WorldWideScience

Sample records for actinium 220

  1. Extraction of actinium with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid from hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions

    The extraction of actinium with HDEHP from Cl- and NO3- systems has been investigated. It was found that extraction of actinium from HCl solutions is much better than from HNO3 solutions. Stability constants of actinium complexes Ac(X-)+2 with Cl- and NO3- ligands were determined. Our results show that the actinium formed less stable complexes with Cl- than with NO3- ligands. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  2. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results

  3. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  4. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  5. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  6. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development. PMID:22697483

  7. Radium, thorium, and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manganese-oxide-coated fiber

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency with which improved manganese-oxide-coated acrylic fibers extract radium, thorium, and actinium from seawater. Tests were made using surface seawater spiked with 227Ac, 227Th and 223Ra. For sample volumes of approximately 30 liters and flow rates up to 0.5 liters per minute, radium and actinium are removed quantitatively. Approximately 80-95% of the thorium is removed under these same conditions. (Auth.)

  8. HCA 220 Courses/sanptutorial

    nertu

    2015-01-01

    HCA 220 Capstone Discussion Question HCA 220 Assignment: Seven Organizational Approaches HCA 220 Week 1 Discussion Questions HCA 220 Week 3 Discussion Question 1 HCA 220 Week 3 Discussion Question 2 HCA 220 Week 5 Discussion Question 1 HCA 220 Week 5 Discussion Question 2 HCA 220 Week 7 Discussion Question 1 HCA 220 Week 7 Discussion Question 2 HCA 220 CheckPoint: Building a Medical Vocabulary Ch. 1 HCA 220 CheckPoint: Building a Medical Vocabulary Ch. ...

  9. HCA 220 Course Tutorial / Indigohelp

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   HCA 220 Capstone Discussion Question HCA 220 Assignment: Seven Organizational Approaches HCA 220 Week 1 Discussion Questions HCA 220 Week 3 Discussion Question 1 HCA 220 Week 3 Discussion Question 2 HCA 220 Week 5 Discussion Question 1 HCA 220 Week 5 Discussion Question 2 HCA 220 Week 7 Discussion Question 1 HCA 220 Week 7 Discussion Question 2 HCA 220 CheckPoint: Building a Medical Vocabulary Ch....

  10. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces ∼100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 GeV protons

  11. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  12. COMP 220 Devry Course Tutorial / comp220dotcom

    gita14

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.comp220.com   COMP 220 iLab 1 Two-Dimensional Arrays Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 2 Resistor Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 3 Bank Account Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 4 Composition Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 5 Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 6 Overloaded Operators Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 7 Polymorphism Lab Report and Source Code  

  13. Neutron-Induced Fission of Actinium-227, Protactinium-231 and Neptunium-237: Mass Distribution

    Results of radiochemical studies on the mass distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinium-227, protactinium-231 and neptunium-237 have been presented. This work has been carried out as part of a programme to determine the mass distribution in the fission of heavy elements as a function of Z and A. All irradiations have been carried out in the core of the swimming-pool type reactor APSARA with cadmium shielding wherever necessary. Relative yields of several fission product nuclides have been obtained by a method involving a comparison of the fission product activities from the respective targets with those formed from uranium-235 simultaneously irradiated. Thermal-neutron fission yields of uranium-235 have been assumed. These results indicate a predominantly asymmetric mass distribution in all the three cases, and also a distinct though small symmetric peak in the case of actinium-227. (author)

  14. SPM 220 courses/snaptutorial

    Susan Mallery

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.snaptutorial.com   SPM 220 Week 1 CheckPoint: Moral and Nonmoral Values SPM 220 Week 2 Assignment: Principles and Exceptions SPM 220 Week 2 CheckPoint: Moral Principles SPM 220 Week 3 CheckPoint: Intimidation in Sport SPM 220 Week 4 Assignment: Kids Speak Out SPM 220 Week 4 CheckPoint: Violence in Sport SPM 220 Week 5 CheckPoint: Eligibility and Elimination in Sport SPM 220 Week 6 Assignment: Exploitation in Sport SPM...

  15. A new method for the determination of low-level actinium-227 in geological samples

    We developed a new method for the determination of 227Ac in geological samples. The method uses extraction chromatographic techniques and alpha-spectrometry and is applicable for a range of natural matrices. Here we report on the procedure and results of the analysis of water (fresh and seawater) and rock samples. Water samples were acidified and rock samples underwent total dissolution via acid leaching. A DGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) extraction chromatographic column was used for the separation of actinium. The actinium fraction was prepared for alpha spectrometric measurement via cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. Recoveries of actinium in water samples were 80 ± 8 % (number of analyses n = 14) and in rock samples 70 ± 12 % (n = 30). The minimum detectable activities (MDA) were 0.017-0.5 Bq kg-1 for both matrices. Rock sample 227Ac activities ranged from 0.17 to 8.3 Bq kg-1 and water sample activities ranged from below MDA values to 14 Bq kg-1of 227Ac. From the analysis of several standard rock and water samples with the method we found very good agreement between our results and certified values. (author)

  16. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  17. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  18. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS—towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm − 1 which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  19. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  20. COMP 220 Devry Course/ uophelp.com

    royal

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com COMP 220 iLab 1 Two-Dimensional Arrays Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 2 Resistor Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 3 Bank Account Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 4 Composition Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 5 Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 6 Overloaded Operators Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 7 Polymorphism Lab Report and Source Code  

  1. COMP 220 (Devry) course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    naresh 1

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   COMP 220 iLab 1 Two-Dimensional Arrays Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 2 Resistor Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 3 Bank Account Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 4 Composition Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 5 Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 6 Overloaded Operators Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 7 Polymorphism Lab Report and Source Code

  2. COMP 220 UOP COURSE Tutorial/UOPHELP

    sgdvdfb

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com COMP 220 iLab 1 Two-Dimensional Arrays Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 2 Resistor Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 3 Bank Account Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 4 Composition Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 5 Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 6 Overloaded Operators Lab Report and Source Code COMP 220 iLab 7 Polymorphism Lab Report and Source Code

  3. 220Rn in geothermal steam

    The isotope 220Rn (half-life 56 seconds) occurs in fumaroles in Japan and Taiwan, in amounts as high as 1000 times the 222Rn content. The authors report its presence in geothermal steam at Wairakei, New Zealand, in amounts as high as 130 times those of 222Rn. It is detected by a radiochemical separation of Pb, and gamma spectrometry. Some of the 220Rn/222Rn ratios are higher than theoretically expected, but have frequently been reported from similar locations. Theories of possible origins will be discussed. 22 refs., 1 tab

  4. 20 CFR 220.35 - Introduction.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 220.35 Section 220.35 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.35 Introduction. In addition to its authority to decide whether a claimant is disabled under the...

  5. 21 CFR 189.220 - Flectol H.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Flectol H. 189.220 Section 189.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Addition to Human Food Through Food-Contact Surfaces § 189.220 Flectol H. (a) Flectol H is the chemical...

  6. 12 CFR 611.220 - Outside directors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outside directors. 611.220 Section 611.220... of Directors § 611.220 Outside directors. (a) Eligibility, number and term. (1) Eligibility. No candidate for an outside director position may be a director, officer, employee, agent, or stockholder of...

  7. 20 CFR 220.133 - Skill requirements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skill requirements. 220.133 Section 220.133... DISABILITY Vocational Considerations § 220.133 Skill requirements. (a) General. To evaluate skills and to... claimant does not gain work skills by doing unskilled jobs. For example, jobs are considered unskilled...

  8. 45 CFR 148.220 - Excepted benefits.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excepted benefits. 148.220 Section 148.220 Public... FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Preemption; Excepted Benefits § 148.220 Excepted benefits... provision of the benefits described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section (or any combination of...

  9. 46 CFR 129.220 - Basic safety.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic safety. 129.220 Section 129.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS General Requirements § 129.220 Basic safety. (a) Electrical equipment and installations must be...

  10. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance must be provided with hinges and locking devices to...

  11. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance... cooking appliance must be installed to prevent movement in heavy seas. (c) For a grill or similar type...

  12. 49 CFR 179.220-10 - Welding.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding. 179.220-10 Section 179.220-10... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-10 Welding. (a) All joints... of this subchapter). Welding procedures, welders, and fabricators shall be approved. (b)...

  13. SPM 220 uop course tutorial/tutorial rank

    tiplod

    2015-01-01

    SPM 220 Week 1 CheckPoint: Moral and Nonmoral Values SPM 220 Week 2 Assignment: Principles and Exceptions SPM 220 Week 2 CheckPoint: Moral Principles SPM 220 Week 3 CheckPoint: Intimidation in Sport SPM 220 Week 4 Assignment: Kids Speak Out SPM 220 Week 4 CheckPoint: Violence in Sport SPM 220 Week 5 CheckPoint: Eligibility and Elimination in Sport SPM 220 Week 6 Assignment: Exploitation in Sport SPM 220 Week 6 CheckPoint: Commercialized Sport SPM 220 Week 7...

  14. 7 CFR 220.3 - Administration.

    2010-01-01

    ... the State in accordance with the provisions of this part, 7 CFR parts 235, 245, 15, 15a, 15b and, as applicable, 7 CFR part 3015, 7 CFR part 3016 and 7 CFR part 3019, and with FNS Instructions. Such agreement... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 220.3 Section 220.3...

  15. 38 CFR 52.220 - Transportation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation. 52.220... FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.220 Transportation. Transportation... management must provide or contract for transportation to enable participants, including persons...

  16. 49 CFR 179.220-7 - Materials.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials. 179.220-7 Section 179.220-7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  17. 30 CFR 220.032 - Inventories.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inventories. 220.032 Section 220.032 Mineral... Inventories. (a) The lessee is responsible for NPSL materiel and shall make proper and timely cost and credit... operations. The accumulation of surplus stocks shall be avoided by proper materiel control, inventory...

  18. 24 CFR 990.220 - Purpose.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 990.220 Section 990.220 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC HOUSING OPERATING FUND...

  19. 24 CFR 220.253 - Substitute mortgagors.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 220.253... Contract Rights and Obligations-Homes § 220.253 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee... the Commissioner's approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b)...

  20. 7 CFR 220.17 - Prohibitions.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibitions. 220.17 Section 220.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... State and local sources for the maintenance of food programs for children shall not be diminished as...

  1. 40 CFR 86.220-94 - [Reserved

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 86.220-94 Section 86.220-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty...

  2. Dicty_cDB: AFM220 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFM220 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - AFM220P (Link to Original site) AFM220F 634 AFM...220Z 697 AFM220P 1311 - - Show AFM220 Library AF (Link to library) Clone ID AFM220 (Link... to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/AF/AFM...2-A/AFM220Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID AFM220P (Link to... Original site) Representative DNA sequence >AFM220 (AFM220Q) /CSM/AF/AFM2-A/AFM220Q.Seq.d/ ATTATTTTTTATTTTA

  3. Dicty_cDB: SSA220 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSA220 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16278-1 SSA220Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSA220Z 485 - - - - Show SSA220 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSA220 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSA2-A/SSA220Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSA22...0Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSA220 (SSA220Q) /CSM/SS/SSA2-A/SSA220Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...y system >> prediction for SSA220 is nuc 5' end seq. ID - 5' end seq. - Length of 5' end seq. - 3' end seq. ID SSA

  4. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  5. 24 CFR 220.804 - Insurance premiums.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 220.804 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract...

  6. 46 CFR 119.220 - Installations.

    2010-10-01

    ... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION Propulsion Machinery § 119.220 Installations. (a) The installation requirements for machinery and boilers for steam and... subchapter J (Electrical Engineering) of this chapter. (b) Installation of propulsion machinery of an...

  7. 7 CFR 58.220 - Drying systems.

    2010-01-01

    ....220 Drying systems. (a) Spray dryers. Spray dryers shall be of a continuous discharge type and all... Milk Products Spray Drying Systems. The filtering system shall be cleaned or component parts replaced... shall comply with the requirements of the 3-A Accepted Practices for Milk and Milk Products Spray...

  8. Thoron (220Rn) in the indoor environment

    Many locations around the world have higher levels of natural background radiation due to elevated levels of primordial radio nuclides in the soil and their decay products, like radon (222Rn), and thoron (220Rn) in the environment. Of late, technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material has also contributed to the burden of background radiation. Since the contribution from inhalation of 222Rn, 220Rn and their short lived progenies contributes more than 54% of the total background radiation dose, it was necessary to supplement the external component with inhalation component. This component is not adequately estimated for the country so far on a national level. With this in mind, a national survey has been executed by this center involving a large number of universities and other allied research institutions from different parts of the country for the estimation of inhalation component of the dose rate arises from 222Rn, 220Rn and their short-lived progenies. This survey has been carried out using a twin cup radon-thoron dosimeter with solid state nuclear track based dosimeter developed and standardized at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai using LR-115 Type-II, of 12μm thick cellulose nitrate film as a detector. In this paper the contribution from 220Rn and its progenies to the inhalation component is presented. Present study reveals that 220Rn and its progeny contributes nearly 20% of the total dose rate to radon, thoron and their progenies. Paper presents the method measurements and the results obtained. Data available in literature is also compared. (author)

  9. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    2010-07-01

    ... are found in 40 CFR part 355. ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  10. 20 CFR 220.1 - Introduction of part.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction of part. 220.1 Section 220.1... DISABILITY General § 220.1 Introduction of part. (a) This part explains how disability determinations are... defined in the Social Security Act and the regulations of the Social Security Administration. (b) In...

  11. 20 CFR 220.63 - Conflict of interest.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 220.63 Section 220.63 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Consultative Examinations § 220.63 Conflict of interest. All implications of possible conflict...

  12. 49 CFR 220.305 - Use of personal electronic devices.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of personal electronic devices. 220.305 Section 220.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.305 Use of personal electronic devices. A...

  13. 49 CFR 220.303 - General use of electronic devices.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General use of electronic devices. 220.303 Section 220.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.303 General use of electronic devices. A...

  14. 30 CFR 220.010 - NPSL capital account.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NPSL capital account. 220.010 Section 220.010... § 220.010 NPSL capital account. (a) For each NPSL tract, an NPSL capital account shall be established and maintained by the lessee for NPSL operations. The NPSL capital account shall include debit...

  15. 7 CFR 220.20 - Free and reduced price breakfasts.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Free and reduced price breakfasts. 220.20 Section 220..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.20 Free and reduced price breakfasts. The determination of the children to whom free and reduced price breakfasts are to be...

  16. 21 CFR 573.220 - Feed-grade biuret.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feed-grade biuret. 573.220 Section 573.220 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.220 Feed-grade biuret. The food additive feed grade biuret may be safely used...

  17. 20 CFR 220.36 - Period of disability.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period of disability. 220.36 Section 220.36... DISABILITY Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.36 Period of disability. (a) General. In order to receive an annuity based upon a disability,...

  18. 49 CFR 220.45 - Radio communication shall be complete.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio communication shall be complete. 220.45 Section 220.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 220.45 Radio communication shall be complete. Any radio communication which is not fully understood...

  19. 12 CFR 220.7 - Broker-dealer credit account.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Broker-dealer credit account. 220.7 Section 220... SYSTEM CREDIT BY BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.7 Broker-dealer credit account. (a) Requirements. In a broker-dealer credit account, a creditor may effect or finance transactions in...

  20. 33 CFR 105.220 - Drill and exercise requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ...) Exercises are a full test of the security program and must include substantial and active participation of.... 105.220 Section 105.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.220 Drill and...

  1. CompTIA A+ complete study guide exams 220-801 and 220-802

    Docter, Quentin; Skandier, Toby

    2012-01-01

    CompTIA Authorized, fully updated Study Guide for the leading IT certification: CompTIA A+ CompTIA A+ is the de facto certification for IT technicians. Some vendors even require employees to achieve certification as part of their job training. This book prepares you for both required exams: 220-801 and 220-802. Totally updated to cover the 2012 exams, this popular prep guide covers all the exam objectives. Readers will also have access to additional study tools, including the Sybex Test Engine with bonus practice exams, electronic flashcards, and a glossary of important terms in searchable PD

  2. 2 CFR 3000.220 - What contracts and subcontracts, in addition to those listed in 2 CFR 180.220, are covered...

    2010-01-01

    ... to those listed in 2 CFR 180.220, are covered transactions? 3000.220 Section 3000.220 Grants and... NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Covered Transactions § 3000.220 What contracts and subcontracts, in addition to those listed in 2 CFR 180.220, are covered transactions? Department of Homeland...

  3. Factorisation of RSA-220 with CADO-NFS

    Bai, Shi; Gaudry, Pierrick; Kruppa, Alexander; Thomé, Emmanuel; Zimmermann, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We give details of the factorization of RSA-220 with CADO-NFS. This is a new record computation with this open-source software. We report on the factorization of RSA-220 (220 decimal digits), which is the 3rd largest integer factorization with the General Number Field Sieve (GNFS), after the factorization of RSA-768 (232 digits) in December 2009 [3], and that of 3 697 + 1 (221 digits) in February 2015 by NFS@home.

  4. The unbearable opaqueness of Arp220

    Martín, S.; Aalto, S.; Sakamoto, K.; González-Alfonso, E.; Muller, S.; Henkel, C.; García-Burillo, S.; Aladro, R.; Costagliola, F.; Harada, N.; Krips, M.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Mühle, S.; van der Werf, P.; Viti, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The origin of the enormous luminosities of the two opaque nuclei of Arp 220, the prototypical ultra-luminous infrared galaxy, remains a mystery because we lack observational tools to explore the innermost regions around the nuclei. Aims: We explore the potential of imaging vibrationally excited molecular emission at high angular resolution to better understand the morphology and physical structure of the dense gas in Arp 220 and to gain insight into the nature of the nuclear powering sources. Methods: The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) provided simultaneous observations of HCN, HCO+, and vibrationally excited HCN v2 = 1f emission. Their J = 4-3 and 3-2 transitions were observed at a matching resolution of ~0.5'', which allows us to isolate the emission from the two nuclei. Results: The HCN and HCO+ lines within the ground-vibrational state poorly describe the central ~100 pc region around the nuclei because there are strong effects of cool absorbing gas in the foreground and severe line blending that is due to the prolific molecular emission of Arp 220. Vibrationally excited emission of HCN is detected in both nuclei with a very high ratio relative to the total LFIR, higher than in any other observed galaxy and well above what is observed in Galactic hot cores. HCN v2 = 1f is observed to be marginally resolved in ~60 × 50 pc regions inside the dusty ~100 pc sized nuclear cores. Its emission is centered on our derived individual nuclear velocities based on HCO+ emission (VWN = 5342 ± 4 and VEN = 5454 ± 8 km s-1, for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively). With virial masses within r ~ 25-30 pc based on the HCN v2 = 1f line widths, we estimate gas surface densities (gas fraction fg = 0.1) of 3 ± 0.3 × 104 M⊙ pc-2 (WN) and 1.1 ± 0.1 × 104 M⊙ pc-2 (EN). The 4-3/3-2 flux density ratio could be consistent with optically thick emission, which would further constrain the size of the emitting region to >15 pc (EN) and >22 pc

  5. TG 220 MW hydraulic control system diagnostics

    The TG power output control system comprises a hydraulic and an electronic part. TG speed, power output or the main steam header pressure (HPK) depend on the steam flow at the turbine inlet. The steam admission into the turbine is controlled by four control valves and one by-pass valve in case of the HP part and by four capture flap valves in case of the LP part. The task of the SKODA K-220 MW turbine protection and control systems is to provide both the turbine speed and power output control to the setpoint value. Diagnostic measurements were aimed at getting an overview of both technical and functional states of all power output control elements. Principally, it can be stated that some deficiencies of a design nature originating from the manufacturer's factory were revealed and some other deficiencies related to hydraulic control elements functionality were identified more closely by the new method. 5 figs

  6. 46 CFR 8.220 - Recognition of a classification society.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognition of a classification society. 8.220 Section 8... INSPECTION ALTERNATIVES Recognition of a Classification Society § 8.220 Recognition of a classification society. (a) A classification society must be recognized by the Commandant before it may receive...

  7. 42 CFR 403.220 - Supplemental Health Insurance Panel.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. 403.220... Programs § 403.220 Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. (a) Membership. The Supplemental Health Insurance... State Commissioners or Superintendents of Insurance appointed by the President. (The terms...

  8. 20 CFR 220.170 - The trial work period.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The trial work period. 220.170 Section 220.170 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Trial Work Period and Reentitlement Period for Annuitants Disabled for Any...

  9. 20 CFR 220.145 - Impairment-related work expenses.

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.145 Impairment-related work expenses. (a... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impairment-related work expenses. 220.145... work. The costs are deductible even though the claimant also needs or uses the items and services...

  10. 20 CFR 220.45 - Providing evidence of disability.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Providing evidence of disability. 220.45... DETERMINING DISABILITY Evidence of Disability § 220.45 Providing evidence of disability. (a) General. The claimant for a disability annuity is responsible for providing evidence of the claimed disability and...

  11. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Medical Considerations § 220.114 Evaluation of symptoms, including pain...'s symptoms, including pain, and the extent to which the claimant's symptoms can reasonably...

  12. 42 CFR 414.220 - Inexpensive or routinely purchased items.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inexpensive or routinely purchased items. 414.220 Section 414.220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment...

  13. 20 CFR 220.128 - Age as a vocational factor.

    2010-04-01

    ... national economy. (2) If the claimant is close to retirement age (60-64) and has a severe impairment, the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Age as a vocational factor. 220.128 Section 220.128 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  14. 12 CFR 220.10 - Borrowing and lending securities.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrowing and lending securities. 220.10... RESERVE SYSTEM CREDIT BY BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.10 Borrowing and lending securities. (a) Without regard to the other provisions of this part, a creditor may borrow or lend securities for...

  15. 13 CFR 134.220 - Prohibition against ex parte communications.

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against ex parte communications. 134.220 Section 134.220 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF... of such prohibited consultation or communication, the Judge will disclose the occurrence...

  16. 12 CFR 220.108 - International Bank Securities.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International Bank Securities. 220.108 Section... SYSTEM CREDIT BY BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) Interpretations § 220.108 International Bank... International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (including any guaranty by the bank, whether or...

  17. 49 CFR 220.51 - Radio communications and signal indications.

    2010-10-01

    ... Communication Procedures § 220.51 Radio communications and signal indications. (a) No information may be given... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio communications and signal indications. 220... operating rules, radio communication shall not be used to convey instructions which would have the effect...

  18. Response of AlphaGUARD radon detector to 220Rn

    Based on optimized-design ionization chamber, AlphaGUARD is the most stable commercial radon detector, which is widely used in various radon chambers worldwide as a standard device. Under ordinary radon concentration, it works according to the principle of pulse ionization chamber which only records the α particle counting without the spectroscopy, so it is limited to pure 222Rn measurements. In this paper, the two working modes of response mechanisms of AlphaGUARD to 220Rn were studied. This study found that, under flow mode with sampling flow rate of 1.0 L·min-1, the flow correction factor for 220Pm is 0.80; under diffusion modes, the relative sensitivity coefficient of 220Rn is independent on the 220Rn concentration and mixed 222Rn/220Rn ratio is 6.09%. (authors)

  19. The unbearable opaqueness of Arp 220

    Martín, S; Sakamoto, K; González-Alfonso, E; Muller, S; Henkel, C; García-Burillo, S; Aladro, R; Costagliola, F; Harada, N; Krips, M; Martín-Pintado, J; Mühle, S; van der Werf, P; Viti, S

    2016-01-01

    We explore the potential of imaging vibrationally excited molecular emission at high angular resolution to better understand the morphology and physical structure of the dense gas in Arp~220 and to gain insight into the nature of the nuclear powering sources. Vibrationally excited emission of HCN is detected in both nuclei with a very high ratio relative to the total $L_{FIR}$, higher than in any other observed galaxy and well above what is observed in Galactic hot cores. HCN $v_2=1f$ is observed to be marginally resolved in $\\sim60\\times50$~pc regions inside the dusty $\\sim100$~pc sized nuclear cores. Its emission is centered on our derived individual nuclear velocities based on HCO$^+$ emission ($V_{WN}=5342\\pm4$ and $V_{EN}=5454\\pm8$~\\kms, for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively). With virial masses within $r\\sim25-30$~pc based on the HCN~$v_2=1f$ line widths, we estimate gas surface densities (gas fraction $f_g=0.1$) of $3\\pm0.3\\times10^4~M_\\odot~\\rm pc^{-2}$ (WN) and $1.1\\pm0.1\\times10^4~M_\\odo...

  20. 7 CFR 220.14 - Claims against school food authorities.

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.14 Claims against school... records shall be retained for a period of 3 years after the end of the fiscal year to which they...

  1. 7 CFR 220.5 - Method of payment to States.

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.5 Method of payment to States. Funds to be paid to any State for the School Breakfast Program shall be made available by means of Letters...

  2. 1997 County Pesticide Use Estimates for 220 Compounds

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes information for 220 pesticides on the average amount (pounds) applied to 87 agricultural crops and the acres of crops treated for counties...

  3. Study on 220Rn equilibrium factor in China traditional dwellings

    The spatial distribution and seasonal variation of 220Rn concentration (CTn) and its progeny concentration (Cp,Tn) in China traditional dwellings constructed with soil were studied. The results show that the spatial distribution of CTn appears a significant concentration gradient, and decreases exponentially from the distance of source (bare walls or ground), while there is a good linearity and repeatability. The seasonal variation of CTn displays maximum value in autumn and minimum value in winter. The seasonal variation of Cp,Tn comparing with CTn and Cp,Rn is similar, and its spatial variation can be ignored. Therefore, fixing the distance distance of 220Rn form source, there is a definite relationship between CTn and Cp,Tn. 220Rn equilibrium factors FTn respectively are 0.003±0.001 and 0.017±0.014 at the distances of 2.5 cm and 20 cm from wall. The Cp,Tn results of actual measurement in traditional houses are in good agreement with the calculated values by using FTn. The measurement to 220Rn gas is more easily achieved comparing with 220Rn progenies. The introduction of FTn provides a simple and reliable method for assessment of 220Rn exposure. (authors)

  4. Parsec-scale magnetic fields in Arp 220

    McBride, James; Heiles, Carl; Bower, Geoffrey C; Sarma, Anuj P

    2014-01-01

    We present the first very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) detections of Zeeman splitting in another galaxy. We used Arecibo Observatory, the Green Bank Telescope, and the Very Long Baseline Array to perform dual-polarization observations of OH maser lines in the merging galaxy Arp 220. We measured magnetic fields of $\\sim$1-5 mG associated with three roughly parsec-sized clouds in the nuclear regions of Arp 220. Our measured magnetic fields have comparable strengths and the same direction as features at the same velocity identified in previous Zeeman observations with Arecibo alone. The agreement between single dish and VLBI results provides critical validation of previous Zeeman splitting observations of OH megamasers that used a single large dish. The measured magnetic field strengths indicate that magnetic energy densities are comparable to gravitational energy in OH maser clouds. We also compare our total intensity results to previously published VLBI observations of OH megamasers in Arp 220. We find ...

  5. 220 GHZ Zenith Atmospheric Transparency at Iao, Hanle

    Ananthasubramanian, P G; Prabhu, T P; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Prabhu, Tushar P.

    2002-01-01

    We present 220 GHz (1.36 mm) measurements of zenith optical depth obtained to characterise the Indian Astronomical Observatory, Hanle (Ladakh, India) during the period from late December 1999 to early May 2000 and early October 2000 to September 2001. The data were sampled at an interval of 10 minutes. We describe the automated 220 GHz tipping radiometer used, its basic principle, operation, data acquisition method and data reduction scheme in detail. The 220 GHz opacity is found to be less than 0.06 for a significant fraction (40%) of the time during the winter months, indicating that Hanle is one of the good observing sites for submillimeter-wave astronomy. We make a preliminary correlation with the precipitable water vapour derived from surface relative humidity and air temperature measurements made during the same period with a weather station installed at the site. We also compare the Hanle site with other high-altitude sites like Mauna Kea and Atacama desert.

  6. Dicty_cDB: SSJ220 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available bits) Value N U49650 |U49650.1 Dictyostelium discoideum calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule-1 DdCAD-1 (... partial cds. 946 0.0 5 AF340153 |AF340153.1 Dictyostelium discoideum calcium-dependent cell adhesion...gnificant alignments: (bits) Value ( P54657 ) RecName: Full=Calcium-dependent cell adhesion... 8.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction...l.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSJ2-A/SSJ220Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSJ220E (Link to Original si

  7. 40 CFR 98.220 - Definition of source category.

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.220 Definition of source category. A nitric acid production facility uses one or more trains to produce weak nitric acid (30 to 70 percent in strength). A nitric acid train produces weak nitric acid through the catalytic oxidation...

  8. 43 CFR 17.220 - Preschool, elementary, and secondary education.

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements promulgated by the Department of Education at 34 CFR part 104, subpart D. ... Handicap § 17.220 Preschool, elementary, and secondary education. This section applies to preschool... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool, elementary, and...

  9. 20 CFR 220.142 - General information about work activity.

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.142 General information about work activity. (a) The nature of the claimant's work. If the claimant's duties require use of the claimant's... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information about work activity....

  10. 27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Persons...

  11. 49 CFR 179.220-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.220-11 Section 179... Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner container is not a specification requirement. (b) Postweld heat treatment of the cylindrical portions of the outer shell to which the...

  12. 21 CFR 1271.220 - Processing and process controls.

    2010-04-01

    ... mixed in a single receptacle) during manufacturing. (c) In-process control and testing. You must ensure... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing and process controls. 1271.220 Section... process controls. (a) General. If you are an establishment that processes HCT/Ps, you must process...

  13. 20 CFR 220.62 - Reviewing reports of consultative examinations.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reviewing reports of consultative... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Consultative Examinations § 220.62 Reviewing reports of... reviewing the report: (1) Whether the report provides evidence which serves as an adequate basis...

  14. 20 CFR 220.129 - Education as a vocational factor.

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Vocational Considerations § 220.129 Education as a vocational factor. (a... responsibilities the claimant had when he or she was working may show that he or she has intellectual abilities... results of testing may also show that the claimant has significant intellectual ability that can be...

  15. 24 CFR 220.251 - Cross-reference.

    2010-04-01

    ... Insurance Fund. 203.421Allocation of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund income or loss. 203.422Right and liability under Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.423Distribution of distributive shares 203.424Maximum... construed to refer to section 220 of the act, and all references to the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund...

  16. 41 CFR 101-29.220 - Market research and analysis.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Market research and... PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.220 Market research and analysis. Market research and... to determine whether they meet user needs and to identify the market practices of firms engaged...

  17. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection... probable date of transfer. (b) Use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation at...

  18. Using 220Rn to calibrate liquid noble gas detectors

    Kobayashi, M; Takeda, A; Kishimoto, K; Moriyama, S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe 220Rn calibration source that was developed for liquid noble gas detectors. The key advantage of this source is that it can provide 212Bi-212Po consecutive events, which enables us to evaluate the vertex resolution of a detector at low energy by comparing low-energy events of 212Bi and corresponding higher-energy alpha-rays from 212Po. Since 220Rn is a noble gas, a hot metal getter can be used when introduced using xenon as the carrier gas. In addition, no long-life radioactive isotopes are left behind in the detector after the calibration is complete; this has clear advantage over the use of 222Rn which leaves long- life radioactivity, i.e., 210Pb. Using a small liquid xenon test chamber, we developed a system to introduce 220Rn via the xenon carrier gas; we demonstrated the successful introduction of 6 times 10^2 220Rn atoms in our test environment.

  19. 24 CFR 1006.220 - Crime prevention and safety activities.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crime prevention and safety... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.220 Crime... enforcement measures and activities appropriate to protect residents of affordable housing from...

  20. 40 CFR 180.220 - Atrazine; tolerances for residues.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atrazine; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.220 Atrazine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of...

  1. Low background counting of 222Rn, 220Rn and 219Rn with electrostatic counters

    Mong, Brian; EXO-200 Collaboration; nEXO Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. Supported by NSERC Project Grants ``Search for Double Beta Decay with EXO.''

  2. Thoron (220Rn) in the indoor environment and work places

    Ever since studies on uranium miners established the presence of a positive risk coefficient for the occurrence of lung cancer in miners exposed to elevated levels of 222Rn and its progeny, there was a great upsurge of interest in the measurement of 222Rn in the environment. Subsequently, considerable data is being generated on the levels of 222Rn in the environment across the worlds and is being periodically reported by UNSCEAR reports. In contrast to this, data pertaining to 220Rn in indoors and workplace environment is scaree due to the general perception that its levels are negligible due to its shorter half life, and subsequently its contribution to the total inhalation dose is ignored, in the presence of other significant sources of natural radiation. This may not be true. Globally many locations have higher levels of natural background radiation due to elevated levels of primordial radio nuclides in the soil and their decay products like radon (222Rn), and thoron (220Rn) in the environment. Of late, technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material has also contributed to the burden of background radiation. It is estimated that inhalation of 222Rn, 220Rn and their short lived progenies contribute more than 54% of the total natural background radiation dose received by the general population. 220Rn problem exists in industries which use thorium nitrate. Including India, lamps using thoriated gas mantles are still being used for indoor and outdoor lighting and by hawkers in rural as well as urban areas. Considering the fact that large amount of thorium nitrate is being handled by these industries, contribution to the inhalation dose of workers from 220Rn gas emanated and build up of the progeny in ambient air may also be quite significant. In this paper current status of 220Rn levels in the indoor environment and workplaces as well as in other industries where large amount of 232Th is being handled is being summarized. Methods of measurement

  3. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220.307 Section 220.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.307 Use of railroad-supplied electronic...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.220 - What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes?

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes? 1000.220 Section 1000.220 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.220 What regulations apply to...

  5. 49 CFR 220.37 - Testing radio and wireless communication equipment.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing radio and wireless communication equipment... Communication Procedures § 220.37 Testing radio and wireless communication equipment. (a) Each radio, and all primary and redundant wireless communication equipment used under §§ 220.9 and 220.11, shall be tested...

  6. 50 CFR 660.220 - Fixed gear fishery-crossover provisions.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed gear fishery-crossover provisions. 660.220 Section 660.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.220 Fixed gear...

  7. 41 CFR 102-117.220 - What choices do I have to ship HHG?

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Program (CHAMP); (3) Contracting directly with a TSP, (including a relocation company that offers... to ship HHG? 102-117.220 Section 102-117.220 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Household Goods § 102-117.220 What choices do I have to ship HHG? (a) You...

  8. 41 CFR 105-68.220 - Are any procurement contracts included as covered transactions?

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are any procurement contracts included as covered transactions? 105-68.220 Section 105-68.220 Public Contracts and Property...) Covered Transactions § 105-68.220 Are any procurement contracts included as covered transactions?...

  9. 32 CFR 37.220 - How involved should the Government program official be in the project?

    2010-07-01

    ... official be in the project? 37.220 Section 37.220 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Appropriate Use of Technology Investment Agreements § 37.220 How involved should the Government program official be in...

  10. 49 CFR 220.29 - Statement of letters and numbers in radio communications.

    2010-10-01

    ... Communication Procedures § 220.29 Statement of letters and numbers in radio communications. (a) If necessary for... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statement of letters and numbers in radio communications. 220.29 Section 220.29 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  11. 40 CFR 415.220 - Applicability; description of the titanium dioxide production subcategory.

    2010-07-01

    ... titanium dioxide production subcategory. 415.220 Section 415.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.220 Applicability; description of the titanium dioxide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  12. 40 CFR 80.220 - What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline?

    2010-07-01

    ... GPA gasoline? 80.220 Section 80.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-in Program § 80.220 What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline? (a) GPA gasoline. (1) During the period February 1, 2004 through January 31, 2005, the sulfur content of GPA gasoline at...

  13. Thoron (220Rn) in the indoor atmospheric environment

    Naturally occurring background radiation is a topic, which has evoked curiosity and concern between the scientist and layman alike in recent years due to the shift in focus of health effects due to exposure of radiation from acute high level to chronic low level. Many locations around the world have higher levels of natural background radiation due to elevated levels of primordial radio nuclides in the soil and their decay products like radon (222Rn), and thoron (220Rn) in the environment. Of late, technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material has also contributed to the burden of background radiation. It has been estimated that inhalation of 222Rn, 220Rn and their short lived progenies contribute more than 54% of the total natural background radiation dose received by the general population. In the Indian context, in an earlier national survey, the external gamma radiation dose rates have been more or less well mapped using thermo luminescent dosimeters covering more than 214 locations, which has yielded a national average of 775 mGy/y. Of this, nearly 48.7% contribution of the dose rate is from 40K and the rest from the uranium (33.6%) and thorium (17.7%) series. A good database pertaining to the country wide levels of uranium, thorium and potassium in geological materials also exists. Thus, there exists a good database on the total external gamma radiation level across the country. Since the contribution from inhalation of 222Rn, 220Rn and their short lived progenies contributes more than 54% of the total background radiation dose, it was necessary to supplement the external component with inhalation component. This component is not adequately estimated for the country so far on national level. With this in mind, a national survey has been executed by this center involving a large number of universities and other allied research institutions from different parts of the country for the estimation of inhalation component of the dose rate

  14. 1,1 kilomeetri eest 220 miljonit krooni / Martti Kass

    Kass, Martti

    2006-01-01

    Tartu maantee 1,1 kilomeetrise lõigu rekonstrueerimine Liivalaia ja Masina tänava vahel läheb varemnimetatud 100 miljoni krooni asemel maksma hoopis 220 miljonit krooni. Tallinna abilinnapea Olga Sõtnik põhjendab hinnatõusu tee-ehitusmaterjalide hindade tõusuga, Tallinna volikogu revisjonikomisjoni esimees Remo Holsmer aga kahtlustab tee-ehitajate omavahelist kokkulepet. Lisa: Üks kilomeeter maksab 200 miljonit krooni

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Recommended Phonetic Alphabet

    2010-10-01

    ... appendix A of part 220 does not exist in 49 CFR parts 200 to 399, revised as of Oct. 1, 1997. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recommended Phonetic Alphabet A Appendix A to Part...—Recommended Phonetic Alphabet A—ALFA B—BRAVO C—CHARLIE D—DELTA E—ECHO F—FOXTROT G—GOLF H—HOTEL I—INDIA...

  16. Clinical tomographic correlations of 220 patients with neurocisticercosis, Bahia, Brazil

    Antônio de Souza Andrade-Filho; Luiz Frederico da Silva Figuerôa; Victor Mascarenhas Andrade-Souza

    2007-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common parasitic disease in our region, presenting diversity of neurological symptoms and signs. The present study has as primary objective an evaluation of the NCC's clinical and epidemiological profile within Bahia State, by means of a prospective study of 220 patients diagnosed from March 1988 to March 1999, with a follow-up of six months. Exams, such as Computed Cranial Tomography Scan (CT), Cerebral Spine Fluid (CSF) and Electroencephalogram (EEG), were acco...

  17. Clinical tomographic correlations of 220 patients with neurocisticercosis, Bahia, Brazil.

    Andrade-Filho, Antônio de Souza; Figuerôa, Luiz Frederico da Silva; Andrade-Souza, Victor Mascarenhas

    2007-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common parasitic disease in our region, presenting diversity of neurological symptoms and signs. The present study has as primary objective an evaluation of the NCC's clinical and epidemiological profile within Bahia State, by means of a prospective study of 220 patients diagnosed from March 1988 to March 1999, with a follow-up of six months. Exams, such as Computed Cranial Tomography Scan (CT), Cerebral Spine Fluid (CSF) and Electroencephalogram (EEG), were accomplished in three distinct moments of these patients' evolution: at starting or diagnostic point (zero time), at after-intervention period (one month after treatment), and at control period (six months after treatment). PMID:17625739

  18. Clinical tomographic correlations of 220 patients with neurocisticercosis, Bahia, Brazil

    Antônio de Souza Andrade-Filho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is a common parasitic disease in our region, presenting diversity of neurological symptoms and signs. The present study has as primary objective an evaluation of the NCC's clinical and epidemiological profile within Bahia State, by means of a prospective study of 220 patients diagnosed from March 1988 to March 1999, with a follow-up of six months. Exams, such as Computed Cranial Tomography Scan (CT, Cerebral Spine Fluid (CSF and Electroencephalogram (EEG, were accomplished in three distinct moments of these patients' evolution: at starting or diagnostic point (zero time, at after-intervention period (one month after treatment, and at control period (six months after treatment.

  19. A new sample of quasars to B = 22.0

    Data for a new sample of optically selected quasars are presented. The 'standard' multicolour technique for selecting quasar candidates has been applied to all the objects brighter than J = 22.0 in a field of 0.69 deg2. Additional candidates have been selected from a search on grism plates obtained in the same area and through a variability analysis on two sets of plates taken one year apart from each other. Slit spectroscopy for all the high priority candidates brighter than J 20.9 has provided a sample of 23 confirmed quasars. Within this magnitude limit colour and grism selections have been about equally successful in selecting quasars. (author)

  20. Compact source resolution and rapid variability in Arp220

    Batejat, Fabien; Conway, John E.; Diamond, Philip J.; Parra, Rodrigo; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Lonsdale, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    We present multi-epoch global VLBI observations at 2 cm, 3.6 cm and 6 cm of the compact radio sources in Arp220. We resolve many sources and estimate sizes, expansion velocities and source classes. We find most source properties are consistent with them being either radio supernovae (SNe) or supernova remnants (SNRs). We extend the luminosity-diameter relation for SNRs to very small sources and argue this supports models where shell magnetic fields are internally amplified. We also detect one...

  1. Novel Kidins220/ARMS Splice Isoforms: Potential Specific Regulators of Neuronal and Cardiovascular Development.

    Nathalie Schmieg

    Full Text Available Kidins220/ARMS is a transmembrane protein playing a crucial role in neuronal and cardiovascular development. Kidins220/ARMS is a downstream target of neurotrophin receptors and interacts with several signalling and trafficking factors. Through computational modelling, we found two potential sites for alternative splicing of Kidins220/ARMS. The first is located between exon 24 and exon 29, while the second site replaces exon 32 by a short alternative terminal exon 33. Here we describe the conserved occurrence of several Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms at RNA and protein levels. Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms display spatio-temporal regulation during development with distinct patterns in different neuronal populations. Neurotrophin receptor stimulation in cortical and hippocampal neurons and neuroendocrine cells induces specific Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms and alters the appearance kinetics of the full-length transcript. Remarkably, alternative terminal exon splicing generates Kidins220/ARMS variants with distinct cellular localisation: Kidins220/ARMS containing exon 32 is targeted to the plasma membrane and neurite tips, whereas Kidins220/ARMS without exon 33 mainly clusters the full-length protein in a perinuclear intracellular compartment in PC12 cells and primary neurons, leading to a change in neurotrophin receptor expression. Overall, this study demonstrates the existence of novel Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms with unique properties, revealing additional complexity in the functional regulation of neurotrophin receptors, and potentially other signalling pathways involved in neuronal and cardiovascular development.

  2. TO-220FS封装产品的研发和制造%TO-220FS Production Development and Manufacture

    张华洪; 鄢胜虎

    2011-01-01

    文章分析了TO-220FS封装产品的内部特点,深入研究对比传统全包封产品内部结构特点情况,介绍产品的工艺流程和过程中出现的各种技术难点,通过原因分析并采取相应的措施,顺利地解决了这些问题。同时根据产品结构特点,在解决问题的同时给出了TO-220FS大批量生产时的工艺条件、工艺技术、改造设备的技术要点,攻克了塑封针孔、去料道、电镀镀层结合不良、剪切拉筋、绝缘测试等问题,顺利地实现了批量生产。装配后产品技术指示达到国际先进水平,产品质量稳定。%This document analyzes the TO-220FS packaged product internal features,in-depth study in comparing the traditional features of the internal structure of the whole encapsulation products.It introduces products and processes that occur to meet a variety of technical difficulty,and take appropriate measures to successfully address these problems by cause analysis.And according to product structure problem-solving at the same time,the document also gives the TO-220FS process conditions,technology,equipment renewal of the technical points in mass production,It solves the problem of the pinhole,deruner,less combine for plating,tendon pull in trimming process,isolation testing etc.,after reading this document and applying the technology,the mass production can be successfully realized,the assembly technology can be reached the international advanced level of technology,product quality is steady,and customer can be very satisfied.

  3. Operating experiences and fuel management in 220 MWe PHWRs

    India has obtained an experience of more than 100 FPYs in operation of 220 MWe PHWRs. RAPS-1 was the first PHWR commissioned and KGS-3 is the latest one which is commissioned in March, 2007. The operational experiences obtained over the years were very useful and has increased our confidence in design and operating 220 MWe PHWRs. The experience and expertise generated is being successfully utilized in smooth functioning of our reactors. Few incidents that took place in some of our reactors were analyzed thoroughly and required corrective measures were implemented, if called for. Lessons learnt from such incidents were gainfully utilized to improve the overall performance of our reactors. Fuel management is one of the most important task site physicist has to perform. It bears both economical and safety implications. Site physicists put best efforts to optimize the fuel utilization without violating fuel safety limits in operating the units at desired power levels. The contribution of fuel charges in the revenue earned works out to be about 17 to 20% which influence the profit margins significantly. Various off normal conditions like operation with stuck rods, wet/dry quarantined channels, internal/external recycling of low burn up fuel bundles in/from the reactor going for En mass coolant channel replacement (EMCCR) and operation at peaked flux etc. have been faced successfully by employing systematic approach in fuel management. Based on the requirement different types of fuel bundles apart from normal Natural uranium (NU) bundles have been successfully used viz. Depleted uranium (DU), deeply depleted uranium (DDU), thoria, mix oxide of uranium and plutonium (MOX-7) etc. The fuel performance has improved significantly in all these years. Presently all our units are operating with negligible 131I activity in the Primary heat transport (PHT) system (less than 2 μCi/1) which has helped in reducing the Man-Rem consumption because of lower core contaminations. In this

  4. CPU timing routines for a CONVEX C220 computer system

    Bynum, Mary Ann

    1989-01-01

    The timing routines available on the CONVEX C220 computer system in the Structural Mechanics Division (SMD) at NASA Langley Research Center are examined. The function of the timing routines, the use of the timing routines in sequential, parallel, and vector code, and the interpretation of the results from the timing routines with respect to the CONVEX model of computing are described. The timing routines available on the SMD CONVEX fall into two groups. The first group includes standard timing routines generally available with UNIX 4.3 BSD operating systems, while the second group includes routines unique to the SMD CONVEX. The standard timing routines described in this report are /bin/csh time,/bin/time, etime, and ctime. The routines unique to the SMD CONVEX are getinfo, second, cputime, toc, and a parallel profiling package made up of palprof, palinit, and palsum.

  5. FLAC (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua), Version 2.20

    FLAC (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua), Version 2.20, is a two-dimensional, large-strain, explicit finite difference code written for analysis of problems in geotechnical engineering. FLAC has the ability to perform static mechanical analyses as well as transient heat transfer and fluid flow simulations. Various constitutive models are available to describe linear and non-linear response of the solid. Coupling can be performed between the thermal and mechanical, as well as the fluid and mechanical, models. The following report presents the documentation specified in NUREG-0856, Documentation of Computer Codes for High Level Waste Management. The documentation is presented in three volumes. Volume 1 contains the mathematical basis for the various aspects of the code; Volume 2 is the code User's Manual, and Volume 3 presents FLAC verification, example and benchmark problems. 5 refs., 81 figs., 3 tabs

  6. 222Rn + 220Rn monitoring by alpha spectrometry

    Controlled 222Rn + 220Rn mixed atmospheres have been realised introducing calibrated sources in a stainless steel chamber. An electrostatic alpha monitor internal to the chamber has been used for an accurate discrimination of alpha peaks due to the products of the two isotopes. In the chamber, different specific activities are achieved in order to test the response of the internal reference instrument and to evaluate the possible interferences due to contemporary presence of both radon isotopes. Results show that: (i) the atmospheres are very stable, (ii) the monitor is adequate for their control because the various alpha lines are well evaluated and (iii) using TyvekR filter, the efficiency of monitor is stable and constant vs. activity. (authors)

  7. Dicty_cDB: VHC220 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 680, mRNA sequence. 62 3e-19 3 EH756438 |EH756438.1 CNSL15450.b1_C23.ab1 CNS(LMS) yellow starthistle Centaurea solstitialis...tle Centaurea solstitialis cDNA clone CNSS17210, mRNA seque...nce. 68 3e-15 2 EH787453 |EH787453.1 CNSS27480.b1_O06.ab1 CNS(LMS) yellow starthistle Centaurea solstitialis...rial 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for VHC220 is nuc 5' end...-72 CR382137_378( CR382137 |pid:none) Debaryomyces hansenii strain CBS... 273 4e-72 FM992695_260( FM992695 |pid:none) Candi

  8. 一种220 GHz滤波器的设计%A novel design for 220 GHz filter

    吴中川

    2013-01-01

      A filter with conventional air-filled rectangular waveguide inductive-iris structure is introduced for terahertz application. The filter adopts a tri-layer structure(glass-silicon-ceramic). The silicon wafer shapes the structure of inductive-iris, and the sheet glass and the sheet ceramic are bonded to the silicon wafer to form the sealed resonator. The filter is fabricated by VLSI(Very Large Scale Integration) technology including trench etching, surface metallization, anodic bonding, Au-Si eutectic bonding and dicing process. The fabrication processes are analyzed to optimize the dimensions of the filter. A filter is assembled and measured by using a signal source with up-converter and a spectrum analyzer with down-converter. And the measurement result matches the simulation result well.%  基于电感膜片矩形波导滤波器设计方法和加工流程,设计了一个220 GHz 带通滤波器。滤波器采用玻璃片—硅片—陶瓷片结构,由硅片形成电感膜片结构,玻璃片、陶瓷片键合在硅片上形成闭合的谐振腔,采用集成电路的制作工艺,在加工前分析了工艺特性,优化了滤波器尺寸,避免工艺对滤波器关键尺寸的影响。采用信号源、功率计进行测试,测试结果表明,滤波器在220 GHz具有通带特性,带内损耗约为7 dB。

  9. 49 CFR 220.315 - Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices. 220.315 Section 220.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices §...

  10. 46 CFR 179.220 - Location of watertight bulkheads for subdivision.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of watertight bulkheads for subdivision. 179.220 Section 179.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) SUBDIVISION, DAMAGE STABILITY, AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY Subdivision and Damage Stability Requirements §...

  11. 45 CFR 400.220 - Counting time-eligibility of refugees.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Counting time-eligibility of refugees. 400.220 Section 400.220 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT...

  12. 40 CFR 436.220 - Applicability; description of the bentonite subcategory.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the bentonite subcategory. 436.220 Section 436.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  13. 25 CFR 170.220 - What is the Population Adjustment Factor?

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the Population Adjustment Factor? 170.220 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Population Adjustment Factor § 170.220 What is the Population Adjustment Factor? The Population Adjustment Factor (PAF) is a special portion of...

  14. 24 CFR 220.252 - Forbearance of foreclosure and assignment of mortgage.

    2010-04-01

    ... assignment of mortgage. 220.252 Section 220.252 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL...

  15. 33 CFR 104.220 - Company or vessel personnel with security duties.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company or vessel personnel with security duties. 104.220 Section 104.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Company or vessel personnel with security duties. Company and vessel personnel responsible for...

  16. 12 CFR 220.123 - Partial delayed issue contracts covering nonconvertible bonds.

    2010-01-01

    ... simultaneously. In instances of this kind, institutional investors (e.g., insurance companies or pension funds... such credit (1968 Federal Reserve Bulletin 328; 12 CFR 207.101; ¶ 6800 Published Interpretations of the... obligations of both become fixed. (f) Section 220.7(a) of the Board's Regulation T (12 CFR 220.7(a)), with...

  17. 49 CFR 179.220-24 - Tests of pressure relief valves.

    2010-10-01

    ...-24 Tests of pressure relief valves. Each safety relief valve must be tested by air or gas for... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief valves. 179.220-24 Section 179.220-24 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND...

  18. 20 CFR 220.127 - When the only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor.

    2010-04-01

    ... only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor. (a) Arduous work. Arduous work is primarily physical work requiring a high level of strength or endurance. The Board will consider the claimant unable... unskilled physical labor. 220.127 Section 220.127 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD...

  19. A study of indoor 220Rn and 222Rn decay product concentrations in the UK

    In order to gain a better understanding of the risk of human exposure to 220Rn indoors, measurements of Rn decay products have been performed in a number of houses in England. The study focused mainly on areas where above-average indoor 220Rn concentrations were to be expected because of geological or other factors. Thoron (220Rn) in room air comes mainly from the building materials, with an additional contribution from soil gas; therefore, 220Rn concentrations were examined in relation to building materials as well as location. Measurements were carried out in 23 houses. The mean equilibrium equivalent 220Rn (EET) concentration found was 0.39 Bq m-3 and the mean equilibrium equivalent 222Rn (EER) concentration was 17.8 Bq m-3. The 220Rn concentration values and EET/EER ratios found in this investigation correspond well with other published results. Values imply that the 220Rn concentrations in English dwellings are a far less important problem than 220Rn concentrations. (authors)

  20. ALMA Resolves the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

    Scoville, Nick; Walter, Fabian; Vlahakis, Catherine; Koda, Jin; Bout, Paul Vanden; Barnes, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars; Sheth, Kartik; Yun, Min; Sanders, David; Armus, Lee; Cox, Pierre; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Zschaechner, Laura; Tacconi, Linda; Torrey, Paul; Hayward, Christopher C; Genzel, Reinhard; Hopkins, Phil; van der Werf, Paul; Decarli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present 90 mas (37 pc) resolution ALMA imaging of Arp 220 in the CO (1-0) line and continuum at $\\lambda = 2.6$ mm. The internal gas distribution and kinematics of both galactic nuclei are well-resolved for the first time.In the more luminous West nucleus, the major gas and dust emission extends to 0.2\\arcsec radius (80 pc); the central resolution element shows a strong peak in the dust emission but a factor 3 dip in the CO line emission. In this nucleus, the dust is apparently optically thick ($\\tau_{\\rm 2.6mm} \\sim1$) at $\\lambda = 2.6$ mm with a dust emission brightness temperature $\\sim120$ K. The column of ISM at this nucleus is $\\rm N_{H2} \\geq 2\\times10^{26}$ cm$^{-2}$, corresponding to A$_V = 10^6$ mag and 1000 gr cm$^{-2}$. The East nucleus is somewhat more elongated with radial extent 0.3\\arcsec or $\\sim120$ pc. The derived kinematics of the nuclear disks provide a good fit to the line profiles sampled every 50 mas, yielding the emissivity distributions, the rotation curves and velocity dispersio...

  1. On the solar origin of the 220.7 signal

    Jiménez, A

    2008-01-01

    Gravity modes in the Sun have been long searched during the past decades. Using their asymptotic properties Garcia et al. (2007) found the signature of the dipole g modes analyzing an spectral window between 25 and 140 muHz of velocity power spectrum obtained from the GOLF/SoHO instrument. Using this result it has been possible to check some properties of the structure of the solar interior (Garcia, Mathur & Ballot 2008) as well as some indications on the dynamics of the core. However, the individual detection of such modes remains evasive and they are needed to really improve our knowledge of the deepest layers in the Sun (Mathur et al. 2008). In this work we study the signal at 220.7 muHz which is present in most of the helioseismic instruments during the last 10 years. This signal has been previously identified as part of a g-mode candidate in the GOLF data (Turck-Chieze et al. 2004; Mathur et al. 2007) and in SPM/VIRGO (Garcia et al. 2008) with more than 90% confidence level. It could be labelled as t...

  2. Kidins220/ARMS Is a Novel Modulator of Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity in Hippocampal GABAergic Neurons

    Joachim Scholz-Starke; Fabrizia Cesca; Giampietro Schiavo; Fabio Benfenati; Pietro Baldelli

    2012-01-01

    Kidins220 (Kinase D interacting substrate of 220 kDa)/ARMS (Ankyrin Repeat-rich Membrane Spanning) is a scaffold protein highly expressed in the nervous system. Previous work on neurons with altered Kidins220/ARMS expression suggested that this protein plays multiple roles in synaptic function. In this study, we analyzed the effects of Kidins220/ARMS ablation on basal synaptic transmission and on a variety of short-term plasticity paradigms in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses using a r...

  3. Thoron (220Rn) progeny reduction by an air cleaner of the polarized media filter type

    The effect of an air cleaner on 220Rn progeny atmospheres has been studied in a Radon/Thoron Test Facility (RTTF) of the walk-in type. The air cleaner consists basically of a fan and a special filter material sandwiched between two metal screens, to which an electric field is applied. The filter is of the polarized media type and uses fibreglass as material. The fan and filter system are housed in a metal case. Air is drawn from the back of the case by means of the fan and forced through the 'electrical' filter where removal of the 220Rn progeny occurs. Radon-220 progeny 'depleted' air is discharged at the top of the device. Tests were conducted in 220Rn/220Rn progeny atmospheres when the air cleaner was operating, and when it was turned off. Very pronounced effects were observed during the operation of the device, namely: a dramatic decrease in the 220Rn progeny concentrations and the total aerosol concentration, as well as a large increase in the 220Rn progeny unattached fractions and the plate-out of these radionuclides on the walls of the RTTF. The air cleaner has potential in industrial applications, which should be explored. (orig.)

  4. Nationwide indoor 222Rn and 220Rn map for India: a review

    Considering the role of radon in epidemiology, an attempt was made to make a nation-wide map of indoor 222Rn and 220Rn for India. More than 5000 measurements have been carried out in 1500 dwellings across the country comprising urban and nonurban locations. The solid state nuclear track detectors based twin cup 222Rn/220Rn discrimination dosimeters were deployed for the measurement of indoor 222Rn, 220Rn and their progeny levels. The geometric means of estimated annual inhalation dose rate due to indoor 222Rn, 220Rn and their progeny in the dwellings was 0.94 mSvy-1 (geometric standard deviation 2.5). It was observed that the major contribution to the indoor inhalation dose was due to indoor 222Rn and its progeny. However, the contribution due to indoor 220Rn and its progeny was not trivial as it was found to be about 20% of the total indoor inhalation dose rates. The indoor 222Rn levels in dwellings was significantly different depending on the nature of walls and floorings. - Highlights: → A countrywide survey on 222Rn and 220Rn levels for India was carried out in dwellings. → The regional values are obtained from the data on a few houses in that area. → Calibration factors for the measurements were derived experimentally as well as theoretically. → The 222Rn and 220Rn levels are represented on the maps.

  5. 33 CFR 162.220 - Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. 162.220 Section 162.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.220 Hoover Dam, Lake...

  6. 12 CFR 220.118 - Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special cash account.

    2010-01-01

    ... purchased in a special cash account. 220.118 Section 220.118 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CREDIT BY BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T... to liquidation for nonpayment is that described in § 220.4(c)(2) or that described in §...

  7. 41 CFR 301-10.220 - What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel?

    2010-07-01

    ... meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? 301-10.220 Section 301-10.220 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Government Vehicle Government Automobiles § 301-10.220 What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? You must...

  8. 42 CFR 435.220 - Individuals who would meet the income and resource requirements under AFDC if child care costs...

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements under AFDC if child care costs were paid from earnings. 435.220 Section 435.220 Public Health... § 435.220 Individuals who would meet the income and resource requirements under AFDC if child care costs... under the State's approved AFDC plan if their work-related child care costs were paid from...

  9. Contrasting behavior in octupole structures observed at high spin in 220Ra and 222Th

    Alternating-parity states connected by strong E1 transitions, characteristic of a reflection-asymmetric rotor, have been observed to high spins in the isotones 220Ra and 222Th. This level structure is observed up to Jπ=29-(31-) in 220Ra while it cannot be seen beyond J+=24+(25-) in 222Th. These observations are consistent with Woods-Saxon-Bogolyubov cranking calculations which predict that the yrast band of 222Th will undergo a shape transition at J=24ℎ, in contrast to that of 220Ra which maintains its reflection asymmetry to higher spins

  10. Construction of Prokaryotic Expression Vector for pbv220/NT4-ADNF-9

    ZHENG Guo-xi; ZHU Kang; JING Yang; WEI Jun-rong; ZHU Hong-liang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To construct a prokaryotic expression vector bearing fusion gene NT4-ADNF-9 for future studies on genetic therapies for sensorineural deafness. Methods Double strand ADNF-9 Edna was synthesized using asymmetrical primer/templates and ligated to the 3' terminal of signal and leader peptides of neurotrophin 4 (NT4). The fusion gene NT4-ADNF-9, was subeloned into prokaryotic expression vector Pbv220, and named Pbv220/NT4-ADNF-9. DNA sequence of the fusion gene was analyzed. The fusion protein was isolated by SDS-PAGE and its bioactivity was evaluated using primary culture of day 8 chicken embryonic DRGcells. Results The correct sequence of fusion gene NT4-ADNF-9 was successfully subcloned into the Pbv220 vector. The expressed ADNF-9 protein showed its effects in promoting cell survival and neurite growth. Conclusion Prokaryotic expression vector Pbv220/NT4-ADNF-9 was constructed successfully and the expressed fusion protein demonstrated satisfactory bioactivity.

  11. A 220-kilodalton glycoprotein in yeast extract inhibits Staphylococcus aureus adherence to human endothelial cells.

    Elliott, D.A.; Hatcher, V B; Lowy, F D

    1991-01-01

    A 220-kDa glycoprotein from yeast extract causes a twofold decrease in S. aureus adherence to human endothelial cells in vitro. Medium constituents can have a significant effect on bacterial adherence interactions.

  12. 30 CFR 220.015 - Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions.

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS LEASES § 220.015 Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions. (a... pipe, shall be priced at the current market price in effect on date of movement on a minimum carload...

  13. Electron micrography and x-ray study of dip-lacquered LiF (220)

    Palmari, J.; Rasigni, M.; Rasigni, G.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1991-01-01

    It has been proposed to use the 220 reflection of LiF with a multilayer deposited upon the top for simultaneous spectroscopy near Fe-k and O-k and below the C-k absorption edge (284 eV) in x-ray astronomy. We demonstrate that a substantial reduction of surface roughness is obtained by dip...... lacquering state-of-the-art polished LiF(220) surfaces. Using a microdensitometer analysis of electron micrographs of surface replicas and x-ray reflection, we have measured ∼ 10-Å rms roughness of Au-coated dip-lacquered LiF(220) crystals, as opposed to ∼ 60 Å measured on the bare LiF(220) crystal surface....

  14. Research on measurement method of 220Rn progeny aerosol size distribution

    The method for measuring 220Rn progeny aerosol activity particle size distributions was introduced through ELPI system, α spectroscopy and the energy discrimination method. The different particle sizes of the 220Rn progeny aerosols were collected and the activity size distributions in the 220Rn laboratory of the University of South China were measured by this method. The experiment results show that the activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of ThB aerosol is 237 nm, and that of ThC is 245 nm. The simple and quick method can be used to monitor the particle size distributions of 220Rn progeny aerosol in real time, the aerosol activity size distributions of ThB and ThC can be obtained by this method at the same time, and the measurement accuracy of the energy spectrum is higher than that of custom method. (authors)

  15. Effect of ventilation rate on 220Rn concentration distribution in a model house

    In recent year, the dose associated with thoron and its decay products has gained considerable attention in India. This is mainly due to increasing awareness of thoron issue in coastal regions of India commonly known as High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) as well as in thorium and 232U handling occupational facilities. Thoron profiling is an important aspect for thoron dosimetry in these environments. Thoron (220Rn) is being a short lived (∼ 55 sec) element; it has been presumed that 220Rn concentration distribution pattern would not be significantly affected by ventilation rate. That is why higher value of 220Rn concentration was assumed near to the source such as wall etc. while beyond a particular distance no significant value of 222Rn concentration could be observed. To investigate the effect of ventilation rate on 220Rn concentration distribution, a controlled experimental study was carried out in laboratory model house at ISS, Germany at different ventilation rate of 0.5 h-1, 4.5 h-1 and 9.0 h-1. The model house of dimensions 2.8 m x 1.5 m x 1.8 m has one door and two windows in one of the long sides, is made of from unburned adobe bricks which are plastered with thick clay layer homogeneously enriched with powered granite. For obtaining the 220Rn concentration profile, 220Rn concentration was measured at different positions using sampling cup and indigenously developed portable thoron monitor (STM). It has been observed that 220Rn concentration profile itself varies with the ventilation rate. At the ventilation rate of 0.5 h-1 a gradient in 220Rn concentration profile was observed. 220Rn concentration was found higher near to the wall and decreasing towards the centre. On the contrary, at high ventilation rate of 4.5 h-1 and 9.0 h-1, a distorted 220Rn concentration profile was observed. This is due to the turbulent mixing caused by high ventilation rate. Hence, it can be emphasized that turbulent mixing plays a crucial role in deciding 220Rn

  16. 220D-F2 from Rubus ulmifolius kills Streptococcus pneumoniae planktonic cells and pneumococcal biofilms.

    Sharmila J Talekar

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus forms organized biofilms to persist in the human nasopharynx. This persistence allows the pneumococcus to produce severe diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis that kill nearly a million children every year. While bacteremia and meningitis are mediated by planktonic pneumococci, biofilm structures are present during pneumonia and otitis media. The global emergence of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to most commonly prescribed antibiotics warrants further discovery of alternative therapeutics. The present study assessed the antimicrobial potential of a plant extract, 220D-F2, rich in ellagic acid, and ellagic acid derivatives, against S. pneumoniae planktonic cells and biofilm structures. Our studies first demonstrate that, when inoculated together with planktonic cultures, 220D-F2 inhibited the formation of pneumococcal biofilms in a dose-dependent manner. As measured by bacterial counts and a LIVE/DEAD bacterial viability assay, 100 and 200 µg/ml of 220D-F2 had significant bactericidal activity against pneumococcal planktonic cultures as early as 3 h post-inoculation. Quantitative MIC's, whether quantified by qPCR or dilution and plating, showed that 80 µg/ml of 220D-F2 completely eradicated overnight cultures of planktonic pneumococci, including antibiotic resistant strains. When preformed pneumococcal biofilms were challenged with 220D-F2, it significantly reduced the population of biofilms 3 h post-inoculation. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50 was obtained incubating biofilms with 100 µg/ml of 220D-F2 for 3 h and 6 h of incubation. 220D-F2 also significantly reduced the population of pneumococcal biofilms formed on human pharyngeal cells. Our results demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of 220D-F2 to both kill planktonic pneumococcal cells and disrupt pneumococcal biofilms.

  17. 220D-F2 from Rubus ulmifolius kills Streptococcus pneumoniae planktonic cells and pneumococcal biofilms.

    Talekar, Sharmila J; Chochua, Sopio; Nelson, Katie; Klugman, Keith P; Quave, Cassandra L; Vidal, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) forms organized biofilms to persist in the human nasopharynx. This persistence allows the pneumococcus to produce severe diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis that kill nearly a million children every year. While bacteremia and meningitis are mediated by planktonic pneumococci, biofilm structures are present during pneumonia and otitis media. The global emergence of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to most commonly prescribed antibiotics warrants further discovery of alternative therapeutics. The present study assessed the antimicrobial potential of a plant extract, 220D-F2, rich in ellagic acid, and ellagic acid derivatives, against S. pneumoniae planktonic cells and biofilm structures. Our studies first demonstrate that, when inoculated together with planktonic cultures, 220D-F2 inhibited the formation of pneumococcal biofilms in a dose-dependent manner. As measured by bacterial counts and a LIVE/DEAD bacterial viability assay, 100 and 200 µg/ml of 220D-F2 had significant bactericidal activity against pneumococcal planktonic cultures as early as 3 h post-inoculation. Quantitative MIC's, whether quantified by qPCR or dilution and plating, showed that 80 µg/ml of 220D-F2 completely eradicated overnight cultures of planktonic pneumococci, including antibiotic resistant strains. When preformed pneumococcal biofilms were challenged with 220D-F2, it significantly reduced the population of biofilms 3 h post-inoculation. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC)50 was obtained incubating biofilms with 100 µg/ml of 220D-F2 for 3 h and 6 h of incubation. 220D-F2 also significantly reduced the population of pneumococcal biofilms formed on human pharyngeal cells. Our results demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of 220D-F2 to both kill planktonic pneumococcal cells and disrupt pneumococcal biofilms. PMID:24823499

  18. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YOR220W, YGL112C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Full Text Available YOR220W RCN2 Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localiz ... prey as prey (2) Rows with this prey as bait (1) 5 42 ... 3 5 0 0 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 3 - Show YOR220W Bait ... ature on bait (YPD) 5 Literature on prey (YPD) 42 ... Literature shared by bait and prey 3 Literature sh ...

  19. Dynamic interaction of p220NPAT and CBP/p300 promotes S-phase entry

    Cajal bodies contain cyclin E/cdk2 and the substrate p220NPAT to regulate the transcription of histones, which is essential for cell proliferation, however, recent mouse knockout studies indicate that cyclin E and cdk2 are dispensable for these events. Because the CBP/p300 histone acetyltransferase are also known to be involved in cell proliferation, we examined the molecular and functional interactions of p220NPAT with the CBP/p300 at the G1/S boundary as cell cycle regulators. The subnuclear localization of p220NPAT and CBP/p300 proteins showed that their foci partially overlapped in a cell cycle dependent manner. Overexpression of p220NPAT and CBP/p300 cooperatively enhanced G1/S transition and DNA synthesis even without cdk2 phosphorylation site. Finally, molecular alignment analysis indicated that p220NPAT contains several potential substrate sites for CBP/p300. Overall, our findings demonstrate that p220NPAT and CBP/p300 form a transient complex at the G1/S boundary to play cooperative roles to promote the S-phase entry

  20. 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in soil gas of Karkonosze-Izera Block (Sudetes, Poland)

    Soil gas 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations were measured at 18 locations in the Karkonosze-Izera Block area in southwestern Poland. Measurements were carried out in surface air and at sampling depths of 10, 40 and 80 cm. Surface air 222Rn concentrations ranged from 4 to 2160 Bq m-3 and 220Rn ranged from 4 to 228 Bq m-3. The concentrations for 10 and 40 cm varied from 142 Bq m-3 to 801 kBq m-3 and 102 Bq m-3 to 64 kBq m-3 for 222Rn and 220Rn, respectively. At 80 cm 222Rn concentrations ranged from 94 Bq m-3 to >1 MBq m-3. The 220Rn concentrations at 80 cm varied from 45 Bq m-3 to 48 kBq m-3. The concentration versus depth profiles for 222Rn differed for soils developed on fault zones, uranium deposits or both. Atmospheric air temperature and soil gas 222Rn and 220Rn were negatively correlated. At sampling sites with steep slopes, 220Rn concentrations decreased with depth

  1. Horizontal and vertical distribution of 222Rn and 220Rn in a dwelling, Bangalore, India

    The 222Rn and 220Rn have been identified as potential radiological health hazards and the dose estimation due to their exposure is an important task. Understanding their behavior in indoor environment helps in calculating the inhalation doses due to them. Effective doses due to inhalation of indoor 222Rn and its progeny account on an average for about one-half of all natural sources of radiation. However, recently the indoor surveys in Asia revealed that the dose contribution from 220Rn and its progeny can be equal to or even exceed that of 222Rn and its progeny. In view of this an attempt has been made to observe the distribution of 222Rn and 220Rn levels in a typical dwelling for the environment of Bangalore Metropolitan, India. Present study aims at the distribution of 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in a typical dwelling. Higher concentrations were observed at the wall and flooring of the room and the concentrations were found to decrease as the detector is moved away from walls and floorings. The concentration of 222Rn is found to be invariant in indoor environment. An attempt has also been made to study the horizontal and vertical distribution pattern of 220Rn in a dwelling. The 220Rn concentration is found to drop exponentially as a function of distance from the source (wall/floor). Solution of one dimensional diffusion equation is used for regression fittings for 220Rn variation, from which the diffusion constants and the exhalation rates were calculated. The diffusion constants varied from 0.00195 to 0.00540 m2s-1. Results are discussed in detail

  2. 222Rn, 220Rn and their progeny concentrations in offices in Hong Kong

    An active sampling system using charcoal canisters and an HPGe γ-spectrometer was employed to survey 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in 65 offices in Hong Kong, and a traditional method was used to record simultaneously the potential α-energy concentrations (PAEC) of 222Rn and 220Rn progeny at the same sites. The mean values of gas concentration, PAEC and equilibrium factor for 222Rn were 48±32 Bq m-3, 5.2±5.1 mWL and 0.38±0.13, respectively, and the corresponding values for 220Rn were 14±7 Bq m-3, 2.7±2.1 mWL and 0.050±0.016. These values were in general higher than those in dwellings in Hong Kong, which was due to the poorer fresh air exchange in offices. Factors affecting the concentrations of 222Rn, 220Rn and their progeny were also studied. The type of air conditioners and the indoor and outdoor temperature difference show some effects on 222Rn, 220Rn and progeny concentrations, while rainfall and relative humidity affect only the progeny concentrations

  3. Decreased expression of thyroid receptor-associated protein 220 in temporal lobe tissue of patients with refractory epilepsy

    Purpose: TRAP220 (thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein) functions as a coactivator for nuclear receptors and stimulates transcription by recruiting the TRAP mediator complex to hormone responsive promoter regions. Thus, TRAP220 enhances the function of thyroid/steroid hormone receptors such as thyroid hormone and oestrogen receptors. This study investigated the expression of TRAP220 mRNA and protein level in epileptic brains comparing with human control. Methods: We examined the expression of TRAP220 mRNA and protein levels in temporal lobes from patients with chronic pharmacoresistant epilepsy who have undergone surgery. Results: Expression of TRAP220 mRNA and protein was shown to be decreased significantly in the temporal cortex of the patients with epilepsy. Conclusions: Our work showed that a decrease in TRAP220 mRNA and protein levels may be involved in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and may be associated with impairment of the brain caused by frequent seizures

  4. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive blue 220 textile dye by Lentinus crinitus extracellular extract.

    Niebisch, Carolina Heyse; Malinowski, Alexandre Knoll; Schadeck, Ruth; Mitchell, David A; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Paba, Jaime

    2010-08-15

    Studies were carried on the decolorization of the textile dye reactive blue 220 (RB220) by a novel isolate of Lentinus crinitus fungi. The optimal conditions for the production of destaining activity were obtained in media containing intermediate concentrations of ammonium oxalate and glucose (10 g L(-1)) as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, at 28 degrees C and pH 5.5. Maximum decolorization efficiency against RB220 achieved in this study was around 95%. Ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric analyses, before and after decolorization, suggest that decolorization was due to biodegradation. This effect was associated with a putative low molecular weight laccase (41 kDa) displaying good tolerance to a wide range of pH values, salt concentrations and temperatures, suggesting a potential role for this organism in the remediation of real dye containing effluents. PMID:20452721

  5. Peak tailing correction in measurement of 222Rn/220Rn activity concentration with α spectrum method

    α spectrum method is one of the most important methods in measurement of 222Rn/220Rn concentration in environment. However, the peak tailing from high energy particles is an obstacle for accurate measurement. To improve the accuracy of measurement, study on the mechanism and effect of the tailing were carried out, and calibrating experiments on peak tailing correction factors were also realized using ERS-2 monitor. The peak tailing correction factors and calibration factors of 222Rn and 220Rn were measured by experiment and their accuracy were also tested. It is suggested that during calibrating α spectrum monitor of 222Rn/220Rn activity concentration, the peak tailing correction and calibration factors should be recalibrated if necessary. (authors)

  6. Frequency stability of InP HBT over 0.2 to 220 GHz

    Zhijiang, Zhou; Kun, Ren; Jun, Liu; Wei, Cheng; Haiyan, Lu; Lingling, Sun

    2015-02-01

    The frequency stabilities of InP DHBTs in a broadband over 1 to 220 GHz are investigated. A hybrid π-topology small-signal model is used to accurately capture the parasitics of devices. The model parameters are extracted from measurements analytically. The investigation results show that the excellent agreement between the measured and simulated data is obtained in the frequency range 200 MHz to 220 GHz. The dominant parameters of the π-topology model, bias conditions and emitter area have significant effects on the stability factor K. The HBT model can be unconditionally stable by reasonable selection of the proper bias condition and the physical layout of the device.

  7. An extensive indoor 222Rn/220Rn monitoring in North-East India

    The behaviour of ubiquitous radon (Rn222), thoron (Rn220) and their progeny in the indoor atmosphere generally reflect a complex interplay between a number of processes, the most important of which are radioactive α-decay, ventilation, attachment to aerosols and deposition on the surfaces. The present work involved a long-term (1997-2000) passive monitoring of Rn222 and Rn220 in the indoor environment of the North-Eastern region of India. This region being a zone of high seismicity, the indoor radon and thoron measurement of the region will provide a better insight and a valuable database for any study related to radon and thoron anomalies

  8. 220kV单相牵引变压器短路阻抗数值仿真计算%Numerical Simulation and Calculation of Short Circuit Impedance of 220kV Single-Phase Traction Transformer

    侯世勇; 董景义; 李杰; 段玉柱

    2011-01-01

    The short circuit impedance of 220kV single-phase traction transformer is simulated and calculated with field-circuit coupling method.%采用场-路耦合方法对220kV单相牵引变压器短路阻抗进行了仿真计算。

  9. Clincical Observation Effects of YGCu220 IUD Intrauterine Device(IUD)%活性元宫药铜220宫内节育器临床观察效果

    罗莉

    2010-01-01

    目的:系统评价元宫药铜220宫内节育器的安全性、有效性.方法:选择自愿放置IUD 1350例,随机分成4组:元宫药铜220 IUD、TCu220 IUD、宫药铜200 IUD、MLCu375 IUD,并进行24个月随访.结果:活性元宫药铜220型IUD妊娠率12个月以前与对照组接近,置器24个月内优于对照组,元宫药铜220 IUD和宫药铜200 IUD副反应小,因症取出率低,较其他两种TCu220 IUD和MLCu375 IUD差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),累积续用率元宫药铜220型IUD 24个月达到98.14%,明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:元宫药铜220型IUD是一种副反应小、续用率高、避孕效果好的节育器,可在体内长期放置,值得临床推广使用.

  10. 30 CFR 220.020 - Calculation of the allowance for capital recovery.

    2010-07-01

    ... the capital recovery factor, and shall be debited to the NPSL capital account as specified in § 220... recovery factor. The negative product of this calculation shall be debited to the NPSL capital account as... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of the allowance for...

  11. 20 CFR 220.130 - Work experience as a vocational factor.

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Vocational Considerations § 220.130 Work experience as a vocational factor. (a) General—Work experience means skills and abilities the claimant has acquired through work he... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work experience as a vocational factor....

  12. 20 CFR 220.161 - How work affects an employee disability annuity.

    2010-04-01

    ... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Annuity Earnings Restrictions § 220.161 How work... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How work affects an employee disability... employee earns more than $400 (after deduction of impairment-related work expenses) in employment or...

  13. 20 CFR 220.29 - Work that is considered substantial gainful activity.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work that is considered substantial gainful... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Under the Railroad Retirement Act for Any Regular Employment § 220.29 Work that is considered substantial gainful activity. Work is considered to...

  14. 20 CFR 220.15 - Effects of work on occupational disability.

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Under the Railroad Retirement Act for Work in an Employee's Regular Railroad Occupation § 220.15 Effects of work on occupational disability. (a) Disability onset when... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effects of work on occupational...

  15. Determination of activity of the 222-Rn and 220-Rn in the air aerosols

    The accumulation filter method at aerosol sampling stations in Bratislava was used. For the measurement of the accumulated total activity of the daughter products of the nuclides (Rn-222, Rn-220 of the U-238 and Th-232) natural decay series on the filters a low level alpha-beta proportional detector was used

  16. 20 CFR 405.220 - Decision by the Federal reviewing official.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decision by the Federal reviewing official... PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Review of Initial Determinations by a Federal Reviewing Official § 405.220 Decision by the Federal reviewing official. (a) The Federal reviewing official will...

  17. CFD based simulation of thoron ((220)Rn) concentration in a delay chamber for mitigation application.

    Agarwal, T K; Sahoo, B K; Gaware, J J; Joshi, M; Sapra, B K

    2014-10-01

    The release of (220)Rn gas (conventionally referred to as thoron) is an issue of concern from the radiological point of view for occupational environments pertaining to the thorium fuel cycle. Studies for understanding its release and developing systems to control it are crucial for exposure control research. A thorough study of the "Delay Volume Technique" for mitigation of (220)Rn has been carried out. Experiments have been carried out with (220)Rn source and associated measurement system in a cubical chamber (delay chamber) of 0.5 m(3) volume. For different flow conditions and inlet-outlet positions, (220)Rn transmission factor has been obtained. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique has been employed for these experimental conditions and the simulated transmission factors have been compared. The results show that the flow and the position of the inlet and outlet play an imperative role in the transportation, mixing and subsequent mitigation of thoron inside the chamber. Predictive capability of CFD technique for such delay volume experiments has been validated in this work. A comparison has been made with uniform mixing model and it is found that the results of simulation differ appreciably from that of uniform mixing model at the tested flow regime. PMID:24860913

  18. 49 CFR 220.49 - Radio communication used in shoving, backing or pushing movements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio communication used in shoving, backing or... Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.49 Radio communication used in shoving, backing or pushing movements. When radio communication is used in connection with the shoving, backing or pushing of a...

  19. Measurement of the indoor and outdoor 220Rn (thoron) equilibrium factor: Application to lung dose

    A miniature four-chamber alpha track detector was developed that measures both 222Rn (radon) and 220Rn (thoron), in duplicate. Using this detector and the previous long-term measurements of the 220Rn decay products 212Pb, and 212Bi, an equilibrium factor, Feq, is derived for both outdoor and indoor 220Rn environments (0.004+0.001 outdoors and 0.04+0.01 indoors). The lung airway dose can then be calculated from a dose factor from UNSCEAR that requires the equilibrium equivalent thoron concentration (EEC), i.e. the product of Feq and the 220Rn gas concentration. The lung dose from thoron in domestic or occupational surveys is often overlooked. The values of Feq for thoron in several published studies are in general agreement with the values reported here. Thus, a long-term alpha track measurement of thoron multiplied by an appropriate indoor or outdoor equilibrium factor yields the EEC, which can be used to assess bronchial lung dose. (authors)

  20. 20 CFR 220.11 - Definitions as used in this subpart.

    2010-04-01

    ... capacity evaluations which provide a systematic comprehensive assessment of a claimant's overall strength, mobility, endurance and capacity to perform physically demanding tasks, such as standing, walking, lifting... Occupation § 220.11 Definitions as used in this subpart. Functional capacity test means one of a number...

  1. 49 CFR 173.220 - Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal...

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal combustion engines, and battery powered vehicles or... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.220 Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles,...

  2. 12 CFR 220.101 - Transactions of customers who are brokers or dealers.

    2010-01-01

    ... whether it is sufficient if the broker-dealer customer, “as promptly as practicable in accordance with the... effect, whether the limitations of § 220.4(c)(8) apply to the account of a customer who is himself a... the type of customer. (c) The third question was, in effect, whether a purchase and a sale of...

  3. 33 CFR 96.220 - What makes up a safety management system?

    2010-07-01

    ... Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.220 What makes up a safety management system? (a) The safety management system must document the responsible person's— (1) Safety and pollution prevention...) Reporting responsibilities. (b) A safety management system must also be consistent with the...

  4. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided with heavy-duty hinges and locking-devices to prevent accidental opening in heavy weather. (b) Each...

  5. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YGL220W, YDR098C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Full Text Available YGL220W FRA2 Protein involved in negative regulation of transcription of iron ... regulon; forms an ... 2p, Grx3p, and Grx4p; null mutant fails to repress iron ... regulon and is sensitive to nickel Rows with this ... nvolved in negative regulation of transcription of iron ... regulon; forms an iron ... independent complex with Fr ...

  6. 49 CFR 220.43 - Radio communications consistent with federal regulations and railroad operating rules.

    2010-10-01

    ... Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.43 Radio communications consistent with federal regulations and railroad operating rules. Radio communication shall not be used in connection with a railroad... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio communications consistent with...

  7. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    2010-10-01

    ... Communication Procedures § 220.21 Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping. (a) The operating rules of each railroad with respect to radio communications shall conform to the requirements of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio...

  8. Calibration of gamma cell 220 excel irradiator using Fricke and alanine dosimeters

    Using of gamma cell 220 excel irradiators is widely spread in many countries. This type of irradiators is being used for research purposes. Gamma cell 220 excel was provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to the radiation processing laboratory of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC). It is a self-contained gamma irradiator and self shielded, this makes it operates safely. Dose calibration for this cell is important for samples irradiation. In this work, a dosimetry system for the GC220E of SAEC was established using Fricke dosimeter. Fricke dosimeter has a confidence 95% in the rang not exceed 400 Gy. To establish routine dosimetry at high doses up to 5000 Gy, alanine dosimeter was used. This range can demonstrate the ability of GC220E to deliver known controllable doses in reproducible manner for high doses. The irradiation specifications often include a lower and upper limit of absorbed dose or central target dose. Absorbed dose mapping was carried out by both dosimeters to determine the magnitude and locations of D.max and D.min in the irradiation chamber. The results are in good agreement with dose distribution given in the machine manual. A comparison between the tow dosimeters was done and explained.(Author)

  9. ALMA Imaging of HCN, CS and dust in Arp 220 and NGC 6240

    Scoville, Nick; Walter, Fabian; Manohar, Swarnima; Zschaechner, Laura; Yun, Min; Koda, Jin; Sanders, David; Murchikova, Lena; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Genzel, Reinhard; Hernquist, Lars; Tacconi, Linda; Brown, Robert; Narayanan, Desika; Hayward, Christopher C; Barnes, Joshua; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Davies, Richard; van der Werf, Paul; Fomalont, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We report ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz) imaging at 0.4 - 0.6arcsec resolution and Band 9 (696 GHz) at ~0.25arcsec resolution of the luminous IR galaxies Arp 220 and NGC 6240. The long wavelength dust continuum is used to estimate ISM masses for Arp 220 East, West and NGC 6240 of 1.9, 4.2 and 1.6x10^9 msun within radii of 69, 65 and 190 pc. The HCN emission was modeled to derive the emissivity distribution as a function of radius and the kinematics of each nuclear disk, yielding dynamical masses consistent with the masses and sizes derived from the dust emission. In Arp 220, the major dust and gas concentrations are at radii less than 50 pc in both counter-rotating nuclear disks. The thickness of the disks in Arp 220estimated from the velocity dispersion and rotation velocities are 10-20 pc and the mean gas densities are n_H2 ~10^5 cm^-3 at R < 50 pc. We develop an analytic treatment for the molecular excitation (including photon trapping), yielding volume densities for both the HCN and CS emission with n_H2 ~2x10^...

  10. 30 CFR 220.011 - Schedule of allowable direct and allocable joint costs and credits.

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE... percent of the sales price of the property sold. (iii) Section 220.013(g) specifies employee relocation..., profit share payments, and taxes based upon income, that are assessed or levied upon or in...

  11. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment...

  12. 77 FR 68768 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act; Notice of...

    2012-11-16

    ... Commission Meeting Room at 888 First Street NE., Washington, DC 20426. \\1\\ Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act, Order No. 768, 77 FR 61896 (Oct. 11, 2012), FERC Stats... Energy Regulatory Commission Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the...

  13. 12 CFR 220.127 - Independent broker/dealers arranging credit in connection with the sale of insurance premium...

    2010-01-01

    ... connection with the sale of insurance premium funding programs. 220.127 Section 220.127 Banks and Banking... with the sale of insurance premium funding programs. (a) The Board's September 5, 1972, clarifying... engaged in the sale and arranging of credit in connection with such insurance premium funding programs....

  14. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    2010-07-01

    ... regarding tort liability. In addition, the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of...

  15. 20 CFR 220.187 - If the annuitant's medical recovery was expected and the annuitant returned to work.

    2010-04-01

    ... expected and the annuitant returned to work. 220.187 Section 220.187 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... recovery was expected and the annuitant returned to work. If the annuitant's impairment was expected to improve and the annuitant returned to full-time work with no significant medical limitations...

  16. 20 CFR 627.220 - Coordination with programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant...

    2010-04-01

    ... the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. 627.220 Section 627.220 Employees' Benefits... of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. (a) Coordination. Financial assistance programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA) (the Pell Grant program,...

  17. 42 CFR 436.220 - Individuals who would meet the income and resource requirements under AFDC if child care costs...

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements under AFDC if child care costs were paid from earnings. 436.220 Section 436.220 Public Health... AFDC if child care costs were paid from earnings. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid to any group or... resource requirements under the State's AFDC plan if their work-related child care costs were paid...

  18. Loss of power of a 220 VAC safety bus bar at Embalse NPP

    Embalse nuclear power plant is located at the Cordoba Province, 5 kilometres Southern the town of Embalse. It is equipped with one 600 MWe CANDU reactor. At the time of the event, which occurred on 11 October 2004, the plant was operating normally at full power. The Embalse nuclear power plant electrical power system buses are classified, in reliability decreasing order, into the following four different levels: 1) Class I: uninterrupted direct current supplies for safety related and other essential loads; 2) Class II: uninterrupted alternating current supplies for safety related and other essential loads; 3) Class III: alternating current supplies to essential auxiliaries which can tolerate the short interruption required until to start up and load the on-site standby generators and 4) Class IV: normal alternating current supplies to auxiliaries which can tolerate long duration interruptions without affecting personnel or equipment safety (Class IV is the normal source of power to Class III system). In particular, the Class II 220 VAC uninterrupted monophasic safety bus bars are composed by three 220 VAC subsystems powered by the following two sources of power: Class I uninterrupted safety bus bars (5551 BUA, BUB and BUC bars) and Class III secondary distribution 5433-MCC5 and MCC6. The Class II 220 VAC bus bars are normally powered from Class I bus bars through static monophasic inverters. Beside, in a static monophasic out of service case, Class II bus bar affected could be powered from Class III bus bars via a transformer stabilizer. Class II bus bars supplies power to both control computers and the AC instrumentation and control devices. When 220 VAC (Class II) 5542-BUC-monophasic-inverter failure was coincident with a subsequent independent failure to transfer to the Class III through static commuter 5542-SVR-C, a loss of the 220 VAC uninterrupted monophasic safety bus bar (Class II) event was caused. (author)

  19. Measurements of 222Rn and220Rn with a large size collector of radon progeny

    People have paid more attention to radon since 1980s. Radon concentrations in high background radiation areas in the south are higher than others in China, especially 220 Rn concentration is significantly high. Therefore, measurement of 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentration should be carried out there. I will introduce a large size collector of radon progeny and its applications in this paper. The collector is a sheet of polyvinyl chloride fibre with electrostatics of -500V ∼ -700V. Its size (60mm in diameter) is larger than others (26mm in diameter) that work as the same principle. The collector is more effective to adsorb radon progeny than most of others. The equipment of ZnS(Ag) Scintillation Counting System is available for large size collectors to detect radon progeny. Therefore its sensitivity of measurement is high than others. According to the different half life of radon progeny and based on both theory and experiment, a formula for discrimination and calculation of 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations was deduced. The 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations were surveyed with electrostatic collectors of radon progeny on the campus of commercial school and some other areas in Hainan, southern China. Neither 222 Rn nor 220 Rn concentrations were found significant high. However several faults underground were delineated. The collector is also used to study radon transportation. Results indicate that radon changes regularly with date when it has transported for a certain distance. Velocities of radon migration in the four media are quite different. Radon migrates more quickly in vertical tube than in the horizontal tube

  20. Measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn with a Large Size Collector of Radon Progeny

    Wu Qifan; Jia Wenyi; Fang Fang; Wang Jun; Cheng Jianping; Liu Guilin; Zhu Li

    2003-01-01

    Radon concentrations in high background radiation areas in the south are higher than those of others in China, especially 220Rn concentration is significantly high. Therefore, measurements of 222Rn and 220 Rn concentrations should be carried out there. This paper introduces a large size collector of radon progeny and its applications. The collector is a sheet of polyvinyl chloride fiber with electrostatics of (-500 V) - ( -700 V). Its size (60 mm in diameter) is larger than those of others (26 mm in diameter) that work with the same principle. The collector is more effective to adsorb radon progeny than most of others. The equipment of ZnS(Ag) Scintillation Counting System is available for large size collectors to detect radon progeny. Therefore, its sensitivity of measurement is higher than that of others.According to the different half lives of radon progeny, and based on both theory and experiments, a formula for discrimination and calculation of 222 Rn and 220Rn concentrations is deduced. The 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations were surveyed with electrostatic collectors of radon progeny on the campus of com-mercial school and some other areas in Hainan, southern China. Neither 222Rn nor 220Rn concentration was found significantly high. However, several faults underground were delineated. The collector is also used to study radon transportation. Results indicate that radon changes regularly with date when it has transported for a certain distance. Velocities of radon migration in the four media are quite different.Radon migrates more quickly in vertical tube than in the horizontal tube.

  1. GongXi与TCu220C宫内节育环临床效果比较观察

    麦健容; 邓晓燕

    2008-01-01

    目的:比较宫喜(GongXi)活性官腔形宫内节育环(IUD)和TCu220C IUD的临床使用效果.方法:选择自愿放置IUD的已婚育龄妇女400例,随机分成两组(200例),分别放置宫喜IUD和TCu220C IUD,并进行12个月随访观察.结果:宫喜IUD的因症取出率显著低于TCu220c IUD(P<0.05),妊娠率、脱落率、宫喜IUD与TCu220C IUD比较差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论:宫喜IUD是避孕效果优于TCu220C IUD,可在临床上推广使用.

  2. Introduction of 220t/h CFB Boilers in Chenming Paper Group%晨鸣220 t/h CFB锅炉特点概述

    张洪伟

    2002-01-01

    @@ HG-220/9.8-L.PM18锅炉是哈尔滨锅炉厂有限责任公司为山东晨鸣纸业集团股份有限公司设计制造的循环流化床锅炉,本锅炉采用引进EVT技术,高温高压参数,单锅筒、自然循环,半露天布置,全钢结构.

  3. MCu IUD与TCu220C IUD的临床效果观察

    邵培玲; 赵传富

    2011-01-01

    目的观察MCu IUD和TCu220C IUD的临床效果。方法选择2008年3月至5月在我站自愿要求放置IUD避孕而无禁忌症的已婚育龄妇女680例,随机分为2组,每组340例,分别放置MCu IUD和TCu220C IUD,于置器后1、3、6和12个月进行随访,以生命表法统计2种IUD的使用情况。结果2种IUD使用12个月的妊娠率、脱落率、因症取出率和续用率分别为:MCu IUD 0,1.47%,2.06%,96.47%;TCu220C 0.88%,8.53%,6.47%,84.12%,经统计学处理。2种IUD妊娠率比较,差异无统计学意义(P〉0.05);MCu IUD的脱落率明显低于TCu220C,差异有统计学意义(P〈0.01);因症取出率MCuIUD低于TCu220C IUD,差异有统计学意义(P〈0.05);续用率MCu IUD明显高于TCu220C IUD,差异有统计学意义(P〈0.01)。结论MCu IUD具有脱落率低,因症取出率低,续用率高的优点,值得在临床推广应用。

  4. The Reconstruction Research in 220T/H Boiler with Low NOx-Burner%220T/H锅炉低氮燃烧器改造研究

    饶金华; 万清燕

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the adoption of low-NOx burner′s modification of the 220 t/h boilers in a power Plant.With the low-NOx burner′s technology,the denitrification efficiency reaches 52.2%.Furnace exit oxygen volumes,the amount of main air,secondary air,and auxiliary air volume are optimized.The reconstruction research results are helpful for innovations of other similar power boiler.%介绍了某电厂220 t/h锅炉低氮燃烧器改造工程,并对低氮燃烧器改造后,脱硝效率达到52.2%,进行炉膛出口氧量、一次风量、二次风量、三次风量和燃尽风量的优化试验,同时对改造效果进行分析,本改造可为其它小型电厂锅炉的脱硝提供了一定的经验。

  5. Kidins220/ARMS is a novel modulator of short-term synaptic plasticity in hippocampal GABAergic neurons.

    Joachim Scholz-Starke

    Full Text Available Kidins220 (Kinase D interacting substrate of 220 kDa/ARMS (Ankyrin Repeat-rich Membrane Spanning is a scaffold protein highly expressed in the nervous system. Previous work on neurons with altered Kidins220/ARMS expression suggested that this protein plays multiple roles in synaptic function. In this study, we analyzed the effects of Kidins220/ARMS ablation on basal synaptic transmission and on a variety of short-term plasticity paradigms in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses using a recently described Kidins220 full knockout mouse. Hippocampal neuronal cultures prepared from embryonic Kidins220(-/- (KO and wild type (WT littermates were used for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous and evoked synaptic activity. Whereas glutamatergic AMPA receptor-mediated responses were not significantly affected in KO neurons, specific differences were detected in evoked GABAergic transmission. The recovery from synaptic depression of inhibitory post-synaptic currents in WT cells showed biphasic kinetics, both in response to paired-pulse and long-lasting train stimulation, while in KO cells the respective slow components were strongly reduced. We demonstrate that the slow recovery from synaptic depression in WT cells is caused by a transient reduction of the vesicle release probability, which is absent in KO neurons. These results suggest that Kidins220/ARMS is not essential for basal synaptic transmission and various forms of short-term plasticity, but instead plays a novel role in the mechanisms regulating the recovery of synaptic strength in GABAergic synapses.

  6. 20 CFR 664.220 - Is there an exception to permit youth who are not low-income individuals to receive youth services?

    2010-04-01

    ... not low-income individuals to receive youth services? 664.220 Section 664.220 Employees' Benefits... INVESTMENT ACT Eligibility for Youth Services § 664.220 Is there an exception to permit youth who are not low-income individuals to receive youth services? Yes, up to five percent of youth participants served...

  7. A 220Rn source for the calibration of low-background experiments

    Lang, R. F.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Cervantes, M.; Macmullin, S.; Masson, D.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H.

    2016-04-01

    We characterize two 40 kBq sources of electrodeposited 228Th for use in low-background experiments. The sources efficiently emanate 220Rn, a noble gas that can diffuse in a detector volume. 220Rn and its daughter isotopes produce α-, β-, and γ-radiation, which may used to calibrate a variety of detector responses and features, before decaying completely in only a few days. We perform various tests to place limits on the release of other long-lived isotopes. In particular, we find an emanation of detectors employing liquid noble elements such as argon and xenon. With the source mounted in a noble gas system, we demonstrate that filters are highly efficient in reducing the activity of these longer-lived isotopes further. We thus confirm the suitability of these sources even for use in next-generation experiments, such as XENON1T/XENONnT, LZ, and nEXO.

  8. THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLOW AROUND TWO TANDEM CIRCULAR CYLINDERS WITH VARIOUS SPACING AT Re=220

    2006-01-01

    The flow around two tandem circular cylinders was studied by a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations at Re=220. The improved virtual boundary method was applied to model the no-slip boundary condition of the cylinders. The results show that as the spacing ratio L/D ≥4, the three dimensionality occurs in the wake. When L/D≤3.5 the wake keeps a two-dimensional state at the Reynolds number Re=220. The critical spacing for the appearance of three-dimensional instability obtained is at the range 3.5<L/D<4, similar to the critical spacing found in two-dimensional case. Two sources of instability from upstream and downstream cylinder generate a complicated vortex structures in the wake, investigated by streamlines topology analysis in the streamwise plane. Many other interesting problems were also addressed in this paper.

  9. Realization and characterization of a 220Rn source for calibration purposes

    The recent interest for measuring 220Rn activity in air and the following development of the corresponding measurement techniques require the improvement of standards for the calibration and characterization of the measurement devices. Due to the short half-life of the 220Rn, the adopted techniques for the production of 222Rn sources are not always reliable. In this paper a methodology for realizing a thoron known activity starting from a 232Th source will be presented and discussed. - Highlights: • A thoron source realized by well characterized samples containing thorium. • Methodology for measuring exhalated thoron activity by gamma ray spectrometry. • Stable on time thoron specific activity concentration in air. • Radon isotopes spectroscopy by electrostatic collection

  10. Relationship of 220Rn and 222Rn progeny levels in Canadian underground U mines

    Radon-222 and 220Rn progeny are found in some Canadian underground U mines. Because both can contribute to lung dose, their experimental determinations are important. The relationship between 222Rn progeny Working Level [WL(Rn)] and 220Rn progeny Working Level [WL(Tn)] has been investigated in U mines. Experimental measurements extended from 1981 to 1986 and consisted of about 700 measurements of each WL(Rn) and WL(Tn). The data were analyzed by standard linear and power-function regression analysis. A power-function relationship between WL(Rn) and WL(Tn) seemed to fit the experimental data best. The relationship obtained permits the calculation of WL(Tn) from experimental values of WL(Rn). The relationship is useful for lung-dose-calculation purposes and in mine-ventilation-engineering calculations

  11. Fuel Element Designs for Achieving High Burnups in 220 MW(e) Indian PHWRs

    Presently 19-element natural uranium fuel bundles are used in 220 MW(e) Indian PHWRs. The core average design discharge burnup for these bundles is 7000 MW·d/Te U and maximum burnup for assembly goes upto of 15 000 MWD/Te U. Use of fuel materials like MOX, Thorium, slightly enriched uranium etc in place of natural uranium in 19-element fuel bundles, in 220 MW(e) PHWRs is being investigated to achieve higher burnups. The maximum burnup investigated with these bundles is 30 000 MW·d/Te U. In PHWR fuel elements no plenum space is available and the cladding is of collapsible type. Studies have been carried out for different fuel element target burnups with different alternative concepts. Modification in pellet shape and pellet parameters are considered. These studies for the PHWR fuel elements/assemblies have been elaborated in this paper. (author)

  12. GUM approach to uncertainty estimations for online 220Rn concentration measurements using Lucas scintillation cell

    It is now widely recognized that, when all of the known or suspected components of errors have been evaluated and corrected, there still remains an uncertainty, that is, a doubt about how well the result of the measurement represents the value of the quantity being measured. Evaluation of measurement data - Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is a guidance document, the purpose of which is to promote full information on how uncertainty statements are arrived at and to provide a basis for the international comparison of measurement results. In this paper, uncertainty estimations following GUM guidelines have been made for the measured values of online thoron concentrations using Lucas scintillation cell to prove that the correction for disequilibrium between 220Rn and 216Po is significant in online 220Rn measurements

  13. Equipment interfaces for scanning-measuring semiautomatic devices with a M-220 computer

    Described is a communication equipment of scanning-measuring semi-automatic devices with the M-220 computer which permits to increase reliability of the information communicated by several orders as well as the rate of its introduction into the computer. A functional scheme is presented and operation of the main block of the communication equipment - 45-discharge eight-channel electron commutator constructed on the elements of the DTL-logics is considered. Information from the commutator in the computer is transmissed by means of coaxial communication cables through the cells of the DTL level agreement with transistor logic of the M-220 computer. The time of information recording in the buffer register constitutes 1 μA, and the time of its transmission to the computer constitutes 25-100 μs and depends on the computer state

  14. Frequency stability of InP HBT over 0.2 to 220 GHz

    The frequency stabilities of InP DHBTs in a broadband over 1 to 220 GHz are investigated. A hybrid π-topology small-signal model is used to accurately capture the parasitics of devices. The model parameters are extracted from measurements analytically. The investigation results show that the excellent agreement between the measured and simulated data is obtained in the frequency range 200 MHz to 220 GHz. The dominant parameters of the π-topology model, bias conditions and emitter area have significant effects on the stability factor K. The HBT model can be unconditionally stable by reasonable selection of the proper bias condition and the physical layout of the device. (semiconductor devices)

  15. The Distribution Characteristics of 222Rn and 220Rn Concentrations in Soil Gas In Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, China

    A mapping survey of 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in soil gas was conducted for the first time using a RAD7 portable radon monitor at 67 locations across an area of 1800 km2 in Zhongshan City (ZSC), Guangdong Province. It was found that 222Rn concentrations increased with increasing depth, whereas 220Rn concentrations were almost unchanged at different depths. The sites with high 222Rn values were located mainly in granite outcrops, while those with low values were located in a sedimentary region. The distribution patterns of 220Rn coincide with the patterns of activity concentration of 232Th in soil. (author)

  16. ALMA IMAGING OF HCN, CS, AND DUST IN ARP 220 AND NGC 6240

    Scoville, Nick; Manohar, Swarnima; Murchikova, Lena [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sheth, Kartik [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Walter, Fabian; Zschaechner, Laura [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Yun, Min [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Koda, Jin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Sanders, David; Barnes, Joshua [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI 96822 (United States); Thompson, Todd [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Robertson, Brant; Tacconi, Linda; Narayanan, Desika [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Genzel, Reinhard; Davies, Richard [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brown, Robert [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Hayward, Christopher C. [TAPIR 350-17, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kartaltepe, Jeyhan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); and others

    2015-02-10

    We report ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz) imaging at 0.''4-0.''6 resolution and Band 9 (696 GHz) at ∼0.''25 resolution of the luminous IR galaxies Arp 220 and NGC 6240. The long wavelength dust continuum is used to estimate interstellar medium masses for Arp 220 east and west and NGC 6240 of 1.9, 4.2, and 1.6 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}within radii of 69, 65, and 190 pc. The HCN emission was modeled to derive the emissivity distribution as a function of radius and the kinematics of each nuclear disk, yielding dynamical masses consistent with the masses and sizes derived from the dust emission. In Arp 220, the major dust and gas concentrations are at radii less than 50 pc in both counter-rotating nuclear disks. The thickness of the disks in Arp 220 estimated from the velocity dispersion and rotation velocities are 10-20 pc and the mean gas densities are n{sub H{sub 2}}∼10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} at R <50 pc. We develop an analytic treatment for the molecular excitation (including photon trapping), yielding volume densities for both the HCN and CS emission with n {sub H2} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}. The agreement of the mean density from the total mass and size with that required for excitation suggests that the volume is essentially filled with dense gas, i.e., it is not cloudy or like swiss cheese.

  17. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 220 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to... Appendix C to Part 220—Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program 1. The Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program... 7 CFR 210.10 or 210.10a, whichever is applicable, 225.21, and 226.20 and are served in the main...

  18. Indoor 222Rn and 220Rn variations as an evidence for Boyle's law

    The 222Rn and 220Rn levels were measured for Bangalore Metropolitan, India was focused on various types of houses with respect to ventilation characteristics. Dimension of room was taken into account to correlate the air rate the virtue of number of windows and ventilation openings. Integrated and long-term measurements of radon were carried out in the dwellings using twin cup dosimeters with Solid State Nuclear Track Detector. Result shows that the concentration exponentially with the increase in room volume. (author)

  19. Factors related to anxiety and depression in patients undergoing adrenalectomy in 220 Chinese people

    Jin, Zonglan; Ping DING; Liu, Ling; Yang, Qiaolan; Chen, Meixia; Liu, Lingli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors related to anxiety and depression in patients undergoing adrenalectomy. Subjects and Methods: From October 2011 to October 2014, 220 consecutive inpatients undergoing adrenalectomy were enrolled in this study. Documented informed consent for the study was obtained from each subject. All subjects completed a detailed questionnaires for information of sociodemographics, the Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), the Zung self-rating de...

  20. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Alternate Foods for Meals

    2010-01-01

    ... Protein (N×6.25) Gram 5.0 Energy Kilocalorie 250 Vitamin A 3 International unit 1,115 1,675.0 Vitamin E ......do 5 Vitamin B12 Microgram 1.25 Thiamin Milligram .26 Riboflavin ......do .13 Vitamin B6 ......do .26... acceptable products plus 1/2 pint of fluid milk (as defined in § 220.2 of the regulations (7 CFR part...

  1. Antiallergic/antiasthmatic effect of novel antiallergic hexapeptide-95/220 in various experimental models.

    Singh, R; Nath, A; Gupta, P P; Shukla, M; Khare, S K; Kundu, B

    2001-09-01

    The effects of newly synthesized antiallergic hexapeptide 95/220 was investigated on various allergic and asthmatic test models. This newly developed peptide was found to be more potent than clinically used drug disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). Hexapeptide 95/220 inhibited immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and mast cell degranulation in rats, antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in actively sensitized guinea pigs in dose dependent manner like DSCG. Antigen-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum was also markedly inhibited by this newly developed hexapeptide in the same fashion as ketotifen and DSCG did but at comparatively lower dose. Egg albumin-induced histamine release was also blocked by this hexapeptide from chopped lung tissues of sensitized guinea pigs. These results suggest that hexapeptide' 95/220 has potent inhibitory effect on immediate hypersensitivity reactions thereby inhibiting mediator release from mast cell. Moreover, this newly synthesized peptide is orally active and effective at lower doses as compared to standard drugs. PMID:11831367

  2. Release behavior of cupric ions for TCu380A and TCu220C IUDs

    Cao Bianmei; Zheng Yudong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China); Xi Tingfei [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing (China)], E-mail: xitingfei@tom.com

    2008-12-15

    We immersed copper T380A and T220C IUDs in simulated uterine solution (SUS) and also in simulated body fluid (SBF). The release rate and corrosion products of copper ions after soaking in SUS and SBF for different time spans were studied by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX) and x-ray diffraction. The highest corrosion rate of the TCu380A IUD was obtained on the first day, while the highest corrosion rate of the TCu220C IUD was obtained on the third day. The copper corrosion rate of the TCu380A IUD was much faster than that of the TCu220C IUD in the first few days. The corrosion extent of copper wire was higher than that of a copper tube when first immersed in solution. For the same IUD in the same solution, the corrosion extent in SBF was higher than in SUS. The main compounds identified were cuprite (Cu{sub 2}O). Copper wire and copper tubes were implanted in the uteruses of rats. In vivo experiments were also done. The corrosion rate in vivo was higher than that in vitro.

  3. Rehabilitation of broken-down chamber for the Gammacell-220 Irradiation Facility

    The broken-down chamber of the gammacell-220 irradiation facility used for the calibration of dosimeters at the National Nuclear Research has been repaired. This repair work involved the identification of suitable components for the aluminum welding capable of ensuring double welding of the inside and outside joints of the chamber. Of paramount importance is the ability of the welded joint to physically sustain the safety column which is made of 26.9 kg of reinforce lead. The wielding was also expected to ensure that the shape of the chamber is retained after installation, apart from allowing uninhibited movement of the chamber which carries samples to be taken into the belly of the gamma cell for irradiation. The Ferrous ammonium sulfate (Fricke) solution was used as the dosimetry standard to check the gamma dose after restoration of the equipment. This report presents information on the procedure and justification for undertaking the repairs of this unit. By this successful repairs and putting into operation of the Gammacell-220, the maintenance team at the Center have demonstrated their ability to undertake similar works on the Gammacell-220 in the future even to other countries in the sub-region. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  4. Excited OH+, H2O+, and H3O+ in NGC 4418 and Arp 220

    González-Alfonso, E; Bruderer, S; Müller, H S P; Graciá-Carpio, J; Sturm, E; Lutz, D; Poglitsch, A; Feuchtgruber, H; Veilleux, S; Contursi, A; Sternberg, A; Hailey-Dunsheath, S; Verma, A; Christopher, N; Davies, R; Genzel, R; Tacconi, L

    2012-01-01

    We report on Herschel/PACS observations of absorption lines of OH+, H2O+ and H3O+ in NGC 4418 and Arp 220. Excited lines of OH+ and H2O+ with E_lower of at least 285 and \\sim200 K, respectively, are detected in both sources, indicating radiative pumping and location in the high radiation density environment of the nuclear regions. Abundance ratios OH+/H2O+ of 1-2.5 are estimated in the nuclei of both sources. The inferred OH+ column and abundance relative to H nuclei are (0.5-1)x10^{16} cm-2 and \\sim2x10^{-8}, respectively. Additionally, in Arp 220, an extended low excitation component around the nuclear region is found to have OH+/H2O+\\sim5-10. H3O+ is detected in both sources with N(H3O+)\\sim(0.5-2)x10^{16} cm-2, and in Arp 220 the pure inversion, metastable lines indicate a high rotational temperature of ~500 K, indicative of formation pumping and/or hot gas. Simple chemical models favor an ionization sequence dominated by H+ - O+ - OH+ - H2O+ - H3O+, and we also argue that the H+ production is most likely...

  5. Indoor 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations and doses in Bangalore, India

    222Rn and 220Rn levels have been measured using passive detector technique by employing time integrated solid-state nuclear track detector-based dosemeters in various types of houses at 10 different locations in and around Bangalore Metropolitan, India. The measured geometric mean concentration values of 222Rn and 220Rn levels in 200 dwellings of different types of construction were found to be 32.2±1.6 and 21.4±1.0 Bq m-3, respectively. The dose rate received by the population of Bangalore ranged between 0.2 and 3.5 mSv y-1 with an average and the geometric mean of 1.14±0.05 and 1.06 mSv y-1, respectively. Overall, the result does not show much significant radiological risk for the inhabitants and the 222Rn levels are well within the limits of global average concentration of 40 Bq m-3. However, the 220Rn levels observed were found to be higher than the global average of 10 Bq m-3. (authors)

  6. Clinical Observation on the Efficacy of GyneFixTM IN IUD and TCu220C IUD%GyneFix IN与TCu220C宫内节育器临床使用效果比较观察

    邓艳

    2006-01-01

    目的:比较吉妮固定式宫内节育器(IUD)和TCu220C IUD的临床使用效果.方法:选择自愿放置IUD的已婚育龄妇女600例,随机分成两组(各300例),分别放置吉妮IUD和TCu220C IUD,并进行24个月随访观察.结果:吉妮IUD的脱落率显著低于TCu20C IUD(P<0.05),妊娠率、因症取出率及终止率,吉妮IUD与TCu220C IUD比较,有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论:吉妮IUD是避孕效果优于TCu220C IUD,可在临床上推广使用.

  7. Evolution of Titan’s South Pole 220 cm-1 Ice Cloud

    Jennings, Donald E.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Anderson, Carrie M.; Flasar, F. Michael; de Kok, Remco; Coustenis, Athena

    2014-11-01

    Titan’s atmosphere at the South Pole has been undergoing rapid and surprising changes as southern Winter approaches. Clouds began forming suddenly at the pole in 2012, seen by Cassini in both the visible and infrared [1, 2, 3]. In particular, the ice cloud identified by a spectral line at 220 cm-1 became visible for the first time in the south. Since then the cloud has greatly increased in radiance. Cassini CIRS has been observing the 220 cm-1 feature since the beginning of the mission in 2004. This emission feature was originally found in the north, where it has gradually decreased since 2004. The cloud in the south has evolved in shape and by late 2013 its thermal emission had developed into a collar morphology with a radius of about 10 degrees of latitude. From Cassini ISS images it appears that the visible cloud reported by West et al. [1] fit inside the central minimum of the 220 cm-1 emission collar. The collar was not centered at the pole but was shifted approximately 4 degrees toward the Sun from the pole. This shift coincides with the tilt of the atmospheric axis originally reported by Achterberg et al. [4]. At the same time, maps of emission from the gases HC3N, C4H2 and C6H6 [5] exhibited a ring-shape as well, but in addition a central peak at the 4-degree offset position. The maximum of the 220 cm-1 emission matched the minimum emission from the gases, suggesting a relationship between the cloud material and the gases. As condensation and newly formed gases concentrated at the pole, temperatures at the South Pole have become extremely low [6]. During 2014 the cloud and gas emission patterns have continued to evolve, with the ring structure becoming less distinct. We expect the emission from the 220 cm-1 ice cloud to increase and its structure to continue to develop as Cassini watches Titan move through late southern Autumn.References:1. West, R. A., et al., BAAS, 45, 305.03, 2013.2. Jennings, D. E., et al., ApJ, 754, L3, 2012.3. de Kok, R. et al

  8. A RANDOMIZED COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MENSTRUAL PATTERNS IN MEGESTROL ACETATE IUD AND TCu220c IUD USERS

    YANJun-Hong; PANJia-Xiang; ZHANGYa-Qin; KANGJin-Fang; LINGXiu-Ying

    1989-01-01

    This is a randomized comparative study of menstrual patterns between 30 cases of megestrol acetate IUD users and 30 cases using TCu220c IUD before and at the Ist, 3rd, 6th and 12th cycles after insertion.

  9. Cutting edge: B220+CCR9- dendritic cells are not plasmacytoid dendritic cells but are precursors of conventional dendritic cells.

    Segura, Elodie; Wong, June; Villadangos, José A

    2009-08-01

    Mouse lymphoid organs contain two major subsets of dendritic cells (DC) that differ in their phenotype and functions: conventional DC (cDC) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC). Recently, it has been proposed that differential expression of CCR9 could distinguish functionally distinct pDC subsets. We show that B220(+)CCR9(-) DC do not express classical pDC markers and have a developmental origin different from that of pDC. Furthermore, B220(+)CCR9(-) DC do not secrete IFN-alpha in response to CpG and, unlike pDC, can efficiently present exogenous Ags. Our results demonstrate that B220(+)CCR9(-) DC do not represent a subset of pDC. After in vivo transfer, these cells down-regulate B220 expression and convert into the two major cDC subsets, showing that they are a developmental stage of cDC differentiation. PMID:19570827

  10. Study on clinical application effect of copper T220 intrauterine devices and activeγ-IUD Ⅱintrauterine devices%TGU220IUD和安舒型IUD临床应用效果比较

    梁洁芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价TGU220 IUD和安舒型IUD的临床应用效果,为推广新型IUD提供依据.方法 随机抽取2011年1月-2012年1月放置TGU220 IUD和安舒型IUD已婚育龄妇女各400例,随访1年,观察2种IUD使用效果及不良反应发生情况.结果随访1年,失访37例,TGU220 IUD组随访378例,安舒型IUD组随访385例.2组12个月带器妊娠率和非因症取出率比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);安舒型IUD组12个月累计脱落率、因症取出率和总终止率低于TGU220 IUD组,12个月总续用率明显高于TGU220 IUD组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01).安舒型IUD组不良反应发生率为7.0%低于TGU220 IUD组的20.1%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 2种IUD避孕效果可靠,但安舒型IUD在脱落率、因症取出率及不良反应发生率方面均低于TGU220 IUD组.

  11. EXTREME DUST DISKS IN Arp 220 AS REVEALED BY ALMA

    Wilson, C. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Rangwala, N.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Spinoglio, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2014-07-10

    We present new images of Arp 220 from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array with the highest combination of frequency (691 GHz) and resolution (0.''36 × 0.''20) ever obtained for this prototypical ultraluminous infrared galaxy. The western nucleus is revealed to contain warm (200 K) dust that is optically thick (τ{sub 434} {sub μm} = 5.3), while the eastern nucleus is cooler (80 K) and somewhat less opaque (τ{sub 434} {sub μm} = 1.7). We derive full width at half-maximum diameters of 76 × ≤ 70 pc and 123 × 79 pc for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively. The two nuclei combined account for (83{sub −38}{sup +65} (calibration) {sub −34}{sup +0} (systematic))% of the total infrared luminosity of Arp 220. The luminosity surface density of the western nucleus (log (σT{sup 4})=14.3±0.2{sub −0.7}{sup +0} in units of L {sub ☉} kpc{sup –2}) appears sufficiently high to require the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or a ''hot starburst'', although the exact value depends sensitively on the brightness distribution adopted for the source. Although the role of any central AGN remains open, the inferred mean gas column densities of (0.6-1.8) × 10{sup 25} cm{sup –2} mean that any AGN in Arp 220 must be Compton-thick.

  12. EXTREME DUST DISKS IN Arp 220 AS REVEALED BY ALMA

    We present new images of Arp 220 from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array with the highest combination of frequency (691 GHz) and resolution (0.''36 × 0.''20) ever obtained for this prototypical ultraluminous infrared galaxy. The western nucleus is revealed to contain warm (200 K) dust that is optically thick (τ434 μm = 5.3), while the eastern nucleus is cooler (80 K) and somewhat less opaque (τ434 μm = 1.7). We derive full width at half-maximum diameters of 76 × ≤ 70 pc and 123 × 79 pc for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively. The two nuclei combined account for (83−38+65 (calibration) −34+0 (systematic))% of the total infrared luminosity of Arp 220. The luminosity surface density of the western nucleus (log (σT4)=14.3±0.2−0.7+0 in units of L ☉ kpc–2) appears sufficiently high to require the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or a ''hot starburst'', although the exact value depends sensitively on the brightness distribution adopted for the source. Although the role of any central AGN remains open, the inferred mean gas column densities of (0.6-1.8) × 1025 cm–2 mean that any AGN in Arp 220 must be Compton-thick

  13. 222Rn, 220Rn and other dissolved gases in mineral waters of southeast Brazil

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity due to 222Rn and 220Rn in mineral waters occurring at São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, Brazil, that are extensively used for drinking in public places, bottling and bathing purposes, among other. The measurements of these alpha-emitting radionuclides were also accompanied by the monitoring of temperature and some dissolved gases (O2, CO2 and H2S) in 75 water sources located in 14 municipalities of those states. Eight water sources yielded 220Rn activity concentration values below the detection limit of 4 mBq/L. On other hand, 222Rn activity concentration values exceeding the WHO guidance level of 100 Bq/L in drinking-water for public water supplies were found in two springs, named Villela and Dona Beja, whose discharge occurs in areas characterized by the presence of enhanced levels of natural radioelements in rocks. The obtained results were compared with the guidelines of the Brazilian Code of Mineral Waters (BCMW) that was established in 1945 and is still in force in the country. The 222Rn and 220Rn activity concentration data allowed perform dose radiation calculations based on the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), whose implications for health risk have been also considered in this paper. - Highlights: • First thoron data in mineral waters occurring in well-known Brazilian spas. • Integration of thoron and radon data with those of others dissolved gases in mineral waters. • Comparison of the acquired data with the guidelines of the Brazilian Code of Mineral Waters. • Comparison of the radiation dose due to radon and thoron in the mineral waters

  14. Wideband 220 GHz solid state power amplifier MMIC within minimal die size

    Cheron, Jerome; Grossman, Erich N.

    2014-05-01

    A wideband and compact solid state power amplifier MMIC is simulated around 220 GHz. It utilizes 6 μm emitter length common base HBTs from a 250 nm InP HBT technology. Specific power cells and power combiners are simulated in order to minimize the width of the die, which must not exceed 300 μm to avoid multimode propagation in the substrate. Four stages are implemented over a total area of the (275x1840) μm2. Simulations of this power amplifier indicate a minimum output power of 14 dBm associated with 16 dB of power gain from 213 GHz to 240 GHz.

  15. 222Rn, 220Rn Concentrations and Miner Doses in Non-Uranium Mines in China

    A preliminary survey of 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in non-uranium mines in China was conducted in 17 different types of mines. In total, 44 mines in 12 provinces were surveyed. The results showed that among 25 metal mines (n = 147) the arithmetic mean and geometric mean concentrations were 1214 ± 2358 and 313 ± 5.5 Bq/m3 for 222Rn, respectively (range 11–19 600 Bq/m3) and 268 ± 701 and 70 ± 4.4 Bq/m3 for 220Rn, respectively (range 220Rn, respectively (range 220Rn. The average dose in coal mines was 0.75 mSv, and in non-metal mines it was 0.38 mSv. (author)

  16. Excited OH+, H2O+, and H3O+ in NGC 4418 and Arp 220

    González-Alfonso, E.; Fischer, J.; Bruderer, S.; Müller, H. S. P.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Sturm, E.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Veilleux, S.; Contursi, A.; Sternberg, A.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Verma, A.; Christopher, N.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.

    2013-02-01

    We report on Herschel/PACS observations of absorption lines of OH+, H2O+ and H3O+ in NGC 4418 and Arp 220. Excited lines of OH+ and H2O+ with Elower of at least 285 and ~200 K, respectively, are detected in both sources, indicating radiative pumping and location in the high radiation density environment of the nuclear regions. Abundance ratios OH+/H2O+ of 1-2.5 are estimated in the nuclei of both sources. The inferred OH+ column and abundance relative to H nuclei are (0.5-1) × 1016 cm-2 and ~ 2 × 10-8, respectively. Additionally, in Arp 220, an extended low excitation component around the nuclear region is found to have OH+/H2O+ ~ 5-10. H3O+ is detected in both sources with N(H3O+) ~ (0.5-2) × 1016 cm-2, and in Arp 220 the pure inversion, metastable lines indicate a high rotational temperature of ~500 K, indicative of formation pumping and/or hot gas. Simple chemical models favor an ionization sequence dominated by H+ → O+ → OH+ → H2O+ → H3O+, and we also argue that the H+ production is most likely dominated by X-ray/cosmic ray ionization. The full set of observations and models leads us to propose that the molecular ions arise in a relatively low density (≳104 cm-3) interclump medium, in which case the ionization rate per H nucleus (including secondary ionizations) is ζ > 10-13 s-1, a lower limit that is several × 102 times the highest current rate estimates for Galactic regions. In Arp 220, our lower limit for ζ is compatible with estimates for the cosmic ray energy density inferred previously from the supernova rate and synchrotron radio emission, and also with the expected ionization rate produced by X-rays. In NGC 4418, we argue that X-ray ionization due to an active galactic nucleus is responsible for the molecular ion production. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  17. Qualification of gammacell-220 calibration field for radiation processing at the radiation Technology Centre, Kwabenya

    The Gammacell-220 being used for the calibration of dosimeters and subsequently the qualification of the large gamma facility for radiation processing has been mapped out. The Ferrous ammonium sulfate (Fricke) solution was used as the dosimetry standard for the study. Filling the irradiation chamber with ampoules of the dosimeter, four horizontal planes each of 28 ampoules were used to obtain four separate isodose curves in the four horizontal planes. Another set of arrangement was used to determine the isodose curves along the vertical axis of the chamber through the center. The isodose curves of the radiation field are presented. (author) 7 refs.; 9 figs

  18. Data acquisition system modified by IK220 card for the SSRF XAFS station

    IK220 high-speed counter card is used at BL14W1 XAFS station of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility to establish the QXAFS scan system. This system simplifies the hardware structure. Changes in the monochromator energy can be read directly. The synchronization controls and data acquisition between the monochromator and the ionization chamber is achieved. XAFS spectra are acquired successfully by this QXAFS method. The existing hardware of the experiment station is used to the maximum level after the modification. The free switching between the ordinary XAFS methods and QXAFS methods saves time. (authors)

  19. 220 kV露天变电站的噪声污染及其控制简析%Analysis of Noise Pollution and Control of 220 kV Outdoor Transformer Substations

    陈锦栋; 李明

    2013-01-01

    Based on the noise data of several multiple 220kV outdoor substations, the major noise sources, noise intensity, frequency characteristics, propagation characteristics and noise pollution situation of the substations were described. According to the noise sources and noise transmission routes, the noise control measures were briefly analyzed. Examples were given to clarify the actual noise reduction effect of various noise reduction measures. This work can be used as a reference for similar engineering projects.%城市220 kV露天变电站的噪声污染比较严重,有必要进行分析和噪声治理。基于多个220 kV露天变电站的噪声实测数据,阐述220 kV露天变电站的主要噪声源、噪声源的声压、频率特性、传播影响特性以及对周边环境的污染情况,从声源、噪声传播途径简要分析了220 kV露天变电站的噪声控制措施,并以实例加以说明,阐述各种降噪措施的实际降噪效果,可供同类工程参考。

  20. Simultaneous determination of Rn-220 and Rn-222 concentrations in atmospheres by cellulose nitrate ionographic detectors

    A method for the indoor determination of airborne radon and radon daughters is described, based in the utilization of cellulose nitrate (CN) ionographic detectors (LR-115-Kodak-Pathe) These track-etching detectors are coupled to an air sample and to a difusion chamber respectively. In the first system ambient air is pulled through a fiber glass filter for collection of airborne radon daughters (Flow: 230 ml/min). In the second system, the cellulose nitrate detectors is coupled/min). In the second system, the cellulose nitrate detectors is coupled to a difusion chamber electrostatic precipitator arrangement. Here the CN detector will register only the alpha particles given off by the decay products of Rn-222 formed within the sensitive volume of electrostatic precipitator. The construction of calibration curves for the two systems using adequate steady-state concentrations of Rn-220 and Rn-222 in an exposure chamber (1 cubic meter), will allow the use of the system for measurement of measurement of averaged integrated radon concentrations. The CN attached to the CN attached to the air sampler is exposed in the reference atmosphere with and without a mylar filter for discrimination of alpha particles with different energies Field sampling indicated however, that efficiency of the two systems are still low for the measurement of environmental levels of Rn-220 and Rn-222 within houses of the AENR, recommendations for efficienty improvement of the system are proposed

  1. Chandra Observations of Extended X-ray Emission in Arp 220

    McDowell, J C; Lamb, S A; Shaked, S; Hearn, N C; Colina, L; Mundell, C; Borne, K; Baker, A C; Arribas, S

    2003-01-01

    We resolve the extended X-ray emission from the prototypical ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220. Extended, faint edge-brightened, soft X-ray lobes outside the optical galaxy are observed to a distance of 10 to 15 kpc on each side of the nuclear region. Bright plumes inside the optical isophotes coincide with the optical line emission and extend 11 kpc from end to end across the nucleus. The data for the plumes cannot be fit by a single temperature plasma, and display a range of temperatures from 0.2 to 1 keV. The plumes emerge from bright, diffuse circumnuclear emission in the inner 3 kpc centered on the Halpha peak, which is displaced from the radio nuclei. There is a close morphological correspondence between the Halpha and soft X-ray emission on all spatial scales. We interpret the plumes as a starburst-driven superwind, and discuss two interpretations of the emission from the lobes in the context of simulations of the merger dynamics of Arp 220.

  2. 3C 220.3: a radio galaxy lensing a submillimeter galaxy

    Haas, Martin; Barthel, Peter; Wilkes, Belinda J; Vegetti, Simona; Bussmann, R Shane; Willner, S P; Westhues, Christian; Ashby, Matthew L N; Chini, Rolf; Clements, David L; Fassnacht, Christopher D; Horesh, Assaf; Klaas, Ulrich; Koopmans, Leon V E; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Lagattuta, David J; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    Herschel Space Observatory photometry and extensive multiwavelength followup have revealed that the powerful radio galaxy 3C 220.3 at z=0.685 acts as a gravitational lens for a background submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z=2.221. At an observed wavelength of 1mm, the SMG is lensed into three distinct images. In the observed near infrared, these images are connected by an arc of 1.8" radius forming an Einstein half-ring centered near the radio galaxy. In visible light, only the arc is apparent. 3C 220.3 is the only known instance of strong galaxy-scale lensing by a powerful radio galaxy not located in a galaxy cluster and therefore it offers the potential to probe the dark matter content of the radio galaxy host. Lens modeling rejects a single lens, but two lenses centered on the radio galaxy host A and a companion B, separated by 1.5", provide a fit consistent with all data and reveal faint candidates for the predicted fourth and fifth images. The model does not require an extended common dark matter halo, consi...

  3. A Rn-220 source for the calibration of low-background experiments

    Lang, Rafael F; Brown, Ethan; Cervantes, Mayra; Macmullin, Sean; Masson, Darryl; Schreiner, Jochen; Simgen, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    We characterize two 40 kBq sources of electrodeposited Th-228 for use in low-background experiments. The sources efficiently emanate Rn-220, a noble gas that can diffuse in a detector volume. Rn-220 and its daughter isotopes produce alpha, beta, and gamma-radiation, which may used to calibrate a variety of detector responses and features, before decaying completely in only a few days. We perform various tests to place limits on the release of other long-lived isotopes. In particular, we find an emanation of <0.008 atoms/min/kBq (90% CL) for Th-228 and 1.53 atoms/min/kBq for Ra-224. The sources lend themselves in particular to the calibration of detectors employing liquid noble elements such as argon and xenon. With the source mounted in a noble gas system, we demonstrate that filters are highly efficient in reducing the activity of these longer-lived isotopes further. We thus confirm the suitability of these sources even for use in next-generation experiments, such as XENON1T/XENONnT, LZ, and nEXO.

  4. Laser driven single shock compression of fluid deuterium from 45 to 220 GPa

    Hicks, D; Boehly, T; Celliers, P; Eggert, J; Moon, S; Meyerhofer, D; Collins, G

    2008-03-23

    The compression {eta} of liquid deuterium between 45 and 220 GPa under laser-driven shock loading has been measured using impedance matching to an aluminum (Al) standard. An Al impedance match model derived from a best fit to absolute Hugoniot data has been used to quantify and minimize the systematic errors caused by uncertainties in the high-pressure Al equation of state. In deuterium below 100 GPa results show that {eta} {approx_equal} 4.2, in agreement with previous impedance match data from magnetically-driven flyer and convergent-explosive shock wave experiments; between 100 and 220 GPa {eta} reaches a maximum of {approx}5.0, less than the 6-fold compression observed on the earliest laser-shock experiments but greater than expected from simple extrapolations of lower pressure data. Previous laser-driven double-shock results are found to be in good agreement with these single-shock measurements over the entire range under study. Both sets of laser-shock data indicate that deuterium undergoes an abrupt increase in compression at around 110 GPa.

  5. Cosmic Rays, Gamma-Rays, & Neutrinos in the Starburst Nuclei of Arp 220

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M; Zweibel, Ellen G

    2015-01-01

    The cores of Arp 220, the closest ultra-luminous infrared starburst galaxy, provide an opportunity to study interactions of cosmic rays under extreme conditions. In this paper, we model the populations of cosmic rays produced by supernovae in the central molecular zones of both starburst nuclei. We find that ~65 - 100% of cosmic rays are absorbed in these regions due to their huge molecular gas contents, and thus, the nuclei of Arp 220 nearly complete proton calorimeters. As the cosmic ray protons collide with the interstellar medium, they produce secondary electrons that are also contained within the system and radiate synchrotron emission. Using results from chi-squared tests between the model and the observed radio spectral energy distribution, we predict the emergent gamma-ray and high-energy neutrino spectra and find the magnetic field to be at milligauss levels. Because of the extremely intense far-infrared radiation fields, the gamma-ray spectrum steepens significantly at TeV energies due to gamma-gamm...

  6. Dense-gas properties in Arp 220 revealed by isotopologue lines

    Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Jiangshui; Shi, Yong; Fang, Min

    2016-02-01

    We present observations of isotopologue lines of dense-gas tracers at 3 mm and 1 mm towards the nearest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220. The 3-mm and 1-mm observations were performed with the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique 30-m telescope and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment 12-m telescope, respectively. We detected H13CN and HN13C in 1-0 and 3-2, and HC15N 1-0, among which HC15N 1-0 and HN13C 1-0 are detected in Arp 220 for the first time. The H13CO+ 1-0 and 3-2 lines are unlikely to be detected because of the confusion of SiO lines. We find that the ratio of the line brightness temperatures of HN13C 3-2/1-0 is 2.4, which is significantly higher than that of H13CN 3-2/1-0 (0.73). This indicates that HN13C and HNC molecules are in denser regions than H13CN and HCN molecules. With the line ratio of H13CN 1-0 and HC15N 1-0, the 14N/15N ratio was estimated to be 440^{+140}_{-82}, which is larger than that of the local interstellar medium.

  7. Static and dynamic analysis of 1 220 mm steel last stage blade for steam turbine

    Kubín Z.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The 3 000 rpm 1 220 mm blade for a steam turbine was developed with application of new design features. The last stage moving blade is designed with an integral cover, a mid-span tie-boss connection and a fir-tree dovetail. With this configuration the blades are continuously coupled by the blade untwist due to the centrifugal force when the blades rotate at high speed, so that vibration control and increased structural damping are provided. Blade was tuned in order to eigen-frequencies were safely far from possible excitation. Because of connection members, the number of the resonant vibration modes can be reduced by virtue of the vibration characteristics of the circumferentially continuous blades. The last stage airfoil was optimalized from view of minimalization of its centrifugal force. In order to develop the 3 000 rpm 1 220 mm blade, the advanced analysis methods to predict dynamics behavior of the bladed structure were applied. Coupled rotor-blade analysis was also aim of the attention. To validate calculated results the verification measurement such as rotational vibration tests was carried out in the high-speed test rig. Relation of the friction damping of the bladed structure on amount of excitation level was also monitored and evaluated.

  8. GeneFiex IN与TCu220C IUD宫内节育器避孕效果比较

    林淑清

    2006-01-01

    目的 比较GeneFiex IN IUD(吉妮致美IUD)和TCu220C IUD的临床使用效果.方法 选择自愿放置IUD的已婚育龄妇女600例,随机分成两组(各300例),分别放置吉妮致美IUD和TCu220C IUD,并进行24个月随访观察.结果 吉妮致美IUD的脱落率显著低于TCu220C IUD (P<0.05),妊娠率、因症取出率及终止率,吉妮致美IUD与TCu220C IUD比较,有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 吉妮致美IUD的避孕效果优于TCu220C IUD,可在临床上推广使用.

  9. 220kV分级绝缘变压器中性点保护配置探讨%On the Neutral Point Protection Configuration of 220 kV Graded Insulation Transformers

    张霖; 杨超

    2011-01-01

    To choose a proper neutral point protection for 220 kV graded insulated transformer, the paper analyzes the protection configuration of arrester and discharge gap for the neutral point of 220 kV graded insulated transformer. According to the situation of Guizhou Power Grid, in which its 220 kV un-earthed transformer of neutral point grounding system adoptes coordinated protection by metal oxide arrester (MOA) and protective gap, the paper calculates the protection gap of the transformer's neutral point, takes weather factor into consideration, and concludes that a maximum protection gap should be selected to prevent frequent operation, and meets the over-voltage protection requirements.%为选择220kV分级绝缘变压器中性点保护方式,对220kV分级绝缘变压器中性点避雷器和放电间隙的保护配置作了分析探讨.根据贵阳电网220kV中性点接地系统不接地变压器采用了氧化锌避雷器(MOA)和保护间隙配合方式,推算变压器中性点保护间隙,并将气象因素纳入计算过程,认为应尽量按最大保护间隙距离进行选取,以防止保护间隙过于频繁动作,同时可满足过电压保护的要求.

  10. 220/380V交流系统短路电流计算和配电线路保护%Short-circuit Current Calculation And the Distribution Line Protection on the 220/380V Exchange System

    黄美霞

    2011-01-01

    文章通过案例进行TN系统、TT系统短路电流计算和数据分析,探讨220/380V配电线路的保护设置、保护电器参数整定和配电线路的热稳定校验。%Through the case of TN system、TT system short-circuit current calculation and data analysis,the article discusses the distribution circuitry of 220/380V protection setting、protect electrical distribution circuit parameter setting and thermal stability of

  11. 放置吉妮致美IUD与Tcu 220c IUD的临床效果观察

    任玉洁

    2010-01-01

    目的 比较吉妮致美IUD与Tcu220c IUD的临床使用效果.方法 选择自愿放置新型IUD的已婚育龄妇女442例,随机分为两组,分别放置吉妮致美IUD和Tcu220c IUD,并进行12个月随访观察.结果 吉妮致美IuD组带器妊娠率、脱落率,因症取出率,终止使用率均低于Tcu220C组,两者比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 吉妮致美IUD是安全、高效、不良反应低的新型IUD,更具有可接受性.

  12. Dose ratio of 222Rn to 220Rn progeny in a pit using in-suit HPGe γ spectrometry

    To probe potential α energy concentration (PAEC) ratio and dose ratio of 222Rn to 220Rn progeny in a pit, in-situ HPGe γ spectrometry was used under atmospheric ventilation and without atmospheric ventilation conditions. The measurement data was analysed using relative efficiency method and PAEC method. The measurement results show that the average PAEC ratio and dose ratio of 222Rn to 220Rn progeny under without atmospheric ventilation is 3.6 and 10.8, respectively, which is 1.2 and 3.6 in first 8 hours under atmospheric ventilation. After 14 hours atmospheric ventilation, PAEC ratio and dose ratio are 0.2 and 0.6 stably. In-situ HPGe γ spectrometry has a great space in 222Rn and 220Rn dose research in the future. (authors)

  13. rsfMRI effects of KB220Z™ on neural pathways in reward circuitry of abstinent genotyped heroin addicts.

    Blum, Kenneth; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yarong; Zhang, Yi; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Smolen, Andrew; Febo, Marcelo; Han, David; Simpatico, Thomas; Cronjé, Frans J; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Gold, Mark S

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Willuhn et al. reported that cocaine use and even non-substance-related addictive behavior increases as dopaminergic function is reduced. Chronic cocaine exposure has been associated with decreases in D2/D3 receptors and was also associated with lower activation of cues in occipital cortex and cerebellum, in a recent PET study by Volkow's et al. Therefore, treatment strategies, like dopamine agonist therapy, that might conserve dopamine function may be an interesting approach to relapse prevention in psychoactive drug and behavioral addictions. To this aim, we evaluated the effect of KB220Z™ on reward circuitry of 10 heroin addicts undergoing protracted abstinence (average 16.9 months). In a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study of KB220Z, five subjects completed a triple-blinded experiment in which the subject, the person administering the treatment, and the person evaluating the response to treatment were blinded to the treatment that any particular subject was receiving. In addition, nine subjects were genotyped utilizing the GARSDX™ test. We preliminarily report that KB220Z induced an increase in BOLD activation in caudate-accumbens-dopaminergic pathways compared to placebo following 1-hour acute administration. Furthermore, KB220Z also reduced resting-state activity in the putamen of abstinent heroin addicts. In the second phase of this pilot study of all 10 abstinent heroin-dependent subjects, we observed that three brain regions of interest were significantly activated from resting state by KB220Z compared to placebo (p addiction by direct or indirect dopaminergic interaction. Due to small sample size, we caution definitive interpretation of these preliminary results, and confirmation with additional research and ongoing rodent and human studies of KB220Z is required. PMID:25526228

  14. MOA-2013-BLG-220Lb: Planetary Companion to a Possible Brown Dwarf Host

    Yee, J C; Gould, A; Skowron, J; Bond, I A; Udalski, A; Hundertmark, M; Monard, L A G; Porritt, I; Nelson, P; Bozza, V; Albrow, M D; Choi, J -Y; Christie, G W; DePoy, D L; Gaudi, B S; Hwang, K -H; Jung, Y K; Lee, C -U; McCormick, J; Natusch, T; Ngan, H; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Shin, I -G; Tan, T -G; Abe, F; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Fukunaga, D; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Larsen, P; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Namba, S; Ohnishi, K; Philpott, L; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sumi, T; Sweatman, W L; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Tsurumi, N; Wada, K; Yamai, N; Yock, P C M; Yonehara, A; Szymański, M K; Ulaczyk, K; Kozłowski, S; Poleski, R; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Kubiak, M; Pietrukowicz, P; Pietrzyński, G; Soszyński, I; Bramich, D M; Browne, P; Horne, K; Ipatov, S; Kains, N; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Street, R; Tsapras, Y

    2014-01-01

    Based on its high proper motion $\\mu=12.5\\pm 1\\,\\masyr$, MOA-2013-BLG-220Lb is the best candidate to date for a microlensing planet with a verifiable brown dwarf host. This candidacy can be partially tested immediately and more fully tested by $\\sim 2021$, when the source and lens will have separated sufficiently to be resolved in high-resolution images even if the lens is at the bottom of the main sequence, and so extremely faint, $H\\sim 24$. The planet-star mass ratio is $q=3.01\\pm 0.02\\times 10^{-3}$. The planet could have been detected and characterized purely with follow-up data. The potential to completely characterize planetary events from followup data has far-reaching implications for microlensing surveys, both current and into the LSST era.

  15. Effect of shell structure on neutron multiplicity of fissioning systems 220,222,224Th nuclei

    Goyal Savi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pre- and post-scission neutron multiplicities have been extracted for the 220,222,224Th nuclei for the excitation energy range of 40 MeV to 64 MeV using the National Array of Neutron Detectors (NAND. The Th isotopes are populated from the fusion reaction of 16O+204,206,208Pb systems in order to investigate the dynamics of fusion-fission reactions using the neutron multiplicity as a probe. The theoretical calculations were performed using the Bohr-Wheeler fission width as well as the dissipative dynamical fission width from Kramers prescription. It is observed that the Bohr-Wheeler fission width underestimates the pre-scission yields to a large extent. A large amount of dissipation is required in the Kramers width to fit the observed pre-scission neutron multiplicities.

  16. 'Cold' crystallization in nanostructurized 80GeSe2-20Ga2Se3 glass.

    Klym, Halyna; Ingram, Adam; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Calvez, Laurent; Petracovschi, Elena; Kulyk, Bohdan; Serkiz, Roman; Szatanik, Roman

    2015-01-01

    'Cold' crystallization in 80GeSe2-20Ga2Se3 chalcogenide glass nanostructurized due to thermal annealing at 380°C for 10, 25, 50, 80, and 100 h are probed with X-ray diffraction, atomic force, and scanning electron microscopy, as well as positron annihilation spectroscopy performed in positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of annihilation line modes. It is shown that changes in defect-related component in the fit of experimental positron lifetime spectra for nanocrystallized glasses testify in favor of structural fragmentation of larger free-volume entities into smaller ones. Nanocrystallites of Ga2Se3 and/or GeGa4Se8 phases and prevalent GeSe2 phase extracted mainly at the surface of thermally treated samples with preceding nucleation and void agglomeration in the initial stage of annealing are characteristic features of cold crystallization. PMID:25852346

  17. Reaction cross sections for protons in the energy range 220-570 MeV

    Renberg, P U; Measday, D F; Pepin, M; Serre, Claude; Schwaller, P

    1972-01-01

    Proton reaction cross sections have been measured for targets of natural isotopic abundance of the following elements and compounds: He, Be, C, Al, Fe, Cu, Ge, Sn, Pb, H/sub 2/O, B/sub 4/C and NaI. Data for proton energies between 220 and 570 MeV have been obtained with two types of transmission-counter assembly. The total errors are of the order of +or-3%. A slight increase of the reaction cross sections with energy is observed for most of the elements studied. The results interpreted in terms of the semi-classical theory of reaction cross section as function of energy clearly demonstrate the onset of pion- production above 250 MeV. (32 refs).

  18. A study on the risk from indoor radon 220 and radon 222 exposures

    The hazards from radon (radon 220 and 222) in dwelling atmospheres have been studied. In the first part devoted to the present state of the problem, an analysis is made of the formation mechanisms and the evolution of radon and its daughters indoors. The main physical and dosimetric quantities required for the risk evaluation are defined. The theoretical and experimental analysis of the methods of measurements of radon and its daughters used in the measurement campaign are considered in the second part. The progress and the result of the national survey are developed in the third part. The effects of several factors on indoor levels are discussed. The conclusions of a particular study in the Finistere ''department'' are presented. The data collected make it possible to assess the mean exposure of man to natural radiation

  19. Cobalt-60 total body irradiation dosimetry at 220 cm source-axis distance

    Adults with acute leukemia are treated with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI) followed by autologous marrow transplants. For TBI, patients seated in a stand angled 450 above the floor are treated for about 2 hours at 220 cm source-axis distance (SAD) with sequential right and left lateral 87 cm x 87 cm fields to a 900 rad mid-pelvic dose at about 8 rad/min using a 5000 Ci cobalt unit. Maximum (lateral) to minimum (mid-plane) dose ratios are: hips--1.15, shoulders--1.30, and head--1.05, which is shielded by a compensator filter. Organ doses are small intestine, liver and kidneys--1100 rad, lung--1100 to 1200 rad, and heart--1300 rad. Verification dosimetry reveals the prescribed dose is delivered to within +-5%. Details of the dosimetry of this treatment are presented

  20. HST/WFC3 Observations of an Off-Nuclear Superbubble in Arp 220

    Lockhart, Kelly E; Lu, Jessica R; Allen, Mark G; Rupke, David; Calzetti, Daniela; Davies, Richard I; Dopita, Michael A; Engel, Hauke; Heckman, Timothy M; Leitherer, Claus; Sanders, David B

    2015-01-01

    We present a high spatial resolution optical and infrared study of the circumnuclear region in Arp 220, a late-stage galaxy merger. Narrowband imaging using HST/WFC3 has resolved the previously observed peak in H$\\alpha$+[NII] emission into a bubble-shaped feature. This feature measures 1.6" in diameter, or 600 pc, and is only 1" northwest of the western nucleus. The bubble is aligned with the western nucleus and the large-scale outflow axis seen in X-rays. We explore several possibilities for the bubble origin, including a jet or outflow from a hidden active galactic nucleus (AGN), outflows from high levels of star formation within the few hundred pc nuclear gas disk, or an ultraluminous X-ray source. An obscured AGN or high levels of star formation within the inner $\\sim$100 pc of the nuclei are favored based on the alignment of the bubble and energetics arguments.

  1. Thoron (220Rn)-concentration in homes: first results of a pilot project

    First measurements of thoron gas concentrations in homes show that the indoor thoron concentration is less influenced by the thoron content in soil or by convective entry processes. The indoor concentration is dominated by thoron concentrations of building materials and by the surface layer of walls and floors. Measurements in typical indoor air without additional aerosol sources yield 212Pb size distributions with a media diameter of the accumulation mode of about 200 nm. An average fraction of 13% of the activity is associated with particles of the nuclei mode with diameters d between 10 - 100 nm and about 5% of the activity was determined to be unattached (d 212Pb)/C(220Rn) of 0.05 and C(212Bi)/C(212Pb) of 0.4. (orig.)

  2. A 2-20 GHz Analog Lag-Correlator for Radio Interferometry

    Holler, C M; Taylor, A C; Harris, A I; Maas, S A

    2011-01-01

    We present the design and testing of a 2-20 GHz continuum band analog lag correlator with 16 frequency channels for astronomical interferometry. The correlator has been designed for future use with a prototype single-baseline interferometer operating at 185-275 GHz. The design uses a broadband Wilkinson divider tree with integral thin-film resistors implemented on an alumina substrate, and custom-made broadband InGaP/GaAs Gilbert Cell multipliers. The prototype correlator has been fully bench-tested, together with the necessary readout electronics for acquisition of the output signals. The results of these measurements show that the response of the correlator is well behaved over the band. An investigation of the noise behaviour also shows that the signal-to-noise of the system is not limited by the correlator performance.

  3. Novel coding, translation, and gene expression of a replicating covalently closed circular RNA of 220 nt.

    AbouHaidar, Mounir Georges; Venkataraman, Srividhya; Golshani, Ashkan; Liu, Bolin; Ahmad, Tauqeer

    2014-10-01

    The highly structured (64% GC) covalently closed circular (CCC) RNA (220 nt) of the virusoid associated with rice yellow mottle virus codes for a 16-kDa highly basic protein using novel modalities for coding, translation, and gene expression. This CCC RNA is the smallest among all known viroids and virusoids and the only one that codes proteins. Its sequence possesses an internal ribosome entry site and is directly translated through two (or three) completely overlapping ORFs (shifting to a new reading frame at the end of each round). The initiation and termination codons overlap UGAUGA (underline highlights the initiation codon AUG within the combined initiation-termination sequence). Termination codons can be ignored to obtain larger read-through proteins. This circular RNA with no noncoding sequences is a unique natural supercompact "nanogenome." PMID:25253891

  4. MOA-2013-BLG-220Lb: Massive planetary companion to galactic-disk host

    We report the discovery of MOA-2013-BLG-220Lb, which has a super-Jupiter mass ratio q = 3.01 ± 0.02 × 10–3 relative to its host. The proper motion, μ = 12.5 ± 1 mas yr–1, is one of the highest for microlensing planets yet discovered, implying that it will be possible to separately resolve the host within ∼7 yr. Two separate lines of evidence imply that the planet and host are in the Galactic disk. The planet could have been detected and characterized purely with follow-up data, which has important implications for microlensing surveys, both current and into the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) era.

  5. Evolution of the design of fuel handling control system in 220 MWe Indian PHWRs

    Following two CANDU type reactors at Rajasthan (RAPS-1 and 2), three nuclear power stations, each of two units of 220 MWe has been in operation at Rajasthan (RAPS-1 and 2). Madras (MAPS-1 and 2). Narora (NAPS-1 and 2) and Kakrapar (KAPS-1 and 2). Two more stations, also of 220 MWe capacity, are under construction at Rajasthan (RAPP-3 and 4) and Kaiga (Kaiga-1 and 2). These are natural uranium fuelled pressurized heavy water cooled and heavy water moderated reactors (PHWRs). The two units at Rajasthan viz RAPS-1 and 2, were built with the technical collaboration with Canada, and the rest of the units have been designed and built indigenously, incorporating a number of modifications, particularly in the on-power refuelling system. The evolution of the design of the Fuel Handling Control systems of these reactors, taking into consideration operational needs, safety aspects and maintainability are highlighted in this paper. A combination of hydraulic and electronic control has been provided to enable the operations. In RAPS-1 and 2, hardwired electronic controls were provided, while in MAPS-1 and 2, the hardwired system was improved. From NAPS onwards, a computerized control system with hardwired interlock logic has been provided. New devices like coarse-fine potentiometers, special oil filled potentiometer assembly, rectilinear potentiometers etc., were specified from NAPS onwards. Positioning logic is computerized providing flexibility and expendability. Digital panel meters and indicating lamps have been provided for manual mode operations, while CRT (cathode-ray tube) monitors help in computer mode operations. Hydraulic controls which comprise D20 hydraulics, H20 hydraulics and oil hydraulics have been improved from NAPS onwards. Hydraulic panels have been relocated in accessible areas to reduce radiation doses and for better maintainability. All electric drives including X and Y drives were modified as hydraulic drives for better control. New types of valves have

  6. The measurement of thoron (220Rn) concentration in indoor air continuously using pylon model WLx

    The concentration of thoron (220Rn) in particular location can be higher than radon (220Rn), however, its presence is always neglected. This might be due to the difficulties in calibration and discrimination between radon and thoron. From biokinetic and dosimetric model, it has been known that the dominant contribution of thoron to the effective dose is in the lungs. UNSCEAR estimates the doses contribution of thoron and its progenies is between 5-10% of the annual dose received by the general public and the risk level is 4.4 times greater than radon and progenies. Therefore, it is necessary to study the thoron concentration in indoor air and workplaces. Radon-thoron concentration in indoor air can be determined by direct methods using Pylon Model WLx device and passive methods using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTDs). In this research the measurement of thoron was carried out continuously using Pylon Model WLx equipment that is sensitive to radon for 24, 65, 72, 116 and 154 hours in different rooms. The measurement result showed that the mean value of thoron working level (WL) concentration obtained in room-1 was 2.53 ± 0.67 Bq/m3 with maximum and minimum of thoron concentrations were 3.37 and 2.22 Bq/m3 respectively. From the measurement in different locations, it was obtained that the largest and smallest average concentrations of thoron progenies were 0.83 ± 0.23 Bq/m3 and 0.29 ± 0.64 Bq/m3, while the maximum and minimum concentration values were 7.80 Bq/m3 and 0.01 Bq/m3 respectively. Pylon Model WLx device is not enables to be used for longer and large scale survey area concurrently, so the SSNTDs which is sensitive to the emission of alpha particles and can measure cumulative thoron concentrations is required. (author)

  7. QUIET-TIME INTERPLANETARY {approx}2-20 keV SUPERHALO ELECTRONS AT SOLAR MINIMUM

    Wang, Linghua [Department of Geophysics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Lin, Robert P.; Salem, Chadi; Pulupa, Marc; Larson, Davin E.; Luhmann, Janet G. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Yoon, Peter H., E-mail: wanglhwang@gmail.com [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    We present a statistical survey of {approx}2-20 keV superhalo electrons in the solar wind measured by the SupraThermal Electron instrument on board the two STEREO spacecraft during quiet-time periods from 2007 March through 2009 March at solar minimum. The observed superhalo electrons have a nearly isotropic angular distribution and a power-law spectrum, f{proportional_to}v{sup -{gamma}}, with {gamma} ranging from 5 to 8.7, with nearly half between 6.5 and 7.5, and an average index of 6.69 {+-} 0.90. The observed power-law spectrum varies significantly on a spatial scale of {approx}>0.1 AU and a temporal scale of {approx}>several days. The integrated density of quiet-time superhalo electrons at 2-20 keV ranges from {approx}10{sup -8} cm{sup -3} to 10{sup -6} cm{sup -3}, about 10{sup -9}-10{sup -6} of the solar wind density, and, as well as the power-law spectrum, shows no correlation with solar wind proton density, velocity, or temperature. The density of superhalo electrons appears to show a solar-cycle variation at solar minimum, while the power-law spectral index {gamma} has no solar-cycle variation. These quiet-time superhalo electrons are present even in the absence of any solar activity-e.g., active regions, flares or microflares, type III radio bursts, etc.-suggesting that they may be accelerated by processes such as resonant wave-particle interactions in the interplanetary medium, or possibly by nonthermal processes related to the acceleration of the solar wind such as nanoflares, or by acceleration at the CIR forward shocks.

  8. Non-conventional Indoor GIS Layout Design of 220kV Distribution Equipment in Guangzhou Xintang Power Plant%广州新塘电厂220 kV屋内GIS非常规布置的设计

    唐柳燕

    2014-01-01

    ∶针对广州新塘电厂2×330MW机组工程厂区布置的特殊性及局限性,文章详细分析论述了220kV配电装置采用屋内GIS型式非常规布置的设计过程及其特点,提出合适的布置方案,解决了220kV配电装置占地及出线问题,为类似工程提供借鉴。%The design and the characteristics of the non-conventional indoor GIS layout of 220kV distribution equip-ment were discussed and analyzed in the paper based on the particularity and limitation of plant layout of Guangzhou Xintang power plant, and a reasonable layout was proposed which solves the land occupation and outgoing line prob-lems of the 220kV distribution equipment and can be well referenced by similar projects.

  9. Observation on the Effect of Placement of Active γ Intrauterine Device and TCu220C IUD%放置活性γ型IUD与TCu220C IUD临床观察

    刘润兰

    2007-01-01

    目的:观察活性γ型宫内节育器(IUD)与TCu220C IUD的临床避孕效果.方法:选择2002年8月~2005年8月间1 100例放置活性γ型IUD和TCu220C IUD的育龄妇女,随机分为两组,每组各550例,于置器后6、12、24个月进行对比性观察.结果:活性γ型IUD 24个月的脱落率、妊娠率、因症取出率明显低于TCu220C IUD,有显著性差异(P<0.05);活性γ型IUD 24个月的累积续用率高于TCu220C IUD,有非常显著性差异(P<0.01).结论:活性γ型IUD脱落率低、不良反应少、续用率高,值得临床推广应用.

  10. Evaluation of the ID220 single photon avalanche diode for extended spectral range of photon time-of-flight spectroscopy

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Anderson-Engels, Stefan;

    This paper describe the performance of the ID220 single photon avalanche diode for single photon counting, and investigates its performance for photon time-of-flight (PToF) spectroscopy. At first this report will serve as a summary to the group for PToF spectroscopy at the Department of Physics...

  11. 41 CFR 102-37.220 - Are there special types of surplus property that require written justification when submitting a...

    2010-07-01

    ... of surplus property that require written justification when submitting a transfer request? 102-37.220... types of surplus property that require written justification when submitting a transfer request? Yes, a SASP must obtain written justification from the intended donee, and submit it to GSA along with...

  12. FIRST OBSERVATION IN THE SOUTH OF TITAN'S FAR-INFRARED 220 cm{sup -1} CLOUD

    Jennings, Donald E.; Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Romani, P. N.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; Hesman, B. E.; Kunde, V. G.; Carlson, R. C. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); De Kok, R. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Bampasidis, G. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Teanby, N. A. [School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Calcutt, S. B., E-mail: donald.e.jennings@nasa.gov [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-10

    An emission feature at 220 cm{sup -1} which has been attributed to a cloud of condensed material in Titan's winter stratosphere has been seen for the first time in the south. This feature had previously been found only at high northern latitudes during northern winter and spring. The material emitting at 220 cm{sup -1}, as yet unidentified, may be volatiles associated with nitrile gases that accumulate in the absence of ultraviolet sunlight. Not detected as recently as 2012 February, the 220 cm{sup -1} feature clearly appeared at the south pole in Cassini spectra recorded on 2012 July 24, indicating a rapid onset of the emission. This is the first indication of the winter buildup of condensation in the southern stratosphere that has been expected as the south pole moves deeper into shadow. In the north the 220 cm{sup -1} feature continued to decrease in intensity with a half-life of 3 years.

  13. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    2010-04-01

    .... Department of Transportation (49 CFR part 173). (5) Earth or sand dikes, or enclosures filled with the... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of...

  14. 75 FR 22623 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Mid-Atlantic Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 220 and Geological and...

    2010-04-29

    ... should be considered, and the types of oil and gas activities of interest in the Lease Sale 220 area... Atlantic OCS. The scoping period for that PEIS ends on May 17, 2010 (see 75 FR 16830). Pursuant to the... announced in the Federal Register on April 2, 2010 (75 FR 16830). Pursuant to the regulations...

  15. 12 CFR 250.220 - Whether member bank acting as trustee is prohibited by section 20 of the Banking Act of 1933 from...

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whether member bank acting as trustee is prohibited by section 20 of the Banking Act of 1933 from acquiring majority of shares of mutual fund. 250.220 Section 250.220 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE...

  16. 17 CFR 274.220 - Form N-17f-2, cover page for each certificate of accounting of securities and similar investments...

    2010-04-01

    ... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and... each certificate of accounting of securities and similar investments in the custody of a registered management investment company, filed pursuant to rule 17f-2. 274.220 Section 274.220 Commodity and...

  17. Harnessing Fluorine-Sulfur Contacts and Multipolar Interactions for the Design of p53 Mutant Y220C Rescue Drugs.

    Bauer, Matthias R; Jones, Rhiannon N; Baud, Matthias G J; Wilcken, Rainer; Boeckler, Frank M; Fersht, Alan R; Joerger, Andreas C; Spencer, John

    2016-08-19

    Many oncogenic mutants of the tumor suppressor p53 are conformationally unstable, including the frequently occurring Y220C mutant. We have previously developed several small-molecule stabilizers of this mutant. One of these molecules, PhiKan083, 1-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazole-3-yl)-N-methylmethanamine, binds to a mutation-induced surface crevice with a KD = 150 μM, thereby increasing the melting temperature of the protein and slowing its rate of aggregation. Incorporation of fluorine atoms into small molecule ligands can substantially improve binding affinity to their protein targets. We have, therefore, harnessed fluorine-protein interactions to improve the affinity of this ligand. Step-wise introduction of fluorines at the carbazole ethyl anchor, which is deeply buried within the binding site in the Y220C-PhiKan083 complex, led to a 5-fold increase in affinity for a 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl anchor (ligand efficiency of 0.3 kcal mol(-1) atom(-1)). High-resolution crystal structures of the Y220C-ligand complexes combined with quantum chemical calculations revealed favorable interactions of the fluorines with protein backbone carbonyl groups (Leu145 and Trp146) and the sulfur of Cys220 at the mutation site. Affinity gains were, however, only achieved upon trifluorination, despite favorable interactions of the mono- and difluorinated anchors with the binding pocket, indicating a trade-off between energetically favorable protein-fluorine interactions and increased desolvation penalties. Taken together, the optimized carbazole scaffold provides a promising starting point for the development of high-affinity ligands to reactivate the tumor suppressor function of the p53 mutant Y220C in cancer cells. PMID:27267810

  18. In situ soil 222Rn and 220Rn and their relationship with meteorological parameters in tropical Northern Peninsular Malaysia

    This study focused on the relationship between soil 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure, humidity, and terrestrial gamma radiation) in Northern Peninsular Malaysia. Measurements of in situ soil 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations were performed in surface air and at a sampling depth of 50 cm using two active techniques: RAD7 radon detector and radon continuous monitor (Sun Nuclear Corporation). The surface air 222Rn concentration ranged from 6 Bq m−3 to 79 Bq m−3, whereas at the depth of 50 cm, the 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations varied from 133 Bq m−3 to 143,059 Bq m−3 and from 55 Bq m−3 to 403 Bq m−3, respectively. The gamma dose rate (DR) in air was measured using a GR-135 spectrometer (Exploranium). The dose rate varied from 80 nGy h−1 to 258 nGy h−1. The 222Rn concentration in the soil (143 kBq m−3) was high considering that the concentration in typical soil samples is only 40 kBq m−3. The 222Rn concentration in surface air varied within the recommended activity values prescribed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Weak positive and negative correlations were observed between the (222Rn and 220Rn) concentrations and the meteorological parameters. - Highlights: • DR varies (80–258 nGy h−1), no correlation between acidity and radon concentration. • 222Rn in soil (143 kBq m−3) high considering than in typical soil 40 kBq m−3. • 222Rn in surface air varied within EPA and ICRP. • All sites exhibited larger DR compared with the world of 84 nGy h−1 except for two sites. • A statistically significant correlation between 222Rns–220Rn

  19. A mammalian protein of 220 kDa binds pre-mRNAs in the spliceosome: A potential homologue of the yeast PRP8 protein

    A mammalian protein of approximately 220 kDa (p220) was UV-crosslinked to precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs) under splicing conditions. The kinetics and biochemical requirements of the UV-crosslinking of p220 corresponded to the kinetics and biochemical requirements of spliceosome formation. On Western blots, antibodies against the yeast splicing factor PRP8 recognized a doublet of proteins, the faster migrating of which comigrated with p220. Furthermore, UV-crosslinked p220 was immunoprecipitated with anti-PRP8 antisera. These results suggest structural conservation of the splicing factor PRP8 from yeast to mammals and show that this protein is in close proximity to the pre-mRNA in the spliceosome

  20. GyneFix IN与TCu220C宫内节育器临床使用效果随访1年观察

    王兆明

    2009-01-01

    目的:比较吉妮固定式宫内节育器(IUD)和TCu220C IUD临床使用效果.方法:选择自愿放置IUD的已婚育龄妇女422例,随机分成2组,分别放置吉妮(IUD)和TCu220C IUD,并进行12个月随访观察.结果:吉妮IUD的脱落率显著低于TCu220C IUD(P<0.01),因症取出率及终止率,吉妮IUD与TCu220C IUD比较,有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论:吉妮IUD是避孕效果优于TCu220C IUD,可在临床上推广使用.

  1. 3C 220.3: A radio galaxy lensing a submillimeter galaxy

    Haas, Martin; Westhues, Christian; Chini, Rolf [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr Universität, Bochum (Germany); Leipski, Christian; Klaas, Ulrich; Meisenheimer, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Barthel, Peter; Koopmans, Léon V. E. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Wilkes, Belinda J.; Bussmann, R. Shane; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Vegetti, Simona [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Garching (Germany); Clements, David L. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Fassnacht, Christopher D. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Horesh, Assaf [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Lagattuta, David J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn (Australia); Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika, E-mail: haas@astro.rub.de [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-07-20

    Herschel Space Observatory photometry and extensive multiwavelength follow-up have revealed that the powerful radio galaxy (PRG) 3C 220.3 at z = 0.685 acts as a gravitational lens for a background submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 2.221. At an observed wavelength of 1 mm, the SMG is lensed into three distinct images. In the observed near infrared, these images are connected by an arc of ∼1''.8 radius forming an Einstein half-ring centered near the radio galaxy. In visible light, only the arc is apparent. 3C 220.3 is the only known instance of strong galaxy-scale lensing by a PRG not located in a galaxy cluster and therefore it offers the potential to probe the dark matter content of the radio galaxy host. Lens modeling rejects a single lens, but two lenses centered on the radio galaxy host A and a companion B, separated by 1''.5, provide a fit consistent with all data and reveal faint candidates for the predicted fourth and fifth images. The model does not require an extended common dark matter halo, consistent with the absence of extended bright X-ray emission on our Chandra image. The projected dark matter fractions within the Einstein radii of A (1''.02) and B (0''.61) are about 0.4 ± 0.3 and 0.55 ± 0.3. The mass to i-band light ratios of A and B, M/L{sub i}∼8±4 M{sub ⊙} L{sub ⊙}{sup −1}, appear comparable to those of radio-quiet lensing galaxies at the same redshift in the CfA-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey, Lenses Structure and Dynamics, and Strong Lenses in the Legacy Survey samples. The lensed SMG is extremely bright with observed f(250 μm) = 440 mJy owing to a magnification factor μ ∼ 10. The SMG spectrum shows luminous, narrow C IV λ1549 Å emission, revealing that the SMG houses a hidden quasar in addition to a violent starburst. Multicolor image reconstruction of the SMG indicates a bipolar morphology of the emitted ultraviolet (UV) light suggestive of cones through which UV light escapes a

  2. CHEMICALLY DISTINCT NUCLEI AND OUTFLOWING SHOCKED MOLECULAR GAS IN Arp 220

    Tunnard, R.; Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Garcia-Burillo, S.; Fuente, A.; Usero, A.; Planesas, P. [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Observatorio de Madrid, Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Carpio, J. Graciá; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Sturm, E. [Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fischer, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); González-Alfonso, E.; Neri, R., E-mail: richard.tunnard.13@ucl.ac.uk [Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-10

    We present the results of interferometric spectral line observations of Arp 220 at 3.5 mm and 1.2 mm from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, imaging the two nuclear disks in H{sup 13}CN(1-0) and (3-2), H{sup 13}CO{sup +}(1-0) and (3-2), and HN{sup 13}C(3-2) as well as SiO(2-1) and (6-5), HC{sup 15}N(3-2), and SO(6{sub 6}-5{sub 5}). The gas traced by SiO(6-5) has a complex and extended kinematic signature including a prominent P Cygni profile, almost identical to previous observations of HCO{sup +}(3-2). Spatial offsets 0.''1 north and south of the continuum center in the emission and absorption of the SiO(6-5) P Cygni profile in the western nucleus (WN) imply a bipolar outflow, delineating the northern and southern edges of its disk and suggesting a disk radius of ∼40 pc, consistent with that found by ALMA observations of Arp 220. We address the blending of SiO(6-5) and H{sup 13}CO{sup +}(3-2) by considering two limiting cases with regards to the H{sup 13}CO{sup +} emission throughout our analysis. Large velocity gradient modeling is used to constrain the physical conditions of the gas and to infer abundance ratios in the two nuclei. Our most conservative lower limit on the [H{sup 13}CN]/[H{sup 13}CO{sup +}] abundance ratio is 11 in the WN, compared with 0.10 in the eastern nucleus (EN). Comparing these ratios to the literature we argue on chemical grounds for an energetically significant active galactic nucleus in the WN driving either X-ray or shock chemistry, and a dominant starburst in the EN.

  3. 3C 220.3: A radio galaxy lensing a submillimeter galaxy

    Herschel Space Observatory photometry and extensive multiwavelength follow-up have revealed that the powerful radio galaxy (PRG) 3C 220.3 at z = 0.685 acts as a gravitational lens for a background submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 2.221. At an observed wavelength of 1 mm, the SMG is lensed into three distinct images. In the observed near infrared, these images are connected by an arc of ∼1''.8 radius forming an Einstein half-ring centered near the radio galaxy. In visible light, only the arc is apparent. 3C 220.3 is the only known instance of strong galaxy-scale lensing by a PRG not located in a galaxy cluster and therefore it offers the potential to probe the dark matter content of the radio galaxy host. Lens modeling rejects a single lens, but two lenses centered on the radio galaxy host A and a companion B, separated by 1''.5, provide a fit consistent with all data and reveal faint candidates for the predicted fourth and fifth images. The model does not require an extended common dark matter halo, consistent with the absence of extended bright X-ray emission on our Chandra image. The projected dark matter fractions within the Einstein radii of A (1''.02) and B (0''.61) are about 0.4 ± 0.3 and 0.55 ± 0.3. The mass to i-band light ratios of A and B, M/Li∼8±4 M⊙ L⊙−1, appear comparable to those of radio-quiet lensing galaxies at the same redshift in the CfA-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey, Lenses Structure and Dynamics, and Strong Lenses in the Legacy Survey samples. The lensed SMG is extremely bright with observed f(250 μm) = 440 mJy owing to a magnification factor μ ∼ 10. The SMG spectrum shows luminous, narrow C IV λ1549 Å emission, revealing that the SMG houses a hidden quasar in addition to a violent starburst. Multicolor image reconstruction of the SMG indicates a bipolar morphology of the emitted ultraviolet (UV) light suggestive of cones through which UV light escapes a dust-enshrouded nucleus.

  4. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes in 220 Saudi Women 

    Turki Gasim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: To assess the maternal and fetal complications of pregnancy in mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM compared with non-diabetic patients who delivered in the hospital during the study period.Methods: The outcome of pregnancy in 220 Saudi patients with GDM identified from the delivery register/hospital database and matched for age, parity and body mass index with 220 non-diabetic controls were studied retrospectively from their case files. Patients with multiple pregnancies and abnormal presentation of the fetus were excluded from the study.Results: The GDM patients were treated with either diet alone or with additional insulin in some patients who required better control of their blood sugar levels. Patients with GDM had a significantly higher incidence of pre-eclampsia (p<0.0001; preterm delivery (p=0.0226; induction of labor (p<0.0001; cesarean section (p=0.0019; higher mean birth weight (p<0.0001 of babies; large for gestational age infants (p=0.0011; macrosomia (p=0.0186; and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (p=0.0003, compared with the control group. However, the rates of Apgarscore <7 at 5 minutes, respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia and the need for phototherapy were similar in both groups of patients. Congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality rates were not significantly different in the two groups.Conclusion: GDM is recognized to be associated with increased rates of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, which are supported by the findings of this study. Even the mild form of GDM seems to have significant consequences for women and their offspring and is recommended to be aggressively treated. Evidence suggests that early diagnosis and strict control of blood sugar levels throughout the pregnancy can significantly reduce maternal and fetal complications. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial, based on universally accepted criteria for GDM screening test

  5. RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF TRANSMISSION TOWER OF 220 KV M/C “MA” VERTICAL MEMBERS

    M.V.R.SATYANARAYANA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transmission line towers are used to support conductors carrying extra high voltage (EHV electric transmission lines and one or two ground wires at suitable distance. These also carry vary heavy currents, to the tune of several hundred amperes. This has necessitated the use of tall towers to support the transmission line conductors carrying EHV. The cost of transmission line tower is 30% to 40% of total cost of transmission line. The problem of efficiently designing structural system involves reliability constraints imposed at both serviceability and ultimate limit state. Methods are developed using structural reliability principle to evaluate time dependent reliability of structure. These methods enable the impact on safety and serviceability of uncertainties in loading conditions, structural degradation due to aggressive environment to be assessed qualitatively. The prediction of service life of damaged or deteriorated steel structures remains at the stage of parametric studies, inspite of intensive research on corrosion in steel structures for the past three decades. Service live of steel structures is limited by the susceptibility of the member to corrosion. Oxidation of iron leads to the formulation of various products (such as ferrous and ferric oxides, some of which occupy much greater volume than the original iron that gets consumed by the corrosion process. At this stage the member loses its ability to resist the forces. This project is a study on reliability assessment of 220 kV transmission towers. In this the 220 kV tower consists of 33.935 m height arranged in 12 height Panels and it contain 225 members. The wind load on tower for zone –II condition is calculated according to IS Code IS: 802 (part – 1/Section – 1: 1995. The tower is analyzed as space truss for full load condition using STAAD Pro 2007. In this work the variation of reliability index of members with decrease in area of cross section are studied. The compression

  6. Improvement of failure protection for high voltage side circuit breaker of 220 kV transformer%220kV变压器高压侧断路器失灵保护的改进

    郑春生

    2016-01-01

    Failure protection of Shengli Oilfield 220 kV substation main transformer circuit breaker, its typical configuration cannot effectively isolate the fault point, in some atypical failure,the main transformer for a long time by the impact of short-circuit current,seriously affect the power system stability and safety. The failure protection action nodes and mother difference protection action nodes and the corresponding non electric starter relay series, when startup failure protection, the corresponding node closed, start relay, to direct trip-ping of main transformer with three side of the switch. Using this improved scheme, 3 of Shengli Oilfield 220 kV substation main transformer failure protection has been improved, reduces the possibility of 220 kV Main Transformer be impact by the fault current, guarantee the safe and stable operation of power grids.%胜利油田220 kV变电站主变断路器失灵保护中的典型配置不能有效隔离故障点,在一些非典型故障中,会使主变长时间受到短路电流冲击,严重影响电力系统稳定性和安全性.为此,将失灵保护动作节点和母差保护动作节点与相应的非电量启动继电器串联,当失灵保护启动时,相应节点闭合,启动继电器,进而直接跳开主变三侧开关.应用此改进方案,对胜利油田3座220 kV变电站的主变失灵保护进行了完善,降低了220 kV主变压器受到故障电流冲击的可能性,保障了电网安全、稳定运行.

  7. A preliminary Investigation of 222Rn and 220Rn levels in non-uranium mines in China%我国非铀矿山222Rn和220Rn水平初步调查研究

    尚兵; 崔宏星; 武云云; 张庆召; 苏旭

    2008-01-01

    Objective To measure levels of 222Rn and 220Rn in typical non-uranium mines, China, and to estimate dose from the occupational radon exposure in the miners. Methods Using typical sampling scheme,44 mines were selectcd in 12 provinces, which can be classified into 4 categories and 17 types of mines. The radon-thoron discriminative detectors were used to measure 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in mines. Result The concentration of 222Rn or 220Rn was log-normally distributed. The arithmetic mean (AM) concentration and geometric mean (GM) concentration of 222Rn and 220Rn in 25 metal mines (n=147) were estimated to be (1211±2359) Bq/m3(AM) and (311±5.5) Bq/m3(GM), and (269±700) Bq/m3(AM) and (71±4.4)Bq/m3(GM), respectively. The mean concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn in 18 non-metal mines (n=118) were (98±207) Bq/m3(AM) and(55±2.5) Bq/m3(GM), and (60±76) Bq/m3(AM) and (38±2.4)Bq/m3(GM),respectively. In total, we measured 222 Rn concentration in 44 underground mines, 6 of them, accounted for 15%, with the mean radon concentration exceeding 1000 Bqm-3 (limit of workplace in China). Approximately 7% of radon concentration in mines measured were higher than 3700 Bq/m3(current limit in uranium mine in China), some points even exceeded 10 000 Bq/m3. Based on this typical measurements, the equilibrium factor for 222Rn was estimated to be 0.33±0.15 in underground mines and 0.47±0.18 in nearby houses. Equilibrium factor for 222Rn ranged from 0.001 to 0.032. Using the data obtained in this typical survey, the average annual effective dose of underground miners exposed to radon and thoron was estimated to be 8.15 mSv/a. Conclusions High levels of 222Rn exists in metal mines, such as copper, tin, lead and zinc, gold, and aluminum mines among others. More study and administrative measures are needed to address the radiation protection of workers occupationally exposed to high radon in mines.%目的 测量非铀矿山222Rn、220Rn水平,了解我国矿山氡超标比

  8. High-Resolution Radio Continuum Measurements of the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

    Barcos-Muñoz, Loreto; Evans, Aaron S; Privon, George C; Armus, Lee; Condon, Jim; Mazzarella, Joseph M; Meier, David S; Momjian, Emmanuel; Murphy, Eric J; Ott, Juerguen; Reichardt, Ashely; Sakamoto, Kazushi; Sanders, David B; Schinnerer, Eva; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Surace, Jason A; Thompson, Todd A; Walter, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    We present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum images of the nuclei of Arp 220, the nearest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy. These images have both the angular resolution to study detailed morphologies of the two nuclei that power the system and sensitivity to a wide range of spatial scales. At 33 GHz, and with a resolution of 0".081 x 0".063 (29.9 x 23.3 pc), we resolve the emission surrounding both nuclei and conclude that is mostly synchrotron in nature. The spatial distributions of radio emission in both nuclei are well described by exponential profiles. These have deconvolved half-light radii of 51 and 35 pc for the eastern and western nuclei, and they match the number density profile of radio supernovae observed with very long baseline interferometry. This similarity might be due to the fast cooling of cosmic rays electrons caused by the presence of a strong (~ mG) magnetic field in this system. We estimate high luminosity surface densities of $\\mathrm{\\Sigma_{IR} \\sim 4.2^{+1.6}_{-0.7} \\...

  9. Surface-deposition and Distribution of the Radon (222Rn and 220Rn) Decay Products Indoors

    Espinosa, G.; Tommasino, Luigi

    The exposure to radon (222Rn and 220Rn) decay products is of great concern both in dwellings and workplaces. The model to estimate the lung dose refers to the deposition mechanisms and particle sizes. Unfortunately, most of the dose data available are based on the measurement of radon concentration and the concentration of radon decay products. These combined measurements are widely used in spite of the fact that accurate dose assessments require information on the particle deposition mechanisms and the spatial distribution of radon decay products indoors. Most of the airborne particles and/or radon decay products are deposited onto indoor surfaces, which deposition makes the radon decay products unavailable for inhalation. These deposition processes, if properly known, could be successfully exploited to reduce the exposure to radon decay products. In spite of the importance of the surface deposition of the radon decay products, both for the correct evaluation of the dose and for reducing the exposure, little or no efforts have been made to investigate these deposition processes. Recently, two parallel investigations have been carried out in Rome and at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) in Mexico City respectively, which address the issue of the surface-deposited radon decay products. Even though these investigations have been carried independently, they complement one another. It is with these considerations in mind that it was decided to report both investigations in the same paper.

  10. Investigation and analysis on seasonal variations of indoor 222Rn and 220Rn concentration in Longdong district, Gansu Province

    Objective: To study the seasonal variation of indoor 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in Longdong district, Gansu Province. Methods: A total of 44 houses from 5 different types of raw soil architectures and 5 ordinary brick houses from a typical area were selected in Longdong district, Gansu Province in China. The LD-P discriminative 222Rn and 220Rn detectors were used to measure the indoor concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn during four seasons in one year. Results: The indoor concentrations of 222Rn showed a significant seasonal variation,which varied with different types of houses. 222Rn concentrations of ordinary brick houses, soil brick houses and the cave dwellings were higher in winter and autumn and lower in summer. The average concentrations of 222Rn were 55.3-90.3 Bq/m3 in winter,36.4-65.7 Bq/m3 in spring, 35.6-63.9 Bq/m3 in summer, and 60.7-87.2 Bq/m3 in autumn. For cave dwellings,open-cut cave dwellings and the underground cave dwellings, 222Rn concentrations were higher in summer and autumn, and lower in winter and spring. The average concentrations of 222Rn ranged from 139-184 Bq/m3 in winter,135-199 Bq/m3 in spring, 179-252 Bq/m3 in summer,172-242 Bq/m3 in autumn. The seasonal variation of indoor 220Rn was basically consistent in six types of houses, and lower in winter and spring and highest in autumn. The average concentrations of 220Rn ranged from 43.4-64.3 Bq/m3 in winter, 60.6-537 Bq/m3 in spring, 77.7-792 Bq/m3 in summer, 63.2-1077 Bq/m3 in autumn. The indoor concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn were different among different types of houses, and they were generally higher in type of raw soft architectures than in that of ordinary brick houses. Conclusions: 222Rn concentrations indoors showed a significant seasonal variation and varied with different types of houses. (authors)

  11. Clinic Effect of Active Yuangong IUD and TCu220C IUD%放置活性元宫IUD与TCu220C IUD 24个月临床效果观察

    张伟; 田九玲; 张淑斌; 张娜

    2005-01-01

    目的:观察活性元宫IUD的临床效果.方法:对1 060例分别放置活性元宫IUD和TCu220CIUD的育龄妇女,进行24个月随访观察.结果:活性元宫IUD 24个月的脱落率、妊娠率、因症取出率及终止率明显低于TCu220C IUD,经检验有显著性差异(P<0.05).讨论:活性元宫IUD是避孕效果较理想的避孕措施.

  12. 220kV地下变电站环境影响及对策分析%Environmental Impact and Countermeasures Analysis for 220kV Underground Substation

    邬振武

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impacts of 220 kV Jinan underground substation are discussed in the aspect of electromagnetic fields,noise pollution,and heat dissipation;some relevant countermeasures for reducing the environmental impact are explored,too.After analysis,it is shown that the environmental impact of Jinan substation is under the requirement of relevant national standards and regulations.%分析了某220 kV地下变电站在工频电磁场、噪声、散热量等方面对环境的影响,以及在设计中所采取的降低其影响的相关措施。通过分析认为,该变电站对于环境的影响完全符合国家和地区的相关法律和规范要求。

  13. OPGW型光缆从500kV转接至220 kV线路%Design and Discussion of OPGW from 500 kV Change 220 kV Power Line

    霍凤田

    2006-01-01

    主要介绍了OPGW型光缆从500 kV线路转接至220 kV线路,设计需要考虑安全性能、绝缘要求和光缆的热容量等因素,通过计算OPGW在不同电压等级线路之间转接是可行的.

  14. Distinction of [220] and [204] textures of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} film and their growth behaviors depending on substrate nature and Na incorporation

    Cho, Dae-Hyung, E-mail: dhcho@etri.re.kr [IT Components and Materials Industry Technology Research Department, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), 218 Gajeongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeha [Department of Solar & Energy Engineering, Cheongju University, 298 Daeseongro, Sangdang-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 360-764 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong-Duck [IT Components and Materials Industry Technology Research Department, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), 218 Gajeongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-31

    For better understanding of the structural property of polycrystalline tetragonal Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films grown on soda-lime glass, it is necessary to characterize the [220]- and [204]-oriented textures clearly that are related to the different physical properties. However, the distinction between the [220]- and [204]-oriented textures is very difficult because of their nearly identical plane spacings and atomic arrangements. Using X-ray diffraction techniques of high resolution θ–2θ scanning and reciprocal space mapping, we distinguished the [220]- and [204]-oriented textures of CIGS films and observed that the behaviors of [220] and [204] textures independently depended on both substrate nature and Na presence. We report the Na- and substrate-related dependence of the physical properties of the CIGS film was attributed to the independent growth behaviors of the [220] and [204] textures in the CIGS. - Highlights: • We investigated [220]- and [204]-oriented textures of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) films. • X-ray diffraction methods distinguished two textures. • The growth behaviors were influenced by underlying substrate and Na. • The [220] and [204] textures in CIGS should be differentially observed.

  15. Distinction of [220] and [204] textures of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 film and their growth behaviors depending on substrate nature and Na incorporation

    For better understanding of the structural property of polycrystalline tetragonal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films grown on soda-lime glass, it is necessary to characterize the [220]- and [204]-oriented textures clearly that are related to the different physical properties. However, the distinction between the [220]- and [204]-oriented textures is very difficult because of their nearly identical plane spacings and atomic arrangements. Using X-ray diffraction techniques of high resolution θ–2θ scanning and reciprocal space mapping, we distinguished the [220]- and [204]-oriented textures of CIGS films and observed that the behaviors of [220] and [204] textures independently depended on both substrate nature and Na presence. We report the Na- and substrate-related dependence of the physical properties of the CIGS film was attributed to the independent growth behaviors of the [220] and [204] textures in the CIGS. - Highlights: • We investigated [220]- and [204]-oriented textures of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films. • X-ray diffraction methods distinguished two textures. • The growth behaviors were influenced by underlying substrate and Na. • The [220] and [204] textures in CIGS should be differentially observed

  16. Do nuclei go pear-shaped? Coulomb excitation of 220Rn and 224Ra at REX-ISOLDE (CERN

    Scheck M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The IS475 collaboration conducted Coulomb-excitation experiments with post-accelerated radioactive 220Rn and 224Ra beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility. The beam particles (Ebeam: 2.83 MeV/u were Coulomb excited using 60Ni, 114Cd, and 120Sn scattering targets. De-excitation γ-rays were detected employing the Miniball array and scattered particles were detected in a silicon detector. Exploiting the Coulomb-excitation code GOSIA for each nucleus several matrix elements could be obtained from the measured γ-ray yields. The extracted ‹3−||E3||0+› matrix element allows for the conclusion that, while 220Rn represents an octupole vibrational system, 224Ra has already substantial octupole correlations in its ground state. This finding has implications for the search of CP-violating Schiff moments in the atomic systems of the adjacent odd-mass nuclei.

  17. Excitation Potentials and Shell Corrections for the Elements Z2=20 to Z2=30

    Andersen, H.H.; Sørensen, H.; Vadja, P.

    1969-01-01

    Excitation potentials and shell corrections for the elements Z 2=20 to Z2=30 are evaluated from experimental stopping-power data for 5-12-MeV protons and deuterons. Use is made of Walske's K- and L-shell corrections and shell corrections calculated by Bonderup (1967) on the basis of the Thomas-Fe...... found by means of Bonderup's shell corrections. Within the Z2 interval treated here, it is found that I/Z2 increases with increasing Z2, contrary to the general trend through the periodic system of elements......Excitation potentials and shell corrections for the elements Z 2=20 to Z2=30 are evaluated from experimental stopping-power data for 5-12-MeV protons and deuterons. Use is made of Walske's K- and L-shell corrections and shell corrections calculated by Bonderup (1967) on the basis of the Thomas...

  18. Precursory Subsurface 222Rn and 220Rn Degassing Signatures of the 2004 Seismic Crisis at Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys; Marrero, Rayco; Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Nolasco, Dácil

    2007-12-01

    Precursory geochemical signatures of radon degassing in the subsurface of the Tenerife Island were observed several months prior to the recent 2004 seismic-volcanic crisis. These premonitory signatures were detected by means of a continuous monitoring of 222Rn and 220Rn activity from a bubbling CO2-rich gas spot located at 2.850 m depth inside a horizontal gallery for groundwater exploitation at Tenerife. Multivariate Regression Analysis (MRA) on time series of the radon activity was applied to eliminate the radon activity fluctuation due to external variables such as barometric pressure, temperature and relative humidity as well as power supply. Material Failure Forecast Method (FFM) was successfully applied to forecast the anomalous seismicity registered in Tenerife Island in 2004. The changes in the 222Rn/220Rn ratio observed after the period of anomalous seismicity might suggest a higher gas flow rate and/or changes in the vertical permeability induced by seismic activity.

  19. Impact of SSSC on Measured Impedance in Single Phase to Ground Fault Condition on 220 kV Transmission Line

    Mohamed ZELLAGUI; CHAGHI Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and compares the impact of SSSC on measured impedance for single phase to ground fault condition. The presence of Static Synchronous SSSC on a transmission line has a great influence on the ZRelay in distance protection. The protection of the high voltage 220 kV single circuit transmission line in eastern Algerian electrical transmission networks is affected in the case with resistance fault RF. The paper investigate the effect of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSS...

  20. Proficiency test for non-destructive assay of 220 liter radioactive waste drums by gamma assay systems

    The European Network of Testing Facilities for the Quality Checking of Radioactive Waste Packages (ENTRAP) initiated a feasibility study on how to organize in the most cost effective way an international proficiency tests for non-destructive, gamma-ray based, assay of 220 liter radioactive waste drums in the European Union at a regular time interval of 2 or 3 years. This feasibility study addresses all aspects of proficiency testing on radioactive waste packages including the design of a commonly accepted reference 220 liter drum. This design, based on the international response on a send out questionnaire, includes matrixes, radioactive sources; a solution to overcome the tedious and expensive international transport costs of real or even simulated waste packages, general cost estimation for the organization of, and the participation in the proficiency test. The proposed concept for the proficiency testing and the estimated costs are presented. The participation costs of the first proficiency test are mainly determined by the manufacturing of the non-radioactive 220 liter drum (± 55%). Applied reference sources, transport of the drum and reference sources and participation costs in the proficiency test contribute each about ± 15%. (authors)

  1. First detection of GeV emission from an ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Jun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic rays (CRs) in starburst galaxies produce high energy gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. Arp 220 is the nearest ultra luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) that has star-formation at extreme levels, so it has long been predicted to emit high-energy gamma-rays. However, no evidence of gamma-ray emission was found despite intense efforts of search. Here we report the discovery of high-energy gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from Arp 220 at a confidence level of $\\sim 6.3 \\sigma $ using 7.5 years of \\textsl {Fermi} Large Area Telescope observation. The gamma-ray emission shows no significant variability over the observation period and it obeys the quasi-linear scaling relation between the gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, suggesting that these gamma-rays arise from CR interactions. As the high density gas makes Arp 220 an ideal CR calorimeter, the gamma-ray luminosity can be used to measure the efficiency of powering CRs by supernova remnants ...

  2. 3D Hot Test Simulations of a 220 GHz Folded Waveguide Traveling Wave Tube Using a CFDTD PIC Method

    Lin, Ming-Chieh; Song, Heather

    2015-11-01

    Millimeter or sub-THz wave sources centered at 220 GHz is of interest due to the potential for its commercial and military applications including high resolution radar, remote sensing, and high-data-rate communications. It has been demonstrated via 3D cold test finite element method (FEM) simulations that a folded waveguide traveling wave tube (FWTWT) can be designed and optimized at this frequency range with a small signal gain of 18 dB over a comparatively broad (-3 dB) bandwidth of ~ 10%. On the other hand, 3D hot test simulations of a V-band ladder TWT have been successfully demonstrated using a conformal finite-difference time-domain (CFDTD) particle-in-cell (PIC) method for center frequency of 50 GHz. In the present work, the 220 GHz FWTWT designs have been reviewed and studied. 3D Cold test simulations using both the CFDTD and FEM methods have been carried out and compared with each other as basis for 3D hot test CFDTD PIC simulations. The preliminary simulation result shows that the gain-bandwidth features at 220 GHz are achievable while carefully avoiding beam interceptions. Our study shows that the interaction characteristics are very sensitive to the operating beam parameters. Detail simulation results and discussions will be presented.

  3. The influence of soil water status on Oryza Sativa Var. MR220 in KADA rice agroecosystem

    A study to determine the influence of soil water status on rice plant Oryza sativa var. MR220 after panicle initiation stage was carried out at Ladang Merdeka Mulong Lating in the Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority (KADA) area, Kelantan. Five water management treatments imposed on direct seeded rice were; T1. Continuous flooding, T2. Early flooding up to panicle initiation stage followed by saturated (F55-saturated), T3. Early flooding for the first month followed by saturated (F-30 saturated), T4. Continuous saturated, and T5. Continuous field capacity condition throughout the growth stage. The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Results showed significant differences in soil moisture content in the order of T1>T2>T3>T4>T5. Significant differences were also observed in rice plant water content at 68 DAS (days after seeding) in the order of T2>T3>T4>T1>T5. Moisture content also showed significant differences between replicates in the order of R1>R2>R3>R4 and R2>R1>R3>R4; in rice plant and ricefield soil, respectively. Results however showed no significant difference in leaf stomatal conductance due to water stress. Rice plant moisture, soil moisture and leaf stomatal conductance showed no interaction. Published results show that even though overall crop yield was reduced by sheath blight and panicle blast incidence that occur at later stage in 2004-2005 field trials, highest grain yields were obtained from T2 (off season) and T4 (main season). Saturated condition seems to be the most suitable method of growing rice under minimal water input in KADA rice agroecosystem. (Author)

  4. Estimation of 222Rn, 220Rn and their progeny concentration using pin-hole cup dosimeters and deposition based progeny sensors

    Radon (220Rn) and Thoron (220Rn) progeny concentrations contribute to the natural radiation dose to general public. Due to the fact that the inhalation doses due to 222Rn and 220Rn are contributed predominantly by their decay products, development of passive techniques for monitoring the decay products directly assumes considerable significance. The concentrations of progenies are determined through Equivalent Equilibrium Concentrations of 222Rn as well as 220Rn (EERC and EETC) respectively. EERC and EETC are measured by deposition based Direct Progeny Sensors (DRPS, DTPS) in bare modes. Direct Thoron Progeny Sensors (DTPS) and Direct Radon Progeny Sensors (DRPS) are developed which are depositions based systems and hence ensure that they respond only to the decay products and not to gas concentrations. The recently developed (by BARC) DRPS and DTPS technique for 222Rn and 222Rn progeny measurements for the present study will be better than previous available techniques viz. use of SSNTDs in bare and cup mode

  5. Insights from the draft genome of the subsection V (Stigonematales) cyanobacterium Hapalosiphon sp. Strain MRB220 associated with 2-MIB production.

    Tan, Boon Fei; Te, Shu Harn; Boo, Chek Yin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Thompson, Janelle Renee

    2016-01-01

    A non-axenic unialgal culture containing a Subsection V (Stigonematales) cyanobacterium, Hapalosiphon strain MRB 220, was obtained from a benthic freshwater algal mat through multiple transfers following growth in sterile media. Physiological characterization demonstrated the culture was capable of nitrogen-fixation and production of the off flavor compound 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB). Total DNA isolated from this culture was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq and de novo assembled into contigs. The genome of MRB 220 was separated from co-occurring heterotrophic bacteria using sequence homology and compositional approaches, and its purity was confirmed based on best BLAST hit classification and principle component analysis of the tetranucleotide frequencies of fragmented contigs. The genome of ~7.4 Mbp contains 6,345 protein coding genes with 4,320 of these having functional prediction including predicted pathways for biosynthesis of the secondary metabolite welwitindolinone. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene and whole genome sequence average nucleotide identity indicated close relatedness of MRB 220 to the genera Hapalosiphon and Fischerella within the order Stigonematales. Microscopic examination showed that MRB 220 formed heterocystous branched filaments, thereby supporting identification of strain MRB 220 as a morphospecies of Hapalosiphon. Availability of the draft genome of Hapalosiphon strain MRB 220 enables future work to elucidate the pathway and dynamics for biosynthesis of 2-MIB and other secondary metabolites and understand the ecology and physiology of Stigonematales cyanobacteria in tropical freshwaters. PMID:27594977

  6. Controlled test evaluation of the benzimidazole anthelmintic VET 220-S alone or with concomitant trichlorfon treatment against naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites in ponies.

    Bello, T R

    1991-04-01

    A controlled test was done in 30 naturally infected ponies to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of the dienbendazole analog VET 220-S given alone or with trichlorfon (TCF) by nasogastric intubation. Six ponies were nontreated; 6 were given VET 220-S (5.0 mg/kg); 6 were given TCF (40 mg/kg); 6 were given VET 220-S (2.5 mg/kg) and TCF (40 mg/kg); and 6 were given VET 220-S (5.0 mg/kg) and TCF (40 mg/kg). All ponies were euthanatized and necropsied 7 or 8 days after treatment. Draschia megastoma, Oxyuris equi, Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, and small strongyles were removed efficaciously by all doses of VET 220-S. Habronema muscae and microfilariae of Onchocerca cervicalis were not removed by VET 220-S or TCF. Gasterophilus intestinalis was 97.9% removed by TCF. Pregnant mares in all groups were not adversely affected by treatment, except for 1 mare that had diarrhea after TCF treatment. Parasite eggs per gram and larval culture data agreed with necropsy data. PMID:2053725

  7. STUDY ON PERFORMANCE OF 220 kV M/C MA TOWER DUE TO WIND

    V. LAKSHMI,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric Power is today playing an increasingly important role in the life of the community. In the electric power system the production and transmission of power are two predominant factors. For the purpose of transmission of electricity towers are the main medium with some wires at required distances and altitudes. The remotehydroelectric power plants have given rise to the need for extra high voltage. Prior to 1950, 150 kV electric transmission lines were considered and still higher voltages are being considered these days. Hence it has given rise to the need for relative tall structures such as towers. Thus the study of designing and erection of steel towers has become a challenging task. Transmission line tower normally omprise of several hundred - angle members eccentrically connected. Structural analysis of this type of structure requires extensive data generation. Conventional process of data generation in describing the topology, geometry, load and support conditions are very tedious, time consuming and susceptible to error. In general, most towers may be idealized as statically determinate and analyzed for forces. However, the computations are very lengthy and there are many chances of making errors in such cases. Further if a member is to be redesigned then the entire wind load computations have to be repeated. The computational problem in tower is more acute and tedious as the load depends on the member sizes. A rational and economical design can be made with the help of software’s like STADD Pro 2003, SAP-2000.In this dissertation an attempt is made to develop a software for load calculations on transmission line towers of capacity 220 kV, only as per new code i.e., IS – 802 (Part- I / Sec-1:1995 by considering reliability, security, safety and anti-cascading conditions. In MS-office the EXCEL is used to develop program for wind load calculations on the tower and other loads like wind load on conductor, conductor weights are

  8. 解决超调问题的220kV变电站无功配置方法%A Configuration Method of Reactive Power Compensation for 220 kV Substations to Reduce Voltage Overshoot

    张勇军; 张豪; 杨雄平

    2012-01-01

    In allusion to the difficulty of voltage regulation due to excessive compensation capacity of single compensator set and absence of inductive and dynamic reactive compensation in 220 kV substations, a synthetical reactive power compensation scheme for 220 kV substation, which combines discrete compensation with continuous compensation, is proposed. In the proposed scheme, the compensation system is composed of one set of direct static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) and shunt capacitor banks which can be flexibly switched. Firstly, an evaluation model for reactive power compensation and votlage regulation in 220 kV substation and its evaluation index called reactive power overshoot rate are constructed and such an index reflects the contradiction between finite number of reactive power compensator sets and inadvisability of excessive compensation capacity of single compensator set, thus the proposed compensation configuration scheme becomes a fundamental way to improve the accuracy of steady-state voltage control and reduce the overshoot to ensure transient voltage stability at receiving end. Simulation results of a certain regional power network in Guangdong province show that the proposed method is favorable to steady-state voltage stability control of power network and can provide effective dynamic voltage support under emergency condition.%针对220kV变电站单组补偿容量配置偏大、感性与动态无功补偿缺乏引起的电压调控困难问题,提出了220kV变电站离散与连续相结合的综合无功补偿方案,由一组直接式静止同步补偿器(static synchronous compensator,STATCOM)和采用开关柔性控制技术的并联电容器组组成补偿系统.首先构建了变电站无功补偿调压估算模型和指标——无功超调率,该指标揭示了当前变电站无功补偿配置组数有限和单组容量不宜过大之间的矛盾,使得220 kV变电站采用所提的新型补偿方案成为了解决受端系统的稳态

  9. Dimensional verification and location of the reactive static compensator in 220 kV; Verificacion del dimensionamiento y ubicacion del compensador estatico de reactivos en 220 kV

    Fernandez Krekeler, Ubaldo [Administracion Nacional de Electricidad (ANDE), Asuncion (Paraguay)]. E-mail: ufernandez@ieee.org; Cardozo Sanchez, Freddy [Mirant Americas (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This work presents a determination verification of the compensation range and the location of reactive static compensator (RSC) in 220 kV. The verification is accomplished by analyses of the RSC effects in relation to the losses, loading and system voltage stability. The needed compensation range is investigated in full details, whereas that the required conversion level is directly related to this range. It is concluded that the RSC installation, foreseen for 2002, might be postponed for 2005/10 still without reinforcements in 500 kV. The Limpio substation seems to be the more suitable location in relation to the most analysed cases.

  10. Dose to tissues and effective dose equivalent by inhalation of radon-222, radon-220 and their short-lived daughters

    In this study the results of a sensitivity analysis are described which shows the influence of relevant physical and biological parameters on the dose from inhaled Rn-222, Rn-220 and their daughters to the basal cell layer of the bronchi, to the pulmonary tissues and to other body tissues. The used models for deposition, retention and dosimetry of inhaled daughters take into regard the variation of following parameters: The AMAD of inhaled radioactive particles; the fraction of unattached daughters atoms; the velocity of ciliary transport; the desorption rate of attached daughter atoms from their particles; the absorption rate to blood; and the depth of the basal cell layer in the bronchial generations. A computer programme was set-up for the calculation of the activity and dose distribution in the lungs as function of these parameters. For the evaluation of the effective dose from inhaled mixtures of Rn-222- and Rn-220-daughters three different alternatives for the weighting of the mean doses to the target tissues in the lungs are described, taking into regard possible differences between the cancerogenic sensitivity of the target cells in the bronchial and alveolar region. On the basis of the results of this sensitivity analysis mean values for the effective dose to adults per unit of inhaled potential α-energy (in Joule) and per unit of potential α-energy (in WLM) of daughters mixtures are derived as function of the unattached fraction of potential α-energy in air and the desorption half-life time of attached daughter atoms in the lungs. In addition the effective dose from inhaled Rn-222 and Rn-220 (+ Po-216) is estimated and compared with the effective dose from inhaled daughters. Finally the consequences for the assessment of intake and exposure limits for workers and for members of the public are outlined. (orig.)

  11. 研华ARK-DS220OPS数字标牌获2012年台湾精品奖

    2012-01-01

    研华科技近日推出了兼容OPS(开放式可插拔规范)的数字标牌ARK-DS220,并荣获了2012年台湾精品奖的殊荣。今年,此项奖项共426家厂商、1145件产品报名角逐,而研华脱颖而出获此殊荣,充分彰显了其在设计、制造、卓越创新方面的领导力。ARK-DS220符合Intel OPS标准,从而简化了设备安装。同时,将Intel凌动TM处理器和NVIDIAGT218(ION2)显示模块整合在一起,实现了低功耗、高性能的特性。强大的冷却功能保证了系统的稳定性,对细节的完美把握也满足了客户的需求。凭借着这些卓越的特性,研华ARK-DS220代表了台湾本地科技创新的卓越水平,为尖端产品的设计和制造创造了附加价值。

  12. Effectiveness of the Top-Down Nanotechnology in the Production of Ultrafine Cement (~220 nm)

    Byung-Wan Jo; Sumit Chakraborty; Ki Heon Kim; Yun Sung Lee

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation is dealing with the communition of the cement particle to the ultrafine level (~220 nm) utilizing the bead milling process, which is considered as a top-down nanotechnology. During the grinding of the cement particle, the effect of various parameters such as grinding time (1–6 h) and grinding agent (methanol and ethanol) on the production of the ultrafine cement has also been investigated. Performance of newly produced ultrafine cement is elucidated by the chemical c...

  13. Measurements of octupole collectivity in $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra using Coulomb excitation

    Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Hurst, A M; Voulot, D; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Siem, S; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S

    2008-01-01

    We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra ion beams from the REX facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^{-}$ states in these nuclei. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decays from the 3$^{-}$ state using the MINIBALL array we can obtain the transition matrix elements. This will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in these nuclei. We require 22 shifts to fulfil the aims of the experiment.

  14. Impact of SSSC on Measured Impedance in Single Phase to Ground Fault Condition on 220 kV Transmission Line

    Mohamed ZELLAGUI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and compares the impact of SSSC on measured impedance for single phase to ground fault condition. The presence of Static Synchronous SSSC on a transmission line has a great influence on the ZRelay in distance protection. The protection of the high voltage 220 kV single circuit transmission line in eastern Algerian electrical transmission networks is affected in the case with resistance fault RF. The paper investigate the effect of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC on the measured impedance (Relay taking into account the distance fault point (n and fault resistance (RF. The resultants simulation is performed in MATLAB software environment.

  15. 220kV线路两套保护装置动作特性分析%Analysis of Action Characteristics of Two sets of Protection Device for a 220 kV Line

    容春艳; 郝春赫; 王文贞

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the protection action process of two sets of independent line and the instantaneous records in the wave record device,when the permanent fault of a 220 kV interval line happened.From the fault type,fault distance and the switch movement,it clarified the correctness of the protection movement,and explained some problems in the action report.%文中分析了某220kV间隔线路发生永久性故障时两套相互独立的线路保护的动作过程和录波器瞬时记录情况,从故障类型、故障距离及开关量动作等方面阐明了保护动作的正确性,并对动作报告中一些问题给予解释和说明。

  16. 一起220 kV SF6电流互感器故障原因分析%Analysis on a Fault of 220 kV SF6 Current Transformer

    干建丽

    2015-01-01

    The paper imtroduces a fault of 220 kV SF6 curremt tramsformer of a power plamt amd the disassem-bly. It is determimed that the accidemt is caused by partial discharge due to cracks om basim-type imsulator surface, which fimally results im groumdimg fault. Maim imsulatiom breakdowm fault of SF6 curremt tramsformer cam be effectively prevemted through improvememt of equipmemt mamufacture level, equipmemt tramsportatiom regulatiom, equipmemt hamdover amd acceptamce stremgthemimg, regular detectiom of gas humidity amd decom-positiom products as well as regular imfrared detectiom.%介绍了某发电厂220 kV SF6电流互感器故障和解体情况,判别事故原因为盆式绝缘子表面裂纹引起局部放电,最终导致发生接地故障。通过提高设备制造水平,规范设备运输,加强设备交接验收工作,定期开展气体湿度和分解物检测,定期开展红外线检测等手段,可以有效预防SF6电流互感器主绝缘击穿故障。

  17. Research and Design of Type 4JGH-220 Straw Stubble Returning to Field Machine%4JGH-220型秸秆根茬还田机的研究与设计

    梁玉成; 刘国平; 许剑平; 郝剑英; 杨金砖

    2015-01-01

    针对玉米机收后秸秆根茬处理难的问题,设计4JGH-220型多功能秸秆根茬还田机。该机一次进地即可完成秸秆粉碎、根茬还田、地表镇压多项联合作业。介绍还田机的设计原理、主要技术参数、结构形式、工作原理,论述工作部件的设计思路,为我国北方旱作区提供适用的多项联合作业机具。%Aiming at solving the problem of how to deal with maize straw stubble after harvesting, type 4JGH-220 multifunctional straw stubble returning to field machine is designed. The machine can finish multiple joint operations of straw chopping, stubble returning to field and soil surface suppression at one time. In the article, it introduces the design theory, main technique parameters, structure form and operation principle of the machine, expounds the design thoughts of operation parts, and provides a suitable machine of multiple joint operations for arid area in the North of China.

  18. Numerical simulation of poison injection in moderator inside calandria for 220 MWe PHWRs

    Full text: The motivation of the present work comes from the inability of Secondary Shutdown System (SSS) of 220 MWe PHWRs to make the reactor core subcritical for prolonged durations due to its insufficient worth. The worth and effectiveness of SSS can be increased by replacing the closed shut off tubes of the existing design with perforated shut off or LPI (Liquid Poison Injection) tubes which then facilitates the direct injection of liquid poison into the moderator of calandria. The effectiveness of the new concept depends on how the poison distributes in flowing moderator streams inside calandria within a stipulated time. Hence, the objective of the present study is to understand the evolution of poison distribution in moderator of the calandria after injection of poison through perforated tubes of the new conceptual design of SSS. To achieve the present objectives, numerical simulations were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) techniques. As a validation study, CFD simulations were performed for the case of a single submerged turbulent jet injected in to a stagnant medium and validated with experiments available in the literature. During normal operation, moderator circulation establishes a steady flow profile inside calandria. The new concept of SSS, when called for, injects poison into this established moderator flow profile. Hence, CFD simulations were initially performed to establish the steady state moderator flow pattern inside calandria without poison injection. These results were used as initial conditions for the unsteady CFD simulations of poison injection into the moderator. The poison in the SSS tanks gets pushed into calandria through perforated tubes using high pressure helium gas expansion above the poison surface in poison storage tanks. This process results in a time varying poison velocity at the LPI tube inlets. A one-dimensional unsteady state model was developed to predict the time varying velocity at LPI tube inlets as a

  19. Effectiveness of the Top-Down Nanotechnology in the Production of Ultrafine Cement (~220 nm

    Byung-Wan Jo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is dealing with the communition of the cement particle to the ultrafine level (~220 nm utilizing the bead milling process, which is considered as a top-down nanotechnology. During the grinding of the cement particle, the effect of various parameters such as grinding time (1–6 h and grinding agent (methanol and ethanol on the production of the ultrafine cement has also been investigated. Performance of newly produced ultrafine cement is elucidated by the chemical composition, particle size distribution, and SEM and XRD analyses. Based on the particle size distribution of the newly produced ultrafine cement, it was assessed that the size of the cement particle decreases efficiently with increase in grinding time. Additionally, it is optimized that the bead milling process is able to produce 90% of the cement particle <350 nm and 50% of the cement particle < 220 nm, respectively, after 6.3 h milling without affecting the chemical phases. Production of the ultrafine cement utilizing this method will promote the construction industries towards the development of smart and sustainable construction materials.

  20. Constraining Gamma-Ray Emission from Luminous Infrared Galaxies with Fermi-LAT; Tentative Detection of Arp 220

    Griffin, Rhiannon D; Thompson, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies produce gamma-rays primarily via pion production, resulting from inelastic collisions between cosmic ray protons and the interstellar medium (ISM). The dense ISM and high star formation rates of luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) imply that they should be strong gamma-ray emitters, but so far only NGC 1068 has been detected. Theoretical models for their emission depend on the unknown fraction of cosmic ray protons that escape these galaxies before interacting. We analyze Fermi Large Area Telescope data for 82 of the brightest IRAS LIRGs and ULIRGs on the sky. We examine each system individually and carry out a stacking analysis to constrain their gamma-ray fluxes. We report the detection of the nearest ULIRG Arp 220 (3.44sigma above background), with a gamma-ray flux (0.8-100 GeV) of 3.2e-10 phot cm^-2 s^-1 (1.5e42 ergs s^-1 at 77 Mpc). We also derive upper limits for the stacked LIRGs and ULIRGs. The gamma-ray luminosity of Arp 220 and the stacked upper lim...

  1. 基于PSCAD的220kV主变110kV侧单相短路时中性点接地方式分析%Analysis of Neutral Grounding Mood of 220kV transformer when 110kV Side Has Single-phase Short Circuit Based on PSCAD

    杨亚奇; 袁钦鹏

    2013-01-01

    220kV主变中性点接地方式直接影响到电网的安全稳定运行,当220kV主变110kV侧发生单相接地短路时,合理的中性点接地方式可以避免主变遭受冲击而损坏。本文列举了220kV主变中性点四种接地方式,分析了220kV主变110kV侧发生单相短路时流过主变及故障点的短路电流的简化计算方法,并用PSCAD软件仿真并分析某110kV系统发生单相短路故障时不同中性点接地方式对流过主变及故障点短路电流大小的影响,最终给出最优接地方案。%The safety and stability of the grid could be directly affected by neutral grounding moods of 220kV transformer. Reasonably neutral grounding mood will protect the transformer from being damaged when single-phase short circuit occurs in 110kV side of 220kV transformer. This paper lists four neutral grounding moods of 220kV transformer and analysis how to simply calculate short-circuit current of main transformer and fault point when single-phase short circuit occurs in 110kV side of 220kV transformer. We use PSCAD to simulate and analysis the impact on the magnitude of short circuit of main transformer and failure point. At last we give the best neutral grounding mood.

  2. Scheme Design of 220 t/h Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler using Slime and Refuse Mixture as Fuel in Nantun Power Plant%南屯电厂220 t/h循环流化床煤泥、煤矸石混烧锅炉的方案设计

    徐秀国

    2001-01-01

    Research and development and boiler design feature of 220 t/h CFBus ing the slime and refuse mixture as fuel in Nantun power plant are introduced in this paper.%介绍了南屯电厂220t/h循环流化床煤泥、煤矸石混烧锅炉的开发研究,锅炉设计特点及各项指标规范。

  3. CG-220/100M3型低温过热器失效分析及对策%Failure Analysis on Furnace Tube of CG-220/100M3 Type Low Temperature Superheater and its Countermeasure

    陈峰; 丛培振; 徐国良; 严飞

    2004-01-01

    分析了CG-220/100M3型低温过热器失效的原因,在进行材料的成分、力学性能、材料组织、电镜分析的同时,结合运行寿命分析,认为失效的主要原因是烟气通道堵灰严重,形成烟气短路,导致部分炉管超温,发生高温蠕变损伤,在应力的作用下,形成蠕变孔洞,进而形成裂纹,从而导致最终的爆裂失效.根据分析的结果,提出了预防措施.

  4. LCC model of 220 kV GIS equipments of Taihe substation and computation%泰和站220 kV GIS设备LCC模型和计算

    滕乐天; 凌平; 黄玉; 姚明; 韩天祥

    2004-01-01

    介绍了泰和站220 kV GIS(gas insulated switchgear)的寿命周期成本(LCC)的模型和计算方法,对大修、技术改造和设备更新3个方案进行LCC的比较,引用了国际上的GIS故障统计数据用于故障成本的分析和讨论,并对多种因素进行了灵敏度分析计算,为上海电力系统开展LCC管理研究项目提供了一个参照样板,也为工程实际方案选择提供依据.

  5. Constraining Gamma-Ray Emission from Luminous Infrared Galaxies with Fermi-LAT; Tentative Detection of Arp 220

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Thompson, Todd A.

    2016-05-01

    Star-forming galaxies produce gamma-rays primarily via pion production, resulting from inelastic collisions between cosmic-ray protons and the interstellar medium (ISM). The dense ISM and high star formation rates of luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) imply that they should be strong gamma-ray emitters, but so far only two LIRGs have been detected. Theoretical models for their emission depend on the unknown fraction of cosmic-ray protons that escape these galaxies before interacting. We analyze Fermi-LAT data for 82 of the brightest Infrared Astronomical Satellite LIRGs and ULIRGs. We examine each system individually and carry out a stacking analysis to constrain their gamma-ray fluxes. We report the detection of the nearest ULIRG Arp 220 (∼4.6σ). We observe a gamma-ray flux (0.8–100 GeV) of 2.4 × 10‑10 phot cm‑2 s‑1 with a photon index of 2.23 (8.2 × 1041 erg s‑1 at 77 Mpc). We also derive upper limits (ULs) for the stacked LIRGs and ULIRGs. The gamma-ray luminosity of Arp 220 and the stacked ULs agree with calorimetric predictions for dense star-forming galaxies. With the detection of Arp 220, we extend the gamma-ray–IR luminosity correlation to the high-luminosity regime with {log}{L}0.1-100{GeV}=1.25× {log}{L}8-1000μ {{m}}+26.7 as well as the gamma-ray–radio continuum luminosity correlation with {log}{L}0.1-100{GeV}=1.22× {log}{L}1.4{GHz}+13.3. The current survey of Fermi-LAT is on the verge of detecting more LIRGs/ULIRGs in the local universe, and we expect even more detections with deeper Fermi-LAT observations or the next generation of gamma-ray detectors.

  6. 220kV 线路断路器SF6泄漏引起220kV失灵保护动作的事故分析

    吴伟东

    2012-01-01

    SF6气体在断路器中主要起到绝缘、灭弧的作用,而且SF6必须在一定的密度下才能满足断路器的绝缘、灭弧的需要,当出现SF6气体泄漏时,为防止灭弧能力不足的断路器切断负荷或故障电流,会启动断路器的分闸闭锁继电器,使其串联在分闸回路上的辅助触点断开,从而达到闭锁断路器分闸的目的。然而当断路器的分闸闭锁信号出现时,线路保护范围内的故障无法通过线路断路器正常切除,从而使220kV失灵保护动作,引起故障的停电范围扩大。本文通过分析220kV线路断路器SF6泄漏引致220kV失灵保护动作的原理分析,针对事故的各种信号、现象进行分析,最终发现事故的原因并对故障进行处理。

  7. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron (222Rn and 220Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes (222Rn and 220Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5–10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to 222Rn and 220Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated 222Rn and 220Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to 222Rn and 220Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India. - Highlights: • Measurements of 222Rn, 220Rn and their progeny in indoors of HBRAs of India. • DTPS/DRPS deposition sensors were used for measurement progeny of 222Rn and 220Rn. • Inhalation doses were in HBRAs were comparable with those in NBRAs

  8. Evaluation of dose arising from 222Rn, decay products of 222Rn and 220Rn to staff from a certain nuclear power plant

    The staff of the plant was grouped on their work ranges. The annual effective dose resulted from radon and the decay products of 222Rn/220Rn is studied by measuring radon concentration with double filter membrane method and by measuring the concentration of 222Rn/220Rn short life radioactive decay products with five-count method. Based on the results, specific protection measures are proposed for high radon areas. The study results show that the monitoring data for all areas except the spent fuel pool was smaller than the recommended values by ICRP. (authors)

  9. Fission barrier of superheavy nuclei and persistence of shell effects at high spin: cases of 254No and 220Th.

    Henning, Greg; Khoo, T L; Lopez-Martens, A; Seweryniak, D; Alcorta, M; Asai, M; Back, B B; Bertone, P F; Boilley, D; Carpenter, M P; Chiara, C J; Chowdhury, P; Gall, B; Greenlees, P T; Gürdal, G; Hauschild, K; Heinz, A; Hoffman, C R; Janssens, R V F; Karpov, A V; Kay, B P; Kondev, F G; Lakshmi, S; Lauritsen, T; Lister, C J; McCutchan, E A; Nair, C; Piot, J; Potterveld, D; Reiter, P; Rogers, A M; Rowley, N; Zhu, S

    2014-12-31

    We report on the first measurement of the fission barrier height in a heavy shell-stabilized nucleus. The fission barrier height of 254No is measured to be Bf=6.0±0.5  MeV at spin 15ℏ and, by extrapolation, Bf=6.6±0.9  MeV at spin 0ℏ. This information is deduced from the measured distribution of entry points in the excitation energy versus spin plane. The same measurement is performed for 220Th and only a lower limit of the fission barrier height can be determined: Bf(I)>8  MeV. Comparisons with theoretical fission barriers test theories that predict properties of superheavy elements. PMID:25615317

  10. Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard

    Rabus, H; Richter, M; Ulm, G; Friese, J; Gernhäuser, R; Kastenmüller, A; Maier-Komor, P; Zeitelhack, K

    1999-01-01

    Differently prepared CsI samples have been investigated in the 120-220 nm spectral range for their quantum efficiency, spatial uniformity and the effect of radiation aging. The experiments were performed at the PTB radiometry laboratory at the Berlin synchrotron radiation facility BESSY. A calibrated GaAsP Schottky photodiode was used as transfer detector standard to establish traceability to the primary detector standard, because this type of photodiode - unlike silicon p-on-n photodiodes - proved to be of sufficiently stable response when exposed to vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The paper reviews the experimental procedures that were employed to characterize and calibrate the GaAsP photodiode and reports the results that were obtained on the investigated CsI photocathodes.

  11. Hotline washing of insulators in 220 KV switchyard - a safety practice to carryout an extremely hazardous job

    Extent of Saline Pollution and Mechanism of Flash Over TAPS 1 and 2, 220 KV switchyard located in the proximity of east side of coastal bank of Arabian sea. During monsoon peak saline pollution occurs. The salt content in the air reaches a high value about, i.e. of 120 microgram/cu. Meter as compared to a value of 2 to 4 micrograms/cu meter during December to March. This salt content deposited on the petticoats of the insulators are termed as 'Pollutant'. As long as they are dry they do not pose any problem. When they are slightly moistened due to formation of dew or rain droplets, the pollutant start conducting. The leakage current for the conductor to the ground thus increases from the normal value. The leakage detection and safety precautions to be followed are discussed in the paper

  12. Space charge effects on 220-MeV microtron for non-destructive nuclear material detection system

    A nuclear material detection system (NMDS) based on neutron / γ-ray hybrid approach has been proposed for the container inspection at sea ports. While neutron is to be used for a fast pre-screening, quasi-monochromatic γ-ray beam from the laser Compton scattering (LCS) source will be used for an isotope identification on the precise inspection of the cargoes. Nuclear resonance fluorescence method is going to be employed for the isotope identification because of its superiority in high selectivity and in high penetration capability through the shielding objects. In the system a high energy electron beam of good quality is required for LCS. A 220-MeV racetrack microtron (RTM) is one of the most promising candidates as an electron source for such the practical use. Suppose a few nC/bunch of electrons are accelerated, space charge effects (SCEs) on the RTM are investigated using the tracking code Parmela. (author)

  13. Primary investigation and study on 222Rn and 220Rn levels of underground coal mines in China

    From Dec. of 2002 to Aug. of 2004, by using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs), the 222Rn concentrations of 8 underground coal mines, i.e., Beijing Shijiaying, Beijing Fangshanchengguan, Shanxi Gujiaoxiqu, Shanxi Taiyuan Wangfang, Hunan Baifang, Hunan Songbai, Guizhou Honglin and Zhejiang Anrenjinjiang, Respectively, had been measured during a period of 12 months (once a three-month). The surveyed data showed that the annual average 222Rn concentrations (with number of measuring points) are 550(69), 3187(28), 45(224), 117(72), 88(79), 79(58), 40(72) and 136(116) Bq/m3, respectively. The 222Rn concentrations of underground coal mines vary with ventilation condition, geological structure and other factors, and the 222Rn concentration in the mine with bad ventilation is generally high, and varies with seasons i.e., higher in summer and autumn and lower in winter. The 222Rn concentration in mines with good ventilation is generally low and no notable variation with the season. These are also some characters of 222Rn levels in Chinese coal mines, such as the 222Rn concentrations in state-run coal mines are general low, but those in Beijing area are very high, and those in Zhejiang rock coal mines are not so high as expected, etc., the possible reasons have been discussed in the paper. The 220Rn levels of 4 coal mines in Beijing and Hunan were also measured, the ratios of alpha potential energy concentration of 220Rn daughters to that of 222Rn daughters are between 0.036 and 0.42. (authors)

  14. Estimation of doses to the residents arising from inhalation of Rn-222, Tn-220 and their decay products in high background radiation area of Yangjiang

    Objective: The author reports on the estimate of average annual effective dose of the residents and absorbed dose in some human tissues and organs arising from inhalation of Rn-222, Tn-220 and their decay products in investigated areas. Methods: In order to calculate equilibrium factor F for Rn-222 and equilibrium equivalent concentration of Tn-222, the authors measure concentration of Rn-222 and Tn-220 by discrete sampling. Meanwhile, the authors measure the concentration of decay products of Rn-222 and Tn-220. Based on the equilibrium factor F of Rn-222 and equilibrium equivalent concentration of Tn-220, and the occupancy factor, writer estimated average annual effective doses and absorbed doses in some tissues and organs to the residents arising from inhalation of Rn-222, Tn-220 and their decay products in investigated areas. Results: The data based upon the results of integrated measurements on the concentration of Rn-222, Tn-220 in investigated areas. The average indoor and outdoor concentration of Rn-222 are 49.61 Bq·m-3 and 17.30 Bq·m-3 in HBRA, respectively, and 18.1 and 11.7 Bq·m-3 in CA, respectively. The average indoor and outdoor concentrations of Tn-220 are 95.16 Bq·m-3 and 9.3 Bq·m-3 in HBRA, respectively, and 12.4 and 8.1 Bq·m-3 in CA, respectively. The averages of equilibrium factors of Rn-222 for indoors and outdoors in HBRA are 0.46 and 0.53, respectively. The values in CA are 0.62 for indoors and 0.63 for outdoors, respectively. The value of equilibrium equivalent concentration of Tn-220 for indoors and outdoors in HBRA are 6.51 Bq·m-'3 and 0.79 Bq·m-3, respectively, and the values for CA are 0.66 Bq·m-3 and 0.33 Bq·m-3, respectively. Conclusion: The estimate of average annual effective dose to the residents arising from inhalation of Rn-222, Tn-220 and their decay products was 3.28 mSv·a-1 in HBRA, while that in CA was 1.03 mSv·a-1. The trachea-bronchial tree has the maximum absorbed dose in HBRA, the value is 5.40 mGy·a-1; lung has

  15. 75 FR 32773 - Auction of 218-219 MHz Service and Phase II 220 MHz Service Licenses Scheduled for December 7...

    2010-06-09

    ... and impede the deployment of service to the public, and an additional default payment of more than... COMMISSION Auction of 218-219 MHz Service and Phase II 220 MHz Service Licenses Scheduled for December 7... overnight U.S. Postal Service mail. All filings must be addressed to the Commission's Secretary, Attn:...

  16. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron ((222)Rn and (220)Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B K; Prajith, R; Rout, R P; Jalaluddin, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-09-01

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5-10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to (222)Rn and (220)Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India. PMID:26065929

  17. Removal of radon-220 from HTGR fuel reprocessing and refabrication off-gas streams by adsorption (based on a literature survey)

    Literature theory and data considered relevant to the removal of Rn-220 from HTGR fuel reprocessing and refabrication off-gas streams by adsorption are presented. The data include equilibrium adsorption coefficients for radon on activated carbon (charcoal) and silica gel in the presence of air and other gases, and for radon on molecular sieve Type 5A in the presence of air. Also included are a few dynamic adsorption data (adsorption coefficients and values for the number of theoretical plates per foot) for radon on charcoal, with air as the carrier gas. These various data, which were obtained mainly at or near 250C, are actually for Rn-222; however, they should also be applicable to Rn-220, provided the conditions are the same. Based on the available information, the radon adsorption coefficients decrease in the expected order: charcoal, molecular sieve Type 5A, and silica gel. Thus, charcoal should be the most effective of these adsorbents for Rn-220 removal; however, its use for this application cannot be recommended until the associated fire and explosion hazards, particularly those with regard to interaction with ozone, are resolved. Sorbent poisoning and particle penetration due to α-recoil are briefly treated. Adsorber design is discussed. Existing information appears adequate for sizing, albeit crudely, the sorbent bed for A Rn-220-charcoal-air (1-atm, less than 10 percent relative humidity) system, and a suggested approach for doing this is outlined. (U.S.)

  18. First Detection of GeV Emission from an Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy: Arp 220 as Seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Jun-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Cosmic rays (CRs) in starburst galaxies produce high-energy gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. Arp 220 is the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxy that has star formation at extreme levels, so it has long been predicted to emit high-energy gamma-rays. However, no evidence of gamma-ray emission was found despite intense search efforts. Here we report the discovery of high-energy gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from Arp 220 at a confidence level of ∼6.3σ using 7.5 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope observations. The gamma-ray emission shows no significant variability over the observation period and it is consistent with the quasi-linear scaling relation between the gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, suggesting that these gamma-rays arise from CR interactions. As the high-density medium of Arp 220 makes it an ideal CR calorimeter, the gamma-ray luminosity can be used to measure the efficiency of powering CRs by supernova (SN) remnants given a known supernova rate in Arp 220. We find that this efficiency is about 4.2 ± 2.6% for CRs above 1 GeV.

  19. Herschel/PACS spectroscopy of NGC 4418 and Arp 220: H2O, H2^{18}O, OH, ^{18}OH, O^0, HCN and NH3

    González-Alfonso, E; Graciá-Carpio, J; Sturm, E; Hailey-Dunsheath, S; Lutz, D; Poglitsch, A; Contursi, A; Feuchtgruber, H; Veilleux, S; Spoon, H W W; Verma, A; Christopher, N; Davies, R; Sternberg, A; Genzel, R; Tacconi, L

    2011-01-01

    Herschel/PACS spectroscopy of the (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies NGC 4418 and Arp 220 reveals high excitation in H2O, OH, HCN, and NH3. In NGC 4418, absorption lines were detected with E_lower>800 K (H2O), 600 K (OH), 1075 K (HCN), and 600 K (NH3), while in Arp 220 the excitation is somewhat lower. While clear outflow signatures are seen in Arp 220 as has been seen in previous studies, in NGC 4418 the lines tracing its outer regions are redshifted relative to the nucleus, suggesting an inflow with Mdot~100 K) nuclear continuum components, together with a more extended and colder component that is much more prominent and massive in Arp 220. A chemical dichotomy is found in both sources: on the one hand, the nuclear regions have high H2O abundances, ~0.5x10^{-5}, and high HCN/H2O and HCN/NH3 column density ratios of 0.2-0.7 and 6-9, respectively, indicating a chemistry typical of evolved hot cores where grain mantle evaporation has occurred. On the other hand, the high OH abundance, with OH/H2O ratios of ~0....

  20. 12 CFR 220.128 - Treatment of simultaneous long and short positions in the same margin account when put or call...

    2010-01-01

    ... Board was recently asked whether under Regulation T, “Credit by Brokers and Dealers” (12 CFR part 220... position for this purpose (see also 17 CFR 240.3b-3). (e) Generally speaking, a customer makes a short sale... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of simultaneous long and...

  1. Morphology and Kinematics of Warm Molecular Gas in the Nuclear Region of Arp 220 as Revealed by ALMA

    Rangwala, Naseem; Wilson, Christine; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Spinoglio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle-0 observations of the CO J = 6-5 line in the advanced galaxy merger Arp 220. This line traces warm molecular gas, which dominates the total CO luminosity. The CO emission from the two nuclei is well resolved by the 0.39" x 0.22" beam and the exceptional sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution reveal new complex features in the morphology and kinematics of the warm gas. The line profiles are asymmetric between the red and blue sides of the nuclear disks and the peak of the line emission is offset from the peak of the continuum emission in both nuclei by about 100 pc in the same direction. CO self-absorption is detected at the centers of both nuclei but it is much deeper in the eastern nucleus. We also clearly detect strong, highly redshifted CO absorption located near the southwest side of each nucleus. For the eastern nucleus, we reproduce the major line profile features with a simple kinematic model of a highly turbulent, rotating disk with a substan...

  2. Measurement of charged particle yields from PMMA irradiated by a 220 MeV/u12Cbeam

    Piersanti, L; Bini, FU. Rome La Sapienza (main); Collamati, F; De Lucia, E; Durante, M; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Fiore, S; Iarocci, E; La Tessa, C; Marafini, M; Mattei, I; Patera, V; Ortega, P G; Sarti, A; Schuy, C; Sciubba, A; Vanstalle, M; Voena, C

    2014-01-01

    The radiation used in hadrontherapy treatments interacts with the patient body producing secondary particles, either neutral or charged, that can be used for dose and Bragg peak monitoring and to provide a fast feedback on the treatment plans. Recent results obtained from the authors on simplified setups (mono-energetic primary beams interacting with homogeneous tissue like target) have already indicated the correlation that exists between the flux of these secondaries coming from the target (e.g. protons and photons) and the position of the primary beam Bragg peak. In this paper, the measurements of charged particle fluxes produced by the interaction of a 220 MeV/u carbon ion beam at GSI, Darmstadt, with a polymethyl methacrylate target are reported. The emission region of protons (p), deuterons (d) and tritons (t) has been characterized using a drift chamber while the particle time-of-flight, used to compute the kinetic energy spectra, was measured with a LYSO scintillator.The energy released in the LYSO cr...

  3. Entrance channel effects on the evaporation residue yields in reactions leading to the $^{220}$Th compound nucleus

    Kim, Kyungil; Mandaglio, Giuseppe; Giardina, Giorgio; Kim, Youngman

    2014-01-01

    The evaporation residue yields from compound nuclei $^{220}$Th formed in the $^{16}$O+$^{204}$Pb, $^{40}$Ar+$^{180}$Hf, $^{82}$Se+$^{138}$Ba, $^{124}$Sn+$^{96}$Zr reactions are analyzed to study the entrance channel effects by comparison of the capture, fusion and evaporation residue cross sections calculated by the combined dinuclear system (DNS) and advanced statistical models. The difference between evaporation residue (ER) cross sections can be related to the stages of compound nucleus formation or/and at its surviving against fission. The sensitivity of the both stages in the evolution of DNS up to the evaporation residue formation to the angular momentum of DNS is studied. The difference between fusion excitation functions are explained by the hindrance to complete fusion due to the larger intrinsic fusion barrier $B^*_{\\rm fus}$ for the transformation of the DNS into a compound nucleus and the increase of the quasifission contribution due to the decreasing of quasifission barrier $B_{\\rm qf}$ as a func...

  4. Dynamics, deterministic nature and correlations of outdoor 222Rn and 220Rn progeny concentrations measured at Bacau, Romania

    The long-term variation, nature and correlations of outdoor 222Rn and 220Rn progeny concentrations measured during the period 1994-2009 were investigated. The time series of data were obtained within the framework of the monitoring program performed by the Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Station (ERMS) Bacau, a component part of the National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network (NERSN), coordinated by National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA). The measuring method is based on the total beta measurements of atmospheric aerosol filters, using a low background total beta counter and (90Sr/Y) reference standard. Analysis of the time series of progeny concentrations in the low atmosphere makes evident different patterns of variation of these concentrations: diurnal, seasonal and annual. A possible relationship of progeny concentration increase with global warming is emphasized. In order to find the dominant frequency of the physical processes determining progeny concentration variability the power spectrum has been used. The deterministic nature of the time series of concentrations has been studied making use of the autocorrelation function and stationarity of the original data and of their phase randomized time series. Also, the correlations with meteorological parameters have been investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient with corresponding level of significance. - Highlights: → Radon and thoron progeny concentrations measured on a period of 16 years. → 5 h, daily, monthly and annual patterns are pointed out. → Autocorrelation functions prove non-randomness of concentrations. → Deterministic nature of time series of concentrations is demonstrated. → Correlations with meteorological data are studied.

  5. {sup 220}Rn measurements and implications for earlier surveys of {sup 222}Rn; Meting van {sup 220}Rn en consequenties voor eerdere {sup 222}Rn-surveys. VERA-onderzoek

    Blaauboer, R.O.

    2010-08-15

    The concentration of radioactive radon gas (Rn-222) encountered in newly constructed dwellings was lower than that expected from earlier surveys. An investigation into the response of the radon detectors used in these earlier surveys revealed that these were also sensitive to radioactive thoron (Rn-220), of which more appears to be present than originally assumed. This is the primary outcome of a detailed examination of the detectors that resulted from a national study on radiation exposure in Dutch dwellings constructed between 1994 and 2003. Detectors used in international radon comparison studies have only been set to test for radon, not thoron. Consequently, in practice it is not immediately evident that some detectors actually measure thoron as well, which is also reported as radon. The increasing interest shown by the Netherlands for thoron, provoked by survey results that appear to have been strongly affected by this radioactive isotope of radon, is mirrored by many other countries. The thoron found in dwellings seems to originate from a (frequently used) building material, possibly a finishing material, which has a relatively high thoron exhalation rate. It has more recently been determined that for many years a type of plaster was used in the Netherlands that contained phosphogypsum, a material known for its high radon content. However, it is possible that other materials incorporated into finishing layers also contribute to higher indoor thoron levels. A large portion of the total indoor exposure of occupants to radiation is from inhalation of radioactive decay products of radon and thoron. Radon and thoron are formed in the soil and earth-based building materials by radioactive decay and, because they are gaseous, they are able to diffuse into homes and other buildings. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the home accounts for approximately half of the average annual radiation dose received by a Dutch citizen. [Dutch] Er komt minder radioactief radongas

  6. Quality of life and influencing factors for patients with silicosis: an analysis of 220 cases%220例矽肺病患者的生存质量及其影响因素

    陈文红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the quality of life and influencing factors for patients with silicosis and to provide a basis for treatment of silicosis.Methods Two hundred and twenty stone workers with silicosis from June 1999 to June 2014 were enrolled into observation group,while healthy stone workers within the same period were used as controls.The quality of life was evaluated using the Chinese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-100),and the influencing factors were determined using stepwise multivariate regression analysis.Results The scores for psychological function,physiological,independence,spiritual realm,the overall quality of life,and physical condition in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group (t=7.1168,P<0.05; t=3.8165,P<0.05; t=5.9230,P<0.05; t=2.7764,P<0.05; t=3.0761,P<0.05).The scores for 11 items including pain,discomfort,energy,fatigue,sleep,and rest in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05).Negative emotions,silicosis stage,recreation,age,reliance on health care,pain,discomfort,and spiritual beliefs were all influencing factors for the quality of life,which resulted in 68.3% of variation in the quality of life.Conclusion Besides clinical treatment,health and psychological education and recreation are important for patients with silicosis to improve their quality of life.%目的 通过对220例矽肺病患者的生存质量及其影响因素进行分析,为尘肺病患者的治疗与康复提供参考.方法 收集1999年6月至2014年6月确诊的220例石雕工人矽肺病患者为观察组,同时选取同期石雕工人健康者为对照组;采用世界卫生组织生存质量测定量表简表中文版(WHOQOL-100)评价其生存质量,采用多元逐步回归分析法对有关影响因素进行分析.结果 观察组生理功能、心理、独立性及精神领域和总的生活质量及健康状况分数

  7. Structural optimization design of lightning protection for 220 kV composite material tower%220 kV复合材料杆塔防雷结构优化设计

    赵淳; 张化昭; 吴泳聪; 苏杰

    2015-01-01

    Composite material tower is one of development directions for transmission line tower structure.Because of its special insulation structure,people tend to suspended ground along transmission line in all kinds of design patterns for its lightning protection.However,it is still uncertain that whether the insulation structure of tower can meet the lightning protection requirement or not in this design method.And so,this paper establishes 220 kV composite material tower and double circuit transmission line models from the point of reducing the rate of lightning trip based on ATP,and make an analysis of the influence of such factors as length of cross-picul,vertical distance between upper and lower phase wire,pole height,protection angle and horizontal span.Proposing a scheme for optimum structure design of composite material tower in lightning protection performance according to the simulation outcomes.The simulation results show that the tower has the best lightning protection performance when the three phase length of crosspicul is 2.1,2.4,2.1 and 2.1 m respectively,and pole height is 23.6 m,horizontal span is 400 m.%复合材料杆塔是线路杆塔结构发展方向之一,因其独特的绝缘结构,目前在研的防雷设计形式趋向于避雷线顺线方向悬空接地,但在此种接地方式下杆塔的绝缘结构方式能否达到防雷要求有待求证.若从降低雷击跳闸率的角度出发,利用ATP EMTP软件建立220 kV全复合材料杆塔双回输电线路模型并分析不同横担长度、相间距及相地距、杆塔呼高、保护角及水平档距对线路耐雷水平及雷击跳闸率的影响,最终可得到能达到规定雷击跳闸率要求的复合材料杆塔优化结构.结果表明:上、中、下相和地线横担长度为2.1、2.4、2.1、2.1m,杆塔呼高为23.6m,塔高34.6 m.水平档距设为400 m,杆塔在这种运行参数下的综合防雷性能最好.

  8. Development of a PIN diode based on-line measurement system for Radon (222Rn) and Thoron (220Rn) in environment

    Radon, thoron and their progenies are universally present in outdoor air, and can reach higher levels in indoor air due to poor ventilation. Several instruments have been developed for accurate measurement of radon and thoron in the environment. Semiconductor detector based system employing spectroscopic method has been proved to be the best among them. A PIN diode based electrostatic collection type online real-time instrument has been developed in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre for simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron in an environment while both 222Rn and 220Rn are present. This system can be used for determination of radon and thoron concentrations at residence or workplace. Furthermore, since the 222Rn and 220Rn are differentiated from each other through spectroscopy, this monitor can be used even in a mixed radon/thoron environment

  9. Development of a PIN diode-based on-line measurement system for radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) in the environment

    A silicon PIN diode-based electrostatic collection type online real-time instrument has been developed for simultaneous measurement of radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn). The system, discussed in this paper, utilizes a hemispherical metal chamber (volume 1 L) for active air sampling. Estimation of 222Rn/220Rn concentration is carried out through alpha spectroscopy of electro-deposited polonium atoms on the detector surface. The system description and the characterization studies carried out with this instrument are presented here. Its performance has been tested with reference equipments. The instrument showed sensitivity of 0.408 counts per hour (CPH)/(Bq/m3) and 0.169 CPH/(Bq/m3) for radon and thoron measurements, respectively, at an optimized collection voltage of + 1.6 kV and relative humidity <10%. (author)

  10. Continuous on-line calibration of diffusive soil-atmosphere trace gas transport using vertical 220Rn- and 222Rn-activity profiles

    Continuous monitoring of 220Rn- and 222Rn-activities above and below the soil surface combined with sporadic direct 222Rn-flux measurements is used to quantify diffusive trace gas transport in the air-filled pore space of soil, through the soil-atmosphere interface and in the lowest layers of the atmosphere. In a calm night, 222Rn-activities above the surface first build-up near the ground (z 222Rn-flux from activity profiles measured in soil gas, (2) from direct flux determinations and (3) using information about atmospheric diffusion parameters from 220Rn-activities measured near the surface it is possible to model the temporal evolution of the vertical 222Rn-profiles in a night with stable weather and constant soil conditions. The system operates automatically for extended periods of time in the field enabling a better understanding of transport processes in response to changing environmental conditions (wind, rain, soil humidity). (orig.)

  11. 3D Object Visual Tracking for the 220 kV/330 kV High-Voltage Live-Line Insulator Cleaning Robot

    ZHANG Jian; YANG Ru-qing

    2009-01-01

    The 3D object visual tracking problem is studied for the robot vision system of the 220 kV/330 kV high-voltage live-line insulator cleaning robot. The SUSAN Edge based Scale Invariant Feature (SESIF) algorithm based 3D objects visual tracking is achieved in three stages: the first frame stage, tracking stage, and recovering stage. An SESIF based objects recognition algorithm is proposed to fred initial location at both the first frame stage and recovering stage. An SESIF and Lie group based visual tracking algorithm is used to track 3D object. Experiments verify the algorithm's robustness. This algorithm will be used in the second generation of the 220 kV/330 kV high-voltage five-line insulator cleaning robot.

  12. Study On The Method To Analyze Concentrations of Rn-222 And Rn-220 In The Air Using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector LR115

    Radon is one of the natural radiation contributes the largest percentage to the total average annual effective dose equivalent to human. Although all isotopes of radon are radioactive and also emits alpha radiation, Rn-222 and Rn-220 are the most important of the three radon isotopes because of its concentrations in indoor air and due to the health effects associated with exposures to its radioactive decay products. Actinon (Rn-219) does not contribute significantly to human radiation exposures due both to the low natural abundance of the 235U precursor and the very short (4s) 219-Rn half-life. Solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) is one of method analyzed Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentrations by great difference of half-life between them. The advantage of this technique is simple, easy to use, cheap, and it can deploy concurrently large scale survey of radon, etc. (author)

  13. C22:0- and C24:0-dihydroceramides confer mixed cytotoxicity in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines.

    Michael W Holliday

    Full Text Available We previously reported that fenretinide (4-HPR was cytotoxic to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL cell lines in vitro in association with increased levels of de novo synthesized dihydroceramides, the immediate precursors of ceramides. However, the cytotoxic potentials of native dihydroceramides have not been defined. Therefore, we determined the cytotoxic effects of increasing dihydroceramide levels via de novo synthesis in T-cell ALL cell lines and whether such cytotoxicity was dependent on an absolute increase in total dihydroceramide mass versus an increase of certain specific dihydroceramides. A novel method employing supplementation of individual fatty acids, sphinganine, and the dihydroceramide desaturase-1 (DES inhibitor, GT-11, was used to increase de novo dihydroceramide synthesis and absolute levels of specific dihydroceramides and ceramides. Sphingolipidomic analyses of four T-cell ALL cell lines revealed strong positive correlations between cytotoxicity and levels of C22:0-dihydroceramide (ρ = 0.74-0.81, P ≤ 0.04 and C24:0-dihydroceramide (ρ = 0.84-0.90, P ≤ 0.004, but not between total or other individual dihydroceramides, ceramides, or sphingoid bases or phosphorylated derivatives. Selective increase of C22:0- and C24:0-dihydroceramide increased level and flux of autophagy marker, LC3B-II, and increased DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay in the absence of an increase of reactive oxygen species; pan-caspase inhibition blocked DNA fragmentation but not cell death. C22:0-fatty acid supplemented to 4-HPR treated cells further increased C22:0-dihydroceramide levels (P ≤ 0.001 and cytotoxicity (P ≤ 0.001. These data demonstrate that increases of specific dihydroceramides are cytotoxic to T-cell ALL cells by a caspase-independent, mixed cell death mechanism associated with increased autophagy and suggest that dihydroceramides may contribute to 4-HPR-induced cytotoxicity. The targeted increase of specific acyl chain dihydroceramides

  14. Substitutions at Methionine 220 in the 14α-Sterol Demethylase (Cyp51A) of Aspergillus fumigatus Are Responsible for Resistance In Vitro to Azole Antifungal Drugs

    Mellado, E.; Garcia-Effron, G.; Alcazar-Fuoli, L.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    Five clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus that exhibited similar patterns of reduced susceptibility to itraconazole and other triazole drugs were analyzed. Sequence analysis of genes (cyp51A and cyp51B) encoding the 14α-sterol demethylases revealed that all five strains harbored mutations in cyp51A resulting in the replacement of methionine at residue 220 by valine, lysine, or threonine. When the mutated cyp51A genes were introduced into an A. fumigatus wild-type strain, the transforman...

  15. Cupric ion release and cytotoxicity for Yuangong Cu-IUDs and the release behavior of indomethacin for medicated 220 Cu-IUD

    CAO BianMei; XI TingFei; ZHENG YuDong; YANG LiFeng; ZHENG Qi

    2009-01-01

    These years Yuangong copper-bearing intrauterine devices (Cu-IUDs) have been used because of less side effects in use. The corrosion of copper is essential to the success of contraception,and the release behavior of indomethacin from medicated Cu-IUD is related to its therapeutic effect. In this study,analytical methods were established to investigate the release behavior of cupric ion of three kinds of Yuangong Cu-IUDs and indomethacin of medicated Yuangong 220 Cu-IUD. Cu-IUDs were incubated in simulated uterine solution (SUS). The concentrations of cupric ion and indomethacin were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) for 60 days and UV/vis-3310 spectrophotometer for 60 days,respectively. The morphology of copper after corrosion was characterized by SEM. In addition,we detected cytotoxicity by MTT of L929 mouse fibroblasts cells caused by extracts of the three Yuangong Cu-IUDs. The release behavior of cupric ion for three kinds of Yuangong Cu-IUDs was biphasic,which consisted of the initial burst release and then slow and constant release. In vitro release experiment confirmed a biphasic release of indomethacin from Yuangong 220. The copper wire of Yuangong Cu-IUDs showed uneven corrosion. The RGR value of Yuangong 365 Cu-IUD was smaller than that of medicated Yuangong 220 Cu-IUD and RGR value of medicated Yuangong 220 Cu-IUD was smaller than that of Yuangong 300 Cu-IUD. The cupric ion release and indomethacin release showed biphasic. Indomethacin increased the cupric ion release rate and might diminish the adverse effects caused by burst release of cupric ion. The toxicity grade of these three Yuangong Cu-IUDs was 4. We should canvass the adverse events of Cu-IUDs based on practical experiments,and try our best to reduce the toxicity of Cu-IUDs.

  16. Understanding the Molecular Determinants of Substrate and Inhibitor Specificities in the Carbapenemase KPC-2: Exploring the Roles of Arg220 and Glu276

    Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M.; Taracila, Magdalena A.; Smith, Kerri M.; Xu, Yan; Robert A Bonomo

    2012-01-01

    β-Lactamases are important antibiotic resistance determinants expressed by bacteria. By studying the mechanistic properties of β-lactamases, we can identify opportunities to circumvent resistance through the design of novel inhibitors. Comparative amino acid sequence analysis of class A β-lactamases reveals that many enzymes possess a localized positively charged residue (e.g., R220, R244, or R276) that is critical for interactions with β-lactams and β-lactamase inhibitors. To better understa...

  17. Isolation, development and identification of salt-tolerant bacterial consortium from crude-oil-contaminated soil for degradation of di-azo dye Reactive Blue 220.

    Patel, Vipul R; Bhatt, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and characterization of a halophilic bacterial consortium for rapid decolorization and degradation of a wide range of dyes and their mixtures. The 16S rRNA gene analysis of developed halophilic consortium VN.1 showed that the bacterial consortium contained six bacterial strains, which were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens HM480360, Enterobacter aerogenes HM480361, Shewanella sp. HM589853, Arthrobacter nicotianae HM480363, Bacillus beijingensis HM480362 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa JQ659549. Halophilic consortium VN.1 was able to decolorize up to 2,500 mg/L RB220 with >85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction under static condition at 30 °C and pH 8.0 in the presence of 7% NaCl. VN.1 also exhibited more than 85% COD reduction with >25 mg/(L h) rate of decolorization in the case of different reactive dye mixtures. We propose the symmetric cleavage of RB220 using Fourier transform infrared, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and confirmed the formation of sodium-4-aminobenzenesulfonate, sodium-6-aminonepthalenesulfonate, and sodiumbenzene/nepthalenesulfonate. Toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of RB220 effluent stimulate the growth of plants as well as the bacterial community responsible for soil fertility. PMID:26177415

  18. Maximum Heart Rate during exercise: Reliability of the 220-age and Tanaka formulas in healthy young people at a moderate elevation

    Luis Eduardo Cruz-Martínez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. The formulas to predict maximum heart rate have been used for many years in different populations. Objective. To verify the significance and the association of formulas of Tanaka and 220-age when compared to real maximum heart rate. Materials and methods. 30 subjects -22 men, 8 women- between 18 and 30 years of age were evaluated on a cycle ergometer and their real MHR values were statistically compared with the values of formulas currently used to predict MHR. Results. The results demonstrate that both Tanaka p=0.0026 and 220-age p=0.000003 do not predict real MHR, nor does a linear association exist between them. Conclusions. Due to the overestimation with respect to real MHR value that these formulas make, we suggest a correction of 6 bpm to the final result. This value represents the median of the difference between the Tanaka value and the real MHR. Both Tanaka (r=0.272 and 220-age (r=0.276 are not adequate predictors of MHR during exercise at the elevation of Bogotá in subjects of 18 to 30 years of age, although more study with a larger sample size is suggested.

  19. Process simulation of co-firing torrefied biomass in a 220 MWe coal-fired power plant

    Highlights: • The performances of torrefaction based co-firing power plant are simulated by using Aspen Plus. • Mass loss properties and released gaseous components have been studied during biomass torrefaction processes. • Mole fractions of CO2 and CO account for 69–91% and 4–27% in total torrefied gases. • The electrical efficiency reduced when increasing either torrefaction temperature or substitution ratio of biomass. - Abstract: Torrefaction based co-firing in a pulverized coal boiler has been proposed for large percentage of biomass co-firing. A 220 MWe pulverized coal-power plant is simulated using Aspen Plus for full understanding the impacts of an additional torrefaction unit on the efficiency of the whole power plant, the studied process includes biomass drying, biomass torrefaction, mill systems, biomass/coal devolatilization and combustion, heat exchanges and power generation. Palm kernel shells (PKS) were torrefied at same residence time but 4 different temperatures, to prepare 4 torrefied biomasses with different degrees of torrefaction. During biomass torrefaction processes, the mass loss properties and released gaseous components have been studied. In addition, process simulations at varying torrefaction degrees and biomass co-firing ratios have been carried out to understand the properties of CO2 emission and electricity efficiency in the studied torrefaction based co-firing power plant. According to the experimental results, the mole fractions of CO2 and CO account for 69–91% and 4–27% in torrefied gases. The predicted results also showed that the electrical efficiency reduced when increasing either torrefaction temperature or substitution ratio of biomass. A deep torrefaction may not be recommended, because the power saved from biomass grinding is less than the heat consumed by the extra torrefaction process, depending on the heat sources

  20. Solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system: a 15-year literature survey of 220 cases (August 1996-July 2011).

    Bisceglia, Michele

    2011-09-01

    We reviewed the world literature on solitary fibrous tumors of the central nervous system from August 1996 to July 2011, focusing on both clinicopathological features and diagnostic findings. The anatomical distribution of the 220 cases reported so far reveals that most are intracranial and just over one-fifth are intraspinal. In decreasing frequency, intracranial tumors involve the supratentorial and infratentorial compartments, the pontocerebellar angle, the sellar and parasellar regions, and the cranial nerves. Intraspinal tumors are mainly located in the thoracic and cervical segments. Although most solitary fibrous tumors of the central nervous system are dural based, a small subset presents as subpial, intraparenchymal, intraventricular, or as tumors involving the nerve rootlets with no dural connection. Preoperative imaging and intraoperative findings suggest meningioma, schwannoma or neurofibroma, hemangiopericytoma, or pituitary tumors. Immunohistochemistry is critical to establish a definitive histopathological diagnosis. Vimentin, CD34, BCL2, and CD99 are the most consistently positive markers. The usual histologic type generally behaves in a benign manner if complete removal is achieved. Recurrence is anticipated when resection is subtotal or when the tumor exhibits atypical histology. The proliferative index as assessed by MIB1 labeling is of prognostic significance. Occasionally, tumors featuring conventional morphology may recur, perhaps because of minimal residual disease left behind during surgical extirpation. Rare extracranial metastases and tumor-related deaths are on record. Surgery is the treatment of choice. Stereotactic and external beam radiation therapy may be indicated for postsurgical tumor remnants and for unresectable recurrences. Long-term active surveillance of the patients is mandatory.

  1. Dose rate due to 226Ra, 232Th and indoor 222Rn/220Rn in Bangalore city

    Human beings have always been exposed to ionizing radiation from various natural sources of radiation and one of the major routes of internal exposures is through inhalation of radioactivity present in the atmosphere. External exposure is caused by the gamma radiation from 40K and the daughter products of 238U and 232Th. It is known that as a result of inhalation of 222Rn a daughter product of decay chain of 238U and its daughter products, the equivalent dose to the entire lung is 20% and 45% higher than the equivalent dose in other tissues. The present study is carried out in Bangalore Metropolitan, India during 2007 to till date. Activity concentrations were measured by hyper pure germanium detectors and 222Rn, 220Rn concentrations were measured by solid state nuclear track detectors. The dose conversion factors reported by UNSCEAR have been used to estimate the indoor inhalation dose rates. The absorbed dose rates due to 226Ra and 232Th ranged between 0.59 and 1.44 mSvy-1 with an AM as 0.93 mSvy-1. Whereas the dose rates during winter and summer ranged between 0.20 and 4.14 mSvy-1 with an arithmetic value 1.8 and 0.7 mSvy-1 respectively. The dose rates in lower volume rooms were ranged from 2.38 to 3.47 mSvy-1 and from 0.75 and 3.28 mSvy-1 for the rooms of higher volume. The arithmetic mean values of dose rates in lower and higher volume rooms were 2.94 ± 0.14 mSvy-1 and 1.35 ± 0.03 mSvy-1 respectively. Higher concentrations were observed in lower volume rooms than higher volume room of all the monitored locations. The detailed experimental methodology and results are discussed. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Contraceptive Effects of Inserting New Type Intrauterine Devices Including Gynefix, MCu and TCu220 Immediately after Induced Abortion%人工流产术后即时放置GyneFix IUD、MCu IUD和TCu220 IUD避孕效果分析

    楼芝英; 乐园罗

    2007-01-01

    目的:评价新型宫内节育器(IUD)GyneFix IUD和MCu IUD及传统节育器TCu220 IUD的避孕效果.方法:以人工流产术后志愿放置IUD的690例为对象,随机分为3组,分别于人工流产术后即时放置Gyne Fix IUD、MCu IUD和TCu220 IUD. 结果:GyneFix IUD,MCu IUD和TCu220 IUD使用12个月带器妊娠率分别为0.48%、0.85%、3.75%,脱落率分别为0.93%、0.85%、2.92%,因症取出率分别为2.80%、3.81%、6.25%,续用率分别为95.80%,94.49%,87.08%,放置IUD后月经异常发生率分别为8.88 % 、5.93% 、12.5 %. 结论:GyneFix IUD、MCu IUD和TCu220 IUD避孕效果均较理想,但TCu220 IUD可能是放置型号不易掌握,带器妊娠、脱落、月经异常发生率较两种新型IUD高.

  3. 220例玻璃体切割术治疗黄斑前膜的临床疗效观察%The clinical curative effects observation of 220 cases of vitrectomy for the treatment of anterior macular membrane

    黄艳; 陈为民; 李平华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and prognostic factors of vitrectomy in the treatment of idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane ( IMEM ) .Methods Clinical data of 220 cases (242 eyes) with IMEM who were accepted vitrectomy in the ophthalmology department in the people′s hospital of Yubei district in Chongqing from June 2011 to June 2013 were retrospective analyzed.All the cases were divided into two groups according to whether the visual acuity was improved after operated. 12 possible factors that may affect the postoperative recovery of visual acuity in patients with IMEM were recorded separately or checked, including all patients′gender, age, the type of surgical filler, preoperative ocular anterior segment and posterior segment complications, course of disease, preoperative best corrected visual acuity ( BVCA ) , preoperative central foveal of macular average thickness ( CMT ) , preoperative continuity of the inner and outer segment ( IS/OS) of the photoreceptor cell layer of the retina,whether using triamcinolone acetonide to stain during the operation, whether stripping internal limiting membrane ( ILM ) during the operation and whether complications were occurred after operation.The enumeration data were expressed by the number of eyes and the percentage.The differences between the groups were treated withχ2 test,at the same time to control the hybrid, multiple Logistic regression analysis were used to multivariate analysis to find the related factors affecting the recovery of visual acuity.Results All patients were successfully completed surgeries and were followed up in 6-12 months after operations.The average follow-up time was (8.5 ±2.2) months.Compared with pre-treatment,180 cases (194 eyes) improved their visual acuity in all 220 cases (242 eyes),accounting for 80.17%.The visual acuity of 32 cases (38 eyes) was not improved (15.70%).Visual acuity of 8 cases (10 eyes) decreased (4.13%).Postoperative complications occurred in 9 patients ( 12

  4. DNA strand breaks and crosslinks induced by transient anions in the range 2-20 eV

    Luo, Xinglan; Zheng, Yi, E-mail: Yizheng@fzu.edu.cn [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Sanche, Léon [Group in the Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2014-04-21

    The energy dependence of the yields of single and double strand breaks (SSB and DSB) and crosslinks induced by electron impact on plasmid DNA films is measured in the 2-20 eV range. The yield functions exhibit two strong maxima, which are interpreted to result from the formation of core-excited resonances (i.e., transient anions) of the bases, and their decay into the autoionization channel, resulting in π → π{sup *} electronic transitions of the bases followed by electron transfer to the C–O σ{sup *} bond in the phosphate group. Occupancy of the σ{sup *} orbital ruptures the C–O bond of the backbone via dissociative electron attachment, producing a SSB. From a comparison of our results with those of other works, including theoretical calculations and electron-energy-loss spectra of the bases, the 4.6 eV peak in the SSB yield function is attributed to the resonance decay into the lowest electronically excited states of the bases; in particular, those resulting from the transitions 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π{sub 2} → π{sub 3}{sup *}) and 1{sup 3}A{sup ″} (n{sub 2} → π{sub 3}{sup *}) of thymine and 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π → π{sup *}) of cytosine. The strongest peak at 9.6 eV in the SSB yield function is also associated with electron captured by excited states of the bases, resulting mostly from a multitude of higher-energy π → π{sup *} transitions. The DSB yield function exhibits strong maxima at 6.1 and 9.6 eV. The peak at 9.6 eV is probably related to the same resonance manifold as that leading to SSB, but the other at 6.1 eV may be more restricted to decay into the electronic state 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π → π{sup *}) of cytosine via autoionization. The yield function of crosslinks is dominated by a broad peak extending over the 3.6-11.6 eV range with a sharper one at 17.6 eV. The different line shape of the latter function, compared to that of SSB and DSB, appears to be due to the formation of reactive radical sites in the initial supercoiled

  5. Humidity sensing properties of La~(3+)/Ce~(3+)-doped TiO_2-20 wt.% SnO_2 thin films derived from sol-gel method

    李红霞; 史志铭; 刘红伟

    2010-01-01

    The humidity sensing properties of La3+/Ce3+-doped TiO2-20 wt.%SnO2 thin films were studied.Sol-gel method was employed to prepare the films on alumina substrates.By constructing a humidity-impedance measuring system,the sensing behaviors were inspected for the films sintered at different temperatures.Experimental results showed that,0.5 wt.% of La2O3 or Ce2O3 doped films sintered at 500 °C for 2 h had the best humidity sensing properties,the impedance decreasing from 109 ? to below 104 ? in the humidity ra...

  6. METHODICAL APPROACHES TO THE CHOICE OF THE NEW GENERATION OF HIGH-VOLTAGE POWER TRANSMISSION LINE 220 kV OPTIONS

    POSTOLATI V.M.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Transmission Power Lines of new generation are described in the article (single- compact, double-circuit compact, double-circuit Controlled Self-compensating High Voltage Transmission Power Lines (CSHVL. Basic principles of creation, design elements and comparative characteristics of the transmission lines of the new generation are described, the advantages of its are showed. Methodical approaches to the choosing of a new generation of transmission lines and facilities management FACTS are formulated. Methodical approaches to the choice of options for transmission lines 220 kV and facilities management are shown.

  7. On the solar origin of the signal at 220.7microHz: A possible component of a g mode?

    Jimenez, A; Garcia, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Gravity modes in the Sun have been the object of a long and difficult search in recent decades. Thanks to the data accumulated with the last generation of instruments (BiSON, GONG and three helioseismic instruments aboard SoHO), scientists have been able to find signatures of their presence. However, the individual detection of such modes remains evasive. In this article, we study the signal at 220.7 microHz which is a peak that is present in most of the helioseismic data of the last 10 years...

  8. A total of 220 patients with autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia do not display mutations in the SLC33A1 gene (SPG42)

    Schlipf, Nina A; Beetz, Christian; Schüle, Rebecca; Stevanin, Giovanni; Erichsen, Anne Kjersti; Forlani, Sylvie; Zaros, Cécile; Karle, Kathrin; Klebe, Stephan; Klimpe, Sven; Durr, Alexandra; Otto, Susanne; Tallaksen, Chantal M. E.; Riess, Olaf; Brice, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    The most frequent causes of autosomal dominant (AD) hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) (ADHSP) are mutations in the SPAST gene (SPG4 locus). However, roughly 60% of patients are negative for SPAST mutations, despite their family history being compatible with AD inheritance. A mutation in the gene for an acetyl-CoA transporter (SLC33A1) has recently been reported in one Chinese family to cause ADHSP-type SPG42. In this study, we screened 220 independent SPAST mutation-negative ADHSP samples ...

  9. A Naturally Occurring Mutation K220T in the Pleiotropic Activator PrfA of Listeria Monocytogenes Results in a Loss of Virulence Due to Decreasing DNA-Binding Affinity

    Velge,P.; Herler, M.; Johansson, J.; Roches, S.; Temoin, S.; Fedorov, A.; Gracieux, P.; Almo, S.; Goebel, W.; Cossart, P.

    2007-01-01

    The sequencing of prfA, encoding the transcriptional regulator of virulence genes, in 26 low-virulence field Listeria monocytogenes strains showed that eight strains exhibited the same single amino-acid substitution: PrfAK220T. These strains exhibited no expression of PrfA-regulated proteins and thus no virulence. This substitution inactivated PrfA, since expression of the PrfAK220T mutant gene in an EGD{Delta}prfA strain did not restore the haemolytic and phosphatidylcholine phospholipase C activities, in contrast to the wild-type prfA gene. The substitution of the lysine at position 220 occurred in the helix H. However, the data showed that the PrfAK220T protein is dimerized just as well as its wild-type counterpart, but does not bind to PrfA-boxes. PrfAK220T did not form a PrfA-DNA complex in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, but low concentrations of CI complexes (PrfAK220T-RNA polymerase-DNA complex) were formed by adding RNA polymerase, suggesting that PrfA interacted with RNA polymerase in solution in the absence of DNA. Formation of some transcriptionally active complexes was confirmed by in vitro runoff transcription assays and quantitative RT-PCR. Crystallographic analyses described the structure of native PrfA and highlighted the key role of allosteric changes in the activity of PrfA and especially the role of the Lys220 in the conformation of the helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif.

  10. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 220, Revision 1 (FGE.220Rev1): alpha,beta-Unsaturated ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 4.4 of FGE.19: 3(2H)-Furanones.

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Lund, Pia; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2011-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular, the Panel was asked to evaluate flavouring substances using the Procedure as referred to in the Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present revision of FGE.220,...

  11. Being Forgotten Memory—— A Field Visit to No. 220 Western-style Building in Xibin Village of Xiamen%正被遗忘的记忆——厦门西滨220号洋楼探访

    黄丽坤

    2012-01-01

    Several western-style buildings are still reserved in Xibin village of Xiamen, which were built in the 1920s and the 1930s. No.220 building is the larger one. These buildings represent the historical memory of modernization in Chinese architecture in those years, by being constructed in the mixed style of Minnan architectural culture and western styles. But they are faced with the same problem to be abandoned for the rapid urbaniztion as our tradtional culture. It' s very glad to meet the owners of N0.220 building who pay much attention to keep their house well and love it deeply. To save the disppearing tradtional culture, we each one should learn to value our old historical buildings.%厦门西滨洋楼产生于二十世纪二三十年代,其中以220号洋楼型制相对较大,保存较完好。洋楼的型制源于闽南的传统格局,又因为西方文化的影响,超越了传统型制,形成闽南独特的洋楼文化。然而地方的偏远,却导致这些洋楼逐渐衰败,渐被废弃。所幸能遇到220号洋楼的主人,他们对自家的老洋楼十分喜爱和保护。如果每个屋主都有敝帚自珍的情怀,也许我们的遗产会更加丰富,我们的传统不会在现代化过程中过快的消逝。

  12. Water, methanol and dense gas tracers in the local ULIRG Arp 220: Results from the new SEPIA Band 5 Science Verification campaign

    Galametz, M; Immer, K; Humphreys, E; Aladro, R; De Breuck, C; Ginsburg, A; Madden, S C; Møller, P; Arumugam, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a line survey of the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220, taken with the newly installed SEPIA Band 5 instrument on APEX. We illustrate the capacity of SEPIA to detect the 183.3 GHz H2O 31,3-22,0 line against the atmospheric H2O absorption feature. We confirm the previous detection of the HCN(2-1) line, and detect new transitions of standard dense gas tracers such as HNC(2-1), HCO+(2-1), CS(4-3), C34S(4-3), HC3N(20-19). We also detect HCN(2-1) v2=1 and the 193.5 GHz methanol (4-3) group for the first time. The absence of time variations in the megamaser water line compared to previous observations seems to rule out an AGN nuclear origin for the line. It could, on the contrary, favor a thermal origin instead, but also possibly be a sign that the megamaser emission is associated with star-forming cores washed-out in the beam. We finally discuss how the new transitions of HCN, HNC, HCO+ refine our knowledge of the ISM physical conditions in Arp 220.

  13. Optimization of cycling properties of the layered lithium cobalt nitride Li2.20Co0.40N as negative electrode material for Li-ion batteries

    An optimization of the specific capacity exhibited by the best layered lithiated cobalt nitride Li2.20Co0.40N is proposed by using a conditioning electrochemical oxidation up to 1.1 V before cycling in the 1.1 V–0.02 V potential range. This initial charge process allows the Co3+/Co2+ redox couple to be involved in the cycling process in addition to the Co2+/Co+ couple as in the 1 V–0.02 V voltage range. A new electrochemical fingerprint is obtained with a single step at 0.4/0.8 V for the discharge-charge process and a specific capacity of 300 mAh g−1 at C/5 which constitutes a huge improvement compared to 130 mAh g−1 recovered in the conventional 1 V–0.02 V potential window. This high capacity value and the excellent capacity retention of 100% over at least 75 cycles make Li2.20Co0.40N a promising anode material for Li-ion batteries

  14. Subarcsecond international LOFAR radio images of Arp 220 at 150 MHz: A kpc-scale star forming disk surrounding nuclei with shocked outflows

    Varenius, E; Martí-Vidal, I; Aalto, S; Barcos-Muñoz, L; König, S; Pérez-Torres, M A; Deller, A T; Moldón, J; Gallagher, J S; Yoast-Hull, T M; Horellou, C; Morabito, L K; Alberdi, A; Jackson, N; Beswick, R; Carozzi, T D; Wucknitz, O; Ramírez-Olivencia, N

    2016-01-01

    We analyse new observations with the International Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) telescope, and archival data from the Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We model the spatially resolved radio spectrum of Arp 220 from 150 MHz to 33 GHz. We present an image of Arp 220 at 150 MHz with resolution $0.65''\\times0.35''$, sensitivity 0.15 mJy beam$^{-1}$, and integrated flux density $394\\pm59$ mJy. More than 80% of the detected flux comes from extended ($6''\\approx$2.2 kpc) steep spectrum ($\\alpha=-0.7$) emission, likely from star formation in the molecular disk surrounding the two nuclei. We find elongated features extending $0.3''$ (110 pc) and $0.9''$ (330 pc) from the eastern and western nucleus respectively, which we interpret as evidence for outflows. The extent of radio emission requires acceleration of cosmic rays far outside the nuclei. We find that a simple three component model can explain most of the observed radio spectrum of the galaxy...

  15. Natural 222Rn and 220Rn indicate the impact of the Water–Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS) on submarine groundwater discharge in the Yellow River estuary, China

    Highlights: • 220Rn and 222Rn were combined to locate intensive SGD sites. • Influence of WSRS to SGD was found for the first time. • SGD was a dominant nutrient pathway in the Yellow River estuary. - Abstract: Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in estuaries brings important influences to coastal ecosystems. In this study, we observed significant SGD in the Yellow River estuary, including a fresh component, during the Water–Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS) period. We used the 222Rn and 220Rn isotope pair to locate sites of significant SGD within the study area. Three apparent SGD locations were found during a non-WSRS period, one of which became much more pronounced, according to the remarkably elevated radon levels, during the WSRS. Increased river discharge (from 245 m3 s−1 to 3560 m3 s−1) and the elevated river water level (from 11 m to 13 m) during the WSRS led to a higher hydraulic head, enhancing groundwater discharge in the estuary. Our results suggest that high river discharge (>3000 m3 s−1) might be necessary for elevated fresh submarine groundwater discharging (FSGD). Vertical profiles of salinity, DO and turbidity anomalies along the benthic boundary layer also indicated significant FSGD in the estuary during the WSRS. Nutrient concentrations had positive correlations with 222Rn during a 24-h observation, which indicates that SGD is a dominant nutrient pathway in this area

  16. Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) of changed Brain Function Provoked by Pro-Dopamine Regulator (KB220z) in one Adult ADHD case

    Steinberg, Bruce; Blum, Kenneth; McLaughlin, Thomas; Lubar, Joel; Febo, Marcelo; Braverman, Eric R.; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D

    2016-01-01

    Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often continues into adulthood. Recent neuroimaging studies found lowered baseline dopamine tone in the brains of affected individuals that may place them at risk for Substance Use Disorder (SUD). This is an observational case study of the potential for novel management of Adult ADHD with a non-addictive glutaminergic-dopaminergic optimization complex KB200z. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to evaluate the effects of KB220z on a 72-year-old male with ADHD, at baseline and one hour following administration. The resultant z-scores, averaged across Eyes Closed, Eyes Open and Working Memory conditions, increased for each frequency band, in the anterior, dorsal and posterior cingulate regions, as well as the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during Working Memory, with KB220z. These scores are consistent with other human and animal neuroimaging studies that demonstrated increased connectivity volumes in reward circuitry and may offer a new approach to ADHD treatment. However, larger randomized trials to confirm these results are required.

  17. Effect of 220Rn gas concentration distribution on its transmission from a delay chamber: evolving a CFD-based uniformity index

    220Rn mitigation can be achieved by delay chamber technique, which relies on the advantage of its short half-life. However, flow rate as well as inlet-outlet position for the delay chamber can have a significant impact on 220Rn concentration distribution patterns and hence transmission factor. In the present study, computational fluid dynamics simulations to estimate the concentration distribution has been carried out in a chamber of 0.5 m3 for the combination of six different inlet-outlet positions and five different flow rates. Subsequently, the transmission factor (TF) for the chamber was evaluated and found to be highly dependent on the flow rate and inlet-outlet positions. For ease of scale up, the dependency of TF on the flow rate and the inlet-outlet positions is best summarised by relative transmission factor (RTF), which is the ratio of the TFs for the case of inlet and outlet on different faces to that on the same face. (authors)

  18. 220kV/3kA冷绝缘高温超导电缆电流引线设计%Design of Current Leads for 220 kV/3 kA Cold Dielectric High Temperature Superconduction Cables

    程远; 王银顺; 郑志强; 张肖杰; 薛驰; 赵连岐

    2013-01-01

    电流引线的最小漏热优化和电气绝缘设计是220 kV/3 kA冷绝缘高温超导电缆终端设计的重要方面.为此,根据Weidemann-Franz定律分析了传导冷却方式下铜、铝材料电流引线的漏热情况,应用平均值法计算了最小漏热时铜、铝引线的长度、截面积、半径.结果表明,通过3 kA电流时,截面积240 mm2、长309.6 mm铜引线和截面积400 mm2、长308.0 mm铝引线均满足最小漏热要求,单根引线每kA电流漏热分别为42.7W和43.1 W.选用环氧树脂DW-3作为导体层电流引线的外部绝缘,制作样品进行了液氮环境下的工频击穿试验,得到了其击穿场强13 kV/mm,推导了绝缘厚度和低温终端内半径的关系.结果表明,220 kV低温终端内半径140 mm,铜引线DW-3绝缘厚度22.0 mm、铝引线DW-3绝缘厚度21.5 mm均能够满足绝缘强度要求,并可与常规220 kV室温终端配合.%Optimization design, including optimization of minimum heat-leakage and electrical insulation for current leads, is a significant aspect in the terminal design of 220 kV/3 kA cold dielectric (CD) high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables. We analyzed the heat leakage of conduction-cooled current leads made from copper or aluminum according to the Weidemann-Franz law, and obtained parameters, such as length, cross section, and radius, on condition of the minimum heat-leakage by using the average-value method. The results show that, carrying 3 kA current, copper leads with cross section of 240 mm2 and length of 309. 6 mm, and aluminum leads with cross section of 400 mm2 and length of 308. 0 mm can meet requirements of the minimum heat leakage design, and the corresponding single conductor heat leakage will be 42. 7 W and 43. 1 W per kA current, respectively. DW-3, a kind of epoxy resin which could withstand ultra-low temperature, was chosen as the insulation material of conduction-current leads, then AC breakdown strength of processed current lead samples at liquid N2

  19. Unique 1D Co3O4 crystallized nanofibers with (220) oriented facets as high-performance lithium ion battery anode material

    Tan, Yanli; Gao, Qiuming; Li, Zeyu; Tian, Weiqian; Qian, Weiwei; Yang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    A novel one-step hydrothermal and calcination strategy was developed to synthesize the unique 1D oriented Co3O4 crystal nanofibers with (220) facets on the carbon matrix derived from the natural, abundant and low cost wool fibers acting as both carbon precursor and template reagent. The resultant W2@Co3O4 nanocomposite exhibited very high specific capacity and favorable high-rate capability when used as anode material of lithium ion battery. The high reversible Li+ ion storage capacity of 986 mAh g−1 was obtained at 100 mA g−1 after 150 cycles, higher than the theoretical capacity of Co3O4 (890 mAh g−1). Even at the higher current density of 1 A g−1, the electrode could still deliver a remarkable discharge capacity of 720 mAh g−1 over 150 cycles. PMID:27217201

  20. LR-115 detector response to 222Rn, 220Rn and their progenies, exposed to hemispherical surfaces in free air, and design of a system to calculate their concentrations

    The sensitivities of LR-115 detectors to 222Rn and 220Rn chains in front of hemispherical surfaces of different radii are calculated by the Monte Carlo method. The optimum radii of hemispherical caps are determined, as a result contributions of the different α-emitter nuclei to the track density are differentiated and non-uniform track distribution is avoided. It is demonstrated that if eight detectors are exposed separately in front of the same number of hemispherical surfaces of different radii, the concentrations of each α emitter in airborne and deposited states can be determined. A passive integrating system to calculate the concentrations of radon, thoron and their progenies in free air is given

  1. Soil scientific supervision of 220/38 kV cable circuits of the power station 'Eemscentrale' in the Dutch province Groningen: Part 2

    Recently, five underground cable circuits were completed at the site of the EPON (an energy utility for the north-eastern part of the Netherlands) title power station, consisting of two 220 kV and two 380 kV connections with a total length of 24 km. In a previous article, attention is paid to theoretical aspects of heat transfer of cables for underground electricity transport, the research method of the soil scientific survey, and the results of the survey for the design of the cable connection, to be made by NKF (cable manufacturer) and for the final execution of the cable design. In this article attention will be paid to soil scientific marginal conditions and soil scientific supervision during the realization. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 2 refs

  2. A technique for discrimination of radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) in soil-gas using solid state nuclear track detectors

    A technique for discrimination of radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) in soil radon emanometry using SSNTDs has been described. It is based on the large ratio of their half lives and consequent difference in their diffusion lengths. It can be computed that a length of about 25 cm of an air column is adequate to eliminate thoron almost completely while radon is not much affected. Theoretical and experimental curves demonstrating the discrimination of radon and thoron using Kodak Pathe LR-115 cellulose nitrate films have been presented. The design of a sonde for the estimation of radon as well as thoron in soil gas for uranium coefficient of radon in air at room temperature has been determined experimentally. (author)

  3. Observation of strong virtual scattering under three-beam (220, 371) X-ray diffraction in TeO2 single crystal

    A strong effect of virtual scattering has been experimentally observed when studying the nearly coplanar three-beam (220, 371) X-ray diffraction in a paratellurite single crystal under high-resolution double-crystal X-ray diffraction using MoKα1 radiation. One characteristic feature of this effect is that the angular dependence of the first (strong) reflection intensity and its shape barely change in the three-beam range of parameters, whereas very strong changes are observed for the second (weak) reflection not only in the three-beam range but also far beyond it, which is related to the variation in the two-beam diffraction parameter due to virtual scattering. The changes observed are asymmetric and make it possible to determine the triplet combination of structure-factor phases.

  4. UV spectroscopy of Titan's atmosphere, planetary organic chemistry and prebiological synthesis. II - Interpretation of new IUE observations in the 220-335 nm range

    Courtin, Regis; Wagener, Richard; Mckay, Christopher P.; Caldwell, John; Fricke, Karl-Heinrich

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical model developed by McKay et al. (1989) to characterize the size distribution, thermal structure, and chemical composition of the stratospheric haze of Titan is applied to new 220-335-nm albedo measurements obtained with the long-wavelength prime camera of the IUE during August 1987. Data and model predictions are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail. It is shown that a simple model with particles of one size at a given altitude does not accurately reproduce the observed features in all spectral regions, but that good general agreement is obtained using a model with a uniformly mixed layer at 150-600 km and a bimodal distribution of small 'polymer' haze particles (radius less than 20 nm) and larger haze particles (radius 100-500 nm). The number densities implied by this model require, however, a mechanism such as electrostatic charging or reaction kinetics to inhibit coagulation of the smaller particles.

  5. Unique 1D Co3O4 crystallized nanofibers with (220) oriented facets as high-performance lithium ion battery anode material.

    Tan, Yanli; Gao, Qiuming; Li, Zeyu; Tian, Weiqian; Qian, Weiwei; Yang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    A novel one-step hydrothermal and calcination strategy was developed to synthesize the unique 1D oriented Co3O4 crystal nanofibers with (220) facets on the carbon matrix derived from the natural, abundant and low cost wool fibers acting as both carbon precursor and template reagent. The resultant W2@Co3O4 nanocomposite exhibited very high specific capacity and favorable high-rate capability when used as anode material of lithium ion battery. The high reversible Li(+) ion storage capacity of 986 mAh g(-1) was obtained at 100 mA g(-1) after 150 cycles, higher than the theoretical capacity of Co3O4 (890 mAh g(-1)). Even at the higher current density of 1 A g(-1), the electrode could still deliver a remarkable discharge capacity of 720 mAh g(-1) over 150 cycles. PMID:27217201

  6. Study of Gamow-Teller transitions from 132Sn via the (p,n reaction at 220 MeV/u in inverse kinematics

    Sasano M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The charge-exchange (p,n reaction at 220 MeV has been measured to extract the strength distribution of Gamow-Teller transitions from the doubly magic unstable nucleus 132Sn. A recently developed experimental technique of measuring the (p,n reaction in inverse kinematics has been applied to the study of unstable nuclei in the mass region around A∼100 for the first time. We have combined the low-energy neutron detector WINDS and the SAMURAI spectrometer at the RIKEN radioactive isotope beam factory (RIBF. The particle identification plot for the reaction residues obtained by the spectrometer provides the clear separation of the CE reaction channel from other background events, enabling us to identify kinematic curves corresponding the (p, n reaction. Further analysis to reconstruct the excitation energy spectrum is ongoing.

  7. A 300-mV 220-nW event-driven ADC with real-time QRS detection for wearable ECG sensors.

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Lian, Yong

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an ultra-low-power event-driven analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with real-time QRS detection for wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) sensors in wireless body sensor network (WBSN) applications. Two QRS detection algorithms, pulse-triggered (PUT) and time-assisted PUT (t-PUT), are proposed based on the level-crossing events generated from the ADC. The PUT detector achieves 97.63% sensitivity and 97.33% positive prediction in simulation on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. The t-PUT improves the sensitivity and positive prediction to 97.76% and 98.59% respectively. Fabricated in 0.13 μm CMOS technology, the ADC with QRS detector consumes only 220 nW measured under 300 mV power supply, making it the first nanoWatt compact analog-to-information (A2I) converter with embedded QRS detector. PMID:25608283

  8. 高速铁路牵引变电所220 kV干式电流互感器介质损耗值在线监测研究%Researchon high speed railway traction substation 220kVdry type current transformer dielectric loss valueon-line monitoring

    邓建峰

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve some problemsofthe off-line preventive test monitoringof Beijing-Guangzhou high-speed rail traction substation 220kVdry type current transformer,andon the basis of the insulation dielectric loss of physical model,this paperuses the zero monitoring comparison method and designs a set of 220 kVdry type current transformer real-time online monitoring device. In the design process, it carefully analyzesinfluence onthe tan delta value measurement precisioncaused bycurrent sensor, high order harmonic, zero-crossing comparator offset voltage, zero drift, environmental temperature and humidity, etc. According to the different factors influencing the accuracy, the correspondingtechnical improvement measures are put forward. Field operation shows that the tan delta value resultsofreal-time online monitoring accord withthat ofoffline measurements,it hasstable running andreliable work,and canmeet the requirements of field operation.%为了解决离线预防性试验监测京广高铁牵引变电所220 kV干式电流互感器存在的诸多问题,依据绝缘介损的物理模型,采用过零监测比较法,设计一套220 kV干式电流互感器实时在线监测装置。在设计过程中,认真分析了电流传感器、高次谐波、过零比较器失调电压和零漂以及环境温湿度等因素对tanδ值测量精度的影响。并针对影响精度的不同因素,提出了相应的技术改进措施。现场运行情况表明,装置实时在线监测tanδ值结果与设备离线实测结果完全吻合,且运行稳定,工作可靠,满足现场运行的要求。

  9. A new hemoglobin variant: Hb Meylan [β73(E17)Asp → Phe; HBB: c.220G>T; c.221A>T] with a double base mutation at the same codon.

    Renoux, Céline; Feray, Cécile; Joly, Philippe; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Garcia, Caroline; Lacan, Philippe; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We report a new β-globin chain variant: Hb Meylan [β73(E17)Asp → Phe; HBB: c.220G>T; c.221A>T]. The new variant results from a double nucleotide mutation at the same codon. The possible molecular mechanisms are discussed. PMID:25476778

  10. Chemical and physical evolution of dolomite precipitation at 180°C and 220°C from calcite and aragonite seeds

    Kell-Duivestein, Isaac; Dietzel, Martin; Mavromatis, Vasileios

    2016-04-01

    In this present study an experimental approach is taken to gain a better understanding of secondary dolomite formation under diagenetic hydrothermal conditions. A series of 60 experiments were set up in closed bomb reactors with Teflon inserts to simulate exposure of calcium carbonate materials of (i) aragonite and (ii) calcite to hydrothermal conditions. 30 reactors were prepared using calcite as a seed material and 30 using aragonite. In each experiment 330mg of the seed calcium carbonate was placed in 30mL of 0.2M MgCl2 solution along with 252mg NaHCO3 to balance charges. 15 of each the calcite and aragonite prepared reactors were placed in an oven at 180°C and 15 of each at 220°C. Samples were then progressively removed from the ovens beginning in short time intervals and increasing the time apart as the phase transformations became less rapid (ie. after 3, 6, 13, 21, 31, 56 days *ongoing*). Samples were separated into fluid and solid phases by filtration for separate analysis. Fluids were analysed by titration for alkalinity and ICP-OES for elemental concentrations of major cations to determine the migration of major cations between the calcium carbonate seed material and the reaction fluid. Solid samples were analysed with FTIR-spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction of powdered smears on glass loading slides to identify the present mineral phases. Rietveld analysis was conducted on the XRD patterns to quantify the mineral phases and to determine the stoichiometry and the superstructure of the formed magnesite and dolomite. Although experiments are still running, several trends have been identified. Transformation of the aragonite seed material occurs at a much faster rate than transformation of the calcite seed material, with each precursor material first transforming into a Ca-rich magnesite. With increased reaction time the Ca-rich magnesite recrystallizes to purer phases of magnesite, the Ca concentration of the fluid increases as the Ca is liberated into

  11. Novel PSEN1 mutations (H214N and R220P) associated with familial Alzheimer's disease identified by targeted exome sequencing.

    Piccoli, Elena; Rossi, Giacomina; Rossi, Tommaso; Pelliccioni, Giuseppe; D'Amato, Ilaria; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Di Fede, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by mutations in amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 genes and is mostly associated with early-onset form of AD (EOAD), whereas very few mutations were also found in late-onset AD (LOAD) cases. Because of the clinical overlapping between AD and other degenerative dementias such as frontotemporal dementias, a wide-spectrum genetic analysis should be envisaged in the differential diagnosis of this group of disorders. We used next-generation sequencing techniques to analyze 10 genes involved in dementia on a cohort of 20 EOAD and 20 LOAD cases. We found 5 rare coding variants (frequency PSEN1 H214N mutation, identified in a case of familial EOAD and PSEN1 R220P, found in a case of familial LOAD, are predicted to be pathogenic. These findings confirm the contribution of PSEN1 genetic variants also to LOAD, underlining the need of extending the genetic screening of presenilin mutations to LOAD patients. Two variants in microtubule-associated protein tau and 1 in progranulin appeared to be benign polymorphisms, showing no major contribution of these genes to AD. PMID:26925509

  12. Design of a neutron interrogation cell based on an electron accelerator and performance assessment on 220 liter nuclear waste mock-up drums

    Radiological characterization of nuclear waste drums is an important task for the nuclear industry. The amount of actinides, such as 235U or 239Pu, contained in a package can be determined using non-destructive active methods based on the fission process. One of these techniques, known as neutron interrogation, uses a neutron beam to induce fission reactions on the actinides. Optimization of the neutron flux is an important step towards improving this technique. Electron accelerators enable to achieve higher neutron flux intensities than the ones delivered by deuterium-tritium generators traditionally used on neutron interrogation industrial facilities. In this paper, we design a neutron interrogation cell based on an electron accelerator by MCNPX simulation. We carry out photoneutron interrogation measurements on uranium samples placed at the center of 220 liter nuclear waste drums containing different types of matrices. We quantify impact of the matrix on the prompt neutron signal, on the ratio between the prompt and delayed neutron signals, and on the interrogative neutron half-life time. We also show that characteristics of the conversion target of the electron accelerator enable to improve significantly measurement performances. (authors)

  13. Investigation of the level of radionuclide on 222Rn/220Rn and of γ dose rate in underground coal mines in Hebei province

    Objective: To investigate the level of radionuclide in underground coal mines at Tangshan district in Hebei province. Methods: The radon concentration and γ dose rate of four underground coal mines were measured with accumulative method and instant method. The activity concentration of radionuclide was measured with high pure germanium (HPGe) spectrum. Result: The accumulative measurement at four coal mines in the district show that 222Rn concentration is 50.1Bq/ m3, 220Rn is about 38.4 Bq/m3 and γ dose rate of underground coal mines is 108nGy/h; Instant measurement indicates that radon concentration is 8.7 ± 17.0 Bq/m3 and γ dose-rate is 67nGy/h at the earth surface; the arithmetic mean values of activity concentration of radionuclides for 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K are 39.6, 31.3, 36.3, 26.0Bq/kg, respectively. Conclusion: Radon concentrations in underground coal mines are higher than that in the open environment. Contents of radionuclide of coal are all apparent lower than that of average of the whole counter. The normalized collective dose is 4.67 man·mSv (Mt)-1. (authors)

  14. Optimization of Process-Level Network in Luding Intelligent Substation%220kV泸定智能变电站过程层网络的优化

    张文璨; 田肖艳; 邵剑峰; 叶铮

    2012-01-01

    220kV泸定变电站是按照IEC61850标准设计的智能变电站,智能变电站过程层网络的实时性、可靠性要求高。分析了智能变电站过程层网络的发布/订阅通信模型以及OSI模型第二层交换技术的特点,从网络拓扑结构、静态VLAN划分以及动态组播过滤技术对泸定变电站过程层网络进行优化,以完善和提高泸定变电站过程层网络的功能和性能。%Luding Substation was designed as an intelligent substation according to IEC 61850. Based on the high re- quirement for real-time communication and reliability in its process-level network, this paper analyses the process-lev- el network's characteristics of P/S model and switching technology in OSI layer-2, and optimizes the process-level network in terms of network topology, static VLAN division and dynamic multicast filtering technology, with a view to improving the process-level network function and performance.

  15. A 220-nA 32-kHz Crystal Oscillator with Wide Voltage Range (1.0-5.5 V) for Battery-Operated Microcontrollers

    Ozawa, Osamu; Horiguchi, Masashi; Okuda, Yuichi; Ito, Takayasu; Shibata, Hisao; Hiraki, Mitsuru

    2012-02-01

    Most microcontrollers (MCUs) have a real-time clock function driven by a 32-kHz crystal oscillator. A low-power 32-kHz crystal oscillator for operation in battery-operated MCUs over a wide voltage range (1.0-5.5 V) is described. The circuit features a proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) bias-current generator to ensure an oscillation margin and an adaptive comparator for detecting small oscillation signals with little effect from by process and temperature variations. Experimental results indicate that the circuit achieves a small operating current of only 220 nA while ensuring a 10-times oscillation margin with a low-CL (3.1 pF) quartz crystal, providing sufficient noise tolerance and quick start-up. The duty cycle is 40-60% and start-up time is less than 0.6 s. This circuit is expected to realize the smallest MCU standby current of 420 nA.

  16. The effect of Nb morphology on the cyclic oxidation resistance of MoSi2/20 vol pct Nb composites

    The effect of Nb morphology on the 1,200 C cyclic oxidation resistance Of MoSi2/20 vol pct Nb composites was investigated. Niobium was incorporated into MoSi2 as particles, random short fibers, and continuous aligned fibers. After oxidation, it was found that all the composites had lost weight and essentially disintegrated. This was attributed to spalling of both the Nb2O5 scale and the MoSi2 matrix. The spalling of the matrix was a result of cracks originating in the oxidized Nb and propagating through the MoSi2 matrix. These cracks arose from two sources: (1) the volume expansion associated with the transformation of Nb to Nb2O5 and (2) the difference in thermal expansion between Nb2O5 and MoSi2. However, it was found that the addition of smaller diameter Nb reinforcements tended to retard the disintegration of the composites. This was attributed to the effect of reinforcement size on CTE mismatch cracking

  17. Guided ion-beam studies of the reactions of Con+ (n=2-20) with O2: Cobalt cluster-oxide and -dioxide bond energies

    The kinetic-energy dependence for the reactions of Con+ (n=2-20) with O2 is measured as a function of kinetic energy over a range of 0 to 10 eV in a guided ion-beam tandem mass spectrometer. A variety of Com+, ComO+, and ComO2+ (m≤n) product ions is observed, with the dioxide cluster ions dominating the products for all larger clusters. Reaction efficiencies of Con+ cations with O2 are near unity for all but the dimer. Bond dissociation energies for both cobalt cluster oxides and dioxides are derived from threshold analysis of the energy dependence of the endothermic reactions using several different methods. These values show little dependence on cluster size for clusters larger than three atoms. The trends in this thermochemistry and the stabilities of oxygenated cobalt clusters are discussed. The bond energies of Con+-O for larger clusters are found to be very close to the value for desorption of atomic oxygen from bulk-phase cobalt. Rate constants for O2 chemisorption on the cationic clusters are compared with results from previous work on cationic, anionic, and neutral cobalt clusters

  18. Physical mapping 220 kb centromeric of the human MHC and DNA sequence analysis of the 43-kb segment including the RING1, HKE6, and HKE4 genes.

    Kikuti, Y Y; Tamiya, G; Ando, A; Chen, L; Kimura, M; Ferreira, E; Tsuji, K; Trowsdale, J; Inoko, H

    1997-06-15

    A cosmid contig was constructed from a YAC clone with a 220-kb insert that spans the centromeric side of the human MHC class II region, corresponding to the mouse t complex. The gene order was identified to be HSET-HKE1.5-HKE2-HKE3-RING1-HKE6- HKE4 (RING5). The genomic sequence of a 42,801-bp long region encoded by one cosmid clone in the RING1, HKE6, and HKE4 subregions was determined by the shotgun method. The exon-intron organization of these three genes, RING1 (Ring finger protein), HKE6 (steroid dehydrogenase-like protein), and HKE4 (transmembrane protein with histidine-rich charge clusters), was determined. The previously reported RING2 gene was revealed to be identical to HKE6. Transcripts from HKE4 were detected in the placenta, lung, kidney, and pancreas. Those of HKE6 were found in the liver and pancreas. The 25-kb region proximal to the RING1 gene includes an extensive dense cluster of Alu repeats (about 1.2 Alu per kb), and no gene has been identified in this so far. The region is equivalent to part of the mouse t complex and could be of relevance to human development. PMID:9205114

  19. Numerical analysis of loads effect on combustion performance and NO{sub x} emissions of a 220 MW pulverized coal boiler

    Li, Jun; Yang, Weihong; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Energy and Furnace Technology; Jankowski, Radoslaw; Kotecki, Michal; Szewczyk, Dariusz [Industrial Combustion Systems (ICS) Company, Poznan (Poland); Brzdekiewicz, Artur [Remak-Rozruch SA, Opole (Poland)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents numerical study on the combustion performance and NO{sub x} emissions of a 220 MW pulverized coal boiler. Three different loads have been simulated with combusting coal, 200, 170 and 140 MW, respectively. In order to get as precise as possible numerical analysis results, two-step simulation method has been adopted in this work, namely, air supply system simulation and furnace simulation. After air supply system simulation, the results have been taken as the initial and boundary conditions for furnace simulation. The comparison between the measured values and predicted results from 200 MW case shows much better agreement. According to the simulation results, the adopted two-step simulation method is reasonable and suitable for predicting the characters of the flow and combustion process. It is concluded that the distributions of temperature, O{sub 2} and CO concentration inside furnace with different loads shows good similarly. The total NOx emissions decreased with the boiler load reducing, and fuel NO{sub x} has the same trend as total NO{sub x}, and fuel NO{sub x} account for about 66% in total NO{sub x} in all the three cases. More important, thermal NO{sub x} slowly decreased with the rise of boiler load. More detailed results presented in this paper enhance the understanding of combustion processes and complex flow patterns of front-wall pulverized coal boilers.

  20. ON THE SOLAR ORIGIN OF THE SIGNAL AT 220.7 μHz: A POSSIBLE COMPONENT OF A g-MODE?

    Gravity modes in the Sun have been the object of a long and difficult search in recent decades. Thanks to the data accumulated with the last generation of instruments (BiSON, GONG, and three helioseismic instruments aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)), scientists have been able to find signatures of their presence. However, the individual detection of such modes remains evasive. In this article, we study the signal at 220.7 μHz which is a peak that is present in most of the helioseismic data of the last 10 years. This signal has already been identified as being a component of a g-mode candidate detected in the GOLF Doppler velocity signal. The nature of this peak is studied in particular using the VIRGO/SPM instrument aboard SOHO. First we analyze all the available instrumental data of VIRGO and SOHO (housekeeping) to reject any possible instrumental origin. No relation was found, implying that the signal has a solar origin. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we find, with more than 99% confidence level, that the signal found in VIRGO/SPM is very unlikely to be due to pure noise.

  1. On the solar origin of the signal at 220.7microHz: A possible component of a g mode?

    Jiménez, A

    2009-01-01

    Gravity modes in the Sun have been the object of a long and difficult search in recent decades. Thanks to the data accumulated with the last generation of instruments (BiSON, GONG and three helioseismic instruments aboard SoHO), scientists have been able to find signatures of their presence. However, the individual detection of such modes remains evasive. In this article, we study the signal at 220.7 microHz which is a peak that is present in most of the helioseismic data of the last 10 years. This signal has already been identified as being one component of a g-mode candidate detected in the GOLF Doppler velocity signal. The nature of this peak is studied in particular using the VIRGO/SPM instrument aboard SoHO. First we analyse all the available instrumental data of VIRGO and SoHO (housekeeping) to reject any possible instrumental origin. No relation was found, implying that the signal has a solar origin. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we find, with more than 99% confidence level, that the signal found in V...

  2. Measurements of the total cross section difference ΔσL(np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV

    New results for the np spin-dependent total cross section difference ΔσL(np) at neutron beam kinetic energies of 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV are presented. Measurements of the ΔσL(np) energy dependence were carried out at the Synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. A quasi-monochromatic neutron beam was produced by break-up of accelerated and extracted polarized deuterons. The neutrons were transmitted through a large proton polarized target. The values of Δσ were measured as a difference between the np total cross sections for parallel and antiparallel beam and target polarizations, both oriented along the beam momentum. The results at the two higher energies were obtained using four combinations of two opposite polarization directions for both the beam and the target. Only one target polarization direction was available at 1.59 GeV. A fast decrease of ΔσL(np) with increasing energy above 1.1 GeV, as it was first seen from our previous data, was confirmed. The new results are also compared with model predictions and with the phase shift analysis fits. The ΔσL quantities for isosinglet state I=0, deduced from the measured values of ΔσL(np) and known ΔσL(pp) data, are given

  3. A 220–1100 MHz low phase-noise frequency synthesizer with wide-band VCO and selectable I/Q divider

    This paper presents a low phase-noise fractional-N frequency synthesizer which provides an in-phase/quadrature-phase (I/Q) signal over a frequency range of 220–1100 MHz for wireless networks of industrial automation (WIA) applications. Two techniques are proposed to achieve the wide range. First, a 1.4–2.2 GHz ultralow gain voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is adopted by using 128 tuning curves. Second, a selectable I/Q divider is employed to divide the VCO frequency by 2 or 3 or 4 or 6. Besides, a phase-switching prescaler is proposed to lower PLL phase noise, a self-calibrated charge pump is used to suppress spur, and a detect-boosting phase frequency detector is adopted to shorten settling time. With a 200 kHz loop bandwidth, lowest measured phase noise is −106 dBc/Hz at a 10 kHz offset and −131 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset. Fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process, the synthesizer occupies a chip area of 1.2 mm2, consumes only 15 mW from the 1.8 V power supply, and settles within 13.2 μs. The synthesizer is optimized for the WIA applications, but can also be used for other short-range wireless communications, such as 433, 868, 916 MHz ISM band applications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 220, Revision 1 (FGE.220Rev1): alpha,beta-Unsaturated ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 4.4 of FGE.19: 3(2H)-Furanones

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Lund, Pia; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    genotoxicity was available both in vitro and in vivo. Evidence from in vitro studies indicated that the genotoxicity of the candidate substances in this subgroup may be caused by indirect (thresholded) mechanisms of action (in particular generation of reactive oxygen species). The concern for carcinogenicity...... carcinogenicity study could not be used to overrule this concern. It is not clear if (and if so to what extent) the thresholded mechanism mentioned above would be relevant for genotoxic effects in the germ cells. Therefore, the Panel conclusions of the previous evaluation in FGE.220 were that these five...... was alleviated, since one of the substances, for which positive genotoxicity data in mice were obtained, was not carcinogenic in a valid chronic assay in rats. Therefore, no further genotoxicity tests in somatic cells were required. However, some evidence was also available that this substance might...

  5. Technology and Strategy of Differentiated Lightning Protection for 220 kV Transmission Line in Three Gorges Area of Western Hubei%鄂西三峡地区220kV线路差异化防雷技术与策略

    阮羚; 谷山强; 赵淳; 姚尧; 李晓岚

    2012-01-01

    The weak lightning protection performance of transmission lines should be improved in complicated climate and geographical environments as well as frequent lightning activities in Three Gorges Area.In order to improve stability and reliability of power supply,it is very important to improve the assessment level and rebuilding ability of lightning protection for transmission lines.Consequently,we researched the lightning protection of 220 kV transmission line in Three Gorges Area by the technology and strategy of differentiated lightning protection.Moreover,we analyzed the distribution law of lightning flashovers for 220 kV transmission lines,consisting of line number,tower type,span,landform,lightning protection measures,and so on.The analysis results can provide a macroscopic guidance for the differentiated lightning protection work.For the typical transmission line,microscopic lightning protection risk assessment for each tower can be carried out.When making lightning disaster risk assessment,the differences of lightning activities,terrains and topographic features,line's structures and insulation configurations should be considered.Then,the differentiation scheme of lightning protection can be proposed based on assessment results according to the technology-economy.Finally,the change of lightning protection performance before and after rebuilding through the lightning risk assessment for each tower and whole line can be analyzed.After the lightning protection measures are taken in network,the practical rebuilding effect should be assessed continuously.%鄂西三峡地区气候、地理环境复杂,雷电活动频发,线路抵御雷击能力薄弱。有效提高输电线路防雷性能评估水平与治理能力,对保证鄂西三峡地区供电的稳定可靠是十分重要的。为此,基于差异化防雷技术与策略开展了鄂西三峡地区220kV线路防雷综合治理研究。具体来说,从线路回数、塔形、档距、地貌、防雷措施等

  6. Determination of the activity concentrations of Radon-222 and Radon-220 in water and soil samples from Newmont-Akyem Gold Mine using Gamma Spectrometry

    In this study a total of 28 water and soil samples were analysed by High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector for 222Rn (Radon), 220Rn (Thoron) and other natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th plus 40K) activity concentrations. The data generated was then used to assess radiological hazards posed to the public. The radon (Rn-222) concentration in the surface water varied from 0.015 to 1.701 Bq/L with a mean value of 0.913 ± 0.605 Bq/L against the global average of 11 Bq/L and thoron (Rn-220) was not detected in the surface water. For the soil samples, the concentration of radon ranged from 4.194 to 21.114 kBqm3 with mean value of 10.829 ± 4.130 kBq/m3 while thoron ranged from 0.544 to 13.222 kBq/m3 with the mean value of 5.062 ± 3.051 kBq/m3. In order to assess hazards due to radon concentration in the water to the people, the annual effective doses (AED) were computed. For ingestion of radon in water the AED varied from 0.019 to 4.346 μSv/y with a mean value of 2.333 ± 1.546 μSv/y while for inhalation of radon from water varied from 0.019 to 2.146 μSv/y with mean value of 1.152 ± 0.763 μSv/y respectively. The total AED due to ingestion and inhalation of radon in water ranged from 0.057 to 6.492 μSv/y with a mean value of 3.486 ± 2.309 μSv/y. Most people in the study area use soil as building material, thus the assessment of Radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and Internal hazard index (Hin), which are related to radon gas were carried out. The results varied from 19.708 to 69.880 Bq/Kg with mean value of 37.527 ± 15.508 Bq/Kg for which is lower than the global limit of 370 Bq/Kg. The ranged from 0.065 to 0.248 Bq/Kg with a mean value of 0.132 ± 0.053 Bq/Kg, also lower than the agreed global value of one (1). The study also assessed AED due to external and internal gamma and the values ranged from 0.060 to 0.175 mSv/y with a mean value of 0.11 ± 0.025 mSv/y against the global value of 1 mSv/y. Since Annual Effective Dose due to inhalation of indoor radon from

  7. Theoretical Modelling of the Diffuse Emission of (gamma)-rays From Extreme Regions of Star Formation: The Case of Arp 220

    Torres, D F

    2004-07-09

    Our current understanding of ultraluminous infrared galaxies suggest that they are recent galaxy mergers in which much of the gas in the former spiral disks, particularly that located at distances less than 5 kpc from each of the pre-merger nuclei, has fallen into a common center, triggering a huge starburst phenomenon. This large nuclear concentration of molecular gas has been detected by many groups, and estimates of molecular mass and density have been made. Not surprisingly, these estimates were found to be orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding values found in our Galaxy. In this paper, a self-consistent model of the high energy emission of the super-starburst galaxy Arp 220 is presented. The model also provides an estimate of the radio emission from each of the components of the central region of the galaxy (western and eastern extreme starbursts, and molecular disk). The predicted radio spectrum is found as a result of the synchrotron and free-free emission, and absorption, of the primary and secondary steady population of electrons and positrons. The latter is output of charged pion decay and knock-on leptonic production, subject to a full set of losses in the interstellar medium. The resulting radio spectrum is in agreement with sub-arcsec radio observations, what allows to estimate the magnetic field. In addition, the FIR emission is modeled with dust emissivity, and the computed FIR photon density is used as a target for inverse Compton process as well as to give account of losses in the {gamma}-ray scape. Bremsstrahlung emission and neutral pion decay are also computed, and the {gamma}-ray spectrum is finally predicted. Future possible observations with GLAST, and the ground based Cherenkov telescopes are discussed.

  8. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of 224Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides

  9. Bestimmung der Ionisationsenergie von Actinium und Ultraspurenanalyse von Plutonium mit resonanter Ionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS)

    Waldek, Achim Marcus

    2001-01-01

    ZusammenfassungDie Resonanzionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS) verbindet hohe Elementselektivität mit guter Nachweiseffizienz. Aufgrund dieser Eigenschaften ist die Methode für Ultraspurenanalyse und Untersuchungen an seltenen oder schwer handhabbaren Elementen gut geeignet. Für RIMS werden neutrale Atome mit monochromatischem Laserlicht ein- oder mehrfach resonant auf energetisch hoch liegende Niveaus angeregt und anschließend durch einen weiteren Laserstrahl oder durch ein elektrisches Fe...

  10. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228

    The activities of 228Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide 228Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO2 and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter 228Ra(228Ac), the daughter nuclide 228Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by 228Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9±0.1% was measured for 228Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317±0.013 cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1 g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of 228Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for 228Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure 228Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid scintillation analysis is used

  11. Linear free energy relationship applied to trivalent cations with lanthanum and actinium oxide and hydroxide structure

    Linear free energy relationships for trivalent cations with crystalline M2O3 and, M(OH)3 phases of lanthanides and actinides were developed from known thermodynamic properties of the aqueous trivalent cations, modifying the Sverjensky and Molling equation. The linear free energy relationship for trivalent cations is as ΔGf,MvX0=aMvXΔGn,M3+0+bMvX+βMvXrM3+, where the coefficients aMvX, bMvX, and βMvX characterize a particular structural family of MvX, rM3+ is the ionic radius of M3+ cation, ΔGf,MvX0 is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of MvX and ΔGn,M3+0 is the standard non-solvation free energy of the cation. The coefficients for the oxide family are: aMvX=0.2705, bMvX=-1984.75 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=197.24 (kJ/molnm). The coefficients for the hydroxide family are: aMvX=0.1587, bMvX=-1474.09 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=791.70 (kJ/molnm).

  12. Actinium: A RESTful Runtime Container for Scriptable Internet of Things Applications

    Kovatsch, Matthias; Lanter, Martin; Duquennoy, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Programming Internet of Things (IoT) applications is challenging because developers have to be knowledgeable in various technical domains, from low-power networking, over embedded operating systems, to distributed algorithms. Hence, it will be challenging to find enough experts to provide software for the vast number of expected devices, which must also be scalable and particularly safe due to the connection to the physical world. To remedy this situation, we propose an architecture that pr...

  13. New method for large scale production of medically applicable Actinium-225 and Radium-223

    Alpha-emitters (211At, 212Bi, 213Bi, 223Ra, 225Ac) are promising for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. Only two alpha decays near a cell membrane result in 50% death of cancer cell and only a single decay inside the cell is required for this. 225Ac may be used either directly or as a mother radionuclide in 213Bi isotope generator. Production of 225Ac is provided by three main suppliers - Institute for Transuranium Elements in Germany, Oak Ridge National Laboratory in USA and Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in Obninsk, Russia. The current worldwide production of 225Ac is approximately 1.7 Ci per year that corresponds to only 100-200 patients that could be treated annually. The common approach for 225Ac production is separation from mother 229Th or irradiation of 226Ra with protons in a cyclotron. Both the methods have some practical limitations to be applied routinely. 225Ac can be also produced by irradiation of natural thorium with medium energy protons . Cumulative cross sections of 225Ac, 227Ac, 227Th, 228Th formations have been obtained recently. Thorium targets (1-9 g) were irradiated by 114-91 MeV proton beam (1-50 μA) at INR linear accelerator. After dissolution in 8 M HNO3 + 0.004 M HF thorium was removed by double LLX by HDEHP in toluene (1:1). Ac and REE were pre-concentrated and separated from Ra and most fission products by DGA-Resin (Triskem). After washing out by 0.01 M HNO3 Ac was separated from REE by TRU Resin (Triskem) in 3 M HNO3 media. About 6 mCi 225Ac were separated in hot cell with chemical yield 85%. The method may be upscaled for production of Ci amounts of the radionuclide. The main impurity is 227Ac (0.1% at the EOB) but it does not hinder 225Ac from being used for medical 225Ac/213Bi generators. (author)

  14. Synthesis of chelating agents for actinium 225 complexation and its application in radioimmunotherapy

    Immunotherapy with radiolabeled antibodies should allow fairly specific targeting of certain cancers. However, iodine 131 may not be the best isotope for tumor therapy because of its limited specific activity, low beta-energy, relatively long half life and strong gamma emission. Another approach to improve therapeutic efficacy is the use of replacement isotopes with better physical properties. Chelator that can hold radio-metals with high stability under physiological conditions are essential to avoid excessive damage to non-target cells; Moreover, the development of new bifunctional chelating agents is essential for this purpose. Accordingly, our efforts have been directed, for several years, to the synthesis of original chelating agents likely to form stable complexes in vivo with the numerous potential candidates for such applications. Therefore, we have developed a new simple and efficient synthesis pathway of 2-(4-iso-thio-cyanate-benzyl)-1,4,7,10,13,16- hexa-aza-cyclo-hexadecane- 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa-acetic acid, though functionalized on the cycle by a termination allowed coupling to an antibody or any other biological substance such as a hapten. (author)

  15. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    A technique of selenium purification from 232Th, 238U, 226,228Ra, 227Ac and 40K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  16. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz); Warot, G. [CEA-CNRS, Modane (France). Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM); Karaivanov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), Sofia (Bulgaria); Kochetov, O.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Filosofov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Sadikov, I.I. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz)

    2013-07-01

    A technique of selenium purification from {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 227}Ac and {sup 40}K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  17. 2-20 ns interframe time 2-frame 6.151 keV x-ray imaging on the recently upgraded Z Accelerator: a progress report.

    Bennett, G R; Smith, I C; Shores, J E; Sinars, D B; Robertson, G; Atherton, B W; Jones, M C; Porter, J L

    2008-10-01

    When used for the production of an x-ray imaging backlighter source on Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded 26 MA Z Accelerator, the terawatt-class, multikilojoule, 526.57 nm Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) [P. K. Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)], in conjunction with the 6.151 keV (1s(2)-1s2p triplet line of He-like Mn) curved-crystal imager [D. B. Sinars et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3672 (2004); G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)], is capable of providing a high quality x radiograph per Z shot for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), complex hydrodynamics, and other high-energy-density physics experiments. For example, this diagnostic has recently afforded microgram-scale mass perturbation measurements on an imploding ignition-scale 1 mg ICF capsule [G. R. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 205003 (2007)], where the perturbation was initiated by a surrogate deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel fill tube. Using an angle-time multiplexing technique, ZBL now has the capability to provide two spatially and temporally separated foci in the Z chamber, allowing "two-frame" imaging to be performed, with an interframe time range of 2-20 ns. This multiplexing technique allows the full area of the four-pass amplifiers to be used for the two pulses, rather than split the amplifiers effectively into two rectangular sections, with one leg delayed with respect to the other, which would otherwise double the power imposed onto the various optics thereby halving the damage threshold, for the same irradiance on target. The 6.151 keV two frame technique has recently been used to image imploding wire arrays, using a 7.3 ns interframe time. The diagnostic will soon be converted to operate with p-rather than s-polarized laser light for enhanced laser absorption in the Mn foil, plus other changes (e.g., operation at the possibly brighter 6.181 keV Mn 1s(2)-1s2p singlet line), to increase x-ray yields. Also, a highly sensitive inline multiframe ultrafast (1 ns

  18. Neutron diffraction studies of a high resolution double crystal (+n,-m) setting containing Si(220) and Si(311) bent perfect crystals in symmetric and fully asymmetric diffraction geometry, respectively

    In this paper studies of neutron diffraction properties of the double crystal (+n,-m) setting containing Si(220) and Si(311) bent perfect crystals (BPC) in symmetric and fully asymmetric diffraction (FAD) geometry with the output beam expansion (OBE), respectively, are presented. Namely, our attention was focused on the properties of the FAD geometry of the BPC Si(311) crystal slab. It has been found that after a beam expansion this FAD geometry can provide a monochromatic beam of a rather large cross-section and of very small divergence with some possible application use.

  19. Research and Development of X80 Grade SAWH Pipe with Size of φ1 219 mm×22.0 mm%X80级准1219 mm×22.0 mm螺旋埋弧焊管的研制

    陈楠; 孙志刚; 李建一; 孙少卿; 祁超; 王海生

    2015-01-01

    The X80 grade hot-rolled coil with large wall thickness was manufactured by using the technology of low carbon, high manganese, Nb-Mo compound additive, micro alloying, clean smelting, controlled rolling and controlled cooling. Through research on steel pipe low tress forming technology, welding speed optimization, double rack ultrasonic testing technology, the X80 grade SAWH pipe with size of φ1 219 mm×22.0 mm was developed. The property tests were conducted in accordance with relevant technical standard. The test results showed that the transverse yield strength of pipe body is 580~670 MPa;the tensile strength is 665~770 MPa;the tensile strength of weld seam is 695~760 MPa;the hardness of welded joint is less than 268 HV10 Under-10℃,the average impact energy of pipe body in transverse is higher than 319 J;the average impact energy of HAZ is higher than 183 J, and the average impact energy of weld seam is higher than 137 J. Under 0℃,the DWTT shear area of pipe body in transverse is 100%. The pipe is with good mechanical properties and weldability.%采用低C高Mn及Nb-Mo复合添加、微合金化设计和洁净化冶炼、控轧控冷工艺制造的X80级大壁厚热轧卷板,通过钢管低应力成型、焊接速度优选以及双探架超声波检测等技术,成功开发出X80级准1219 mm×22.0 mm螺旋埋弧焊管。按标准要求对该产品进行了组批力学性能试验,试验结果显示:钢管管体横向屈服强度为580~670 MPa,抗拉强度为665~770 MPa,焊缝抗拉强度为695~760 MPa;焊接接头最大硬度小于268 HV10;-10℃管体横向平均冲击功大于319 J,热影响区平均冲击功大于183 J,焊缝平均冲击功大于137 J;0℃管体横向DWTT剪切面积均为100%。试验结果表明,钢管整体具有良好的力学性能和可焊性。

  20. 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations measured in various natural honey samples by using nuclear track detectors and resulting radiation doses to the members of the rural populations in Morocco

    Radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) concentrations were measured in sixteen natural honey material samples collected from different regions in Morocco by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The concentrations of these radionuclides were also measured in nectar solutions corresponding to the studied honey samples. The measured concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn in honey samples ranged from (2.3 ± 0.2) to (8.1 ± 0.6) Bq.l-1 and (1.8 ± 0.1) to (3.9 ± 0.3) Bq.l-1, respectively. Committed equivalent doses due to annual intakes of 222Rn were evaluated in the human gastrointestinal tract compartments of adult members of the Moroccan populations from the ingestion of studied honey samples. The influence of the target tissue mass and activities due to 222Rn on the annual committed equivalent doses in the compartments of the human gastrointestinal tract was investigated. (authors)

  1. A Massive Molecular Gas Reservoir in the z=2.221 Type-2 Quasar Host Galaxy SMM J0939+8315 Lensed by the Radio Galaxy 3C220.3

    Leung, T K Daisy

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of CO(J=3-2) line emission in the strongly-lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) SMM J0939+8315 at z=2.221, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. SMM J0939+8315 hosts a type-2 quasar, and is gravitationally lensed by the radio galaxy 3C220.3 and its companion galaxy at z=0.685. The 104 GHz continuum emission underlying the CO line is detected toward 3C220.3 with an integrated flux density of S_cont = 7.4 +/- 1.4 mJy. Using the CO(J=3-2) line intensity of I_(CO(3-2)) = (12.6 +/- 2.0) Jy km s^-1, we derive a lensing- and excitation-corrected CO line luminosity of L'(CO(3-2)) = (3.4 +/- 0.7) x 10^10 (10.1/mu_L) K km s^-1 pc^2 for the SMG, where mu_L is the lensing magnification factor inferred from our lens modeling. This translates to a molecular gas mass of M_gas = (2.7 +/- 0.6) x 10^10 (10.1/mu_L) Msun. Fitting spectral energy distribution models to the (sub)-millimeter data of this SMG yields a dust temperature of T = 63.1^{+1.1}_{-1.3} K, a dust mass of M_du...

  2. Induction of Mitochondrial Changes Associated with Oxidative Stress on Very Long Chain Fatty Acids (C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0-Treated Human Neuronal Cells (SK-NB-E

    Amira Zarrouk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease, lipid alterations point towards peroxisomal dysfunctions. Indeed, a cortical accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs: C22:0, C24:0, C26:0, substrates for peroxisomal β-oxidation, has been found in Alzheimer patients. This study was realized to investigate the effects of VLCFAs at the mitochondrial level since mitochondrial dysfunctions play crucial roles in neurodegeneration. On human neuronal SK-NB-E cells treated with C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0 (0.1–20 μM; 48 h, an inhibition of cell growth and mitochondrial dysfunctions were observed by cell counting with trypan blue, MTT assay, and measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm with DiOC6(3. A stimulation of oxidative stress was observed with DHE and MitoSOX used to quantify superoxide anion production on whole cells and at the mitochondrial level, respectively. With C24:0 and C26:0, by Western blotting, lower levels of mitochondrial complexes III and IV were detected. After staining with MitoTracker and by transmission electron microscopy used to study mitochondrial topography, mass and morphology, major changes were detected in VLCFAs treated-cells: modification of the cytoplasmic distribution of mitochondria, presence of large mitochondria, enhancement of the mitochondrial mass. Thus, VLCFAs can be potential risk factors contributing to neurodegeneration by inducing neuronal damages via mitochondrial dysfunctions.

  3. Seasonal variation in concentration of radon and thoron at non-uranium mines in China%我国非铀矿山~(222)Rn、~(220)Rn浓度季节变化研究

    崔宏星; 武云云; 张庆召; 尚兵

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究非铀矿山中~(222)Rn、~(220)Rn浓度的季节变化规律.方法 选取云南、山东、新疆、黑龙江、湖南和贵州6个省份的铜、金、铝、锰、锑、钨、铜镍和煤矿共8类9个矿山,采用LD-P型~(222)Rn.~(220)Rn分辨探测器对井下不同季节~(222)Rn和~(220)Rn浓度进行了测量.结果 井下~(222)Rn浓度存在明显的季节变化,夏季~(222)Rn浓度为35.5~4841 Bq/m~3,其中4个矿~(222)Pm浓度均值超过1000 Bq/m~3.冬季~(222)Rn浓度均值为5~1917 Bq/m~3,只有1个矿超过1000 Bq/m~3.夏季与冬季的比值在2-12之间.各矿间~(222)Rn浓度差异很大,通风是影响其变化的重要因素.~(220)Rn浓度的季节变化略呈夏高冬低的趋势,由于受到布放位置的影响,其规律性有待进一步确认.结论 井下~(222)Rn、~(220)Hn浓度随季节而变化,在估算矿工受照剂量时应考虑季节变化的影响;在矿山氡测量中应避免采用瞬时测量方法;采用累积测量方法时,也应考虑季节变化的影响,合理的暴露时间应为半年,同时要注意季节的选择;对于季度性(3个月)的测量结果应该进行季节修正.%Objective To study the seasonal variation in concentrations of radon and thoron in non-uranium mine. Methods Eight kinds of mineral types from 9 non-uranium mines were selected, including copper, gold, aluminium, manganese, antimonium, tungsten,copper-nickel and coal mines in 6 provinces, such as Yunnan, Shandong, Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, Hunan and Guizhou. LD-P R-T discriminative detectors were used to measure radon and thoron concentrations in underground mines during four seasons in one year. Results Radon concentrations in underground mines showed a significantly seasonal variation. Radon concentration ranged from 35.5 to 4841 Bq/m~3 in summer, and the average value in four mines exceeded 1000 Bq/m~3 of the control limit for workplace (GB 18871-2002) . In winter, radon concentration ranged from 5 to 1917 Bq/m~3 , only one of

  4. Zīmolu komunikācija sociālajos medijos: interneta veikalu “www.1a.lv” un “www.220.lv” gadījuma analīze

    Turka-Raģe, Ieva

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir “Zīmolu komunikācija sociālajos medijos: interneta veikalu “www.1a.lv” un “www.220.lv” gadījuma analīze”. Arvien vairāk cilvēki iepērkas internetā un mācās uzticēties interneta veikalu sniegtajiem pakalpojumiem. Komunikācija sociālajos tīklos ir viens no instrumentiem, kā veikali var piesaistīt potenciālo pircēju uzmanību un likt konkrēto pirkumu izdarīt noteiktā interneta veikalā. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir noskaidrot ar kādiem paņēmieniem zīmoli sociālajos medijos ce...

  5. A study on concentration measurements of radon-222 (uranium series) and radon-220 (thoron series) emitted to the atmosphere from tex (cementitious), red brick, and ecocarat among construction materials

    The aim of this study was to measure, compare and analyze the air concentration of radon emitted to the atmosphere from a range of construction materials, such as tex (cementitious), red brick and ecocarat. The study methodology involved the use of continuous radon monitoring equipment (RTM 1688-2) to measure the concentrations of radon and thoron (Rn-220) contained in tex (cementitious), red brick and ecocarat. Among the three samples, tex showed the highest levels of radon and thoron emissions. When the radon emission concentration was estimated based on the materials required for construction per unit area (3.3 m2) in an actual building, tex showed the highest levels of radon and thoron emissions, with ecocarat exhibiting the lowest. Overall, this method is suitable for examining the effects of radon and for reducing the personal radiation exposure dose. Governments should be active in publicizing and encouraging the use of construction materials with lower levels of radon emission.

  6. Kinematic viscosity and speed of sound in gaseous CO, CO2, SiF4, SF6, C4F8, and NH3 from 220 K to 375 K and pressures up to 3.4 MPa

    An acoustic Greenspan viscometer was used to measure the kinematic viscosity and speed of sound in the gases: CO, CO2, SiF4, SF6, C4F8, and NH3. The measurements cover the temperature range 220 K to 375 K, and pressures up to 3.4 MPa or 80% of the saturation pressure. The viscometer was calibrated at 298.16 K using five reference gases, Ar, He, N2, CH4, and C3H8, for which the viscosity and the speed of sound are known. With this calibration, we estimated the relative standard uncertainty of the kinematic viscosity ur(η/ρ) = 0.006 and the uncertainty of speed of sound ur(c) = 0.0001, except for very low pressures where the signal-to-noise ratio deteriorates and quality factor for the Helmholtz mode is ≤20

  7. Macrocluster desorption effect caused by single MCI: charges of gold clusters (2-20 nm) desorbed due to electronic processes induced by fission fragment bombardment in nanodispersed gold targets

    In this work the charge state of the negatively charged gold nanocluster ions (2-20 nm) that were desorbed from nanodispersed gold islet targets by 252Cf fission fragments via electronic processes is studied. Mean cluster charge was calculated as a ratio of mean cluster mass to mean mass-to-charge ratio . Cluster masses were measured by means of a collector technique employing transmission electron microscopy and scanning force microscopy, while m/q was measured by means of a tandem TOF-spectrometer. It is shown that the nanocluster ions are mostly multiply charged (2-16e) and the charge increases non-linearly with the cluster size. The results are discussed

  8. LR-115 detector response to {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and their progenies, exposed to hemispherical surfaces in free air, and design of a system to calculate their concentrations

    Palacios, D. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, P.O. 89000, Caracas (Venezuela)], E-mail: palacios@usb.ve; Palacios, F. [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E.D. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, P.O. 89000, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-08-15

    The sensitivities of LR-115 detectors to {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn chains in front of hemispherical surfaces of different radii are calculated by the Monte Carlo method. The optimum radii of hemispherical caps are determined, as a result contributions of the different {alpha}-emitter nuclei to the track density are differentiated and non-uniform track distribution is avoided. It is demonstrated that if eight detectors are exposed separately in front of the same number of hemispherical surfaces of different radii, the concentrations of each {alpha} emitter in airborne and deposited states can be determined. A passive integrating system to calculate the concentrations of radon, thoron and their progenies in free air is given.

  9. CONSIDERAŢII TEORETICE ŞI PRACTICE CU PRIVIRE LA INFRACŢIUNILE CARE ADUC ATINGERE UNOR RELAŢII DE CONVIEŢUIRE SOCIALĂ (art.220-222 CP RM

    Sergiu BRÎNZA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Scopul acestei cercetări ştiinţifice constă în stabilirea conţinutului juridic al infracţiunilor prevăzute la art.220-222 CP RM. Printre altele, se argumentează că, spre deosebire de infracţiunile specificate la art.165 şi 206 CP RM, proxe­netismul presupune că victima îşi dă acordul în mod nealterat, voinţa ei de a se prostitua aparţinându-i în totalitate, în mod liber. Se demonstrează de ce nu este posibil concursul ideal dintre determinarea la prostituţie şi constrângerea la prostituţie. Se arată că încadrarea faptei conform art.221 CP RM exclude aplicarea suplimentară a art.197 CP RM sau a art.104 din Codul contravenţional. Se ajunge la concluzia că aplicarea răspunderii în baza art.222 CP RM exclude calificarea suplimentară conform art.186-188, 190-192, 197 CP RM sau art.104 ori 105 din Codul contravenţional. Nu în ultimul rând, se stabileşte că aplicarea violenţei sau ameninţarea cu aplicarea violenţei depăşeşte cadrul infracţiunii specificate la art.222 CP RM. Deci, necesită calificare de sine stătătoare în baza art.151, 152 sau 155 CP RM ori art.78 din Codul contravenţional. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS WITH REGARD TO THE OFFENCES THAT PREJUDICES SOME FORMS OF SOCIAL COHABITATION (art.220-222 PC RMThe purpose of this scientific research is to establish the legal content of the offences referred to at art.220-222PCRM.Among other things, it is argued that, unlike the offences specified at art.165 and 206 PC RM, pimping implies that the victim consents unalterably, that the will to prostitute belongs to her fully, without any constraints. It is demonstrated that the ideal competition between the acts of persuasion to prostitution and coercion to prostitution is impossible. It is shown that classifying the act under art.221 PC RM immediately excludes the additional application of art.197 PC RM or art.104 of the Contravention Code. It is concluded that the application of penal

  10. The identification of soil radionuclides in the area of Puspiptek and surrounding

    The area of PUSPIPTEK and the surrounding are potentially exposed by radionuclides, because the operation of the nuclear research plant. The PPTN Serpong was operated long than 10 years, therefore soil radioactivity need to evaluate. The determination of radioactivity in the soil samples which be taken from research location using gamma spectrometry on June-August. The result of the research identified natural radionuclides K-40; Thorium decay series Ac-228, Bi-212, Pb-212, Tl-208, Ra-224 and Rn-220; Uranium decay series Bi-214, Pa-234, Pb-214 and Actinium decay series Bi-211, Po-211. There are no identification radionuclides produce from the activation of PPTN Serpong

  11. Dosimetry and microdosimetry of 10–220 MeV proton beams with CR-39 and their verifications by calculation of reaction cross sections using ALICE, TALYS and GEANT4 codes

    High- and intermediate-energy protons are not able to directly form a track in a CR-39 etch detector (TED). Such detectors, however, can be used for the detection and dosimetry of the beams of these particles through the registration of secondary charged particles with sufficiently high values of linear energy transfer (LET). High-energy protons (72–220 MeV) and Intermediate-energy protons (10–30 MeV) with low LET values ranging from 1.1 down to 0.4 keV/μm and 5.87 down to 2.40 keV/μm, respectively are considered in this study. It seems to be sufficient to create secondary particles, although the LET values are low. This phenomenon can modify the characteristics of the energy transfer process due to these particles, which should be taken into account when such particles are used for radiobiology studies or for radiotherapy. The importance of these secondary particles was investigated experimentally by means of an LET spectrometer based on a chemically etched track detector in which the tracks of the primary protons are not revealed. Experiments were performed with proton beams available at the Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine (NRCAM) in Karaj, Iran and at the National Cancer Center (NCC) in Seoul, Korea with protons of primary energies of about 10–30 MeV and 72–220 MeV respectively. The contribution of the secondary particle dose increases as the proton energy decreases. The origin of the secondary particles in interactions with protons having high and intermediate energies due to various nuclear reactions was calculated by the both ALICE and TALYS computer codes. The secondary microdosimetry doses were also calculated by GEANT4 code. There is large discrepancy between experimental and calculated results in low proton energies. It has been verified that there is a good correlation between the experimentally obtained results and the reaction cross sections predicted by ALICE and TALYS codes.

  12. The influence of the nature of soil and plant and pollution on the 238U, 232Th, 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in various natural honey samples using nuclear track detectors: Impact on the adult consumers

    M A Misdaq; A Mortassim

    2009-11-01

    238U and 232Th concentrations as well as 222Rn and 220Rn -activities per unit volume were measured in various natural honey samples collected from different regions in Morocco using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). These radionuclides were also measured in soils, plant flowers and nectar solutions corresponding to the honey samples studied. In addition, these radionuclides were measured in different imported honey samples. The measured 238U, 232Th, 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations ranged from (1.5 ± 0.1) mBq kg-1 to (10.6 ± 0.6) mBq kg-1, (1.1 ± 0.1) mBq kg-1 to (4.2 ± 0.2) mBq kg-1 , (1.5 ± 0.1) Bq kg-1 to (10.6 ± 0.6) Bq kg-1 and (1.1 ± 0.1) Bq kg-1 to (4.2 ± 0.2) Bq kg-1 for the honey samples studied, respectively. Annual 238U, 232Th and 222Rn intakes by Moroccan adults from the consumption of honey were assessed. The influence of the nature of soil and plant on the 238U and 232Th contents of the studied honey samples was investigated. These measurements were completed by an investigation of the 238U and 232 Th transfer between soils and plant flowers and that between plant flowers and honey, and also by the investigation of the influence of pollution due to different material dusts on 238U, 232Th and 222Rn in the honey samples studied. Committed equivalent doses due to the annual intake of 238U, 232Th and 222Rn were evaluated in the organs of adult members of the Moroccan rural population from the ingestion of the honey samples. The maximum total committed effective dose due to 238U, 232Th and 222Rn from the ingestion of natural honey by the Moroccan rural population was found to be equal to 0.64 Sv y-1 .

  13. The influence of ZrO2/20%Y2O3 and Al2O3 deposited coatings to the behavior of an aluminum alloy subjected to mechanical shock

    Pintilei, G. L.; Crismaru, V. I.; Abrudeanu, M.; Munteanu, C.; Luca, D.; Istrate, B.

    2015-10-01

    Aluminum alloys are used in the aerospace industry due to their good mechanical properties and their low density compared with the density of steels. Usually the parts made of aluminum alloys contribute to the structural frame of aircrafts and they must withstand static and variable mechanical loads and also mechanical loads applied in a very short time which determine different phenomenon's in the material behavior then static or fatigue loads. This paper analysis the resilience of a 2024 aluminum alloy subjected to shock loads and the way how a coating can improve its behavior. For improving the behavior two coatings were considered: Al2O3 with 99.5% purity and ZrO2/20%Y2O3. The coatings were deposited on the base material by plasma spraying. The samples with and without coating were subject to mechanical shock to determine the resilience of the materials and the cracks propagation was investigated using SEM analysis. To highlight the physical phenomenon's that appear in the samples during the mechanical shock, explicit finite element analysis were done using Ansys 14.5 software.

  14. Observation on the effect of fluorine protective paint on tooth feeling anaphylaxis%应用氟保护漆治疗牙本质过敏症220例疗效观察

    顾蓓蓓; 李静

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价氟保护漆和氟化钠甘油对牙本质过敏症的治疗效果.方法 选择2006年10月至2008年10月沈阳市妇幼保健所口腔科收治的牙本质过敏症患者220例(388颗惠牙),按就诊顺序随机分为试验组(208颗患牙)和对照组(180颗患牙).试验组:用氟保护漆脱敏治疗;对照组:用75%氟化钠甘油脱敏治疗.结果 1个疗程后试验组和对照组总有效率分别为91.34%和61.11%,3个月后分别为88.94%和45.00%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 氟保护漆是一种较理想的脱敏药物.

  15. Measurements of 222Rn, 220Rn, and CO2 Emissions in Natural CO2 Fields in Wyoming: MVA Techniques for Determining Gas Transport and Caprock Integrity

    Kaszuba, John; Sims, Kenneth

    2014-09-30

    An integrated field-laboratory program evaluated the use of radon and CO2 flux measurements to constrain source and timescale of CO2 fluxes in environments proximate to CO2 storage reservoirs. By understanding the type and depth of the gas source, the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir can be assessed and monitored. The concept is based on correlations of radon and CO2 fluxes observed in volcanic systems. This fundamental research is designed to advance the science of Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) and to address the Carbon Storage Program goal of developing and validating technologies to ensure 99 percent storage performance. Graduate and undergraduate students conducted the research under the guidance of the Principal Investigators; in doing so they were provided with training opportunities in skills required for implementing and deploying CCS technologies. Although a final method or “tool” was not developed, significant progress was made. The field program identified issues with measuring radon in environments rich in CO2. Laboratory experiments determined a correction factor to apply to radon measurements made in CO2-bearing environments. The field program also identified issues with radon and CO2-flux measurements in soil gases at a natural CO2 analog. A systematic survey of radon and CO2 flux in soil gases at the LaBarge CO2 Field in Southwest Wyoming indicates that measurements of 222Rn (radon), 220Rn (thoron), and CO2 flux may not be a robust method for monitoring the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir. The field program was also not able to correlate radon and CO2 flux in the CO2-charged springs of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system. However, this part of the program helped to motivate the aforementioned laboratory experiments that determined

  16. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  17. Renal uptake of bismuth-213 and its contribution to kidney radiation dose following administration of actinium-225-labeled antibody

    Schwartz, J; O' Donoghue, J A; Humm, J L [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jaggi, J S [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Plainsboro, NJ (United States); Ruan, S; Larson, S M [Nuclear Medicine Service Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); McDevitt, M; Scheinberg, D A, E-mail: schwarj1@mskcc.org [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    Clinical therapeutic studies using {sup 225}Ac-labeled antibodies have begun. Of major concern is renal toxicity that may result from the three alpha-emitting progeny generated following the decay of {sup 225}Ac. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of {sup 225}Ac and non-equilibrium progeny in the mouse kidney after the injection of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and examine the dosimetric consequences. Groups of mice were sacrificed at 24, 96 and 144 h after injection with {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and kidneys excised. One kidney was used for gamma ray spectroscopic measurements by a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The second kidney was used to generate frozen tissue sections which were examined by digital autoradiography (DAR). Two measurements were performed on each kidney specimen: (1) immediately post-resection and (2) after sufficient time for any non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi to decay completely. Comparison of these measurements enabled estimation of the amount of excess {sup 213}Bi reaching the kidney ({gamma}-ray spectroscopy) and its sub-regional distribution (DAR). The average absorbed dose to whole kidney, determined by spectroscopy, was 0.77 (SD 0.21) Gy kBq{sup -1}, of which 0.46 (SD 0.16) Gy kBq{sup -1} (i.e. 60%) was due to non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi. The relative contributions to renal cortex and medulla were determined by DAR. The estimated dose to the cortex from non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi (0.31 (SD 0.11) Gy kBq{sup -1}) represented {approx}46% of the total. For the medulla the dose contribution from excess {sup 213}Bi (0.81 (SD 0.28) Gy kBq{sup -1}) was {approx}80% of the total. Based on these estimates, for human patients we project a kidney-absorbed dose of 0.28 Gy MBq{sup -1} following administration of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 with non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi responsible for approximately 60% of the total. Methods to reduce renal accumulation of radioactive progeny appear to be necessary for the success of {sup 225}Ac radioimmunotherapy.

  18. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  19. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  20. Simultaneous measurements of energetic ion (≥50 keV) and electron (≥220 keV) activity upstream of earth's bow shock and inside the plasma sheet: Magnetospheric source for the November 3 and December 3, 1977 upstream events

    Simultaneous observations of energetic ions (approx-gt 50 keV) and electrons (approx-gt 220 keV) by the IMP 7 and 8 spacecraft, carrying identical instruments and located within the distant (∼37 RE) magnetotail and upstream from the bow shock, have been employed to separate temporal variations from spatial variations during the upstream ion events observed on December 3, 1977 and November 2-3, 1977, in order to determine the source of these particles. The IMP data, when compared with those from ISEE 1 and 2, have also made possible the determination of field-aligned and flux-tube intensity gradients in the upstream region, thus enabling the test of specific predictions of the Fermi acceleration model for such events. The analysis of these three-spacecraft observations and comparison with theory have revealed the following: (1) For each of the observed upstream enhancements, energetic ions and electrons were simultaneously present inside the plasma sheet - successive increases were in excellent time coincidence with substorm injection events seen on ground-based magnetograms; (2) The low-energy (approx-gt 50 keV) ion intensity profile inside the plasma sheet was relatively flat, while at higher (approx-gt 300 keV) energies there was considerable variability, with one case exhibiting an inverse velocity dispersion profile; (3) Relativistic electron bursts were seen inside the plasma sheet and also upstream of the shock but at substantially reduced intensities; (4) The ion energy spectrum for the December 3 event, extended to energies ∼2 MeV, was identical in form within the plasma sheet and upstream of the shock and can be described well by dj/dE ∝ E-5.5; (5) Ion anisotropies exhibited typically large dawn-dusk or dusk-dawn gradients, depending on spacecraft location, and showed large (up to 20:1) field-aligned streaming away from the bow shock

  1. 32 CFR 220.8 - Reasonable charges.

    2010-07-01

    ..., oral surgery, orthodontics, pediatric dentistry and endodontics) will be based on a full cost of the... CFR 199.14 to reimburse authorized providers. There are some exceptions to this general rule, as... CHAMPUS Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) payment system rates under 32 CFR 199.14(a)(1). Certain...

  2. 7 CFR 220.2 - Definitions.

    2010-01-01

    ... term: 7 CFR part 3015 means the Uniform Federal Assistance Regulations published by the Department to... requirements. 7 CFR part 3016 means the Department's Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and... Related Agencies (Pub. L. 101-121). 7 CFR part 3019 means the Department's Uniform...

  3. 49 CFR 220.5 - Definitions.

    2010-10-01

    ... listen to music; execute a computational function; or, perform any other function that is not necessary for the health or safety of the person and that entails the risk of distracting the employee or... 49 CFR part 232 or part 238, except during switching operations or where the operation is that...

  4. 20 CFR 220.46 - Medical evidence.

    2010-04-01

    ... about, lifting, carrying, handling objects, hearing, speaking, and traveling; and (B) In cases of mental... duration of the claimant's impairment(s); and (3) The claimant's residual functional capacity to do...

  5. 36 CFR 220.6 - Categorical exclusions.

    2010-07-01

    ... staged or natural events or studies of natural or cultural history; (iv) Approving the use of land for a... categories established by the Secretary at 7 CFR part 1b.3; or (2) The proposed action is within a category... to 36 CFR part 261—Prohibitions to provide short-term resource protection or to protect public...

  6. 30 CFR 220.002 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    .... Controllable materiel means materiel which at the time is so classified in the Materiel Classification Manual... grouping of costs identified with more than one OCS lease, whether the leases are NPSLs or other types of... by an OCS lease, or an approved assignment thereof, to develop and produce oil and gas, including...

  7. QTL Information Table: 220 [Q-TARO

    Full Text Available sisted introgression of quantitative trait loci associated with plant regeneration ability in anther culture of Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Mol Cells 14, 24-28. ... ... Milyang 23 Gihobyeo RZ400 pha Kwon, Y.S., Kim, K.M., Kim, D.H., Eun, M.Y., and Sohn, J.K. (2002). Marker-as

  8. 40 CFR 220.2 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ... Treatment Works means municipal or domestic waste treatment facilities of any type which are publicly owned... amended (33 U.S.C. 1251); (c) Ocean or ocean waters means those waters of the open seas lying seaward of... Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone (15 UST 1606; TIAS 5639); this definition includes the waters of...

  9. 12 CFR 220.8 - Cash account.

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CREDIT BY...; cancellation or liquidation—(1) Full cash payment. A creditor shall obtain full cash payment for customer... additional payment period. (4) Cancellation; liquidation; minimum amount. A creditor shall promptly cancel...

  10. 12 CFR 220.4 - Margin account.

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CREDIT BY... requirement under this part shall be unavailable to satisfy any other requirement. (d) Liquidation in lieu of... liquidation is required, whichever is less. If the margin deficiency created or increased is $1000 or less,...

  11. 2 CFR 220.15 - Policy.

    2010-01-01

    ... accounting principles, except where restricted or prohibited by law. Agencies are not expected to place additional restrictions on individual items of cost. The successful application of cost accounting...

  12. 32 CFR 220.14 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ..., see 32 CFR part 199.) The term has the same meaning as set forth in the CHAMPUS regulation (32 CFR 199...)(1) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395ss) and 42 CFR part 403, subpart B. No-fault insurance... intensity and are provided in an ambulatory procedure unit (APU) of the facility of the Uniformed...

  13. Efficacy of amifostine in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome: a meta-analysis of 220 patients from 18 studies%依硫磷酸治疗骨髓增生异常综合征疗效的Meta分析

    卢学春; 迟小华; 朱宏丽; 杨波

    2009-01-01

    目的:分析依硫磷酸治疗骨髓增生异常综合征(MDS)的临床疗效和不良反应,以指导MDS的治疗.方法:以amifostine、myelodysplastic syndrome和therapuetics以及依硫磷酸和MDS为主题词在中英文数据库中检索所有依硫磷酸治疗MDS的临床研究.结果:共检索到24篇依硫磷酸治疗MDS的论文,一共有220例患者纳入研究,其中符合总疗效分析条件的患者一共有195例.在60例输血依赖患者当中,24例(14.7%)治疗后脱离输血,36例(60.0%)输血间隔延长一倍以上;140例粒细胞缺乏患者治疗后69例(49.3%)粒细胞上升超过一倍以上;在57例RAEB和RAEB-t患者当中,无一例幼稚细胞减少.不良反应主要有食欲下降61例(41.2%),恶心53例(35.8%),皮疹13例(8.8%),呕吐12例(8.1%),低血压11例(7.4%),疲劳感9例(6.1%),打喷嚏3例(2.0%),无症状低钙血症2例(1.3%),深静脉血栓2例(占1.3%).结论:依硫磷酸可用于治疗细胞减少的难治性/复发性MDS.但对于血栓性疾病患者慎用.

  14. Effect of LuF3 on Stability and Infrared Property of 20GaF3-15InF3-20CdF2-15ZnF2-20PbF2-10SnF2 Glass%Lu3+掺杂对20GaF3-15InF3-20CdF2-15ZnF2-20PbF2-10SnF2玻璃抗析晶能力和红外吸收边的影响

    朱基千; 李志国; 贺芸芬; 唐高; 白朝颖

    2005-01-01

    以20GaF3-15InF3-20CdG2-15ZnF2-20PbF2-10SnF2氟化镓玻璃为基玻璃,用LuF3替代等摩尔含量的PbF2,以改善玻璃的抗析晶能力.用差示扫描量热法研究了LuF3含量对玻璃热性能和抗析晶能力的影响,用红外透过光谱研究了LuF3含量对玻璃透红外性能的影响.结果表明:在玻璃中掺入摩尔分数为2%的LuF3可以获得最佳的抗析晶能力;LuF3的掺入对玻璃的透红外性能稍有影响,红外截止波长的变化范围仅在10.1μm~10.9μm之间.

  15. 49 CFR 179.220-18 - Bottom outlets.

    2010-10-01

    ... closure is of the combination cap and valve type, the pipe connection to the valve shall be closed by a... thereto, must be provided with threaded cap closure arrangement or bolted flange closure arrangement having minimum 1-inch threaded pipe plug. (6) If outlet nozzle and its closure extends below the...

  16. Dicty_cDB: SSH220 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available . 1.23 Translated Amino Acid sequence ftiry*i*kiswfkiiinnnk***flki*NKIKSNTIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII...vlnlknilvqnnn****iiiifknlk*nkk*ynnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnk**k*n*k*kfiyiyi Frame B: ftiry*i*k

  17. The CCFM Monte Carlo generator CASCADE 2.2.0

    Jung, H; Deak, M; Grebenyuk, A; Hautmann, F; Hentschinski, M; Knutsson, A; Kraemer, M; Kutak, K; Lipatov, A; Zotov, N

    2010-01-01

    CASCADE is a full hadron level Monte Carlo event generator for ep, \\gamma p and p\\bar{p} and pp processes, which uses the CCFM evolution equation for the initial state cascade in a backward evolution approach supplemented with off - shell matrix elements for the hard scattering. A detailed program description is given, with emphasis on parameters the user wants to change and variables which completely specify the generated events.

  18. 21 CFR 556.220 - 3,5-Dinitrobenzamide.

    2010-04-01

    ... tissues” published in “Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,” volume 9, pages 201-204 (1961). H... allow to go to dryness. D. Adsorption chromatography. 1. Prepare a chromatography column using a...

  19. Dicty_cDB: AFI220 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available c, DNA sequence. 80 5e-11 1 BI921109 |BI921109.1 EST541012 tomato callus Lyco...BE435540 |BE435540.1 EST406618 tomato breaker fruit, TIGR Lycopersicon esculentum... cDNA clone cLEG27F24, mRNA sequence. 74 3e-09 1 AI771812 |AI771812.1 EST252912 tomato ovary, TAMU Lycopersico...n esculentum cDNA clone cLED38E1, mRNA sequence. 74 3e-09 1 AW033447 |AW033447.1 EST277018 tomato callus, TAMU Lycopersico... 1 AW626316 |AW626316.1 EST320223 tomato radicle, 5 d post-imbibition, Cornell University Lycopersico

  20. 40 CFR 52.220 - Identification of plan.

    2010-07-01

    ...: “The State of California Implementation Plan for Achieving and Maintaining the National Ambient Air..., except those portions pertaining to sulfur dioxide and the 12-hour carbon monoxide criteria levels. (D... nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and the 12-hour carbon monoxide criteria levels. (25) Revised...

  1. 7 CFR 220.13 - Special responsibilities of State agencies.

    2010-01-01

    ... of nonprofit school food service expenditures in accordance with this part and 7 CFR part 3015, and 7 CFR part 3016 or 7 CFR part 3019, as applicable. The system shall permit determination of school food... designed to improve the nonprofit school food service. In the absence of any such action, adjustments...

  2. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    2010-10-01

    ... and Science and the following Operating Divisions: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Agency... Administration, Health Resources and Services Administration, Indian Health Service, National Institutes of Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of...

  3. 12 CFR 220.6 - Good faith account.

    2010-01-01

    ... may effect or finance customer transactions in accordance with the following provisions: (a... (the Supplement). (3) Satisfaction of margin. Required margin may be satisfied by a transfer from the.... (b) Arbitrage. A creditor may effect and finance for any customer bona fide arbitrage...

  4. Enzyme activity below the dynamical transition at 220 K.

    Daniel, R M; Smith, J. C.; Ferrand, M; Héry, S; Dunn, R; Finney, J L

    1998-01-01

    Enzyme activity requires the activation of anharmonic motions, such as jumps between potential energy wells. However, in general, the forms and time scales of the functionally important anharmonic dynamics coupled to motion along the reaction coordinate remain to be determined. In particular, the question arises whether the temperature-dependent dynamical transition from harmonic to anharmonic motion in proteins, which has been observed experimentally and using molecular dynamics simulation, ...

  5. Dicty_cDB: VSF220 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available lifyyvvshhstviqsqkslnk lwkptmnsqknigvvslkkpktklenxx Frame B: asdxkqmppi*lkrlfqlld...tfmg*isstei*nqkiyf*nlkktiwkllllilvlvklla kll*cklhvvhqvmlhqry*mqlvmirklicgvlvsslifyyvvshhstviqsqkslnkl wkptmnsqknig...nments: (bits) Value N M64176 |M64176.1 D.discoideum myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) mRNA, complete c...nments: (bits) Value ( P25323 ) RecName: Full=Myosin light chain kinase A; Sho... 382 ...e-104 A40811( A40811 ;A37125)myosin-light-chain kinase (EC 2.7.1.117) A ... 373 e-102 (Q54CY9) RecName: Full=Probable myosin light

  6. 10 CFR 600.220 - Standards for financial management systems.

    2010-01-01

    ... financial reporting requirements of the grant or subgrant. (2) Accounting records. Grantees and subgrantees... must meet the following standards: (1) Financial reporting. Accurate, current, and complete disclosure... and account for grant funds in accordance with State laws and procedures for expending and...

  7. 20 CFR 220.179 - Exceptions to medical improvement.

    2010-04-01

    ... improvement. The law provides for certain limited situations when the annuitant's disability can be found to... been made (e.g., the evidence in file such as pulmonary function study values was misread or an... to do basic work activities. The Board will apply this exception when substantial evidence shows...

  8. 24 CFR 220.813 - Commissioner's right to require acceleration.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commissioner's right to require... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED...

  9. 20 CFR 220.177 - Terms and definitions.

    2010-04-01

    ... shows evidence of a persistant deficit in his lumbar spine. He had pain in his back, and pain and a... an increase in the functional capacity to do work activities. Vascular surgery (e.g., femoropopliteal bypass) may sometimes reduce the severity of the circulatory complications of diabetes so that...

  10. Dicty_cDB: VHN220 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ip*kksk*lslsfffntiyihtnkik*agnntsmnn*lvqdflkeqf*vqmmvvfgl nhqvlillnqkvmv*llyskiqlryllrvl*lve*niwvlrvthkvsmvkreqlvvflle qakqsll...-nflysikkk*inylflfssntiyihtnkik*agnntsmnn*lvqdflkeqf*vqmmv vfglnhqvlillnqkvmv*llyskiqlryll...n i... 108 3e-22 (Q5FX67) RecName: Full=Profilin; AltName: Full=Pollen allergen C... 108...kgatgcvlvr tgqaiivgiyddkvqpgsaaliveklgdylrdngy*dinillkpirfnfkn*kk*****N LNVTTKKK--- ---FFIFHKKKVN*lslsfffkyn...ggvkymgikgdpqsiygkkgatgcvlvr tgqaiivgiyddkvqpgsaaliveklgdylrdngy*dinillkpirfnfkn*kk*****N LNVTTKKK--- --

  11. 7 CFR 1951.220 - General servicing actions.

    2010-01-01

    ... that adequate policies and bonds are in force. (2) For all other types of loans covered by this subpart... not provide for a sole member type of organization; (ii) The borrower retains control over its assets... type of organization, or any other change which results in a recipient's loss of control over...

  12. 12 CFR 220.103 - Borrowing of securities.

    2010-01-01

    ... the provision even though the lender is a private individual, and this is true whether the security is... offer to lend this stock in the ‘loan crowd’ on a national securities exchange.” There was no...

  13. 完美搭配 PeachtreenovaPre&Peachtree220

    2014-01-01

    呃……我们刚从浑浑噩噩的2012年穿越回来。你是说奥林匹克运动会那一年?当然不是,我说的是USBDAC发明元年,比如说Audioquesl Dragonfly就是那一年发明的。2年以后的2014年,世道就变了。高解析度音效产品推出,因此如今我们的桌面音效系统也得以更新换代。

  14. 12 CFR 220.12 - Supplement: margin requirements.

    2010-01-01

    ... security, except for an exempted security, money market mutual fund or exempted securities mutual fund... occurs, whichever is greater. (b) Exempted security, non-equity security, money market mutual fund or exempted securities mutual fund: The margin required by the creditor in good faith or the percentage set...

  15. 7 CFR 220.7 - Requirements for participation.

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... State or local governmental agency responsible for food safety inspections. Schools participating in... certification and assure that all State and local regulations are being met by a food service management...

  16. Trapping Parallel Port to Operate 220V Appliances

    Prateek Sharma; Kapil Kumar; Ajay Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    With advancement of technology things arebecoming simpler and easier for us. Automation is the use ofTechnology to reduce Human work. Automatic systems are beingpreferred over manual system. Internet controlling offers a newapproach to control electric appliances from a remote terminal,using the Internet, Bluetooth and Local Area Networkconnection. This system is accomplished by personal computers,parallel port, local area network connection, internet connection,mobile phone and Bluetooth dev...

  17. Bilateral same day phacoemulsification: 220 cases retrospectively reviewed

    Johansson, B A; Lundh, B L

    2003-01-01

    Background/aims: The relative frequency, basic patient data, results, and complications of planned same day bilateral phacoemulsification were studied from April 1999 to May 2001 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Linköping University Hospital, Sweden.

  18. 20 CFR 220.115 - Need to follow prescribed treatment.

    2010-04-01

    ... of the claimant's religion. (2) The prescribed treatment would be cataract surgery for one eye, when there is an impairment of the other eye resulting in a severe loss of vision and is not subject to....g., open heart surgery), unusual nature (e.g., organ transplant), or other reason is very risky...

  19. Dicty_cDB: VHI220 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available AGQXXPQXVXDHWXSIGVVNKNKKAXEVALAXKKKKXLAPXIPXXDKFXE KL*ti*val*vfk Frame B: ---xiyvxxlpvkxxxxxfxiigxqlxls...*ksx*sxfsxqkkkxfspxnpxx*qiprk txnxlsrplsfq Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alig

  20. Factors Influencing Bone Mineral Density among 3 220 Women below 40 Years Old in Wuhan,Hubei Province%武汉市3220例40岁以下女性骨密度影响因素调查分析

    刘慧玲; 袁春; 包玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore factors that influence bone mineral density among women below 40 years old in Wuhan , with an attempt to provide evidence for the prevention of osteoporosis. Methods Totally 3220 women below 40 years old in Wuhan area who underwent physical examinations in our hospital from 2008 to 2010 were enrolled. Their bone mineral densities were measured. The data was analyzed by independent samples t test, multivariate correlation analysis, and multi - stepwise regression analysis. Results Physical exercise, drinking milk, alcohol consumption, menstrual irregularity, history of bone fracture, and hyperthyroidism were significantly correlated with bone mineral density ( allP < 0. 01 ). However, smoking and taking calcium tablet had no significant influence on Bone Mineral Density ( P >0. 05 ). Body mass index was positively correlated with Bone Mineral Density ( P < 0. 01 ), while age of menarche, times of pregnancy and delivery, and number of breast - fed children were negatively correlated with Bone Mineral Density ( P <0. 01 ). Conclusion Low body mass index and age of menarche are two main factors that influence Bone Mineral Density.%目的 探讨影响武汉市城区40岁以下女性骨密度的危险因素,为预防女性骨质疏松症提供依据.方法 采用统一的骨质疏松症调查表,分别对2008-2010年3 220例40岁以下到我院体检中心体检的女性进行调查,并检测骨密度,采用相关分析和多元逐步回归分析骨密度的影响因素.结果 锻炼、喝牛奶、饮酒、月经不调、骨折史和甲状腺功能亢进症对骨密度的影响有统计学意义(P<0.01),而吸烟和服用钙片对骨密度的影响无统计学意义(P>0.05).体质指数与骨密度呈正相关(P<0.01),而月经初潮年龄、妊娠次数、生育次数、母乳喂养子女数与骨密度均呈负相关(P<0.01);体质指数(X1)和月经初潮年龄(X2)进入回归方程.回归方程为:骨密度=0.3748+0.0026X1-0.0036X

  1. Study on laser atomic spectroscopy

    Laser atomic spectroscopic study on actinium element has been performed in many areas of spectroscopy. The study on characteristic of atomic vapor has been proceeded for copper atom and the spatial density distribution of copper vapor is measured. This experimental data has been compared with the theoretically calculated data. In spectroscopic experiment, the first and second excited states for actinium element are identified and the most efficient ionization scheme for actinium element is identified. In addition, the corrosion problem for filament material due to the heating of the actinium element has been studied. (Author)

  2. Removal of actinium from europium for the determination of specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki

    Measurements of specific radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as 152Eu and 60Co have been carried out to check the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for the atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima (exposed to uranium bomb) and Nagasaki (exposed to plutonium bomb). The use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry, however, has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic-bomb and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic-bomb, and the chemical procedure has been successful for the materials exposed to atomic-bomb within 1400 m in slant distance from the explosion point. As for Nagasaki, materials exposed in the distances farther than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, determination of specific radioactivity of 152Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to Nagasaki atomic-bomb at a distant place from the explosion point was undertaken. But, because of radioactive decay during this ∝60 years since 1945 and long distance from the explosion point, the present specific radioactivity of 152Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be ∝3 x 10-4 Bq-152Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem is interferences from daughters of 227Ac (half-life: 21.8 y) in the measurement of ultra low-level radioactivity of 152Eu. Hence, our chemical procedure to obtain Eu-enriched counting source should be improved, and much attention is being denoted to removal of Ac from Eu. (orig.)

  3. Research on Post Project Evaluation of 220 kV Power Transmission Project%220kV输变电工程项目后评价研究

    张旺鲲

    2012-01-01

    Power transmission project plays important role in the construction of power grids. Its project evaluation good or bad is directly related to the success of the project and the subsequent use. From the power transmission project, the paper was put forward construction and evaluation methods of related index system, which provided theory basis for post project evaluation of power transmission project.%输变电工程在电网建设中起着弥足举重的作用,关于其项目后评价的工作好坏与否,直接关系到项目的成功与后续使用情况。文章从输变电工程项目出发,提出了其相关指标体系的建立与评价方法,为现有输变电工程项目的后评价提供了理论依据。

  4. Development of 220 kV Self-healing Optical Voltage Transducer%220 kV自愈式光学电压互感器研制

    赵一男; 张国庆; 王贵忠; 郭志忠; 申岩; 李深旺

    2013-01-01

    A self-healing optical voltage transducer (OVT) based on the Pokels electro-optical effect and capacitive divider of BGO crystal was developed to deal with temperature drift of voltage sensors.The sensor utilized a design of automatic calibrating reference source to solve the drift problem of measurement accuracy of an optical voltage sensor that was influenced by temperature.Using mathematic models of capacitive divider and sensors based on Pokels electro-optical effect,we explained the real-time correction principle of sensing channel parameters,put forward the structure design of optical voltage sensor,and tested the proposed optical voltage sensor based on IEC 60044-7 standard.The results showed that the magnitude error and the phase error were no more than 1% and 2′,respectively,when 80%,100% and 120% of the rated voltage were applied; the two errors were no more than 0.3% and 10′,respectively,when 2% and 5% of the rated voltage were applied; and they were no more than 0.2% and 1′,respectively when 150% of the rated voltage was applied.It is concluded that the developed OVT satisfies 0.1 level measurement requirements and the safety requirement higher than 3P level.Moreover,the OVT has magnitude error and phase error no more than 0.1% and 3′,respectively,in the whole temperature range of circulating temperature tests,and it has also passed mechanical behavior tests.%鉴于互感器测量精度存在温漂的问题,研制了基于BGO晶体Pockels电光效应和电容分压器的自愈式光学电压互感器.该互感器采用基准源自动校准的设计方案,解决了光学电压互感器测量精度随温度漂移的问题.根据电容分压器和Pockels电光效应传感器的数学模型,阐明了传感参数实时校正原理,给出了互感器的结构设计,并根据IEC 60044-7电子式电压互感器标准对研制的光学电压互感器进行了相关试验.试验结果表明,当施加80%、100%和120%额定电压时,比差≤0.2%,角差≤±2′;当施加2%和5%额定电压时,比差≤0.3%,角差≤10′;当施加150%额定电压时,比差≤0.2%,角差≤1′.研制的互感器满足0.2级测量用要求并高于3P级保护用要求.循环温度试验中,在整个温度范围内,电压互感器比差≤0.2%,角差≤3′.机械性能测试也获得通过.

  5. 220D-F2 from Rubus ulmifolius Kills Streptococcus pneumoniae Planktonic Cells and Pneumococcal Biofilms

    Sharmila J Talekar; Sopio Chochua; Katie Nelson; Klugman, Keith P.; Quave, Cassandra L; Vidal, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) forms organized biofilms to persist in the human nasopharynx. This persistence allows the pneumococcus to produce severe diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis that kill nearly a million children every year. While bacteremia and meningitis are mediated by planktonic pneumococci, biofilm structures are present during pneumonia and otitis media. The global emergence of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to most commonly prescribe...

  6. 7 CFR Appendix B to Part 220 - Categories of Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value

    2010-01-01

    ... food such as vitamins, minerals and protein. (2) Water ices. As defined by 21 CFR 135.160 Food and Drug... types: (a) Hard candy. A product made predominantly from sugar (sucrose) and corn syrup which may be flavored and colored, is characterized by a hard, brittle texture, and includes such items as sour...

  7. Prospective Active Media for 2-20nm X-Ray Lasers

    Vrbová, M.; Vrba, Pavel

    Prague : ČVUT, 1999 - (Fiala, P.; Kvarda, J.; Maruna, Z.). s. 7+0 [Scientific seminar on Czech Technical University Prague /8./. 02.02.1999-03.02.1999, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/1559 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  8. Extracting 220 Hz information from 55 Hz field data by near-field superresolution imaging

    Dutta, Gaurav; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Tarhini, Ahmad; Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-05-01

    Field experiments are used to unequivocally demonstrate seismic superresolution imaging of subwavelength objects in the near-field region of the source. The field test is for a conventional hammer source striking a metal plate near sub-wavelength scatterers and the seismic data are recorded by vertical-component geophones in the far-field locations of the sources. Time-reversal mirrors (TRMs) are then used to refocus the scattered energy with subwavelength resolution to the position of the original source. A spatial resolution of λ/10, where λ is the dominant wavelength associated with the data, is seen in the field tests that exceeds the Abbe resolution limit of λ/2.

  9. 42 CFR 412.220 - Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special treatment of certain hospitals located in... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto...

  10. Quizzes for 220 Great Children's Books The Quest Motivational Reading Program

    Wickstrom, Polly Jeanne

    1996-01-01

    Want a quick way to check to see whether a student has read a book? This is it. Quizzes contains objective reproducible tests for well-known children's books, all of which are likely to be found in school and public libraries. Titles include award winners and runners-up; classics; popular books; and books by such children's authors as Cleary, Fox, and Norton. With a new organization and layout, this revised edition offers users an improved and more durable resource. Flexible and convenient, the reproducible tests are great for helping track independent reading programs.

  11. 20 CFR Appendix 2 to Part 220 - Medical-Vocational Guidelines

    2010-04-01

    ... Introduction. (a) The following rules reflect the major functional and vocational patterns which are... national economy is reflected in the “Decisions” shown in the rules; i.e., in promulgating the rules, administrative notice has been taken of the numbers of unskilled jobs that exist throughout the national...

  12. 32 CFR 220.4 - Reasonable terms and conditions of health plan permissible.

    2010-07-01

    ... arising from services provided in other facilities or by other health care providers. (c) Specific... applicable coverage provisions. Generally applicable provisions regarding particular types of medical care or... permissible grounds to refuse or reduce third party payment if such refusal or reduction is required by...

  13. W-026 acceptance test report plant control system hardware (submittal {number_sign} 220.C)

    Watson, T.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-14

    Acceptance Testing of the WRAP1 Plant Control System Hardware was conducted throughout the construction of WRAPI with the final testing on the Process Area hardware being completed in November 1996. The hardware tests were broken out by the following functional areas; Local Control Units, Operator Control Stations in the WRAP Control Room, DMS Server, PCS Server, Operator Interface Units, printers, DMS terminals, WRAP Local Area Network/Communications, and bar code equipment. This document contains a completed copy of each of the hardware tests along with the applicable test logs and completed test exception reports.

  14. 76 FR 24187 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act

    2011-04-29

    ... practices.'' \\11\\ \\6\\ Revised Public Utility Filing Requirements, Order No. 2001, 67 FR 31043 (May 8, 2002... revising filing requirements, Order No. 2001-G, 72 FR 56735 (Oct. 4, 2007), 120 FERC ] 61,270, order on reh'g and clarification, Order No. 2001-H, 73 FR 1876 (Jan. 10, 2008), 121 FERC ] 61,289 (2007),...

  15. 77 FR 61895 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act

    2012-10-11

    ... Filing Requirements, Order No. 2001, 67 FR 31043 (May 8, 2002), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,127, reh'g..., 72 FR 56735 (Oct. 4, 2007), 120 FERC ] 61,270, order on reh'g and clarification, Order No. 2001-H, 73 FR 1876 (Jan. 10, 2008), 121 FERC ] 61,289 (2007), order revising filing requirements, Order No....

  16. 75 FR 4805 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act

    2010-01-29

    ... Stats. & Regs. ] 31,260, at P 32 (2007), order on reh'g, Order No. 704-A, 73 FR 55726 (Sept. 26, 2008... Act, Order No. 720, 73 FR 73494 (Dec. 2, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,283, at P 3 (2008), order on.... ] 31,261 (2007), order on reh'g and clarification, Order No. 890-B, 73 FR 39092 (Jul. 8, 2008),...

  17. 20 CFR 220.131 - Work which exists in the national economy.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work which exists in the national economy... economy. (a) General. The Board considers that work exists in the national economy when it exists in... for work. (b) How the Board determines the existence of work. Work exists in the national economy...

  18. 222Rn, 220Rn and Progeny Measured in a Limestone Cave and the Associated Radiation Dose

    Concentrations of radon, thoron and the attached and unattached fractions of the short lived alpha emitting decay progeny were measured at different locations in a limestone cave by means of CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors in order to assess the dose due to inhalation. The committed equivalent doses per hour of exposure due to the attached and unattached fractions of 218Po and 214Po were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract. The influence of the activity of the attached and unattached fractions of 218Po and 214Po and the mass of the tissue on the committed equivalent dose per hour of exposure was investigated. The annual committed effective doses due to the attached and unattached fractions of 218Po and 214Po were determined. A maximum value of 1.7 mSv was found for workers spending 1 h/d during the summer months inside the cave. (author)

  19. Development of one way entry and multiple pinholes based 222Rn - 220Rn discriminating dosimeter

    Simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron concentration in an environment is of great importance in the context of estimating correct inhalation dose and for epidemiological investigation. Track detector based cup dosimeter systems are widely used in dwellings environment for radon and thoron measurement due its cost effectiveness, portability and easy to use nature. In India, LR-115 detector based twin cup dosimeters developed by Eappen and Mayya have been used in dwelling for the last few decades for measurement of radon and thoron concentration in several places such as High Background Radiation Areas, Kerala. This dosimeter system has two cups, one exclusively for radon detection and other for both radon and thoron detection with two different entries for each cup. The cup detecting only radon uses a membrane to cut-off thoron transmission and thoron is determined using subtraction technique. However a key issue in this dosimeter system is that of arriving sometimes at a negative thoron concentration in the process of calculation. One of the reasons for this unwanted result can be attributed to the assumption of the entry of same amount of radon and thoron gas per unit time, in both cups. This assumption may not hold true sometimes, due to reasons like atmospheric turbulence. Another drawback of this dosimeter is that there is a very limited scope for optimization of radon and thoron transmission through the membrane discriminator. In this paper, we present a new design of 'Pin holes based twin cup dosimeter' with single entry and based on technique for discriminating the radon-thoron gases using multiple pinholes

  20. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT-S): Normative Values for 220 Swedish Children

    Johannisson, Tove B.; Wennerfeldt, Susanna; Havstam, Christina; Naeslund, Maria; Jacobson, Kajsa; Lohmander, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing a negative attitude to communication as a consequence of having a speech disorder has been in focus for decades in research concerning fluency disorders in relation to both children and adults. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT), which was created to measure children's attitudes towards their own…