)

  16. An application of 222Rn alpha particle's tracks to uranium exploration

    The uranium exploration method is based on the register of 222Rn alpha particles; 222Rn gas is generated in the chain 238U desintegration. The detection of alpha particles was performed with cellulose nitrate films (NTC), located in a grid at the region in study. The alpha particles produce latent tracks in the NTC films; these tracks may be enlarged by chemical etching and are observed with an ordinary optic microscope, ninety seven NTC films were used, these were distributed in an area of approximately seventeen square kilometers, located in the municipalities of Granados and Huasabas in Sonora Mexico, the detectors remain in the ground for a thirty days mean period. The results obtained show an area with high 222Rn concentration, this can be related with an underground uranium ore deposit. The more important conclusion is that the results obtained in this work can be used as preliminary results for other prospection methods in this particular area. (author)

  17. A calibration method of an ionization chamber for measuring 222Rn concentration

    When 222Rn concentration is measured with an ionization chamber, the conversion factor of ionization current to 222Rn concentration has been decided in individual case. A flow-type ionization chamber (the effective volume; 18 l) was used for measuring 222Rn concentration in this work. The conversion factor of this ionization chamber was obtained 1.11 (Bq/m3/fA) by the use of RaDEF standard source. From the results of three other literatures and this work, the following formula to calculate the conversion factor (a) was obtained as a function of the effective volume V (m3) of ionization chamber; a = (1.036 x 102-1) / [V·(log V + 6.908)] (Bq/m3/fA). (author)

  18. The correlation between exhalation from rocks and indoor concentration of 222Rn in the Sydney area

    The results of a survey of indoor 222Rn concentrations of 350 dwellings in the Sydney area are combined with measurements of 222Rn exhalation rates of principal rock types in the survey area. A linear regression is predicted which yields a positive regression coefficient of b=2.4±0.3, a constant of a=3.4±0.5, and a correlation coefficient of R2=0.15. This correlation was found to be highly significant by using three different statistical tests. The ratio of the indoor 222Rn concentrations in dwellings built on the two dominant rock types, the Wianamatta Shale and the Hawkesbury Sandstone, was found to be about 1.6. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  19. Direct determination of 222Rn gas using the electret to remove daughters at formation

    Five compact, portable, continuous 222Rn monitors have been constructed inhouse. Printed data can be obtained from intervals ranging from 10 minutes to 990 minutes. One hour count interval provides a lower limit of detection of 0.03 pCi 222Rn/l-1 which is sufficient for measurement of any environmental level encountered. Calibration of the units was accomplished in the EML radon calibration room and the typical calibration factor is 165 counts per hour per pCi 222Rn/l. The units are now being field tested. Two indoor/outdoor pairs are located in a single family dwelling and in a high rise apartment. One unit is being used for special studies

  20. Radon-222 content in the internal atmosphere of Hungarian residential buildings

    The use in home buildings in Hungary of some substitute materials, e.g., coal-ash, fly-ash, etc., caused greater background radiation than the traditional building materials because of their higher content of natural radioactivity. The radon-222 concentration was measured in 1182 flats (apartments) along with the concentrations of its short-lived daughter elements and radon-220 in room air and the radiation dose to the epithelium of the bronchial tubes of the lung was estimated. The average annual radon-222 concentration in open air was estimated as being 0.2 pCi/l. To confirm this estimate the radon-222 concentration in the atmosphere near the surface of the earth and its annual fluctuation was measured. (U.S.)

  1. Peak tailing correction in measurement of 222Rn/220Rn activity concentration with α spectrum method

    α spectrum method is one of the most important methods in measurement of 222Rn/220Rn concentration in environment. However, the peak tailing from high energy particles is an obstacle for accurate measurement. To improve the accuracy of measurement, study on the mechanism and effect of the tailing were carried out, and calibrating experiments on peak tailing correction factors were also realized using ERS-2 monitor. The peak tailing correction factors and calibration factors of 222Rn and 220Rn were measured by experiment and their accuracy were also tested. It is suggested that during calibrating α spectrum monitor of 222Rn/220Rn activity concentration, the peak tailing correction and calibration factors should be recalibrated if necessary. (authors)

  2. Optimized procedure for the continuous measurement of 222Rn in the atmosphere

    In conjunction with other natural and artificial radionuclide measurements, such as 210Pb, 7Be, 3H, 14C, 85Kr and 133Xe 222Rn data provide a useful constraint in evaluating air transport models and in identifying global atmospheric conditions. Long range transport studies are best made from coastal or high-altitude sites free of local 222Rn sources. In the frame of the Global Atmospheric Watch Programme of the World Meteorological Organization measurements are also performed at the environmental research platform Schneefernerhaus (2600 m a.s.l.) below the top of Germany's highest mountain Zugspitze by the German Meteorological Service. With the aim to measure concentrations less than 30 mBq/m3 a measuring device was constructed based on the principle of electrostatic deposition of 222Rn daughters: the air is drawn through a filter that removes all the ambient progeny but allows the inert gas 222Rn to pass. The 222Rn then flows continuously in a decay chamber with a silicon detector. The dimensions and geometry of the chamber, the high voltage and the pressure inside were optimized to deposit the decay product 218Po on the silicon detector with a sufficient efficiency. Taking a radioactive equilibrium into account the concentration of 222Rn was calculated. It was demanded for a system with minimized manual handling and an easy way of continuous calibration. The sensitivity of the instrument is dependant on the volume of the decay chamber, the flow rate, the chamber geometry, progeny capture efficiency, humidity, sampling interval and counter efficiency. The calibration procedure was performed using a Rn calibration source traceable to a primary source. The sensitivity accuracy and the instrumental background were evaluated. (author)

  3. Horizontal and vertical distribution of 222Rn and 220Rn in a dwelling, Bangalore, India

    The 222Rn and 220Rn have been identified as potential radiological health hazards and the dose estimation due to their exposure is an important task. Understanding their behavior in indoor environment helps in calculating the inhalation doses due to them. Effective doses due to inhalation of indoor 222Rn and its progeny account on an average for about one-half of all natural sources of radiation. However, recently the indoor surveys in Asia revealed that the dose contribution from 220Rn and its progeny can be equal to or even exceed that of 222Rn and its progeny. In view of this an attempt has been made to observe the distribution of 222Rn and 220Rn levels in a typical dwelling for the environment of Bangalore Metropolitan, India. Present study aims at the distribution of 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in a typical dwelling. Higher concentrations were observed at the wall and flooring of the room and the concentrations were found to decrease as the detector is moved away from walls and floorings. The concentration of 222Rn is found to be invariant in indoor environment. An attempt has also been made to study the horizontal and vertical distribution pattern of 220Rn in a dwelling. The 220Rn concentration is found to drop exponentially as a function of distance from the source (wall/floor). Solution of one dimensional diffusion equation is used for regression fittings for 220Rn variation, from which the diffusion constants and the exhalation rates were calculated. The diffusion constants varied from 0.00195 to 0.00540 m2s-1. Results are discussed in detail

  4. Design and construction of a system to determine Radon-222 through alpha spectroscopy; Diseno y construccion de un sistema para determinar Radon-222 mediante espectroscopia alfa

    Bonifacio M, J. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico. Facultad de Quimica. Toluca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this work consists in the design a radon-222 gas measurement system utilizing a surface barrier detector with the objective to obtain a more accurate measurement for this isotope through an alpha particle spectrum and so to address as to avoid the activity influence of the descendants of short half-life, which are too beta particles emitters, already other methods it must be correction series to obtain the real value of radon activity. Here are presented the general properties properties of radon, the experimental part description indicating the design to measure the radon-222 gas and its parts, as well as too the standard separation of radium-226 starting from carnotite mineral. Finally, it is presented the results obtained with a discussion about it. (Author) results obtained with a discussion about it. (Author)

  5. The contents of radon {sup 222}Rn in deep borehole water of Pojezierze Mazurskie region; Wystepowanie radonu {sup 222}Rn w wodzie z ujec glebinowych na terenie Pojezierza Mazurskiego

    Pachocki, K.A.; Gorzkowski, B.; Majle, T.; Rozycki, Z. [Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Radon {sup 222}Rn in deep borehole water of Pojezierze Mazurskie region has been quantitatively determined. The measurement were performed using the alpha liquid scintillation counting method. The water samples were examined from 3 provinces: Elblag, Olsztyn and Suwalki. In some cases the concentrations of {sup 222}Rn in investigated water samples exceed 11 Bq/l. (author) 11 refs, 4 tabs

  6. An extensive indoor 222Rn/220Rn monitoring in North-East India

    The behaviour of ubiquitous radon (Rn222), thoron (Rn220) and their progeny in the indoor atmosphere generally reflect a complex interplay between a number of processes, the most important of which are radioactive α-decay, ventilation, attachment to aerosols and deposition on the surfaces. The present work involved a long-term (1997-2000) passive monitoring of Rn222 and Rn220 in the indoor environment of the North-Eastern region of India. This region being a zone of high seismicity, the indoor radon and thoron measurement of the region will provide a better insight and a valuable database for any study related to radon and thoron anomalies

  7. Measurement of Rn-222 concentrations in building materials used in jordan

    In this work, the concentrations of the radiative inert gas Rn-222 emanated from the building materials that are commonly in jordan have been studied. For this purpose, samples of ten jordanian building materials of different masses were prepared in plastic cans sealed to passive integrated dosimeters containing CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors which are very sensitive to alpha-particles. The Rn-222 concentrations in these samples range from 137 Bq/m3 to 267 Bq/m3 with an average of 189 Bq/m3. These levels were found to be consistent with those measured by other workers in other countries. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Radon 222 and Tritium in the identification and quantification of NAPL contamination in ground water. 2. 222RN, 3H and CL patterns

    This is a second and last paper on these theme and presents the typical behavior of Rn222and 3H at the Northern Havana-Matanzas Heavy Oil Belt for the following cases: a) fresh ground waters (unaffected by sea water intrusion), b) fresh ground water affected by isolated advances of sea water intrusion, c) fresh ground water intruded by sea water, d) ground water affected by oil spill and e) ground water affected by produced water spill

  9. Measurements of the radon-222 concentration in residences of Lima - Peru; Mediciones de la concentracion de radon 222 en residencias de Lima - Peru

    Pereyra, P.; Lopez, M. E.; Perez, B., E-mail: ppereyr@pucp.edu.pe [Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Seccion Fisica, Av. Universitaria 1801, Lima (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The measurement of the Radon-222 levels was realized in the first semester of 2013 in residences corresponding to 16 districts of the metropolitan area of Lima, including to the zones North, Center and South of the city, during one period of 3 to 6 months in continuous form, with measurement periods of 1 to 2 months. The houses where the measurements were made were selected considering diverse variables as antiquity, construction materials, coatings, soil type, occupational use of the monitored rooms, etc. The measurements were realized in basements, first and second floor of the residences. For the Radon-222 measurements passive detectors of cellulose nitrate (Lr-115) were used. The procedure of data collection, dosimeters reading and the measurement results are shown in this work; this monitoring is the first one that is carried out in this city. The results are only indicators of the present radon rate, by the detectors type not is possible to discriminate the presence of the Radon-222 descendants. (Author)

  10. Mineral water {sup 222} Rn activity decrease due to consumption habits; Determinacao do decrescimo da atividade de radonio-222 em aguas minerais simulando habitos de consumo

    Cipriani, Moacir; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio

    2001-07-01

    Mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau springs, an elevated region with high natural radioactivity, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have significant {sup 222} Rn concentration on site. The highest concentration in the waters are from: Fonte Villela - Aguas da Prata ({approx} 1000 Bql{sup -1}); Fonte Grande Hotel - Pocinhos do Rio Verde ({approx} 400 Brq{sup -1}) and Fonte CNEN Lab - Pocos de Caldas ({approx} 290 Bql{sup -1}). These waters are used by the population as drinking water and due to consumption habits, can lead to internal doses above accepted limits for the public. This work deals with the decrease of {sup 222} Rn activity in mineral waters fro two different popular consumption habits, and with the adult effective dose equivalent reduction due to water consumption habits. It has been found that the estimated dose based on the biokinetic Crawford-Brown model, can be one fourth of dose based on {sup 222} Rn activity on site. (author)

  11. 40 CFR 436.222 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.222 Section 436.222 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  12. 34 CFR 222.22 - How does the Secretary treat compensation from Federal activities for purposes of determining...

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Secretary treat compensation from Federal activities for purposes of determining eligibility and payments? 222.22 Section 222.22 Education Regulations....22 How does the Secretary treat compensation from Federal activities for purposes of...

  13. 34 CFR 222.36 - What minimum number of federally connected children must a local educational agency have to...

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What minimum number of federally connected children... 8003(b) and (e)? 222.36 Section 222.36 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS...

  14. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  15. 34 CFR 222.23 - How does a local educational agency determine the aggregate assessed value of its eligible...

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a local educational agency determine the aggregate assessed value of its eligible Federal property for its section 8002 payment? 222.23 Section 222.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY...

  16. 20 CFR 222.53 - When a legally adopted child is dependent-child adopted after entitlement.

    2010-04-01

    ... the employee is not more than one-half the period from the child's birth to the employee's date of... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a legally adopted child is dependent-child adopted after entitlement. 222.53 Section 222.53 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  17. 42 CFR 435.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    2010-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid to... program but who meet the income and resource requirements of the State's approved AFDC plan. (b)...

  18. 48 CFR 52.222-23 - Notice of Requirement for Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal Employment Opportunity for...

    2010-10-01

    ... Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal Employment Opportunity for Construction. 52.222-23 Section 52.222-23... Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal Employment Opportunity for Construction. As prescribed in 22.810(b), insert... with Executive Order 11246, as amended, and the regulations in 41 CFR 60-4 shall be based on (1)...

  19. A process-based 222Rn flux map for Europe and its comparison to long-term observations

    Karstens, U.; Schwingshackl, C.; Schmithüsen, D.; Levin, I.

    2015-06-01

    Detailed 222Rn flux maps are an essential prerequisite for the use of radon in atmospheric transport studies. Here we present a high-resolution222Rn flux map for Europe, based on a parameterization of 222Rn production and transport in the soil. The 222Rn exhalation rate was parameterized based on soil properties, uranium content, and modelled soil moisture from two different land-surface reanalysis data sets. Spatial variations in exhalation rates are primarily determined by the uranium content of the soil, but also influenced by local water table depth and soil texture. Temporal variations are related to soil moisture variations as the molecular diffusion in the unsaturated soil zone depends on available air-filled pore space. The implemented diffusion parameterization was tested against campaign-based 222Rn profile measurements. Monthly 222Rn exhalation rates from European soils were calculated with a nominal spatial resolution of 0.083° × 0.083° and compared to long-term direct measurements of 222Rn exhalation rates in different areas of Europe. The two realizations of the 222Rn flux map, based on the different soil moisture data sets, both realistically reproduce the observed seasonality in the fluxes but yield considerable differences for absolute flux values. The average 222Rn flux from soils in Europe is estimated to be 10 or 15 mBq m-2 s-1, depending on the soil moisture data set, and the seasonal variations in the two realisations range from 7.1 mBq m-2 s-1 in February to 13.9 mBq m-2 s-1 in August and from 10.8 mBq m-2 s-1 in March to 19.7 mBq m-2 s-1 in July, respectively. This systematic difference highlights the importance of realistic soil moisture data for a reliable estimation of 222Rn exhalation rates.

  20. In situ soil 222Rn and 220Rn and their relationship with meteorological parameters in tropical Northern Peninsular Malaysia

    This study focused on the relationship between soil 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure, humidity, and terrestrial gamma radiation) in Northern Peninsular Malaysia. Measurements of in situ soil 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations were performed in surface air and at a sampling depth of 50 cm using two active techniques: RAD7 radon detector and radon continuous monitor (Sun Nuclear Corporation). The surface air 222Rn concentration ranged from 6 Bq m−3 to 79 Bq m−3, whereas at the depth of 50 cm, the 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations varied from 133 Bq m−3 to 143,059 Bq m−3 and from 55 Bq m−3 to 403 Bq m−3, respectively. The gamma dose rate (DR) in air was measured using a GR-135 spectrometer (Exploranium). The dose rate varied from 80 nGy h−1 to 258 nGy h−1. The 222Rn concentration in the soil (143 kBq m−3) was high considering that the concentration in typical soil samples is only 40 kBq m−3. The 222Rn concentration in surface air varied within the recommended activity values prescribed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Weak positive and negative correlations were observed between the (222Rn and 220Rn) concentrations and the meteorological parameters. - Highlights: • DR varies (80–258 nGy h−1), no correlation between acidity and radon concentration. • 222Rn in soil (143 kBq m−3) high considering than in typical soil 40 kBq m−3. • 222Rn in surface air varied within EPA and ICRP. • All sites exhibited larger DR compared with the world of 84 nGy h−1 except for two sites. • A statistically significant correlation between 222Rns–220Rn

  1. Baseline air mass selection at Cape Point, South Africa: application of 222Rn and other filter criteria to CO2

    Concentrations of 222Rn (March 1999-August 2002) from a recently installed analyser at the station Cape Point (34oS, 18oE), South Africa, were analysed statistically. The combination of 222Rn with information on wind direction and carbon monoxide (CO) permitted a classification of air masses into continental, marine, and mixtures of both. The ability to select trace gas data representing purely maritime conditions is shown through application to carbon dioxide (CO2) data. 222Rn levels at Cape Point ranged from near zero to above 5000 mBq m-3. Monthly percentiles show practically no seasonal dependence for values up to the 25th percentile (P25), corresponding to 222Rn -3 which is considered typical for marine air. In contrast, 222Rn percentiles exceeding P50 reveal an austral winter maximum, related to a higher incidence of continental air at that time of the year. The wind sector pattern for 222Rn concentrations largely coincides with that observed for CO, but covers a wider sector to the east, reflecting continental source areas. Air masses with 222Rn levels between 100 and 250 mBq m-3 were found to be still affected by terrestrial sources. Our routinely used percentile-based statistical filter applied to CO2 accepted 222Rn -3), which only yielded 18%, but is more stringent in excluding terrestrial influences. CO2 data filtered by using a combination of various selection parameters agreed well with data obtained for 222Rn -3, confirming that this 222Rn threshold is a suitable criterion for purely maritime data. Nonetheless, for CO2 the statistical filter, which does not depend on other species and has better data coverage, still retains its applicability for routine trace gas filtering with respect to baseline concentrations. (author)

  2. [2+2+2]-Cyklotrimerization in synthesis of C-aryldeoxyribosides

    Novák, P.; Hocek, Michal; Kotora, Martin

    Bern: DCB University of Bern, 2006. s. 278. [IRT-International Roundtable on Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids /17./. 03.09.2006-07.09.2006, Bern] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : C-nucleosides * extension of the genetic alphabet * [2+2+2]-cyclotrimerization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  3. Equilibration correction of temporal measurements for sudden 222Rn concentration changes

    222Rn and 220Rn can be used as tracers of groundwater or submarine springs, and 222Rn in water also could indicate indoor radon problems in some regions. The half-life of 222Rn is long enough that its concentration may remain significant during transit over relatively long distances, while that of 220Rn is not. Prior research revealed that it took about 15 min for the radon to achieve gas equilibrium at a water flow rate of 17.5 L min−1, which is approximately equivalent to the time required for the 222Rn-218Po pair to approach radioactive equilibrium and is limiting in terms of measurements of sudden radon concentration change. In this work, an algorithm is applied to improve the continuous tracing of radon concentrations in the field environment. Results of a laboratory experiment analyzed applying the analysis method illustrated its ability to allow immediate identification of sharp concentration increases. In this paper we find that a precipitous drop in radon concentrations lead to improper corrected values as the result of measurement uncertainties prior to the drop, and a method using zero instead negative values for reducing the uncertainties under such condition also is proposed

  4. 36 CFR 222.23 - Removal of other horses and burros.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 CFR 261.7 and 262.10. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of other horses and... AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.23 Removal of...

  5. Calibration of a degassing-emanation line for 222Rn determination in seawater samples

    The purpose of this study is to calibrate a degassing-emanation line and to determine 222Rn and 226Ra activity concentrations in seawater samples. This methodology, also called Lucas method, consists in the extraction of radon (originally dissolved in seawater), collection of the gas in a liquid nitrogen cold trap and transfer from the trap to an alpha scintillation cell. Total extraction efficiencies of the 4 degassing-emanation systems were determined by measuring 226Ra reference solutions. The efficiencies obtained for these 4 systems varied from 21 % to 62%. This work also presents preliminary results of a study carried out in a series of small embayements of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State-Brazil: Flamengo Bay, Fortaleza Bay, Mar Virado Bay and Ubatuba Bay. Concentration of Rn in excess varied from 0,011 to 0,317 Bq/L for Flamengo Bay, from 0,009 to 0,130 Bq/L for Fortaleza Bay, from 0,018 to 0,050 Bq/L for Mar Virado Bay and from 0,004 to 0,120 Bq/L for Ubatuba Bay. The results obtained for the concentration of 222Rn in excess in a transect at Flamengo Bay varied from 0,002 to 0,036 Bq/L. Higher concentrations of 222Rn in excess were obtained in Flamengo Bay, Fortaleza Bay and Ubatuba bay. It was also observed that the concentration of 222Rn in excess increases with depth, as expected. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Radon-222 exhalation rate from uranium mine waste rock pile

    The 222 Rn exhalation from waste rock piles is an important item to be assessed in uranium mines decommissioning process. In this work are presented the INB-Caldas Uranium Mine waste rock pile number 4 (BF4) surface 222 Rn exhalation rate. The BF4 waste rock pile contains low concentration uranium ore, below the concentration needed to feed the uranium extraction milling plant, and its surface has been partially covered with clay to prevent acid drainage formation from air oxygen reaction with pyrite ore. The sample collection was performed using passive coal trap collectors for 222 Rn exhalation. The traps were placed on the waste rock pile surface during adequate collection periods and gamma counted after four hours to allow for radon daughters in growth. The waste rock pile (BF4) has been divided into five areas, according to mining periods. Measurements were made in three of these areas, during dry and rain seasons, 141 samples in all. The 222 Rn exhalation geometric mean (pCi/m-2.sec-1) obtained by area were 21.8±253 (min=0..6, max =1809) for area A; 11.9±33 (min=0.5, max=160) for area B; 6.6±11 (min=0.6, max=47) for area D. (author)

  7. 12 CFR 222.22 - Scope and duration of opt-out.

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.22 Scope and duration of opt-out.... (2) Continuing relationship—(i) In general. If the consumer establishes a continuing relationship... connection with— (A) A single continuing relationship or multiple continuing relationships that the...

  8. Efficient direct 2,2,2-trifluoroethylation of indoles via C-H functionalization.

    Tolnai, Gergely L; Székely, Anna; Makó, Zita; Gáti, Tamás; Daru, János; Bihari, Tamás; Stirling, András; Novák, Zoltán

    2015-03-14

    A novel highly C3 selective metal free trifluoroethylation of indoles using 2,2,2-trifuoroethyl(mesityl)-iodonium triflate was developed. The methodology enables the introduction of a trifluoroethyl group in a fast and efficient reaction under mild conditions with high functional group tolerance. Beyond the synthetic developments, quantum chemical calculations provide a deeper understanding of the transformation. PMID:25682991

  9. 12 CFR 222.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.25 Reasonable and... electronically mailed or processed at an Internet Web site, if the consumer agrees to the electronic delivery of... opt-out under the Act, and the affiliate marketing opt-out under the Act, by a single method, such...

  10. Relation between 222Rn concentration in outdoor air and lower atmosphere

    Using the height of the surface-based inversion layer obtained by the acoustic sounder returns and the variation of the 222Rn concentration in the outdoor air during the presence of the surface-based inversion layer, the exhalation rate of 222Rn is estimated to be 0.020 Bq·m-2·s-1, which is observed elsewhere on land. Furthermore, the exposure rate at 1 m above the air-ground interface due to the short-lived 222Rn daughters in the outdoor air during the presence of the surface-based inversion layer can be estimated using the height of the surface-based inversion layer and the 222Rn concentrations in the outdoor air at the ground level before and after the onset of the surface-based inversion layer. From these treatment, it is clearly demonstrated that the monostatic acoustic sounder is useful as a supplementary method for a weather survey which forms a part of monitoring around the nuclear facilities. (author)